WorldWideScience

Sample records for camu-camu myrciaria dubia

  1. Propiedades prooxidantes del camu camu (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Guija

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del ion férrico sobre las propiedades prooxidantes del camu camu (Myrciaria dubia. Diseño: Estudio analítico, experimental, prospectivo y longitudinal. Materiales y Métodos: Se ha evaluado las propiedades prooxidantes del camu camu (Myrciaria dubia, fruto caracterizado por tener un elevado contenido de vitamina C, frente a Fe(III, etilendiamino tetraacético (EDTA, tiourea y manitol. Resultados: El camu camu en presencia de Fe-III en tampón fosfato a pH 7,4 incrementó notablemente la generación de radicales libres a través de una cinética de saturación, efecto que fue dependiente de la concentración del metal. La presencia de tiourea o manitol, compuestos de conocida acción antioxidante, inhibieron la formación de radicales libres, en cambio el EDTA lo incrementó. Conclusión: El camu camu incrementa la generación de radicales libres en presencia de Fe(III y EDTA.

  2. Tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inoue, Teruo; Komoda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Toshihiko; Node, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    .... Although, various anti-oxidative dietary supplements have been evaluated for their ability to prevent atherosclerosis, no effective ones have been determined at present. "Camu-camu" (Myrciaria dubia...

  3. Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh "Camu Camu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Córdova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la alta variabilidad en la producción de vitamina C enMyrciariadubia"camucamu", es necesarioestablecer procedimientos biotecnológicos para la propagación clonal masiva de genotipos promisorios de estaespecie.El objetivo fue establecer un método eficiente para inducir la formación de callosin vitroa partir deexplantesdeM. dubia. Los explantes de hojas y nudos se obtuvieron de ramas cultivadas en el laboratorio y lapulpa a partir defrutos colectados en el campo. Estosfueron desinfectados y sembrados en medio Murashige-Skoog (1962 suplementado con ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, bencilaminopurina (BAP y kinetina(Kin. Los cultivos fueron mantenidos a 25±2°C, en oscuridad por 2 semanas y posteriormente con unfotoperiodo de 16 horas luz y 8 horas de oscuridad por 6 semanas. El tratamiento con 2 mg/L de 2,4-D y 0,1mg/L de BAP estimuló mayor callogénesis en los tres tipos de explantes. Los callos se generaron a partir de laprimera semana (nudos, cuarta semana (hojas y sexta semana (pulpa y estos fueron friables (hojas y nudosy no friables (pulpa. En conclusión, el método descrito es eficiente para inducir callosin vitroen hojas, nudosy pulpa deM. dubia, siendo los explantes de hojas y nudos los más idóneos para la obtención de callos.

  4. Antimicrobial constituents of peel and seeds of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshima, Tai; Myoda, Takao; Toeda, Kazuki; Fujimori, Takane; Nishizawa, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    Various antimicrobial constituents of camu-camu fruit were isolated. Acylphloroglucinol (compound 1) and rhodomyrtone (compound 2) were isolated from the peel of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruit, while two other acylphloroglucinols (compounds 3 and 4) were obtained from camu-camu seeds. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by spectrophotometric methods. Compounds 1 and 4 were confirmed to be new acylphloroglucinols with different substituents at the C7 or C9 position of 2, and were named myrciarone A and B, respectively. Compound 3 was determined to be isomyrtucommulone B. This is the first report of the isolation of 3 from a natural resource. The antimicrobial activities of compounds 1, 3, and 4 were similar to those of 2, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations were either similar to or lower than that of kanamycin. These results suggest that the peel and seeds of camu-camu fruit could be utilized for therapeutic applications.

  5. Danos de Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae em frutos de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia na Amazônia Central Damage of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia fruits by Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Alberto do Nascimento Ferreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a ocorrência de Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, Myrtaceae] tinha sido constatada somente em populações naturais. Relata-se sua ocorrência em um cultivo experimental, onde se avaliou os danos de C. dubiae em frutos de camu-camu, em diferentes graus de amadurecimento, entre 1999 e 2003. Os danos causados pela larva aumentaram com o amadurecimento dos frutos, havendo maior comprometimento da polpa do fruto (30 a 90% do que das sementes (7%. A incidência desse inseto pode implicar em perdas quantitativas significativas na produção de camu-camu.In Brazil, the occurrence of Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, Myrtaceae] had only been verified in natural populations. This report describes its occurrence in an experimental cultivation, where damage of camu-camu fruits by C. dubiae at different ripening stages was evaluated between 1999 and 2003. The damage caused by the larva increased with the degree of ripening of the fruits, with greater damage of fruit pulp (30 to 90% than to seeds (7%. The incidence of this insect may cause significant quantitative losses in the camu-camu production.

  6. Tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Teruo; Komoda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Toshihiko; Node, Koichi

    2008-10-01

    Oxidative stress as well as inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although, various anti-oxidative dietary supplements have been evaluated for their ability to prevent atherosclerosis, no effective ones have been determined at present. "Camu-camu" (Myrciaria dubia) is an Amazonian fruit that offers high vitamin C content. However, its anti-oxidative property has not been evaluated in vivo in humans. To assess the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of camu-camu in humans, 20 male smoking volunteers, considered to have an accelerated oxidative stress state, were recruited and randomly assigned to take daily 70 ml of 100% camu-camu juice, corresponding to 1050 mg of vitamin C (camu-camu group; n=10) or 1050 mg of vitamin C tablets (vitamin C group; n=10) for 7 days. After 7 days, oxidative stress markers such as the levels of urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (Pcamu-camu group, while there was no change in the vitamin C group. Our results suggest that camu-camu juice may have powerful anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, compared to vitamin C tablets containing equivalent vitamin C content. These effects may be due to the existence of unknown anti-oxidant substances besides vitamin C or unknown substances modulating in vivo vitamin C kinetics in camu-camu.

  7. Camu-camu propagation (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mcvaugh = Propagação do camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mcvaugh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Camu-camu is an indigenous species of the Brazilian Amazon region, and is found in the states of Para, Amazonas, Roraima, Rondônia and Tocantins. Domestication of Myrciaria dubia has been performed by several Brazilian institutions for decades and is desirable to develop a propagation method to obtain good quality seedlings and the multiplication of genotypes from plants selection with desirable characteristics. Thus, this review contains the main research results of the vegetative and seed propagation of camu-camu, having important information to be applied on seedlings and cuttings management in a nursery. = O camu-camu é uma espécie nativa da região Amazônica, podendo ser encontrada em diversos estados da Região Norte do Brasil, como nos estados do Pará, Amazonas, Roraima, Rondônia e Tocantins. Os trabalhos de domesticação e melhoramento genético de Myrciaria dubia têm sido realizados por diversas instituições brasileiras há várias décadas e sabese que para isso são necessários inicialmente estudos relativos à propagação da espécie para obtenção de mudas de qualidade e multiplicação de genótipos superiores provenientes de plantas selecionadas e com características agronômicas, como alta produção de frutos e elevado teor de vitamina C. Sendo assim, esta revisão reúne resultados das principais pesquisas sobre a propagação vegetativa e seminífera do camu-camu, trazendo informações importantes de manejo que podem ser aplicadas à produção de mudas.

  8. Danos de Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae) em frutos de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) na Amazônia Central

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Alberto do Nascimento Ferreira; Daniel Felipe de Oliveira Gentil; Neliton Marques da Silva

    2003-01-01

    No Brasil, a ocorrência de Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh, Myrtaceae] tinha sido constatada somente em populações naturais. Relata-se sua ocorrência em um cultivo experimental, onde se avaliou os danos de C. dubiae em frutos de camu-camu, em diferentes graus de amadurecimento, entre 1999 e 2003. Os danos causados pela larva aumentaram com o amadurecimento dos frutos, havendo maior comprometimento da polpa do fruto ...

  9. Nutritional composition and vitamin C stability in stored camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justi, K C; Visentainer, J V; Evelázio de Souza, N; Matsushita, M

    2000-12-01

    Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), a native fruit of the Amazon region, is one of the richest sources of vitamin C (2.4 to 3.0 g/100 g in the pulp) found in Brazil. The purpose of this work was the physical-chemical characterization of some nutrients and the valuation of vitamin C stability in stored camu-camu pulp, produced by the Agronomic Institute of Paraná (IAPAR), Paraná State, Brazil. The vitamin C determination was made by titration with potassium iodate. The fruit produced in Paraná State, presented a lower content of vitamin C than the one native of the amazon region, possibly due to the different development conditions of the plant, and consequently of the fruit, as well as the climatic variation, the humidity and the characteristics of the soil. Regarding the vitamin C stability in stored (-18 degrees C) camu-camu pulp, a considerable decrease in its concentration until the 28th day was observed lost 23% (from 1.57 to 1.21 g/100 g), staying approximately the same until the end of the experiment. After 335 days of storage, the content found was of approximately 1.16 g/100 g of pulp, the ascorbic acid losses amounted to 26%. This content was still higher than the one found for most fruits that are good sources of this vitamin.

  10. Dietary camu camu, Myrciaria dubia, enhances immunological response in Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis-Aguinaga, Jefferson; Fernandes, Dayanne C; Eto, Silas F; Claudiano, Gustavo S; Marcusso, Paulo F; Marinho-Neto, Fausto A; Fernandes, João B K; de Moraes, Flávio R; de Moraes, Julieta R Engrácia

    2016-11-01

    Camu camu, Myrciaria dubia, is an Amazon plant that presents high levels of vitamin C in its composition. Several studies in animals and humans have demonstrated their efficiency in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. However, there are no reports of its properties in fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the oral administration of the extract of this plant in the immune parameters in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. 400 Nile tilapia (80 ± 5 g) were randomly distributed into 20 tanks with 1500 L capacity each (20 fish/tank). After a week of adaptation to environmental conditions, it was provided a diet for 5 weeks, using different levels of inclusion of camu camu extract: 0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg of feed. Each treatment consisted of four replicates. It was obtained 40.5 mg of vitamin C/g of camu camu pulp powder by high-performance liquid chromatography. At the end of the trial period, fish were inoculated with Aeromonas hydrophila in the swim bladder. Samples were taken after 6; 24 and 48 h of the challenge. Results revealed that fish supplemented with this herb showed significant increase (P  0.05). No histopathological lesions were observed in intestine, kidney, spleen, and gills. It can be concluded that the addition of Myrciaria dubia in tilapia feed improves the immune response and the growth after 5 weeks, especially, at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Changes on physiological parameters of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed with diets supplemented with Amazonian fruit Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aride, P H R; Oliveira, A M; Batista, R B; Ferreira, M S; Pantoja-Lima, J; Ladislau, D S; Castro, P D S; Oliveira, A T

    2017-09-21

    The physiological responses of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed commercial feed supplemented with different concentrations of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) were evaluated. The design was completely randomized, with treatments arranged in a factorial design with three proportions of camu camu (15%, 30% and 45%) and a control treatment (100% commercial diet), with four replicates per treatment. A total of 96 tambaqui specimens were used, with a mean initial weight of 11.69 ± 2.68 g and a mean length of 7.06 ± 0.44 cm. After 30 days, hematological parameters, metabolic variables, growth and fish swimming performance were evaluated. The different proportions of camu camu in the diet did not cause significant changes to the tambaqui's hematological parameters during the feeding period, except for hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) after the 30th day, and hematocrit (Ht) after the swimming stress test, which increased significantly (p camu camu gained the most weight and achieved the best swimming performance, respectively. The results for camu camu concentrations above 30% suggest a saturation of its intrinsic properties in the diet at this level and a loss of nutrients from the commercial feed replaced by the fruit, reducing productive performance and nutritional assimilation.

  12. Polpa de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia submetida à radiação gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O fruto amazônico camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia, possui elevado teor de vitamina C, antocianinas, carotenóides e compostos fenólicos, fatores que fazem com este fruto venham se posicionando na preferência dos consumidores de frutas exóticas. A radiação ionizante tem sido utilizada para aumentar a vida útil dos produtos, além de preservar qualidades intrínsecas e nutricionais. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a radiação gama como método alternativo na conservação da polpa de camu-camu. As amostras de polpa do fruto foram submetidas às doses 0 (controle, 2, 4, e 6 kGy. Em seguida, foram armazenadas a 6 ºC e à temperatura ambiente (26 ºC, e avaliadas quanto a cor, pH, acidez titulável, teores de sólidos solúveis, vitamina C, compostos fenólicos e antocianinas nos períodos 1 e 15 dias de armazenamento. Os atributos pH, teor de sólidos solúveis, compostos fenólicos e acidez total, não foram afetados pela irradiação e pela temperatura de armazenamento nos dois períodos analisados. A vitamina C também não se alterou com a irradiação, porém o armazenamento refrigerado manteve os teores mais constantes. A cor foi o atributo mais afetado pela irradiação e pelo armazenamento à temperatura ambiente. Portanto, a radiação gama não se mostrou eficaz no armazenamento da polpa desta fruta em nenhuma das temperaturas propostas.

  13. An efficient method for in vitro callus induction in Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh "Camu Camu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Córdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high variability in vitamin C production in Myrciaria dubia "camu camu", biotechnological procedures are necessary for mass clonal propagation of promising genotypes of this species. The aim was to establish an efficient method for in vitro callus induction from explants of M. dubia. Leaf and knot sex plants were obtained from branches grown in the laboratory and from fruit pulp collected in the field. These were desinfected and sown on Murashige-Skoog (1962 medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin(Kin. The cultures were maintained at 25±2°C in darkness for 2 weeks and subsequently with a photoperiod of 16 hours in light and 8 hours in dark for 6 weeks. Treatment with 2 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/L BAP allowed major callus formation in the three types of explants. Calluswere generated from the first week (knots, fourth week (leaves and sixth week (pulp and these were friable (leaves and nodes and non-friable (pulp. In conclusion, the described method is efficient for in vitro callus induction in leaves, knots and pulp of M. dubia, been leaves and knots explants more suitable for callus obtention

  14. Armazenamento de sementes de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia com diferentes graus de umidade e temperaturas Storage of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia seeds with different moisture contents and temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Alberto do Nascimento Ferreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, com diferentes graus de umidade (46 e 40%, submetidas a diferentes condições (temperatura ambiente - média de 26,5°C, câmara a 20°C e câmara a 10°C e períodos de armazenamento (30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias. Após cada período, foram retiradas amostras dos tratamentos para as avaliações do grau de umidade e da qualidade fisiológica das sementes. A redução do grau de umidade afetou negativamente a viabilidade e o vigor das sementes, e a temperatura de 10°C não foi favorável ao armazenamento das sementes. Assim, as sementes de camu-camu devem ser armazenadas com grau de umidade elevado (próximo a 46% e, preferencialmente, sob temperatura de 20°C, para manter a viabilidade e o vigor por maior período de tempo.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the physiological potential of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh seeds with different moisture contents (46 and 40% under different storage conditions (laboratory environment - mean 26,5°C, cold storage at 20°C and 10°C and periods (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days of storage. After each storage period, samples of the treatments were removed to evaluate moisture content and physiological quality of seeds. The reduction of moisture content negatively affected the viability and vigor of seeds and the temperature of 10ºC was unfavorable for the storage of seeds. Camu-camu seeds should be stored with high moisture content (close of 46% and, preferentially, at a temperature of 20°C to maintain viability and vigor for larger period of time.

  15. Data on a single oral dose of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia pericarp extract on flow-mediated vasodilation and blood pressure in young adult humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Miyashita

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes the flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD responses, represented by changes in arterial diameter, and blood pressure changes in young adults after a single oral dose of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia pericarp extract or placebo (cross-over design. Ten healthy men and 10 healthy women participated in this study. Ultrasonic diagnostic equipment was used to monitor arterial diameter changes, indicative of FMD, for 110 s after the administration of the camu camu extract or placebo. In addition, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were recorded.

  16. Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozanildo V Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian Camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh has attracted interest from food and cosmetics industries because of its rich content of vitamin C, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The goal of this study was investigates the antiobesity action of the ingestion of the Camu-camu pulp in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Wistar rats with obesity induced by subcutaneous injection of monosodium glutamate receiving diet ad libitum. The rats were divided in two groups: an experimental group that ingested 25 mL/day of Camu-camu pulp (CCG and a non treated group (CG. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Blood, liver, heart, white adipose tissues were collected and weighted, biochemical and inflammatory profiles were determinate as well. Animals that received the pulp of Camu-camu reduced their weights of the fat in white adipose tissues, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and insulin blood levels. There was an increase in HDL-c levels. No change was observed in inflammatory markers and liver enzymes. Camu-camu pulp was able to improve the biochemical profile of obesity in rats suggesting that this Amazonian fruit can be further used such a functional food ingredient in control of chronic diseases linked to obesity.

  17. Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh) fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ozanildo V; Boleti, Ana P A; Yuyama, Lucia K O; Lima, Emerson S

    2013-03-01

    Amazonian Camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh) has attracted interest from food and cosmetics industries because of its rich content of vitamin C, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The goal of this study was investigates the antiobesity action of the ingestion of the Camu-camu pulp in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Wistar rats with obesity induced by subcutaneous injection of monosodium glutamate receiving diet ad libitum. The rats were divided in two groups: an experimental group that ingested 25 mL/day of Camu-camu pulp (CCG) and a non treated group (CG). After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Blood, liver, heart, white adipose tissues were collected and weighted, biochemical and inflammatory profiles were determinate as well. Animals that received the pulp of Camu-camu reduced their weights of the fat in white adipose tissues, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and insulin blood levels. There was an increase in HDL-c levels. No change was observed in inflammatory markers and liver enzymes. Camu-camu pulp was able to improve the biochemical profile of obesity in rats suggesting that this Amazonian fruit can be further used such a functional food ingredient in control of chronic diseases linked to obesity.

  18. 1-methylmalate from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) suppressed D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akachi, Toshiyuki; Shiina, Yasuyuki; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effects of fruit juices against D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury, lyophilized fruit juices (total 12 kinds) were fed to rats for 7 d, and then we evoked liver injury by injecting GalN. The juice of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) significantly suppressed GalN-induced liver injury when the magnitude of liver injury was assessed by plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, although some other juices (acerola, dragon fruit, shekwasha, and star fruit) also tended to have suppressive effects. An active compound was isolated from camu-camu juice by solvent fractionation and silica gel column chromatography. The structure was determined to be 1-methylmalate. On the other hand, malate, 1,4-dimethylmalate, citrate, and tartrate had no significant effect on GalN-induced liver injury. It is suggested that 1-methylmalate might be a rather specific compound among organic acids and their derivatives in fruit juices in suppressing GalN-induced liver injury.

  19. Determination of anthocyanins from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) by HPLC-PDA, HPLC-MS, and NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Cinthia Fernanda; Cuevas, Elyana; Bobbio, Florinda O; Winterhalter, Peter; Mercadante, Adriana Z

    2005-11-30

    Camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (HBK) McVaugh] is a small fruit native to the Amazonian rain forest. Its anthocyanin profile has now been investigated for the first time. Fruits from two different regions of the São Paulo state, Brazil, were analyzed. The major anthocyanins were isolated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography. HPLC-PDA, HPLC-MS/MS, and 1H NMR were used to confirm the identity of the main anthocyanins of camu-camu. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was identified as the major pigment in the fruits from both regions, representing 89.5% in the fruits produced in Iguape and 88.0% in those from Mirandópolis, followed by the delphinidin-3-glucoside, ranging between 4.2 and 5.1%, respectively. Higher total anthocyanin contents were detected in the fruits from Iguape (54.0 +/- 25.9 mg/100 g) compared to those from Mirandópolis (30.3 +/- 6.8 mg/100 g), most likely because of the lower temperatures in the Iguape region.

  20. Morphological and genetic diversity of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmíd, Jan; Kalousová, Marie; Mandák, Bohumil; Houška, Jakub; Chládová, Anna; Pinedo, Mario; Lojka, Bohdan

    2017-01-01

    Camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] is currently an important and promising fruit species grown in the Peruvian Amazon, as well as in Brazil, Colombia, and Bolivia. The species is valued for its high content of fruit-based vitamin C. Large plantations have been established only in the last two decades, and a substantial part of the production is still obtained by collecting fruits from the wild. Domestication of the species is at an early stage; most farmers cultivate the plants without any breeding, or only through a simple mass selection process. The main objective of the study was to characterize morphological and genetic variation within and among cultivated and natural populations of camu-camu in the Peruvian Amazon. In total, we sampled 13 populations: ten wild in the Iquitos region, and three cultivated in the Pucallpa region in the Peruvian Amazon. To assess the genetic diversity using seven microsatellite loci, we analyzed samples from ten individual trees per each population (n = 126). Morphological data was collected from five trees from each population (n = 65). The analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences for most of the morphological descriptors. For wild and cultivated populations, the observed heterozygosity was 0.347 and 0.404 (expected 0.516 and 0.506), and the fixation index was 0.328 and 0.200, respectively. Wild populations could be divided into two groups according to the UPGMA and STRUCTURE analysis. In cultivated populations, their approximate origin was determined. Our findings indicate a high genetic diversity among the populations, but also a high degree of inbreeding within the populations. This can be explained by either the isolation of these populations from each other or the low number of individuals in some populations. This high level of genetic diversity can be explored for the selection of superior individuals for further breeding.

  1. Morphological and genetic diversity of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh] in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šmíd

    Full Text Available Camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh] is currently an important and promising fruit species grown in the Peruvian Amazon, as well as in Brazil, Colombia, and Bolivia. The species is valued for its high content of fruit-based vitamin C. Large plantations have been established only in the last two decades, and a substantial part of the production is still obtained by collecting fruits from the wild. Domestication of the species is at an early stage; most farmers cultivate the plants without any breeding, or only through a simple mass selection process. The main objective of the study was to characterize morphological and genetic variation within and among cultivated and natural populations of camu-camu in the Peruvian Amazon. In total, we sampled 13 populations: ten wild in the Iquitos region, and three cultivated in the Pucallpa region in the Peruvian Amazon. To assess the genetic diversity using seven microsatellite loci, we analyzed samples from ten individual trees per each population (n = 126. Morphological data was collected from five trees from each population (n = 65. The analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences for most of the morphological descriptors. For wild and cultivated populations, the observed heterozygosity was 0.347 and 0.404 (expected 0.516 and 0.506, and the fixation index was 0.328 and 0.200, respectively. Wild populations could be divided into two groups according to the UPGMA and STRUCTURE analysis. In cultivated populations, their approximate origin was determined. Our findings indicate a high genetic diversity among the populations, but also a high degree of inbreeding within the populations. This can be explained by either the isolation of these populations from each other or the low number of individuals in some populations. This high level of genetic diversity can be explored for the selection of superior individuals for further breeding.

  2. Esterases no exame da estrutura populacional de Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae Esterases for examining the population structure of Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois sistemas enzimáticos (esterase e esterase-D, analisados pela técnica de eletroforese em gel de amido, em folhas jovens de plantas cultivadas em terra firme, de sementes provenientes de três amostras de populações naturais de camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae, procedentes de Iquitos, Boa Vista e Uatumã, revelaram a presença de 6 locos: Est-1, Est-2, Est-3, Est-4, Est-D1 e Est-D2. Dois dos seis locos gênicos examinados no presente estudo (Est-3 e Est-D2 mostraram-se polimórficos, sendo desse modo considerados valiosos no estudo de caracterização da estrutura populacional da espécie. Os padrões de polimorfismo revelados nos locos Est-3 e Est-D2 de camu-camu, são típicos de enzimas monoméricas e diméricas, respectivamente. O loco Est-3 apresentou um grande desbalanço genético dentro e entre as amostras populacionais examinadas, devido ao excessivo número observado de plantas heterozigóticas em relação ao número esperado. O loco Est-D2 apresentou um polimorfismo exclusivo para os alelos Est-D2¹,Est-D2² e Est-D2³, e um bom balanço genético na amostra populacional de Uatumã. Em função disso, dentre os demais locos gênicos aqui investigados, o loco Est-D2 parece ser o mais adequado para identificação e delimitação de prováveis estoques de camu-camu. Portanto, recomenda-se que esse loco esteja presente na lista dos marcadores isoenzimáticos a serem usados em futuras prospecções sobre genética populacional dessa espécie na região amazônica. Dados sobre a distribuição das freqüências alélicas, estimativas das distâncias genéticas, e estimativas de variação genética nos 6 locos de esterases examinados, foram eficazes na demonstração de diferenças genéticas entre as amostras populacionais examinadas da espécie. Os maiores valores de heterozigozidade média (0,1353; proporção de locos polimórficos (0,33 e número médio de alelos por loco (1,33 revelados na amostra

  3. Aproveitamento do camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia para produção de bebida alcoólica fermentada The use of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia for the production of a fermented alcoholic beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nobuyuki Maeda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O elevado teor de ácido ascórbico no camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh, Myrtaceae desperta o interesse de extrativistas, agricultores e consumidores, e leva à necessidade de desenvolvimento de tecnologias adequadas para produção em terra firme e aproveitamento industrial do fruto. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a adequação do camu-camu para a produção de bebida alcoólica fermentada, assim como o efeito do branqueamento do fruto e da incorporação da casca à polpa nas características nutricionais e sensoriais da bebida. Os frutos foram separados em quatro lotes, sendo dois branqueados (90 ºC por 7 min. Após a despolpa, as cascas de um lote de cada tratamento (com e sem branqueamento foram incorporadas às respectivas polpas e avaliadas quanto à composição química (umidade, pH, acidez, sólidos solúveis, açúcares, ácido ascórbico, compostos fenólicos, antocianinas e flavonóides. Após a correção do mosto com açúcar, pasteurização, fermentação (25 dias, trasfega, pasteurização (70 ºC por 15 min, filtragem e clarificação, as bebidas foram avaliadas quanto a composição química, edulcoradas e submetidas à análise sensorial. O branqueamento reduziu a concentração de ácido ascórbico das polpas (33 % e a agregação da casca aumentou os teores de matéria seca (39 % polpa, ácido ascórbico (33 % na polpa, 23 % no mosto e 50 % na bebida e fenólicos (50 % bebida. O perfil sensorial e a aceitabilidade sugerem que o camu-camu é adequado para a produção de bebida alcoólica fermentada e que a agregação da casca à polpa contribuiu positivamente para a aceitabilidade (6,7 com casca e 6,2 sem casca, na escala de 9 pontos. As bebidas apresentaram flavor característico do fruto, limpidez, coloração vermelho-laranjada e sabor agradável.The high levels of ascorbic acid in camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh, Myrtaceae have stimulated interest of extractivists, farmers and consumers. This has led

  4. Efecto citoprotector del camu-camu Myrciaria dubia en tres líneas celulares de ratón expuestos in vivo a bromato de potasio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó in vivo la capacidad citoprotectora del fruto de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh Camu-camu frente al daño mutagénico producido por bromato de potasio (68,5 mg/k sobre tres líneas celulares de ratón (hígado, riñón y células sanguíneas. Se utilizó ratones (n= 120 divididos en tres grupos los cuales bebieron ad libitum: TI= control negativo (solo agua y el grupo TIII (control positivo; El grupo TII bebió el extracto acuoso (2% p/v del fruto de camu-camu. A los diez días se inyectó una dosis única de KBr03 (68,5 mg/kg peso corporal vía intraperitoneal, a los grupos TII y TIII. El tratamiento con camu-camu continuo 35 días más, luego los ratones fueron eutanizados para determinar la frecuencia del daño al DNA mediante el protocolo del ensayo cometa alcalino. El grupo TII mostró en todas las líneas celulares el efecto citoprotector del camu-camu (p< 0,05. El efecto dañino al DNA por la acción oxidativa del KBrO3 es inhibido por el extracto acuoso del fruto de camu camu, probablemente por la presencia de los agentes antioxidantes como el Acido ascórbico y los flavonoides.

  5. Antioxidant and associated capacities of Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Paul C; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Ridgway, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    An aging population in the United States presents important challenges for patients and physicians. The presence of inflammation can contribute to an accelerated aging process, the increasing presence of comorbidities, oxidative stress, and an increased prevalence of chronic pain. As patient-centered care is embracing a multimodal, integrative approach to the management of disease, patients and physicians are increasingly looking to the potential contribution of natural products. Camu camu, a well-researched and innovative natural product, has the potential to contribute, possibly substantially, to this management paradigm. The key issue is to raise camu camu's visibility through increased emphasis on its robust evidentiary base and its various formulations, as well as making consumers, patients, and physicians more aware of its potential. A program to increase the visibility of camu camu can contribute substantially not only to the management of inflammatory conditions and its positive contribution to overall good health but also to its potential role in many disease states.

  6. The transillumination technique as a method for the assessment of spermatogenesis using medicinal plants: the effect of extracts of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) and camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) on stages of the spermatogenic cycle in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa Bertha; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Transillumination technique for assessment of stages of spermatogenic cycle is a useful tool for toxicological studies. This study was designed to determine the effect of two medicinal plants on spermatogenesis in male rats using the transillumination technique. For this, the effect of the combination of a fruit with highest content of ascorbic acid (Myrciaria dubia, camu camu) and extract of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on seminiferous tubule stages scored by transillumination on intact tubules in adult male rats was assessed. Animals were treated during seven days with vehicle, black maca, camu camu or a mixture of black maca + camu camu and assessed for daily sperm production (DSP), stages of spermatogenic cycle as well as antioxidant activity and levels of flavonoids and polyphenols. Black maca increased stages of spermiation (VII-VIII) and mitosis of germ cells (IX-XI), whereas camu camu increased stages of mitosis (IX-XI) and meiosis (XII). Mixture of maca + camu camu increased stages of spermiation, mitosis and meiosis. All treatments increased DSP (pmaca. In conclusion, M. dubia (camu camu) has potential effects improving spermatogenesis and co-administered with maca increase stages of mitosis, meiosis and spermiation of the spermatogenic cycle as assessed by the transillumination technique. This technique is becoming increasingly a useful tool for assessment spermatogenesis.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of seeds of the tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Kazunaga; Suga, Katsumi; Honma, Atsushi; Shirosaki, Miyuki; Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract of seeds of the tropical fruit camu-camu was screened for its anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw edema model mice. The extract significantly suppressed both the formation of edema in mice by oral administration and the release of nitric oxide from macrophage-derived RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. Based on the results of a spectroscopic analysis, the active compound was identified by in vivo bioassay-guided fractionation to be 3β-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, betulinic acid, known as an anti-inflammatory triterpenoid. These findings suggest that camu-camu seed extract is a potentially useful material as a source of betulinic acid and as a functional food for prevention of immune-related diseases.

  8. Study of the microencapsulation of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib Taxi, C M A; de Menezes, H C; Santos, A B; Grosso, C R F

    2003-01-01

    The camu-camu, like many other Amazonian fruits, shows an excellent potential for use due to its high vitamin C content, and the use of these natural resources could result in greater development of the Amazonian region. Few studies have been conducted with this fruit, and such studies are necessary in order to develop the required technology to allow for its utilization, thus avoiding or at least decreasing wastage of such a rich raw material. The principle objective of this study was to develop a process for the microencapsulation of camu-camu juice, optimizing the operational conditions. The processing conditions consisted of blanching at a temperature of 95 +/- 2 degrees C for 2 min, followed by cooling in an ice bath and juice extraction using a brush type depulper. The juice was dried with gum arabic or malt dextrin in a mini-spray dryer using an air entry temperature of between 100-160 degrees C and wall material concentration varying between 5-35%, in accordance with a factorial experimental design. Both the air entry temperature and the amount of wall material, plus the interaction between the two, gave significant positive effects at the level of 5% probability on the yield of juice powder. The optimum conditions for juice yield and vitamin C retention were established as 15% wall material and an air entry temperature of 150 degrees C.

  9. Isolation of high-quality total RNA from leaves of Myrciaria dubia "CAMU CAMU".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Juan Carlos Castro; Reátegui, Alina Del Carmen Egoavil; Flores, Julián Torres; Saavedra, Roberson Ramírez; Ruiz, Marianela Cobos; Correa, Sixto Alfredo Imán

    2013-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia is a main source of vitamin C for people in the Amazon region. Molecular studies of M. dubia require high-quality total RNA from different tissues. So far, no protocols have been reported for total RNA isolation from leaves of this species. The objective of this research was to develop protocols for extracting high-quality total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. Total RNA was purified following two modified protocols developed for leaves of other species (by Zeng and Yang, and by Reid et al.) and one modified protocol developed for fruits of the studied species (by Silva). Quantity and quality of purified total RNA were assessed by spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analysis. Additionally, quality of total RNA was evaluated with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With these three modified protocols we were able to isolate high-quality RNA (A260nm/A280nm >1.9 and A260nm/A230nm >2.0). Highest yield was produced with the Zeng and Yang modified protocol (384±46µg ARN/g fresh weight). Furthermore, electrophoretic analysis showed the integrity of isolated RNA and the absence of DNA. Another proof of the high quality of our purified RNA was the successful cDNA synthesis and amplification of a segment of the M. dubia actin 1 gene. We report three modified protocols for isolation total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. The modified protocols are easy, rapid, low in cost, and effective for high-quality and quantity total RNA isolation suitable for cDNA synthesis and polymerase chain reaction.

  10. Effects of Spray-Drying Parameters on In Vitro Functional Properties of Camu-Camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh): A Typical Amazonian Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Alice; Souza, Volnei Brito; Daza, Luis Daniel; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen Silvia; Granato, Daniel; Genovese, Maria Inés

    2017-05-01

    Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruit is a rich source of bioactive compounds but its shelf life is rather short. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of inlet air temperature (T) and concentration (C) of maltodextrin and arabic gum on the spray-drying process of commercial camu-camu pulps (São Paulo and Manaus). Moisture, solubility, total phenolics (TP), ascorbic acid (AA), and proanthocyanidins (PAC) contents, and in vitro antioxidant capacity of the powders (FRAP, DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu's reducing capacity were measured). Arabic gum resulted in better yields (22% to 30%), powder solubility (84% to 90%), and lower losses of analyzed compounds than the powders manufactured with maltodextrin. Overall, inlet air temperature had a lower impact on the responses studied than the concentration of carrier agents. Polynomial equations were generated for AA (R2 = 0.993), TP (R2 = 0.735), PAC (R2 = 0.946), and for the antioxidant capacity assays (0.867 ≤ R2  ≤ 0.963). In addition, principal component analysis showed that the lowest concentration of carrier agents (6%) in spray drying resulted in the lowest losses of bioactive compounds and, consequently, the highest antioxidant capacity. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Antibacterial activity of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosella Camere-Colarossi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanol extract of M. dubia against S. mutans and S. sanguinis. These extracts were not cytotoxic at high concentrations.

  12. Ocorrência de Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986(Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae em plantios experimentais de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh em Manaus (Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae in experimental plantations of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luís Leitão Barbosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh tem apresentado inúmeros problemas fitossanitários, dentre os quais, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, que constantemente é citada como praga secundária. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar o nível e a intensidade de infestação (% por T. cognata e estudar aspectos do ciclo biológico e do comportamento de T. cognata, em plantios experimentais de camu-camu. Foram selecionados, de forma aleatória, 17 e 14 exemplares nos plantios I e II, respectivamente. Para cada uma das variáveis estudadas, foram calculados a média aritmética, o desviopadrão, a variância e a amplitude de variação. Foi verificado um nível de infestação de 82% (plantio I e 57% (plantio II, uma intensidade de infestação de 94% (plantio I e 75% (plantio II e uma média de seis ninfas/folha em cada plantio, o que indica que T. cognata representa uma das pragas-chave dessa cultura. Foram observados adultos de Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e ninfas de Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, que podem atuar como prováveis agentes de controle biológico de T. cognata.The cultivation of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh has presented countless phytosanitary problems, among them, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, which often is noticed as a secondary pest. This study aimed to determine the level and the intensity of infestation (% for T. cognata, as well as to study the biological cycle and behavioural aspects of T. cognata, in experimental plantation of camu-camu. 17 and 14 specimens from plantation I and II, respectively, were randomly selected. The arithmetic average, the standard deviation, the variance and the total amplitude were calculated for each studied variable. A level of infestation of 82% (plantation I and 57% (plantation II, an intensity of infestation of 94% (plantation I and 75% (plantation II and an

  13. Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracassetti, Daniela; Costa, Carlos; Moulay, Leila; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this study were the evaluation of polyphenols and vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated pulp powder and the dried flour obtained from the skin and seeds residue remaining after pulp preparation from camu-camu (Myrciaria dudia). Fifty-three different phenolics were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS and UPLC-HR-QTOF-MS-MS. The phenolic content of camu-camu flour was higher than that of the pulp powder (4007.95 mg/100 g vs. 48.54 mg/100 g). In both products the flavonol myricetin and conjugates, ellagic acid and conjugates and ellagitannins were detected. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3). The vitamin C content was lower in pulp powder (3.5%) than in the flour (9.1%). The radical-scavenging capacity of both powders was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, and was higher for camu-camu flour as could be expected for its higher phenolics and vitamin C content. Comparative analyses with fresh camu-camu berries indicate that some transformations occur during processing. Analysis of fresh berries showed that ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins were mainly present in the seeds, while proanthocyanidins were present both in the seeds and skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efeito da aplicação de pó de basalto no desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Keiko Welter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de mudas de fruteiras nativas é um importante passo para a preservação das espécies, exploração comercial sustentável e geração de emprego. Neste contexto, os fertilizantes alternativos, como pó de rocha, propiciam a obtenção de um substrato com maior fertilidade, rico em nutrientes, com redução de custos em mão de obra e com a reposição de adubação. O objetivo no presente trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. McVaugh em função de doses de pó de basalto. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação pertencente ao CCA/UFRR. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, em esquema fatorial (5x2+1, sendo seis doses de pó de basalto (0; 0,42;1,04; 2,08; 4,17 e 8,33 g kg-1, duas granulometrias (0,05 e 0,10 mm f e uma testemunha. Vasos de polietileno de 14 litros foram as unidades experimentais e utilizou-se um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico textura média. A incubação do solo nos vasos teve duração de 120 dias e, após esse período, fez-se o transplante das plântulas. Após seis meses do plantio, foram determinados altura, diâmetro do colo, número de ramos e biomassa seca da parte aérea e de raiz das mudas. A partir destes dados, foram calculados os índices morfológicos. Os tratamentos sem pó de basalto (0 g kg-1 e a dose de 0,42 g kg-1 produziram mudas de menor qualidade em ambas as granulometrias testadas. As melhores mudas de camu-camu foram obtidas aplicando-se 4,17 e 8,33 g kg-1 de pó de basalto com a granulometria de 0,05 mm.

  15. Avaliação da atividade antagonista in vitro de fungos endofíticos associados ao camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Carolina de Sena Correia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungos endofíticos são aqueles que habitam o interior dos tecidos de seus hospedeiros, desempenhando variadas e estreitas relações ecológicas sem demonstrar sintomas visíveis. Estima-se que a maioria das espécies vegetais possuam micro-organismos endofíticos ainda não classificados e com propriedades pouco conhecidas, mas potencialmente aptos para alguma aplicação biotecnológica. O camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia apresenta grande potencial econômico, pelas características nutricionais do seu fruto, como a alta produção de vitamina C. Foram isolados e cultivados 307 fungos endofíticos associados às folhas e caules de M. dubia, a fim de verificar a atividade antagonista, quanto à produção de substâncias difusíveis e voláteis contra os seguintes fitopatógenos: Monilinia fructicola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Aspergillus parasiticus. Verificou-se que 22 isolados inibiram o crescimento de pelo menos um dos fitopatógenos alvos, apresentando potencial de inibição (PI entre 25,62% a 93,84%, sendo que cinco endofíticos se destacaram, com porcentual de inibição acima de 50%, através da produção de substâncias difusíveis e voláteis. As interações competitivas foram analisadas segundo a escala de Badalyan, e observou-se maior frequência entre os fungos, da interação do tipo A (“deadlock” com contato micelial. Conclui-se que fungos endofíticos isolados de folhas e caules de Myrciaria dubia, possuem potencial biotecnológico promissor no biocontrole dos fitopatógenos (A.parasiticus, M. fructicola e C. gloeosporioides.

  16. Antocianinas, ácido ascórbico, polifenoles totales y actividad antioxidante, en la cáscara de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K McVaugh Antocianinas, ácido ascórbico, polifenóis totais e atividade antioxidante na casca do camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K McVaugh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Edson Villanueva-Tiburcio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo fue realizado en la UNAS, Tingo María, Perú. Los objetivos fueron evaluar el contenido de antocianinas, ácido ascórbico, y polifenoles totales, en la cáscara fresca y seca de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K McVaugh en diferentes estados de madurez; evaluar la actividad antioxidante en la cáscara seca, usando diferentes tipos de radicales (DPPH, ABTS+ y Peroxilo y correlacionar el valor de ácido ascórbico y polifenoles totales con la actividad antioxidante. La extracción fue realizada en medio acuoso, y los resultados de las evaluaciones de cada experimento fueron analizados por un diseño completamente al azar (DCA, según la prueba de t-student (p A pesquisa foi realizada na UNAS em Tingo Maria, Peru, teve como objetivos: avaliar o teor de antocianinas, ácido ascórbico e polifenóis totais, na casca fresca e na casca seca do camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK McVaugh em diferentes tempos de maturação; avaliar a atividade antioxidante na casca seca utilizando diferentes tipos de radicais (DPPH, ABTS+ e Peroxilo e correlacionar o teor de ácido ascórbico e polifenóis totais com a atividade antioxidante. A extraç��o foi realizada em meio aquoso, os resultados das avaliações de cada experiência são analisados no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC, pelo teste de t-student (p < 0,05. O extrato da casca da amostra madura fresca apresentou as concentrações mais elevadas de ácido ascórbico e de antocianinas em relação a meio madura e verde, com 21,95 mg.g-1 de casca e 46,42 mg.L-1 de cianidin-3-glucosídeo, respectivamente, enquanto que o extrato da casca seca meio madura apresentou o maior teor de ácido ascórbico em relação a madura e verde (53,49 mg.g-1 e de polifenóis totais: 7,70 mg Ác. Gálico/g. A maior atividade antioxidante foi encontrada no extrato da casca seca da amostra meio madura com IC50 = 46,20; 20,25 e 8,30 μg.mL-1, em comparação com DPPH radical, ABTS+ e Perox

  17. Antigenotoxic effect of acute, subacute and chronic treatments with Amazonian camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) juice on mice blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Francisco Carlos; Arruda, Andrelisse; Ledel, Alexandre; Dauth, Cíntia; Romão, Nathalia Faria; Viana, Rafaele Nazário; de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Alexandre; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; Pereira, Patrícia

    2012-07-01

    Myrciaria dubia, a plant native to the Amazon region, stands out as a fruit rich in vitamin C and other metabolites with nutritional potential. We evaluated the antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of M. dubia juice on blood cells of mice after acute, subacute and chronic treatments. Flavonoids and vitamin C present in the fruit of M. dubia were quantified. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay. Blood samples were collected for analysis after treatment, and the alkaline comet assay was used to analyze the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity (ex vivo analysis using H(2)O(2)). The amount of vitamin C per 100mL of M. dubia was 52.5mg. DPPH assay showed an antioxidant potential of the fruit. No M. dubia concentration tested exerted any genotoxic effect on mice blood cells. In the ex vivo test, the juice demonstrated antigenotoxic effect, and acute treatment produced the most significant results. After the treatments, there was no evidence of toxicity or death. In conclusion, our data show that M. dubia juice has antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities, though with no genotoxicity for blood cells. Nevertheless, more in-depth studies should be conducted to assess the safety of this fruit for human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia: Fruta tropical de excelentes propiedades funcionales que ayudan a mejorar la calidad de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka Arellano-Acuña

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El camu-camu, es la fruta que posee el mayor contenido de vitamina C, el cual es 100 veces mayor al limón. Esta fruta tropical es nativa de la región amazónica y se encuentra principalmente distribuida en Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela. En su composición, presenta diversos compuestos bioactivos como carotenoides, antioxidantes, vitaminasy compuestos fenólicos como antocianinas y taninos, que le confieren las características de un alimento funcional. Asimismo, tiene propiedades benéficas en la salud de quienes lo consumen, ya que es considerado un poderoso antioxidante, antiinflamatorio y antimicrobial; también es un gran aliado contra enfermedades cardiovasculares y para personas que sufren de obesidad. Investigaciones demuestran su efecto positivo para el tratamiento de las etapas iniciales de la diabetes, además de ofrecer otros beneficios. Este trabajo de revisión tuvo como objetivo el estudio de la literatura respecto al Camu-camu como alimento funcional que contribuye a mejorar la calidad de vida debido a su impacto positivo en la salud.

  19. Fluctuación y distribución espacio-temporal de Tuthillia cognata (Hemiptera, Psyllidae y de Ocyptamus persimilis (Diptera, Syrphidae en el cultivo de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae en Ucayali, Perú Fluctuation and temporal-spatial distribution of Tuthillia cognata (Hemiptera, Psyllidae and Ocyptamus persimilis (Diptera, Syrphidae on camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae in Ucayali, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae es una plaga importante en el cultivo de camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh (Myrtaceae en la Amazonía Peruana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la fluctuación y la distribución espacio-temporal de T. cognata y de su controlador biológico Ocyptamus persimilis (Curran, 1930 (Diptera, Syrphidae, entre enero a noviembre del 2004 en los caseríos San Juan y Padre Bernardo, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. El número de ninfas y adultos de T. cognata fue mayor en la época lluviosa que en la seca, pero no en el número de huevos, ni en el número de colonias. Los huevos, ninfas y adultos prefirieron el tercio superior de la planta en comparación con el tercio medio e inferior en ambos caseríos. La excepción fue la presencia de huevos en el caserío San Juan que no mostró preferencias por ninguno de los tercios. No se observaron diferencias en el porcentaje de infestación por T. cognata entre ambos caseríos y entre la época seca y lluviosa. En O. persimilis, no se encontró diferencias en el número de huevos, larvas y pupas entre la época seca y lluviosa. Se observó que los huevos, larvas y pupas prefirieron el tercio superior de la planta en comparación con el tercio medio e inferior en ambos caseríos. Ambas especies, T. cognata y O. persimilis presentaron un patrón de distribución espacial - temporal agregado. Se encontró una relación directa entre el número de colonias de T. cognata y O. persimilis. Sin embargo, el número de huevos, ninfas y adultos de T. cognata no se encontraron correlacionados con el número de huevos, larvas y pupas de O. persimilis.Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae, is a main pest on camu-camu culture Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh (Myrtaceae in the Peruvian Amazon. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the fluctuation and spatial and temporal distribution of T

  20. Effect of location and diameter of the branch in three genotypes of Myrciaria dubia (HBK "camu camu" for vegetative propagation by air layering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Oliver Liao Torres

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the location and diameter of the branch in three genotypes of camu camu using the technique of air layering on rooting and sprouting. The mother plants were bent and then rooted branches were transplanted following the design of randomized complete block with three replications. At 3 months after transplantation was the assessment of the variables, finding the best values for the number of roots to the middle third, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 and the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 with 28.67 and 28.33 roots, respectively, in the variable length of the upper third roots, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 showed the best results with 15.27 cm. Regarding the number of outbreaks upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-014 and the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 achieved the best results with 13.00 and 12.67 outbreaks, respectively, in the length of shoots, the best treatment was the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 with 30.73 cm, and finally in the variable number of leaves / shoot highlights the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-014 and the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 with 15.10 leaves per shoot and 14.83, respectively. The results allowed identifying the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 as the best in terms of rooting and sprouting capacity.

  1. Fertigation in the production of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh at the experimental station of the IIAP, Ucayali, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the plot Y1 of Institute of Amazonian Research Peruana-IIAP Ucayali, located between latitudes 8 º 22 '31''south latitude and 74 º 34' 35'' west longitude and altitude of 154 m. It has a soil with low fertility Ultisols (organic matter 1.4%, phosphorus 0.4ppm, potassium 25ppm, pH 4.58, high aluminum content of 6 meq/100 g and CIC of 6.72 meq/100 g of soil. The objective was to determine the phenology and fruit yield candid plant of camu camu of 7 years of age from a mixture of seeds, using 5 treatments by the technique of fertigation through a drip irrigation system (RG. We used a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications of 5 treatments and 15 experimental units with 15 floors each, the treatments were T0 [Without irrigation and fertilization], T1 [Drip irrigation without fertilization], T2 [60-40-80/NPK more RG], T3 [120-80-160/NPK more RG], T4 [240-160-320/NPK more RG]. To standardize the material is made of fructification pruning and defoliation manual. We evaluated the reproductive phenology, flower buds No. of No. of small fruits, fruit No. of harvest, fruit weight in g and t.ha- 1 performance. It was possible to standardize the phenological stages of outbreaks of issuance until the harvest ending the production cycle in 205 days. The results show no statistically significant differences, it was finally determined that the T2 was 4.8 t.ha-1 doubling the T0 which makes it more cost effective than other treatments

  2. Fertirriego en la producción del camu camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh en la estación experimental del IIAP, Ucayali, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la parcela Y1 del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana - IIAP Ucayali; ubicado en tre las coordenadas 8º 22’ 31’’ de latitud Sur y 74º 34’ 35’’ de longitud Oeste a una altitud de 154 m.s.n.m. Posee un suelo ultisols con fertilidad baja (Materia orgánica 1.4%, fósforo 0.4ppm, potasio 25ppm, pH de 4.58, alto contenido de aluminio 6 meq/1 00 g y CIC de 6.72 meq/100 g de suelo. El objetivo fue determinar el comportamiento fenológico y rendimiento de fruto de las plantas francas de camu camu de 7 años de edad procedentes de una mezcla de semillas, aplicando 5 tratamientos mediante la técn ica del fertirriego mediante un sistema de riego por goteo (RG. Se utilizó un Diseño de Bloques Completamente al Azar (DBCA con 3 repeticiones, 5 tratamientos y 15 unidades experimentales con 15 plantas cada una; los tratamientos fueron T0 [Sin riego y s in fertilización], T1 [Riego por goteo sin fertilización], T2 [60 - 40 - 80/N - P - K mas RG], T3 [120 - 80 - 160/N - P - K mas RG], T4 [240 - 160 - 320/N - P - K mas RG]. Para uniformizar el material se realizó podas de fructificación y defoliación manual. Se evaluó la fenología reproductiva, Nº de botones florales, Nº de frutos pequeños, Nº de frutos de cosecha, peso de fruto en g y rendimiento en t.ha - 1 . Se logró uniformizar las etapas fenológicas desde la emisión de brotes hasta la cosecha concluyendo el ciclo productivo en 205 días. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que no existen diferencias estadísticas significativas. Finalmente se determinó que el T2 obtuvo 4.8 t.ha - 1 duplicando al T0 con lo cual resultó más rentable que los demás tratamientos.

  3. Determinação da formulação e caracterização do néctar de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh Formulation determination and characterisation of the camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh nectar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto N. Maeda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu é um fruto silvestre, encontrado nas margens de rios e lagos da Amazônia, com grande potencial econômico pelas suas características agronômicas, tecnológicas e nutricionais. Entretanto, seu consumo ainda é restrito, devido à alta acidez, amargor e adstringência da casca, necessitando, dessa forma, de tecnologias adequadas para o seu uso. O presente estudo teve por objetivo determinar a formulação ideal do néctar de camu-camu e avaliar as suas caraterísticas físicas e físico-químicas. Para a obtenção do néctar, foram elaboradas nove formulações com diferentes concentrações de polpa e açúcar, as quais foram submetidas ao teste de preferência de 30 provadores não treinados. Dentre as formulações testadas, a de maior preferência foi a preparada com 17,5% de açúcar e 17% de polpa, a qual apresentou valor de L Hunter de 32,00, aHunter de 3,22 e bHunter de -0,38, ácido ascórbico de 382,07 mg/100 mL, antocianinas de 2,51 mg/100 g e aceitabilidade global de 89,1%. Os resultados demonstram a viabilidade tecnológica e nutricional do néctar de camu-camu por ser um produto atraente de cor, sabor, aroma, aceitabilidade e como fonte de Vitamina C.Camu-camu is a wild fruit distributed throughout the banks of lakes and rivers in Amazonia, which presents a great economical potential on account of its agronomic, technological and nutritional features. Nevertheless, its consumption is still restricted due to its high acidity, bitterness, and skin astringency, thus needing the use of proper technologies for its use. The objective of the present study was to determine the ideal camu-camu nectar formulation and to assess its physical and physical-chemical characteristics. Nine formulations with different pulp and sugar concentrations, which were submitted to a preference test by a board of 30 untrained tasters, were prepared in order to obtain the nectar. Among the tested formulations, the one presenting the highest

  4. Estabilidade de ácido ascórbico e antocianinas em néctar de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H. B. K. McVaugh Stability of ascorbic acid and anthocyanin on camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh nectar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nobuyuki Maeda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu é um fruto com notável potencial nutricional, pelo seu alto conteúdo em ácido ascórbico. Sendo assim, objetivou-se avaliar a estabilidade do ácido ascórbico e pigmentos presentes no néctar de camu-camu, armazenados sob diferentes condições de luminosidade e temperatura. Os frutos foram despolpados e avaliados quanto às características físico-químicas. O néctar, obtido a partir da polpa, foi acondicionado em garrafas PET e armazenado em temperatura ambiente e sob refrigeração na presença e ausência de luz, sendo avaliado por 120 dias quanto à estabilidade de ácido ascórbico e antocianinas. O teor de ácido ascórbico nos néctares armazenados sob luz não diferiu estatisticamente dos armazenados protegidos da luz (343,25 e 340,48 mg.100 g -1, respectivamente, nos armazenados sob refrigeração, e (330,48 e 333,56 mg.100 g -1 nos armazenados em temperatura ambiente. Constatou-se que esta vitamina em néctares armazenados por 120 dias em temperatura de refrigeração apresentou boa estabilidade, com perda de apenas 12 a 14%. Quanto às antocianinas, a temperatura ambiente contribuiu negativamente, ocasionando uma degradação mais acelerada, no entanto, a exposição à luz não teve efeito. Nestas condições experimentais, conclui-se que o fator luminosidade tem pouca influência sobre o ácido ascórbico e antocianinas no néctar de camu-camu, e que a temperatura ambiente de armazenamento é fator negativo na estabilidade destes pigmentos.Camu-camu is a fruit with a remarkable nutritional potential due to its high ascorbic acid content. Hence, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the stability of ascorbic acid and pigments present in camu-camu nectar stored under different light and temperature conditions. Fruits were depulped and assessed as to their physico-chemical characteristics. Nectar obtained from the pulp was placed in plastic bottles and stored at room temperature and refrigerated, with and

  5. Possible factors which produce fruit drop of Myrciaria dubia (HBK Mc Vaugh, "camu camu" during the reproductive phenology in the collection “cinco cuencas” from the San Miguel experimental centerIIAP, Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Farro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "Camu camu" plants were evaluated in five basins in Loreto (Peru, according to the percentage of fruits with symptoms of pest infestation, retention of flowers and fruits in each basin, diameters of branches, and the influence of precipitation and temperature in the process of falling fruit as the phenological stage. In the genetic factor, the Putumayo river basin highlighted by a longer retention of fruit, higher yield and average fruit weight and less attack by pests. During the phenological process that lasted 12 weeks, the critical stage of flower and fruit drop occurred during the first seven, with the retention of flowers of 5.12%. The pests are causing the observed fall 9.27%, 9.15% being caused by Edessa sp., And 0.12% for Conotrachellus dubiae. The other 90.73% was caused by other undetermined factors such as physiological, nutritional, competition, wind, rain. Environmental factors of temperature and precipitation have a direct influence and inversely proportional to the fall of fruits, respectively.

  6. Survival of Seasonal Flooding in the Amazon by the Terrestrial Insect Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien & Couturier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a Pest of the Camu-Camu Plant, Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, C; Couturier, G; Fine, P V A

    2014-08-01

    The weevil Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien & Couturier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of an economically important Amazonian fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae). This tree grows in seasonally flooded environments, and how weevil larvae survive flooding has not been studied. From December 2004 to May 2009, five experiments were conducted in natural conditions and in the laboratory, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms that allow the survival of C. dubiae larvae in seasonal floods in Amazonia. The larvae of C. dubiae were kept under water for over 93 days. Older instars exposed to periodic circulation of water survived better than younger instars in addition to all larvae that were kept continuously under uncirculated water. Individuals that were collected from plots of M. dubia located in flooded soils and non-flooded soils did not exhibit statistically significant differences in their levels of survival indicating that the variation in survival of flooding events is due to phenotypic plasticity of the species and not to local adaptation by the populations in different environments. We speculate that larvae can survive floods without major physiological changes as larvae appear to obtain oxygen from water by cutaneous diffusion, assisted by caudal movements.

  7. Propagação vegetativa de camu-camu por meio de enxertia intergenérica na família Myrtaceae Vegetative propagation of camu-camu by intergeneric grafting in Myrtaceae family

    OpenAIRE

    Suguino Eduardo; Appezzato-da-Glória Beatriz; Araújo Paulo Sérgio Rodrigues de; Simão Salim

    2003-01-01

    O camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth) McVaugh], da família Myrtaceae, é encontrado em áreas inundáveis da Região Amazônica e utilizado como conservante em antioxidantes por seu alto teor de ácido ascórbico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar porta-enxertos desta família, adaptados a terra firme, visando à propagação vegetativa de camu-camu. Selecionaram-se duzentas e quarenta mudas de camu-camu, goiabeira (Psidium guajava L.) e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L.), que recebera...

  8. Volatile composition of some Brazilian fruits: umbu-caja (Spondias citherea), camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), Araça-boi (Eugenia stipitata), and Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, M R; Shibamoto, T

    2000-04-01

    Twenty-one volatile compounds were identified for the first time by GC-MS in umbu-caja and in camu-camu, plus 30 volatile compounds were identified in araça-boi samples. Terpenic compounds predominated among the volatile compounds in these fruit samples, with the major compounds being identified as cis-beta-ocimene and caryophyllene in the northeastern fruit; alpha-pinene and d-limonene were the most abundant volatile compounds in the headspace of the Amazonian fruit camu-camu. Sesquiterpenes were the most abundant compounds in the araça-boi sample, with germacrene D presenting a higher relative percentage. The chemical class of esters predominated in the cupuaçu sample. Ethyl butyrate and hexanoate were the major compounds in the headspace of this Amazonian fruit.

  9. Caracterización morfológica y evaluación de la colección nacional de germoplasma de camu camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K Mc Vaugh, del INIA Loreto-Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto Imán Correa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar y evaluar morfológicamente la colección nacional de germoplasma de camu camu del INIA compuesta por 43 accesiones, colectadas en la región Loreto, con fines de conservación y uso. Los resultados muestran que el germoplasma de camu camu presenta alta variabilidad y tres tipos de arquitectura de planta (columnar, intermedia o acaule y cónica o ramificada. Las flores son hermafroditas o andróginas y presentan hercogamia que faculta la alogamia o polinización cruzada. El color del fruto depende del estado de maduración del mismo, varía desde verde hasta rojo violáceo; el número de semillas por fruto varía desde 1 hasta 4; el número de frutos por kilogramo es de 90 a 148. Se encontraron 21 accesiones con rendimientos mayores de 15 kg por planta y 16 accesiones que superan los 2000 mg de ácido ascórbico/100 g de pulpa. Además, se identificaron 10 accesiones promisorias por rendimiento de frutos y por contenidos de ácido ascórbico. A través de Análisis de Componentes Principales se determinó que las variables más vinculadas en forma positiva son el rendimiento de fruto, altura de planta y el diámetro de tallo. El dendrograma derivado del análisis de conglomerados, permitió la identificación de tres grupos basados en el rendimiento de fruto; el primer grupo está formado por 22 accesiones cuyos rendimientos de fruto están entre 2.29 y 11.97 kg/planta, el segundo grupo por 16 accesiones que tienen rendimientos de 16.97 hasta 30.35 kg/planta, y el tercer grupo formado por 5 accesiones con rendimientos desde 36.52 hasta 39.24 kg/planta.

  10. Vitamin C content in fruits of camu camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K Mc Vaugh, in four states of maturation, coming from the Collection of Germoplasma of the INIA Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto Imán Correa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to determine the vitamin content C in different parts from the fruit; pulp, rind and pulp more rind, in four states of maturation: green, mature green, mature and over mature. The fruits were obtained from the Collection of Germoplasma of the Agrarian Experimental Station San Roque of the INIA Loreto, Peru. The technique used for the determination of vitamin content C was Liquid High Chromatography Performance (HPLC with phase column reverse. The results indicate that the greater vitamin contents C are in the rind and the states of over mature and mature. And vitamin C contained according to maturation states adjusts to a curve of cubical regression, as much for pulp, rind and pulp more rind with 87%, 90% and 98 % of effectiveness; respectively. When moving from a state of maturity to another, the vitamin C content is increased in 515.43 mg in each 100 g of rind sample. The obtained results indicate that camu camu is a potential vitamin C source, located mainly in the rind of the fruit.

  11. Efecto de la altura de poda de formación en la arquitectura de plantas de camu camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh en la estación experimental del IIAP, Ucayali, Perú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la respuesta de las plantas de camu camu en plantaciones iniciales sometidas a podas de formación, se instaló un experimento en la EE - IIAP - Ucayali, bajo un Diseño de Bloques Completos al Azar con 3 repeticiones, considerando 20 plantas por unidad experimental. Los tratamientos consist ieron en realizar podas a diferentes alturas desde la base del tallo, se consideró T0 [testigo sin poda]; T1 [poda a 10 cm de la base]; T2 [poda a 20cm de la base] y T3 [poda a 40cm de la base] en plantas de 1.5 m de altura en promedio, procedentes de semi llas de la cuenca del rio Putumayo. Se evaluó el número de brotes, longitud de brotes, altura de planta, diámetro basal, diámetro de copa y número de ramas. Luego de 15 meses de evaluación se encontró diferencias significativas entre las variables estudiad as excepto en diámetro de copa. En altura sobresale el T0 [testigo sin poda]; los tratamientos restantes se comportaron de forma similar, superando al testigo en 267%. Así mismo, para el diámetro basal se halló que el T1 [poda a 10 cm de la base] se compo rtó mejor con un valor promedio de 1.96 cm frente al testigo con 1.7cm; Para el número de ramas la poda tuvo una influencia positiva, con un promedio de 13.4 ramas frente al T0 [testigo sin poda]; con 3.1 ramas, con lo cual se demostró que la poda de f ormación incrementa hasta un 432.3%.

  12. Contenido de vitamina C en frutos de camu camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K Mc Vaugh, en cuatro estados de maduración, procedentes de la Colección de Germoplasma del INIA Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto Imán Correa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo, fue determinar el contenido de vitamina C en diferentes partes d el fruto; pulpa, cáscara y pulpa más cáscara, en cuatro estados de maduración: verde, pintón, maduro y sobremaduro. Los frutos fueron obtenidos de la Colección de Germoplasma de la Estación Experimental Agraria San Roque del INIA Loreto, Perú. La técnica u tilizada para la determinación de contenido de vitamina C fue Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Eficiencia (HPLC con columna de fase reversa. Los resultados indican que los mayores contenidos de vitamina C se encuentran en la cáscara del fruto en estados de m aduración sobremaduro y maduro. E l contenido de vitamina C según estados de maduración se ajustan a una curva de regresión cúbica, tanto para pulpa, cáscara y pulpa más cáscara con 87%, 90% y 98 % de efectividad; respectivamente. Cuando se pasa de un estad o de maduración a otro, el contenido de vitamina C se incrementa en 515.43 mg en cada 100 g de muestra de cáscara. Los resultados obtenidos indican que e l camu camu es una fuente potencial de vitamina C, concentrada principalmente en la cáscara del fruto.

  13. Ciclo biológico, comportamiento y censo del picudo del camu camu, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en Pucallpa, Perú Biological cycle, behavior and census of camu camu weevil, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, in Pucallpa, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Perez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El picudo, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995, es una de las plagas mas importantes del camu camu Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh en la Amazonía Peruana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el ciclo biológico de este insecto bajo condiciones de laboratorio y describir su comportamiento y fluctuación en condiciones de campo en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. El porcentaje de eclosión de larvas fue de 87%, la duración del periodo de incubación de los huevos fue de 5,5±0,9 (4 a 7 días, del estado larval en el fruto 22,2±1,9 (20 a 25 días y en el suelo (fase pre-pupa, 54,4±5,5 (46 a 67 días, del periodo pupal 11,8±0,9 (9 a 13 días y la longevidad del adulto fue de 51,8±18,9 (9 a 75 días. Los adultos se alimentaron de frutos de diferentes diámetros y estados de maduración y de botones florales, ramas tiernas y flores. No se registró la presencia de adultos de C. dubiae en frutos secos, ni en la base del tallo, sino en ritidomas. La mayor actividad de alimentación y de reproducción de los adultos fue entre 18:30 a 22:00 h. Los adultos fueron observados en el cultivo durante todo el año, encontrándose con mayor frecuencia en los meses de enero a marzo en pisos bajos inundables y entre octubre a diciembre en tierra firme no inundable, coincidiendo con la fase de floración y fructificación de la planta.Camu camu weevil Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 is a one of the main pests of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Peruvian Amazonia. The aim of this study was to determine the biological cycle of this insect under laboratory conditions, to describe its behavior and population numbers under field conditions in Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru. The percentage of hatching was 87%; the egg incubation period was 5.5±0.9 (4 to 7 days; the length of the larval stage inside the fruit was 22.2±1.9 (20 to 25 days, and the length larval stage (pre-pupa underground was 54.4±5.5 (46 to 67 days. The length of pupal period was 11.8

  14. Clonagem do camu-camu arbustivo em porta-enxertos de camu-camu arbustivo e arbóreo Cloning of shrubby camu-camu on shrubby and arboreal camu-camu rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Moreira Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, espécie frutífera nativa da Amazônia, de porte arbustivo, é propagado, normalmente, por sementes, ocasionando grande variação na entrada em frutificação e no ciclo de produção, bem como no teor de ácido ascórbico (vitamina C dos frutos. outra espécie de camu-camu, M. floribunda (West ex Willd. o. Berg, de porte arbóreo, ocorre em menor densidade na região amazônica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes métodos de enxertia e a compatibilidade interespecífica entre camu-camu arbustivo e camu-camu arbóreo na fase de formação de mudas de M. dubia. o ensaio foi desenvolvido no período de março a agosto de 2008, no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, em Manaus-AM, com delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 (métodos de enxertia x 2 (espécies de porta-enxerto, com quatro repetições. M. dubia, como porta-enxerto, apresentou melhor percentual de pegamento de enxertos (78,4%, comparada a M. floribunda (49,3%. os melhores resultados na clonagem de M. dubia foram obtidos pelos métodos de garfagem, em que a parte aérea do porta-enxerto foi removida após 30 dias da enxertia: fenda lateral (89,3% e lateral com lingueta (79,3%. o menor resultado foi obtido nos métodos de garfagem, em que a parte aérea do porta-enxerto foi removida na ocasião da enxertia: topo em fenda cheia (51,6% e inglês complicado (31,5%.The camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh is a shrubby indigenous fruit species found in the floodplains of Amazonia region. There is considerable local and international commercial interest in this fruit, because of its high Vitamin C content. The species is commonly propagated by seeds, showing considerable variation in age of bearing, production cycle, fruit yields and Vitamin C contents. Another species, Myrciaria floribunda (West ex Willd. o. Berg, occurs less frequently in the region. The present study

  15. Propagação vegetativa de camu-camu por meio de enxertia intergenérica na família Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguino Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth McVaugh], da família Myrtaceae, é encontrado em áreas inundáveis da Região Amazônica e utilizado como conservante em antioxidantes por seu alto teor de ácido ascórbico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar porta-enxertos desta família, adaptados a terra firme, visando à propagação vegetativa de camu-camu. Selecionaram-se duzentas e quarenta mudas de camu-camu, goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L., que receberam quatro tipos de enxertia, originando doze tratamentos de sessenta plantas, com cinco repetições. Apenas o porta-enxerto de camu-camu se mostrou compatível. A incompatibilidade entre camu-camu e os porta-enxertos de goiabeira e pitangueira foi demonstrada por análises anatômicas.

  16. Teores de elementos minerais em algumas populações de Camu-Camu Content of mineral elements in some populations of camu-camu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia K.O Yuyama

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu, caçari, ou araçá d'água (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K McVaugh é um arbusto da família Myrtaceae, disperso em quase toda a Amazônia. É uma espécie tipicamente silvestre mas com grande potencial econômico e nutricional. Entretanto, no que se refere a elementos minerais, poucas informações são disponíveis na literatura. Considerando a essencialidade dessas informações na nutrição humana e objetivando contribuir na elaboração de uma Tabela de composição de alimentos a nível regional e nacional, determinou-se os elementos minerais em algumas populações de camu-camu, pela Técnica de Ativação com Nêutrons Instrumental. Verificou-se que em relação aos macro elementos minerais, nos frutos de camu-camu analisados, as maiores concentrações foram para potássio, com uma variação de (62,6±0,4 a 144,1±08 mg % e cálcio (9,5±0,3 a 10,6±0,5 mg%. A concentração de sódio nos frutos foi baixa (90,7±16,5 µg%. A população Uatumã-9 apresentou maiores concentrações de zinco (472,0±8,3µg%, molibdênio (6,2±0,6µg% e cromo (19,9±1,7 µg%, seguida da população Uatumã 24 em cobalto (2,4±0,03 mg%. Dessa forma, o consumo de camu-camu pode contribuir para atingir a ingestão adequada das recomendações de elementos minerais nos diferentes grupos populacionais da região Amazônica.Camu-camu, caçari, or araçá d'água (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh is a shrub of the Myrtaceae family, dispersed through almost all the Amazonia. It is a typically wild species but with great economic and nutritional potential. However, few information on its mineral content is available in the literature. Considering the importance of these information for the human nutrition, and, objectiving to contribute in the elaboration of a Table of food composition the regional and national level, was determined the mineral elements in some populations of camu-camu, by neutron activation analysis. According to the results, the greater

  17. Relation between the mineral nutrients and the Vitamin C content in camu-camu plants (Myrciria dubia cultivated on high soils and flood soils of Ucayali, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto-Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Camu - camu is a native plant of the Peruvian Amazon. It is noted for its high concentration of ascorbic acid, however this feature varies widely from one location to another due to genetic and environmental factors. In order to determine the relationship between mineral nutrients and the concentration of ascorbic acid in ca mu - camu plants, a study was conducted in three camu - camu producing areas in flood - prone soils and soils on dry land conditions in the Ucayali Region. For this purpose, soil samples and camu - camu were collected. The content of following macronutrients was a nalyzed: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium; also was determined the concentration of aluminum, pH, organic matter and ascorbic acid. The results show that the camu - camu plantations located in upland soils had lower concentrations of as corbic acid and lower natural fertility, than soils prone to flooding. Ascorbic acid is negatively related to the concentration of aluminum and positively to the concentration of magnesium and phosphorus in the camu - camu producing areas. It is concluded th at the concentration of ascorbic acid in camu - camu plants is best expressed when soils have better chemical attributes and good conditions of natural fertility .

  18. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E ACEITABILIDADE DE BARRAS DE CEREAIS ADICIONADAS DE PROTEÍNA TEXTURIZADA DE SOJA E CAMU - CAMU (MYRCIARIA DÚBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Paz PEUCKERT

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A associação entre barras de cereais e alimentos saudáveis é uma tendência no setor de alimentos, beneficiando assim, o mercado desses produtos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo a elaboração e análise sensorial de barra de cereal adicionada de proteína de soja e camu-camu (Myrciaria dúbia. Avaliou-se a composição química (umidade, proteínas, lipídios, fi bra bruta, cinzas e carboidratos e o teor de vitamina C da fruta e da barra elaborada, além de efetuar-se análise sensorial e determinação do valor calórico da barra. As análises de pH, acidez e °Brix foram realizadas somente na fruta. A barra de cereal apresentou resultados de 12,24% de umidade, 6% de lipídios, 1,75% de fi bra, 3,06% de cinzas, 17,1% e 59,95% de proteínas e carboidrato, respectivamente, além de um aporte calórico de 361,8kcal/100g e um teor de vitamina C de 57,23mg%. O produto ainda apresentou boa aceitabilidade em todos os atributos sensoriais (cor, aparência, sabor e textura, os quais foram considerados similares às barras de cereais industrializadas, com alta aceitabilidade global e resultado satisfatório na pesquisa de mercado, demonstrando ser um produto com grande potencial.

  19. Post-harvest conservation of camu–camu fruits (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh using different temperatures and packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza GRIGIO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The camu-camu tree (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh is fruit-bearing tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae. This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the type of storage temperature and package which allow better conservation of the quality attributes of camu-camu. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized with three replications in a factorial arrangement (3x3x8, constituted of three different storage temperatures (laboratory ambiente or 25 ± 2 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C, three types of packages (no package, PET and PVC and fourteen days’ storage, the fruits being analyzed every two days. The fruits were evaluated as to fresh mass loss, pH, soluble solids contents, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, anthocyanins, chlorophylls A and B and maturation index (SS/AT. According to the results obtained, the quality attributes and ascorbic acid content were conserved for longer time in the fruits stored on PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene trays at 15 °C. It follows that the best temperature for the storage of camu-camu is 15 °C and the package that best keeps its quality attributes is the PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene tray.

  20. Influência do tamanho da semente na germinação e vigor de plântulas de populações de Camu-Camu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olisson Mesquita Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Camu - camu ( Myr ciaria dubia is a fruit species native to the Amazon and its economic importance is proven because the fruit contains high content of ascorbic acid. The objective of this work was to evaluate the germination and vigor of seedlings obtained from seeds of d ifferent sizes of two camu - camu populations. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme of 2 x 3 (two provenances river Anauá and river Urubu and three seed sizes, small, medium and large with 5 replicates of 20 seeds per plot . The seeds of the origin of the Anauá river presented higher mass (1.46 g compared to the origin of the Urubu river (0.78 g. The speed and emergence of seed germination presented better values for the population of the Anauá river, justifying the adopti on of choice of origin for the formation of seedlings. For root length, dry shoot mass and dry mass of the root system, the seeds classified as medium and large originated from the Anauá river presented higher values. The size of the seeds is an important character to be used in the production of Myrciaria dubia seedlings. The seeds of the origin of the Anauá river are potentially more vigorous are indicate for the production of camu - camu ( Myrciaria dubia seedlings.

  1. Determinación de la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá y Myrcyaria dubia HBK (camu-camu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman Gonzáles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinó diariamente la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá  y Myrcyaria dubia  HBK (camu-camu a temperaturas de 10, 20 y 28°C, utilizando un respirómetro construido en el laboratorio. Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh, mostró un comportamiento climatérico, debido a su elevada tasa respiratoria y la presencia de picos climatéricos que coincidieron con el inicio de la maduración sensorial. Las tasas respiratorias registradas en los picos climatéricos fueron de 91,87 mgCO2/kg.h a los 21 días de almacenamiento a 10°C, 116,82 mgCO2/kg.h a los 7 días de almacenamiento a 20°C y 125,74 mgCO2/kg.h a los 5 días de almacenamiento a 28°C, respectivamente. Fue establecido que Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh a bajas temperaturas presenta menores tasas de respiración, prolongando de esta manera su vida comercial  a 10°C  hasta 3 semanas acompañado de óptimas características organolépticas, mientras que a temperaturas más altas como 20 y 28°C la vida comercial del producto desciende a 7 y 5 días respectivamente. Del mismo modo fue estudiado Myrcyaria dubia HBK el cual mostró un comportamiento no climatérico con bajas tasas de producción de CO2 con tendencia decreciente en el tiempo y ausencia de picos climatéricos. Cuando fue sometido a una temperatura de 10°C, la tasa de respiración alcanzó 12 mgCO2/kg.h, a los 20 días. El almacenamiento a mayores temperaturas como 20 y 28°C produjo un incremento en la tasa respiratoria de más del 200% alcanzando valores de 47 y 51 mgCO2/kg.h al 10° y 7° día respectivamente.

  2. Determinación de la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá y Myrcyaria dubia HBK (camu-camu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman Gonzáles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinó diariamente la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá y Myrcyaria dubia HBK (camu-camu a temperaturas de 10, 20 y 28°C, utilizando un respirómetro construido en el laboratorio. Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh, mostró un comportamiento climatérico, debido a su elevada tasa respiratoria y la presencia de picos climatéricos que coincidieron con el inicio de la maduración sensorial. Las tasas respiratorias registradas en los picos climatéricos fueron de 91,87 mgCO2/kg.h a los 21 días de almacenamiento a 10°C, 116,82 mgCO2/kg.h a los 7 días de almacenamiento a 20°C y 125,74 mgCO2/kg.h a los 5 días de almacenamiento a 28°C, respectivamente. Fue establecido que Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh a bajas temperaturas presenta menores tasas de respiración, prolongando de esta manera su vida comercial a 10°C hasta 3 semanas acompañado de óptimas características organolépticas, mientras que a temperaturas más altas como 20 y 28°C la vida comercial del producto desciende a 7 y 5 días respectivamente. Del mismo modo fue estudiado Myrcyaria dubia HBK el cual mostró un comportamiento no climatérico con bajas tasas de producción de CO2 con tendencia decreciente en el tiempo y ausencia de picos climatéricos. Cuando fue sometido a una temperatura de 10°C, la tasa de respiración alcanzó 12 mgCO2/kg.h, a los 20 días. El almacenamiento a mayores temperaturas como 20 y 28°C produjo un incremento en la tasa respiratoria de más del 200% alcanzando valores de 47 y 51 mgCO2/kg.h al 10° y 7° día respectivamente.

  3. Eficacia tópica de Myrciaria dubia en la curación de quemaduras de segundo grado en ratas Holtzman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Pacci-Salazar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo, Comparar el efecto de la crema a base de Myrciaria dubia con el efecto antibiótico de la crema de sulfadiazina argéntica. Diseño, El presente es un estudio experimental aleatorizado incompleto. Participantes, 15 ratas Holtzman hembras de 9-10 semanas a las cuales se les produjo quemaduras de segundo grado. Intervenciones, Se produjo una quemadura cuadrada de 1cm2 de piel del dorso de las ratas usando un cautín modificado para producir tres quemaduras térmicas por cada animal. Se seleccionó aleatoriamente la herida para cada tratamiento. Principales medidas de resultados, La crema a base de camu-camu se elabora con una extracción etanólica al 5% para mezclarla con Sepigel 350® a una concentración de 5%. Las heridas recibieron administración cada doce horas durante cinco días. Resultados, El promedio de la reducción de la cicatriz en el grupo camu-camu es de 69,4 ± 52,85, mientras que en el grupo sulfadiazina argéntica es de 69,26 ± 53,66. Microscópicamente se observó similar infiltración leucocitaria en la dermis y en el estrato seroso en los grupos camu-camu y sulfadiazina argéntica, y ambas fueron menores que en la del grupo control. Utilizando la prueba ANOVA, se observó que, a pesar de que la cantidad de fibroblastos en el grupo camu-camu era ligeramente mayor que en la de sulfadiazina argéntica, la diferencia no era estadísticamente significativa. Conclusiones, La presencia de epidermis en el grupo Camu-Camu, a diferencia de los demás grupos, se puede deber a una mayor de activación de células basales o a una detención de los procesos oxidativos debido a la propiedad antioxidante de este fruto.

  4. Produção, caracterização e aceitabilidade de licor de camu-camu (Myrciaria dúbia (H.B.K. McVaugh
    Production, characterization and acceptability camu-camu (Myrciaria dúbia (H.B.K McVaugh liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. ROSA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar um licor de camu-camu como alternativa para o aproveitamento desse fruto, que apresenta boas características agronômicas, tecnológicas e nutricionais, sendo pouco consumido in natura devido à elevada acidez e amargor de sua casca. Para a elaboração do licor, foi utilizado como matéria-prima o fruto de camu-camu (adquirido em uma empresa de São Paulo, álcool de cereais e xarope de açúcar. Os frutos sem as sementes foram macerados juntamente com o álcool de cereais por sete dias. Após esse processo, foram fi ltrados e adicionados à calda, tornando-se um licor com 33° Brix e teor alcoólico fi nal de 18%. Foram realizadas as análises de pH, acidez, sólidos solúveis e vitamina C dos frutos e do licor, e teor alcoólico pelo aparelho eletrônico de destilação Gibertini do licor. Para a determinação dos principais atributos sensoriais, aplicou-se o teste afetivo de aceitação com 47 provadores não treinados. O teste foi aplicado em cabines individuais utilizando a escala hedônica de cinco pontos para avaliar os atributos cor, odor e sabor. O camu-camu apresentou boas características para o processamento de licor, com o pH baixo, alto teor de acidez e boa aceitabilidade.

  5. Avaliação da estabilidade das antocianinas presentes na casca do fruto camu-camu (Myrciaria dúbia) em matrizes a base de amido e gelatina

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Corat

    2016-01-01

    O interesse em buscar fontes naturais para compostos antioxidantes aumentou os estudos sobre frutas, principalmente referente a presença das antocianinas. O camu-camu é um fruto oriundo da região amazônica que vem ganhando destaque nas indústrias de cosméticos, medicamento e alimentos por ser uma fonte rica em antocianinas, ácido ascórbico e minerais. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a incorporação das antocianinas presentes na casca do camu-camu em filmes de desintegração oral à base de ge...

  6. Longevidade de sementes de camu-camu submetidas a diferentes ambientes e formas de conservação Longevity camu-camu seeds submitted to different storage environment and forms of conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Yuyama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh produz fruto com grande potencial para extração de ácido ascórbico, que apresenta relevante importância econômica e social, com inúmeras aplicações industriais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes formas de conservação e ambientes de armazenamento, sobre a manutenção da viabilidade das sementes. O delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, utilizando parcelas subsubdivididas, onde os fatores foram: ambiente de armazenamento (ao ar livre, em água, em câmara a 5 e a 10 ºC, forma de conservação (sementes com polpa - CP, sementes sem polpa - SP e sementes lavadas e tratadas - LT e período de armazenamento (0; 2; 4 e 6 meses. O critério de avaliação adotado foi a protrusão da raiz primária. As sementes armazenadas em água, nas formas SP e LT, apresentaram germinação maior que 90%. As sementes nas formas CP e LT, armazenadas a 5 e a 10 ºC, tiveram germinação acima de 89%. O armazenamento em água e ao ar livre não afetou a germinação, podendo as sementes serem armazenadas durante o período de seis e quatro meses, respectivamente. As sementes CP, armazenadas em água, tiveram menor tempo médio para germinação. O índice de velocidade de germinação aumentou com o período de armazenamento e foi maior nas sementes armazenadas na água em todos os períodos. As sementes com polpa apresentaram menor índice de velocidade de germinação em todo o período de armazenamento avaliado.Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh contains great potential for ascorbic acid extraction, which has economic and social importance, with innumerable industrial applications. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different storage environment and forms of conservation for maintaining the viability of camu-camu seeds. The experimental design was randomized blocks design in split split-plot, with the following factors: storage conditions

  7. Mejoramiento genético y taza de autofecundación del Camu Camu arbustivo en la Amazonía Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Oliva Cruz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El camu camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. MC VAUGH es una frutera silvestre conocida mundialmente como un excepcional productor de vitamina C. Su mejoramiento se encuentra en fase inicial. Este trabajo tuvo por objetivos estudiar el sistema reproductivo (taza de autofecundación, el efecto del origen del polen (autofecundación o polinización abierta en la producción de ácido ascórbico y porcentaje de germinación, la repetibilidad de caracteres productivos y sus implicaciones en el programa de mejoramiento. El sistema reproductivo del camu camu es mixto con variables tazas de autofecundación. No fue confirmada la existencia de efecto del origen del polen para el carácter de producción de ácido ascórbico. La repetibilidad individual de la producción fue de moderada magnitud (0.41; la repetibilidad del promedio de 5 cosechas de fruta fue de 0.77, propiciando exactitud selectiva de 0.88. Genotipos superiores pueden ser seleccionados con precisión y, por lo tanto, cinco a seis cosechas por planta es un número adecuado. La selección y clonación de los diez mejores individuos deberá propiciar una ganancia genética del 237.5 %, elevando la productividad media anual de frutas por planta de 7.75 para 26.17 kg/año.

  8. Capacidad de enraizamiento de plantas matrices promisorias de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh en cámaras de subirrigación¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto Rodríguez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Camu camu es una fruta nativa de la Amazonía, que llama la atención por el alto contenido de vitamina C (6,116 mg/ 100 g de pulpa, está en proceso de domesticación, por lo cual se está investigando un método de propagación vegetativa que permita avanzar en el proceso de mejoramiento genético. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad rizogénica de plantas matrices promisorias de camu camu "Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh" según el aumento del número de hojas, mediante la técnica de estacas herbáceas en cámaras de subirrigación. El ensayo fue conducido mediante un Diseño de Bloques Completamente al Azar (DBCA con arreglo factorial 9Ax3B, con 3 repeticiones y 15 estacas por unidad experimental. El factor A, estuvo constituido por nueve plantas matrices y el factor B: pares de hojas con 3 niveles: 1; 2 y 3 pares. El enraizamiento fue evaluado después de 90 días. Se observó que existió interacción estadística significativa para las variables: porcentaje de enraizamiento, longitud y número de raíces. Para las variables porcentaje de callo y porcentaje de mortalidad se encontró efecto de la planta matriz y pares de hojas. Los resultados muestran que el porcentaje de enraizamiento estuvo influenciado por efectos intrínsecos adherentes a la variabilidad genotípica de las plantas matrices, presentando un alto grado de dispersión, que osciló entre 91,11 % y 0,00 %, mostrando una alta variabilidad y marcada influencia de la planta matriz sobre el proceso de rizogénesis, influyendo de manera altamente significativa en el enraizamiento. Con respecto al área foliar, estacas con 2 y 3 pares de hojas, independiente de la planta matriz, presentaron mayor capacidad de enraizamiento. Con base en estos resultados se concluye que el efecto de la variabilidad genotípica y el área foliar influyen de manera altamente significativa en el proceso de rizogénesis de estacas herbáceas de camu camu.

  9. Avances de investigación para la propagación vegetativa por cultivo in vitro de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh “camu camu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pinedo Freyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo fue realizado en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos Vegetales de la Estación Experimental Agraria San Roque, del INIA Loreto con el objetivo de establecer un protocolo para el cultivo in vitro de segmentos nodales de camu camu" Myrciaria dubia " (H.B.K Mc Vaugh. La fuente de material vegetal, fueron ramas de la parte apical de plantas adultas de la Colección Nacional de camu camu del INIA Loreto, se realizaron ensayos de desinfección, medios de cultivo y diferentes concentraciones de hormonas. El medio de cultivo utilizado fue Murashige & Skoog, MS 1962; más factores constantes 20 g/L sacarosa, 0,25 g/L carbón activado, 7 g/L agar y pH 5,7. Los tratamientos de desinfección que presentaron los mayores porcentajes (100% de supervivencia de segmentos nodales, fueron: Hipoclorito 0.3%  + Chupadera 1 g/L en M&S, M&S ½ y M&S + AIB y Hipoclorito 0,5%  + Chupadera 2 g/L en M&S, M&S ½ y M&S + AIB. El mejor medio de cultivo para la fase de crecimiento in vitro fue M&S + 1,5 mg/L GA3 + 10 mg/L AIA con 72% de supervivencia a los 45 días después de la siembra. El mejor medio de cultivo para la fase de multiplicación fue M&S + 2,5 mg/L BAP + 0,1 mg/L ANA con 80% de supervivencia a los 30 días después del subcultivo.

  10. Avances de investigación para la propagación vegetativa por cultivo in vitro de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh “camu camu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pinedo Freyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo fue realizado en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos Vegetales de la Estación Experimental Agraria San Roque, del INIA Loreto con el objetivo de establecer un protocolo para el cultivo in vitro de segmentos nodales de camu camu" Myrciaria dubia " (H.B.K Mc Vaugh. La fuente de material vegetal, fueron ramas de la parte apical de plantas adultas de la Colección Nacional de camu camu del INIA Loreto, se realizaron ensayos de desinfección, medios de cultivo y diferentes concentraciones de hormonas. El medio de cultivo utilizado fue Murashige & Skoog, MS 1962; más factores constantes 20 g/L sacarosa, 0,25 g/L carbón activado, 7 g/L agar y pH 5,7. Los tratamientos de desinfección que presentaron los mayores porcentajes (100% de supervivencia de segmentos nodales, fueron: Hipoclorito 0,3% + Chupadera 1 g/L en M&S, M&S ½ y M&S + AIB y Hipoclorito 0,5% + Chupadera 2 g/L en M&S, M&S ½ y M&S + AIB. El mejor medio de cultivo para la fase de crecimiento in vitro fue M&S + 1,5 mg/L GA3 + 10 mg/L AIA con 72% de supervivencia a los 45 días después de la siembra. El mejor medio de cultivo para la fase de multiplicación fue M&S + 2,5 mg/L BAP + 0,1 mg/L ANA con 80% de supervivencia a los 30 días después del subcultivo.

  11. Ponto de colheita e maturação de frutos de camu-camu colhidos em diferentes estádios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maria Pinto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o ponto de colheita e caracterizar a pós-colheita de frutos de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia colhidos em diferentes estádios de maturação. A colheita dos frutos foi realizada em quatro estádios de maturação, definidos pela cor da casca: verde, verde-avermelhada, vermelho-esverdeada e roxa. O armazenamento foi feito em câmaras de refrigeração a 22±1°C e 85±5% UR. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com cinco períodos de armazenamento: 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias. Foram avaliados: atividade respiratória; produção de etileno; coloração da casca verificada pelo ângulo de cor e coordenadas de cromaticidade a* e b*; firmeza; perda de massa de matéria fresca; teores de clorofilas, antocianinas, sólidos solúveis e ácido ascórbico; acidez titulável; e incidência de podridão. Os picos de produção de CO2 e etileno ocorreram após a colheita. Os teores de clorofilas e antocianinas variaram com a mudança na coloração da casca de verde para roxa, o que confirmou a maturação dos frutos. Os teores de ácido ascórbico variaram de 759,02 mg por 100 g, no estádio verde, a 1.071,12 mg por 100 g, no roxo. Os frutos colhidos totalmente roxos têm reduzida vida pós-colheita. A maior qualidade pós-colheita do camu-camu é obtida quando os frutos são colhidos com coloração vermelho-esverdeada.

  12. Effect of pruning height on the architecture of plants of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh in the experimental station of IIAP, Ucayali, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response camu camu’s plants in plantations initial undergoing training pruning, an experiment was installed in EE - IIAP-Ucayali, under a design randomized complete block, with 3 replications, making use of 20 plants per experimental unit. The pruning treatments were performing at different heights from the base of the stem, it was considered T0 [witness without pruning], T1 [pruning to 10 cm from the base], T2 [pruning to 20 cm from the base] and T3 [pruning to 40 cm from the base] in plants of known provenance. The investigation was directed to evaluate the number of shoots, shoot growth, plant height, basal diameter, crown diameter and number of branches. After of 9 months of evaluation was found significant differences between the variables except in top diameter. In the variable Height, treatment T0 [witness without pruning] outstanding because they were not pruned, among the remaining treatments has similarly behaved, surpassing the control treatment by 267 %. In addition to this, the basal diameter was found that T1 [pruning to 10 cm from the base] has a better performed with an average value of 1.96 cm compared with the control (1.7cm. The pruning had a positive influence in the number of branches, with an average of 13.4 branches compared with T0 that get 3.1 branches on average, its shows that the pruning can increased up the production of branches to 432.3%.

  13. Longevidade de sementes de camu-camu submetidas a diferentes ambientes e formas de conservação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Yuyama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh produz fruto com grande potencial para extração de ácido ascórbico, que apresenta relevante importância econômica e social, com inúmeras aplicações industriais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes formas de conservação e ambientes de armazenamento, sobre a manutenção da viabilidade das sementes. O delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, utilizando parcelas subsubdivididas, onde os fatores foram: ambiente de armazenamento (ao ar livre, em água, em câmara a 5 e a 10 ºC, forma de conservação (sementes com polpa - CP, sementes sem polpa - SP e sementes lavadas e tratadas - LT e período de armazenamento (0; 2; 4 e 6 meses. O critério de avaliação adotado foi a protrusão da raiz primária. As sementes armazenadas em água, nas formas SP e LT, apresentaram germinação maior que 90%. As sementes nas formas CP e LT, armazenadas a 5 e a 10 ºC, tiveram germinação acima de 89%. O armazenamento em água e ao ar livre não afetou a germinação, podendo as sementes serem armazenadas durante o período de seis e quatro meses, respectivamente. As sementes CP, armazenadas em água, tiveram menor tempo médio para germinação. O índice de velocidade de germinação aumentou com o período de armazenamento e foi maior nas sementes armazenadas na água em todos os períodos. As sementes com polpa apresentaram menor índice de velocidade de germinação em todo o período de armazenamento avaliado.

  14. Sostenibilidad de la oferta exportable del camu camu en la región Amazónica

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Sánchez, Miluska Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación titulada: “Sostenibilidad de la Oferta Exportable del Camu Camu de la Región Amazónica”; tiene como objetivo determinar si las condiciones actuales de producción y comercialización del Camu Camu garantizan la sostenibilidad de la oferta exportable del Camu Camu en el mercado internacional durante el periodo 2014-2018. Asimismo, esta investigación señala que el incremento de las áreas de cultivo del Camu Camu, la implementación de sistemas productivos con tecnología a...

  15. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  16. Report control Chrysomelids in the experimental field of camu-camu from Embrapa Roraima-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto Rodriguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Camu-camu is a native fruit tree of the Amazon, is highly value nutritious and great economic potential due to the high content of ascorbic acid (6112 mg/100 g present in fruits. Camu-camu, like any other plant, when it becomes cultivated outside their natural environment, loses its ecological balance and, consequently, is attacked by phytophagous and severe insect pests, which cause serious damage to the orchard. In this sense, the aim with this study, reporting the identification and control of insect pests in the cultivation of camu-camu, using different methods to attract and capture. It was observed that the best results were obtained in applying Neenmax®, followed by traps shading of black color screen, furthermore, higher occurrence of insects were recorded belonging to the family Chrysomelidae.

  17. Embebição e germinação de sementes de camu-camu = Imbibition and germination of camu-camu seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Baldo Geraldo Martins

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar o comportamento das sementes de camu-camu, quanto à germinação, em função da embebição, realizou-se o presente trabalho, utilizando-se sementes extraídas de frutos maduros, provenientes de plantas adultas. Os tratamentos consistiram em seis tempos de pré-embebição: 0 (testemunha, 4, 8, 12, 24 e 36 horas. Após cada período, as sementes foram colocadas em caixas tipo gerbox, tendo como substrato vermiculita textura fina, e mantidas em germinadores BOD à temperatura constante de 25ºC. Para cada tratamento foram realizadas 4 repetições com 25 sementes cada. Realizaram-se avaliações diárias do número de sementes germinadas, sendo os dados agrupados semanalmente e transformados em arc sen x / 100 para fins de análise estatística. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Pelos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a germinação das sementes de camu-camu não é influenciada pela embebição, bem como pelo período deste tratamento.This research was carried out aiming to verify the behavior of camu-camu seeds in their germination, according to imbibition periods. The seeds were extracted from ripe fruits of old plants. The treatments consisted of six preimbibition periods: 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 36 hours. After each period, the seeds were placed in gerbox, having vermiculite as substrate. They were maintained in a temperature of 25oC, in a germination chamber (BOD type. For each treatment, 4 replications with 25 seeds in each one were accomplished. Daily evaluations of the number of germinated seeds were done. The data were grouped weekly and they were transformed in arc sen x / 100 . The means were compared by the Tukey test (5% probability. Results showed that the germination of camu-camu seeds is not influenced by the imbibition, as well as by the period of this treatment.

  18. Prediction of the GC-MS Retention Indices for a Diverse Set of Terpenes as Constituent Components of Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK Mc Vaugh Volatile Oil, Using Particle Swarm Optimization-Multiple Linear Regression (PSO-MLR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohammadhosseini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A reliable quantitative structure retention relationship (QSRR study has been evaluated to predict the retention indices (RIs of a broad spectrum of compounds, namely 118 non-linear, cyclic and heterocyclic terpenoids (both saturated and unsaturated, on an HP-5MS fused silica column. A principal component analysis showed that seven compounds lay outside of the main cluster. After elimination of the outliers, the data set was divided into training and test sets involving 80 and 28 compounds. The method was tested by application of the particle swarm optimization (PSO method to find the most effective molecular descriptors, followed by multiple linear regressions (MLR. The PSO-MLR model was further confirmed through “leave one out cross validation” (LOO-CV and “leave group out cross validation” (LGO-CV, as well as external validations. The promising statistical figures of merit associated with the proposed model (R2train=0.936, Q2LOO=0.928, Q2LGO=0.921, F=376.4 confirm its high ability to predict RIs with negligible relative errors of predictions (REP train=4.8%, REP test=6.0%.

  19. Comercialización y consumo de camu-camu, caso: comedores populares de San Juan de Lurigancho

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Valle, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Agronegocios El presente estudio se realizó en el distrito de Yarinacocha, provincia de Cayería, departamento de Ucayali entre 2007-2010, participaron productores de camu camu (Ucayali) y comensales de comedores populares (Lima), los parámetros fueron evolución del precio en chacra, rentabilidades esperadas, cantidades ofertadas y demandadas. El propósito fue evaluar un sistema de comercialización del camu camu desde ...

  20. Correlation and heritability Analysis in the genetic improvement of camu-camu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pinedo Panduro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Peru and Brazil have been made between 2002 and 2011, correlation and heritability in search of tools for genetic improvement of camu-camu. We studied basic collections, comparative and progeny clones exist in the INIA, IIAP and INPA. The length of petiole (LP, has a half heritability (in the broad sense of h2 g = 0.42 and correlation coefficients of r2 = 0.37 with fruit yield and r2 = 0.54 with fruit weight. Basal branch number (NRB also shows levels of heritability average (in the strict sense: h2 a = 0.45 and h2 g = 0.33 in the broad sense. NRB in turn significantly correlated with fruit yield (RF (r2 = 0.43, fruit weight (FW (r2 = 0.38 and ascorbic acid (AA (r2 =- 0.30. The values of pH and soluble solids (degrees Brix of the pulp showed a high correlation with AA (r2 = 0.85 and r2 = 0.94 respectively. In light of the information correlation and heritability, we emphasize that the parameters "number of basal branches", "petiole length" and "fruit weight" and present a relatively high correlation with "yield fruit" also have a level intermediate heritability, which qualify them as important tools for the selection of superior plants camu-camu

  1. Ciclo de vida y aspectos poblacionales de Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) chinche del fruto del camu camu (Myrtaceae) en zona de restinga, Ucayali, Perú Life cycle and population aspects of camu camu fruit stink bug Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in restinga zone, Ucayali, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    José Iannacone; Diana Perez; Alfredo Tueros

    2007-01-01

    El camu camu es uno de los frutales nativos con gran potencial económico para la agroindustria y agro exportación. Edessa es una de las plagas del camu camu que provoca sequedad en los brotes, y en los frutos una mancha decolorada con círculos concéntricos bien marcados y un punto central al alimentarse. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el ciclo biológico bajo condiciones de laboratorio y la fluctuación poblacional de Edessa aff. aulacosterna "Chinche del fruto del camu camu" d...

  2. Teor de vitamina C e características físicas do camu-camu em dois estádios de maturação

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Rita de Cássia Pereira de

    2011-01-01

    O Camu-Camu é uma das frutas amazônicas que está merecendo atenção pelos teores de vitamina C e sua introdução recente nos mercados mundiais. Desperta interesse de setores industriais como fármaco, cosmético, conservante natural, alimentício e da casca extrai-se corante natural (antocianinas). Considerando a importância do camu-camu como alimento, da vitamina C na dieta humana, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o teor de vitamina C em frutos de camu-camu colhidos em...

  3. Ciclo de vida y aspectos poblacionales de Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) chinche del fruto del camu camu (Myrtaceae) en zona de restinga, Ucayali, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacone, José; Perez, Diana; Tueros, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    El camu camu es uno de los frutales nativos con gran potencial económico para la agroindustria y agro exportación. Edessa es una de las plagas del camu camu que provoca sequedad en los brotes, y en los frutos una mancha decolorada con círculos concéntricos bien marcados y un punto central al alimentarse. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el ciclo biológico bajo condiciones de laboratorio y la fluctuación poblacional de Edessa aff. aulacosterna "Chinche del fruto del camu camu" d...

  4. Teor de vitamina C e características físicas do camu-camu em dois estádios de maturação. = Physical characteristics and C vitamin content of Camu-camu two maturation phases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Smiderle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Camu-Camu é uma das frutas amazônicas que está merecendo atenção pelos teores de vitamina C e sua introdução recente nos mercados mundiais. Desperta interesse de setores industriais como fármaco, cosmético, conservante natural, alimentício e da casca extrai-se corante natural (antocianinas. Considerando a importância do camu-camu como alimento, da vitamina C na dita humana, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o teor de vitamina C em frutos de camu-camu colhidos em Roraima, em dois estádios de maturação. Frutos colhidos manualmente, em dois estádios dematuração (maduros e imaturos foram avaliados quanto ao peso médio de frutos, número de sementes por fruto, rendimento de polpa e teor de vitamina C. O camu-camu é uma fruta com potencial de aproveitamento como fonte natural de vitamina C e os dois estádios de maturação, não diferem quanto ao teor de vitamina C. = Camu-camu is an of Amazonian fruit deserv attention due to its contents of C vitamin and its recent introduction into the world market. Camu-camu invokes the interests of industrial sectors such as pharmaceutics,cosmetics, natural conservants, and the food industry, while a natural dye (antocianin can be the extracted from the skin. Due to the importance of camu-camu as food, vitamin C of the human diet, the present study at its objective the determination of the vitamin C content of camu-camu fruits harvested in Roraima, from two maturation phases. Mature and immature manually harvested fruits were assessed according to average weights of fruit, the number ofseeds per fruit, pulp yield, and the percentage of C vitamin. Camu-camu is a fruit of useful potentially as a natural source of C vitamin and there were no differences between the two maturation phases relative to the amuont of vitamin C.

  5. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial and leishmanicidal potential of Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Carolina de Sena Correia

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malaria and leishmaniasis are prevalent in tropical regions, which have environmental characteristics that are highly favorable to protozoa and vectors of these diseases; the transmission of these infections in sub-tropical regions, although recognized, represents only a small fraction of cases. Plants are constantly being used in the search for and acquisition of new drugs, and many compounds derived from them have been used to combat various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the action of the dichloromethanolic extract of Myrciaria dubia leaves against the protozoa Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis, and Leishmania chagasi through bioassays. METHODS The extract from M. dubia was tested for its anti-P. falciparum activity in an anti-histidine-rich protein II immunosorbent assay. The antileishmanial assays were performed using the resazurin method, while cytotoxicity against human hepatoma (HepG2 strain was determined using the colorimetric MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2- thiazolyl-2, 5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide] method. RESULTS The M. dubia extract presented a half-maximal inhibitory concentration equal to 2.35 (1.05μg/mL for P. falciparum, 190.73 (6.41 μg/mL for L. amazonensis, and greater than equal to 200µg/mL for L. chagasi and L. braziliensis strains. The cytotoxic concentration for 50% of the cells was above 500μg/mL for HepG2, indicating no toxicity and greater selectivity against parasites. CONCLUSIONS The results obtained indicate the presence of antiplasmodial and leishmanicidal bioactive compounds in the dichloromethanolic extracts of M. dubia leaves, and point towards future studies to elucidate the mechanism of action for each physiological effect.

  6. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial and leishmanicidal potential of Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Vanessa Carolina de Sena; Lima, Nathália Oliveira; Oliveira, Flávio Augusto de Souza; Santos, Ana Paula de Azevedo Dos; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Oliveira, Waldesse Piragé de; Pimenta, And Raphael Sanzio

    2016-01-01

    Malaria and leishmaniasis are prevalent in tropical regions, which have environmental characteristics that are highly favorable to protozoa and vectors of these diseases; the transmission of these infections in sub-tropical regions, although recognized, represents only a small fraction of cases. Plants are constantly being used in the search for and acquisition of new drugs, and many compounds derived from them have been used to combat various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the action of the dichloromethanolic extract of Myrciaria dubia leaves against the protozoa Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis, and Leishmania chagasi through bioassays. The extract from M. dubia was tested for its anti-P. falciparum activity in an anti-histidine-rich protein II immunosorbent assay. The antileishmanial assays were performed using the resazurin method, while cytotoxicity against human hepatoma (HepG2) strain was determined using the colorimetric MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2- thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide] method. The M. dubia extract presented a half-maximal inhibitory concentration equal to 2.35 (1.05)μg/mL for P. falciparum, 190.73 (6.41) μg/mL for L. amazonensis, and greater than equal to 200µg/mL for L. chagasi and L. braziliensis strains. The cytotoxic concentration for 50% of the cells was above 500μg/mL for HepG2, indicating no toxicity and greater selectivity against parasites. The results obtained indicate the presence of antiplasmodial and leishmanicidal bioactive compounds in the dichloromethanolic extracts of M. dubia leaves, and point towards future studies to elucidate the mechanism of action for each physiological effect.

  7. Comprimento de estaca de camu-camu com ácido indolbutírico para a formação de mudas Large cuttings of camu-camu with indolebutyric acid for clonal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Paul Mathews Delgado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O fruto do camu-camu chama a atenção pelo alto teor de vitamina C (877 a 6.116 mg/100 g de polpa. A propagação normalmente é por semente, que proporciona segregação em diferentes características de interesse comercial, enquanto a propagação vegetativa permite obter plantas de melhor uniformidade. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico - AIB (0 e 200 mg L-1, no enraizamento de estacas provenientes de ramos juvenis de camu-camu (5; 10 e 20 cm de comprimento, com 2 a 3 cm de diâmetro. As estacas de 20 cm de comprimento com aplicação de AIB são indicadas para a produção de mudas, cujo índice atinge 50% de mudas formadas (brotos + raiz. A utilização de AIB produziu um efeito positivo no desenvolvimento do número e comprimento de raízes. O índice de estacas enraizadas foi de 58% com a utilização de AIB e de 5% sem AIB. Efeito negativo foi observado em relação ao número de brotos (com AIB: 1,0; sem AIB: 1,8 e estacas brotadas (com AIB: 22%, sem AIB: 49%. As estacas de 20 cm de comprimento comportam-se positivamente no número de brotos por estaca (2,0 e estacas brotadas (55%, em relação às estacas de 10 cm com 1,1 broto e 33%, e 5 cm com 1,1 broto e 19%.The fruit of camu-camu is attractive because of its high vitamin C content (877 to 6113 mg/100 g of pulp. Its propagation normally is by seed, which segregate for different characteristics of commercial interest; hence a vegetative propagation method would allow better uniformity. This study evaluated the effect of indolebutyric acid - AIB (0 and 200 mg L-1 on the rooting of young branches of camu-camu (5, 10 and 20 cm in length and 2 to 3 cm in diameter. The 20 cm long cuttings with AIB application were most appropriate for production of camu-camu clones, with 50% successfully formed (sprouts + root. AIB had a positive effect in the development of root number (with AIB - 12; without AIB - 1, root length (with AIB - 11 cm; without AIB - 4 cm

  8. Fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu”

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Correa Meléndez; Marianela Cobos Ruiz; Roberson Ramírez Saavedra; Sixto Imán Correa; Juan Castro Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia “camu camu” es un frutal del trópico amazónico caracterizado por sus frutos con gran contenido de vitamina C, siendo considerado un producto importante del país. Sin embargo, hay pocos reportes sobre el metabolismo y transporte de vitamina C en esta especie. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de M. dubia “camu camu”. Las hojas se colectaron de la colección de germoplasma de “camu camu” del INIA a las 2, 6, ...

  9. Teor de vitamina C, β-caroteno e minerais em camu-camu cultivado em diferentes ambientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ferreira de Araujo Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tipo de cultivo (ambiente seco e alagado sobre o teor de vitamina C, β-caroteno e minerais (cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, zinco, ferro, manganês, cobre, boro, nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio de camu-camu. As vitaminas citadas foram determinadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, enquanto que os minerais cálcio, magnésio, zinco, cobre, manganês e ferro por espectrometria de absorção atômica, o potássio por fotometria de chama e o fósforo, boro e enxofre por espectrofotometria, nos comprimentos de onda 725 e 420nm, respectivamente. O fruto cultivado em ambiente seco apresentou maior (P0,05 em função dos diferentes ambientes.

  10. Producción de plantas de camu camu con diferentes sustratos orgánicos en camas de vivero convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue verificar el desarrollo inicial de plantones de camu camu con diferentes sustratos orgánicos en camas de vivero convencional con riego por microaspersión y manejo de sombra con malla Chromatine® color rojo con 50% de luz. Se utilizó material genético proveniente de plantas madre del Banco de Germoplasma de camu camu del INIA-Iquitos, las semillas fueron germinadas en aserrín descompuesto y mantenidas por un periodo de 40 días, luego se realizó el repicado con 10 cm de altura en los diferentes sustratos según los tratamientos en camas de vivero con dimensiones de 1,20 m de ancho x 10 m de largo y con una profundidad de 30 cm. Después de realizar las evaluaciones de altura (cm y diámetro basal (mm durante un periodo de 120 días, se encontró que el sustrato gallinaza se consolida como el sustrato de mayor eficiencia en el desarrollo de plantas de camu camu seguido por el sustrato humus de lombriz.

  11. AISLAMIENTO DE ADN GENÓMICO DE Myrciaria dubia (HBK “CAMU CAMU” APROPIADO PARA ANÁLISIS MOLECULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castro Gómez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”, una especie nativa de la Amazonía que produce frutos con alto contenido de vitamina C y otras sustancias importantes. Sin embargo, los estudios moleculares de esta planta son escasos, por falta de un protocolo reproducible para purificar sus ácidos nucléicos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer un protocolo para aislar el ADN genómico a partir de hojas de M. dubia, apropiado para análisis moleculares. El ADN se purificó con un protocolo modificado, la calidad y cantidad se estimó por espectrofotometría y electroforesis en gel de agarosa. Adicionalmente, la calidad se evaluó mediante RAPD. El ratio de calidad (A260/A280 promedio del ADN fue 1.9±0.1 y el espectro de absorción UV/Vis presentó un único pico de máxima absorbancia a 260nm. Mediante electroforesis el ADN fue íntegro y sin ARN. También, la síntesis de amplicones RAPD nos sugiere ausencia de inhibidores para polimerasas. La concentración promedio del ADN fue 99±33 ng/ml y el rendimiento promedio fue 237±80 mg ADN/g hoja. En conclusión, se ha establecido un protocolo de aislamiento de ADN genómico a partir de hojas de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu”, caracterizado por permitirnos obtener ADN de alta calidad y cantidad suficiente para análisis moleculares como el RAPD.

  12. Ciclo de vida y aspectos poblacionales de Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae chinche del fruto del camu camu (Myrtaceae en zona de restinga, Ucayali, Perú Life cycle and population aspects of camu camu fruit stink bug Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in restinga zone, Ucayali, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El camu camu es uno de los frutales nativos con gran potencial económico para la agroindustria y agro exportación. Edessa es una de las plagas del camu camu que provoca sequedad en los brotes, y en los frutos una mancha decolorada con círculos concéntricos bien marcados y un punto central al alimentarse. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el ciclo biológico bajo condiciones de laboratorio y la fluctuación poblacional de Edessa aff. aulacosterna "Chinche del fruto del camu camu" durante enero a noviembre del 2004 en el cultivo de camu camu, en parcelas en desarrollo y producción ubicadas en áreas de restinga inundables en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. Se colectaron huevos, ninfas y adultos procedentes del distrito de Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú para iniciar la crianza artificial. El tiempo de duración del huevo al I estadio ninfal fue 5,1 días. Se encontró un 94,6% de eclosión de los huevos, variando entre 12 hasta 14 huevos por postura. El tiempo transcurrido desde el huevo hasta II estadío fue de 37,3 días y del III al V estadío ninfal fue de 81,9 días. El porcentaje de mortalidad del primer estadio ninfal a adulto fue de 98,1%. Los adultos colectados se localizaron preferentemente sobre las ramas y el tallo de la planta, mientras que las ninfas se encontraron en los brotes tiernos. Con relación a su fluctuación poblacional, solo se registró posturas a lo largo del año en parcelas en producción. No se encontraron diferencias entre ninfas I a V, y adultos de Edessa aff. aulacosterna, entre plantaciones en producción y desarrollo de camu camu. Solo se encontró diferencias entre la época seca y lluviosa en las ninfas de III a V estadio en las plantas de camu camu en desarrollo. Edessa aff. aulacosterna presentó mayormente una distribución contagiosa. El adecuado conocimiento de la bioecología nos permite mejorar la estrategia de control de esta plaga.Camu camu is one of the native fruits with a great

  13. Atmosfera modificada e refrigeração para conservação pós-colheita de camu-camu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Oliveirai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a conservação pós-colheita de camu-camu, utilizando a refrigeração e a atmosfera modificada propiciada pelos filmes de policloreto de vinila (PVC e polipropileno biaxialmente orientado de 50µm espessura (BOPP50 e assim avaliar a durabilidade em relação ao controle (sem embalagem. Os frutos foram mantidos a 5±1°C e 90±2% de umidade relativa, durante 25 dias e avaliados a cada quatro dias de armazenamento quanto à firmeza, pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, ácido ascórbico, antocianinas, perda de massa e concentração de CO2 da atmosfera no interior da embalagem. O filme de BOPP50 mostrou não ser a melhor alternativa para a conservação de camu-camu, pois a sua baixa permeabilidade aos gases ocasionou o acúmulo de CO2 no interior da embalagem, propiciando o processo fermentativo dos frutos após 13 dias de armazenamento. Os atributos pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas não foram afetados pelos tipos de filmes utilizados, mas sim pelos dias de armazenamento. Os resultados mostraram que a utilização do filme de PVC, juntamente com refrigeração, para conservação pós-colheita de camu-camu, foi eficaz na manutenção da firmeza do fruto e na redução de perda de massa, mantendo os frutos comercialmente viáveis por 21 dias, enquanto o controle e os revestidos por BOPP50 se apresentaram inviáveis após 13 dias de armazenamento.

  14. Fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Correa Meléndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia “camu camu” es un frutal del trópico amazónico caracterizado por sus frutos con gran contenido de vitamina C, siendo considerado un producto importante del país. Sin embargo, hay pocos reportes sobre el metabolismo y transporte de vitamina C en esta especie. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de M. dubia “camu camu”. Las hojas se colectaron de la colección de germoplasma de “camu camu” del INIA a las 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 y 22 horas; de cuatro plantas y en tres fechas diferentes. La vitamina C fue extraída de las hojas con un método estandarizado en el laboratorio y se cuantificó mediante espectrofotometría a 530nm, previa reacción con 2,6-diclorofenolindofenol. Los resultados muestran que el contenido de vitamina C de las hojas de “camu camu” fue en promedio 231±35 mg vitamina C/100g de hoja. Además, el contenido de vitamina C en las hojas del “camu camu” mostró fluctuación diurna, siendo menor a las 6 horas y mayor a las 2 y 14 horas del día. También, se registraron concentraciones intermedias en horas de menor o ausencia de radiación solar (235±17 y 237±35 mg vitamina C/100g de hoja a las 18 y 22 horas respectivamente. Se concluye que existe alto contenido de vitamina C en las hojas del “camu camu” y que este contenido presenta fluctuación diurna.

  15. CLONACIÓN Y FILOGENIA MOLECULAR DE UN SEGMENTO DEL GEN CODANTE DE LA ACTINA DE MYRCIARIA DUBIA “CAMU-CAMU”: UN CANDIDATO PARA GEN DE REFERENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castro Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu” es un frutal amazónico caracterizado por su amplia variación de vitamina C. Pero los estudios genético moleculares que puedan explicar esta variación son limitados. Por ello nuestro objetivo fue realizar la clonación y filogenia molecular de un segmento del gen codante de la actina de M. dubia. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de la colección de germoplasma del INIA. Luego, el ARN fue purificado y mediante RT-PCR con cebadores degenerados se amplificó un segmento del gen. En base a la secuencia obtenida se diseñaron cebadores específicos para PCR en tiempo real. Los resultados muestran que se ha aislado, clonado y secuenciado un segmento del gen codante de actina de M. dubia y detectado su expresión en hojas, pulpa y cáscara de M. dubia. Así, con el soporte de herramientas bioinformáticas y uso de técnicas de biología molecular hemos aislado, clonado y secuenciado un segmento del gen codante de la actina de M. dubia. Asimismo, los análisis realizados muestran que el gen se expresa y presenta niveles similares de expresión en hojas, pulpa y cáscara de M. dubia. Sin embargo, es necesario realizar más experimentos a fin de verificar su estabilidad de expresión.

  16. INFLUENCIA DEL GENOTIPO Y TIPO DE INJERTO EN LA BROTACION DE Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K MC VAUGH “CAMU CAMU”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Richard Reátegui Salazar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El camu camu, es una especie frutal nativa, silvestre y cultivada de la región amazónica, cuya importancia radica en el alto contenido de vitamina C, antocianinas y compuestos fenólicos presentes en la pulpa y cáscara de sus frutos. El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en el Campo Experimental San Miguel, del INIA Loreto, con el objetivo de determinar la influencia del genotipo y el tipo de injerto en la brotación. Se evaluaron tres genotipos promisorios de camu camu (MD-014, MD-015 y MD-017 procedentes de la colección de germoplasma del INIA y tres tipos de injerto (astilla simple, astilla doble y púa; utilizándose como patrón plantones del genotipo MD-020, sobre los cuales se realizaron los injertos. La evaluación de la brotación se realizó a los 105 días después del injerto. Los resultados indican que el mejor tipo de injerto es el de púa, que obtuvo 85% de brotación y las mejores interacciones se lograron en los genotipos MD-017 y MD-015 con el injerto tipo púa; que alcanzaron 90% y 87.5% de brotación, respectivamente. Se concluyó que los mejores resultados se lograron cuando se combinaron el genotipo MD-017 con el injerto tipo púa.

  17. Permanencia en vivero del acodo aéreo de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu” y su efecto en la supervivencia en campo definitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gálvez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El camu camu, es una especie frutal nativa, silvestre y cultivada de la región amazónica, importante el alto contenido de vitamina C, antocianinas y compuestos fenólicos presentes en la pulpa y cáscara de sus frutos. Se propaga en forma convencional por semilla botánica, con la desventaja de producir plantaciones desuniformes producto de la alogamia que presenta la planta; sin embargo la propagación vegetativa se presenta como una alternativa que permite mantener el genotipo intacto y asegura el aprovechamiento del germoplasma valioso. El objetivo del trabajo, fue evaluar el tiempo de permanencia del acodo aéreo de camu camu en vivero, para obtener mayores porcentajes de supervivencia en campo definitivo. El experimento se ejecutó en el Campo Experimental “San Miguel” de la Estación Experimental Agraria San Roque del INIA. Los acodos aéreos fueron realizados en una plantación comercial del INIA, luego de enraizados, se separaron y se trasladaron a campo definitivo o a vivero de acuerdo con los tratamientos en estudio. El diseño utilizado fue de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones y cuatro niveles del factor tiempo (0, 1, 2 y 3 meses. La variable principal estudiada fue la supervivencia de los acodos trasplantados. El mejor tratamiento fue cuando el acodo aéreo permaneció 3 meses en vivero con 98,61% de supervivencia, a los 7 meses después del trasplante.

  18. Permanencia en vivero del acodo aéreo de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu” y su efecto en la supervivencia en campo definitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gálvez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El camu camu, es una especie frutal nativa, silvestre y cultivada de la región amazónica, importante el alto contenido de vitamina C, antocianinas y compuestos fenólicos presentes en la pulpa y cáscara de sus frutos. Se propaga en forma convencional por semilla botánica, con la desventaja de producir plantaciones desuniformes producto de la alogamia que presenta la planta; sin embargo, la propagación vegetativa se presenta como una alternativa que permite mantener el genotipo intacto y asegura el aprovechamiento del germoplasma valioso. El objetivo del trabajo, fue evaluar el tiempo de permanencia del acodo aéreo de camu camu en vivero, para obtener mayores porcentajes de supervivencia en campo definitivo. El experimento se ejecutó en el Campo Experimental “San Miguel” de la Estación Experimental Agraria San Roque del INIA. Los acodos aéreos fueron realizados en una plantación comercial del INIA, luego de enraizados, se separaron y se trasladaron a campo definitivo o a vivero de acuerdo con los tratamientos en estudio. El diseño utilizado fue de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones y cuatro niveles del factor tiempo (0, 1, 2 y 3 meses. La variable principal estudiada fue la supervivencia de los acodos trasplantados. El mejor tratamiento fue cuando el acodo aéreo permaneció 3 meses en vivero con 98,61% de supervivencia, a los 7 meses después del trasplante.

  19. Análisis de correlación y heredabilidad en el mejoramiento genético del camu-camu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pinedo Panduro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En Perú y Brasil se han efectuado entre los años 2002 y 2011, estudios de correlación y heredabilidad en la búsqueda de herramientas para el mejoramiento genético del camu-camu. Se pretende con este trabajo, sistematizar la información lograda que apunte a la consolidación de cr iterios para la selección de plantas superiores. Se estudiaron colecciones básicas, comparativos de clones y de progenies existentes en el INIA, IIAP e INPA. La longitud de pecíolo (LP, presenta una heredabilidad media (en el sentido amplio de h 2 g= 0.4 2 e índices de correlación de r 2 =0.37 con rendimiento de fruta y r 2 =0.54 con peso de fruta El Número de Ramas Basales (NRB también muestra niveles de heredabilidad media (en el sentido estricto: h 2 a=0.45 y h 2 g=0.33 en el sentido amplio. NRB a su vez c orrelaciona significativamente con rendimiento de fruta (RF (r 2 =0.43, peso de fruta (PF (r 2 =0.38 y con acido ascórbico (AA (r 2 = - 0.30. Los valores de pH y sólidos solubles (grados Brix de la pulpa, presentaron una correlación alta con AA (r 2 =0.85 y r 2 =0.94, respectivamente. A la luz de la información de correlación y heredabilidad, subrayamos que los parámetros “número de ramas basales”, “longitud de peciolo” y “peso de frutos” además de presentar una correlación relativamente alta con “rendimient o de fruta” tienen también un nivel intermedio de heredabilidad, lo que las cataloga como herramientas de importancia para la selección de plantas superiores de camu-camu.

  20. Seeds and plantlets of Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”: biometry, germination, and initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson E. Medina Bardales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to determine seed biometrics, recording cellular respiration in the imbibition process, evaluate the effect of inducing chemicals in germination and early growth analysis. Cellular respiration during imbibition was measured by reduction of methylene blue and Janus Green B. The inductor effect of five chemical compounds in germination was evaluated. Initial growth was recorded by stereoscopic. Results showed that the seeds have an average weight of 520 ± 172 mg, length of 13.50 ± 1.76 mm, width of 10.61 ± 1.14 mm, and thickness of 4.68 ± 0 62 mm. These variables showed significant correlations (r of 0.494 to 0.897 and p 90% and 65% respectively. Seedling initial growth consisted of six stages and occurred over a period of 22 days after radicle emergence. In conclusion, M. dubia seeds show wide variation in their biometrics (weight, length, width and thickness, but show significant correlations with each other. Likewise, seeds are metabolically active in imbibition process, and germination is induced by sodium nitrite and potassium cyanide. Furthermore, seedling initial growth to occur over a period of 22 days after emergence of the radicle and consists of six distinct stages.

  1. promisorios de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. “camu camu” para propagación vegetativa por acodo aéreo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Oliver Liao Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la ubicación y diámetro de la rama en tres genotipospromisorios de camu camu utilizando la técnica del acodo aéreo sobre el enraizamiento y brotación. Lasplantas madres fueron acodadas, posteriormente las ramas enraizadas se trasplantaron siguiendo el diseño deBloques Completos al Azar, con tres repeticiones. A los 3 meses del trasplante se realizó la evaluación de lasvariables, encontrando los mejores promedios para el Número de raíces al Tercio medio, Diámetro grueso,Genotipo MD-015 y al Tercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-015 con 28.67 y 28.33 raíces,respectivamente; en la variable Longitud de raíces el Tercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-015mostró los mejores resultados con 15.27 cm. Con respecto al Número de brotes el Tercio Superior, DiámetroGrueso, Genotipo MD-014 y el Tercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-015 alcanzaron los mejoresresultados con 13.00 y 12.67 brotes, respectivamente; en la Longitud de brotes, el mejor tratamiento fue elTercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-015 con 30.73 cm; finalmente en la variable Número dehojas/brote sobresalieron el Tercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-014 y Tercio superior, Diámetrogrueso, Genotipo MD-015 con 15.10 y 14.83 hojas por brote, respectivamente. Los resultados permitieronidentificar al Tercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-015 como los mejores en cuanto a la capacidadde enraizamiento y brotación.

  2. La expresión y actividad catalítica diferencial de GDP-manosa pirofosforilasa influye en la producción de vitamina C en Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castro Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia muestra una amplia variación en la producción de vitamina C (vit.C. Para entender las bases moleculares de esta variación, se determinó la relación del nivel de expresión genética y actividad de GDP-Manosa pirofosforilasa (GMP con la variación del contenido de vit.C en M. dubia. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de una colección de germoplasma. La vit.C se cuantificó por HPLC, la actividad de GMP se midió por espectrofotometría. El ARN se purificó, el ADNc se sintetizó, amplificó, clonó y secuenció con técnicas estándares. La expresión del gen se midió mediante PCR en tiempo real. Las diferencias en el contenido de vit.C de las hojas, pulpa y cáscara dependieron de la expresión y actividad de GMP. Esta relación también se observó entre plantas que producen frutos con bajo y alto contenido de vit.C. En conclusión, Las hojas, pulpa y cáscara de M. dubia muestran diferencias significativas en el contenido de vit.C, el cual se atribuye a la expresión y actividad catalítica diferencial de la GMP. Asimismo, las plantas que producen frutos con diferencias marcadas en el contenido de vit. C en sus pulpas, también dependen del nivel de expresión y actividad catalítica de esta enzima.

  3. La expresión y actividad catalítica diferencial de GDP-manosa pirofosforilasa influye en la producción de vitamina C en Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castro Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia muestra una amplia variación en la producción de vitamina C (vit.C. Para entender las bases moleculares de esta variación, se determinó la relación del nivel de expresión genética y actividad de GDP-Manosa pirofosforilasa (GMP con la variación del contenido de vit.C en M. dubia. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de una colección de germoplasma. La vit.C se cuantificó por HPLC, la actividad de GMP se midió por  espectrofotometría. El ARN se purificó, el ADNc se sintetizó, amplificó, clonó y secuenció con técnicas estándares. La expresión del gen se midió mediante PCR en tiempo real. Las diferencias en el contenido de vit.C de las hojas, pulpa y cáscara dependieron de la expresión y actividad de GMP. Esta relación también se observó entre plantas que producen frutos con bajo y alto contenido de vit.C. En conclusión, Las hojas, pulpa y cáscara de M. dubia muestran diferencias significativas en el contenido de vit.C, el cual se atribuye a la expresión y actividad catalítica diferencial de la GMP. Asimismo, las plantas que producen frutos con diferencias marcadas en el contenido de vit.C en sus pulpas, también dependen del nivel de expresión y actividad catalítica de esta enzima.

  4. Inducción de la biosíntesis local de antocianinas en frutos de Myrciaria dubia mediante lesiones mecánicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Motta-Santillán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En las plantas las antocianinas cumplen roles fundamentales en sus interacciones con el medio ambiente, son una de las líneas de defensa contra los radicales libres, la radiación ultravioleta y el ataque de patógenos. Observaciones realizadas muestran que los frutos de M. dubia acumulan antocianinas alrededor de lesiones mecánicas probablemente causadas por insectos. Por tanto, hemos probado la hipótesis que produciendo lesiones mecánicas en frutos verdes de M. dubia se induce la biosíntesis local de antocianinas. De tres plantas en fructificación de la colección de germoplasma del INIA se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 40 frutos verdes (25 ± 5 mm de Ø y se causaron lesiones mecánicas con estilete o bisturí al 75% de ellos. Posteriormente, se registró el porcentaje de acumulación de antocianinas por área superficial del fruto a las 0, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Se observó acumulación de antocianinas en ~10% (24 horas, ~30% (48 horas y ~70% (72 horas del área superficial de los frutos. En conclusión, las lesiones mecánicas causadas en frutos de M. dubia inducen la biosíntesis local de antocianinas, probablemente como un mecanismo de defensa efectivo desarrollado por esta especie. La comprensión de los mecanismos moleculares implicados en esta respuesta fisiológica nos permitirá establecer las bases para la mejora genética de esta especie.

  5. Inducción de la biosíntesis local de antocianinas en frutos de Myrciaria dubia mediante lesiones mecánicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Motta Santillán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En las plantas las antocianinas cumplen roles fundamentales en sus interacciones con el medio ambiente, son una de las líneas de defensa contra los radicales libres, la radiación ultravioleta y el ataque de patógenos. Observaciones realizadas muestran que los frutos de M. dubia acumulan antocianinas alrededor de lesiones mecánicas probablemente causadas por insectos. Por tanto, hemos probado la hipótesis que produciendo lesiones mecánicas en frutos verdes de M. dubia se induce la biosíntesis local de antocianinas. De tres plantas en fructificación de la colección de germoplasma del INIA se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 40 frutos verdes (25 ± 5 mm de Ø y se causaron lesiones mecánicas con estilete o bisturí al 75% de ellos. Posteriormente, se registró el porcentaje de acumulación de antocianinas por área superficial del fruto a las 0, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Se observó acumulación de antocianinas en ~10% (24 horas, ~30% (48 horas y ~70% (72 horas del área superficial de los frutos. En conclusión, las lesiones mecánicas causadas en frutos de M. dubia inducen la biosíntesis local de antocianinas, probablemente como un mecanismo de defensa efectivo desarrollado por esta especie. La comprensión de los mecanismos moleculares implicados en esta respuesta fisiológica nos permitirá establecer las bases para la mejora genética de esta especie.

  6. Semillas y plántulas de Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”: biometría, germinación y crecimiento inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson E. Medina Bardales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos planteados fueron determinar la biometría de las semillas, registrar la respiración celular en el proceso de imbibición, evaluar el efecto inductor de la germinación de compuestos químicos y analizar el crecimiento inicial. La respiración celular durante la imbibición se midió por reducción del azul de metileno y del Janus Green B. El efecto inductor de la germinación de cinco compuestos químicos fue evaluado. El crecimiento inicial se registró con estereoscopio. Los resultados mostraron que las semillas tienen en promedio un peso de 520±172 mg, largo de 13,50±1,76 mm, ancho de 10,61±1,14 mm y espesor de 4,68±0,62 mm. Estas variables mostraron correlaciones significativas (r de 0,494 a 0,897 y p 90% y 65% respectivamente. El crecimiento hasta plántula constó de seis etapas y ocurrió en un periodo de 22 días después del brote de la radícula. En conclusión, las semillas de M. dubia muestran una amplia variación en sus datos biométricos (peso, largo, ancho y espesor, pero muestran correlaciones significativas entre sí. Asimismo, las semillas son metabólicamente activas en el proceso de imbibición y su germinación es inducida por el nitrito de sodio y el cianuro de potasio. Además, el crecimiento inicial hasta plántula ocurre en un periodo de 22 días después del brote de la radícula y consta de seis etapas bien diferenciadas.

  7. Frutos tropicales como fuente de carotenoides: biosíntesis, composición, biodisponibilidad y efectos del procesamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Chacón Ordóñez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los carotenoides son compuestos sintetizados a partir del isopentenil difosfato y pueden ser encontrados en una gran diversidad de frutos. Estos pigmentos han sido de interés por sus beneficios en la salud y sus aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria. Existen muchos factores que pueden afectar su concentración y biodisponibilidad para el ser humano; entre ellas las condiciones de cultivo, el manejo poscosecha y el procesamiento que se les dé a los frutos antes de ser consumidos. Esta revisión se enfoca en los conocimientos actuales sobre aspectos relevantes de los carotenoides en diferentes frutos tropicales como la acerola (Malpighia sp., camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia, mango (Mangifera indica, naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, papaya (Carica papaya, pitanga (Eugenia uniflora, pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata y zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota, para presentar el estado del conocimiento y recomendar aspectos importantes para futuras investigaciones en este campo.

  8. Frutos tropicales como fuente de carotenoides: biosíntesis, composición, biodisponibilidad y efectos del procesamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Chacón Ordóñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los carotenoides son compuestos sintetizados a partir del isopentenil difosfato y pueden ser encontrados en una gran diversidad de frutos. Estos pigmentos han sido de interés por sus beneficios en la salud y sus aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria. Existen muchos factores que pueden afectar su concentración y biodisponibilidad para el ser humano; entre ellas las condiciones de cultivo, el manejo poscosecha y el procesamiento que se les dé a los frutos antes de ser consumidos. Esta revisión se enfoca en los conocimientos actuales sobre aspectos relevantes de los carotenoides en diferentes frutos tropicales como la acerola (Malpighia sp., camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia, mango (Mangifera indica, naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, papaya (Carica papaya, pitanga (Eugenia uniflora, pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata y zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota, para presentar el estado del conocimiento y recomendar aspectos importantes para futuras investigaciones en este campo.

  9. Nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, R V

    1980-01-01

    The availability or non-availability of a name is a question of historical fact. A name once made available under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature can be rendered unavailable only by use of the plenary powers of the Commission. The question whether a name is a nomen dubium or not is a matter of taxonomic judgement. The difficulty with the Sarcocystinae discussed by Frenkel et al. (1979) stems from the fact that, under the present provisions of the Code, it is not possible to designate for the species concerned types that will serve any useful function. The Commission is now considering changes to the Code proposed to remedy this defect in a general, legislative way. It will not, as a matter of general practice, entertain proposals for the suppression of names merely because they are considered to be nomina dubia. The application submitted by Professor Frenkel and his collegaues will nevertheless be published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature so that the Commission can, if necessary, deliver a ruling on it before the new edition of the Code has appeared.

  10. Effects of jaboticaba ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine ...

  11. Life-cycle testing of receiving waters with Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.J.; Konetsky, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia are commonly used to estimate toxicity of effluents or receiving waters but can sometimes yield {open_quotes}no toxicity{close_quotes} outcomes even if pollutants are present. We conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) see if tests with longer exposure periods would reveal evidence for toxicity that might not be evident from 7-day tests, and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia reproduction. In the first set of tests, C. dubia was reared in diluted mineral water (negative control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a retention basin containing sediments contaminated with mercury, other metals and polychlorinated biphenyls. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only, but this water was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added, prior to testing. C. dubia survival and reproduction did not differ much among the three water types in the first set of tests, but these two parameters were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia appeared to be relatively insensitive to general water-quality factors, but quite sensitive to food-related factors. Regression analyses showed that the predictability of life-time reproduction by C. dubia from the results of 7-day tests was very low (R{sup 2}< 0.35) in five of the six experiments. The increase in predictability as a function of test duration also differed among water types in the first set of tests, and among treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, 7-day tests with C. dubia may be used to quantify water-quality problems, but it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of these tests to longer time scales.

  12. Vitamina C em "cabeludinha" (Myrciaria glomerata Berg Vitamin C content in fruits of Myrciaria glomerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soubihe Sobrinho

    1955-01-01

    " é a fonte mais rica de vitamina C entre as mirtáceas nacionais e de tôdas as frutas brasileiras. Comparando-se a "cabeludinha" com outras frutas exóticas, ricas em ácido ascórbico, nota-se que somente a cereja das Antilhas (Malpighia spp. lhe leva vantagem.The studies on the vitamin C content in fruits of Myrciaria glomerata Berg, reported in this paper were complementary to the breeding work on fruit plantas of Myrtacex, carried out cooperatively by the Seção de Frutas Tropicais, Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, and Seção de Genética, E.S.A. "Luiz de Queiroz", Piracicaba. The ascorbic acid content was determined in the blend obtained by running the pitted fruits in a blendor for 2 minutes in presence of a 0.4 per cent oxalic acid protecting solution. The quantitative determinations were made with an EEL portable colorimeter. The total vitamin C content in fresh fruits from trees exposed to full sunlight were as follows (in mg/100 g : tree n.° 1, 2,417 ; tree n.° 2, 2,389 ; tree n.° 3, 2,322. Assays made with fruits at different stages of maturity gave the following results : green fruits, 2,716 ; full developed fruits, 2,391 ; ripe fruits, 2,417. Green fruits had thus a higher vitamin C content than either partially or completely ripe fruits ; the difference between the last two types was not significant. Different parts of the fruit that were assayed separately had the following vitamin C content (mg/100 g : peel, 2,482 ; pulp (without seed, 3,018. The pulp which is the edible part of the fruit is thus richer than the peel. Vitamin C determinations in ripe fresh fruits from four shaded trees gave the following results (mg/100 g : tree n.° 1, 717.28 ; tree n.° 2, 838.66 ; tree n.° 3, 560.83 ; tree n.° 4, 713.38. Fruits produced on shaded trees are therefore poorer in ascorbic acid than those from trees exposed to full sunlight. The variations between trees in the shaded group may be ascribed to genetic origin. Myrciaria glomerata fruits have the

  13. Sarcocystinae: nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, J K; Heydorn, A O; Mehlhorn, H; Rommel, M

    1979-02-28

    Examination of the original descriptions of the species of Sarcocystis in cattle, sheep, and swine, and of isosporid oocysts shed sporulated by dogs, cats, man, and other carnivores, has shown that it is not possible in most instances to identify unambiguously recently recognized taxa. The original descriptions are insufficient, and because no type specimens exist, could apply to two or more of the presently recognized taxa. We consider the following nomina dubia: Sarcocystis hirsuta S. miescheriana S. tenella S. cruzi S. bertrami Isospora bigemina (S. bigemina) I. hominis (S. hominis) I. buteonis (Frenkelia buteonis) Because the former type species, Sarcocystis miescheriana, is an indeterminate nomen dubium, we are proposing S. muris as the new type species. Historically, it was the first species described clearly and unambiguously even in the light of present knowledge, and the stages of its life cycle are probably completely known; it was the second species to be named. Old and recent descriptions are reviewed, and definitions are proposed for the following taxa: S. bovifelis S. bovicanis S. bovihominis S. ovifelis S. ovicanis S. muris (type species) S. suihominis S. suicanis S. equicanis Frenkelia microti F. glareoli for which neotypes will be prepared and deposited with designated institutions and curators. A new subfamily, Cystoisosporinae, is created.

  14. Hairy roots induction and artemisinin analysis in Artemisia dubia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of two Artemisia species (Artemisia dubia and Artemisia indica) was carried out by using two Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and 8196 for hairy roots production. Induction of hairy roots was higher in both Artemisia species when infected with LBA9402 as compared to 8196. When biomass of ...

  15. Hairy roots induction and artemisinin analysis in Artemisia dubia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... 1976), antifungal (Maruzzella et al., 1960), anthelmintic, antihepatitic (Gilani and Janbaz, 1995), and antidiabetic activities (Tan et al., 1999). The objectives of the present work were to study hairy root induction and artemisinin production by two Arte- misia species (A. dubia and A. indica) transformed by two.

  16. Toxicity of manganese to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Bogenrieder, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    Manganese is a toxic element frequently overlooked when assessing toxicity of effluents, sediments and pore waters. Manganese can be present at toxic levels in anoxic solutions due to its increased solubility under chemically-reducing conditions, and it can remain at those levels for days in aerated test waters due to slow precipitation kinetics. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca are freshwater organisms often used for toxicity testing and recommended for assessments of effluents and pore waters. Lethal and reproductive-inhibition concentrations of Mn were determined for C. dubia in acute 48h tests and chronic 3-brood tests using animals azteca was determined with 7d old animals in acute 96h tests. Tests were run at three levels of water hardness to assess the amelioratory effect, which was often significant. Manganese concentrations were measured analytically at test initiation and after 96 h for calculations of toxicity endpoints and determinations of Mn precipitation during the tests. Minimal amounts of Mn (below 3%) precipitated within 96 h. LC50s determined for H. azteca progressively increased from 3.0 to 8.6 to 13.7 mg Mn/L in soft, moderately-hard and hard waters, respectively. The tolerance of C. dubia to Mn was not significantly different between moderately-hard and hard waters, but was significantly lower in soft water. There was no significant difference in Mn sensitivity between the ages of C. dubia tested. Acute LC50 values for C. dubia averaged 6.2, 14.5 and 15.2 mg Mn/L and chronic IC50 values averaged 3.9, 8.5 and 11.5 mg Mn/L for soft, moderately-hard and hard waters, respectively. Manganese toxicity should be considered when assessing solutions with concentrations near these levels.

  17. Physicochemical factors affecting the sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia dubia to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S D; Gu, M B; Allen, H E; Cha, D K

    2001-07-01

    The effects of physicochemical conditions, such as pH, water hardness, flow rates and natural organic substances on the sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia dubia to the toxic effects of copper were investigated using static bioassay cups and specially designed flow-through bioassay chambers. We found that C. dubia was very sensitive to pH changes and the total copper LC50 values of C. dubia neonates increased by 15-fold as the pH increased from pH 7 to 10. It was also observed that the LC50 values increased sharply upon increasing the water hardness value to 2.4 meq. In addition, increasing flow rates from zero to 50 mL hr(-1) also increased its sensitivity to copper, which was possibly due to hydrodynamic stress. The presence of natural organic substances (humic acid and dissolved organic matter) and suspended particles decreased the toxic effect of copper. This significant decrease in the toxicity of copper in the presence of natural organic materials can be explained by a reduction in the free ion concentration due to complexation. Furthermore, we observed that the kinetics of copper interactions with natural organic materials are a significant factor in the toxic effect of copper and that the acute LC50 values increased with increasing reaction time between solubilized copper and water-borne organics.

  18. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    .... The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer...

  19. Influence of spatial, edaphic and genetic factors on phenols and essential oils of Myrciaria cauliflora fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Alessandra R.; Santos, Suzana C.; Seraphin, José C.; Ferri, Pedro H.

    2012-01-01

    Essential oil chemical composition and phenolics (total phenols, tannins and anthocyanins), reducing sugar and fruit acidity contents of Myrciaria cauliflora were obtained from cultivated populations in six sampling sites. Canonical redundancy (RDA) and discriminant analyses revealed four clusters of samples based on contents of α-copaene, tannins, reducing sugar and fruit acidity as predictor variables. The total variation partition performed by partial RDAs showed a strong influence of edap...

  20. Joint acute toxicity of diazinon and copper to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kenneth E; Wood, Sylvia H; Matthews, Cathy; Thuesen, Kevin A

    2003-07-01

    Diazinon and copper are two contaminants that are widely found in urban streams and in municipal wastewater effluents. Because these contaminants may be found concurrently, the potential for their joint toxicity is of interest, particularly with regard to toxicity testing of wastewater effluents and the ecological implications of simultaneous exposures in urban streams. Although interactions between metals are well studied, relatively little is known about interactions between metals and organophosphate compounds such as diazinon. In this study, the interaction between copper and diazinon was evaluated using cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) in 48-h static tests within laboratory water. Using toxic units derived from concurrently established 48-h median lethal concentration values (LC50) of test organisms of each individual toxicant, the effects of the mixture of copper and diazinon on the survival of C. dubia were shown to be generally nonconcentration additive (LC50 significantly greater than one toxic unit). However, evaluation of the dose-response relationship across the entire range of effect levels revealed that the mortality induced by the mixture of copper and diazinon supported concentration additivity at higher effect levels.

  1. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia. III. Mathematical models for mixture toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset concerns the development of models for describing the acute toxicity of major ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia using data from single salt tests and binary...

  2. Phytochemical characterization of bioactive compounds on methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia F. Naspolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the native species of importance in Brazil, jabuticabeira (Myrciaria sp. is a native fruit tree from several Brazilian regions. Few studies report the chemical constituents of the leaves and its pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. The aim of this study was to identify the phenolic compounds of the methanolic (MeOH and ethanolic (EtOH leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp. Phytochemical profile of the extracts was carried-out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavenging capacity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and total phenolics were determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. A total of nine different compounds were identified in the free and bound phenolics extractions: 2,4 dihydroxybenzoic, vanillin, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapinic, rutin, epicatechin, trans-caffeic and myricetin. The extracts demonstrated high radical scavenging capacity (MeOH: 1.83 and EtOH: 8.05 mg/mL and high phenolic content (MeOH: 1.15; and EtOH: 1.04 mg/g dry matter. The wide variability of compounds revealed and the amount of peaks not identified, gives us a background of a potential plant matrix for further investigations in order to develop a nutraceutical agent.

  3. Phytochemical characterization of bioactive compounds on methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia F. Naspolini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the native species of importance in Braz il, jabuticabeira ( Myrciaria sp. is a native fruit tree from several Brazilian regions. Few studies report the chemical constituents of the leaves and its pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. The aim of this study was to identify the phenolic com pounds of the methanolic (MeOH and ethanolic (EtOH leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp. Phytochemical profile of the extracts was carried - out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavengin g capacity with 2,2 - diphenyl - 1 - picryl - hydrazyl (DPPH and total phenolics were determined with Folin -Ciocalteau reagent. A total of nine different compounds were identified in the free and bound phenolics extractions: 2,4 dihydroxybenzoic, vanillin, p- coumaric, ferulic, sinapinic, rutin, epicatechin, trans- caffeic and myricetin. The extracts demonstrated high radical scavenging capacity (MeOH: 1.83 and EtOH: 8.05 mg/mL and high phenolic content (MeOH: 1.15; and EtOH: 1.04 mg/g dry matter. The wide variability of compounds revealed and the amount of peaks not identified, gives us a background of a potential plant matrix for further investigations in order to develop a nutraceutical agent.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Opisthoplatia orientalis and Blaptica dubia (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Guangyin; Cui, Ying; Dong, Pengzhi; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei

    2017-01-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome in Blaberidae has been reported in this research. Opisthoplatia orientalis (Blaberidae, Epilamprinae) known as ground cockroach with golden edge is distributed in East and South Asia and widely used for thrombolytic therapy in China. Meanwhile, Blaptica dubia (Blaberidae, Blaberinae) has been adopted as feeder insect for various kinds of pets all over the world. In the present study, we investigated the complete mitochondrial genome of O. orientalis and B. dubia, and the mitogenome is 18 724  and 17 340 bp in length, respectively. The circular molecule consists of 13 protein coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region, with an AT content of 75.7% for O. orientalis and 72.8% for B. dubia. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis has been carried out with 11 related species and the status of these two species is further confirmed.

  5. Fruit and seed biometry of cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg = Biometria de fruto e semente de cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cambuí tree (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg is native to Brazil and its fruits are harvested by extraction for fresh consumption in the state of Sergipe (Brazil. Because of the regional importance of the species, this work aims to characterize the cambuí fruits and seeds. The fruits were harvested mature from native trees in the Reserva do Caju Experimental Field, on Itaporanga d’Ajuda (Sergipe, Brazil, belonging to Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros. Two hundred fruits and seeds were biometrically analyzed. In addition, we evaluated the fruit, pulp, and seed color based on RHS Color Chart. Two different skin colors were found: 1. yellow [orange - red (group 32A] with yellow pulp [yellow - orange (group 17A]; and 2. purple [violet -blue (group 93A] with red pulp [red - purple (group 60A]. The seeds have only one color, green [yellow-green (group 152A] with dark stripes [Brown (group 200C]. The fruits mean diameter was 9.23 mm.fruit-1, and average width 8.50 mm.fruit-1. The seeds mean diameter was 5.34 mm.seed-1, mean width 6.52 mm.seed-1 and thickness 5.08 mm.seed-1. The cambuí is a little red fruit. The biometry had a high variability as expected, because it is a native species without any type of management.=Resumo - O cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg é nativo do Brasil e os frutos são colhidos por extrativismo para consumo in natura no estado de Sergipe (Brasil. Por causa da importância regional da espécie, objetivou-se com este trabalho caracterizar os frutos e sementes de cambuí. Os frutos foram colhidos maduros provenientes de plantas nativas do Campo Experimental Reserva do Caju, no município de Itaporanga d’Ajuda (Sergipe, Brasil pertencente a Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros. Foram analisados 200 frutos e sementes biometricamente. Além disso, caracterizou-se a cor da fruta, da polpa, e da semente com base na cartela de cores RHS. Foram identificados duas cores diferentes para a fruta: 1. de cor amarela [laranja - vermelho (grupo32A

  6. Effects of hardness and alkalinity in culture and test waters on reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Hardin, I.R.

    2006-01-01

    Ceriodaphnia dubia were cultured in four reconstituted water formulations with hardness and alkalinity concentrations ranging from soft to the moderately hard water that is required by whole-effluent toxicity (WET) testing methods for culturing test organisms. The effects of these culture formulations alone and in combination with two levels of Cl-, SO42, and HCO3- on reproduction of C. dubia were evaluated with the standard three-brood test. Reproduction was significantly reduced when test waters had lower hardness than culture waters. However, reproduction was not significantly different when animals cultured in low-hardness waters were exposed to moderately hard waters. The hardness of the culture water did not significantly affect the sensitivity of C. dubia to the three anions. Conversely, increased hardness in test waters significantly reduced the toxicities of Cl- and SO42-, with HCO3- toxicity following the same pattern. Alkalinity exhibited no consistent effect on Cl- and SO42- toxicity. The physiological stress of placing animals cultured in moderately hard water into softer test waters might contribute to marginal failures of otherwise nontoxic effluents. The standard WET protocol should be revised to allow the culture of C. dubia under lower hardness conditions to better represent local surface water chemistries.

  7. Temperature-Dependent Development and Thermal Sensitivity of Blaptica dubia (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Hu, Xing Ping; Appel, Arthur G

    2017-04-01

    Temperature-dependent development of nymphs of the Dubia cockroach, Blaptica dubia Serville, was described using constant-temperature data collected from laboratory experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C. Simple linear regression models were developed based on the data from each instar. Degree-days required to complete a particular life stage were estimated as 457.5, 668, 1,031, 1,317, 1,515, 1,429, and 2,071 for instars 1-7, respectively. Nymphs developed to adulthood at 20, 25, and 30 °C, but all died before developing into fifth instar at 35 °C and into second instar at 40 °C. Critical thermal maximum (CTMax) and critical thermal minimum (CTMin) of B. dubia were also measured for each instar. CTMax ranged from 44.8 to 49.9 °C for fourth and second instars, respectively. CTMin ranged from approximately -2 °C for seventh instar to - 3.1 °C for second instar. There was no relationship between body mass (instar) and CTMax; however, CTMin was positively correlated with body mass. These results could be used to control the development rate of B. dubia and adjust the optimal rearing temperature for B. dubia in a given situation. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Efeito antimicrobiano in vitro do extrato de jabuticaba [Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg.] sobre Streptococcus da cavidade oral In vitro antimicrobial effect of jabuticaba [Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg] extract on Streptococcus from the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a ação do extrato etanólico das folhas de Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg. sobre três culturas de Streptococcus formadoras do biofilme dental. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em meio sólido. Os dados obtidos foram satisfatórios para todas as espécies ensaiadas (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27609 e Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10557 gerando halos de inibição quando utilizado o extrato puro e diluições 1:2 e 1:4. Os resultados incentivam a realização de novas pesquisas que viabilizem a produção de compostos com finalidade terapêutica que possam ser utilizados clinicamente na odontologia.This study evaluated the action of ethanolic extract of Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg leaves on three Streptococcus cultures from dental plaque. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by agar-well diffusion method. The obtained data were satisfactory for all assayed species (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27609 and Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10557 yielding inhibition halos when the pure extract and 1:2 and 1:4 dilutions were used. These results encourage new studies for the production of therapeutic compounds to be used in clinical dentistry.

  9. The influence of algal densities on the toxicity of chromium for Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard (Cladocera, Crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodgher

    Full Text Available Food availability may affect metal toxicity for aquatic organisms. In the present study, the influence of high, medium and low densities of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (10(6, 10(5 and 10(4 cells.mL-1, respectively on the chronic toxicity of chromium to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia was investigated. C. dubia was exposed to a range of chromium concentration from 2.71 to 34.04 µg.L-1 and fed with algae at various densities. In another experiment, the green alga was exposed to chromium concentrations (94 to 774 µg.L-1 and supplied as food in different densities to zooplankton. The survival and reproduction of the cladoceran were measured in these toxicity tests. The IC50 for Cr to P. subcapitata and metal accumulated by algal cells were determined. The results of a bifactorial analysis (metal versus algal densities showed that metal toxicity to zooplankton was dependent on algal densities. Significant toxic effects on the reproduction and survival of C. dubia were observed at 8.73, 18.22 and 34.04 µg.L-1 Cr when the test organisms were fed with 10(6 cells.mL-1 of P. subcapitata. Although the chlorophyta retain low chromium content, a decrease in the reproduction and survival of C. dubia occurred when they were fed with high algal density contaminated with 774 µg.L-1 Cr. It was concluded that high algal density have an appreciable influence on chromium toxicity to daphnids.

  10. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  11. Vinegar Production from Jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba Fruit Using Immobilized Acetic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell immobilization comprises the retention of metabolically active cells inside a polymeric matrix. In this study, the production of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba vinegar using immobilized Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans cells is proposed as a new method to prevent losses of jabuticaba fruit surplus. The pulp of jabuticaba was processed and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMA 0200 was used to ferment the must for jabuticaba wine production. Sugars, alcohols (ethanol and glycerol and organic acids were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Volatile compounds were determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. The ethanol content of the produced jabuticaba wine was approx. 74.8 g/L (9.5 % by volume after 168 h of fermentation. Acetic acid fermentation for vinegar production was performed using a mixed culture of immobilized A. aceti CCT 0190 and G. oxydans CCMA 0350 cells. The acetic acid yield was 74.4 % and productivity was 0.29 g/(L·h. The vinegar had particularly high concentrations of citric (6.67 g/L, malic (7.02 g/L and succinic (5.60 g/L acids. These organic acids give a suitable taste and flavour to the vinegar. Seventeen compounds (aldehydes, higher alcohols, terpene, acetate, diether, furans, acids, ketones and ethyl esters were identified in the jabuticaba vinegar. In conclusion, vinegar was successfully produced from jabuticaba fruits using yeast and immobilized mixed cultures of A. aceti and G. oxydans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to use mixed culture of immobilized cells for the production of jabuticaba vinegar.

  12. The interactive toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to Ceriodaphnia dubia and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; Cohen, Adam S; Stubblefield, William A

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, aquatic toxicity studies examine the toxicity of a single chemical to an organism. Organisms in nature, however, may be exposed to multiple toxicants. Given this is a more realistic exposure scenario in situ, the authors sought to understand the interactive toxicity of multiple metals to aquatic organisms. The authors performed a series of studies using equitoxic mixtures of cadmium, copper, and zinc to 2 aquatic organisms, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Single metal toxicity tests were conducted to determine the acute median lethal concentration (LC50) values for O. mykiss and short-term, chronic median effective concentration (EC50) values for C. dubia. All 3 metals were then combined in equitoxic concentrations for subsequent mixture studies using a toxic unit (TU) approach (i.e., 1 TU = EC50 or LC50). For C. dubia, the mixture study showed greater-than-additive effects in hard water (TU-based EC50 = 0.74 TU), but less-than-additive effects in soft water (TU-based EC50 = 1.93 TU). The mixture effects for O. mykiss showed less-than-additive effects in both hard and soft waters, with TU-based LC50 values of 2.33 total TU and 2.22 total TU, respectively. These data are useful in helping understand metal mixture toxicity in aquatic systems and indicate that although in most situations the assumption of additivity of metal mixture toxicity is valid, under certain conditions it may not be sufficiently protective. © 2014 SETAC.

  13. Evaluation of chemical changes during Myrciaria cauliflora (jabuticaba fruit) fermentation by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Gilmara A.C.; Naves, Sara S.; Ferri, Pedro H.; Santos, Suzana C., E-mail: suzana.quimica.ufg@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Bioatividade Molecular

    2012-10-15

    Organic acids, sugars, alcohols, phenolic compounds, color properties, pH and titratable acidity were monitored during the commercial fermentation of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, spectrophotometric assays and standard methods of analysis. Data collected was analyzed by principal component (PCA), hierarchical cluster (HCA) and canonical correlation (CCA) analyses. Two sample groups were distinguished and the variables responsible for separation were sugars, anthocyanins, alcohols, hue and acetic and succinic acids. The canonical correlation analysis confirmed the influence of alcohols (ethanol, methanol and glycerol), organic acids (citric, succinic and acetic acids), pH and titratable acidity on the extraction and stability of anthocyanins and co pigments. As a result, color properties were also affected by phenolic variation throughout the fermentative process. (author)

  14. Eficácia do extrato de Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg. (jabuticabeira sobre bactérias orais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. Macedo-Costa

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato da folha de Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg., Myrtaceae (jabuticabeira sobre: Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 903, Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 15300, Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557, Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 7073 e Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 9595. A pesquisa foi realizada através de técnicas bacteriológicas laboriosas. Os ensaios foram realizados pelo método da diluição em meio sólido para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM. Os resultados obtidos foram transferidos para um banco de dados informatizado e calculados os parâmetros estatísticos mediante o emprego do programa SPSS versão 13.0. Utilizou-se, ao nível de 5% de significância, o teste t-Student. Em estudo comparativo, foi determinada a CIM do digluconato de clorexidina a 0,12%. O extrato de jabuticabeira formou halos de inibição variando de 10 a 18 mm de diâmetro e apresentou desempenho médio significativamente inferior em relação a clorexidina, na comparação do extrato bruto vs substância pura e nas concentrações 1:2 e 1:4. Conclui-se, que o extrato de Myrciaria cauliflora produziu uma significante atividade bacteriostática in vitro sobre as bactérias do biofilme dental, o que sugere a utilização dessa substância como meio alternativo e economicamente viável para o controle de afecções em Odontologia.

  15. Acute toxicity of runoff from sealcoated pavement to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Van Metre, Peter C; Kunz, James L; Little, Edward E

    2015-04-21

    Runoff from coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoated pavement is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and N-heterocycles to surface waters. We investigated acute toxicity of simulated runoff collected from 5 h to 111 days after application of CT sealcoat and from 4 h to 36 days after application of asphalt-based sealcoat containing about 7% CT sealcoat (AS/CT-blend). Ceriodaphnia dubia (cladocerans) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) were exposed in the laboratory to undiluted and 1:10 diluted runoff for 48 h, then transferred to control water and exposed to 4 h of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Mortality following exposure to undiluted runoff from unsealed asphalt pavement and UVR was ≤10% in all treatments. Test organisms exposed to undiluted CT runoff samples collected during the 3 days (C. dubia) or 36 days (P. promelas) following sealcoat application experienced 100% mortality prior to UVR exposure; with UVR exposure, mortality was 100% for runoff collected across the entire sampling period. Phototoxic-equivalent PAH concentrations and mortality demonstrated an exposure-response relation. The results indicate that runoff remains acutely toxic for weeks to months after CT sealcoat application.

  16. Influence of container adsorption upon observed pyrethroid toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Craig E.; Miller, Jeff L.; Miller, Mike J.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Gee, Shirley J.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are known for their potential toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and many fish species. A significant problem in the study of pyrethroid toxicity is their extreme hydrophobicity. They can adsorb to test container surfaces and many studies, therefore, report pyrethroid levels as nominal water concentrations. In this study, pyrethroid adsorption to sampling and test containers was measured and several container treatments were examined for their ability to decrease pyrethroid adsorption. None of the chemical treatments were successful at preventing pyrethroid loss from aqueous samples, but vortexing of containers served to resuspend pyrethroids. The effects of the observed adsorption on Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca permethrin toxicity were examined. Species-specific results showed a time-dependent decrease in toxicity following pyrethroid adsorption to test containers for C. dubia, but not for H. azteca. These results demonstrate that pyrethroid adsorption to containers can significantly affect the observed outcome in toxicity-testing and serves as a caution for researchers and testing laboratories. PMID:15951033

  17. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a Potential Bio-Indicator for Assessing Acute Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Fresh Water Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h) in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h) puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake) as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES) analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system. PMID:24040143

  18. Impact of Microplastic Beads and Fibers on Waterflea (Ceriodaphnia dubia) Survival, Growth, and Reproduction: Implications of Single and Mixture Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Kumar, Anupama; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2017-11-03

    There is limited knowledge regarding the adverse effects of wastewater-derived microplastics, particularly fibers, on aquatic biota. In this study, we examined the acute (48 h) and chronic (8 d) effects of microplastic polyester fibers and polyethylene (PE) beads on freshwater zooplankton Ceriodaphnia dubia. We also assessed the acute response of C. dubia to a binary mixture of microplastic beads and fibers for the first time. Acute exposure to fibers and PE beads both showed a dose-dependent effect on survival. An equitoxic binary mixture of beads and fibers resulted in a toxic unit of 1.85 indicating less than additive effects. Chronic exposure to lower concentrations did not significantly affect survival of C. dubia, but a dose-dependent effect on growth and reproduction was observed. Fibers showed greater adverse effects than PE beads. While ingestion of fibers was not observed, scanning electron microscopy showed carapace and antenna deformities after exposure to fibers, with no deformities observed after exposure to PE beads. While much of the current research has focused on microplastic beads, our study shows that microplastic fibers pose a greater risk to C. dubia, with reduced reproductive output observed at concentrations within an order of magnitude of reported environmental levels.

  19. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Pakrashi

    Full Text Available Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

  20. ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE Y PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS DE LAS SEMILLAS DE JABUTICABA (Myrciaria cauliflora BERG Antioxidant Activity and Profile Fatty Acids of Jabuticaba Seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE NEUZA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Múltiples compuestos naturales encontrados en frutas, cereales y vegetales presentan actividad antioxidante. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las semillas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg en cuanto a su composición proximal y potencial antioxidante, y evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos en el aceite extraído de las mismas. Para la obtención del extracto, las semillas deshidratadas y trituradas fueron extraídas con alcohol etílico por 30 minutos, en la proporción de 1:3 de semillas:alcohol etílico, bajo agitación continua, a temperatura ambiente. Seguidamente, la mezcla fue filtrada y el sobrenadante deshidratado a 40 ºC con la finalidad de determinar, por pesaje directo, rendimiento en materia seca del extracto. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, las semillas de jabuticaba mostraron ser fuente de carbohidratos totales importante, además presentaron actividad antioxidante relevante. El aceite de jabuticaba presentó porcentaje significativo de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, con predominancia del ácido linoleico y α-linolénico, ácidos grasos esenciales.Numerous natural compounds found in fruits, grains and vegetables have antioxidant activity. This work aimed to characterize jabuticaba seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg by proximate composition, antioxidant activity and fatty acids profile of their extracted oil. To obtain the extract, the dehydrated and triturated seeds were extracted with ethyl alcohol for 30 min, at a proportion of 1:3 of seeds:ethyl alcohol, under continuous agitation, at room temperature. Afterwards, the mixture was filtered and the supernatant dehydrated at 40 ºC aiming to determine, by direct weighing, the extract’s dry matter yield. According to the results, the jabuticaba seeds are an important source of total carbohydrates, and also presented relevant antioxidant activity. In the jabuticaba seeds oil, a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids stood out, with

  1. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Melia dubia leaf extract and its characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Subburam; Vaideki, Krishnakumar; Anitha, Sundaram; Rajendran, Ramasamy

    2017-02-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (Nps) using the biocompounds extracted from Melia dubia leaves (MD L.) and zinc acetate as precursors. The choice of the precursors was based on the intention to use the synthesised ZnO Nps for the healthcare applications. In this line, the antimicrobial property of ethanolic extract of MD L., uncalcined ZnO Nps and calcined ZnO Nps has been assessed and compared. The prepared particles have been characterised by comparing their Fourier transform infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD) diffractogram and TEM images. The presence of ZnO has been confirmed using IR spectrum. The crystal structure and crystallite size have been found out using XRD diffractogram, and the obtained crystallite size was confirmed using TEM images. Finally, an attempt has been made to correlate the structure with the antimicrobial property of the material.

  2. Effects of depleted uranium on the health and survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, W.W.; Caldwell, C.A.; Gould, W.R.; Fresquez, P.R.; Finger, S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been used as a substitute for the fissionable enriched uranium component of atomic weapons tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) (Los Alamos, NM, USA) since the early 1950s, resulting in considerable concentrations of DU in the soils within the test sites. Although the movement of DU into major aquatic systems has been shown to be minimal, there are many small-order ephemeral streams and areas of standing water in canyons throughout LANL that may be affected by inputs of DU via runoff, erosion, and leaching. Ninety-six-hour acute and 7-d chronic toxicity assays were conducted to measure the toxicity of DU on survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia. A 14-d water-only assay was conducted to measure survival and growth of Hyalella azteca. The estimated median lethal concentration (LC50) to produce 50% mortality of the test population for the 96-h Ceriodaphnia dubia assay was 10.50 mg/L. Reproductive effects occurred at a lowest-observable-effect concentration ???3.91 mg/L with a no-observable-effect concentration of 1.97 mg/L. The estimated 14-d LC50 for the Hyalella azteca assay was 1.52 mg/L No significant relationship was detected between growth and DU concentrations. Concentrations at which toxicity effects were observed in this study for both invertebrates exceeded concentrations of total uranium observed in runoff from LANL lands. Thus, it is likely that current runoff levels of uranium do not pose a threat to these types of aquatic invertebrates.

  3. Observed and predicted reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, Peter J.; Hardin, Ian R.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic toxicities of Cl-, SO42-, and HCO3- to Ceriodaphnia dubia were evaluated in low- and moderate-hardness waters using a three-brood reproduction test method. Toxicity tests of anion mixtures were used to determine interaction effects and to produce models predicting C. dubia reproduction. Effluents diluted with low- and moderate-hardness waters were tested with animals acclimated to low- and moderate-hardness conditions to evaluate the models and to assess the effects of hardness and acclimation. Sulfate was significantly less toxic than Cl- and HCO3- in both types of water. Chloride and HCO3- toxicities were similar in low-hardness water, but HCO3- was the most toxic in moderate-hardness water. Low acute-to-chronic ratios indicate that toxicities of these anions will decrease quickly with dilution. Hardness significantly reduced Cl- and SO42- toxicity but had little effect on HCO3-. Chloride toxicity decreased with an increase in Na+ concentration, and CO3- toxicity may have been reduced by the dissolved organic carbon in effluent. Multivariate models using measured anion concentrations in effluents with low to moderate hardness levels provided fairly accurate predictions of reproduction. Determinations of toxicity for several effluents differed significantly depending on the hardness of the dilution water and the hardness of the water used to culture test animals. These results can be used to predict the contribution of elevated anion concentrations to the chronic toxicity of effluents; to identify effluents that are toxic due to contaminants other than Cl-, SO42-, and HCO3-; and to provide a basis for chemical substitutions in manufacturing processes.

  4. Acute toxicity of commonly used forestry herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Vickie L; Borton, Dennis L; Streblow, William R; Louch, Jeffrey; Shepard, James P

    2012-12-01

    Because many herbicides selectively control specific species or types of vegetation, they are often applied as mixtures to achieve better control over undesirable vegetation. When herbicides are applied in forest ecosystems, streams, ponds, and other bodies of water are typically protected by buffer zones in which no herbicide is applied. However, in some landscapes, small wetlands and streams are difficult to see and avoid, thus the potential acute toxicity of herbicide mixtures to aquatic organisms is of interest, yet it has not been well-studied. We examined the acute toxicity of 23 different herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at environmentally relevant concentrations, and, where possible, characterized mixture interactions using Marking's Additive Index. Maximum exposure concentrations were equivalent to applying the maximum allowable rate for each component directly to the surface of a 6-in. deep pond with no dissipation following application. Under the conditions of this study, herbicide formulations containing Accord Concentrate (glyphosate), Arsenal AC (imazapyr), Chopper (imazapyr), Escort (metsulfuron methyl), Oust XP (sulfometuron methyl), and Velpar L (hexazinone) were not associated with appreciable acute toxicity to fathead minnows or C. dubia when used alone or in mixtures with each other and various surfactants and adjuvants. Herbicide mixtures for which Additive Indexes could be calculated exhibited primarily antagonistic or simple additive toxicity. In the few cases where synergistic toxicity was observed, the degree of synergism was slight, never exceeding approximately twice the effect estimated based on additive toxicity. Based on the results of this study, neither acute toxicity nor enhanced acute aquatic toxicity due to synergistic mixture effects appears to be a significant concern for applications of the herbicide mixtures most commonly used in forestry. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  5. Myrciaria cauliflora extract improves diabetic nephropathy via suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation in streptozotocin-nicotinamide mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Dong Hsu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria cauliflora is a functional food rich in anthocyanins, possessing antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Our previous results demonstrated M. cauliflora extract (MCE had beneficial effects in diabetic nephropathy (DN and via the inhibition of Ras/PI3K/Akt and kidney fibrosis-related proteins. The purpose of this study was to assess the benefit of MCE in diabetes associated with kidney inflammation and glycemic regulation in streptozotocin–nicotinamide (STZ/NA-induced diabetic mice. Compared with the untreated diabetic group, MCE significantly improved blood glucose and serum biochemical characteristic levels. Exposure to MCE increased antioxidative enzyme activity and diminished reactive oxygen synthesis. Mice receiving MCE supplementation had reduced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α levels compared to the untreated diabetic mice. Inflammatory and fibrotic related proteins such as collagen IV, fibronectin, Janus kinase (JAK, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, protein kinase C beta (PKC-β, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB were also inhibited by MCE treatment in STZ/NA mice. These results suggest that MCE may be used as a hypoglycemic agent and antioxidant in Type 2 diabetic mice.

  6. Estimation of genetic diversity in a natural population of cambui tree (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg) using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, J G S; Nascimento, A L S; Costa, T S; de Almeida, T M B; Rabbani, A R C; Silva, A V C

    2016-10-05

    Cambui (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg) is a native species from Brazil, which belongs to the family Myrtaceae. Molecular characterization is one of the most used tools for the study of the biotechnological potential of species because the diversity level between individuals can be inferred. Analysis of genetic diversity is fundamental to the direction of the strategies necessary to form and maintain a germplasm. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity in a natural population of cambui using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The natural population, which provided the plant material, is found at the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage of Caju, which belongs to the experimental field of Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, in the municipality of Itaporanga d'Ajuda, SE, Brazil. Young leaves of each individual were collected for DNA extraction and analysis of PCR-ISSR. Thirty primers were tested and the top 10 were selected. The use of these primers resulted in 71 fragments with 98.3% polymorphism. Similarity of individuals ranged between 0.30 and 0.92. The most similar individuals were C13 and C17 and the most distant were C1 and C41. Through UPGMA, six distinct groups were identified. This information may be used for conservation of these genetic resources, germplasm exchange, creation of germplasm bank and in future studies with this species.

  7. ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE Y PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS DE LAS SEMILLAS DE JABUTICABA (Myrciaria cauliflora BERG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEUZA JORGE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Múltiples compuestos naturales encontrados en frutas, cereales y vegetales presentan actividad antioxidante. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las semillas de jabuticaba ( Myrciaria cauliflora Berg en cuanto a su composición proximal y potencial antioxidante, y evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos en el aceite extraído de las mismas. Para la obtención del extracto, las semillas deshidratadas y trituradas fueron extraídas con alcohol etílico por 30 minutos, en la proporción de 1:3 de semillas:alcohol etílico, bajo agitación continua, a temperatura ambiente. Seguidamente, la mezcla fue filtrada y el sobrenadante deshidratado a 40 ºC con la finalidad de determinar, por pesaje di- recto, rendimiento en materia seca del extracto. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, las semillas de jabuticaba mostraron ser fuente de carbohidratos totales importante, además presentaron actividad antioxidante relevante. El aceite de jabuticaba presentó porcentaje significativo de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, con predominancia del ácido linoleico y α -linolénico, ácidos grasos esenciales.

  8. Actividad antioxidante y perfil de ácidos grasos de las semillas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Neuza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las semillas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg en cuanto a su composición proximal y potencial antioxidante y evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos en el aceite extraído de las mismas. Para la obtención del extracto, las semillas deshidratadas y trituradas fueron extraídas con alcohol etílico por 30 minutos, en la proporción de 1:3 de semillas:alcohol etílico, bajo agitación continua, a temperatura ambiente. Seguidamente, la mezcla fue filtrada y el sobrenadante fue deshidratado a 40oC con la finalidad de determinar, por pesaje directo, el rendimiento en materia seca del extracto. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, las semillas de jabuticaba mostraron ser una importante fuente de carbohidratos totales, además presentaron una relevante actividad antioxidante. El aceite de jabuticaba presentó porcentaje significativa de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, con predominancia del ácido linoleico y α-linolénico, ácidos grasos esenciales.

  9. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Antiproliferative Effect of the Jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Seed Extracts in Oral Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hung Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly evident that certain phytochemicals possess cancer chemopreventive properties. In this study, the antiproliferative activity of extracts from different parts of the jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora plant was evaluated for its effect on human oral carcinoma cell lines. The cytotoxicities of various plant extract concentrations were examined and the 50% maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 was determined. Water extracts of jaboticaba seeds showed concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects. Annexin V/propidium iodide positivity with active caspase-3 induction indicated that the treated cells underwent apoptosis. Several important regulatory proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bid, and survivin involved in apoptosis were also evaluated. The antioxidant activity of jaboticaba was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assays, and the drug concentration eliciting 50% maximum stimulation (SC50 was determined. The present findings suggest that water extracts of jaboticaba seeds exhibit an antiproliferative effect against oral cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through downregulating survivin expression and thereby activating caspase-mediated Bid cleavage.

  10. Effects of Temperature, Salinity, pH, and Light on Filtering and Grazing Rates of a Calanoid Copepod (Schmackeria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changling Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Calanoid copepods are key components of the marine food web and the food sources of many larval fishes and planktivores, and grazers of phytoplankton. Understanding the ranges of major environmental variables suitable for their growth is essential to maintain the balance between trophic links and resources protection. In this study, the effects of temperature, salinity, pH, and light intensity on the filtering and grazing rates of a herbivorous copepod (Schmackeria dubia were conducted in several control experiments. Our results indicated that experimental animals grazed normally at water temperatures between 15 and 35°C. The filtering and grazing rates increased by onefold at water temperatures from 15 to 25°C, with a peak at around 30°C. S. dubia fed normally at salinity ranging from 20 to 30 ppt, with significantly low filtering and grazing rates at salinity below 15 ppt and above 35 ppt. The filtering and grazing rates increased as pH increased, peaked at approximately 8.5, and then decreased substantially. Light intensity also displayed an important impact on the filtering and grazing rates. Filtering and grazing rates were high when light intensity was greater than 20 and less than 200 µmol m-2 s-1. S. dubia nearly stopped feeding at low light intensity (less than 20 µmol m-2 s-1.

  11. Bicarbonate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis and its influence on zinc toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Carolina Lopez; Hyne, Ross V; Patra, Ron; Ramasamy, Sunderam; Pablo, Fleur; Julli, Moreno; Kefford, Ben J

    2014-05-01

    Bicarbonate is often a major ionic constituent associated with produced waters from methane gas extraction and coal mining, yet few studies have determined its specific toxicity. Currently, the environmental risk of bicarbonate anion in water discharges is assessed based on the toxicity of sodium chloride or artificial seawater and is regulated via electrical conductivity. Increased NaHCO(3) added to Ceriodaphnia dubia in synthetic or natural water gave similar 48-h 10% effective concentration (EC10) values of 1750 ± 125 mg NaHCO(3)/L (mean ± standard error) and 1670 ± 180 mg NaHCO(3)/L, respectively. Bicarbonate was toxic to C. dubia in both waters with conductivities above 1900 µS/cm. In contrast, when conductivity was elevated with NaCl, toxicity to C. dubia was observed only above 2800 µS/cm. Bicarbonate also impaired C. dubia reproduction with an EC10 of 340 mg NaHCO(3)/L. Major ion composition also influenced Zn bioavailability, a common co-occurring metal contaminant in coal mine waters, with sublethal concentrations of NaHCO(3) and elevated pH increasing Zn toxicity. Higher pH was the dominant parameter determining a 10-fold increase in the 48-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) for Zn toxicity to C. dubia at pH 8.6 of 34 µg Zn/L (95% confidence limit = 32-37 µg Zn/L) compared with the Zn toxicity at approximately circumneutral pH. Exposure of the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis (Atyidae) in natural water to increasing bicarbonate gave a mean 10-d 10% lethal concentration (LC10) of 850 ± 115 mg NaHCO(3)/L, associated with a mean conductivity EC10 of 1145 µS/cm, which is considerably lower than toxicity of NaCl and artificial seawater to this species reported elsewhere. Because toxicity was influenced by salt composition, specific ions should be regulated rather than conductivity alone in mine wastewater discharges. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Different modes of TiO2 uptake by Ceriodaphnia dubia: relevance to toxicity and bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Iswarya, V; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-07-01

    The extensive environmental exposure of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) may result in their bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms leading to their biotransfer in a food chain through various routes in a freshwater ecosystem. The present study focuses on the possible modes of TiO2 NP trophic transfer to Ceriodaphnia dubia, in presence and/absence of its diet, Scenedesmus obliquus (primary producer). The acute exposure studies (48h) were designed to have daphnids exposed to (i) the free NPs, (ii) both the free and the algae-borne NPs; and (iii) only the algae-borne NPs in separate tests to understand the possible routes of NP transfer. The dietary uptake of TiO2 NPs (algae-borne) was found to be the primary route for NP biotransfer with ∼70% of total NP uptake. Interestingly, in a separate study it was noticed that the NPs coated with algal exudates were easily taken up by daphnids as compared to pristine NPs of same concentrations, leading to their higher bioaccumulation. A chronic toxicity study, where daphnids were exposed to both free and algae-borne NPs for 21 days was undertaken to comprehend the TiO2 NP effect on daphnia growth and reproduction upon chronic exposure and also the bioaccumulation potential. Both acute and chronic exposure studies suggested higher bioaccumulation of TiO2 in daphnids when the particles were less toxic to the diet (algae). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of water quality parameters on boron toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, Gail M; Stubblefield, William A; Schlekat, Christian E

    2009-07-01

    The potential modifying effects of certain water quality parameters (e.g., hardness, alkalinity, pH) on the acute toxicity of boron were tested using a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. By comparison, boron acute toxicity was less affected by water quality characteristics than some metals (e.g., copper and silver). Increases in alkalinity over the range tested did not alter toxicity. Increases in water hardness appeared to have an effect with very hard waters (>500 mg/L as CaCO(3)). Decreased pH had a limited influence on boron acute toxicity in laboratory waters. Increasing chloride concentration did not provide a protective effect. Boron acute toxicity was unaffected by sodium concentrations. Median acute lethal concentrations (LC(50)) in natural water samples collected from three field sites were all greater than in reconstituted laboratory waters that matched natural waters in all respects except for dissolved organic carbon. Water effect ratios in these waters ranged from 1.4 to 1.8. In subsequent studies using a commercially available source of natural organic matter, acute toxicity decreased with increased dissolved organic carbon, suggesting, along with the natural water studies, that dissolved organic carbon should be considered further as a modifier of boron toxicity in natural waters where it exceeds 2 mg/L.

  14. Antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of Myrciaria floribunda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS A.C. TIETBOHL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd. O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell. Antioxidant activity was determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC assays and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Ethyl acetate extract of M. floribunda exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI between 69.70 and 172.10 µg/mL. For HaCat cell, TGI value was 213.60 µg/mL. M. floribunda showed a strong antioxidant potential: EC50 of 45.89±0.42 µg/mL and 0.55±0.05 mmol TE/g for DPPH and ORAC, respectively. Total phenolic content was 0.23±0.013g gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g extract and exhibited 13.10±1.60% of tannins content. The content of flavonoid was 24.08±0.44% expressed as rutin equivalents. These results provide a direction for further researches about the antitumoral potential of M. floribunda.

  15. Trophic transfer potential of aluminium oxide nanoparticles using representative primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of alumina nanoparticles using Chlorella ellipsoides and Ceriodaphnia dubia. • Subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. • Disruption the energy flow through the food chain. • Transmission electron microscopy validated the disrupted feeding behaviour. - Abstract: The transfer of nanoparticles through the food chain can lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnification resulting in a long term negative impact on the ecosystem functions. The primary objective of this study was evaluation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles transfer from primary producers to primary consumers. A simple set up consisting of a primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia) was used. Here, C. ellipsoides were exposed to the varying concentrations of the nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 120 μg/mL (196 to 1176 μM) for 48 h and the infested algal cells were used as the feed to C. dubia. The bioaccumulation of the nanoparticles into the daphnids was noted and the biomagnification factors were computed. The exposure was noted to cause subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. This might have long term consequences in the energy flow through the food chain. The reproductive behaviour of the daphnids remained unaffected upon exposure to nanoparticle infested algal feed. Distinct observations at ultra-structural scale using transmission electron microscopy provided visual evidences for the disrupted feeding behaviour upon exposure to nanoparticle treated algae. Internalization of nanoparticle like inclusion bodies in the intracellular space of algae was also detected. The findings were further substantiated by a detailed analysis of hydrodynamic stability, bioavailability and dissolution of ions from the nanoparticles over the exposure period. Altogether, the study brings out the first of its kind of observation of trophic transfer potential/behaviour of aluminium oxide nanoparticles and

  16. Congo red dye affects survival and reproduction in the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia. Effects of direct and dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2016-12-01

    Nearly 7 00000 tons of dyes are produced annually throughout the world. Azo dyes are widely used in the textile and paper industries due to their low cost and ease of application. Their extensive use results in large volumes of wastewater being discharged into aquatic ecosystems. Large volume discharges constitute a health risk since many of these dyes, such as Congo Red, are elaborated with benzidine, a known carcinogenic compound. Information regarding dye toxicity in aquatic ecosystems is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Congo Red on survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia. We determined the 48 h median lethal concentration (LC50) and evaluated the effects of sublethal concentrations in subchronic exposures by using as food either fresh algae or algae previously exposed to the dye. LC50 was 13.58 mg L(-1). In subchronic assays, survival was reduced to 80 and 55 %, and fertility to 40 and 70 %, as compared to the control, in C. dubia fed with intoxicated cells or with the mix of intoxicated + fresh algae, respectively, so the quantity and type of food had a significant effect. We determined that Congo Red is highly toxic to C. dubia since it inhibits survival and fertility in concentrations exceeding 3 mg L(-1). Our results show that this dye produces negative effects at very low concentrations. Furthermore, our findings warn of the risk associated with discharging dyes into aquatic environments. Lastly, the results emphasize the need to regulate the discharge of effluents containing azo dyes.

  17. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides: influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; James F. Ranville,; Emily K. Lesher,; Daniel J. Diedrich,; Diane M. McKnight,; Ruth M. Sofield,

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on ,i>Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  18. Revision of Campsurus violaceus species group (Ephemeroptera: Polymitarcyidae) with new synonymies and nomina dubia in Campsurus Eaton, 1868.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineri, C; Salles, F F; Emmerich, D

    2015-02-19

    The violaceus species group (formerly notatus species group) of Campsurus Eaton is revised. All the species in the violaceus group are diagnosed. A new species, C. molinai sp. nov. is described based on male imagos from Bolivia, characterized by their large and sclerotized penes. The violaceus group is proposed to include the following species: C. assimilis Traver, C. truncatus Ulmer (=C. mahunkai Puthz = C. melanocephalus Pereira & da Silva, new synonyms), C. violaceus Needham & Murphy (= C. meyeri Navás = C. notatus Needham & Murphy = C. paranensis Navás, new synonyms), C. emersoni Traver, C. decoloratus (Hagen), and C. molinai sp.nov. Additionally we consider the following species as nomina dubia: C. longicauda Navás, C. pfeifferi Navás, C. zikani Navás, C. albicans (orig. Ephemera albicans Percheron in Guerin & Percheron), C. burmeisteri Ulmer, C. dallasi Navás, C. quadridentatus Eaton, C. claudus Needham & Murphy, C. corumbanus Needham & Murphy, C. dorsalis (Burmeister), C. mutilus Needham & Murphy, and C. striatus Needham & Murphy. Given the results presented herein (five species synonymized and 12 proposed as nomina dubia), only 28 valid species remain in the genus Campsurus. Additionally, the nymphal stages of C. violaceus and C. truncatus are described and illustrated. Female adult genitalia (sockets) and eggs of C. decoloratus are described for the first time. Diagnoses, new country records, and redescriptions of selected characters of the imagos for the species of the violaceus group are given.

  19. Comparing the effectiveness of chronic water column tests with the crustaceans Hyalella azteca (order: Amphipoda) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (order: Cladocera) in detecting toxicity of current-use insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanovic, Linda A; Markiewicz, Dan; Stillway, Marie; Fong, Stephanie; Werner, Inge

    2013-03-01

    Standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency laboratory tests are used to monitor water column toxicity in U.S. surface waters. The water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia is among the most sensitive test species for detecting insecticide toxicity in freshwater environments.Its usefulness is limited, however, when water conductivity exceeds 2,000 µS/cm (approximately 1 ppt salinity) and test effectiveness is insufficient. Water column toxicity tests using the euryhaline amphipod Hyalella azteca could complement C. dubia tests; however, standard chronic protocols do not exist. The present study compares the effectiveness of two water column toxicity tests in detecting the toxicity of two organophosphate (OP) and two pyrethroid insecticides: the short-term chronic C. dubia test, which measures mortality and fecundity, and a 10-d H. azteca test, which measures mortality and growth. Sensitivity was evaluated by comparing effect data, and end point variability was evaluated by comparing minimum significant differences. Tests were performed in synthetic water and filtered ambient water to quantify the influence of water matrix on effect concentrations. The H. azteca test detected pyrethroid toxicity far more effectively, while the C. dubia test was more sensitive to OPs. Among endpoints, H. azteca mortality was most robust. The results demonstrate that the H. azteca test is preferable when conductivity of water samples is 2,000 to 10,000 µS/cm or if contaminants of concern include pyrethroid insecticides. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Leachate From Expanded Polystyrene Cups Is Toxic to Aquatic Invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Thaysen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Expanded polystyrene (EPS products and their associated chemicals (e.g., styrenes are widespread in the marine environment. As a consequence, bans on their use for single-use packaging materials are being proposed in several municipalities. To better understand how science can inform decision-making, we looked at the available scientific literature about contamination and effects and conducted experiments to measure chemical leachate from polystyrene products and toxicity from the leachate. We conducted leaching experiments with common food matrices (water, soup broth, gravy, black coffee and coffee with cream and sugar at relevant temperatures (70 and 95°C that are consumed in or with several polystyrene products (coffee cup lids, polystyrene stir sticks, polystyrene spoons, EPS cups, EPS bowls, and EPS takeout containers. We analyzed each sample for styrene, ethylbenzene, toluene, benzene, meta- and para- xylene, isopropylbenzene, and isopropyltoluene—chemicals associated with polystyrene products. To determine whether the leachates are toxic, we conducted chronic toxicity tests, measuring survival and reproductive output in Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity tests included nine treatments: seven concentrations of ethylbenzene, EPS cup leachate and a negative control. Overall, we found that temperature has a significant effect on leaching. We only detected leachates in trials conducted at higher temperature −95°C. Ethylbenzene was the only target analyte with final concentrations above the method limit of detection, and was present in the greatest concentrations in EPS and with soup broth. Measurable concentrations of ethylbenzene in the leachate ranged from 1.3 to 3.4 μg/L. In toxicity tests, the calculated LC50 for ethylbenzene was 14 mg/L and the calculated LC20 was 210 μg/L. For the treatment exposed to the EPS cup leachate, mortality was 40%—four times greater than the negative control. Finally, there was no significant difference (p

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

    1993-03-31

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ``Guideline`` for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application.

  2. Chronic toxicity of parabens and their chlorinated by-products in Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Masanori; Abe, Ryoko; Makino, Masakazu; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    The chronic toxicity of 12 compounds of parabens and their chlorinated by-products was investigated using 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia test under static renewal condition in order to generate information on how to disinfect by-products of preservatives that are discharged in aquatic systems. The mortality and inhibition of reproduction tended to increase with increasing hydrophobicity and decreased with the degree of chlorination of parabens. The EC50 values for mortality, offspring number, and first brood production ranged between 0.30-3.1, 0.047-12, and 1.3-6.3 mg L(-1) , respectively. For the number of neonates, the most sensitive endpoint, the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) values ranged from 0.63 to 10 mg L(-1) and from 1.2 to 19 mg L(-1) , respectively. Methylparaben (MP), benzylparaben (BnP), and dichlorinated BnP (Cl2 BnP) elicited a significant decrease in offspring numbers even at their lowest concentration tested; the NOEC for these compounds was determined to be less than the lowest test concentration (1.3, 0.04, and 0.63 mg L(-1) for MP, BnP, and Cl2 BnP, respectively). Propylparaben (PP), chlorinated PP, isopropylparaben (iPP), and chlorinated iPP exhibited nonmonotonic concentration-dependent response; their NOEC and LOEC values could not be determined. The multivariate approach involving principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four groups that corresponded to the toxicological profiles of parabens. Our results suggested that disinfection of parabens by chlorination could reduce aquatic toxicity of original compounds. The findings obtained in our study together with the data available on paraben concentrations in aquatic systems can be used to perform preliminary risk assessment by comparing the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) with the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for the marine aquatic environment. The calculated PEC/PNEC ratios ranged from 0

  3. Multi-linear regression models predict the effects of water chemistry on acute lead toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, A J; Brix, K V; Mager, E M; Grosell, M

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined the acute toxicity of lead (Pb) to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas in a variety of natural waters. The natural waters were selected to range in pertinent water chemistry parameters such as calcium, pH, total CO(2) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Acute toxicity was determined for C. dubia and P. promelas using standard 48h and 96h protocols, respectively. For both organisms acute toxicity varied markedly according to water chemistry, with C. dubia LC50s ranging from 29 to 180μg/L and P. promelas LC50s ranging from 41 to 3598μg/L. Additionally, no Pb toxicity was observed for P. promelas in three alkaline natural waters. With respect to water chemistry parameters, DOC had the strongest protective impact for both organisms. A multi-linear regression (MLR) approach combining previous lab data and the current data was used to identify the relative importance of individual water chemistry components in predicting acute Pb toxicity for both species. As anticipated, the P. promelas best-fit MLR model combined DOC, calcium and pH. Unexpectedly, in the C. dubiaMLR model the importance of pH, TCO(2) and calcium was minimal while DOC and ionic strength were the controlling water quality variables. Adjusted R(2) values of 0.82 and 0.64 for the P. promelas and C. dubia models, respectively, are comparable to previously developed biotic ligand models for other metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of glyphosate and its formulation (Roundup) on the toxicity and bioavailability of metals to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Martin T K; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Chu, L M

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the toxicological interaction between glyphosate (or its formulation, Roundup) and several heavy metals to a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. We demonstrated that all binary combinations of Roundup and metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) exhibited "less than additive" mixture toxicity, with 48-h LC50 toxic unit > 1. Addition of glyphosate alone could significantly reduce the acute toxicity of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (but not Hg and Se). The ratio between glyphosate and metal ions was important in determining the mitigation of metal toxicity by glyphosate. A bioaccumulation study showed that in the presence of glyphosate the uptake of some metals (e.g. Ag) was halted but that of others (e.g. Hg) was increased significantly. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that glyphosate and its commercial formulations can control the toxicity as well as the bioavailability of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems where both groups of chemicals can co-occur.

  5. USE OF CARBOXYLESTERASE ACTIVITY TO REMOVE PYRETHROID-ASSOCIATED TOXICITY TO CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA AND HYALELLA AZTECA IN TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Craig E.; Miller, Jeff L.; Miller, Mike J.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Huntley, Sarah A.; Gee, Shirley J.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in the use and application of pyrethroid insecticides have resulted in concern regarding potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. Methods for the detection of pyrethroids in receiving waters are required to monitor environmental levels of these insecticides. One method employed for the identification of causes of toxicity in aquatic samples is the toxicity identification evaluation (TIE); however, current TIE protocols do not include specific methods for pyrethroid detection. Recent work identified carboxylesterase treatment as a useful method for removing/detecting pyrethroid-associated toxicity. The present study has extended this earlier work and examined the ability of carboxylesterase activity to remove permethrin- and bifenthrin-associated toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca in a variety of matrices, including laboratory water, Sacramento River (CA, USA) water, and Salinas River (CA, USA) interstitial water. Esterase activity successfully removed 1,000 ng/L of permethrin-associated toxicity and 600 ng/L of bifenthrin-associated toxicity to C. dubia in Sacramento River water. In interstitial water, 200 ng/L of permethrin-associated toxicity and 60 ng/L of bifenthrin-associated toxicity to H. azteca were removed. The selectivity of the method was validated using heat-inactivated enzyme and bovine serum albumin, demonstrating that catalytically active esterase is required. Further studies showed that the enzyme is not significantly inhibited by metals. Matrix effects on esterase activity were examined with municipal effluent and seawater in addition to the matrices discussed above. Results confirmed that the esterase retains catalytic function in a diverse array of matrices, suggesting that this technique can be adapted to a variety of aquatic samples. These data demonstrate the utility of carboxylesterase treatment as a viable step to detect the presence of pyrethroids in receiving waters. PMID:16629136

  6. Toxicity of noradrenaline, a novel anti-biofouling component, to two non-target zooplankton species, Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overturf, C L; Wormington, A M; Blythe, K N; Gohad, N V; Mount, A S; Roberts, A P

    2015-05-01

    Noradrenaline (NA) is the active component of novel antifouling agents and acts by preventing attachment of fouling organisms. The goal of this study was to examine the toxicity of NA to the non-target zooplankton D. magna and C. dubia. Neonates were exposed to one of five concentrations of NA and effects on survival, reproduction and molting were determined. Calculated LC50 values were determined to be 46 and 38 μM in C. dubia and D. magna, respectively. A 10-day C. dubia study found that reproduction metrics were significantly impacted at non-lethal concentrations. In D. magna, concentrations greater than 40 μM significantly impacted molting. A toxicity test was conducted with D. magna using oxidized NA, which yielded similar results. These data indicate that both NA and oxidized NA are toxic to non-target zooplankton. Results obtained from this study can be used to guide future ecological risk assessments of catecholamine-based antifouling agents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Toxicity of raw and neutralized bauxite refinery residue liquors to the freshwater cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the marine amphipod Paracalliope australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pelli Louise; Clark, Malcolm W; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; Johnston, Max

    2011-12-01

    The extraction of alumina from bauxite produces a highly toxic residue, termed bauxite refinery residue (BRR) or red mud. The toxicity of this material is due to chemical and biological effects of high pH, alkalinity, electrical conductivity (EC), and Na(+) and Al(3+) concentrations. Several neutralization techniques may allow BRR to be used for environmental remediation. The present study investigated standardized 48-h acute toxicity tests with a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and a marine amphipod, Paracalliope australis, against raw supernatant BRR liquor (RL) versus liquors neutralized with acid (ANL), CO(2) (CNL), seawater (SNL), and a hybrid method (HNL). Based on 48-h LC50 values, the toxicity of the liquors to C. dubia increased in the following order; HNL ≤ SNL< ANL ≤ CNL < RL, with comparable responses from P. australis. The high toxicity of RL likely is due to high pH (≈ 12), alkalinity, and Al concentration. Toxicity of CNL likely is due to high EC and alkalinity. Sulfate and Na(+) concentrations are considered sources of toxicity in ANL. Seawater-neutralized liquor and HNL were considerably less toxic to both test species. These data provide evidence of the acute lethal toxicity of raw supernatant liquor from BRR and four neutralized supernatant liquors to the freshwater cladoceran C. dubia and the marine amphipod P. australis, providing valuable baselines for further ecotoxicological investigations of BRR materials in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  8. Toxicity of nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate, and nonylphenol diethoxylate and mixtures of these compounds to Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) and Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneyck, Matthew C; Markee, Thomas P

    2007-11-01

    Three phenolic compounds were evaluated for their toxicity to the freshwater species Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Acute toxicity tests using nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) were conducted using the single chemicals and as binary and tertiary mixtures. These compounds frequently coexist in surface waters as the result of discharges from wastewater treatment plants that are inefficient at removing nonylphenolic compounds. The mean lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) for NP, NP1EO, and NP2EO to the fathead minnow were 136, 218, and 323 microg/L, respectively. The LC(50)s of NP, NP1EO, and NP2EO to C. dubia were 92.4, 328, and 716 microg/L, respectively. The degree of toxic interactions was evaluated by converting mixture LC(50) estimates to toxic units (TUs). When exposed to fathead minnows, the binary mixtures of NP plus NP1EO and NP plus NP2EO produced 0.87 and 0.70 TUs, respectively. The tertiary mixture for the same species produced a TU of 0.86. When exposed to C. dubia, the binary mixtures of NP plus NP1EO and NP plus NP2EO produced 0.48 and 1.12 TUs, respectively, whereas the tertiary mixture gave a TU of 0.90. This research suggests that the compounds are additive or synergistic when present in mixtures.

  9. Influence of glyphosate and its formulation (Roundup[reg]) on the toxicity and bioavailability of metals to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Martin T.K. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang Wenxiong [Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, L.M. [Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: leemanchu@cuhk.edu.hk

    2005-11-15

    This study examined the toxicological interaction between glyphosate (or its formulation, Roundup[reg]) and several heavy metals to a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. We demonstrated that all binary combinations of Roundup[reg] and metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) exhibited 'less than additive' mixture toxicity, with 48-h LC50 toxic unit>1. Addition of glyphosate alone could significantly reduce the acute toxicity of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (but not Hg and Se). The ratio between glyphosate and metal ions was important in determining the mitigation of metal toxicity by glyphosate. A bioaccumulation study showed that in the presence of glyphosate the uptake of some metals (e.g. Ag) was halted but that of others (e.g. Hg) was increased significantly. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that glyphosate and its commercial formulations can control the toxicity as well as the bioavailability of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems where both groups of chemicals can co-occur. - Glyphosate can control the toxicity and bioavailability of many heavy metals in the aquatic environment.

  10. Abelhas visitantes nas flores da jabuticabeira (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg. e produção de frutos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1890 Bees visits associated to Brazilian grape tree flowers (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg. and fruit production - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Nogueira-Couto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a atratividade das flores da jabuticabeira (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg. para os insetos, o comportamento, o tipo de coleta e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos. Foram observados o tempo de desenvolvimento e a quantidade de açúcar solúvel do néctar de flores; os insetos e o tipo de coleta desses insetos. Foram marcados 400 botões florais (200 descobertos e 200 cobertos, para impedir a visita dos insetos. A duração da flor foi de 48 ± 4,6 horas. A quantidade de açúcar solúvel foi baixa (7.14 ± 0.70µg glicose/flor e semelhante entre os horários. As abelhas Apis mellifera, Tetragonisca angustula, Chloralictus sp e Trigona spinipes foram os únicos insetos nas flores (98,0%, 0,88%, 0,57% e 0,55%, respectivamente e coletaram exclusivamente pólen. A porcentagem de frutificação não foi diferente nos tratamentos coberto (19,80% e descoberto (18,62%, mostrando que a presença das abelhas não afetou a produção.This research aimed to verify the Brazilian grape tree flowers’ Myrciaria cauliflora attraction to insects, including their behaviour, sample kind and effect of insect visits on fruit production. The development time and the amount of flower’s nectar soluble sugar, the insects and sample kind were observed. Four hundred flower buds were tagged (200 covered and 200 uncovered, with 5 replications to determine fruiting percentage. Only the bees Apis mellifera, Tetragonisca angustula, Chloralictus sp and Trigona spinipes visited the flowers (98.0, 0.88, 0.57 and 0.55%, respectively, collecting exclusively pollen. Percentage of fruiting did not differ between covered (19.80% and uncovered (18.62% treatments, showing that the bees visits did not affect fruit production.

  11. Myrciaria cauliflora extracts attenuate diabetic nephropathy involving the Ras signaling pathway in streptozotocin/nicotinamide mice on a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major cause of end-stage renal disease and its mortality is continuously increasing worldwide. Previous studies indicate that reactive oxygen species play an important role in high glucose-induced renal injury. Myrciaria cauliflora has been reported as a functional food rich in anthocyanins possessing anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examined whether M. cauliflora extracts (MCE can attenuate diabetic nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetes mellitus mice. First, the composition of the anthocyanins and polyphenols of MCE were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. One hundred mg/kg of streptozotocin and 240 mg/kg nicotinamide were administered to C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet and varied concentrations of MCE. The plasma glucose concentration, body weight, oral glucose tolerance, blood pressure, renal ultrasound ultrasonic wave were monitored every 2 weeks. Following euthanasia, the kidneys of the mice were analyzed using hematoxylin–eosin, periodic acid Schiff, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemistry staining. The results showed that MCE stabilized the plasma glucose and indirectly improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. In addition, diabetes-caused glomerular atrophy, accumulation of saccharide, and formation of collagen IV were recovered or reduced under treatment with MCE in diabetic mice. Our results indicate that MCE has beneficial effects in DN and the mechanism has been confirmed to inhibit Ras/PI3K/Akt and kidney fibrosis related proteins. This work illustrates the potential of MCE rich in anthocyanins and polyphenols as a natural food to inhibit DN.

  12. Names for Ixodidae (Acari: Ixodoidea): valid, synonyms, incertae sedis, nomina dubia, nomina nuda, lapsus, incorrect and suppressed names--with notes on confusions and misidentifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2014-02-24

    A major, but not exhaustive, literature revision has been made to compile the names of Ixodidae from Linnaeus to present. Names are classified as valid, synonyms, lapsus, incertae sedis, nomina dubia, nomina nuda, incorrect and suppressed. Notes are included for confusions and misidentifications among different tick species. The lists included in this study are neither aimed to be consensual nor focusing to stabilize nomenclature, but rather part of a discussion on the species forming Ixodidae and a potential aid for research on tick taxonomy and phylogeny.

  13. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides--influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S; Ranville, James F; Lesher, Emily K; Diedrich, Daniel J; McKnight, Diane M; Sofield, Ruth M

    2014-10-21

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  14. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral de plantas de camucamuzeiro Effect of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition in camucamuzeiro plants (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos Viégas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e do micronutriente boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em plantas de camucamuzeiro, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e B. Os sintomas visuais de deficiências foram, de modo geral, de fácil caracterização para todos os nutrientes. Com exceção do fósforo, as omissões dos demais nutrientes afetaram a produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g kg-1, dos macronutrientes, e em mg kg-1, do micronutriente boro nas folhas, infere-se em uma primeira aproximação dos valores adequados (completo, ou seja: 16,9 a 18,2 de N ; 1,2 a 1,9 de P; 5,2 a 6,0 de K; 9,9 a 11,7 de Ca; 1,4 a 3,6 de Mg; 2,4 a 2,8 de S ; 8,4 a 9,5 de B e do deficiente (omissão , 6,5 a 7,9 de N ; =0,9 de P; =1,7 de K ; 5,4 a 6,5 de Ca; =0,7 de Mg; 0,7 a 1,2 de S e 1,1 a 1,9 de BThe effects of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition of plants of "camucamuzeiro" were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, by means of the missing element technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with eight treatments and four repetitions, including complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and B. The visual symptoms of deficiency were easily characterized for all the nutrients. Excepting for P, dry mass was affected by the omission of all the other nutrients, when compared with the complete treatment. Based on the macronutrient (g kg-1 and on the micronutrient boron (mg kg-1 on leaves contents, a first approach of the adequate values is inferred as being: N= 16,9 to 18,2; P= 1,2 to 1,9; K= 5,2 to 6,0; C= 9,9 to 11,7; Mg = 1,4 to 3,6; S= 2,4 to 2,8; and B= 8,4 to 9,5 for the complete treatment, and N= 6,5 to 7,9; P= 0,9; K= 1,7; Ca = 5,4 to 6,5; Mg = 0,7; S= 0,7 to 1,2 and B= 1,1 to 1,9 for the deficient ones (omission.

  15. Caracterización morfológica y molecular de Leptochloa dubia (Poaceae en Chihuahua, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales-Nieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El gigante [Leptochloa dubia(Kunth Nees.] es una importante gramínea forrajera nativa de México, cuyas poblaciones naturales se han reducido debido a malas prácticas de pastoreo. En este trabajo se analizó la variabilidad morfológica y genética de 32 poblaciones del gigante en el estado de Chihuahua, México. Nueve características morfológicas fueron evaluadas en estas poblaciones, después de dos años de trasplantadas y establecidos en un jardín de observación y bajo condiciones de temporal. La variabilidad genética se determinó utilizando los perfiles de amplificación de cuatro pares de iniciadores u oligonucleótidos. El análisis de componentes principales mostró que los tres primeros componentes explicaron el 75.3% de la variación morfológica. Los cuatro pares de iniciadores produjeron un total de 186 bandas, de las cuales el 56.45% presentó polimorfismo. La combinación de iniciadores EcoRI-AAC+MseI-CAG detectó el mayor porcentaje de polimorfismo (69.57% y 32 bandas polimórficas. El coeficiente de Dice y análisis de agrupamiento generaron cinco grupos. La variabilidad genética y morfológica encontrada en las diferentes poblaciones, podrían servir de base para la selección de ecotipos de gigante para diversos propósitos como producción de semilla, retención de suelo, restauración de ecosistemas y forraje para libre pastoreo o de corte, entre otros. Así también, los resultados de este trabajo son la base para iniciar programas de mejoramiento genético en esta especie.

  16. Thermal biology of prey (Melongena corona bispinosa, Strombus pugilis, Callinectes similis, Libinia dubia) and predators (Ocyurus chrysurus, Centropomus undecimalis) of Octopus maya from the Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola Regil, Javier; Mascaro, Maite; Díaz, Fernando; Denisse Re, Ana; Sánchez-Zamora, Adolfo; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Rosas, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    On the Yucatan Peninsula there is an upwelling which allows access to a body of cold water that controls temperature in this area. This modulates the ecology and distribution of organisms that inhabit the continental shelf. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different acclimation temperatures on the thermal biology of prey as mollusc, crustacean (Melongena corona bispinosa, Strombus pugilis, Callinectes similis, Libinia dubia) and predators as fish (Ocyurus chrysurus, Centropomus undecimalis) of Octopus maya. Octopus prey preferred temperatures between 23.5°C and 26.0°C, while predators preferred temperatures 26.4-28.5°C. The species with largest thermal windows were M. corona bispinosa (328.8°C(2)), C. similis (322.8°C(2)), L. dubia (319.2°C(2)), C. undecimalis (288.6°C(2)), O. chrysurus (237.5°C(2)), while the smallest thermal window was for S. pugilis (202.0°C(2)). The acclimation response ratios (ARR) estimated for prey ranged from 0.24-0.55 in animals exposed to CTMax and 0.21-0.65 in those exposed to CTMin. Amongst predators, ARR ranged from 0.30 to 0.60 and 0.41 to 0.53 for animals exposed to CTMax and CTMin, respectively. Correlating the optimal temperature limits of prey and predators with surface temperatures on the continental shelf and those 4m deep showed that the main prey, Callinectes similis and L. dubia, shared a thermal niche and that an increase in temperature could force these species to migrate to other sites to find optimal temperatures for their physiological functions. As a consequence the continental shelf community would undergo a structural change. Predators were found to be near their optimal temperatures in surface temperatures on the continental shelf. We conclude that they would remain in the area in a warming scenario. The size of the thermal window was related to the type of ecosystem inhabited by these species. These ARR intervals allowed us to categorize the species as temperate or tropical

  17. Conducta alimentaria de Daphnia ambigua Scourfield 1947, Moina micrura Kurz 1874 y Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard 1895 (Cladocera frente a un gradiente de concentración de alimento Feeding behaviour of Daphnia ambigua Scourfield 1947, Moina micrura Kurz 1874 and Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard 1895 (Cladocera under a food concentration gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GINGER MARTINEZ

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Debido a que Cladocera es el grupo de microfiltradores más abundante del zooplancton límnico y cuyas poblaciones se encuentran usualmente limitadas por alimento, la respuesta de los individuos frente a un gradiente de concentración de recursos tendría significativas implicancias sobre los patrones poblacionales y comunitarios. Se comparó la conducta alimentaria de Moina micrura, Ceriodaphnia dubia y Daphnia ambigua (Cladocera frente a las microalgas Chlorella sp. y Oocystis sp. (Chlorophyceae mediante los siguientes parámetros: Tasa de Ingesta Máxima (Imax, Concentración Limitante Incipiente (CLI y Eficiencia de Consumo (b, los cuales fueron obtenidos a través de un modelo de respuesta funcional. Los resultados mostraron que D. ambigua presentó las mayores Imax y CLI sobre ambos recursos, sin embargo, esta especie presentó la menor b. Mientras que D. ambigua no presentó diferencias en b sobre Chlorella sp. y Oocystis sp., M. micrura presentó una mayor b sobre Chlorella sp. y C. dubia sobre Oocystis sp. Estos resultados revelan significativas diferencias interespecíficas en la respuesta alimentaria de Cladocera, grupo que presentó un complejo comportamiento frente a variaciones en la disponibilidad de recursos alimentariosBecause Cladocera is the most abundant group of filter-feeders in the freshwater zooplankton and their populations are usually found under limited resources conditions, the individual response under a resources concentration gradient has important consequences on the population and community patterns. Feeding behavior of Moina micrura, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia ambigua (Cladocera on the microalgae Chlorella sp. and Oocystis sp. (Chlorophyceae was compared by using the following parameters: Maximum Ingestion Rate (Imax, Incipient Limiting Concentration (ILC and Consumption Efficiency (b, which were obtained through a model of functional response. Results indicated that D. ambigua showed the highest Imax and

  18. Nomina dubia in the genus Theridion resulting from errors in instalment six of Carl Wilhelm Hahn’s “Monographie der Spinnen” (Araneae: Theridiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An overlooked error in the correlation of new scientific names with the spider images on plate 4 in Carl Wilhelm Hahn’s sixth instalment of his book ”Monographie der Spinnen” led to the notion that at least two of the spiders illustrated on plate 4 cannot be identified and their names are nomina dubia. Here, I draw attention to the fact that, if the names are re-aligned to the images in a meaningful way, then at least three spiders on plate 4 can be identified. Theridion rufipes sensu Hahn is a synonym of Gongylidium rufipes (Linnaeus, 1758 (syn. conf.. In particular, the previous nomen dubium Theridion tibiale Hahn, 1831 is a senior synonym of Lasaeola tristis (Hahn, 1833 (syn. nov.. Evidence is presented that the junior synonym is in prevailing usage and the senior synonym is therefore regarded as nomen oblitum.

  19. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22--29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis activities. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Reference toxicant test information; and Personnel training documentation.

  20. Comparison of chronic mixture toxicity of nickel-zinc-copper and nickel-zinc-copper-cadmium mixtures between Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Charlotte; Van Regenmortel, Tina; Janssen, Colin R; Blust, Ronny; Smolders, Erik; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2017-04-01

    Although aquatic organisms in the environment are exposed to mixtures of metals, risk assessment for metals is most commonly performed on a metal-by-metal basis. To increase the knowledge about chronic mixture effects, the authors investigated whether metal mixture effects are dependent on the biological species, mixture composition, and metal concentration ratio. The authors evaluated the effects of quaternary Ni-Zn-Cu-Cd and ternary Ni-Zn-Cu mixtures on 48-h algal growth rate (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and 7-d daphnid reproduction (Ceriodaphnia dubia) using a ray design. Single metals were 3-fold to 42-fold more toxic for C. dubia than for P. subcapitata, based on the 50% effective concentration expressed as free metal activity, the range representing different metals. Statistical analysis of mixture effects showed that the ternary and quaternary mixture effects were antagonistic on algal growth relative to the concentration addition (CA) model, when the analysis was based on dissolved concentrations and on free metal ion activities. Using the independent action (IA) model, mixture effects in both rays were statistically noninteractive for algal growth when the analysis was based on dissolved concentrations; however, the interactions shifted toward antagonism when based on free ion activities. The ternary Ni-Zn-Cu mixture acted antagonistically on daphnid reproduction relative to both reference models, either expressed as free ion activities or dissolved concentrations. When Cd was added to the mixture, however, the mixture effects shifted toward noninteractivity for daphnids. The metal concentration ratio did not significantly influence the magnitude of observed antagonistic effects. Regardless of statistical interactions observed, based on the present study, CA and in most instances also IA can serve as a protective model for ternary Ni-Zn-Cu and quaternary Ni-Zn-Cu-Cd toxicity to both species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1056-1066. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25--February 1, 1994. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Meter calibrations; and Reference toxicant test information.

  2. Acute toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to Ceriodaphnia dubia under visible light and dark conditions in a freshwater system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swayamprava Dalai

    Full Text Available The ever increasing industrial and consumer applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs raise concern over the possible risk associated with their environmental exposure. Still, the knowledge regarding nanoparticle behavior in a freshwater ecosystem is lacking. The current study focuses on the toxicity of TiO2 NPs towards Ceriodaphnia dubia (a dominant daphnid isolated from the freshwater under two different conditions; (1 light and dark photoperiod (16:8 h and (2 continuous dark conditions, for a period of 48 h. An increase in toxicity was observed with an increase in the concentration, until a certain threshold level (under both photoperiod and dark conditions, and beyond which, reduction was noted. The decrease in toxicity would have resulted from the aggregation and settling of NPs, making them less bioavailable. The oxidative stress was one of the major contributors towards cytotoxicity under both photoperiod and dark conditions. The slow depuration of TiO2 NPs under the photoperiod conditions confirmed a higher NP bioaccumulation and thus a higher bioconcentration factor (BCF compared to dark conditions. The transmission electron micrographs confirmed the bioaccumulation of NPs and damage of tissues in the gut lining.

  3. Toxicity of waters from the St. Lawrence River at Massena Area-of-Concern to the plankton species Selenastrum capricornutum and Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Duffy, Brian T.; Nally, Christopher J.; David, Anthony M.

    2012-01-01

    In 1972, the US and Canada committed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes Ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. During subsequent amendments, part of the St. Lawrence River at Massena NY, and segments of three tributaries, were designated as one Area of Concern (AOC) due to various beneficial use impairments (BUIs). Plankton beneficial use was designated impaired within this AOC because phytoplankton and zooplankton population data were unavailable or needed “further assessment”. Contaminated sediments from industrial waste disposal have been largely remediated, thus, the plankton BUI may currently be obsolete. The St. Lawrence River at Massena AOC remedial action plan established two criteria which may be used to assess the plankton BUI; the second states that, “in the absence of community structure data, plankton bioassays confirm no toxicity impact in ambient waters”. This study was implemented during 2011 to determine whether this criterion was achieved. Acute toxicity and chronic toxicity of local waters were quantified seasonally using standardized bioassays with green alga Selenastrum capricornutum and water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia to test the hypothesis that waters from sites within the AOC were no more toxic than were waters from adjacent reference sites. The results of univariate and multivariate analyses confirm that ambient waters from most AOC sites (and seasons) were not toxic to both species. Assuming both test species represent natural plankton assemblages, the quality of surface waters throughout most of this AOC should not seriously impair the health of resident plankton communities.

  4. Description of the male of the spider Eustala vellardi Mello-Leitão, 1924,the female of E. delasmata Bryant, 1945 and seven species of Eustala Simon, 1895 declared as nomina dubia (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Maria Rita M; Teixeira, Renato Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The male of Eustala vellardi Mello-Leitão, 1924 and the female of E. delasmata Bryant, 1945 are described for the first time and new distribution records are provided. The types of E. tridentata (C.L. Koch, 1838), E. tristis (Blackwall, 1862), E. essequibensis (Hingston, 1932), E. uncicurva Franganillo, 1936, E. nigerrima Mello-Leitão, 1940, and E. albicans (Caporiacco, 1954), are apparently lost, and those names are therefore, considered nomina dubia. Eustala andina Chamberlin, 1916, which is based on an immature female is also considered a nomen dubium.

  5. Cellular engineering of Artemisia annua and Artemisia dubia with the rol ABC genes for enhanced production of potent anti-malarial drug artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Bushra Hafeez; Suberu, John; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-05-04

    Malaria is causing more than half of a million deaths and 214 million clinical cases annually. Despite tremendous efforts for the control of malaria, the global morbidity and mortality have not been significantly changed in the last 50 years. Artemisinin, extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia sp. is an effective anti-malarial drug. In 2015, elucidation of the effectiveness of artemisinin as a potent anti-malarial drug was acknowledged with a Nobel prize. Owing to the tight market and low yield of artemisinin, an economical way to increase its production is to increase its content in Artemisia sp. through different biotechnological approaches including genetic transformation. Artemisia annua and Artemisia dubia were transformed with rol ABC genes through Agrobacterium tumefacienes and Agrobacterium rhizogenes methods. The artemisinin content was analysed and compared between transformed and untransformed plants with the help of LC-MS/MS. Expression of key genes [Cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS)] in the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin and gene for trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic (TFAR1) were measured using Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Trichome density was analysed using confocal microscope. Artemisinin content was significantly increased in transformed material of both Artemisia species when compared to un-transformed plants. The artemisinin content within leaves of transformed lines was increased by a factor of nine, indicating that the plant is capable of synthesizing much higher amounts than has been achieved so far through traditional breeding. Expression of all artemisinin biosynthesis genes was significantly increased, although variation between the genes was observed. CYP71AV1 and ALDH1 expression levels were higher than that of ADS. Levels of the TFAR1 expression were also increased in all transgenic lines. Trichome density was also significantly

  6. Development and validation of a metal mixture bioavailability model (MMBM) to predict chronic toxicity of Ni-Zn-Pb mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Charlotte; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2017-01-01

    Recently, several bioavailability-based models have been shown to predict acute metal mixture toxicity with reasonable accuracy. However, the application of such models to chronic mixture toxicity is less well established. Therefore, we developed in the present study a chronic metal mixture bioavailability model (MMBM) by combining the existing chronic daphnid bioavailability models for Ni, Zn, and Pb with the independent action (IA) model, assuming strict non-interaction between the metals for binding at the metal-specific biotic ligand sites. To evaluate the predictive capacity of the MMBM, chronic (7d) reproductive toxicity of Ni-Zn-Pb mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia was investigated in four different natural waters (pH range: 7-8; Ca range: 1-2 mM; Dissolved Organic Carbon range: 5-12 mg/L). In each water, mixture toxicity was investigated at equitoxic metal concentration ratios as well as at environmental (i.e. realistic) metal concentration ratios. Statistical analysis of mixture effects revealed that observed interactive effects depended on the metal concentration ratio investigated when evaluated relative to the concentration addition (CA) model, but not when evaluated relative to the IA model. This indicates that interactive effects observed in an equitoxic experimental design cannot always be simply extrapolated to environmentally realistic exposure situations. Generally, the IA model predicted Ni-Zn-Pb mixture toxicity more accurately than the CA model. Overall, the MMBM predicted Ni-Zn-Pb mixture toxicity (expressed as % reproductive inhibition relative to a control) in 85% of the treatments with less than 20% error. Moreover, the MMBM predicted chronic toxicity of the ternary Ni-Zn-Pb mixture at least equally accurately as the toxicity of the individual metal treatments (RMSEMix = 16; RMSEZn only = 18; RMSENi only = 17; RMSEPb only = 23). Based on the present study, we believe MMBMs can be a promising tool to account for the effects of water

  7. Estudo da toxicidade de metais (zinco e cádmio sobre Ceriodaphnia dubia, por multivias de exposição e recuperação biológica de descendentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Merides Carvalho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os metais frequentemente são avaliados em águas doces como soluções dissolvidas, assumindo que o efeito tóxico é causado unicamente por via aquática (respiração e contato. No entanto, estudos abrangendo concomitantemente a toxicidade na água e no alimento, como acontece no meio, são pouco discutidos na literatura. No presente estudo, a toxicidade de zinco e cádmio foi avaliada expondo-se Ceriodaphnia dubia simultaneamente ao alimento e ao meio aquoso. A espécie de alga verde Raphidocelis subcapitata foi exposta durante 96h a concentrações de Zn (0,18 e 0,27 mg.L-1 e Cd (0,001 e 0,0015 mg.L-1. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente por meio da Análise de Variância (Kruskal-Wallis. As algas foram usadas como fonte de alimento para C. dubia, durante exposição crônica (oito dias, nas mesmas concentrações. Posteriormente, os neonatos (geração F1 foram introduzidos em água e alimentação sem contaminantes, para averiguação da capacidade de recuperação biológica. Foram avaliados número de neonatos por indivíduos, morfologia dos neonatos e quantificação dos metais em tecido biológico. Os resultados demonstraram que nas concentrações testadas não houve inibição no crescimento de R. subcapitata, enquanto para C. dubia evidenciou-se toxicidade crônica pela redução na taxa reprodutiva nas duas gerações, para ambos metais. Concluiu-se que, mesmo em concentrações relativamente baixas, os metais zinco e cádmio podem alterar o padrão reprodutivo dos invertebrados de água doce, comprometendo o ecossistema aquático e sua capacidade de recuperação. Considerando os efeitos tóxicos desses metais e sua interferência no sistema biológico, novos ensaios ecotoxicológicos devem ser realizados para melhor compreensão do comportamento dessas substâncias nos organismos.

  8. Barras de cereales energéticas y enriquecidas con otras fuentes vegetales

    OpenAIRE

    Zenteno Pacheco, Sonia; Universidad Peruana Unión, E.P. Ingeniería de Alimentos

    2016-01-01

    Las barras de cereales se constituyen a base de avena pero además se adicionan ingredientes como la jalea de mora, harina de camote, camu camu deshidratado, cascara de piña, murici deshidratado, algarrobo y semillas de macauba. El objetivo es sistematizar la revisión de las distintas barras de cereales y conocer el elemento que destaca nutricionalmente. Se compararon cada una de las barras frente a una barra comercial. La información disponible realizados por los estudios de barras de cereale...

  9. Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.

  10. Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12 day at 15 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889 mg GAE 100 g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532 mg AA 100 mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-288 1 μmol Trolox Eq 100 g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contribution of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil to the development of plant cultivars and their impact on agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida das Graças Claret de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of breeding programs in northern Brazil and their main impacts on agriculture. Their contribution to the breeding of the species palm oil, acai fruit, cacao, cupuaçu, guarana, tomato, camu-camu, cocona, peach palm, and rubber was laid out in detail. Advances in breeding programs of institutions such as Embrapa, Ceplac, Inpa, and Universities require investments in infrastructure and in human and financial resources to ensure continuity and efficiency in economic, social and environmental gains. The improvement of native species, the main focus of the breeding programs of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil, is a form of exploiting the Amazonian biodiversity for the benefit of society. Therefore, policies to foster research institutions should be a subject of deliberation and action of the scientific and technological community in Brazil.

  12. Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region Caracterização da atividade antioxidante de frutos nativos da região Amazõnica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar à caracterização química e a capacidade antioxidante em oito espécies de frutos nativos da Amazônia. Todos os frutos foram coletados em completo desenvolvimento da maturidade fisiológica e comercial em propriedades rurais localizadas em: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM e Belém / PA. Ao final do experimento, o padrão funcional para os frutos de camu-camu mostrou que o conteúdo de fenólicos totais, de vitamina C e a atividade antioxidante foi superior em compração às demais espécies. Apesar das perdas nos componentes funcionais detectadas para as amostras liofilizadas de camu-camu, todas as amostras dos demais frutos mantidas em temperatura

  13. Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia Production of blends based on tropical and native fruits from brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. Foi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% de maracujá; 1 blend entre as matrizes - 50% de abacaxi + 50% de maracujá; 7 blends de cada matriz com cada fruto escolhido, na proporção de 1:1. Foram adicionados benzoato de sódio e dióxido de enxofre, nas concentrações de 500 e 200 ppm, respectivamente, em todos os néctares e blends trabalhados. Os resultados referentes à composição nutricional dos blends refletiram aumento significativo nos valores nutricionais quando em comparação com as matrizes, bem como com os néctares individuais de cada fruto. O mesmo comportamento foi observado mesmo após 10 dias de armazenamento não refrigerado. Com relação à estabilidade microbiológica, apenas os blends que utilizaram o buriti como componente apresentaram comprometimento. As análises químicas dos blends demonstraram padrões distintos das matrizes; entretanto, quando submetidos à análise sensorial, mostraram-se satisfatórias por parte dos julgadores. As composições que mais agradaram os julgadores foram os blends de ambas as matrizes associadas ao camu-camu e murici.The aim of this work was to obtain the nutritional enrichment of nectars of fruits, by means of blends processament, using tropical and Amazonian fruit produced in Roraima. Nectars of pineapple, buriti, cashew, camu-camu, star fruit, passion fruit, murici, Tahiti lime and taperebá were used. A preliminary assay was carried out where it was observed that the nectars of pineapple and passion fruit would be used as

  14. Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. Foi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% de maracujá; 1 blend entre as matrizes - 50% de abacaxi + 50% de maracujá; 7 blends de cada matriz com cada fruto escolhido, na proporção de 1:1. Foram adicionados benzoato de sódio e dióxido de enxofre, nas concentrações de 500 e 200 ppm, respectivamente, em todos os néctares e blends trabalhados. Os resultados referentes à composição nutricional dos blends refletiram aumento significativo nos valores nutricionais quando em comparação com as matrizes, bem como com os néctares individuais de cada fruto. O mesmo comportamento foi observado mesmo após 10 dias de armazenamento não refrigerado. Com relação à estabilidade microbiológica, apenas os blends que utilizaram o buriti como componente apresentaram comprometimento. As análises químicas dos blends demonstraram padrões distintos das matrizes; entretanto, quando submetidos à análise sensorial, mostraram-se satisfatórias por parte dos julgadores. As composições que mais agradaram os julgadores foram os blends de ambas as matrizes associadas ao camu-camu e murici.

  15. ENANTIOSELECTIVE CHRONIC TOXICITY OF FIPRONIL TO CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole pesticide that has greatly increased in popularity in recent years. As a chiral molecule, fipronil is released into the environment as a 1:1 mixture (called a racemate) of its two enantiomers. Previous toxicity work has indicated that the enantiomer...

  16. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  17. Superfruits: Phytochemicals, antioxidant efficacies, and health effects - A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sui Kiat; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2018-01-23

    The term "superfruit" has gained increasing usage and attention recently with the marketing strategy to promote the extraordinary health benefits of some exotic fruits, which may not have worldwide popularity. This has led to many studies with the identification and quantification of various groups of phytochemicals. This contribution discusses phytochemical compositions, antioxidant efficacies, and potential health benefits of the main superfruits such as açai, acerola, camu-camu, goji berry, jaboticaba, jambolão, maqui, noni, and pitanga. Novel product formulations, safety aspects, and future perspectives of these superfruits have also been covered. Research findings from the existing literature published within the last 10 years have been compiled and summarized. These superfruits having numerous phytochemicals (phenolic acids, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, iridoids, coumarins, hydrolysable tannins, carotenoids, and anthocyanins) together with their corresponding antioxidant activities, have increasingly been utilized. Hence, these superfruits can be considered as a valuable source of functional foods due to the phytochemical compositions and their corresponding antioxidant activities. The phytochemicals from superfruits are bioaccessible and bioavailable in humans with promising health benefits. More well-designed human explorative studies are needed to validate the health benefits of these superfruits.

  18. Estrategias bioinformáticas y moleculares para aislar genes con potencial biotecnológico a partir de especies huérfanas de la ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castro Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La amazonía peruana es megabiodiversa y posee millones de genes con potencial biotecnológico que debemos descubrir. Para identificarlos, aislarlos y poder aprovecharlos tenemos que secuenciar los genomas y transcriptomas de las especies más importantes. Sin embargo, hasta concretar este tipo de proyectos, combinando estrategias bioinformáticas y moleculares podemos aislar genes con potencial biotecnológico. El objetivo fue aislar genes involucrados en la biosíntesis de vitamina C en Myrciaria dubia. De acuerdo a las relaciones filogenéticas de M. dubia con otras especies, se buscaron secuencias homólogas en el banco de genes del gen que codifica L-galactono-1,4-lactona deshidrogenasa (L-GalLDH. En base al alineamiento múltiple obtenido, se construyó un filograma consenso y de los clados formados se diseñaron cebadores degenerados. Los frutos fueron obtenidos de una colección de germoplasma y el ARN total se purificó, el ADNc se sintetizó y amplificó con cebadores degenerados. El amplicón sintetizado se clonó y secuenció con técnicas estándares. Con las aproximaciones empleadas se logró aislar, clonar y secuenciar un segmento de 921 pb del gen L-GalLDH de M. dubia. En conclusión, con las estrategias bioinformáticas y moleculares descritas se aisló el segmento de un gen que codifica la enzima L-galactono-1,4-lactona deshidrogenasa de la vía biosintética de vitamina C en M. dubia, especie de la que no se disponía de secuencias génicas. Con estas mismas aproximaciones será posible aislar genes de interés biotecnológico de esta y otras especies amazónicas que aún no cuentan con bases de datos de secuencias nucleotídicas.

  19. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. Influence of background water chemistry.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 26 experiments consisting of 149 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  20. CHANGES IN THE APPARENT CYTOPLASMIC HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION OF AMEBA DUBIA ON INJECTION OF EGG ALBUMIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, A.

    1944-01-01

    1. Egg albumin when injected into an ameba or discharged into the solution about it raises the apparent pH of the cytoplasm of the ameba. 2. With time the cytoplasm returns to the original pH 6.9 if the nucleus is present. Amebae that have received repeated injections of albumin in some cases extrude their nuclei. In these cells the cytoplasm remains at the more alkaline pH induced by the albumin for at least 12 hours. 3. When a 2 per cent solution of albumin is introduced into a suspension of amebae there is a temporary marked rise in the rate at which CO2 is given off with no corresponding rise in O2 uptake. 4. The results observed can be explained if the albumin discharged onto the surface of the ameba rapidly enters the cell and there becomes distributed in a phase of the cytoplasm other than the one which contains the phenol red. PMID:19873412

  1. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia. II. Empirical Relationships in Binary Salt Mixtures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 29 experiments consisting of 209 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  2. Influência de embalagens e temperatura no armazenamento de jabuticabas (Myrciaria jabuticaba (Vell Berg cv 'SABARÁ' Packaging and temperature influences on the storage of jaboticaba (Myrciaria jabuticaba (Vell Berg fruits cv.'SABARÁ'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amalia Brunini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas jabuticabas 'sabará' maduras, acondicionadas em bandejas de polietileno tereftalato, revestidas externamente com filme plástico de PVC, esticável e alto aderente, de 12 e 20 micras, e em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, revestidas externamente com filme plástico de PVC, esticável e alto aderente, de 12 e 20 micras. Cada bandeja recebeu 25 frutos. As bandejas foram armazenadas à temperatura de 11±1ºC com 98%UR e em condições de ambiente (23,6 a 28,3ºC com 53,7 a 68,3%UR. Como controle utilizaram-se frutos acondicionados em bandejas de polietileno tereftalato (12x20x5cm não recobertas com filme plástico. Considerando-se os resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que o uso de embalagem associada à baixa temperatura reduziu a perda de massa fresca, prolongou a vida-útil dos frutos com manutenção da aparência até 6 dias, não influenciou na evolução dos teores de acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais e pH, mas interferiu na evolução de carboidratos solúveis e vitamina C. Os frutos acondicionados não recobertos com filme plástico e armazenados em condições ambiente resistiram 2 dias, mas ao final não apresentaram aparência aceitável para comercialização, pois haviam emurchecido e enrugado. As condições de refrigeração (11±1ºC melhoraram a resistência dos frutos acondicionados não recobertos com filmes plásticos, entretanto, após 4 dias apresentaram má aparência.Were evaluated mature jaboticaba 'sabará' fruits packaged into polystyrene expanded trays covered with stretching and sticking PVC plastic film, with stretching thickness of 12 and 20µm, and packaged into tereftalato polyethylene trays covered with stretching and sticking PVC plastic film, with thickness of 12 and 20µm. Into each tray were placed 25 fruits. The trays were stored at 11±1ºC with 98%UR and at environmental conditions (23,6ºC to 28,3ºC with 53,7% to 68,3%UR. Jaboticaba fruits packaged into tereftalato polyethylene trays (12x20x5cm and not corvered with plastic film were used as controls. Taking into considerations the results obtained it is observed that of the use of packaging reduced the weight loss, prolonged the postharvest life of fruits with maintenance the appearance until 6 days,; didn´t interfere, significantly, in the titrable acidity, total soluble solids and pH, but influenced the soluble carbohydrates and vitamin C content. The fruits packed and not recovered with plastic films stored at environmental conditions, resisted until 2 days, but at the end of storage their aspect was not appropriate for market purpose, because showed shrinvelling skin and wither. The refrigeration condition improving the firmness of packaged fruits not covered with plastic film, however after 4 days showed bad appearance, with shrinvelling skin.

  3. Avaliação da composição química de fermentados alcoólicos de jabuticaba (myrciaria jabuticaba Evaluation of the chemical compostion of wine produced from jabuticaba (Myrciaria jabuticaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Alves da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize the chemical composition of samples of alcoholic beverages fermented from jabuticaba produced in five successive crops. Up to 2005 most of the results didn't meet the current legal standards for wines and there was a negative correlation between parameters such as pH and volatile acidity, pH and total acidity, volatile acidity and alcohol content (p<0.01. The implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and must sulfitation during the 2006 harvest lowered volatile acidity and more than 60% of the samples were in accordance with legislation. Also, a significant improvement in alcohol content was found (p<0.05

  4. FORMULAÇÃO E ESTABILIDADE DE CORANTES DE ANTOCIANINAS EXTRAÍDAS DAS CASCAS DE JABUTICABA (MYRCIARIA ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geirla Jane Freitas SILVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A busca de fontes alternativas de pigmentos naturais tem estimulado o desenvolvimento de pesquisas em diferentes frutos tropicais, como a jabuticaba. Esse fruto é rico em antocianinas, um pigmento natural que, além da capacidade de conferir cor, também possui capacidade antioxidante na captura de radicais livres, responsáveis, dentre outras ações, pela proliferação de células tumorais e pelo envelhecimento precoce. Assim, o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi caracterizar e avaliar a estabilidade de corantes formulados a partir de cascas de jabuticaba. Os pigmentos naturais desse fruto foram associados a dois veículos estabilizantes (maltodextrina e goma arábica em três proporções diferente, submetidos ao processo de atomização e expostos a luz a uma temperatura de 25 ± 2°C, comparando-se com amostras controle não expostas a luz, armazenadas a 10 ± 2°C. A estabilidade foi avaliada através de análises de antocianinas totais, polifenóis totais, atividade antioxidante e avaliação colorimétrica. Os corantes apresentaram elevados teores de antocianinas (p0,05, tendo havido maiores degradações nas amostras armazenadas sob incidência de luz a 25°C (p0,05, evidenciando o efeito deletério da luz sob esses compostos. Comparando as três proporções dos dois carboidratos utilizados, os pigmentos antociânicos mostraram-se mais estáveis quando utilizados somente o carboidrato maltodextrina na proporção de 30%. Portanto, as cascas de jabuticaba apresentaram-se como boas fontes de pigmentos naturais, apresentando-se como alternativa viável na obtenção de corantes.

  5. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J; Kennelly, Edward J

    2008-08-15

    Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH˙ IC(50), ranged from very active (19.4 μg/ml) to inactive (389 μg/ml).

  6. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH˙ IC50, ranged from very active (19.4 μg/ml) to inactive (389 μg/ml). PMID:21340048

  7. Antocianinas de açaí (Euterpe oleracea mart.) e casca de jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) na formulação de bebidas isotônicas

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriano,Paula de Aguiar

    2011-01-01

    Os pigmentos naturais, como as antocianinas, proporcionam cor aos alimentos, contribuindo para o seu aspecto visual, atributo este de fundamental importância na aceitação e escolha de um alimento. Algumas frutas como a jabuticaba e o açaí apresentam conteúdo significativo de antocianinas e considerável atividade antioxidante, sugerindo que um alto consumo de alimentos ricos nestes compostos contribui para diminuição no risco de desenvolvimento de diversas desordens crônicas não-transmissíveis...

  8. Desarrollo de técnicas de extracción y análisis de antocianinas y compuestos fenólicos en Jaboticaba (Myrciaria Cauliflora)

    OpenAIRE

    Mera Morillo, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Desarrollo de técnicas de extracción mediante ultrasonidos y mediante fluidos presurizados para así, obtener las condiciones óptimas de extracción de las antocianinas mayoritarias y compuestos fenólicos totales presentes en la jaboticaba

  9. Changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone in patients participating in a low-energy dietary intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliett, Mary; Burke, Jeanmarie R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone following a low–energy-density dietary intervention plus regimented supplementation program. Methods The study design was a pre-post intervention design without a control group. Normal participants were recruited from the faculty, staff, students, and community members from a chiropractic college to participate in a 21-day weight loss program. All participants (n = 49; 36 women, 13 men; 31 ± 10.3 years of age) received freshly prepared mostly vegan meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) that included 1200 to 1400 daily calories (5020.8 to 5857.6 J) for the women and 1600 to 1800 (6694.4 to 7531.2 J) daily calories for the men. Nutritional supplements containing enzymes that were intended to facilitate digestion, reduce cholesterol levels, increase metabolic rate, and mediate inflammatory processes were consumed 30 minutes before each meal. The regimented supplementation program included once-daily supplementation with a green drink that contained alfalfa, wheatgrass, apple cider vinegar, and fulvic acid throughout the study period. A cleanse supplementation containing magnesium, chia, flaxseed, lemon, camu camu, cat's claw, bentonite clay, tumeric, pau d'arco, chanca piedra, stevia, zeolite clay, slippery elm, garlic, ginger, peppermint, aloe, citrus bioflavonoids, and fulvic acid was added before each meal during week 2. During week 3, the cleanse supplementation was replaced with probiotic and prebiotic supplementation. Results Multiple paired t tests detected clinically meaningful reductions in weight (− 8.7 ± 5.54 lb) (− 3.9 ± 2.5 kg), total cholesterol (− 30.0 ± 29.77 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (− 21.0 ± 25.20 mg/dL) (P < .05). There was a pre-post intervention increase in testosterone for men (111.0 ± 121.13 ng/dL, P < .05). Conclusions Weight loss and improvements

  10. Estudo da estabilidade de polpas de frutas tropicais mistas congeladas utilizadas na formulação de bebidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade de duas polpas de frutas tropicais mistas, armazenadas sob congelamento (–18 °C, durante 365 dias, a partir de sucos tropicais mistos: F1 - suco tropical misto de acerola (10%, abacaxi (20%, açaí (5%, caju (5%, cajá (5%, camu-camu (5%, água (43,1% e açúcar (6,9% e F2 - suco tropical misto de acerola (10%, abacaxi (20%, açaí (10%, cajá (10%, água (43,4% e açúcar (6,6%. Análises físicas, químicas e de capacidade antioxidante foram realizadas a cada 45 dias. Os sucos tropicais mistos mostraram-se adequados em termos da legislação vigente no que se refere à acidez e aos sólidos solúveis. Quanto à presença de constituintes bioativos, o suco tropical misto com maior concentração de açaí e cajá apresentou os maiores teores de antocianinas totais e carotenoides totais. Depois de 365 dias de armazenamento congelado, as perdas observadas para o teor de carotenoides foram 2,80% para a formulação F1 e 10,07% para a formulação F2. Já para antocianinas totais, as perdas foram maiores, 44,35% e 73,48%, para as formulações F1 e F2, respectivamente. De maneira geral, observou-se que o armazenamento sob congelamento foi eficaz na manutenção das características químicas e de atividade antioxidante das polpas de frutas mistas estudadas, resultando, após o descongelamento e adição de água e sacarose, em sucos tropicais mistos com boa qualidade nutricional e funcional.

  11. Changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone in patients participating in a low-energy dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliett, Mary; Burke, Jeanmarie R

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone following a low-energy-density dietary intervention plus regimented supplementation program. The study design was a pre-post intervention design without a control group. Normal participants were recruited from the faculty, staff, students, and community members from a chiropractic college to participate in a 21-day weight loss program. All participants (n = 49; 36 women, 13 men; 31 ± 10.3 years of age) received freshly prepared mostly vegan meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) that included 1200 to 1400 daily calories (5020.8 to 5857.6 J) for the women and 1600 to 1800 (6694.4 to 7531.2 J) daily calories for the men. Nutritional supplements containing enzymes that were intended to facilitate digestion, reduce cholesterol levels, increase metabolic rate, and mediate inflammatory processes were consumed 30 minutes before each meal. The regimented supplementation program included once-daily supplementation with a green drink that contained alfalfa, wheatgrass, apple cider vinegar, and fulvic acid throughout the study period. A cleanse supplementation containing magnesium, chia, flaxseed, lemon, camu camu, cat's claw, bentonite clay, tumeric, pau d'arco, chanca piedra, stevia, zeolite clay, slippery elm, garlic, ginger, peppermint, aloe, citrus bioflavonoids, and fulvic acid was added before each meal during week 2. During week 3, the cleanse supplementation was replaced with probiotic and prebiotic supplementation. Multiple paired t tests detected clinically meaningful reductions in weight (- 8.7 ± 5.54 lb) (- 3.9 ± 2.5 kg), total cholesterol (- 30.0 ± 29.77 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (- 21.0 ± 25.20 mg/dL) (P < .05). There was a pre-post intervention increase in testosterone for men (111.0 ± 121.13 ng/dL, P < .05). Weight loss and improvements in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein

  12. Part 2: Sensitivity comparisons of the insect Centroptilum triangulifer to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna using standard reference toxicants; NaCl, KCl and CuSO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criteria for establishing water quality standards that are protective of all native biota are generally based upon laboratory toxicity tests. These test utilize common model organisms that have established test methods. However, only a small portion of species have established ...

  13. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 13, No 37 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Greek style yogurt flavored with pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Effects of jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels in healthy rats · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. A Summary of Aquatic Vegetation Monitoring at Selected Locations in Pools 4, 8, 13, and 26 and La Grange Pool of the Upper Mississippi River System. 1993 Annual Status Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Najas guadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus Nymphaeaceae American lotus Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. Nymphaeaceae White waterlily Nymphaea odorata Ait... Nymphaeaceae Yellow pondlily Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm Onagraceae Floating primrosewillow Jussiaea repens L. Pontederiaceae Water stargrass, Heteranthera dubia

  15. Floral biology of two Vanilloideae (Orchidaceae) primarily adapted to pollination by euglossine bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansarin, E R; Pansarin, L M

    2014-11-01

    Vanilloideae comprises 15 genera distributed worldwide, among which are Vanilla and Epistephium (tribe Vanilleae). Based on field and laboratory investigations, the pollination biology of V. dubia and E. sclerophyllum was analysed. The former was surveyed in a semi-deciduous mesophytic forest at the biological reserve of Serra do Japi and in a marshy forest at the city of Pradópolis, southeastern Brazil. The latter was examined in rocky outcrop vegetation in the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil. In the studied populations, the tubular flowers of V. dubia and E. sclerophyllum were pollinated by bees. Pollen was deposited on either their scutellum (V. dubia) or scutum (E. sclerophyllum). The mentum region of V. dubia is dry, whereas that of E. sclerophyllum presents a small quantity of dilute nectar. Flowers of E. sclerophyllum are scentless, while those of V. dubia are odoriferous. Although V. dubia is self-compatible, it needs a pollinator to produce fruit. In contrast, E. sclerophyllum sets fruit through spontaneous self-pollination, but biotic pollination also occurs. Both species are primarily adapted to pollination by euglossine bees. Pollination by Euglossina seems to have occurred at least twice during the evolution of Vanilleae. Furthermore, shifts between rewarding and reward-free flowers and between autogamous and allogamous species have been reported among vanillas. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Multi-linear regression analysis, preliminary biotic ligand modeling, and cross species comparison of the effects of water chemistry on chronic lead toxicity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, A J; Brix, K V; Mager, E M; De Schamphelaere, K; Grosell, M

    2012-03-01

    The current study examined the chronic toxicity of lead (Pb) to three invertebrate species: the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, the snail Lymnaea stagnalis and the rotifer Philodina rapida. The test media consisted of natural waters from across North America, varying in pertinent water chemistry parameters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), calcium, pH and total CO(2). Chronic toxicity was assessed using reproductive endpoints for C. dubia and P. rapida while growth was assessed for L. stagnalis, with chronic toxicity varying markedly according to water chemistry. A multi-linear regression (MLR) approach was used to identify the relative importance of individual water chemistry components in predicting chronic Pb toxicity for each species. DOC was an integral component of MLR models for C. dubia and L. stagnalis, but surprisingly had no predictive impact on chronic Pb toxicity for P. rapida. Furthermore, sodium and total CO(2) were also identified as important factors affecting C. dubia toxicity; no other factors were predictive for L. stagnalis. The Pb toxicity of P. rapida was predicted by calcium and pH. The predictive power of the C. dubia and L. stagnalis MLR models was generally similar to that of the current C. dubia BLM, with R(2) values of 0.55 and 0.82 for the respective MLR models, compared to 0.45 and 0.79 for the respective BLMs. In contrast the BLM poorly predicted P. rapida toxicity (R(2)=0.19), as compared to the MLR (R(2)=0.92). The cross species variability in the effects of water chemistry, especially with respect to rotifers, suggests that cross species modeling of invertebrate chronic Pb toxicity using a C. dubia model may not always be appropriate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Harmon, S.M. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Short-term whole effluent toxicity testing, which is currently a requirement of the U.S. EPA`s National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), commonly uses the cladoceran species Ceriodaphnia dubia. Despite the advantages to using a common test species to model the toxic effects of effluents, it could be argued that toxicity test results would be more meaningful if a wider variety of test organisms were commonly used. One particular argument against C. dubia is that tests conducted with this species do not always reflect local, site-specific conditions. The careful selection and use of an indigenous test species would produce a more realistic model of local instream effects and would account for regional differences in water quality. Permitted effluent discharges from Savannah River Site (SRS), a government weapons facility operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, require toxicity testing with C. dubia. However, water quality in these receiving streams is markedly different (lower pH and hardness) from standard laboratory water used for the culturing and testing of C. dubia, and it has been shown that this receiving water presents varying degrees of toxicity to C. dubia. Based on these results, it is possible that toxic effects observed during an effluent study could be the result of test organism stress from the dilution water and not the effects of SRS effluents. Therefore, this study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with an indigenous cladoceran species, Daphnia ambigua for routine regulatory testing at SRS. Given the indigenous nature of this species, combined with the fact that it has been successfully cultured by other investigators, D. ambigua was ideal for consideration as a replacement for C. dubia, but further study of the overall success and sensitivity of laboratory-reared D. ambigua was required. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol and

  18. Effects of hardness, chloride, and acclimation on the acute toxicity of sulfate to freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David John; Kennedy, Alan James

    2005-05-01

    The acute toxicity of sulfate to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus tentans, Hyalella azteca, and Sphaerium simile was assessed to support potential updates of Illinois (USA) sulfate criteria for the protection of aquatic life. The mean lethal concentrations to 50% of a sample population (LC50s), expressed as mg S04(-2)/L, in moderately hard reconstituted water (MHRW) were as follows: 512 mg/L for H. azteca, 2,050 mg/L for C. dubia, 2,078 mg/L for S. simile, and 14,134 mg/L for C. tentans. At constant sulfate (approximately 2,800 mg/L) and hardness (106 mg/L), survival of H. azteca was positively correlated with chloride concentration. Hardness also was found to ameliorate sodium sulfate toxicity to C. dubia and H. azteca, with LC50s for C. dubia increasing from 2,050 mg SO4(-2)/L at hardness = 90 mg/L to 3,516 mg SO4(-2)/L at hardness = 484 mg/L. Using a reformulated MHRW with a similar hardness but higher chloride concentration and different calcium to magnesium ratio than that in standard MHRW, the mean LC50 for H. azteca increased to 2,855 mg/L, and the LC50 for C. dubia increased to 2,526 mg/L. Acclimation of C. dubia to 500 and 1,000 mg SO4(-2)/L for several generations nominally increased mean LC50 values compared with those cultured in standard MHRW.

  19. Indicadores naturais de pH: usar papel ou solução? Natural pH indicators: using paper or solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Brotto Lopes Terci; Adriana Vitorino Rossi

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the fruit extracts of Morus nigra - mulberry, Syzygium cuminii - jambolão, Vitis vinifera ¾ grape, Myrciaria cauliflora - jabuticaba are suggested as pH indicators in the form of either solutions or paper. The pH indicator solutions were prepared by soaking the fruits or their peels in ethanol 1:3 (m/V) for 24 h, followed by simple filtration. The pH indicator papers were prepared by imersion of the qualitative filter paper strips in the pH indicator solutions. The different pH ...

  20. Indicadores naturais de pH: usar papel ou solução?

    OpenAIRE

    Terci,Daniela Brotto Lopes; Rossi,Adriana Vitorino

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the fruit extracts of Morus nigra - mulberry, Syzygium cuminii - jambolão, Vitis vinifera ¾ grape, Myrciaria cauliflora - jabuticaba are suggested as pH indicators in the form of either solutions or paper. The pH indicator solutions were prepared by soaking the fruits or their peels in ethanol 1:3 (m/V) for 24 h, followed by simple filtration. The pH indicator papers were prepared by imersion of the qualitative filter paper strips in the pH indicator solutions. The different pH ...

  1. Natural Ph Indicators: Using Paper Or Solution? [indicadores Naturais De Ph: Usar Papel Ou Solução?

    OpenAIRE

    Terci D.B.L.; Rossi A.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the fruit extracts of Morus nigra - mulberry, Syzygium cuminii - jambolão, Vitis vinifera - grape, Myrciaria cauliflora - jabuticaba are suggested as pH indicators in the form of either solutions or paper. The pH indicator solutions were prepared by soaking the fruits or their peels in ethanol 1:3 (m/V) for 24 h, followed by simple filtration. The pH indicator papers were prepared by imersion of the qualitative filter paper strips in the pH indicator solutions. The different pH ...

  2. ITS phylogeny and taxonomy of Phyllachora species on native Myrtaceae from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Maria Desterro Mendes; de Noronha Fonseca, Maria Esther; Silva Boiteux, Leonardo; Câmara, Paulo Eduardo A S; Dianese, Jose C

    Nine Phyllachora species found on hosts belonging to the family Myrtaceae native to the Brazilian Cerrado were described and illustrated. We sequenced nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer barcode regions for representatives of seven species and conducted phylogenetic analyses, which provided strong support for four new species that we describe as Phyllachora cerradensis, P. ermidensis, P. furnasensis, and P. myrciariae. Catacauma nigerrimum was recombined into P. nigerrima, and a key to the common Phyllachora species on myrtaceous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado was also included.

  3. P{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melia dubia Cav. of Meliaceae is a large deciduous tree. Leaves are compound with toothed leaflets. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow in much-branched inflorescences. Fruits are green, ellipsoidal with a single seed covered by hard portion ( as in a mango fruit) and surrounded by fleshy pulp outside. The bark is bitter ...

  4. Further notes on New Zealand Enantiobuninae (Opiliones, Neopilionidae), with the description of a new genus and two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mangatangi parvum gen. n. and sp. and Forsteropsalis pureroa sp. n. are described from the North Island of New Zealand. Pantopsalis listeri (White 1849) and Pantopsalis cheliferoides (Colenso 1882) are redescribed and no longer regarded as nomina dubia; Pantopsalis luna (Forster 1944) is identified as a junior synonym of Pantopsalis listeri. A key to Pantopsalis species is provided. PMID:23653517

  5. Carideorum catalogus: the recent species of the dendrobranchiate, stenopodidean, procarididean and caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Grave, S.; Fransen, C.H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A checklist of recent species of dendrobranchiate, stenopodidean, procarididean and caridean shrimps including synonyms and type localities. Also listed are unavailable names, larval names, nomina dubia and nomina nuda. A complete list of references to original descriptions of taxa listed is

  6. Further notes on New Zealand Enantiobuninae (Opiliones, Neopilionidae, with the description of a new genus and two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangatangi parvum gen. n. and sp. and Forsteropsalis pureroa sp. n. are described from the North Island of New Zealand. Pantopsalis listeri (White 1849 and P. cheliferoides (Colenso 1882 are redescribed and no longer regarded as nomina dubia; P. luna (Forster 1944 is identified as a junior synonym of P. listeri. A key to Pantopsalis species is provided.

  7. The responses of South African patellid limpets to invertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The starfish Marthasterias glacialis is a generalized predator, feeding particularly on Choromytilus meridionalis, but also on several limpets, notably Patella longicosta. Thais dubia (Gastropoda) feeds mainly on barnacles, mussels, and Patella granulans. The gastropods Burnupena delalandii and B. cincta are principally ...

  8. The acute and chronic toxicity of major geochemical ions to Hyalella azteca Ion interactions and comparisons to other species

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of major geochemical ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, HCO3) to Ceriodaphnia dubia can involve multiple, independent mechanisms. The toxicities of K, Mg, and Ca salts were best related to the chemical activity of the c...

  9. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Low Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    watermilfoil E Submersed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.ex Steud common reed ? Emergent Polygonum spp. smartweed N Emergent Pontederia cordata L...spicatum Below Del Rio 8/18/03 313582 323531 3245477 3238196 C. demersum H. dubia Hydrocotyle spp. Ludwigia spp. P. cordata Polygonum spp. P

  10. Depar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... water condition and forest landscape. Odonata generally love to ... architecture of forest vegetation (Hawking and New, 1995). .... their landscapes. Palpopleura portia and P. lucia occurring prominently in all sites. Congothemis dubia was the dominant species of Odonata in Sites I and II while. Brachythemis ...

  11. Description of three new species of Glyphepomis Berg (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Filipe Michels; Gonçalves, Valdenar Da Rosa; Souza, Joseane Rodrigues De; Campos, Luiz Alexandre

    2016-04-15

    Three new species of the Glyphepomis are described: Glyphepomis dubia Campos & Souza, sp. nov., Glyphepomis amazonica Gonçalves & Campos, sp. nov. and Glyphepomis magnocephala Bianchi & Campos, sp. nov. Comparative illustrations of external and internal genitalia, distribution map of the described species, additions to the genus description, and a key to the species are provided.

  12. Extraction and characterisation of protein fractions from five insect species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, L.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Eisner-Schadler, V.R.; Huis, van A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia were evaluated for their potential as a future protein source. Crude protein content ranged from 19% to 22% (Dumas analysis). Essential amino acid levels in all insect species were comparable with soybean

  13. Insect lipid profile: aqueous versus organic solvent-based extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Yi, L.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In view of future expected industrial bio-fractionation of insects, we investigated the influence of extraction methods on chemical characteristics of insect lipids. Lipids from Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia, reared in the Netherlands, were extracted

  14. Bioassay of Surface Quality/Chesapeake Bay, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Aster lateriflorus 175 primarily losing frequency Polygonum sagittatum 187 150 Lindernia dubia 190 Hypericum mutilum 192 Indicator species Impatiens ... capensis 194 primarily losing numbers of individuals Bochmeria cylindiica 196 Pilea pumila 197 125 00 196 Ca0 075- o 1 9 2 25 A -A 0 KI 0 0

  15. Variation in, and causes of, toxicity of cigarette butts to a cladoceran and microtox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micevska, T; Warne, M St J; Pablo, F; Patra, R

    2006-02-01

    Cigarette butts are the most numerically frequent form of litter in the world. In Australia alone, 24-32 billion cigarette butts are littered annually. Despite this littering, few studies have been undertaken to explore the toxicity of cigarette butts in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of 19 filtered cigarette types to Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia (48-hr EC50 (immobilization)) and Vibrio fischeri (30-min EC50 (bioluminescence)) was determined using leachates from artificially smoked cigarette butts. There was a 2.9- and 8-fold difference in toxicity between the least and most toxic cigarette butts to C. cf. dubia and V. fischeri, respectively. Overall, C. cf. dubia was more inherently sensitive than V. fischeri by a factor of approximately 15.4, and the interspecies relationship between C. cf. dubia and V. fischeri was poor (R(2) = 0.07). This poor relationship indicates that toxicity data for cigarette butts for one species could not predict or model the toxicity of cigarette butts to the other species. However, the order of the toxicity of leachates can be predicted. It was determined that organic compounds caused the majority of toxicity in the cigarette butt leachates. Of the 14 organic compounds identified, nicotine and ethylphenol were suspected to be the main causative toxicants. There was a strong relationship between toxicity and tar content and between toxicity and nicotine content for two of the three brands of cigarettes (R(2 )> 0.70) for C. cf. dubia and one brand for V. fischeri. However, when the cigarettes were pooled, the relationship was weak (R(2) < 0.40) for both test species. Brand affected the toxicity to both species but more so for V. fischeri.

  16. Jaboticaba berry peel intake prevents insulin-resistance-induced tau phosphorylation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ângela G; Soares, Edilene S; Mendonça, Monique C P; da Silva, Juliana K; Dionísio, Ana Paula; Sartori, Cesar R; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice; Maróstica Júnior, Mário R

    2017-10-01

    The hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau (tau) in the hippocampus can be caused by central and peripheral insulin resistance and these alterations are related to the development of tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used a high-fat diet to induce obesity and insulin resistance in adult Swiss mice and checked whether supplementation with Myrciaria jaboticaba berry peel for 10 weeks could improve insulin sensitivity, learning/memory performance, and prevent tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Furthermore, adipocytokines, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress were assessed. Myrciaria jaboticaba peel has phenolic compounds (e.g., cyanidin, ellagic acid), dietary fiber and carotenoids, which contribute to great antioxidant capacity. Supplementation of the high-fat diet with 4% M. jaboticaba peel prevented fat weight gain and reduced peripheral insulin resistance. The treated group also showed lower tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus corroborating better learning/memory performance in the Morris water maze test. Maintenance of neuronal viability, lower levels of hippocampal inflammatory markers, and improved brain antioxidant defenses were also related to the consumption of M. jaboticaba peel. These findings contribute to a better understanding of how a high-fat diet supplemented with jaboticaba berry peel counteracts the impairment of cognitive functions caused by high-fat diet intake and diet-induced insulin resistance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Transmission of Leishmania infantum in the Canine Leishmaniasis Focus of Mont-Rolland, Senegal: Ecological, Parasitological and Molecular Evidence for a Possible Role of Sergentomyia Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghor, Massila Wagué; Niang, Abdoul Aziz; Depaquit, Jérome; Ferté, Hubert; Faye, Malick Ndao; Elguero, Eric; Gaye, Oumar; Alten, Bulent; Perktas, Utku; Cassan, Cécile; Faye, Babacar; Bañuls, Anne-Laure

    2016-11-01

    Leishmania (L.) infantum is the causative agent in an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis in the Mont-Rolland district (Thiès, Senegal). In this area, the transmission cycle is well established and more than 30% of dogs and 20% of humans are seropositive for L. infantum. However, the sand fly species involved in L. infantum transmission cycle are still unknown. Between 2007 and 2010, 3654 sand flies were collected from different environments (indoor, peridomestic, farming and sylvatic areas) to identify the main L. infantum vector(s). Nine sand fly species were identified. The Phlebotomus genus (n = 54 specimens; Phlebotomus (Ph) duboscqi and Phlebotomus (Ph). rodhaini) was markedly under-represented in comparison to the Sergentomyia genus (n = 3600 specimens; Sergentomyia (Se) adleri, Se. clydei, Se. antennata, Se. buxtoni, Se. dubia, Se. schwetzi and Se. magna). Se. dubia and Se. schwetzi were the dominant species indoor and in peridomestic environments, near humans and dogs. Blood-meal analysis indicated their anthropophilic behavior. Some Se. schwetzi specimens fed also on dogs. The dissection of females in the field allowed isolating L. infantum from sand flies of the Sergentomyia genus (0.4% of Se. dubia and 0.79% of Se. schwetzi females). It is worth noting that one Se. dubia female not engorged and not gravid revealed highly motile metacyclic of L. infantum in the anterior part of the midgut. PCR-based diagnosis and sequencing targeting Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) highlighted a high rate of L. infantum-positive females (5.38% of Se. dubia, 4.19% of Se. schwetzi and 3.64% of Se. magna). More than 2% of these positive females were unfed, suggesting the parasite survival after blood-meal digestion or egg laying. L. infantum prevalence in Se. schwetzi was associated with its seroprevalence in dogs and humans and L. infantum prevalence in Se. dubia was associated with its seroprevalence in humans. These evidences altogether strongly suggest that species

  18. Assessing the effect of pesticides in agricultural runoff on aquatic life in the Sangamon River near Monticello, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, R.H.; Henebry, M.S.; Branham, M.R.; Olem, H.

    1993-01-01

    Stream-water samples collected from a midwest stream, following a thunderstorm during May 1991 were toxic to water fleas (Ceriodaphnia dubia), but not fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), or a bacterium (Photobacterium phosphoreum) or green alga (Selenastrum capricornutum). It was unlikely that the toxicity to the water fleas was caused by herbicides, but it may have been caused by insecticides.Stream-water samples collected from a midwest stream, following a thunderstorm during May 1991 were toxic to water fleas (Ceriodaphnia dubia), but not fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), or a bacterium (Photobacterium phosphoreum) or green alga (Selenastrum capricornutum). It was unlikely that the toxicity to the water fleas was caused by herbicides, but it may have been caused by insecticides.

  19. Phototransformation of Amlodipine in Aqueous Solution: Toxicity of the Drug and Its Photoproduct on Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina DellaGreca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The phototransformation of amlodipine in water was investigated under various conditions. A quantum yield ΦS2.2×10−4 and a half-life time t1/2 0.419 days were calculated when the drug in water (10−4 M was exposed to sunlight. The only photoproduct found was its pyridine derivative. Formation of this product was explained on the basis of a radical cation intermediate. The acute and chronic toxicity of the drug and its photoproduct were evaluated on different organisms of the freshwater chain (Brachionus calyciflorus, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia. The photoproduct exhibited a stronger toxic potential than the parent drug on the long time for C. dubia.

  20. Feasibility of constructed wetlands for removing chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos from aqueous mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrard, R.M.; Bearr, J.S.; Murray-Gulde, C.L.; Rodgers, J.H.; Shah, Y.T

    2004-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos (an insecticide) and chlorothalonil (a fungicide) are transported in stormwater runoff and can be lethal to receiving aquatic system biota. This study determined removal rates of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in simulated stormwater runoff treated in constructed wetland mesocosms. Using sentinel species, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas, observed declines in toxicity of the simulated runoff after treatment were 98 and 100%, respectively. First order removal rates were 0.039/h for chlorpyrifos and 0.295/h for chlorothalonil in these experiments. Constructed wetland mesocosms were effective for decreasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in simulated stormwater runoff, and decreasing P. promelas and C. dubia mortality resulting from these exposures. The results from this study indicate that constructed wetlands could be part of an efficient mitigation strategy for stormwater runoff containing these pesticides. - Constructed wetlands have potential for treatment of pesticide mixtures in stormwater runoff.

  1. Additions of new species and records to the Tanaidomorpha (Crustacea: Tanaidacea) of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, You-Wei; Hsueh, Pan-Wen

    2015-09-07

    This study reports two new species and one new species record of tanaidomorphan tanaidaceans from Taiwan. The leptocheliid Leptochelia taitungensis sp. nov. can be separated from the most similar species, Leptochelia tarda, in the Leptochelia dubia/savignyi group by having long distal spines on the maxilliped endites and the male having two-articled uropod exopods. The tanaidid Zeuxo shitipingensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from Z. normani in the Zeuxo normani species-complex by having a triangular left mandible lacinia mobilis, only one seta on the pleopod endopod inner margin, and the uropod endopod with five to six articles in most adult specimens. Morphological comparisons between Leptochelia taitungensis sp. nov. and its congeners within the dubia/savignyi group, as well as between Zeuxo shitipingensis sp. nov. and its congeners, are tabulated.

  2. Scientific heritage of Alexandru Roşca: publications, spider collection, described species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoriak, Mariia

    2016-04-01

    During the period 1931–1939, Roşca described 13 spider species. To date, five species names have been synonymised. We propose that six species should be treated as nomina dubia because of their poor descriptions and lack of availability of types and/or other specimens. For two of Roşca’s species, Pardosa roscai (Roewer, 1951 and Tetragnatha reimoseri (Roşca, 1939, data and figures are presented and information on them is updated.

  3. Comparative leaf anatomy in argentine Galactia species Anatomía comparada de hoja en especies argentinas de Galactia

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Tourn; M. T. Cosa; G. G. Roitman; SILVA, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of anatomical characters of the leaves of argentine species of Genera Galactia was carried out in order to evaluate their potential value in Taxonomy. In Argentine 14 species and some varieties from Sections Odonia and Collaearia can be found. Section Odonia: G. benthamiana Mich., G. dubia DC., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart, G. glaucophylla Harms, G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. longifolia (Jacq.) Benth., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Ja...

  4. Environmental Evaluation of Dust Stabilizer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    flea (C. dubia) in acute and chronic toxicity tests at concentrations up to 1,000 to 10,000 mg/L. Aquatic toxicity was also observed in two species...the amphipod (Hyalella azteca) and the water flea (D. magna). In preliminary studies, significant mortality in D. magna was observed at concentrations...various applications for these mate - rials and activities associated with training and mission-related activities, it is difficult to determine intact

  5. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  6. Toxicity of benzotriazole and benzotriazole derivatives to three aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, D A; Cornell, J S; Dufresne, D L; Hernandez, M T

    2001-02-01

    Benzotriazole and its derivatives comprise an important class of corrosion inhibitors, typically used as trace additives in industrial chemical mixtures such as coolants, deicers, surface coatings, cutting fluids, and hydraulic fluids. Recent studies have shown that benzotriazole derivatives are a major component of aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs) responsible for toxicity to bacteria (Microtox). Our current research compared the toxicity of benzotriazole (BT), two methylbenzotriazole (MeBT) isomers, and butylbenzotriazole (BBT). Acute toxicity assays were used to model the response of three common test organisms: Microtox bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia). The response of all the three organisms varied over two orders of magnitude among all compounds. Vibrio fischeri was more sensitive than either C. dubia or P. promelas to all the test materials, while C. dubia was less sensitive than P. promelas. The response of test organisms to unmethylated benzotriazole and 4-methylbenzotriazole was similar, whereas 5-methylbenzotriazole was more toxic than either of these two compounds. BBT was the most toxic benzotriazole derivative tested, inducing acute toxicity at a concentration of < or = 3.3 mg/l to all organisms.

  7. Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian campo rupestre vegetation, with special reference to crepuscular bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome.

  8. Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses of adhesive setae of lizards indicate that they contain lipids in addition to keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, L; Edward, D P; Patil, L; Bouhenni, R; Dhinojwala, A; Niewiarowski, P H

    2011-06-01

    We studied the distribution of lipid material and organelles in the epidermal layers of toe pads from two species of lizards representing the two main lizard families in which adhesive scansors are found (gekkonids and polychrotids), the dull day gecko, Phelsuma dubia and the green anole, Anolis carolinensis. Although lipids are a conspicuous component of the mesos layer of squamate reptiles and function in reducing cutaneous water loss, their distribution has not been specifically studied in the highly elaborated epidermal surface of adhesive toe pads. We found that, in addition to the typical cutaneous water loss-resistant mesos and alpha-layer lipids, the Oberhutchen (including the setae) on the most exterior layers of the epidermis in P. dubia and A. carolinensis also contain lipid material. We also present detailed histochemical and ultrastructural analyses of the toe pads of P. dubia, which indicate that lipid material is closely associated spatially with maturing setae as they branch during the renewal phase of epidermal regeneration. This lipid material appears associated with the packing of keratin within setae, possibly affecting permeability to water loss in the pad lamella, where the surface area is from 4–60-fold greater compared with normal scales.

  9. Chemical and toxicological characterization of slurry reactor biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.

    1998-08-01

    Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil in the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) soil slurry bioreactor (SSBR) eliminated detectable TNT but left trace levels of residual monoamino and diamino metabolites under some reactor operating conditions. The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) field demonstration. Aquatic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia from TNT in the leachates of TNT-contaminated soil was eliminated in the leachates of JAAP SSBR product soil. The toxicity of soil product leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia was reasonably predicted using the specific toxicities of the components detected, weighted by their leachate concentrations. In samples where TNT metabolites were observed in the soil product and its leachates, this method determined that the contribution to predicted toxicity values was dominated by trace amounts of the diamino-metabolites, which are very toxic to ceriodaphnia dubia. When the SSBR operating conditions reduced the concentrations of TNT metabolites in the product soils and their leachates to undetectable concentrations, the main contributors to predicted aquatic toxicity values appeared to be molasses residues, potassium, and bicarbonate. Potassium and bicarbonate are beneficial or benign to the environment, and molasses residues are substantially degraded in the environment. Exotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, inorganic particles, ammonia, and dissolved metals did not appear to be important to soil product toxicity.

  10. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  11. Indicadores naturais de pH: usar papel ou solução?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terci Daniela Brotto Lopes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the fruit extracts of Morus nigra - mulberry, Syzygium cuminii - jambolão, Vitis vinifera ¾ grape, Myrciaria cauliflora - jabuticaba are suggested as pH indicators in the form of either solutions or paper. The pH indicator solutions were prepared by soaking the fruits or their peels in ethanol 1:3 (m/V for 24 h, followed by simple filtration. The pH indicator papers were prepared by imersion of the qualitative filter paper strips in the pH indicator solutions. The different pH leads to color changes in the indicator solutions or papers and it can be used for teaching elementary chemistry concepts.

  12. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  13. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  14. Arborização viária como patrimônio municipal de Campinas/SP: histórico, situação atual e potencialidades no Bairro Cambuí

    OpenAIRE

    José Hamilton de Aguirre Junior

    2008-01-01

    O Bairro Cambuí surge com o início do povoamento da cidade de Campinas, no século XVIII, pelas incursões dos bandeirantes pelo interior do Brasil, através de uma estrada rústica que passava pelo local, denominada caminho dos Goiazes; um dos descampados, campinhos ou campinas do qual a cidade originou-se corresponde às proximidades da atual Praça XV de Novembro. O nome do bairro se deve à presença abundante, na época, da espécie denominada cambuí, Myrciaria tenella (DC.) O.Berg., em sua área, ...

  15. Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region. METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superficial de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de

  16. Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  17. Multiple linear regression models for predicting chronic aluminum toxicity to freshwater aquatic organisms and developing water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Tear, Lucinda M; Adams, William J

    2018-01-01

    The bioavailability of aluminum (Al) to freshwater aquatic organisms varies as a function of several water chemistry parameters, including pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and water hardness. We evaluated the ability of multiple linear regression (MLR) models to predict chronic Al toxicity to a green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), and a fish (Pimephales promelas) as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions. The MLR models predicted toxicity values that were within a factor of 2 of observed values in 100% of the cases for P. subcapitata (10 and 20% effective concentrations [EC10s and EC20s]), 91% of the cases for C. dubia (EC10s and EC20s), and 95% (EC10s) and 91% (EC20s) of the cases for P. promelas. The MLR models were then applied to all species with Al toxicity data to derive species and genus sensitivity distributions that could be adjusted as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions (the P. subcapitata model was applied to algae and macrophytes, the C. dubia model was applied to invertebrates, and the P. promelas model was applied to fish). Hazardous concentrations to 5% of the species or genera were then derived in 2 ways: 1) fitting a log-normal distribution to species-mean EC10s for all species (following the European Union methodology), and 2) fitting a triangular distribution to genus-mean EC20s for animals only (following the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology). Overall, MLR-based models provide a viable approach for deriving Al water quality guidelines that vary as a function of DOC, pH, and hardness conditions and are a significant improvement over bioavailability corrections based on single parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:80-90. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Comparative toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicides: aqueous and sediment porewater exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Martin T K; Chu, L M

    2004-04-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used for aquatic weed control. However, their aquatic toxicity data, especially those on sediment, are relatively scarce. In this study, the water-only acute toxicity of three formulations based on glyphosate (Rodeo, Roundup Biactive, and Roundup) were compared using a water-column organism (cladoceran: Ceriodaphnia dubia) and a benthic organism (amphipod: Hyalella azteca). In addition, Roundup Biactive and Roundup were spiked into a clean sediment which was amended with appropriate amounts of peat moss to study the effect of different organic carbon levels (0, 0.4, 1.2, and 2.1%) on their sediment toxicity, with C. dubia exposed to overlying water or porewater prepared from the contaminated sediments. Results showed that the toxicity based on 48-h LC50s for the three herbicides in the water-only tests was Roundup (1.5-5.7 mg L(-1)) > Roundup Biactive (82-120 mg L(-1)) > Rodeo (225-415 mg L(-1)), and H. azteca was generally more sensitive than C. dubia to these herbicides. Toxicity differences between formulations were due to the different surfactant components in these herbicides. From the porewater toxicity tests, Roundup Biactive (340 mg kg(-1)) and Roundup (244 mg kg(-1)) were similarly toxic in the sediment tests at 0% organic carbon, indicating that the surfactants in Roundup were considerably more adsorptive than those in Roundup Biactive to the sediment of the same organic carbon. Also, an increase in organic carbon significantly decreased the toxicity of Roundup in sediment, but not for Roundup Biactive. Sediment-porewater partitioning of glyphosate was found to be influenced by sediment organic carbon (i.e., glyphosate adsorption increased with sediment organic carbon).

  19. Assessment of diazinon toxicity in sediment and water of constructed wetlands using deployed Corbicula fluminea and laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, J L; Farris, J L; Moore, M T; Smith, S; Cooper, C M

    2007-08-01

    Constructed wetlands for mitigation of nonpoint agricultural runoff have been assessed for their ability to decrease potential toxicity from associated contaminants. After a simulated runoff event, constructed wetlands positioned in series were used to measure the effects of the organophosphate insecticide diazinon. Water, sediment, and plant samples from five sites were analyzed for diazinon concentrations from 0.5 hours to 26 days; peak concentrations were measured in sediment after 0.5 hours (268.7 microg/kg) and in water and plant tissue after 3 hours (121.71 microg/L and 300.7 microg/kg, respectively). Cholinesterase activity and changes in shell growth were measured from Corbicula fluminea deployed at corresponding sites. Water collected after 9 hours from all wetland sites contained diazinon concentrations sufficient to cause toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia, but not to Pimephales promelas. C. dubia survival was decreased in water sampled through 7 days from the site nearest runoff introduction, whereas C. fluminea deployed at this same site experienced 100% mortality after 26 days. Clams from lower sites survived wetland conditions, but growth and ChE activity were significantly decreased lower than that of clams from a control site. C. dubia exposed to water from these sites continued to have decreased survival throughout the 26-day sampling. Sediment sampled from 48 hours through 14 days at the lowest wetland site decreased the laboratory survival of Chironomus dilutus, and sediment from upper sites elicited an effect only on day 26. Although wetland concentrations of aqueous diazinon were decreased lower than toxic thresholds after 26 days, decreased ChE activity in deployed clams provided evidence of residual diazinon effects to deployed organisms.

  20. Effects of glyphosate formulations on the population dynamics of two freshwater cladoceran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, U; Doyle, S R; Momo, F R; Regaldo, L; Gagneten, A M

    2018-02-05

    The general objective of this work is to experimentally assess the effects of acute glyphosate pollution on two freshwater cladoceran species (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and to use this information to predict the population dynamics and the potential for recovery of exposed organisms. Five to six concentrations of four formulations of glyphosate (4-Gly) (Eskoba ® , Panzer Gold ® , Roundup Ultramax ® and Sulfosato Touchdown ® ) were evaluated in both cladoceran species through acute tests and 15-day recovery tests in order to estimate the population dynamics of microcrustaceans. The endpoints of the recovery test were: survival, growth (number of molts), fecundity, and the intrinsic population growth rate (r). A matrix population model (MPM) was applied to r of the survivor individuals of the acute tests, followed by a Monte Carlo simulation study. Among the 4-Gly tested, Sulfosato Touchdown ® was the one that showed higher toxicity, and C. dubia was the most sensitive species. The Monte Carlo simulation study showed an average value of λ always <1 for D. magna, indicating that its populations would not be able to survive under natural environmental conditions after an acute Gly exposure between 0.25 and 35 a.e. mg L -1 . The average value of λ for C. dubia was also <1 after exposure to Roundup Ultramax ® : 1.30 and 1.20 for 1.21 and 2.5 mg a.e. L -1 ,respectively. The combined methodology-recovery tests and the later analysis through MPM with a Monte Carlo simulation study-is proposed to integrate key demographic parameters and predict the possible fate of microcrustacean populations after being exposed to acute 4-Gly contamination events.

  1. Aquatic toxicity of glyphosate-based formulations: comparison between different organisms and the effects of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Martin T K; Chu, L M

    2003-08-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (e.g. Roundup) are extensively used in the aquatic environment, but there is a paucity of data on the toxicity of the formulated products and the influences by environmental factors. In this study, the acute toxicity of technical-grade glyphosate acid, isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, Roundup and its surfactant polyoxyethylene amine (POEA) to Microtox bacterium (Vibrio fischeri), microalgae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Skeletonema costatum), protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis and Euplotes vannus) and crustaceans (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Acartia tonsa) was examined and the relative toxicity contributions of POEA to Roundup were calculated. The effects of four environmental factors (temperature, pH, suspended sediment and algal food concentrations) on the acute toxicity of Roundup to C. dubia were also examined. Generally, the toxicity order of the chemicals was: POEA>Roundup>glyphosate acid>IPA salt of glyphosate, while the toxicity of glyphosate acid was mainly due to its high acidity. Microtox bacterium and protozoa had similar sensitivities towards Roundup toxicity (i.e. IC50 from 23.5 to 29.5 mg AE/l). In contrast, microalgae and crustaceans were 4-5 folds more sensitive to Roundup toxicity than bacteria and protozoa. Except photosynthetic microalgae, POEA accounted for more than 86% of Roundup toxicity and the toxicity contribution of POEA was shown to be species-dependent. Increase in pH (6-9) and increase of suspended sediment concentration (0-200 mg/l) significantly increased the toxicity of Roundup to C. dubia, but there were no significant effects due to temperature change and food addition.

  2. Chemical and toxicological characterisation of anticancer drugs in hospital and municipal wastewaters from Slovenia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, Marina; Lavorgna, Margherita; Russo, Chiara; Kundi, Michael; Žegura, Bojana; Novak, Matjaž; Filipič, Metka; Mišík, Miroslav; Knasmueller, Siegfried; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià; Žonja, Božo; Česen, Marjeta; Ščančar, Janez; Kosjek, Tina; Heath, Ester

    2016-12-01

    Anticancer drugs are continuously released into hospital and urban wastewaters, where they, most commonly, undergo conventional treatment in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Wastewaters contain complex mixtures of substances including parent compounds, their metabolites and transformation products (TPs). In this study, samples of hospital effluents and WWTP influents and effluents from Slovenia and Spain were analyzed for twenty-two selected anticancer drugs, their metabolites and transformation products. Acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed on the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia, genotoxicity was determined with Tradescantia and Allium cepa micronucleus (MN) assays and in vitro comet assay in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cell line (ZFL cells). Sixty of the two hundred-twenty determinations revealed detectable levels of anticancer drug residues. Among the targeted compounds, platinum based were most frequently detected (90%). Furthermore, erlotinib was detected in 80%, cyclophosphamide and tamoxifen in 70% and methotrexate in 60% of the samples. Seven of ten samples were toxic to C. dubia after acute exposure, whereas after chronic exposure all samples reduced reproduction of C. dubia at high sample dilutions. Allium cepa proved insensitive to the potential genotoxicity of the tested samples, while in Tradescantia increased MN frequencies were induced by a hospital effluent and WWTP influents. In ZFL comet assay all but one sample induced a significant increase of DNA strand breaks. Correlations of chemotherapeutics or their TPs were detected for all bioassays except for Allium cepa genotoxicity test, however for each test the highest correlations were found for different substances indicating differential sensitivities of the test organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The myriapodological legacy of Victor Ivanovich Motschoulsky (1810–1871)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The little that remains of Motschoulsky’s myriapodological legacy in the collection of Moscow’s Zoological Museum proves to be of very limited value. Only one species of Diplopoda described by Motschoulsky, the Caucasian Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839), is still in use, yet requiring a neotype designation, whereas the remaining few myriapod names he proposed are either nomina dubia or nomina nuda. The former include Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) and Strongylosoma carinulatum Motschoulsky, 1866 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), both from Japan, as well as Julus costulatus Motschoulsky, 1851 (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Schizopetalidae?), from Montenegro, because their type material is either inadequate or missing. PMID:25147455

  4. DNA barcoding and male genital morphology reveal five new cryptic species in the West Palearctic bee Seladonia smaragdula (Vachal, 1895) (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Alain; Devalez, Jelle; Sonet, Gontran; Nagy, Zoltán Tamás; Boevé, Jean-Luc

    2015-10-29

    Several forms or variants have long been recognized in the West Palearctic sweat bee Seladonia smaragdula (Vachal, 1895). Using DNA barcoding and morphological characters, primarily of the male genitalia, these variants are here recognized and described as five new species: S. gemmella Pauly sp. nov., S. submediterranea Pauly sp. nov., S. orientana Pauly & Devalez sp. nov., S. phryganica Pauly & Devalez sp. nov., and S. cretella Pauly & Devalez sp. nov. Also, we designate a lectotype for Halictus smaragdulus Vachal, consider Seladonia butea (Warncke, 1975) and S. morinella (Warncke, 1975) as nomina dubia, and discuss the identity of the Seladonia specimens from Australia currently determined as S. smaragdula.

  5. Taxonomic notes on the crab spider genus Tobias Simon, 1895 (Araneae, Thomisidae, Stephanopinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Miguel; Teixeira, Renato Augusto; Lise, Arno Antonio

    2015-10-30

    The males of Tobias caudatus Mello-Leitão, 1929 and Tobias pustulosus Simon, 1929 are described for the first time, females are redescribed and both sexes are illustrated. New distribution records are presented for both species. Tobias monstruosus Mello-Leitão, 1929 is considered a junior synonym of T. pustulosus. The types of Tobias albovittatus Caporiacco, 1954, and Tobias gradiens Mello-Leitão, 1929 are lost, and Tobias albicans Mello-Leitão, 1929 and Tobias corticatus Mello-Leitão, 1917 are known only from poorly preserved specimens, thus they all are considered nomina dubia.

  6. Biting midges of the subfamily Forcipomyiinae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Middle East, with keys and descriptions of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin-Kownacka, Alicja; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Szwedo, Jacek

    2016-10-05

    Middle East biting midges of the genera Atrichopogon Kieffer and Forcipomyia Meigen, subfamily Forcipomyiinae Lenz, covering 41 species are reviewed. Two new species are described and illustrated: Forcipomyia (F.) siverekensis Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. and Forcipomyia (Microhelea) borkenti Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. The list includes 16 species of Atrichopogon and 25 of Forcipomyia. Nine species previously described by Vimmer and Kieffer from the Middle East are treated as nomina dubia and not included in the list.        Keys to identification of Atrichopogon and Forcipomyia species of the Middle East are also provided.

  7. The myriapodological legacy of Victor Ivanovich Motschoulsky (1810-1871).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The little that remains of Motschoulsky's myriapodological legacy in the collection of Moscow's Zoological Museum proves to be of very limited value. Only one species of Diplopoda described by Motschoulsky, the Caucasian Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839), is still in use, yet requiring a neotype designation, whereas the remaining few myriapod names he proposed are either nomina dubia or nomina nuda. The former include Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) and Strongylosoma carinulatum Motschoulsky, 1866 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), both from Japan, as well as Julus costulatus Motschoulsky, 1851 (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Schizopetalidae?), from Montenegro, because their type material is either inadequate or missing.

  8. Toxicity of arsenic species to three freshwater organisms and biotransformation of inorganic arsenic by freshwater phytoplankton (Chlorella sp. CE-35).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hogan, Ben; Duncan, Elliott; Doyle, Christopher; Krassoi, Rick; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Naidu, Ravi; Lim, Richard P; Maher, William; Hassler, Christel

    2014-08-01

    In the environment, arsenic (As) exists in a number of chemical species, and arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) dominate in freshwater systems. Toxicity of As species to aquatic organisms is complicated by their interaction with chemicals in water such as phosphate that can influence the bioavailability and uptake of As(V). In the present study, the toxicities of As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) to three freshwater organisms representing three phylogenetic groups: a phytoplankton (Chlorella sp. strain CE-35), a floating macrophyte (Lemna disperma) and a cladoceran grazer (Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia), were determined using acute and growth inhibition bioassays (EC₅₀) at a range of total phosphate (TP) concentrations in OECD medium. The EC₅₀ values of As(III), As(V) and DMA were 27 ± 10, 1.15 ± 0.04 and 19 ± 3 mg L(-1) for Chlorella sp. CE-35; 0.57 ± 0.16, 2.3 ± 0.2 and 56 ± 15 mg L(-1) for L. disperma, and 1.58 ± 0.05, 1.72 ± 0.01 and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) for C. cf. dubia, respectively. The results showed that As(III) was more toxic than As(V) to L. disperma; however, As(V) was more toxic than As(III) to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicities of As(III) and As(V) to C. cf. dubia were statistically similar (p>0.05). DMA was less toxic than iAs species to L. disperma and C. cf. dubia, but more toxic than As(III) to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicity of As(V) to Chlorella sp. CE-35 and L. disperma decreased with increasing TP concentrations in the growth medium. Phosphate concentrations did not influence the toxicity of As(III) to either organism. Chlorella sp. CE-35 showed the ability to reduce As(V) to As(III), indicating a substantial influence of phytoplankton on As biogeochemistry in freshwater aquatic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae hydroids from Costa Rica (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmo, Francisco; Vargas, Rita

    2002-06-01

    This paper is the first taxonomic account of the hydroid orders Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae from the Caribbean and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens are currently stored at the reference collection of the Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Sixteen hydroid species are recorded: Eudendrium carneum, Pennaria disticha, Acryptolaria longitheca, Plumularia floridana, Halopteris polymorpha, Aglaophenia dubia, Aglaophenia latecarinata, Lytocarpia tridentata, Macrorhynchia phillipina, Macrorhynchia sp., Clytia gracilis, Cnidoscyphus marginatus, Thyroscyphus ramosus, Dynamena disticha, Sertularella diaphana, and Tridentata distans. An extensive synonymy has been given for each species. A simplified taxonomic key is included, and illustrations and descriptions are provided for each species.

  10. Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving water to freshwater organisms. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.A.; Klemm, D.J.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Peltier, W.H.

    1994-07-01

    This manual describes four short-term (four- to seven-day) methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to three freshwater species: The fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, a daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and a green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum. The methods include single and multiple concentration static renewal and non-renewal toxicity tests for effluents and receiving waters. Also included are guidelines on laboratory safety, quality assurance, facilities, equipment and supplies; dilution water; effluent and receiving water sample collection, preservation, shipping, and holding; test conditions; toxicity test data analysis; report preparation; and organism culturing, holding, and handling.

  11. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Three Ceriodaphnia Species (Cladocera: Daphniidae from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Australian Ceriodaphnia (Cladocera: Daphniidae are examined using morphological attributes and two mitochondrial DNA (COI and 16s and one nuclear DNA (28s gene fragments to differentiate the species. The sequence data supports the existence of three species, that is, C. dubia, one reinstated species C. spinata Henry, 1919, and one new species C. sp. 1. Morphological characteristics were also able to accurately separate the three species. Furthermore, genetic analysis of COI sequences from Ceriodaphnia supported three clades. The high degree of correlation between morphological and molecular identification in this study indicates that mitochondrial markers, COI and 16s, are appropriate molecular markers for species discrimination and identification of Ceriodaphnia.

  12. Competencia en Cladocera: implicancias de la sobreposición en el uso de los recursos tróficos Competition in Cladocera: implications of the trophic resources use overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GINGER MARTINEZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar que numerosa evidencia demuestra el uso de diferentes estrategias de alimentación entre cladóceros, la clásica descripción de una conducta alimentaria pasiva ha conducido a una subestimación de la sobreposición de nicho trófico sobre sus patrones de coexistencia. En condiciones de microcosmos, se mantuvieron experimentos pareados de dinámica poblacional de los cladóceros Moina micrura (Moinidae y Ceriodaphnia dubia (Daphnidae, especializados en los recursos Chlorella sp. y Oocystis sp. (Chlorococcales respectivamente y del generalista Daphnia ambigua (Daphnidae, durante 35 - 45 días. Mientras que los especialistas M. micrura y C. dubia no dieron evidencias de competencia, la presencia de cada uno produjo un significativo decrecimiento de la densidad del generalista D. ambigua, ocasionando en algunos casos su extinción. A pesar que las dinámicas poblacionales de cada especialista fueron afectadas cualitativamente por la presencia del generalista, no hubo efecto de esta especie sobre las densidades, resultando una interacción asimétrica entre cada especialista con el generalista. Estos resultados demuestran que la conducta alimentaria y la sobreposición en el uso de los recursos serían condiciones determinantes en la composición de ensambles de cladócerosAlthough numerous evidence reveals the use of different feeding strategies among cladocerans, the impact of trophic niche overlap on their patterns of coexistence has been underestimated due to the classical description of passive feeding behavior. Under microcosm conditions, paired experiments of population dynamics were conducted for the cladocerans Moina micrura (Moinidae and Ceriodaphnia dubia (Daphnidae, specialists on the resources Chlorella sp. and Oocystis sp. (Chlorococcales respectively, and for the generalist species Daphnia ambigua (Daphnidae, during 35 - 45 days. While, the specialists M. micrura and C. dubia did not show evidences of competition, their

  13. The myriapodological legacy of Victor Ivanovich Motschoulsky (1810–1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Golovatch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The little that remains of Motschoulsky’s myriapodological legacy in the collection of Moscow’s Zoological Museum proves to be of very limited value. Only one species of Diplopoda described by Motschoulsky, the Caucasian Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839, is still in use, yet requiring a neotype designation, whereas the remaining few myriapod names he proposed are either nomina dubia or nomina nuda. The former include Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae and Strongylosoma carinulatum Motschoulsky, 1866 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae, both from Japan, as well as Julus costulatus Motschoulsky, 1851 (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Schizopetalidae?, from Montenegro, because their type material is either inadequate or missing.

  14. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie) has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita...

  15. Assessment of metal releases and leachate toxicity of oil sands coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Toxicology Centre

    2007-07-01

    Large volumes of coke are produced as a by-product of thermal upgrading of oil sands bitumen in Alberta. This paper examined the feasibility of integrating this stored by-product at wetland reclamation sites. Coke leachate water toxicity was evaluated in this study since coke is known to releases trace amounts of metals when it comes in contact with water. The objective was to determine the cause of toxicity by performing toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) on the leachate. The leachability of metals from coke was examined over a 45 day period in 2-L glass jars using reconstituted water with a hardness of 300 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) at pH levels 5.5 and 9.5. Coke porewater samples and overlying water samples collected periodically were analyzed for trace metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The toxicity of coke leachate was evaluated at the end of the 45 day period using a Ceriodaphnia dubia standard three-brood chronic test with survival and reproduction as endpoints. Coke leachate water from both pH treatments had a negative effect on survival and reproduction of C. dubia. The coke leachate had high concentrations of vanadium, according to metal analysis of leachate water from both pH treatments. In order to identify the cause of toxicity, the coke leachate water will be subjected to several TIE processes.

  16. Are there toxic interactions between salinity and naphthenic acids in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Pasloski, A.; Lanser, B.; Alm, K.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Large volumes of water are used to extract oil from the oil sands in the Athabasca deposit. The resulting oil sands process water (OSPW) has been proposed for use in future reclamation landscapes. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates in order to develop environmentally acceptable OSPW reclamation plans. The OSPW generally contains high concentrations of salts and naphthenic acids (NAs), but low levels of other contaminants such as PAHs and metals. This study investigated the combined toxic effect of NAs and salinity on freshwater invertebrates. Laboratory cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were used initially to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The pond waters that generated a toxic response had elevated levels of NAs and salinity, but the concentrations of salinity ions varied considerably among ponds. Results suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Subsequent bioassays were performed with single salts and with mixtures representing major ion combinations present in the OSPW, such as carbonate, sulphate, chloride and sodium. The interaction between NAs and salinity was evaluated by exposing Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia pulex to mixtures of NAs extracted from OSPW and relevant major ions chosen according to the salt toxicity test results.

  17. New species of Bakeria (Nematoda; Strongylida; Molineidae), new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda; Ascaridida; Kathlaniidae) and other helminths in Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria; Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Grismer, L Lee

    2014-10-01

    Two new nematode species, Bakeria schadi sp. nov. and Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. from the gastrointestinal tract of McGuire's rock gecko, Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria: Gekkonidae) collected in Peninsular Malaysia are described. The two species now assigned to Bakeria are separated on the bases of male bursa type and location of the excretory pore: type II in B. schadi sp. nov. and type I in B. bakeri; location of excretory pore, anterior to nerve ring in B. schadi sp. nov. and posterior to nerve ring in B. bakeri. Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. is most similar to F. chabaudi, F. concinnae, F. condorcanquii, F. barbi, F. dubia, and F. tchadi in that these 7 species possess 1 pseudosucker, 1 median papilla plus 10 pairs caudal papillae, and spicules with lengths between 1 and 2 mm. F. barbi and F. tchadi lack adcloacal papillae; the remaining 5 species possess 1 pair of adcloacal papillae. Falcaustra chabaudi is known from Nearctic salamanders; F. concinnae from Nearctic turtles; F. condorcanquii from Neotropical frogs, F. dubia from Oriental frogs, and F. malaysiaia sp. nov. from Oriental geckos. Two additional species of Nematoda were found, Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. Cnemaspis mcguirei represents a new host record for Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis.

  18. A world checklist of Onychophora (velvet worms), with notes on nomenclature and status of names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ivo de Sena; Read, V Morley St J; Mayer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the number of valid species of Onychophora is uncertain. To facilitate taxonomic work on this understudied animal group, we present an updated checklist for the two extant onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with an assessment of the status of each species. According to our study, 82 species of Peripatidae and 115 species of Peripatopsidae have been described thus far. However, among these 197 species, 20 are nomina dubia due to major taxonomic inconsistencies. Apart from nomina dubia, many of the valid species also require revision, in particular representatives of Paraperipatus within the Peripatopsidae, and nearly all species of Peripatidae. In addition to extant representatives, the record of unambiguous fossils includes three species with uncertain relationship to the extant taxa. For all species, we provide a list of synonyms, information on types and type localities, as well as remarks on taxonomic and nomenclatural problems and misspellings. According to recent evidence of high endemism and cryptic speciation among the Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, previous synonyms are revised. Putative mutations, subspecies and variations are either raised to the species status or synonymised with corresponding taxa. In our revised checklist, we follow the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to clarify previous inconsistencies.

  19. Revision of early taxa of Australian gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesik, Peter; Gagné, Raymond J

    2016-12-07

    Australian Cecidomyiidae described by Schiner (1868), Skuse (1888, 1890), Koebele (1893), Felt (1915), Edwards (1916) and Rübsaamen (1916), totalling 111 species and three subgenera, are revised. Chastomera Skuse, 1888 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of Haplusia Karsch, 1878 and Gonioclema Skuse, 1888 and Necrophlebia Skuse, 1888 are declared nomina dubia. Twenty-two species are placed to genus, an additional four species are placed to supertribe or subfamily, all of them redescribed. The remaining species are declared junior synonyms or nomina dubia. Diadiplosis koebelei (Koebele, 1893) is a new junior synonym of Diadiplosis plumbea (Skuse, 1888). Dasineura tomentosa Dorchin, 2011 is a new junior synonym of Dasineura frauenfeldi (Schiner, 1868). Sphenolasioptera Kolesik & Gagné gen. nov. (Cecidomyiinae: Lasiopterini) is erected to contain Sphenolasioptera vastatrix (Skuse, 1888) n. comb. The following genera are recorded from Australia for the first time: Ledomyia Kieffer (Cecidomyiinae: Ledomyiini), represented by L. vitulans (Skuse), n. comb.; Bremia Rondani (Cecidomyiinae: Aphidoletini), represented by B. actiosa (Skuse) n. comb. and B. oreas (Skuse) n. comb.; Divellepidosis Fedotova & Sidorenko (Porricondylinae: Porricondylini), represented by D. pallidina (Skuse) n. comb. and D. indubitata (Skuse) n. comb. Additions are made to the key to genera of Cecidomyiinae of Australia and Papua New Guinea (Kolesik 2014) to accomodate Bremia, Ledomyia and Sphenolasioptera.

  20. A world checklist of Onychophora (velvet worms, with notes on nomenclature and status of names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the number of valid species of Onychophora is uncertain. To facilitate taxonomic work on this understudied animal group, we present an updated checklist for the two extant onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with an assessment of the status of each species. According to our study, 82 species of Peripatidae and 115 species of Peripatopsidae have been described thus far. However, among these 197 species, 20 are nomina dubia due to major taxonomic inconsistencies. Apart from nomina dubia, many of the valid species also require revision, in particular representatives of Paraperipatus within the Peripatopsidae, and nearly all species of Peripatidae. In addition to extant representatives, the record of unambiguous fossils includes three species with uncertain relationship to the extant taxa. For all species, we provide a list of synonyms, information on types and type localities, as well as remarks on taxonomic and nomenclatural problems and misspellings. According to recent evidence of high endemism and cryptic speciation among the Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, previous synonyms are revised. Putative mutations, subspecies and variations are either raised to the species status or synonymised with corresponding taxa. In our revised checklist, we follow the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to clarify previous inconsistencies.

  1. Evaluation of surface water quality using an ecotoxicological approach: a case study of the Piracicaba River (São Paulo, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, R G; Rossi, M L; Maranho, L A; Olinda, R A; Tornisielo, V L

    2013-07-01

    A long-term study was conducted to evaluate Piracicaba River water (São Paulo state, Brazil) using different methodologies and organisms. During 1 year (February 2011 to January 2012), water samples were collected monthly at six different locations and exposed under laboratory conditions to the microcrustaceans Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii for 7 days and to the fish Danio rerio for 4 days to evaluate effects on reproduction and on gill morphology, respectively. Physical-chemical parameters of the water were also measured. Physical-chemical characteristics demonstrated decreasing water quality from upstream to downstream of the river. Effects on the reproduction of C. dubia and C. silvestrii were observed in 3 months (February and March 2011 and January 2012) and occurred in samples collected close to industrialized cities like Americana and Piracicaba. Evaluation of the gills showed normal function of the organ during all months, except in February, September, and October for some locations.

  2. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  3. Species–specific crab predation on the hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), subsequent crab mortality, and possible ecological consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Mary R.; Grunden, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a unique trophic interaction between the cryptogenic and sometimes highly toxic hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. and the spider crab Libinia dubia. We assessed species–specific predation on the Gonionemus medusae by crabs found in eelgrass meadows in Massachusetts, USA. The native spider crab species L. dubia consumed Gonionemus medusae, often enthusiastically, but the invasive green crab Carcinus maenus avoided consumption in all trials. One out of two blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) also consumed Gonionemus, but this species was too rare in our study system to evaluate further. Libinia crabs could consume up to 30 jellyfish, which was the maximum jellyfish density treatment in our experiments, over a 24-hour period. Gonionemus consumption was associated with Libinia mortality. Spider crab mortality increased with Gonionemus consumption, and 100% of spider crabs tested died within 24 h of consuming jellyfish in our maximum jellyfish density containers. As the numbers of Gonionemus medusae used in our experiments likely underestimate the number of medusae that could be encountered by spider crabs over a 24-hour period in the field, we expect that Gonionemus may be having a negative effect on natural Libinia populations. Furthermore, given that Libinia overlaps in habitat and resource use with Carcinus, which avoids Gonionemus consumption, Carcinus populations could be indirectly benefiting from this unusual crab–jellyfish trophic relationship. PMID:29085761

  4. Assessment of sediments from Tiete River - toxicity and trace elements - from Salesopolis to Suzano counties, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegre, Gabriel F.; Borrely, Sueli, E-mail: gabrielfonseca@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Nascimento, Thuany M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, sediment samples from the Tiete River were evaluated for toxicity and trace metals (5 sampling sites). The studied region includes Salesopolis to Suzano and surroundings, a highly industrialized area. The study involved toxicity evaluation (sediment, elutriate and pore-water) and the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements on sediments. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). The concentration values obtained for the metals As, Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL). Regarding toxicity, whole sediments and elutriate fractions were evaluated using chronic assays for Ceriodaphnia dubia, while the pore water was carried out for Vibrio fischeri toxicity assays. These assays followed Brazilian Standardized Methods (ABNT). Whole sediments and elutriate evidenced negative biological effects, even at Salesopolis county, the control site (less impacted area). The worst effects were obtained at Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano counties (sampling stations 3 and 4). The elutriate fractions collected at the same stations showed acute toxicity in two of three samples (C. dubia). When pore water was evaluated, a toxicity gradient which increased as the river flowed through Mogi das Cruzes county was obtained. Regarding toxic metal contents in the sediment samples points 3 and 4 exceeded the TEL oriented values for As, Cr, Hg and Zn and point 4 also exceeded the PEL values for all these elements. (author)

  5. Species-specific crab predation on the hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), subsequent crab mortality, and possible ecological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Mary R; Grunden, David W; Govindarajan, Annette F

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a unique trophic interaction between the cryptogenic and sometimes highly toxic hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. and the spider crab Libinia dubia. We assessed species-specific predation on the Gonionemus medusae by crabs found in eelgrass meadows in Massachusetts, USA. The native spider crab species L. dubia consumed Gonionemus medusae, often enthusiastically, but the invasive green crab Carcinus maenus avoided consumption in all trials. One out of two blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) also consumed Gonionemus, but this species was too rare in our study system to evaluate further. Libinia crabs could consume up to 30 jellyfish, which was the maximum jellyfish density treatment in our experiments, over a 24-hour period. Gonionemus consumption was associated with Libinia mortality. Spider crab mortality increased with Gonionemus consumption, and 100% of spider crabs tested died within 24 h of consuming jellyfish in our maximum jellyfish density containers. As the numbers of Gonionemus medusae used in our experiments likely underestimate the number of medusae that could be encountered by spider crabs over a 24-hour period in the field, we expect that Gonionemus may be having a negative effect on natural Libinia populations. Furthermore, given that Libinia overlaps in habitat and resource use with Carcinus, which avoids Gonionemus consumption, Carcinus populations could be indirectly benefiting from this unusual crab-jellyfish trophic relationship.

  6. Use of standard effluent toxicity tests for protection of endangered and threatened species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, C.E.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Mount, D.R. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States); Mayer, F.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Water quality criteria and many other environmental assessment tools are based on the results of laboratory toxicity tests. For a variety of reasons, these tests are typically conducted using one of several common laboratory species; results from these tests are then extrapolated with the intention of providing protection for other species not tested directly. This surrogate species approach is particularly necessary for threatened and endangered (listed) species, for which direct toxicity testing is often impractical. However, without direct knowledge of listed species sensitivity, it is not possible to be certain whether these species are adequately protected by current environmental practices. Moreover, the level of protection intended by water quality criteria (e.g., 95% of species) may not be sufficient to meet the requirements of the Endangered Species Act. The authors conducted short-term chronic toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows and two listed species, bonytail chub and Colorado squawfish. Methods for Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnow tests were as described by USEPA for effluent testing under the NPDES program; tests with listed species were patterned after the fathead minnow test procedures. Tests were conducted with; (1) ammonia, (2) carbaryl, and (3) a mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin. Preliminary data analysis indicates that the two listed species respond in a similar manner as the fathead minnow. The sensitivity of listed species to contaminant exposures and implications for regulatory procedures will be discussed.

  7. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected gymnosperm and angiosperm species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaćković Peđa T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of selected species of flowering plants Anthemis cotula, A. ruthenica, Centaurea dubia (Asteraceae, Ajuga genevensis, A. chamaepitys, A. reptans, Micromeria albanica, M. cristata, M. dalmatica, M. juliana, Thymus tosevii (Lamiaceae and conifers - Abies alba, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii (Pinaceae and Taxus baccata (Taxaceae, as well as diethyl ether extracts of ten species Anthemis cotula, A. ruthenica, Centaurea dubia, Ajuga genevensis, A. chamaepitys, A. reptans, Micromeria albanica, M. cristata, M. dalmatica and M. juliana from two flowering plant families (Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were tested for general bioactivity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality test. Lethal concentration (LC50 and 95% confidence intervals were determined by computer program LdP line. Out of fifteen tested methanol extracts, three possessed cytotoxic effect. Taxus baccata methanol extract showed the highest effect (LC50 = 18.60 μg/ml, while Thymus tosevii methanol extract expressed the lowest (LC50 = 842.50 μg/ml. All other analyzed species did not express significant cytotoxicity. Also, diethyl ether extracts of all tested species did not show significant cytotoxicity. The obtained results for methanol extracts which show certain cytotoxic effect could be guide for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173029

  8. Species–specific crab predation on the hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, subsequent crab mortality, and possible ecological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Carman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a unique trophic interaction between the cryptogenic and sometimes highly toxic hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. and the spider crab Libinia dubia. We assessed species–specific predation on the Gonionemus medusae by crabs found in eelgrass meadows in Massachusetts, USA. The native spider crab species L. dubia consumed Gonionemus medusae, often enthusiastically, but the invasive green crab Carcinus maenus avoided consumption in all trials. One out of two blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus also consumed Gonionemus, but this species was too rare in our study system to evaluate further. Libinia crabs could consume up to 30 jellyfish, which was the maximum jellyfish density treatment in our experiments, over a 24-hour period. Gonionemus consumption was associated with Libinia mortality. Spider crab mortality increased with Gonionemus consumption, and 100% of spider crabs tested died within 24 h of consuming jellyfish in our maximum jellyfish density containers. As the numbers of Gonionemus medusae used in our experiments likely underestimate the number of medusae that could be encountered by spider crabs over a 24-hour period in the field, we expect that Gonionemus may be having a negative effect on natural Libinia populations. Furthermore, given that Libinia overlaps in habitat and resource use with Carcinus, which avoids Gonionemus consumption, Carcinus populations could be indirectly benefiting from this unusual crab–jellyfish trophic relationship.

  9. A new species of Mataeomera, formerly misidentified as M. obliquisigna (Hampson, 1894) from Japan (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Boletobiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Eda, Keitaro

    2013-12-06

    Mataeomera Butler, 1886, currently referred to the tribe Eublemmini in Boletobiinae (Holloway 2011), was proposed by Butler (1886) to accommodate an Australian species, Mataeomera dubia Butler. This genus was once regarded as a junior synonym of Autoba Walker by Poole (1989) but resurrected by Edwards (1996). Another related genus, Catoblemma Hampson, 1910 originally proposed for Catoblemma sumbavensis Hampson, 1910 from Lesser Sunda was revised to include the Australian and East and Southeast Asian species. Edwards (1996) found the Australian species of Catoblemma and Mataeomera dubia congeneric and established the synonymy of those two genera. Following Edwards (1996), Yoshimoto (1999) transferred the Asian species of Catoblemma to Mataeomera. Mataeomera currently includes 21 species (Poole 1989; Edwards 1996; Holloway 2009). Following Holloway (2009), we note that Catoblemma appears to include several unrelated species and is probably polyphyletic. In fact, the Indo-Himalayan and East Asian species currently assigned to Mataeomera are distinct from the Australian congeners in external appearance and larval feeding habits (Sohn & Ronkay 2001; Holloway 2009). As such these may merit generic status but this possibility is still under study by the first author (JCS). 

  10. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts and Isolated Compounds from Myrciariaferruginea (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Costa de Lima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated for the first time the antibacterial activity, cell viability and migration ability on 3T3 murine fibroblast cells of extracts and isolated compounds [lupeol (1, hexamethylcoruleoellagic acid (2 and a mixture of 1 and betulinaldehyde (3] of Myrciaria ferruginea. In antibacterial assays extracts were susceptible only against S. aureus (MIC 500 μg/mL and S. epidermidis (MIC ranging from 7.8 to 500 μg/mL and compounds 1-3have shown no significant activity. In trials for c ell viability, with exception of MeOH-H 2O fraction from leaves (viable cells > 90%, both the crude extract and other fractions showed inhibition of cell growth (viable cells ≤ 80% at 15.625 and 31.25 μg/mL; while the samples from stems, with the exception of CHCl 3 fraction that showed strong cytotoxic effect at the lowest concentration tested (15.625 μg/mL, the other fractions were not cytotoxic. Compounds (1-3 inhibited cell viability in dose dependent manner (15.625 to 500 μg/mL. Mixture containing 1 and 3 showed inhibitions only in concentrations greater than 62.5 μg/mL while compound 2 decreased from the lowest concentration tested. In scratch wound assay, these compoundsnot increased the population of fibroblasts at concentrations less than 62.5 μg/mL.

  11. Mathematical modeling and determination of thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel during the drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian F. Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Jabuticaba is a fruit native of Brazil and, besides containing many nutritional qualities, it also has a good field for use in products such as flour for cakes and biscuits, juice, liqueur, jelly and others. This study aimed to model the drying kinetics and determine the thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel at different drying air temperatures. Ripe fruits of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba were collected and pulped manually. Drying was carried out in a forced-air circulation oven with a flow of 5.6 m s-1 at temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. Six mathematical models commonly used to represent the drying process of agricultural products were fitted to the experimental data. The Arrhenius model was used to represent the drying constant as a function of temperature. The Midilli model showed the best fit to the experimental data of drying. The drying constant increased with the increment in drying temperature and promoted an activation energy of 37.29 kJ mol-1. Enthalpy and Gibbs free energy decreased with the increase in drying temperature, while entropy decreased and was negative.

  12. Nutritional and bioactive potential of Myrtaceae fruits during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraglio, Siluana Katia Tischer; Schulz, Mayara; Nehring, Priscila; Della Betta, Fabiana; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Daguer, Heitor; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Fett, Roseane; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira

    2018-01-15

    This study aimed to characterize jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora), guabiju (Myrcianthes pungens), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini) in relation to its individual phenolic compounds (LC-ESI-MS/MS), antioxidant capacity, total monomeric anthocyanin, sugars, and minerals during ripening (intermediate and ripe stages). In the three studied fruits, 22 phenolic compounds were quantified, especially phenolic acids and flavonoids, which presented a higher concentration in the intermediate ripening stage. In contrast, the total monomeric anthocyanin, fructose, glucose, Ca, Na values were higher in the ripe stage. In addition, all studied fruits showed expressive antioxidant capacity in both ripening stages: 2569.28 to 5066.35mg AAE 100g -1 DW for DPPH; 13777.52 to 26667.45µmol Fe +2 100g -1 DW for FRAP; and 957.72 to 2061.35mg GAE 100g -1 DW for Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity. Therefore, our results revealed that these fruits represent a supply of high-value nutrient and bioactive components, especially in the ripe stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CÉLULAS SOLARES SENSIBILIZADAS POR CORANTES NATURAIS: UM EXPERIMENTO INTRODUTÓRIO SOBRE ENERGIA RENOVÁVEL PARA ALUNOS DE GRADUAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela G. Sonai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An interesting practical experiment about the preparation of dye–sensitized solar cells (DSSC using natural dyes were carried out by the undergraduate students in the chemistry course at UNICAMP . Natural dyes were extracted from blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L., jabuticabas (Myrciaria cauliflora, raw and cooked beets (Beta vulgaris L., and annattos (Bixa orellana L., which were used to sensitize TiO2 films that composed the photoanode in the DSSC. A polymer electrolyte containing an iodide/triiodide redox couple was used in lieu of the use of liquid solutions to prevent any leakage in the devices. A maximum solar-to-electric energy conversion of 0.26 ± 0.02% was obtained for the solar cell prepared with annatto extracts. This experiment was an effective way to illustrate to the undergraduate students how to apply some of the chemical concepts that they learned during their chemistry course to produce electric energy from a clean and renewable energy source. Teachers could also exploit the basics of the electronic transitions in inorganic and organic compounds (e.g., metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ϖ-ϖ* transitions, thermodynamics (e.g., Gibbs free energy, acid–base reactions in the oxide solid surface and electrolyte, and band theory (i.e., the importance of the Fermi level energy.

  14. JABUTICABA PEEL IN THE PRODUCTION OF COOKIES FOR SCHOOL FOOD: TECHNOLOGICAL AND SENSORY ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Fernando Cardoso Zago

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg is agreatly appreciated fruit with nutritional importance, primarily found in the majority of Brazil. Its peel is a discarded by-product of the Brazilian agroindustry. The objective of this study was to develop cookie formulations with partial replacement of wheat flour (WF and oat flour (OF by jabuticaba peel meal (JPF, analyzing the technological aspects of the elaborate cookies and evaluating the acceptance of the selected product. All regression models of the cookies with JPF flour were significant. Cookies with JPF tended to blemish and had smaller thicknesses, greater ISA and IAA, smaller values of breaking strength and decreased color parameters (L*, a* and b* compared to standard cookies. Cookies made with larger OF fractions had lower values of specific volume. Both the standard and the selected cookies from the cookie desirability test were deemed acceptable among students. This work presents a new possibility to produce cookies based on an agro-industrial co-products, which is interesting for the market for this type of product.

  15. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediments from Tiete river between Salesopolis and Suzano, SP (Brazil); Avaliacao ecotoxicologica de sedimentos do rio Tiete, entre os municipios de Salesopolis e Suzano, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegre, Gabriel Fonseca

    2009-07-01

    Once introduced into the aquatic environment, many substances can bind or be adsorbed by organic particles in suspension. Depending on the river morphology and hydrological conditions, these particles in suspension containing the contaminants can be deposited along its course, becoming part of the bottom sediments, making them actual sinks and often a source of contamination for the water column and benthic organisms. In the assessment of water, sediment has been one of the most important indicators of the contamination levels in aquatic ecosystems, representing the deposition of contaminants in the environment that occurred over the years and even decades. The Tiete River cross the Sao Paulo state, however, in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, the river shows the most severe degradation. In the region of Salesopolis, the waters of the Tiete River are used for public supply, but across the city of Mogi das Cruzes the water quality decreases significantly. Considering the importance of the Tiete river and the sediment for the aquatic biota, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of the sediment at five points along the Tiete river, between the cities of Salesopolis and Suzano, Sao Paulo. Four sampling were carried out: two in the summer (rainy season) and two in winter (dry season). The whole sediment was assessed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia, respectively, the elutriate was assessed by chronic toxicity test using C. dubia, while the porewater was evaluated by acute toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri. Samples of river water were also evaluated for chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia. The quantification of metals and hydrocarbons in sediment samples was also carried out in order to correlate the biological effects with the chemical contamination. The obtained results with the whole sediment test indicate Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano cities as the most toxic sites and also as the sites with the highest

  16. Chronic toxicity of azoxystrobin to freshwater amphipods, midges, cladocerans, and mussels in water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Smalling, Kelly; Elskus, Adria; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of fungicides on nontarget organisms at realistic concentrations and exposure durations is vital for determining potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Environmental concentrations of the fungicide azoxystrobin have been reported up to 4.6 μg/L in the United States and 30 μg/L in Europe. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chronic toxicity of azoxystrobin in water-only exposures with an amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 42-d exposure), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 50-d exposure), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d exposure), and a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea; 28-d exposure) at environmentally relevant concentrations. The potential photo-enhanced toxicity of azoxystrobin accumulated by C. dubiaand L. siliquoidea following chronic exposures to azoxystrobin was also evaluated. The 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) based on the most sensitive endpoint were 4.2 μg/L for H. aztecareproduction, 12 μg/L for C. dubia reproduction and C. dilutus emergence, and >28 μg/L for L. siliquoidea. Hyalella azteca was more sensitive to azoxystrobin compared with the other 3 species in the chronic exposures. No photo-enhanced toxicity was observed for either C. dubia or L. siliquoidea exposed to ultraviolet light in control water following azoxystrobin tests. The results of the present study indicate chronic effects of azoxystrobin on 3 of 4 invertebrates tested at environmentally relevant concentrations. The changes noted in biomass and reproduction have the potential to alter the rate of ecological processes driven by aquatic invertebrates. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1–8. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  17. Ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, I C; Rast, C; Veber, A M; Vasseur, P

    2007-06-01

    Soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. The toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox test, Daphnia magna) and chronic (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays and the EC values were expressed as percentage water extract in the test media (v/v). Algal growth (EC50-3d=2.4+/-0.2% of the water extracts) and reproduction of C. dubia (EC50-7d=4.3+/-0.6%) were the most severely affected, compared to bacterial luminescence (EC50-30 min=12+/-3%) and daphnid viability (EC50-48 h=30+/-3%). The Ames and Mutatox tests indicated mutagenicity of water extracts, while no response was found with the umu test. The toxicity of the soil samples was assessed on the survival and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and collembolae (Folsomia candida), and on the germination and growth of higher plants (Lactuca sativa L.: lettuce and Brassica chinensis J.: Chinese cabbage). The EC50 values were expressed as percentage contaminated soil in ISO soil test medium (weight per weight-w/w) and indicated severe effects on reproduction of the collembola F. candida (EC50-28 d=5.7%) and the earthworm E. fetida (EC50-28 d=18% and EC50-56 d=8%, based on cocoon and juvenile production, respectively). Survival of collembolae was already affected at a low concentration of the contaminated soil (EC50-28 d=11%). The viability of juvenile earthworms was inhibited at much lower concentrations of the cokery soil (EC50-14 d=28%) than the viability of adults (EC50-14 d=74%). Only plant growth was inhibited (EC50-17d=26%) while germination was not. Chemical analyses of water extracts allowed

  18. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with the Roots of Four Aquatic Plants Inhabiting Two Wetlands in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Young-Hyun; Park, Jong Myong; Park, Jong-Han; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-09-01

    A total of 4 aquatic plants, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, Hydrocharis dubia Backer, Salvinia natans All., and Zizania latifolia Turcz., were sampled from representative two wetlands of South Korea. A total of 38 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from aquatic plants native to the Daepyeong wetland, and 27 strains were isolated from the Jilnal wetland. The internal transcribed spacer regions of fungal isolates were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, endophytic fungal diversity from each wetland and host plant species was deduced. A total of 25 fungal genera were purely isolated, and 16 fungal genera were isolated from each of the two wetlands. Commonly isolated genera from both wetlands were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Penicillium, and Talaromyces. This study revealed that fungal diversity varied with environmental conditions and by host plant in representative two wetlands.

  19. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Kautzman, M.; Wojnarowicz, P.; Cutter, J.; Bird, E.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  20. Aqueous suspension methods of carbon-based nanomaterials and biological effects on model aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Llaneza, Veronica; Youn, Sejin; Silvera-Batista, Carlos A; Ziegler, Kirk J; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of aqueous suspensions of carbon-based nanomaterials (NMs) requires the use of dispersing agents to overcome their hydrophobic character. Although studies on the toxicity of NMs have focused primarily on linking the characteristics of particles to biological responses, the role of dispersing agents has been overlooked. This study assessed the biological effects of a number of commonly used dispersing agents on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia as model test organisms. The results show that for a given organism, NM toxicity can be mitigated by use of nontoxic surfactants, and that a multispecies approach is necessary to account for the sensitivity of different organisms. In addition to the intrinsic physicochemical properties of NMs, exposure studies should take into account the effects of used dispersing fluids. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  1. A revision of the Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon (Araneae: Philodromidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Van den Berg

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon, 1875, are revised. Of the 10 previously recognised species of long-bodied grss spiders from this region, eight are redescribed and figured. Two species, T. punctifasciatus Strand, 1906, and T. robustus Simon, 1886, are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, T. cobusi, T. gerhardi, T. nimbaensis, T. somaliensis and T. sunetae, are described and three previously recognised subspecies of T. vossioni Simon, 1884, namely T. v. armatus Lessert, 1928, T. v. flavipes Caporiacco, 1941, and T. v. minor Lessert, 1919, are given species status. The genus Tibellinus Simon, 1910, is a junior synonym of Tibellus. Tibellinus australis is transferred to the genus Tibellus. The males of T. armatus stat. nov. and T. hollidayi Lawrence, 1952, are described for the first time. A key to 17 recognised species is given. Distributional data are provided for all species.

  2. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  3. Adjusting for mortality effects in chronic toxicity testing: Mixture model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.C.D.; Smith, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic toxicity tests, such as the Ceriodaphnia dubia 7-d test are typically analyzed using standard statistical methods such as analysis of variance or regression. Recent research has emphasized the use of Poisson regression or more generalized regression for the analysis of the fecundity data from these studies. A possible problem in using standard statistical techniques is that mortality may occur from toxicant effects as well as reduced fecundity. A mixture model that accounts for fecundity and mortality is proposed for the analysis of data arising from these studies. Inferences about key parameters in the model are discussed. A joint estimate of the inhibition concentration is proposed based on the model. Confidence interval estimations via the bootstrap method is discussed. An example is given for a study involving copper and mercury.

  4. Nearshore Community Studies of Neah Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Leptochelia dubia 0.1 Isopoda ɘ.1 Idorea sp. 0.1 Capreflidea ɘ.1 Caprella sp. 0.1 Decapoda- Brachyura 0.5 Pinnotheridae 0.1 Crangon sp. 0.3 Chironornidae...Candea- larvae 0.1 0.5 Crangon sp.-larvae 0.3 0.6 36.0 Dec:Voda-larvae 0.2 0.5 2.0 50.2 2.3 Brachyura-larvae 1.4 0.1 0.6 1.9 1.1 ɘ.1 Cancer sp...seine collections at Baadah Point and Crown Z in May. Planktonic prey, principally fish and sand shrimp ( Crangon sp.) larvae and calanoid copepods

  5. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22-29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase II Sampling and Analysis activities as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA.

  6. Mercury residues in wood ducks and wood duck foods in eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, R.C.; Dimmick, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    Liver, breast muscle and body fat from 50 juvenile and five adult wood ducks (Aix sponsa) collected on the Holston River, Tennessee were analyzed for total mercury content. Black fly larvae (Simulium vittatum) sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), tapegrass (Vallisneria americanus), water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia), Elodea canadensis, and river bottom sediments were also analyzed to elucidate the distribution of mercury in the wood duck's environment. Liver tissues of juveniles contained the highest mean concentration of mercury (0.42 ppm). Mercury in breast muscle and body fat of juveniles averaged 0.15 and 0.10 ppm, respectively. Residues in corresponding tissues of adults were lower. Of environmental components tested, sediments had the highest mean concentration (0.76 ppm). Black fly larvae and aquatic plants had mean levels below 0.10 ppm.

  7. NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÎRBU CULIŢĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  8. [Feeding habits and trophic ecology of the fish Lutjanus griseus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) associated with submerged vegetation in Laguna de Términos, Campeche, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Emma; Alvarez, Hernán; Mascaró, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Sánchez, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In Campeche, Mexico, the Laguna de Términos has Thalassia testudinum beds inhabited by the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus 1758). Along one year, we collected 994 individuals and 672 had food in their stomachs; we recorded number, weight, and frequency oftrophic groups, and the index of relative importance. Dominant food components were Farfantepenaeus duorarum and Palemonetes octaviae, Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier 1830) and Libinia dubia. Salinity and temperature were related to the number of individuals collected and with greater fish consumption by large L. griseus. The trophic niche breadth index was calculated for six size-classes of fish. The smallest and the largest fish had the lowest index values, whereas medium-size snappers had higher values. This snapper has a preference for habitats with submerged vegetation. The percentage of fish with food in their stomachs was higher during dark hours, providing evidence of the nocturnal habits of this fish.

  9. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  10. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  11. Ecology of Triatoma rubrovaria (Hemiptera, Triatominae in wild and peridomestic environments of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes population structure, spatial distribution and habitat selection of wild and peridomestic populations of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843. Field studies were carried out at Las Piedras and La Bolsa in the Northern Department of Artigas, Uruguay. A semicircular sampling area, divided in seven or eight triangular sectors was sequentially examined from October 1990 to November 1991. At Las Piedras (typical wild habitat 1063 T. rubrovaria bugs were collected from 84 of the rocky outcroops ("pedregales". Abundance varied by season peaking in October-November (spring. Throughout the year, most of the population was made up of third, fourth and fifth instar nymphs; adults were found from October to March. In the peridomestic environment of La Bolsa, however T. rubrovaria was less common and showed a more irregular instar distribution. Colonized ecotopes, were those close to houses. In both sites T. rubrovaria was mainly associated with the geckonid Homonota uruguayensis and the cockroach Blaptica dubia.

  12. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao e identificacao da toxicidade (Toxity Identification Evaluation - TIE) do efluente liquido do polo industrial de Belford Roxo, RJ, e sua contribuicao na qualidade das aguas do corso inferior do Rio Sarapui, sub-bacia do Rio Iguacu, Bacia da Baia da Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-07-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  13. Chromosomes of American species of Sida (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela I. Lavia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers are reported for 26 accessions of Sida (Malvaceae from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, México and Paraguay representing 15 species. First chromosome counts are cited for the following 8 species: S. Charpinii Krapov. 2n=14, S. ciliaris L. 2n=16, S. Monteiroi Krapov. 2n=16, S. anomala A. St.-Hil. 2n=16,S. Cristobaliana Krapov. 2n=32, S. dubia A. St.-Hil. & Naudin 2n=14, S. Poeppigiana (K.Schum. Fryxell 2n=14 and S. Leitaofilhoi Krapov. 2n=14.

  14. Field validation of specific ecotoxicological tools for aquatic systems impacted with acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, I.; Goncalves, F.; Nogueira, A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Ribeiro, R. [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Coimbra (Portugal). Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra

    2000-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is characterised by very low pH and high heavy metal concentrations. Serious ecotoxicological effects, often leading to the complete disruption of the ecosystem, can be observed at the regions suffering this kind of contamination. Those effects can be caused either by low pH itself or by other contaminants that emerge with water acidification (mobilisation and increased solubility of heavy metals). The discrimination between the toxicity due to each of these two factors is not possible with the existing toxicity tests; the addition of chelating agents or serial dilution methods seriously alter the chemical and physical properties of the effluent. A toxicity test, based on the survival time of Ceriodaphnia dubia (Crustacea, Cladocera) neonates exposed to the unchanged effluent was developed and field validated, on an AMD contaminated site. 28 refs.

  15. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil, L.L.; McCullough, C.D.; Lund, M.A.; Evans, L.H.; Tsvetnenko, Y. [Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH similar to 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  16. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical compound Triclosan to freshwater invertebrates with emphasis to spiked sediment tests; Avaliacao ecotoxicologica do farmaco Triclosan para invertebrados de agua doce com enfase em ensaios com sedimento marcado ('spiked sediment')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusceddu, Fabio Hermes

    2009-07-01

    The increasing of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) occurrence in the aquatic environment cause adverse effects on the human health and aquatic communities. The environmental risk of the PPCPs associated with the possibility of synergic effects between PCPPs and the increase of the use of synthetic organic compounds, unchained a great concern on the toxic potential to biota aquatic. Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) is a pharmaceutical compound widely used due your antibacterial mechanism effect, found in at least 932 products such as shampoos, toilet soaps, deodorants, lotions, toothpaste, detergents, socks and underwear, among others. Currently, studies about the Triclosan toxicity in the water and, mainly in the sediment, are poorly. We have the knowledge that the photodegradation of this product results into dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and now it has great discussion on environmental agencies, like EPA, about the release or restriction of this product. The aim of this work is to assess the effects of Triclosan on mortality of insect larvae Chironomus xanthus and mortality and reproduction inhibition of microcrustacea Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to Triclosan spiked sediments based on standard methods EPA and OECD. The EC50;96H obtained on acute toxicity tests with C. xanthus was 45,26 mg.Kg{sup -1}. The chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia using spiked sediments were performed following the procedure in Burton and MacPherson (1995). A no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentration were 5,78 e 6,94 mg.Kg{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  17. Predicting toxic effects of copper on aquatic biota in mineralized areas by using the Biotic Ligand Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Ranville, James F.; Adams, M.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Church, Stan E.; Fey, David L.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical speciation of metals influences their biological effects. The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) is a computational approach to predict chemical speciation and acute toxicological effects of metals on aquatic biota. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency incorporated the BLM into their regulatory water-quality criteria for copper. Results from three different laboratory copper toxicity tests were compared with BLM predictions for simulated test-waters. This was done to evaluate the ability of the BLM to accurately predict the effects of hardness and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron on aquatic toxicity. In addition, we evaluated whether the BLM and the three toxicity tests provide consistent results. Comparison of BLM predictions with two types of Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests shows that there is fairly good agreement between predicted LC50 values computed by the BLM and LC50 values determined from the two toxicity tests. Specifically, the effect of increasing calcium concentration (and hardness) on copper toxicity appears to be minimal. Also, there is fairly good agreement between the BLM and the two toxicity tests for test solutions containing elevated DOC, for which the LC50 is 3-to-5 times greater (less toxic) than the LC50 for the lower-DOC test water. This illustrates the protective effects of DOC on copper toxicity and demonstrates the ability of the BLM to predict these protective effects. In contrast, for test solutions with added iron there is a decrease in LC50 values (increase in toxicity) in results from the two C. dubia toxicity tests, and the agreement between BLM LC50 predictions and results from these toxicity tests is poor. The inability of the BLM to account for competitive iron binding to DOC or DOC fractionation may be a significant shortcoming of the BLM for predicting site- specific water-quality criteria in streams affected by iron-rich acidic drainage in mined and mineralized areas.

  18. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  19. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S

    2003-08-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  20. Effects of dissolved organic matter on permethrin bioavailability to Daphnia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weichun; Spurlock, Frank; Liu, Weiping; Gan, Jianying

    2006-05-31

    Synthetic pyrethroids are widely used insecticides in both agricultural and urban environments. Recent studies show frequent appearances of pyrethroid residues in runoff effluents and sediments, which stimulated concerns over the potential ecotoxicological implications. Pyrethroids are known to have two contrasting characteristics, high aquatic toxicity and strong affinity for the solid phase, that may negate the actual toxicity in a multiphased system. This study evaluated the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the pyrethroid uptake by and acute toxicity to water-column invertebrates using permethrin as a model compound. During the bioassays, the freely dissolved permethrin concentration was simultaneously measured using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) fibers as a biomimetic surrogate. The presence of DOM consistently decreased permethrin uptake and increased its LC(50). For instance, compared to the DOM-free treatment, the LC(50) of permethrin to Ceriodaphnia dubia in a pond water containing DOM at 10 mg L(-)(1) increased from 0.56 to 1.03 microg L(-)(1), whereas the bioaccumulation factor by Daphnia magna decreased by 56%. Permethrin accumulation on the PDMS fiber closely mimicked permethrin uptake by D. magna. Statistical analyses suggest that permethrin associated with DOM was completely unavailable to D. magna or C. dubia. The effect of DOM on permethrin bioavailability appeared to depend also on the source of the DOM. These results indicate that the inhibitory role of DOM should be considered in the development of toxicologically relevant water quality limits and in monitoring protocols for permethrin and other pyrethroids in runoff effluents and surface streams that ubiquitously contain DOM.

  1. Role of a comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of a wastewater receiving stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Mark S; Kszos, Lynn A; Morris, Gail W; Smith, John G; Stewart, Arthur J

    2011-06-01

    National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven effluent toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than 20 years to assess and monitor the effects of wastewaters at the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Toxicity testing was also conducted on water samples from East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the wastewater receiving stream, as part of a comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment program. In this paper, we evaluate the roles of this long-term toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of EFPC. Effluent toxicity testing, associated toxicant evaluation studies, and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicant sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. The elimination of untreated wastewater discharges, the dechlorination of remaining wastewater streams, and the implementation of flow management at the stream headwaters were the primary actions associated with significant reductions in the toxicity of stream water in the upper reaches of EFPC from the late 1980s through mid 1990s. Through time, as regulatory requirements changed and water quality improved, emphasis shifted from comprehensive toxicity assessments to more focused toxicity monitoring efforts. Ambient toxicity testing with C. dubia and fathead minnows was supplemented with less-standardized but more sensitive alternative laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the value of toxicity studies to the management of a wastewater receiving stream.

  2. Toxicity of aircraft de-icer and anti-icer solutions to aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, S.I.; Jordahl, D.M.; Evans, J.E.; May, E.B. [Maryland Dept. of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Laboratory studies were undertaken to assess the toxicity of industrial mixtures of aviation de-icers and anti-icers. Various additives and contaminants are present in these solutions at proportions of 10 to 20% of the total volume. Static-renewal toxicity tests were performed at concentrations that bracketed published LC50 values for the primary ingredients (9--51 ml glycol/L) using fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox{reg_sign}) bioassays. Water from a stream that receives runoff from a large commercial airport was also tested during a late winter storm (March), and spring baseflow (April). The anti-icer solution was more toxic than the de-icer solution by two orders of magnitude (96-h LC50 range 0.03-0.44 ml/L, 3.02--13.48 ml/L, respectively). Both types of solutions exhibited greater toxicity than previously reported values for the primary ingredients. Toxic effects were observed in the March stream sample, but not the April sample. Significant inhibition of reproduction in C. dubia in the anti-icer and de-icer solutions occurred at 0.05 and 0.38 ml/L, respectively. Effects were observed in the Microtox assay at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.25 ml/L for the anti-icer and de-icer, respectively. Results suggest that the additives, rather than the glycols, are the major source of toxicity. Histological damage observed in fathead minnows primarily involved gill, kidney, and skin tissue, with the most prominent responses seen in fish exposed to the anti-icer solution. The de-icer solution elicited respiratory epithelial ``disruption`` and renal damage, and the anti-icer caused proliferative branchitis (hyperplastic response) and delamination of the epidermis from the dermis of the skin.

  3. A review of the Veronicellidae from Mexico (Gastropoda: Soleolifera Revisión de los Veronicellidae de México (Gastropoda: Soleolifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Naranjo-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Information is presented regarding the species of the Family Veronicellidae in Mexico. Data were gathered from specimens deposited in the Colección Nacional de Moluscos (Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, from field trips, and from the literature. These slugs are distributed mainly in the central and southern regions of Mexico, although there are a few records from the northern part of the country. Five species in three genera have been recorded, namely: Leidyula floridana, L. moreleti, Phyllocaulis gayi, Sarasinula dubia and S. plebeia. The occurrence of Leidyula floridana and Phyllocaulis gayi in Mexico needs confirmation. The Los Tuxtlas region, southern Veracruz, is a hotspot where veronicellid slugs have become a pest and farmers have stopped growing beans, switching to other crops as a measure to contain the pest.Se sintetiza la información conocida de los Veronicellidae de México. Los datos provienen de ejemplares depositados en la Colección Nacional de Moluscos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, de salidas complementarias de trabajo al campo y recopilación de la literatura. Estas babosas se distribuyen principalmente en el centro y sur de México, aunque existen algunos registros en el norte del país. Se han registrado 3 géneros y 5 especies: Leidyula floridana, L. moreleti, Phyllocaulis gayi, Sarasinula dubia, y S. plebeia. Los registros en México de L. floridana y P. gayi deben confirmarse. En la región de Los Tuxtlas, al sur del estado de Veracruz, se localizó un foco donde las babosas Veronicellidae son plaga, los agricultores dejaron de sembrar frijol y cambiaron a otros cultivos para evitar la plaga.

  4. Evaluación ecotoxicológica de sedimentos en una zona del Río Uruguay, con puntos finales indicadores de toxicidad aguda, sub-letal, crónica, reproductiva y teratogénica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Míguez Carames

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la toxicidad de los sedimentos de una zona del Río Uruguay, aplicando una batería de bioensayos. Las muestras provinieron de: una zona de influencia de descargas domésticas y efluentes de una planta de celulosa (Fray Bentos, una ciudad turística aguas abajo (Las Cañas y otra aguas arriba (Nuevo Berlín, sin influencia directa de dichos vertidos. Los bioensayos aplicados en elutriados fueron: de toxicidad con Photobacterium leiognathi, de reproducción con Ceriodaphnia dubia, de teratogenicidad y letalidad con Pimephales promelas y el ensayo sub-letal en sedimento completo con Hyalella curvispina. Para evaluar la biodisponibilidad y las rutas de toxicidad, se midió el fraccionamiento del 2,4,5-triclorofenol, con resultados: 63% disuelto, 27% adsorbido sobre partículas y el resto sedimentado.Se observó toxicidad por orgánicos y metales con P. leioghnati para todos los sitios. La frecuencia de malformaciones vertebralesde P. promelas fue de 3.3% en Fray Bentos, pero C. dubia sólo mostró efectos en Nuevo Berlín y Las Cañas. Los efectos con H. curvispina se evidenciaron en todas las muestras. Las rutas de toxicidad incluirían la ingestión de contaminantes disueltos y particulados asociados a arcillas y limo. El vínculo causa-efecto para la toxicidad se continuará investigando.

  5. On a pterosaur jaw from the Upper Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Unwin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A short section of a mandibular symphysis is the first cranial fossil of a pterosaur to be reported from the Upper Jurassic of Tendaguru, Tanzania. It is made the holotype of a new dsungaripteroid pterosaur, Tendaguripterus recki n. gen. n. sp. All previously named pterosaur taxa from Tendaguru are shown to be nomina dubia. The pterosaur assemblage from Tendaguru contains a "rhamphorhynchoid", as well as the dsungaripteroid, and is similar in its systematic composition to other Late Jurassic pterosaur assemblages from Laurasia. The diversity and broad distribution of dsungaripteroids in the Late Jurassic suggests that the group was already well established by this time. Der erste Schädelrest eines Flugsauriers aus dem Oberjura von Tendaguru in Tansania wird beschrieben. Bei dem Fundstück handelt es sich um ein bezahntes Unterkieferbruchstück aus der Symphysenregion. Der Fund gehört zu einem neuen Taxon, das als Tendaguripterus recki n. gen. n. sp. bezeichnet und zur Überfamilie Dsungaripteroidea gestellt wird. Alle zuvor aus den Tendaguru-Schichten beschriebenen Taxa werden als nomina dubia angesehen. In Tendaguru sind Verteter der „Rhamphorhynchoidea“ und Dsungaripteroidea nachgewiesen. Diese systematische Zusammensetzung ist derjenigen anderer Flugsaurier-Vergesellschaftungen der späten Jura-Zeit ähnlich. Die Vielfalt und die weite Verbreitung der Dsungaripteroidea in Laurasia läßt darauf schließen, daß sich diese Flugsauriergruppe bereits in der späten Jura-Zeit erfolgreich durchgesetzt hatte. doi:10.1002/mmng.1999.4860020109

  6. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pesticide and toxicity reduction using an integrated vegetated treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Hunt, John; Largay, Bryan; Shihadeh, Rami; Tjeerdema, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    The California, USA, central coast is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world, and numerous stakeholders are working there to implement conservation practices to reduce contaminated runoff. Practices include vegetated treatment systems (VTS) designed to promote contaminant reduction and breakdown. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a vegetated drainage ditch incorporating a sedimentation basin, a vegetated section, and a Landguard organophosphate-A (OP-A) enzyme dosing system. The VTS was constructed on a working farm and was designed to remove organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, the primary pesticides causing toxicity in Salinas Valley watersheds. The present study was conducted during five separate irrigation events on tailwater runoff containing mixtures of pesticides and suspended sediments. Water samples were collected at four stations within the system, and these were subjected to chemical analyses and tested for toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia. All inflow samples were highly toxic to C. dubia, and this was largely because of diazinon. Treatment of diazinon-contaminated runoff was only partially effective using aquatic vegetation. All diazinon remaining after vegetated treatment was effectively removed after treatment with the Landguard OP-A enzyme. Chemical analysis of the VTS water samples showed that pyrethroid and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in water were greatly reduced in the sedimentation section of the ditch, and these pesticides were further reduced in the vegetated section of the ditch. The overall conclusion from these analyses is that the VTS was effective at reducing the more hydrophobic organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides from water. The water-soluble pesticide diazinon was not sufficiently removed during the VTS residence times observed in this study; however, residual diazinon was effectively removed using Landguard OP-A. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  8. Novas citações de Chytridiomycota e Oomycota para o Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI, SP, Brasil New records of Chytridiomycota and Oomycota from the "Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI", SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Amorim Pires-Zottarelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Levantamento de fungos zoospóricos realizado em lagos artificiais do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI, situado na cidade de São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, resultou no isolamento de 41 táxons, sendo 36 identificados em nível específico. Vinte e três táxons pertencem ao Reino Fungi, filo Chytridiomycota, ordens Chytridiales, Monoblepharidales e Spizellomicetales e, 18 ao Reino Straminipila, filo Oomycota, ordens Saprolegniales e Peronosporales. Dentre os fungos isolados, 14 são mencionados pela primeira vez para o PEFI: Aphanomyces helicoides von Minden, Catenochytridium kevorkianii Sparrow, Catenochytridium sp., Chytriomyces appendiculatus Karling, C. aureus Karling, C. hyalinus Karling, C. spinosus Fay, Diplophlyctis asteroidea Dogma, D. complicata (Willoughby Dogma, Karlingia dubia Karling, Nowakowskiella hemisphaerospora Shanor, Saprolegnia australis Elliott, Septochytrium variabile Berdan e Truittella sp., os quais são descritos, comentados e ilustrados. O gênero Truitella é mencionado pela primeira vez para o Brasil.A survey of zoosporic fungi from artificial lakes of the Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, in the city of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil, yielded the isolation of 41 taxa with 36 species. Twenty-three taxa belong to Chytridiales, Monoblepharidales and Spizellomycetales of the Phylum Chytridiomycota, Fungi Kingdom and 18 belong to Saprolegniales and Peronosporales, Phylum Oomycota, Straminipila Kingdom. Of these, 14 are first-time records for this State Park: Aphanomyces helicoides von Minden, Catenochytridium kevorkianii Sparrow, Catenochytridium sp., Chytriomyces appendiculatus Karling, C. aureus Karling, C. hyalinus Karling, C. spinosus Fay, Diplophlyctis asteroidea Dogma, D. complicata (Willoughby Dogma, Karlingia dubia Karling, Nowakowskiella hemisphaerospora Shanor, Saprolegnia australis Elliott, Septochytrium variabile Berdan and Truittella sp., which are described, commented and

  9. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Role of a Comprehensive Toxicity Assessment and Monitoring Program in the Management and Ecological Recovery of a Wastewater Receiving Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Mark S.; Kszos, Lynn A.; Morris, Gail W.; Smith, John G.; Stewart, Arthur J.

    2011-06-01

    National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven effluent toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than 20 years to assess and monitor the effects of wastewaters at the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Toxicity testing was also conducted on water samples from East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the wastewater receiving stream, as part of a comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment program. In this paper, we evaluate the roles of this long-term toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of EFPC. Effluent toxicity testing, associated toxicant evaluation studies, and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicant sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. The elimination of untreated wastewater discharges, the dechlorination of remaining wastewater streams, and the implementation of flow management at the stream headwaters were the primary actions associated with significant reductions in the toxicity of stream water in the upper reaches of EFPC from the late 1980s through mid 1990s. Through time, as regulatory requirements changed and water quality improved, emphasis shifted from comprehensive toxicity assessments to more focused toxicity monitoring efforts. Ambient toxicity testing with C. dubia and fathead minnows was supplemented with less-standardized but more sensitive alternative laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the value of toxicity studies to the management of a wastewater receiving stream.

  11. Aquatic toxicity of ivermectin in cattle dung assessed using microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Leticia M; Lindt, I; Negro, L; Gutierrez, M F; Mayora, G; Montalto, L; Ballent, M; Lifschitz, A

    2017-10-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a parasiticide widely used for livestock. It is a semisynthetic derivative of avermectin, a macrocyclic lactone produced by Streptomyces avermitilis. This drug is only partly metabolized by livestock; considerable amounts of parent drug are excreted mostly via feces. To simulate exposure of aquatic invertebrates and macrophytes to direct excretion of cattle dung into surface waters, a microcosm experiment with IVM spiked in cattle dung was conducted. The objectives of this study were to characterize accumulation of IVM in water, sediment+dung, roots of the floating fern Salvinia and the zooplankton Ceriodaphnia dubia, the amphipod Hyalella and the apple snail Pomacea; to determine the effect of this drug spiked in cattle dung on life-history traits of these invertebrates; and to evaluate the influence of IVM on aquatic nutrient cycling. Dung was spiked with IVM to attain concentrations of 1150, 458, 50 and 22µgkg-1dung fresh weight, approximating those found in cattle dung at days 3, 7, 16 and 29 following subcutaneous injection. Concentrations found in dung during the first week of excretion were lethally toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella, whereas no mortality was observed in Pomacea. Concentrations of IVM in roots, sediment + dung and Pomacea increased significantly from the lowest to the highest treatment level. The effect of this drug on decomposition and release of nutrients from dung would have negative consequences for nutrient cycling in water. Increasing concentrations in sediment + dung with days of the experiment suggested that toxic concentrations would persist for an extended period in the water-sediment system. IVM represents an ecological risk for aquatic ecosystems, underscoring the need for livestock management strategies to limit its entry into water bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4. Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart., guava (Psidium guajava (L., and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L., at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC, 1:200 (RC, 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions. For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential.

  13. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhofer, Axel L

    2013-01-01

    An update of the systematics and determination key of the Opiliones suborder Dyspnoi is provided. The included catalogue represents the first comprehensive species and synonymy listing since Roewer (1923). It summarises all taxonomic changes to date and attempts to be a sound basis against the exponential growing number of online errors, for which examples are given. Species taxonomy features most obvious changes within the Nemastomatidae. The number of species in the collective genus Nemastoma is reduced from 96 (Hallan 2005) to its sensu stricto definition of 7, and the excluded names are transferred to other genera or considered as nomina dubia, predominantly in Paranemastoma. The systematics of the superfamily Ischyropsalidoidea is discussed and family-level diagnoses are renewed to support taxonomical changes: The morphological heterogeneity in the Sabaconidae is resolved by reverting the family to its original monogeneric state. Taracus and Hesperonemastoma are separated as Taracidae fam. n., and Crosbycus is tentatively transferred to this assembly. The remaining genera of Ceratolasmatidae, Acuclavella and Ceratolasma, are included as subfamily Ceratolasmatinae in the Ischyropsalididae and Ischyropsalis is assigned subfamily status, respectively. Other nomenclatural acts are restricted to species-group level with the following synonymies established: Sabacon jonesi Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942 syn. n. (=cavicolens (Packard, 1884)), Dicranolasma diomedeum Kulczyński, 1907 syn. n. (=hirtum Loman, 1894), Mitostoma (Mitostoma) sketi Hadži, 1973a syn. n. (=chrysomelas (Hermann, 1804)), Mitostoma asturicum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=pyrenaeum (Simon, 1879a)), Nemastoma formosum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Nemastomella bacillifera bacillifera (Simon, 1879a)), Nemastoma reimoseri Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma bicuspidatum (C.L. Koch, 1835)), Nemastoma tunetanum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma bureschi (Roewer, 1926)), Phalangium flavimanum C.L. Koch, 1835 syn. n

  14. Development of a biofilm inhibitor molecule against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with gestational urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan eP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is a globally widespread human infection caused by an infestation of uropathogens. Eventhough, Escherichia coli is often quoted as being the chief among them, Staphylococcus aureus involvement in UTI especially in gestational UTI is often understated. Staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA is a quorum regulator of S. aureus that controls the expression of various virulence and biofilm phenotypes. Since SarA had been a focussed target for antibiofilm agent development, the study aims to develop a potential drug molecule targeting the SarA of S. aureus to combat biofilm associated infections in which it is involved. In our previous studies, we have reported the antibiofilm activity of SarA based biofilm inhibitor, (SarABI with a 50% minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 value of 200 µg/mL against S. aureus associated with vascular graft infections and also the antibiofilm activity of the root ethanolic extracts of Melia dubia against uropathogenic E. coli. In the present study, in silico design of a hybrid molecule composed of a molecule screened from M. dubia root ethanolic extracts and a modified SarA based inhibitor (SarABIM was undertaken. SarABIM is a modified form of SarABI where the fluorine groups are absent in SarABIM. Chemical synthesis of the hybrid molecule, 4-(Benzylaminocyclohexyl 2-hydroxycinnamate (henceforth referred to as UTI Quorum-Quencher, UTIQQ was then performed, followed by in vitro and in vivo validation. The MBIC¬50 and MBIC90 of UTIQQ were found to be 15 µg/mL and 65 µg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM images witnessed biofilm reduction and bacterial killing in either UTIQQ or in combined use of antibiotic gentamicin and UTIQQ. Similar results were observed with in vivo studies of experimental UTI in rat model. So, we propose that the drug UTIQQ would be a promising candidate when used alone or, in combination with an antibiotic for staphylococcal

  15. Penatalaksanaan Fraktur Kompleks Zygomatikomaksilaris Sinistra dengan Miniplate Osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bernado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wajah terletak lebih ke anterior secara anatomis oleh sebab itu mudah mendapatkan trauma. Os Zigoma merupakan tulang yang menonjol pada wajah dan akan menahan gaya bentur terbesar pada wajah. Tulisan ini melaporkan penatalaksanan fraktur kompleks  zigomatikomaksilaris sinistra dengan miniplate osteosynthesis.Seorang laki-laki 22 tahun dirujuk ke Bagian Bedah Mulut RSUP Dr Sardjito dengan riwayat kecelakaan lalulintas tiga minggu sebelum masuk RS. Pasien mengeluh daerah pipi kiri terasa tebal dan dirasa lebih datar dari pipi kanan. Pemeriksaan klinis terdapat parestesi nervus infraorbita sinistra, displace tulang daerah infraorbital rim sinistra, diskontinuitas regio sinus maksilaris sinistra.  Radiografis CT axial dan koronal serta CT Scan 3D tampak fraktur melibatkan infraorbital rim sinistra, fraktur sinus maksila sinistra, fraktur pada sutura zigomaticofrontalis dan pada sutura zigomatikotemporalis. Penatalaksanaannya dilakukan open reduction internal fixation (ORIF fraktur kompleks zigomatikomaksilaris dengan miniplate osteosynthesis di bawah anestesi umum. Pasca operasi gejala parestesi berangsur- angsur berkurang, defek infraorbital rim terkoreksi dan pipi kiri tampak kembali prominen. Prognosis kasus ini dubia ad bonam. ORIF dengan miniplate osteosynthesis dapat memulihkan deformitas wajah dengan hasil malar eminensia kembali prominen dan membuat kondisi dekompresi nervus infraorbita sinistra yang mendukung proses pemulihan sensorisnya. Management of Zygomaticomaxillaris Sinistra Complex Fractures with Osteosynthesis Miniplate. Face lies in a prominent position so that this area is often susceptible to trauma. Os zygomaticum is an area that holds the heaviest impact on facial trauma. This paper reports one case about zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures management with miniplate osteosynthesis. A 22 years old man was referred to the Department of Oral Surgery Dr Sardjito Hospital with a history of traffic accident three weeks before

  16. Comparison between the efficiency of two bioindicators for determining surface water quality in an urban environment = Comparação entre a eficiência de dois bioindicadores para a determinação da qualidade de águas superficiais em um ambiente urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of two bioindicators, fecal coliforms and ecotoxicity tests, set out in CONAMA Resolution 274/00 and CONAMA Resolution 357/05, in assessment of water quality. For this study, Lake Paranoá, Federal District of Brazil, was chosen, since it is a water body directly contaminated by effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Four sampling points were chosen in accordance with the map of recreational water quality published weekly by CAESB/DF, after analysis of fecal coliforms. Samples from these points were collected for 6 months and tested on Danio rerio fish (acute toxicity and on the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (acute and chronic toxicity, besides measuring chemical and physico-chemical parameters. The data obtained show great consistency between the observed biological parameters, suggesting that in this urbanaquatic environment, under great anthropogenic pressure, the fecal coliform bioindicator seems to be more restrictive and enough to evaluate the safety of surface water. Este trabalho comparou a eficiência dos bioindicadores coliformes fecais ou termotolerantes e ensaios de ecotoxicidade, propostos pelas Resoluções Conama 274/00 e Conama 357/05, na avaliação da qualidade de água. Para a realização desse estudo foi escolhido o Lago Paranoá,Brasília, Distrito Federal, por ser um corpo hídrico impactado diretamente pelo lançamento de efluentes de uma estação de tratamento de esgotos. Foram definidos quatro pontos de acordo com o mapa de balneabilidade, publicado semanalmente pela Caesb/DF, em função do teor de coliformes termotolerantes. Amostras desses pontos colhidas durante seis meses foram testadas com o peixe Danio rerio (toxicidade aguda e o com o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia (toxicidade aguda e crônica, além da determinação de parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram grande equivalência entre osparâmetros biológicos observados

  17. No evidence for behavioral responses to circularly polarized light in four scarab beetle species with circularly polarizing exocuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Hegedüs, Ramón; Jósvai, Júlia; Tóth, Miklós; Kertész, Krisztián; Biró, László Péter; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2012-02-28

    The strongest known circular polarization of biotic origin is the left-circularly polarized (LCP) light reflected from the metallic shiny exocuticle of certain beetles of the family Scarabaeidae. This phenomenon has been discovered by Michelson in 1911. Although since 1955 it has been known that the human eye perceives a visual illusion when stimulated by circularly polarized (CP) light, it was discovered only recently that a stomatopod shrimp is able to perceive circular polarization. It is pertinent to suppose that scarab beetles reflecting LCP light in an optical environment (vegetation) being deficient in CP signals may also perceive circular polarization and use it to find each other (mate/conspecifics) as until now it has been believed. We tested this hypothesis in six choice experiments with several hundred individuals of four scarab species: Anomala dubia, Anomala vitis (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae), and Cetonia aurata, Potosia cuprea (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae), all possessing left-circularly polarizing exocuticle. From the results of our experiments we conclude that the studied four scarab species are not attracted to CP light when feeding or looking for mate or conspecifics. We demonstrated that the light reflected by host plants of the investigated scarabs is circularly unpolarized. Our results finally solve a puzzle raised over one hundred years ago, when Michaelson discovered that scarab beetles reflect circularly polarized light. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecotoxicological survey of MNEI and Y65R-MNEI proteins as new potential high-intensity sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, Michele Fortunato; Siciliano, Antonietta; Gesuele, Renato; Lofrano, Giusy; Carpentieri, Andrea; Picone, Delia; Guida, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are widespread. They are routinely introduced into commonly consumed food such as diet sodas, cereals, and sugar-free desserts. Recent data revealed the presence in considerable quantities of some of these artificial sweeteners in water samples qualifying them as a class of potential new emerging contaminants. This study aimed at evaluating the ecotoxicity profile of MNEI and Y65R-MNEI, two engineered products derived from the natural protein monellin, employing representative test organism such as Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Raphidocelis subcapitata. Potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity effects on Salmonella typhimurium (strain TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA1535) and Escherichia coli (strain WP2 pkM101) were evaluated. No genotoxicity effects were detected, whereas slight mutagenicity was highlighted by TA98 S. typhimurium. Ecotoxicity results evidenced effects approximately up to 14 and 20% with microalgae at 500 mg/L of MNEI and Y65R-MNEI, in that order. Macrophytes and crustaceans showed no significant effects. No median effective concentrations were determined. Overall, MNEI and Y65R-MNEI can be classified as not acutely toxic for the environment.

  19. Impacts of discarded coffee waste on human and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A S; Mello, F V C; Thode Filho, S; Carpes, R M; Honório, J G; Marques, M R C; Felzenszwalb, I; Ferraz, E R A

    2017-07-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. So far, many studies have shown the properties of coffee beverages, but little is known about its impacts on human and environmental health from its discard in the environment. So, the present work aims to investigate the mutagenic, genotoxic, cytotoxic and ecotoxic effects of leached (LE) and solubilized (SE) extracts from coffee waste, simulating the disposal of this residue in landfills and via sewage systems, respectively. Chemical analyses were also carried out. LE and SE induced mutagenicity in the TA98 Salmonella strain with and without exogenous metabolization (S9). In the TA100 only SE induced mutagenicity, what was observed without S9. An increase in the frequency of micronuclei was observed in HepG2 cell line after 3 and 24h of exposure to both extracts. No cytotoxic effects were observed in HepG2 cells by WST-1 assay. The EC50 values for the LE and SE were 1.5% and 11.26% for Daphnia similis, 0.12% and 1.39% for Ceriodaphnia dubia and 6.0% and 5.5% for Vibrio fischeri, respectively. Caffeine and several transition metals were found in both extracts. Coffee waste discarded in the environment may pose a risk to human and environmental health, since this compound can cause DNA damage and present toxicity to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensitivity of Costa Rica's native cladoceran Daphnia ambigua and Simocephalus serrulatus to the organophosphate pesticide ethoprophos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Andrés, María; Torres, Freylan Mena; Vargas, Seiling; Solano, Karla

    2014-01-01

    The study of pesticide toxicity in aquatic environments is assessed with ecotoxicological tests and most research has been performed using species from temperate regions. In the present study, series of acute (48 hrs) toxicity tests to compare the sensibility of two indigenous cladocera of Costa Rica and two reference species were used in temperate regions to the organophosphate pesticide, Ethoprophos. Additionally, reproduction tests using S. serrulatus with sub lethal concentrations of ethoprophos and a control were assayed to check its sensitivity over a longer period exposure. The sensitivity of Costa Rica's native species Daphnia ambigua (EC50 48 hr: 12.9 +/- 3.0 microg(l(-1)) and Simocephalus serrulatus (10.6 +/- 2.1 microg l(-1)) to ethoprophos were higher (p < 0.05) when compared to the exotic species Daphnia magna (289.8 +/- 77.4 microg l(-1)), and were comparable to that of the more widely distributed species, Ceriodaphnia dubia (18.2 +/- 5.2 microg l(-1)). No effect on S. serrulatus reproduction was observed at concentrations between 1 and 4 microg l(-1). This study provides information that can be considered in the selection of species for ecosystem studies of pesticide toxicity in neotropical regions.

  1. An updated checklist of Echinoderms from Indian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Vijay Kumar Deepak; Krishnan, Pandian; Sreeraj, Chemmencheri Ramakrishnan; Chamundeeswari, Kanagaraj; Parthiban, Chermapandi; Sekar, Veeramuthu; Patro, Shesdev; Saravanan, Raju; Abhilash, Kottarathil Rajendran; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, Ramachandran

    2017-11-27

    Species checklists enlist the species available within the defined geographical region and thus serve as essential input for developing conservation and management strategies. The fields of conservation biology and ecology confront the challenge of inflated biodiversity, attributed to non-recognition of taxonomic inconsistencies such as synonyms, alternate representation, emendations etc. Critical review of the checklists and distributional records of Phylum Echinodermata from Indian waters and subsequent validation of species names with World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) database, revealed that the current literature included 236 incorrect entries comprising of 162 synonyms, 15 emendations, 5 nomina dubia, 1 nomen nudum, 40 species under alternate representation, 9 species with author misnomer, 1 subspecies and 1 unaccepted. The 226 species found to be mixed with valid names and a revised checklist was prepared. The revised and updated checklist holds 741 species of echinoderms comprising of 182 asteroids (24.56%), 70 crinoids (9.45%), 138 echinoids (18.62%), 179 holothuroids (24.16%) and 172 ophiuroids (23.21%), placed under 28 orders and 107 families. This paper discusses the cause for taxonomic inflation and argues that such taxonomic inconsistencies alter our interpretations of a species including its inaccurate distribution and, could possibly impede the country's conservation and management efforts.

  2. Gaining a Critical Mass: A Dose Metric Conversion Case Study Using Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Alan J; Hull, Matthew S; Diamond, Stephen; Chappell, Mark; Bednar, Anthony J; Laird, Jennifer G; Melby, Nicholas L; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2015-10-20

    Mass concentration is the standard convention to express exposure in ecotoxicology for dissolved substances. However, nanotoxicology has challenged the suitability of the mass concentration dose metric. Alternative metrics often discussed in the literature include particle number, surface area, and ion release (kinetics, equilibrium). It is unlikely that any single metric is universally applicable to all types of nanoparticles. However, determining the optimal metric for a specific type of nanoparticle requires novel studies to generate supportive data and employ methods to compensate for current analytical capability gaps. This investigation generated acute toxicity data for two standard species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas) exposed to five sizes (10, 20, 30, 60, 100 nm) of monodispersed citrate- and polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles. Particles were sized by various techniques to populate available models for expressing the particle number, surface area, and dissolved fraction. Results indicate that the acute toxicity of the tested silver nanoparticles is best expressed by ion release, and is relatable to total exposed surface area. Particle number was not relatable to the observed acute silver nanoparticle effects.

  3. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, Ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25-February 1, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids (significantly reduced reproduction) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples.

  4. ESTUDIOS SISTEMÁTICOS EN TURNERA (TURNERACEAE. IV. SERIES LEIOCARPAE, CONCILIATAE Y SESSILIFOLIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Arbo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la revisión de la serie Leiocarpae Urb., seleccionándose a Turneracallosa Urb. como lectotypus. Esta serie tiene una distribución similar a la del género Turneraen América; presenta 55 especies, la mayoría de las cuales vive en la región biogeográficaChaqueña. Son nuevos los siguientes taxones: T. angelicae, T. dasytricha var. crinita,T. diamantinae, T. emendata, T. fissifolia, T. glabrata, T. gouveiana, T. humilis, T. iterata,T. jobertii, T. luetzelburgii var. dubia, T. melochioides var. rugosa, T. paradoxa, T. patens, T.rosulata, T. vallsii, T. venezuelana y T. vicaria. Se proponen también dos series nuevas,Conciliatae Arbo para T. rubrobracteata Arbo, una especie con una combinación inusual decaracteres, que no se ajusta a ninguna otra serie, y Sessilifoliae Arbo, incluyendoT. dichotoma y T. revoluta, que fueran excluídas de la serie Capitatae; el análisis comparativocon los miembros de Leiocarpae indica que tampoco pertenecen a la última serie. Sepresentan claves para identificar las series del género y las especies de cada serie tratada, asícomo descripciones morfológicas, ilustraciones y mapas de distribución

  5. Metal leaching from oil sands coke and associated characterization of leachate toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Toxicology Centre

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed the feasibility of using the large volumes of coke that are produced as a by-product of bitumen thermal upgrading as a material for reclamation landscapes. Under different environment conditions, the trace elements in the coke could be released into the surrounding landscapes. This study examined the leachability of metals from coke over a 15 day period in a batch leaching process under 2 different pH conditions, notably 5.5 and 9.5. Samples of leachate were analyzed for dissolved trace elements. A Ceriodaphnia dubia standard three-brood chronic test was used to evaluate the toxicity of the coke leachate at the end of the 15 day leaching period. Manganese and nickel releases were significantly higher under pH 5.5 leaching condition as compared to pH 9.5 conditions. The opposite was true for aluminum and vanadium. Toxicity results of coke leachate revealed that LC50 values were 6 per cent and 28 per cent for pH 5.5 and 9.5 treatments, respectively. The concentrations of vanadium and nickel in 100 per cent coke leachate from both pH treatments were well above the 7-d LC50 values of 550 {mu}g per litre and 3.8 {mu}g per litre, respectively. Nickel and/or vanadium may be the likely causes of leachate toxicity. The cause of coke leachate toxicity was determined by toxicity identification evaluations.

  6. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary medicine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Souza Maselli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from veterinary pharmaceutical industries that formulate medicines are mainly generated during the washing of equipment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical industry. The industrial effluent treatment system comprises a step of chemical treatment (coagulation-sedimentation forced followed by aerobic biological treatment (activated sludge process. Five samplings campaigns were performed from October 2011 to July 2012. The raw effluent samples showed high acute and chronic toxicity (acute: fourth sampling with EC50 - 48-h of <0.001% and chronic: third sampling with IC50 - 7-d of <0.0001%. The chemically treated effluent samples were the most toxic with EC50 - 48-h between <0.001 and 0.1% and IC50 - 7-d between 0.00001 and 0.0001%. This increase in toxicity is probably related to the use of aluminum sulfate as flocculating agent. The biological treatment led to a small reduction in toxicity of the effluents. The selected ecotoxicological tests were adequate for detecting the effluent toxicity and useful for evaluating the efficiency of the steps of the effluent treatment. Improvements in the industrial wastewater treatment system should be implemented in order to reduce the observed toxicity of the final effluent.

  7. Neurotoxicity of two Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (cyanobacteria) strains to mice, Daphnia, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Pedro A; Buratini, Sandra V; Aragão, Márcia A; Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio S

    2012-04-01

    In recent decades, toxic cyanobacterial blooms have become frequent in the drinking water supply and have caused serious deleterious effects to domestic and wild animals, as well as to humans. Two strains of the cyanobacterium species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (T2 and T3) were isolated from the Billings Reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil) and cultured in the laboratory for use in acute toxicity tests with mice, micro crustaceans, and fish. The results showed high toxicity of both strains in mouse bioassays (median lethal dose [LD50]; 24 h = 9.6 and 27 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injections). The symptomatology presented by mice was typical of neurotoxicosis, such as trembling, ataxia, convulsions and death by respiratory arrest. Acute and chronic effects were observed in Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia, such as immobilization and reduced fitness, respectively. Although acute effects were not detected on the adult fish Danio rerio, chronic toxicity was observed for its larval stage. Although both strains showed high toxicity to all organisms, no consistent pattern was seen between the different bioassays and strains. The results also showed that C. raciborskii toxins are stable to heat and to extreme pH variations. Because of high toxicity of these strains and the potential risk to human health, the authors propose a revision of the legislation regarding safety factors for drinking water supply. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  8. Characterization of bottom-sediment, water, and elutriate chemistry at selected stations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broshears, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    To better-understand and predict the potential effect of dredging on water quality at Reelfoot Lake, chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water. Chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water collected at five stations in the lake during November 1988. Lake water was of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with an average dissolved-solids concentration of 120 milligrams per liter. Trace constituents were present in bottom sediments at concentrations representative of their average relative abundance in the earth?s crust. Elutriate waters prepared by mixing bottom sediment and lake water had suspended-solids concentrations as high as 2,000 milligrams per liter which exerted significant oxygen demand Trace constituents in the unfiltered elutriate waters were elevated with respect to lake water; elevated concentrations were attributable to the increased suspended-solids concentrations. Concentrations of total-recoverable copper, lead., and zinc in many elutriate waters exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s water-quality criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. The toxicity of elutriate waters, as measured by a 48-hour bioassay with Ceriodaphnia dubia, was low.

  9. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schallreuter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a revision of the ostracodes described by Aurel Krause at the end of the 19th century from glacial erratic boulders from Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg (Northern Germany has led to taxonomic confusion in the corresponding literature of the 20th century. To attain stability in names, some of Krause's ostracode species have been revised based on the types stored in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, namely Primitia plana, P. plana tuberculata, P. intermedia, P. globifera, Entomis sigma antiquata, Bollia v-scripta, B. granulosa, B. duplex, Strepula lineata, Isochilina canaliculata, Beyrichia dissecta, B. mamillosa, B. signata, and B. bidens. Most species have up to four younger synonyms among species described later from outcrops or borings in Baltoscandia or glacial erratic boulders of Northern Germany and Sweden. Three of Krause's species, which have been considered as nomina dubia by Jaanusson are in fact valid species. Some of Krause's species or of their synonyms are type species. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000015

  10. Additions and corrections to the systematics of mayfly species assigned to the genus Callibaetis Eaton 1881 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Paulo Vilela; Salles, Frederico Falcão; Hamada, Neusa

    2017-02-13

    Due to historical taxonomic impediments, species of Callibaetis Eaton are difficult to identify. Recent studies have attempted to resolve this problem, although many species still lack complete descriptions; nymphs of several species remain undetermined; and type specimens are lost or poorly known. Given these hindrances, the aim of this study is to review some of the type specimens of Callibaetis from South America. This review provides a series of taxonomic additions and corrections supported by improved morphological evaluations, illustrations and photographs of Callibaetis camposi Navás, C. (Abaetetuba) capixaba Cruz, Salles & Hamada, C. gregarius Navás, C. (C.) guttatus Navás, C. jaffueli Navás, C. (C.) jocosus Navás, C. nigrivenosus Banks, C. (A.) pollens Needham & Murphy, C. (C.) radiatus Navás, C. (A.) sellacki (Weyenbergh), C. stictogaster Navás, C. (C.) viviparus Needham & Murphy, C. (C.) willineri Navás, and C. (C.) zonalis Navás. From among these species, C. stictogaster and C. jaffueli are revalidated; C. nigrivenosus and C. gregarius are designated as nomina dubia; C. (C.) fluminensis Cruz, Salles & Hamada is proposed as a junior subjective synonym of C. (C.) zonalis; and C. gloriosus Navás is proposed as a junior subjective synonym of C. (A.) sellacki (Weyenbergh). Lectotypes are designated for C. camposi, C. jaffueli, C. (C.) radiatus and C. stictogaster.

  11. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schallreuter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The revision of ostracodes originally established by Aurel Krause is continued and finished with the description of the following species: Primitia distans, P. elongata, P. cincta, P. excavata, P. papillata, P. plicata, P. schmidtii, Strepula limbata, S. simplex, Entomis obliqua, E. plicata, E. sigma, E. sigma ornata, E. simplex, E. trilobata, Beyrichia erratica, B. erratica granulosa, B. erratica acuta, B. harpa, and B. marchica lata. Three of these species are younger primary homonyms. For Beyrichia erratica granulosa Krause, 1891 a respective decision of the ICZN according to art. 23.9.5 is presently unnecessary, because it has an older synonym (Beyrichia grewingkii Bock, 1867, and Primitia excavata Krause, 1892 has a younger synonym (Laccochilina paucigranosa Jaanusson, 1957. The third homonym, Beyrichia marchica lata Krause, 1891, is considered as a nomen protectum. Entomis sigma ornata, and E. plicata are presently considered as nomina dubia. Since the type material of the three species P. distans, E. sigma, and E. simplex is apparently lost, neotypes are designated. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300007

  12. The effect of different entomopathogens on white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in an organic hay-producing grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laznik Žiga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a field block trial examined the biological control of white grubs of June beetle (Amphimallon solstitialis, margined vine chafer (Anomala dubia and garden chafer (Phyllopertha horticola on a permanent cut grassland in Gotenica (SE Slovenia. The efficacy of Beauveria brongniartii, Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in the form of water suspension and infested grain was tested against a control treatment. The initial number of white grubs (April 12; 39 white grubs/m2 was reduced with all tested entomopathogens up until the third evaluation (May 26; 32 white grubs/m2. However, the studied treatments were not sufficient to reduce the white grub population in the soils below the economical threshold (20 individuals/m2. The average number of white grubs was affected mostly by the treatment where the active ingredient was B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. With one application in April, only the abundance of overwintered white grubs was reduced. To decrease the summer generation of white grubs, an application of biological agents is also required at a later time. The 8% higher dry matter yield at the first cut (June 10 compared to the second cut (September 6 provided evidence for the prior statement.

  13. Mixoma Odontogenik: Tinjauan Klinis dan Penatalaksanaanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mulyaka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pendahuluan Mixoma pada mulut adalah lesi yang jarang, tumbuh lambat, suatu masa submukosa yang asimtomatik, lebih sering terjadi pada mandibula. Mixoma bisa mengenai laki-Iaki maupun wanita pada semua umur.Tujuan perawatan mixoma pada mulut, seperti mixoma pada jaringan tubuh lain adalah eksisi bedah. Semua mixoma adalah jinak dan hanya memerlukan terapi konservatif. Gambaran klinis mixoma pada mulut tidak berkapsul dan menunjukan infiltrasi ke jaringan sekitarnya. Secara histology mixoma berisi material gelatin. Seeara radiologi berupa lesi lusen, seringnya multilokuler atau seperti gambaran sarang Mixoma lebah, dengan batas tidak jelas. Rekurensi kadang kala terjadi. Laporan kasus seorang lelaki 24 tahun datang ke Klinik Bedah Mulut & Maksilofasial, RS Dr. Sardjito, Yogyakarta. Dia mengeluh adanya benjolan pada pipi kanan sekitar 3 tahun yang lalu, tidak sakit. Pemeriksaan klinik menunjukan suatu pembengkakan, 9 x 9 x 7 em, konsistensi kenyal, warna sama dengan jaringan sekitarnya. Prognosa dubia ad bonam. Hasil Pasien menjalani operasi hemimandibulektomi dan pemasangan pelat rekonstruksi mandibula di bawah anastesi umum. Hasil patologi anatomi pasea operasi menunjukan mixoma odontogenik.

  14. Assessing toxicity of copper nanoparticles across five cladoceran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lan; Vijver, Martina G; de Snoo, Geert R; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-08-01

    As a result of ever increasing applications, nanoparticles will eventually end up in the environment. However, currently no common principle has been established to help understand the toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) across species. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the potential risks of nanoparticles to untested species in the environment. The authors exposed 4 different sizes of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and 1 submicron-sized copper particle to 5 cladoceran species (Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia galeata, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Chydorus sphaericus) to investigate whether morphological attributes of species can help to assess the acute toxicity of CuNPs across species. The results showed that rod-shaped CuNPs caused much lower toxicity to all species than spherical CuNPs. Both the particles and ions contributed to the total toxicity of the CuNP suspensions. Moreover, the toxicity caused by particles in 5 different copper suspensions increases with decreasing body length, surface area, and body volume of neonates of 5 cladoceran species. Especially the correlations between body volume of the 5 cladoceran species tested and the corresponding toxicity caused by 5 different CuNPs were statistically significant, and in all cases radj (2) was higher than 0.51 (p nanoparticles across species with similar attributes. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Characterization of toxic conditions above Wilson's Creek National Battlefield Park, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, T.S.; Nimmo, D.W.R.; Tessari, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Wilson's Creek has an extensive history of toxicity from both point and nonpoint sources. Seven-day chronic daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays identified one toxic site in the Wilson's Creek watershed. Procedures for the characterization phase of a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) were modified for chronic assessment and performed on four water samples from the toxic site. The characterization involved chemical/physical alterations of samples, combined with bioassays, to help in identification of the class(es) of toxicants; followed by chemical analyses. To help understand the additivity of mixtures, toxic units were derived. Successive samples contained concentrations of copper, cadmium, nickel and zinc that literature values describe as being chronically toxic to daphnids. Summed chronic toxic units for these values greatly exceeded ambient toxic units, and more than accounted for observed toxicity. Substantial fluctuations in water quality occurred over the five sampling periods of the characterization studies and a Test of Methods, June through August, 1991. This variability illustrates the difficulty in detecting and documenting nonpoint sources of pollution. Tests using living organisms, in conjunction with toxicity identification methods, on samples taken over time appear to be appropriate for detecting acute and chronic toxicity in areas impacted by intermittent point and nonpoint-source toxicity.

  16. Four new species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) from China and Japan, and description of the pupal morphology of the genera Corythoxestis, Eumetriochroa, Guttigera, and Metriochroa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Huang, Guo-hua; Nakamura, Akihiro; Hirowatari, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    Four new leaf mining Oecophyllembiinae (Gracillariidae) species are described from China and Japan: Metriochroa symplocosella sp. nov. (host plants: Symplocos anomala, S. sumuntia, Symplocaceae) from China, Guttigera schefflerella sp. nov. (host plant: Schefflera octophylla, Araliaceae), Eumetriochroa araliella sp. nov. (host plants: Dendropanax trifidus, Evodiopanax innovans, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides and Fatsia japonica, Araliaceae) and Corythoxestis tricalysiella sp. nov. (host plant: Tricalysia dubia, Rubiaceae) from Japan. Corythoxestis sunosei (Kumata, 1998) is recorded from new host plants: Adinapilulifera and Mussaenda parviflora, Rubiaceae, from Japan. The female adult and pupal morphologies, life history and host plant of the genus Guttigera are described for the first time. Pupae of seven species of four genera: Corythoxestis, Eumetriochroa, Guttigera, and Metriochroa, are described for the first time. We provide morphological diagnostic differences between species and genera of Oecophyllembiinae and Phyllocnistis. Our preliminary data suggest that Oecophyllembiinae species have three valuable pupal diagnostic characters: 1) cocoon cutter with unique lateral processes or setae on the clypeus, 2) tergal spines with only a pair of dorsal setae, and 3) cremaster with more than two pairs of caudal processes, while Phyllocnistis species possess 1) cocoon cutter without lateral processes or setae on clypeus, 2) tergal spines with a pair of dorsal setae and dorsal hooks, and 3) cremaster with only a pair of caudal processes.

  17. Establishment of Native Grasses with Biosolids on Abandoned Croplands in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jurado-Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate establishment and forage production of native grasses with application of biosolids, a byproduct of waste-water treatment, at an abandoned field, in Ejido Nuevo Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico. Four biosolids rates from 0 (control to 30 dry Mg ha−1 and two methods of application, surface applied (BioSur and soil incorporated (BioInc, were evaluated. Seedbed preparation included plowing and harrowing before rainfall. Field plots of 5 × 5 m were manually sown with a mix of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (50% and green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia (50% in early August 2005. Experimental design was a randomized block with a split plot arrangement. Grass density, height, and forage production were estimated for three years. Data were analyzed with mixed linear models and repeated measures. Green sprangletop density increased under all biosolids rates regardless of method of application, while blue grama density slightly decreased. Biosolids were more beneficial for green sprangletop height than for blue grama height. Blue grama forage production slightly increased, while green sprangletop forage production increased the most at 10 Mg ha−1 biosolids rate under BioSur method. It was concluded that BioSur application at 10 and 20 Mg ha−1 rates had positive effects on the establishment and forage production of native grasses, especially green sprangletop.

  18. Identifying the cause of toxicity in an algal whole effluent toxicity study - an unanticipated toxicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; Tapp, Kelly; Rehner, Anita B; Pillard, David A; Schrage, Laura

    2011-10-01

    Toxicity was observed in whole effluent toxicity (WET) studies with the freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, in three consecutive monthly studies, (NOEC=50-75%). Toxicity was not observed to Ceriodaphnia dubia or the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas in concurrent studies. Selected toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests were conducted in a tiered approach to eliminate possible toxicants and progressively identify the causative agent. Filtration following alkaline adjustment (pH 10 or 11) was effective in eliminating significant growth effects and also reduced phosphate concentration. The TIE studies confirmed that the observed effluent toxicity was caused by excess ortho-phosphate in the effluent not by overstimulation or related to unfavorable N:P ratios; but due to direct toxicity. The 96-h 25% inhibition concentration (IC25) of ortho-phosphate to P. subcapitata was 3.4 mg L⁻¹ while the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration was 4.8 mg L⁻¹. This study illustrates the value of multi-species testing and also provides an example of an effective TIE using algae identifying an unanticipated toxicant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of the Diamond Darter (Crystallaria cincotta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life history data are critical for the conservation and management of rare fishes. During 2008–2012 a captive propagation study was conducted on the Diamond Darter, Crystallaria cincotta, a rare species with a single extant population in the lower Elk River, West Virginia. Water temperatures during spawning ranged from 11.1–23.3 C. Females and males spawned with quick vibrations, burying eggs in fine sand in relatively swift clean depositional areas. Egg size was 1.8–1.9 mm, and embryos developed within 7 to 11 d. Diamond Darters were 6.7–7.2 mm total length (TL) at hatch. Larvae ranged from 9.0–11.0 mm TL following a 5–10 d period of yolk sac absorption. Larvae had relatively large mouth gapes and teeth and were provided brine shrimp Artemia sp., Ceriodaphnia dubia neonates, marine Brachionus rotifers, and powdered foods (50–400 µm) but did not appear to feed in captivity, except for one observation of larval cannibalization. Larvae survived for a maximum of 10 d. To increase larval survival and reduce the possibility of cannibalism, other alternative food sources are needed during captive propagation.

  20. Morphometric analysis of chameleon fossil fragments from the Early Pliocene of South Africa: a new piece of the chamaeleonid history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollion, Alexis Y; Cornette, Raphaël; Tolley, Krystal A; Boistel, Renaud; Euriat, Adelaïde; Boller, Elodie; Fernandez, Vincent; Stynder, Deano; Herrel, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    The evolutionary history of chameleons has been predominantly studied through phylogenetic approaches as the fossil register of chameleons is limited and fragmented. The poor state of preservation of these fossils has moreover led to the origin of numerous nomen dubia, and the identification of many chameleon fossils remains uncertain. We here examine chameleon fossil fragments from the Early Pliocene Varswater formation, exposed at the locality of Langebaanweg "E" Quarry along the southwestern coast of South Africa. Our aim was to explore whether these fossil fragments could be assigned to extant genera. To do so, we used geometric morphometric approaches based on microtomographic imaging of extant chameleons as well as the fossil fragments themselves. Our study suggests that the fossils from this deposit most likely represent at least two different forms that may belong to different genera. Most fragments are phenotypically dissimilar from the South African endemic genus Bradypodion and are more similar to other chameleon genera such as Trioceros or Kinyongia. However, close phenetic similarities between some of the fragments and the Seychelles endemic Archaius or the Madagascan genus Furcifer suggest that some of these fragments may not contain enough genus-specific information to allow correct identification. Other fragments such as the parietal fragments appear to contain more genus-specific information, however. Although our data suggest that the fossil diversity of chameleons in South Africa was potentially greater than it is today, this remains to be verified based on other and more complete fragments.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Deracantha onos (Orthoptera: Bradyporidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhijun; Huang, Yuan; Shi, Fuming; Ye, Haiyan

    2009-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome 15,650 bp in size of the Deracantha onos has been determined. The gene content, base composition and codon usage of D. onos are coincident to typical hexapods mitochondrial genomes. Genes arrangement of D. onos is identical to Gryllotalpa orientalis, Ruspolia dubia and Anabrus simplex, in that the relative locations of tRNA(Lys) and tRNA(Asp) was different to that of Locusta migratoria. All tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, excluding tRNA(Ser(AGN)) which forms another structure according to the Steinberg-Cedergren tertiary structure. Sequence analysis of the A + T-rich region with Dot-plot did not find any conspicuous repeat clusters. Two poly-thymine (poly-T) nucleotide stretches of 20 bp and 11 bp in size, which may involved in the recognition of replication origin, were found on the H-strand and L-strand in the A + T-rich region of the D. onos mitogenome, respectively. One open reading frame (ORF) 87 amino acids in size was found on the H-strand, but Protein Blast searches analysis indicated that it was a nonfunctional ORF.

  2. Chronic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to water- and sediment-dwelling organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panko, Julie M; Kreider, Marisa L; McAtee, Britt L; Marwood, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Tire and road wear particles (TRWP) consist of a complex mixture of rubber, and pavement released from tires during use on road surfaces. Subsequent transport of the TRWP into freshwater sediments has raised some concern about the potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Previous studies have shown some potential for toxicity for tread particles, however, toxicity studies of TRWP collected from a road simulator system revealed no acute toxicity to green algae, daphnids, or fathead minnows at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg under conditions representative of receiving water bodies. In this study, the chronic toxicity of TRWP was evaluated in four aquatic species. Test animals were exposed to whole sediment spiked with TRWP at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg sediment or elutriates from spiked sediment. Exposure to TRWP spiked sediment caused mild growth inhibition in Chironomus dilutus but had no adverse effect on growth or reproduction in Hyalella azteca. Exposure to TRWP elutriates resulted in slightly diminished survival in larval Pimephales promelas but had no adverse effect on growth or reproduction in Ceriodaphnia dubia. No other endpoints in these species were affected. These results, together with previous studies demonstrating no acute toxicity of TRWP, indicate that under typical exposure conditions TRWP in sediments pose a low risk of toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  3. Environmental toxicity and radioactivity assessment of a titanium-processing residue with potential for environmental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Binet, Monique T; Yuan, Zheng; Gissi, Francesca; Koppel, Darren J; Adams, Merrin S

    2013-07-01

    Thorough examination of the physicochemical characteristics of a Ti-processing residue was undertaken, including mineralogical, geochemical, and radiochemical characterization, and an investigation of the environmental toxicity of soft-water leachate generated from the residue. Concentrations of most metals measured in the leachate were low; thus, the residue is unlikely to leach high levels of potentially toxic elements on exposure to low-ionic strength natural waters. Relative to stringent ecosystem health-based guidelines, only chromium concentrations in the leachate exceeded guideline concentrations for 95% species protection; however, sulfate was present at concentrations known to cause toxicity. It is likely that the high concentration of calcium and extreme water hardness of the leachate reduced the bioavailability of some elements. Geochemical modeling of the leachate indicated that calcium and sulfate concentrations were largely controlled by gypsum mineral dissolution. The leachate was not toxic to the microalga Chlorella sp., the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, or the estuarine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The Ti-processing residue exhibited an absorbed dose rate of 186 nGy/h, equivalent to an annual dose of 1.63 mGy and an annual effective dose of 0.326 mGy. In summary, the results indicate that the Ti-processing residue examined is suitable for productive use as an environmental amendment following 10 to 100 times dilution to ameliorate potential toxic effects due to chromium or sulfate. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  4. When mtDNA COI is misleading: congruent signal of ITS2 molecular marker and morphology for North European Melanostoma Schiner, 1860 (Diptera, Syrphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarto, Antti; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The northern European taxa of genus Melanostoma Schiner, 1860 (Syrphidae, Diptera) are revised. A longstanding question concerning the number of Melanostoma taxa occurring in northern Europe prompted us to contrast and compare their morphological and molecular variability. Particular uncertainty concerned the putative existence of a sibling species of Melanostoma mellinum, and the identity of the taxon Melanostoma dubium in northern Europe due to existence of morphologically similar dark forms of M. mellinum in the northern parts of its distributional range. Partial sequences of two DNA markers, the mitochondrial protein-coding gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI-3') and the nuclear second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) were analysed separately under parsimony. The obtained COI-3'gene fragment showed taxon-specific haplotypes and haplotypes that were shared among the taxa. The ITS2 sequences presented genotypes unique to each species, and congruence with our independently established taxonomic entities. Based on congruent signal of the ITS2 sequences and study of morphological characters we establish the presence of four taxa in northern Europe: Melanostoma mellium (= M. dubium nec auctt., syn. n.), M. certum sp. n. (= M. dubium auctt.), M. mellarium stat. n. (= M. mellinum auctt. partim) and M. scalare. Lectotype designations were made for Musca mellina, Syrphus mellarius and Melanostoma mellinum var. melanatus. Melanostoma mellarium = Melanostoma melanatum syn. n.; Melanostoma mellinum = Scaeva dubia syn. n., Melanostoma tschernovi syn. n., and Melanostoma clausseni syn. n. Morphological circumscriptions of the taxa and an identification key are presented.

  5. Two New Species of Leptochelia (Crustacea, Tanaidacea from the West Coast of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi, Jin Hee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Leptochelia Dana, 1849 are described from the western coast of Korea. Leptochelia grandidentata n. sp. is similar to L. itoi and L. lusei characterized by pleonites 4 and 5 of subequal lengths and a uropod endopod with 4 articles but differentiated by a cheliped fixed finger longer than the dactylus and with 4 teeth along the incisive margin, a maxilliped basis with 4 distal setae, and pereopod 1 propodus that is much longer than the combined length of unguis and dactylus. Leptochelia suhi n. sp. shares some features of L. myora with the first article of the uropod endopod longer than the second article and a maxilliped endite with 3 spiniform distal setae but can be differentiated by the cephalothorax being longer than the pleon, the relatively longer antennule article 3 compared to article 2, and the cheliped fixed finger with 3 robust teeth along the incisive margin. In this study, full descriptions of L. grandidentata and L. suhi are given, and a comparison with closely related species belonging to the ‘dubia/savignyi group’ is tabulated and discussed.

  6. Taxonomic notes on the afrotropical genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers, and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Beaver

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion among the afrotropical scolytine genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn, and their synonyms is discussed with especial reference to the catalogues of Wood and Bright (1992, and Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009. A key is given to separate the three genera recognised, and the species considered to be included in each genus are listed. Hylesinopsis is resurrected from synonymy with Hapalogenius, and shown not to be closely related to it. Chilodendron Schedl is considered to be a synonym of Hylesinopsis and not of Xylechinus Chapuis. The following new synonymy is proposed at specific level: Hapalogenius africanus (Eggers (= Hapalogenius lesnei Eggers, = Metahylesinus brincki Schedl; Hapalogenius fuscipennis (Chapuis (= Hapalogenius bimaculatus Eggers; Hapalogenius oblongus (Eggers (= Metahylesinus striatus Schedl; Hylesinopsis fasciata (Hagedorn (= Kissophagus punctatus Eggers; Phrixosoma niger Eggers (= Hapalogenius niger Schedl. The following species are returned to Hylesinopsis from Hapalogenius to which they were transferred by Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009: Hylesinopsis alluaudi (Lepesme, H. angolensis (Schedl, H. arabiae (Schedl, H. atra (Nunberg, H. confusa (Eggers, H. decellei (Nunberg, H. dubia Eggers, H. emarginata (Nunberg, H. fasciata (Hagedorn, H. ficus (Schedl, H. granulata (Lepesme, H. hirsuta (Schedl, H. joveri (Schedl, H. pauliani (Lepesme, H. punctata (Eggers, H. saudiarabiae (Schedl. The following new combination is given: Hylesinopsis leprosula (Browne from Cryphalus Erichson. New distributional records are given for some species.

  7. BASIC PROPERTIES IN RELATION TO DRYING PROPERTIES OF THREE WOOD SPECIES FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrida Basri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate basic and drying properties of three wood species from Indonesia, i.e. kuda (Lannea coromandelica Merr., waru (Hibiscus tiliaceus L. and mindi besar (Melia dubia Cav.. The basic properties include density, shrinkages, modulus of rupture (MOR, compression parallel to grain (C//, wood strength and anatomical structures. Meanwhile, the drying properties included drying time and drying defects. The initial-final temperature and humidity for each species was based on defects that resulted from high temperature drying trial. The results showed that the drying properties were significantly affected by wood anatomical structure. The initial-final drybulb temperature and wetbulb depression   for kuda wood are 50 -70ºC and 3-30ºC respectively, while the corresponding figures for waru wood are 65-80ºC and 6-30ºC, and for mindi besar wood are 55-80ºC and 4-30ºC. These drying schedules, however, still need further trial prior to their implementation in the factory-scale operation. All wood species studied have density and considerable strength recommended in their use for light medium construction purposes. Mindi besar wood has decorative appearance so it is suitable for furniture.

  8. Impacto del pastoreo sobre picoplancton autotrófico en dos lagos andinos (Patagonia, Argentina con diferentes relaciones luz:nutrientes Grazing impact on autotrophic picoplankton in two south Andean lakes (Patagonia, Argentina with different light:nutrient ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTEBAN G. BALSEIRO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lagos andino-patagónicos son ambientes con una alta relación luz:nutrientes. En estos lagos se ha descrito una red trófica particular constituida por grandes ciliados mixotróficos que comparten y compiten por recursos alimentarios con nanoflagelados y cladóceros. A través de experimentos de pastoreo se compararon las tasas de limpieza sobre picoplancton autotrófico de nanoflagelados; el ciliado Ophrydium naumanni y cladóceros de los lagos Moreno Oeste y Rivadavia. Estos lagos presentan diferencias significativas en cuanto a su relación luz:nutrientes y tienen también una composición de crustáceos del zooplancton diferente. En el lago Moreno Oeste, el metalimnion está incluido dentro de la zona eufótica, determinando un estrato iluminado en el que se desarrolla un máximo de clorofila en profundidad. En el lago Rivadavia, en cambio, los estratos iluminados están restringidos al epilimnion y no se observó ningún máximo de clorofila en profundidad. En el lago Moreno se observó que a 30 m de profundidad se producía un incremento en la proporción de la bacterivoría ejercida por el ciliado O. naumanni y el cladócero Ceriodaphnia dubia debido fundamentalmente a la distribución vertical de ambas especies. Por el contrario, las tasas de limpieza del conjunto de nanoflagelados, dominado por la especie mixótrofa Chrysochromulina parva, no presentaron cambios a lo largo de la columna de agua y fueron un orden de magnitud mayores que aquellas de O. naumanni y C. dubia. En el lago Rivadavia, las tasas de pastoreo de los nanoflagelados fueron menores y comparables con las obtenidas para O. naumanni y Daphnia cf. commutata. Las diferencias observadas en las tasas de limpieza de nanoflagelados probablemente reflejan un incremento de la fagotrofía donde la energía lumínica es alta en relación con el fósforo. De esta manera, en el lago Moreno Oeste, donde la luz no es limitante, el aumento observado en la bacterivoría de los

  9. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  10. Effects of predation by Hydra (Cnidaria on cladocerans (Crustacea: Cladocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rivera-De la Parra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic cladocerans have evolved different strategies to avoid predation from vertebrates; these include changes in morphology, behavior, physiology, and/or life-history traits. However, littoral cladocerans are better adapted to avoid invertebrate predation particularly from insect larvae by evolving morphological and physiological adaptations. Nevertheless, this has not been proven for some littoral predators such as Hydra. In this study, we provide quantitative data on how Hydra affects its zooplankton prey. We studied the predation behavior on Alona glabra, Ceridodaphnia dubia, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia cf. mendotae, Diaphanosoma birgei, Macrothrix triserialis, Moina macrocopa, Pleuroxus aduncus, Scapholeberis kingi, Simocephalus vetulus, Elaphoidella grandidieri, Brachionus rubens and Euchlanis dilatata. We also tested the indirect effect of allelochemicals from Hydra on the demography of Daphnia cf. mendotae. Littoral cladocerans are specially adapted to resist nematocyst injection and discharge of toxic substances from Hydra. A significant decrease in the population growth rate from 0.21 to 0.125 d-1 was observed at densities of 2 ind. ml-1. The role of carapace thickness as an adaptive strategy of littoral cladocerans against Hydra predation is discussed.

  11. Palms around landslide scars on State Park of Serra do Mar – Núcleo Santa Virginia-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simey Thury Vieira Fisch

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out at the Núcleo Santa Virginia (State Park of Serra do Mar, São Paulo, Brazil (45º 30' W and 23º 17' S and has the goals of evaluating the response of the palm community in two landslide areas that occurred in the summer of 1996 due to an atmospheric event (Convergence Zone of South Atlantic. One of them is located in preserved forest area and the other in a secondary vegetation area nearby. In order to evaluate the palm community distribution, 100m2 circular plots were allocated in the edges of the scars of the landslides and in the interior of the adjacent vegetation for three altitudes (bottom, middle and top. The palms were classified in three ontogenetic stages (seedlings, juveniles and adults which represent five species in preserved area (canopy species: Attalea dubia and Euterpe edulis, understorey species: Geonoma gamiova, G. pohliana and G. schottiana and four species in secondary area (the same species, except G. pohliana. The disturbance caused perturbation in the palm community. The juveniles of species E. edulis and G. schottiana were stimulated by the increase in luminosity provoked by landslides while G. gamiova decreased drastically in these conditions for all developmental stages. The regeneration pattern observed indicates that species from different forest strata can respond in different ways to this type of environmental disturbance.

  12. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  13. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  14. Polyhydroxy fullerenes (fullerols or fullerenols: beneficial effects on growth and lifespan in diverse biological models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols, have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF. We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.

  15. Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

    2000-01-01

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

  16. Polyhydroxy Fullerenes (Fullerols or Fullerenols): Beneficial Effects on Growth and Lifespan in Diverse Biological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Yihai; Folta, Kevin M.; Krishna, Vijay; Bai, Wei; Indeglia, Paul; Georgieva, Angelina; Nakamura, Hideya; Koopman, Ben; Moudgil, Brij

    2011-01-01

    Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols), have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF) and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF). We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF. PMID:21637768

  17. Polyhydroxy fullerenes (fullerols or fullerenols): beneficial effects on growth and lifespan in diverse biological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Yihai; Folta, Kevin M; Krishna, Vijay; Bai, Wei; Indeglia, Paul; Georgieva, Angelina; Nakamura, Hideya; Koopman, Ben; Moudgil, Brij

    2011-01-01

    Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols), have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF) and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF). We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.

  18. Bioremoval of the azo dye Congo Red by the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Montes-Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2015-07-01

    Discharge of dye-containing wastewater by the textile industry can adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and human health. Bioremoval is an alternative to industrial processes for detoxifying water contaminated with dyes. In this work, active and inactive biomass of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was assayed for the ability to remove Congo Red (CR) dye from aqueous solutions. Through biosorption and biodegradation processes, Chlorella vulgaris was able to remove 83 and 58 % of dye at concentrations of 5 and 25 mg L(-1), respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity at equilibrium was 200 mg g(-1). The Langmuir model best described the experimental equilibrium data. The acute toxicity test (48 h) with two species of cladocerans indicated that the toxicity of the dye in the effluent was significantly decreased compared to the initial concentrations in the influent. Daphnia magna was the species less sensitive to dye (EC50 = 17.0 mg L(-1)), followed by Ceriodaphnia dubia (EC50 = 3.32 mg L(-1)). These results show that Chlorella vulgaris significantly reduced the dye concentration and toxicity. Therefore, this method may be a viable option for the treatment of this type of effluent.

  19. Review of recent ecotoxicological studies on cladocerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, S S S; Nandini, S

    2006-01-01

    Cladocerans have been widely used as the bioassay organisms in evaluating the impact of different toxic substances. Literature survey during the last 10 years revealed that cladoceran ecotoxicological research has been in an exponential phase constituting nearly 10% of publications on this group. Many studies have considered typically planktonic taxa such as Daphnia magna, D. pulex, Moina macrocopa, M. micrura and Ceriodaphania dubia. Experimental data on toxicity tests, to a lesser extent, are also available for littoral-benthic genera such as Simocephalus, Macrothrix and Alona. Most toxicity tests are limited to the derivation of median lethal concentrations of various durations but mostly at 24 or 48 h. Studies related to the evaluation of changes in the life history variables of cladocerans as a result of sublethal exposure to toxic substances are not many, but gaining importance. The common toxic substances used in the cladoceran toxicity tests appear to be heavy metals, pesticides and a few natural toxins such as cyanotoxins. We review here the effect of different toxic substances on cladocerans based on both the field and the laboratory studies from an ecotoxicology point of view. Suggestions for the future cladoceran ecotoxicology are also commented on.

  20. Field and laboratory assessment of a coal processing effluent in the Leading Creek Watershed, Meigs County, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, A.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Currie, R.J. [Virginia Polytechnique Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Biology

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has not recommended water quality criteria (WQC) to protect aquatic life from elevated sodium and sulfate concentrations, such as those associated with the coal-processing effluent of Meigs County Mine No. 31. This discharge, received by a tributary of the Leading Creek Watershed (SE Ohio), had a mean specific conductivity (SC) of 8,109 (7,750-8,750) {mu}S/cm and total metal concentrations below acute WQC. The mean 48h LC50 for Ceriodaphnia dubia in the effluent was 6,713 +/- 99 {mu}S/cm; mean 48h survival was 44% for study sites downstream of the effluent. The best indicators of impairment used in this study were Ceriodaphnia fecundity, in situ Corbicula fluminea growth, EPT minus Hydropsychidae (richness and relative abundance), and relative Ephemeroptera abundance. Mayflies, reduced by more than 99% below the effluent, were absent from all but the furthest downstream study site. SC was strongly correlated with Corbicula growth and EPT minus Hydropsychidae richness, suggesting the effluent was primarily responsible for biotic impairment. The results indicated that SC levels, a measure of dissolved solids, in the Leading Creek Watershed that exceeded about to 3,700 {mu}S/cm impaired sensitive aquatic fauna.

  1. The Stenopsyche simplex Species Group from China with descriptions of three new species (Trichoptera: Stenopsychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Hua; Wang, Bei-Xin; Sun, Chang-Hai

    2014-04-03

    The Chinese Stenopsyche simplex Group is revised for the first time since Weaver's (1987) revision. The group includes 14 described species and 3 new species. Two diagnostic subgroups were recognized by Schmid (1959). The first subgroup of Chinese species includes S. anaximander Malicky 2011, S. brevata Tian & Zheng 1989, S. chinensis Hwang 1957, S. dentata Navás 1930, S. splendida Martynov 1935, S. dubia Schmid 1965, S. rotundata Schmid 1965, S. simplex Schmid 1959, and S. tienmushanensis Hwang 1957; of these, S. dentata is assigned to this first subgroup for the first time. The second diagnostic subgroup includes S. denticulata Ulmer 1926, S. longispina Ulmer 1926, S. stoetzneri Döhler 1929, S. uniformis Schmid 1965 and S. formosana Kobayashi, 1987. The species newly described here include Stenopsyche ningshanensis sp. nov., from Shaan-xi Province, belonging to the first subgroup, and Stenopsyche acanthoclada sp. nov. and Stenopsyche jinxiuensis sp. nov., both from Guang-xi Province and belonging to the second subgroup. Distribution maps of the two diagnostic subgroups of Chinese species and illustrations of male genitalia of the three new species are provided along with collection data for additional specimens for the previously described species.

  2. Aquatic toxicity of dyes before and after photo-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Luis A V; da Silva, Thiago H G; Nogueira, Raquel F Pupo; Kummrow, Fábio; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2014-07-15

    This study evaluated the ecotoxicity of five dyes to freshwater organisms before and during their photo-Fenton degradation. EC50 (48h) of the five tested dyes ranged from of 6.9 to >1000mgL(-1) for Daphnia similis. In the chronic tests IC50 (72h) varied from 65 to >100mgL(-1) for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and IC50 (8 days) from 0.5 to 410mgL(-1) for Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity tests revealed that although the applied treatment was effective for decolorization of the dye, the partial mineralization may be responsible for the presence of degradation products which can be either more toxic than the original dye, as is the case of Vat Green 3 and Reactive Black 5, lead to initially toxic products which may be further degraded to non toxic products (acid Orange 7 and Food Red 17), or generate non toxic products as in the case of Food Yellow 3. The results highlighted the importance of assessing both acute and chronic toxicity tests of treated sample before effluent discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: jwhunt@ucdavis.edu; Anderson, Brian [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, Bryn [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: bmphillips@ucdavis.edu; Tjeerdema, Ron [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: rstjeerdema@ucdavis.edu; Largay, Bryan [Largay Hydrologic Sciences, LLC, 160 Farmer Street Felton, CA 95018-9416 (United States)], E-mail: bryan.largay@sbcglobal.net; Beretti, Melanie [Resources Conservation District of Monterey County, 744-A La Guardia Street, Salinas, CA 93905 (United States)], E-mail: beretti.melanie@rcdmonterey.org; Bern, Amanda [California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Coast Region, 895 Aerovista Place, Suite 101, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 (United States)], E-mail: abern@waterboards.ca.gov

    2008-11-15

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems.

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of boron to a variety of freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Koch, Brian T

    2011-08-01

    Boron enters the aquatic environment from various sources, including weathering of borates, sewage effluents, coal combustion, use of cleaning compounds, and agrochemicals. The present study was designed to generate data on acute and chronic boron toxicity in support of an update of water quality standards in Illinois, USA. We examined the acute toxicity of boron to eight different freshwater organisms including a fish, an insect, two crustaceans, and four bivalve mollusks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present data on the toxicity of boron to freshwater mollusks. We also sought to clarify whether hardness or pH affect boron toxicity to aquatic life, and to quantify chronic effect levels in two freshwater species. Sensitivity among the various species ranged widely, with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) being the most sensitive. Neither pH nor hardness had a consistent effect on acute boron toxicity to two crustaceans (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), but we observed evidence that chloride reduces boron toxicity to H. azteca. The fathead minnow, while more acutely sensitive than the other species, had a lower acute to chronic ratio than did H. azteca, which had reduced reproduction at 13 mg/L. While we do not know the extent to which the eight tested species represent the range of sensitivities of native but untested species in Illinois, the current water quality standard for Illinois (1 mg/L) is conservative with regard to the native species tested thus far. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  5. New data on Mustelidae (Carnivora) from Southeast Asia: Siamogale thailandica, a peculiar otter-like mustelid from the late middle Miocene Mae Moh Basin, northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohé, Camille; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; de Bonis, Louis; Yamee, Chotima; Blondel, Cécile; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    We report new dental remains of Mustelidae from the late middle Miocene of Mae Moh Basin, northern Thailand, improving the poor fossil record of the family in Southeast Asia. Siamogale thailandica is a poorly known mustelid, previously recorded from just a single tooth. Here we present over a hundred new specimens attributable to this species. S. thailandica shows a combination of primitive and convergent features of the dentition that makes its original subfamilial assignment to Lutrinae doubtful. Evidence from the dental morphology suggests that it belongs to a bunodont otter-like mustelid that evolved in convergence with “true” otters (Lutrinae) toward a semi-aquatic way of life. Autapomorphic features such as the height and the position of the m1 metaconid and the shape of the P4 lingual shelf make S. thailandica unique among Mustelidae. The morphology of this species is mostly similar to Mionictis species and Lartetictis dubia, reported in the Miocene of North America and Europe, respectively. These similarities could imply immigration events to Thailand in the early or middle Miocene. Alternately, the lineage leading to Siamogale might have deeper origins from an endemic early Miocene Southeast Asian mustelid.

  6. A review of the orientalis group of the Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus Porat, 1876 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John G E

    2014-12-02

    The Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus, which currently comprises 58 species, was subdivided by Lewis (2010a) into nine species groups based on Attems' (1930a) monograph. The orientalis group comprising 19 species and two subspecies is the subject of this paper. In most cases, the type material is redescribed and variation discussed. The following species are valid: O. ateles Chamberlin, 1920, O. australianus Attems, 1930, O. brevidentatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. foveolatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. kashmiranus Lewis, 1992, O. metallicus Haase, 1887, O. multidens multidens Haase, 1887, O. oatesi Kraepelin, 1903, O. orientalis Porat, 1876, O. ruficeps Pocock, 1890, and O. striolatus Verhoeff, 1937. O. seychellarum Attems, 1900, is reinstated as a valid species and O. niasensis Silvestri, 1895, and O. sucki Krae-pelin, 1903 which may be O. metallicus are regarded as valid pro tem. O. greggi Chamberlin, 1944, is a junior subjective synonym of O. astenus (Kohlrausch, 1881), and O. loriae Silvestri, 1895, and O. multidens carens Attems, 1938, junior subjective synonyms of O. multidens. O. loriae nordicus Schileyko, 1995, becomes O. multidens nordicus comb. nov. O. nemorensis Silvestri, 1895, O. poonamae Khanna & Tripathi, 1986, and O. telus Chamberlin, 1939, are nomina dubia. A key to the species is provided.

  7. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of April 14-21, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 4.3, Poplar Creek Mile 5.1, and Poplar Creek Mile 6.0 on April 13, 15, and 18. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to daphnids in undiluted samples; however, toxicity to fathead minnows (significantly reduced survival) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Daphnid reproduction was significantly less than controls in 50 percent dilutions of samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0, while no toxicity to fathead minnows was shown in diluted (50 percent) samples.

  8. Chronic toxicity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to algae and crustaceans using passive dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, Gail E; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Letinksi, Daniel J; Butler, Josh D; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Sutherland, Cary A; Knarr, Tricia M; Comber, Mike; den Haan, Klaas

    2016-12-01

    Because of the large number of possible aromatic hydrocarbon structures, predictive toxicity models are needed to support substance hazard and risk assessments. Calibration and evaluation of such models requires toxicity data with well-defined exposures. The present study has applied a passive dosing method to generate reliable chronic effects data for 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. The observed toxicity of these substances on algal growth rate and neonate production were then compared with available literature toxicity data for these species, as well as target lipid model and chemical activity-based model predictions. The use of passive dosing provided well-controlled exposures that yielded more consistent data sets than attained by past literature studies. Results from the present study, which were designed to exclude the complicating influence of ultraviolet light, were found to be well described by both target lipid model and chemical activity effect models. The present study also found that the lack of chronic effects for high molecular weight PAHs was consistent with the limited chemical activity that could be achieved for these compounds in the aqueous test media. Findings from this analysis highlight that variability in past literature toxicity data for PAHs may be complicated by both poorly controlled exposures and photochemical processes that can modulate both exposure and toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2948-2957. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Genetic diversity of Entamoeba: Novel ribosomal lineages from cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Tetsuro; Imada, Mihoko; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kobayashi, Seiki; Hashimoto, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Our current taxonomic perspective on Entamoeba is largely based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA) from Entamoeba species identified in vertebrate hosts with minor exceptions such as E. moshkovskii from sewage water and E. marina from marine sediment. Other Entamoeba species have also been morphologically identified and described from non-vertebrate species such as insects; however, their genetic diversity remains unknown. In order to further disclose the diversity of the genus, we investigated Entamoeba spp. in the intestines of three cockroach species: Periplaneta americana, Blaptica dubia, and Gromphadorhina oblongonota. We obtained 134 Entamoeba SSU rDNA sequences from 186 cockroaches by direct nested PCR using the DNA extracts of intestines from cockroaches, followed by scrutinized BLASTn screening and phylogenetic analyses. All the sequences identified in this study were distinct from those reported from known Entamoeba species, and considered as novel Entamoeba ribosomal lineages. Furthermore, they were positioned at the base of the clade of known Entamoeba species and displayed remarkable degree of genetic diversity comprising nine major groups in the three cockroach species. This is the first report of the diversity of SSU rDNA sequences from Entamoeba in non-vertebrate host species, and should help to understand the genetic diversity of the genus Entamoeba. PMID:28934335

  10. Genetic diversity of Entamoeba: Novel ribosomal lineages from cockroaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Kawano

    Full Text Available Our current taxonomic perspective on Entamoeba is largely based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA from Entamoeba species identified in vertebrate hosts with minor exceptions such as E. moshkovskii from sewage water and E. marina from marine sediment. Other Entamoeba species have also been morphologically identified and described from non-vertebrate species such as insects; however, their genetic diversity remains unknown. In order to further disclose the diversity of the genus, we investigated Entamoeba spp. in the intestines of three cockroach species: Periplaneta americana, Blaptica dubia, and Gromphadorhina oblongonota. We obtained 134 Entamoeba SSU rDNA sequences from 186 cockroaches by direct nested PCR using the DNA extracts of intestines from cockroaches, followed by scrutinized BLASTn screening and phylogenetic analyses. All the sequences identified in this study were distinct from those reported from known Entamoeba species, and considered as novel Entamoeba ribosomal lineages. Furthermore, they were positioned at the base of the clade of known Entamoeba species and displayed remarkable degree of genetic diversity comprising nine major groups in the three cockroach species. This is the first report of the diversity of SSU rDNA sequences from Entamoeba in non-vertebrate host species, and should help to understand the genetic diversity of the genus Entamoeba.

  11. Development of acute toxicity quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) and their use in linear alkylbenzene sulfonate species sensitivity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Scott E; Brill, Jessica L; Rawlings, Jane M; Price, Brad B

    2016-07-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) is high tonnage and widely dispersed anionic surfactant used by the consumer products sector. A range of homologous structures are used in laundry applications that differ primarily on the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain. This research summarizes the development of a set of acute toxicity QSARs (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships) for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and daphnids (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia) using accepted test guideline approaches. A series of studies on pure chain length LAS from C10 to C14 were used to develop the QSARs and the robustness of the QSARs was tested by evaluation of two technical mixtures of differing compositions. All QSARs were high quality (R(2) were 0.965-0.997, p Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) for various chain lengths of interest. Mixtures include environmental distributions measured from exposure monitoring surveys of wastewater effluents, various commercial mixtures, or specific chain lengths. SSD 5th percentile hazardous concentrations (HC5s) ranged from 0.129 to 0.254 mg/L for wastewater effluents containing an average of 11.26-12 alkyl carbons. The SSDs are considered highly robust given the breadth of species (n = 19), use of most sensitive endpoints from true chronic studies and the quality of the underlying statistical properties of the SSD itself. The data continue to indicate a low hazard to the environment relative to expected environmental concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feeding and filtration rates of zooplankton (rotifers and cladocerans) fed toxic cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Sarma, S S S; Nandini, S

    2014-11-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa is generally dominant in many Mexican freshwater ecosystems interacting with zooplankton species. Hence, feeding and filtration rates were quantified for three cladoceran (Daphnia pulex, Moina micrura and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and three rotifer species (Brachionus calyciflorus, Brachionus rubens and Plationus patulus) using sonicated M. aeruginosa alone or mixed with Scenedesmus acutus in different proportions (25, 50 and 75%, based on cell density), offering a combined initial density of 100,000 cells·ml(-1). All the three cladoceran species ingested M. aeruginosa (100-300 cells ind(-1) min(-1)) when fed exclusively with cyanobacterium. When green alga offered as exclusive diet, the number of cells ingested by the tested cladocerans varied from 80 to 400 cells ind(-1) min(-1). Compared to cladocerans, rotifers in general consumed much lower quantity (rotifer species, P. patulus filtered highest volume (100 μl ind(-1) min(-1) from mixed diets containing higher proportions (50 or 75%) of M. aeruginosa. Thus, there were species-specific differences in the filtration and feeding rates of zooplankton when offered mixed diets of green algae and toxic cyanobacteria. These probably explain the coexistence of different zooplankton species in Microcystis-dominant waterbodies.

  13. Sildenafil and tadalafil in simulated chlorination conditions: Ecotoxicity of drugs and their derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temussi, Fabio; DellaGreca, Marina; Pistillo, Paola; Previtera, Lucio; Zarrelli, Armando [UdR Napoli 4 INCA, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, Università Federico II, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Criscuolo, Emma; Lavorgna, Margherita; Russo, Chiara [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta (Italy); Isidori, Marina, E-mail: marina.isidori@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    Chlorination experiments on two drugs (sildenafil and tadalafil) were performed mimicking the conditions of a typical wastewater treatment process. The main transformation products were isolated by chromatographic techniques (Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Column Chromatography (CC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)) and fully characterized employing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) analyses. The environmental effects of the parent compounds and transformation products were evaluated using an overall toxicity approach that considered aquatic acute and chronic toxicity on Brachionus calyciflorus and Ceriodaphnia dubia as well as mutagenesis and genotoxicity on bacterial strains. The results revealed that both parent drugs did not show high acute and chronic toxicity for the organisms utilized in the bioassays while, chronic exposure to chlorine derivatives caused inhibition of growth population on rotifers and crustaceans. A mutagenic potential was found for all the compounds investigated. - Highlights: • Simulated disinfection process of pharmaceuticals was performed. • Toxicity and genotoxicity of sildenafil, tadalafil and their derivatives were evaluated. • Chlorine derivatives caused chronic toxicity on rotifers and crustaceans. • A mutagenic potential was found for all the compounds investigated.

  14. Contribution of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) to whole toxicity of water samples collected in effluent-dominated urban streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Ikumi; Yasuda, Yusuke; Kagota, Kei-Ichiro; Yoneda, Saori; Nakada, Norihide; Kumar, Vimal; Kameda, Yutaka; Kimura, Kumiko; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Water samples were collected from effluent-dominated urban streams in Tokushima, Kyoto, and Saitama in Japan to roughly determine the contribution of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and surfactants to whole toxicity of the water. Approximately 100 PPCPs including anionic surfactants such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), were chemically analyzed. Using 14 water samples, chronic or sub-chronic toxicity tests were conducted on three aquatic species, the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata, the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, and the zebrafish Danio rerio. Bioassays for the selected individual PPCPs were conducted using the three species. Assuming the concentration addition (CA) model, the contribution of each PPCP to the whole toxicity of the riverwater was estimated based on toxicity unit (TU). The contribution of PPCPs, which primarily consists of a few antibiotic agents such as triclosan and clarithromycin, ranged from 0.9% to 69% of the whole toxicity of the water samples for algae, whereas the selected LAS congeners accounted for at most 5.3%. In contrast, the contribution of LAS ranged from 0.067% to 86% and from 0.021% to 27% of the whole toxicity for cladoceran and zebrafish, respectively, whereas that of PPCPs for these species was at most 2.1% at all sampling points. Our results suggest a limited contribution of PPCPs except for antimicrobial agents and the possible substantial contribution of LAS to toxicity in cladocerans and zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Crab death assemblages from Laguna Madre and vicinity, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotnick, R.E.; McCarroll, S. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA)); Powell, E. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Crabs are a major component of modern marine ecosystems, but are only rarely described in fossil assemblages. Studies of brachyuran taphonomy have examined either the fossil end-products of the taphonomic process or the very earliest stages of decay and decomposition. The next logical step is the analysis of modern crab death assemblages; i.e., studies that examine taphonomic loss in areas where the composition of the living assemblage is known. The authors studied crab death assemblages in shallow water sediments at several localities in an near Laguna Madre, Texas. Nearly every sample examined contained some crab remains, most commonly in the form of isolated claws (dactyl and propodus). A crab fauna associated with a buried grass bed contained abundant remains of the xanthid crab Dyspanopeus texanus, including carapaces, chelipeds, and thoraxes, as well as fragments of the portunid Callinectes sapidus and the majiid Libinia dubia. Crab remains may be an overlooked portion of many preserved benthic assemblages, both in recent and modern sediments.

  16. Darwin’s earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrilacea with review of cosmopolitan Metaphire peguana–species group from Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakemore, R.J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A chance visit to Darwin allowed inspection of and addition to Northern Territory (NT Museum’s earthworm collection. Native Diplotrema zicsii sp. nov. from Alligator River, Kakadu NP is described. Town samples were dominated by cosmopolitan exotic Metaphire bahli (Gates, 1945 herein keyed and compared morpho-molecularly with M. peguana (Rosa, 1890 requiring revision of allied species including Filipino Pheretima philippina (Rosa, 1891, P. p. lipa and P. p. victorias sub-spp. nov. A new P. philippina-group now replaces the dubia-group of Sims & Easton, 1972 and Amynthas carinensis (Rosa, 1890 further replaces their sieboldi-group. Lumbricid Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 and Glossoscolecid Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857 are confirmed introductions to the NT. mtDNA barcodes newly include Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872 and Polypheretima elongata (Perrier, 1872 spp.-complexes from the Philippines. Pithemera philippinensis James & Hong, 2004 and Pi. glandis Hong & James, 2011 are new synonyms of Pi. bicincta (Perrier, 1875 that is common in Luzon. Vietnamese homonym Pheretima thaii Nguyen, 2011 (non P. thaii Hong & James, 2011 is replaced with Pheretima baii nom. nov. Two new Filipino taxa are also described: Pleionogaster adya sp. nov. from southern Luzon and Pl. miagao sp. nov. from western Visayas.

  17. A review of Shamosuchus and Paralligator (Crocodyliformes, Neosuchia from the Cretaceous of Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H Turner

    Full Text Available The crocodyliform Shamosuchus is known from numerous Late Cretaceous localities in southern and eastern Mongolia and fragmentary remains from Uzbekistan. Seven species of Shamosuchus have been named from six localities in Mongolia and three in Uzbekistan. Six species originally described as Paralligator were later referred to Shamosuchus. Only the type species, Shamosuchus djadochtaensis has been examined in detail. Many of the named species of Shamosuchus show striking similarity in size and cranial morphology but most are based on partial remains suggesting that the true species diversity is overestimated. A review of all species referred to Shamosuchus recognizes three valid taxa: Shamosuchus djadochtaensis, S. gradilifrons, and S. major. Shamosuchus sungaricus, S. borealis, and S. karakalpakensis are nomena dubia, whereas S. ancestralis, S. ulgicus, S. tersus, and S. ulanicus are junior subjective synonyms of S. gradilifrons. Phylogenetic analysis of 318 phenotypic characters recovers a Paralligatoridae clade consisting of Shamosuchus, Rugosuchus, Batrachomimus, Glen Rose Form, and Wannchampsus. Shamosuchus is non-monophyletic: S. djadochtaensis is near the base of Paralligatoridae whereas S. gradilifrons + S. major are the most deeply nested. The name Paralligator is resurrected for this clade. Rugosuchus and Batrachomimus are sister taxa to Paralligator. Paralligatoridae is closely related to Theriosuchus, hylaeochampsids and a speciose Allodaposuchus clade, which together are the sister group of Borealosuchus plus Crocodylia. These results support the presence of a diverse clade in eastern Asia and western North America throughout the Cretaceous with origins in the Late Jurassic.

  18. Callibrachion and Datheosaurus, two historical and previously mistaken basal caseasaurian synapsids from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Spindler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a re-investigation of two historical fossil discoveries, Callibrachion gaudryi (Artinskian of France and Datheosaurus macrourus (Gzhelian of Poland, that were originally classified as haptodontine-grade sphenacodontians and have been lately treated as nomina dubia. Both taxa are here identified as basal caseasaurs based on their overall proportions as well as dental and osteological characteristics that differentiate them from any other major synapsid subclade. As a result of poor preservation, no distinct autapomorphies can be recognized. However, our detailed investigations of the virtually complete skeletons in the light of recent progress in basal synapsid research allow a novel interpretation of their phylogenetic positions. Datheosaurus might represent an eothyridid or basal caseid. Callibrachion shares some similarities with the more derived North American genus Casea. These new observations on Datheosaurus and Callibrachion provide new insights into the early diversification of caseasaurs, reflecting an evolutionary stage that lacks spatulate teeth and broadened phalanges that are typical for other caseid species. Along with Eocasea, the former ghost lineage to the Late Pennsylvanian origin of Caseasauria is further closed. For the first time, the presence of basal caseasaurs in Europe is documented.

  19. Studying toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  20. Determination of trace elements in planktonic microcrustaceans using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF): First results from two Chilean lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woelfl, Stefan; Mercado, Susana; Villalobos, Lorena [Instituto de Zoologia, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Mages, Margarete; Ovari, Mihaly [Department of Inland Water Research Magdeburg, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Brueckstrasse 3a, 39114, Magdeburg (Germany); Encina, Francisco [Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Montt 056, Temuco (Chile)

    2004-02-01

    First results are described from the application of a recently developed dry method for determination of elements in single specimens of freshwater microcrustaceans, using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). This method is a powerful, non-destructive technique for quantifying the trace element content of minute biological samples with a dry weight of 3-50 {mu}g. Three different freshwater microcrustaceans were sampled, from the natural, uncontaminated Lake Laja and from the artificial Rapel reservoir which is slightly contaminated by drainage water from a copper mine. Single specimens of Daphnia pulex, Bosmina chilensis, and Ceriodaphnia dubia were prepared using a modification of the dry method and measured by TXRF. The results showed that both As, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu content and the bioaccumulation of these metals were usually significantly different between the microcrustaceans from the two lakes. The largest difference was found for Cu which was eight times more concentrated in the two microcrustaceans from Rapel reservoir than it was in D. pulex from Lake Laja. (orig.)

  1. Studies on South-east Asian fireflies: Abscondita, a new genus with details of life history, flashing patterns and behaviour of Abs. chinensis (L.) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Lampyridae: Luciolinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Lesley; Fu, Xinhua; Lambkin, Christine; Jeng, Ming-Luen; Faust, Lynn; Wijekoon, M C D; Li, Daiqin; Zhu, Tengfui

    2013-01-01

    Abscondita, a new genus of fireflies from South-east Asia, is described from males and females of Abs. anceyi (Olivier 1883), Abs. cerata (Olivier 1911), Abs. chinensis (L. 1767), Abs. perplexa (Walker 1858), Abs. promelaena (Walker 1858) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier 1883), all transferred from Luciola Laporte. Both L. dubia Olivier 1903 and L. dejeani Gemminger 1870 are synonymised with Luciola perplexa (Walker), and L. aegrota Olivier 1891 and L. melaspis Bourgeois 1909 with L. promelaena Walker. Females are characterised by their bursa plates. Larvae are associated and described for Abs. anceyi (Olivier), Abs. chinensis (L.) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier). Taxonomic issues regarding the identification of species with very similar colouration of pale dorsum and black tipped elytra are addressed and in some cases resolved. A neotype for Luciola chinensis (L.) is erected and Luciola praeusta (Kiesenwetter 1874) is synonymised with L. chinensis (L.). Descriptions of life histories, biology and flashing patterns of populations of Abs. chinensis and Abs. terminalis from central China are included. A bs. terminalis is the first Asian firefly known to possess multiple flash trains where males are documented to display with repeating flash trains.

  2. A new species of Monstrillopsis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Monstrilloida from the lower Northwest Passage of the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Delaforge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of monstrilloid copepod, Monstrillopsis planifrons sp. n., is described from an adult female that was collected beneath snow-covered sea ice during the 2014 Ice Covered Ecosystem – CAMbridge bay Process Study (ICE-CAMPS in Dease Strait of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Currently, up to six species of this order are known to occur in polar latitudes. The new species described herein shares similarities with Monstrillopsis dubia (Scott, 1904 but differs in its body proportions and cephalothorax ornamentation; the cephalothorax is covered by minute scattered papillae on dorsal and ventral surfaces; this species has a reduced fifth leg endopod, fifth leg exopod armed with three setae, antennule with fused segments 3–4, and the genital double-somite bears unique posterolateral processes. This is the second species of this genus recorded in the Arctic, after Monstrillopsis ferrarii (Suárez-Morales & Ivanenko, 2004, described from the White Sea, and is the first record of Monstrillopsis in Canadian waters. With the addition of this new species and the recognition of Monstrillopsis bernardensis comb. nov. as a member of this genus, the number of nominal species is now 15. Overall, this genus has a tendency to be distributed in temperate and cold waters, while only three species have been found in tropical and subtropical latitudes.

  3. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Langer, Max C

    2011-03-01

    The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.

  4. Embalagens plásticas e refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de jabuticaba Plastic packages and cold storage on the postharvest preservation of jabuticaba fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicácia Portella Machado

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do uso de embalagens plásticas associadas à refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de jabuticabas (Myrciaria spp para consumo in natura e processamento. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, na Embrapa Clima Temperado - Pelotas-RS, com os seguintes tratamentos: T1- testemunha (não-embaladas; T2- bandeja plástica (capacidade da embalagem de 200g (dimensões de 18cm de comprimento x 12cm de largura x 3cm de altura com duas perfurações de 1mm cada, na tampa, e T3- saco plástico (15m de espessura com perfurações de aproximadamente 0,5mm. No experimento 1, os frutos (destinados ao consumo in natura foram armazenados durante 08 dias, a 0ºC e 90% UR, em câmara fria, com liberação de oxigênio ionizado (0,03 e 0,09ppm na atmosfera, mais dois dias a 20-22ºC e 70-75% UR e, no experimento 2 (frutos destinados ao processamento, utilizou-se a mesma condição de armazenamento do experimento 1, porém as avaliações das jabuticabas foram realizadas 10 dias após o armazenamento a 0ºC e 90% UR. Avaliaram-se a perda de peso (%; sólidos solúveis totais (SST (ºBrix; pH; acidez titulável (AT (% de ácido cítrico e relação SST/AT. Observou-se, em ambos os experimentos, que as jabuticabas embaladas com saco plástico de 15m apresentaram significativamente menor perda de peso. A AT, SST, pH e relação SST/AT apresentaram variações entre os tratamentos, nos dois experimentos, sem afetar a qualidade comercial dos frutos. Conclui-se que o uso de saco plástico de 15m de espessura e com perfurações de 0,5mm é eficiente para manter a qualidade comercial de jabuticabas armazenadas durante 8 dias, a 0ºC e 90% UR, mais dois dias a 20-22ºC e 70-75% UR (frutos destinados ao consumo in natura e por 10 dias a 0ºC e 90% UR (frutos destinados ao processamento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the plastic packages use in cold storage on the preservation of jabuticabas

  5. Revisão nomenclatural e taxonômica de liquens foliícolas e respectivos fungos liquenícolas registrados para o Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, por Batista e colaboradores Taxonomic revision of foliicolous lichens and their lichenicolous fungi as registered for Pernambuco State, Brazil, by Batista and co-workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lücking

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram revisadas as coleções de liquens foliícolas realizadas pelo micologista Augusto Chaves Batista e seus colaboradores no Estado de Pernambuco. O estudo foi desenvolvido em três partes: (1 compilação e revisão nomenclatural dos nomes aplicados por Batista et al.; (2 revisão taxonômica dos espécimes determinados por Batista et al.; (3 identificação dos espécimes também presentes nas coleções, porém não registrados por Batista et al. As coleções estudadas compreendem 474 exsicatas com 1.130 espécimes identificados por Batista e seu grupo, nas quais esses autores aplicaram 55 nomes genéricos e 159 nomes específicos. A revisão nomenclatural aqui apresentada demonstrou que esses correspondem a 36 nomes genéricos e 101 nomes específicos válidos, mais 11 nomina dubia. No entanto, a revisão taxonômica desses 1.130 espécimes revelou que apenas 37 espécies em 16 gêneros foram corretamente identificadas, enquanto que os demais nomes representam determinações incorretas. No presente estudo, foram identificados 1.670 espécimes adicionais que não haviam sido registrados por Batista et al. Como resultado final da pesquisa, foram revisados 2.800 espécimes, os quais atualmente agrupam-se em 37 gêneros e 134 espécies de liquens foliícolas e/ou fungos liquenícolas.We revised the collections of foliicolous lichens made by the Brazilian mycologist Augusto Chaves Batista and his coworkers in Pernambuco state, Brazil. The study was divided into three parts: (1 compilation and nomenclatural revision of the names published and used by Batista et al.; (2 taxonomic revision of the specimens determined by Batista et al.; (3 identification of specimens present in the collections but not registered by Batista et al. The studied material comprises 474 collections, with 1,130 specimens identified by Batista and his group, to which these authors applied 55 generic and 159 specific names. The nomenclatural revision presented here

  6. Estado del conocimiento taxonómico de la fauna de Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera de la Patagonia Current state of the taxonomic knowledge of the Chironomidae fauna (Diptera: Nematocera from Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Donato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera es uno de los grupos de insectos más ampliamente distribuidos y abundantes en cuerpos de agua dulce. Los representantes de esta familia pueden explotar áreas con amplios gradientes ambientales. La información que se presenta está basada en la recopilación de datos distribucionales bibliográficos, del estudio del material tipo de las especies de Chironomidae depositadas en el Natural History Museum (UK y del material de colección del Museo de La Plata (Argentina. En la Patagonia, se registran 9 subfamilias, la subfamilia monotípica Chilenomyiinae es endémica de esta área. Dentro de estas subfamilias, 53 de los 111 géneros conocidos para América del Sur están presentes en la Patagonia. Del total de géneros de la Patagonia, el 20 % es endémico y 7 de ellos muestran relaciones transantárticas. En la Patagonia, se registran 177 especies de Chironomidae, el 98% de éstas son endémicas, el 3 % son consideradas nomina dubia y el 17% requiere revisión ya que su ubicación sistemática es dudosa. Las descripciones originales de las especies patagónicas de Chironomidae están basadas principalmente sobre machos (n=58 y machos y hembras (n=43, ambas representan el 57% del total; el resto de las especies han sido descriptas con diferentes combinaciones de estadios del ciclo de desarrollo.The Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera family is one of the most widely distributed group of insects and often the most abundant in freshwater environments. Representatives of this family can exploit a wide range of environmental gradients. The information here presented is based on the compilation of distributional data obtained from bibliography, the study of the type material deposited in the Natural History Museum (UK and the collection material from Museo de La Plata (Argentina. Nine subfamilies are recorded from Patagonia, being the monotypic subfamily Chilenomyiinae endemic for the area. From the 111 known

  7. Comparative leaf anatomy in argentine Galactia species Anatomía comparada de hoja en especies argentinas de Galactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Tourn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of anatomical characters of the leaves of argentine species of Genera Galactia was carried out in order to evaluate their potential value in Taxonomy. In Argentine 14 species and some varieties from Sections Odonia and Collaearia can be found. Section Odonia: G. benthamiana Mich., G. dubia DC., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart, G. glaucophylla Harms, G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban, G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi D. C. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. pretiosa, G. texana (Scheele A. Gray and G. boavista (Vell. Burkart from Section Collaearia. The characterization of sections is mainly based on reproductive characters, vegetative ones (exomorphological aspects are scarcely considered. The present paper provides a description of anatomical characters of leaves in argentine species of Galactia. Some of them, may have diagnostic value in taxonomic treatment. Special emphasis is placed on the systematic significance of the midvein structure. The aim of the present study, covering 10 species (named in bold, is a to add more data of leaf anatomy characters, thus b to evaluate the systematic relevance and/ or ecological significance.Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la anatomía foliar de especies argentinas del género Galactia (Fabaceae, a fin de evaluar su potencial en taxonomía. En la Argentina se reconocen 14 especies (con algunas variedades, 13 de la sección Odonia -G. benthamiana Mich., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart , G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban y G. texana (Scheele A. Gray, G. dubia DC., G. glaucophylla Harms, G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi DC. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. Pretiosa- y G. boavista (Vell. Burkart de la sección Collaearia (Burkart, 1971. Los estudios se realizaron en

  8. Hábitos alimenticios y ecología trófica del pez Lutjanus griseus (Pisces: Lutjanidae asociado a la vegetación sumergida en la Laguna de Términos, Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Guevara

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio de los hábitos alimenticios de Lutjanus griseus asociado a la vegetación sumergida en El Cayo, Laguna de Términos, Campeche, México. La investigación se realizó siguiendo un diseño de muestreo intensivo tanto en escala espacial como temporal. Se recolectaron un total de 994 individuos, de los cuales 672 tenía alimento en sus estómagos. Se analizaron los porcentajes en número, peso y frecuencia de los grupos tróficos, así como el índice de importancia relativa. Los componentes alimenticios dominantes fueron Farfantepenaeus duorarum, Palaemonetes octavie, Eucinostomus gula y Libinia dubia. La salinidad y la temperatura se relacionaron con el número de individuos colectados así como con un incremento en el consumo de peces por los individuos de mayor talla. Se calculó el índice de diversidad de dieta para seis clases de talla de los peces, examinándose su variación a través del año. Los peces de menor y mayor talla mostraron los valores más bajos de este índice, mientras que los organismos de las tallas intermedias presentaron los valores más altos. Los resultados mostraron que L. griseus tiene preferencia por hábitats con vegetación sumergida. El porcentaje de peces con alimento en sus estómagos fue mayor durante la noche que durante el día, evidenciando los hábitos nocturnos de esta especie.Feeding habits and trophic ecology of the fish Lutjanus griseus (Pisces: Lutjanidae associated with submerged vegetation in Laguna de Términos, Campeche, Mexico. In Campeche, Mexico, the Laguna de Términos has Thalassia testudinum beds inhabited by the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus 1758. Along one year, we collected 994 individuals and 672 had food in their stomachs; we recorded number, weight, and frequency of trophic groups, and the index of relative importance. Dominant food components were Farfantepenaeus duorarum and Palemonetes octaviae, Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier 1830 and

  9. Tanaidáceos (Crustacea: Peracarida de los litorales de Guerrero y Oaxaca, México Littoral tanaidaceans (Crustacea: Peracarida from Guerrero and Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Jarquín-González

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Los tanaidáceos son componentes esenciales de las cadenas tróficas del bentos marino, son fuente de alimento para especies de relevancia comercial y para otros organismos marinos. A pesar de su importancia, el conocimiento del grupo se ha rezagado debido a los problemas relacionados con su biología y taxonomía, y por la carencia de muestreos exhaustivos y sistemáticos; así, en las costas de Guerrero y Oaxaca sólo se había registrado 1 género. Por lo anterior, el objetivo fue conocer la composición específica y los patrones de distribución de los tanaidáceos litorales de Guerrero y Oaxaca. De 4 275 ejemplares, se identificaron 6 familias y 9 morfotipos: Hexapleomera robusta, Sinelobus stanfordi, Leptochelia cf. dubia, Paratanais cf. denticulatus, Paradoxapseudes cf. garthi, Apseudormorpha sp., Cyclopoapseudes cf. indecorus, Synapseudes sp. y Parapseudes pedispinis. Todos son registros nuevos para el litoral de Guerrero y Oaxaca. Se amplía el intervalo de distribución hacia el norte, para H. robusta de islas Galápagos a Guerrero. Para S. stanfordi y P. pedispinis se proporcionan localidades intermedias que rompen con la distribución disyunta previa en el Pacífico oriental. Hay 6 especies, posiblemente nuevas, con distribución restringida; 2 son de amplia distribución y 1 restringida al Pacífico oriental tropical.The tanaidaceans are essential components in food chains of marine benthos, since they are the main food source for commercially important species and other marine organisms. Despite their importance, problems related to their biology and taxonomy have delayed the understanding of the group, as observed on the coasts of Guerrero and Oaxaca, where only 1 genus was previously known. The aim was to determine the species richness and distribution patterns of littoral tanaids from Guerrero and Oaxaca. A total of 4 275 specimens were collected and 6 families and 9 morphotypes have been identified: Hexapleomera robusta

  10. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects; Avaliacao da toxicidade e genotoxicidade dos corantes azo reativos Remazol Preto B e Remazol Alaranjado 3R e da eficacia da radiacao com feixe de eletrons na reducao da cor e efeitos toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa

    2011-07-01

    assessed with the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia and the NOEC and OEC values of RPB dye (sulphatoethylsulphone) were 12.5 and 25 mg L-1, respectively. After hydrolysis of the dye (vinylsulphone and hydroxyethyl sulphone) was shown to increase the values obtained from the NOEC and OEC. There was no chronic effect for the R3AR dye and its chemical forms to C. dubia. The comet assay adapted to haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata was used to assess the genotoxicity of the dyes. The RPB dye was genotoxic at highest concentrations (1 and 2 g L-1), with quantitative values of DNA damage equal to 117 and 112 and the R3AR dye was not genotoxic. The use of radiation with electron beams have proven effective in removing the color dyes. With a dose of 10 kGy a reduction of 97.64% and 96.8% for R3AR and RPB, respectively, was achieved. Possibly, the color removal was mainly due to the interaction of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals generated in the radiolysis of water after the radiation beam of electrons. After radiation of the RPB dye a dose of 10 kGy reduced 59.52 % of the acute toxicity measured with Vibrio fischeri. For the other doses there was no significant reduction, as well as with Daphnia similis, where the values of EC50{sub 48h} obtained were smaller than the non-irradiated dye. The R3AR dye showed better decreased toxicity after radiation when compared with the RPB, with reductions of 82.95% (V. fischeri) and 71.26% (D. similis) with 10 kGy. (author)

  11. Organic waste compounds in streams: Occurrence and aquatic toxicity in different stream compartments, flow regimes, and land uses in southeast Wisconsin, 2006–9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; Richards, Kevin D.; Geis, Steven W.; Magruder, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    -water-indicator compounds, among others. Urban runoff and storm-related leaks of sanitary sewers and (or) septic systems may be important sources of these and other compounds to the streams. The Kinnickinnic River, a highly urbanized site, had the highest detection rates and concentrations of compounds of all the sampled sites. The Milwaukee River near Cedarburg—one of the least urban sites—and the Outer Milwaukee Harbor site had the lowest detection rates and concentrations. Aquatic-toxicity benchmarks were exceeded for 12 of the 25 compounds with known benchmarks. The compounds with the greatest benchmark exceedances were the PAHs, both in terms of exceedance frequency (up to 93 percent for some compounds in sediment samples) and magnitude (concentrations up to 1,024 times greater than the benchmark value). Other compounds with toxicity-benchmark exceedances include Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (a plasticizer), 2-Methylnapthalene (a component of fuel and oil), phenol (an antimicrobial disinfectant with diverse uses), and 4-Nonylphenol (sum of all isomers; a detergent metabolite, among other uses). Analyzed as a mixture, the suite of PAH compounds were found to be potentially toxic for most non-base-flow samples. Bioassay tests were conducted on samples from 14 streams: Ceriodaphnia dubia in base-flow samples, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyallela azteca in pore-water samples, and Hyallela azteca and Chironomus tentans in sediment samples. The greatest adverse effect was observed in tests with Chironomus tentans from sediment samples. The weight of Chironomus tentans after exposure to sediments decreased with increased OWC concentrations. This was most evident in the relation between PAH results and Chironomus tentans bioassay results for the majority of samples; however, solvents and flame retardants appeared to be important for one site each. These results for PAHs were consistent with assessment of PAH potency factors for sediment, indicating that PAHs were likely to have adverse effects

  12. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas S. Bittencourt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.O registro osteológico de dinossauros no Mesozóico brasileiro está restrito a rochas triássicas do Rio Grande do Sul e estratos cretáceos de várias partes do país. Isto inclui 21 espécies nominais, sendo duas referidas como nomina dubia, e 19 consensualmente classificadas como dinossauros. Oito táxons supraespecíficos adicionais baseados em material fragmentado e diversas pegadas são conhecidos no Brasil. De fato, a maior parte dos espécimes é composta de dentes isolados e vértebras. Apesar do aumento em trabalhos de campo na última

  13. Systematics, conservation and morphology of the spider genus Tayshaneta (Araneae, Leptonetidae in Central Texas Caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Ledford

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spider genus Tayshaneta is revised based on results from a three gene phylogenetic analysis (Ledford et al. 2011 and a comprehensive morphological survey using scanning electron (SEM and compound light microscopy. The morphology and relationships within Tayshaneta are discussed and five species-groups are supported by phylogenetic analyses: the anopica group, the coeca group, the myopica group, the microps group and the sandersi group. Short branch lengths within Tayshaneta contrast sharply with the remaining North American genera and are viewed as evidence for a relatively recent radiation of species. Variation in troglomorphic morphology is discussed and compared to patterns found in other Texas cave invertebrates. Several species previously known as single cave endemics have wider ranges than expected, suggesting that some caves are not isolated habitats but instead form part of interconnected karst networks. Distribution maps are compared with karst faunal regions (KFR’s in Central Texas and the implications for the conservation and recovery of Tayshaneta species are discussed. Ten new species are described: T. archambaulti sp. n., T. emeraldae sp. n., T. fawcetti sp. n., T. grubbsi sp. n., T. madla sp. n., T. oconnorae sp. n., T. sandersi sp. n., T. sprousei sp. n., T. vidrio sp. n. and T. whitei sp. n. The males for three species, T. anopica (Gertsch, 1974, T. devia (Gertsch, 1974 and T. microps (Gertsch, 1974 are described for the first time. Tayshaneta furtiva (Gertsch, 1974 and T. uvaldea (Gertsch, 1974 are declared nomina dubia as the female holotypes are not diagnosable and efforts to locate specimens at the type localities were unsuccessful. All Tayshaneta species are thoroughly illustrated, diagnosed and keyed. Distribution maps are also provided highlighting areas of taxonomic ambiguity in need of additional sampling.

  14. Comparative responses of freshwater organisms to exposures of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinley, Ciera M; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H

    2016-06-01

    Comparative toxicity studies using unconfounded exposures can prioritize the selection of sensitive sentinel test species and refine methods for evaluating ecological risks of complex mixtures like naphthenic acids (NAs), a group of organic acids associated with crude oils and energy-derived waters that have been a source of aquatic toxicity. The objectives of this study were to compare responses of freshwater aquatic organisms (vertebrate, invertebrates, and a macrophyte; in terms of acute toxicity) to Fluka commercial NAs and to compare measured toxicity data with peer-reviewed toxicity data for other commercial NA sources and energy-derived NA sources. Exposures were confirmed using high performance liquid chromatography. Responses (7-d LC50s/EC50) ranged from 1.9 mg L(-1) for Pimephales promelas to 56.2 mg L(-1) for Typha latifolia. Following P. promelas in order of decreasing sensitivity were Ceriodaphnia dubia (7-d LC50 = 2.8 mg L(-1)), Hyalella azteca (7-d LC50 = 4.1 mg L(-1)), Chironomus dilutus (7-d LC50 = 6.5 mg L(-1)), and T. latifolia (7-d EC50 = 56.2 mg L(-1)), indicating that in terms of sensitivities, fish > invertebrates > plant for Fluka NAs in this study. Factors that affect exposures and measurements of exposures differ among commercial and energy-derived NAs and constrain comparisons. Despite differences in exposures, fish and invertebrates were relatively sensitive to both commercial and energy-derived NA sources (based on laboratory measurements and peer-reviewed data) and could be appropriate sentinel species for risk evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Population genetic structure in six sympatric and widespread aquatic plants inhabiting diverse lake environments in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian-Jin; Mei, Fang-Fang; Wang, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Many aquatic plant species are distributed over large areas and diverse environments with populations interconnected by abiotic and biotic mediators. Here, we examined differences and similarities in the population genetic structure of six sympatric and widespread aquatic plant species. We sampled the aquatic species from six Chinese lakes found on plateaus, plains, and different river systems and analyzed them using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Samples originating from each lake tended to cluster together. Of the six species, only Nymphoides peltata and Myriophyllum spicatum could be divided into plateau and plain groups, once Taihu Lake individuals were excluded. Genetic similarities between populations connected by the Yangtze River were not consistently higher than unconnected populations. Populations from Taihu Lake and/or Weishanhu Lake were distant from other lake populations for all species except Potamogeton lucens . The Taihu and Weishanhu populations clustered for Ceratophyllum demersum and Typha latifolia . Hydrophilous C. demersum had the lowest gene flow ( Nm  = 0.913), whereas the entomophilous Hydrocharis dubia ( Nm  = 2.084) and N. peltata ( Nm  = 2.204) had the highest gene flow. The genetic relationships among distant populations of aquatic plants reflect the comprehensive effects of environmental selection pressure and biotic and abiotic connectivity. Differences in environmental factors between plateau and plain lakes and long distance hydrochory have limited importance on aquatic plant genetic structures. Among multiple evolutionary forces, gene flow mediated by birds may play the most important role in the formation of genetic patterns in the six species examined. For example, the close genetic relationship between Taihu Lake and Weishanhu Lake populations, each in different river systems and with different climates, may be related to the migration routes of birds. Differences in gene flow among the six aquatic plants

  16. Cephalotrichum and related synnematous fungi with notes on species from the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J H C; Sandoval-Denis, M; Houbraken, J; Seifert, K A; Samson, R A

    2017-09-01

    A recent taxonomic revision of Microascaceae with an emphasis on synnematous fungi enabled re-identification of previously isolated indoor strains of Cephalotrichum. All available Cephalotrichum strains from the culture collection of the Westerdijk Institute were studied, 20 originating from the built environment. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from DNA sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 and intervening 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and parts of β-tubulin (tub2) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) genes. Additionally, herbarium material of 14 Cephalotrichum species described from soil in China was studied, and the taxonomy of C. album, not considered in recent revisions, was reevaluated. Sixteen phylogenetic species in Cephalotrichum are distinguished, five described as new species: C. domesticum, C. lignatile, C. telluricum, C. tenuissimum and C. transvaalense. Five Cephalotrichum species occur in the built environment: C. domesticum, C. gorgonifer (formerly known as Trichurus spiralis), C. microsporum, C. purpureofuscum, and C. verrucisporum. Based on the number of isolates, C. gorgonifer (nine strains) is the most common indoor species. The study of the Chinese herbarium material resulted in the acceptance of three additional Cephalotrichum species: C. casteneum, C. ellipsoideum, and C. spirale. Four species are considered nomena dubia (C. cylindrosporum, C. macrosporum, C. ovoideum, and C. robustum), five are placed in synonymy with other Cephalotrichum species (C. acutisporum, C. inflatum, C. longicollum, C. oblongum, C. terricola) and one species, C. verrucipes, is probably a synonym of Penicillium clavigerum. Cephalotrichum columnare, former Doratomyces columnaris, is transferred to Kernia. Cephalotrichum album, formerly known as Doratomyces putredinis, is transferred to Acaulium and redescribed.

  17. Estado del conocimiento taxonómico de la fauna de Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera de la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano DONATO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La familia Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera es uno de los grupos de insectos más ampliamente distribuidos y abundantes en cuerpos de agua dulce. Los representantes de esta familia pueden explotar áreas con amplios gradientes ambientales. La información que se presenta está basada en la recopilación de datos distribucionales bibliográficos, del estudio del material tipo de las especies de Chironomidae depositadas en el Natural History Museum (UK y del material de colección del Museo de La Plata (Argentina. En la Patagonia, se registran 9 subfamilias, la subfamilia monotípica Chilenomyiinae es endémica de esta área. Dentro de estas subfamilias, 53 de los 111 géneros conocidos para América del Sur están presentes en la Patagonia. Del total de géneros de la Patagonia, el 20 % es endémico y 7 de ellos muestran relaciones transantárticas. En la Patagonia, se registran 177 especies de Chironomidae, el 98% de éstas son endémicas, el 3 % son consideradas nomina dubia y el 17% requiere revisión ya que su ubicación sistemática es dudosa. Las descripciones originales de las especies patagónicas de Chironomidae están basadas principalmente sobre machos (n=58 y machos y hembras (n=43, ambas representan el 57% del total; el resto de las especies han sido descriptas con diferentes combinaciones de estadios del ciclo de desarrollo.

  18. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780-1857), Turin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2015-01-01

    , 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrumalterum Lepeletier, 1806, and Hedychrumaulicum Spinola, 1843, are considered nomina oblita. Hedychrumrutilans Dahlbom, 1854, and Hedychrumniemelai Linsenmaier, 1959, are retained as nomina protecta. The first available name for Chrysissuccinctula sensu Linsenmaier is Chrysistristicula Linsenmaier, 1959, (stat. n.) The current status and validity of some types in the Spinola collection are discussed. Photographs of fifty-three types are given.

  19. The List of Available Names (LAN): A new generation for stable taxonomic names in zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Fautin, Daphne Gail; Michel, Ellinor

    2016-01-01

    The List of Available Names in Zoology (LAN) is an inventory of names with specific scope in time and content, presented and approved in parts, and constituted as a cumulative index of names available for use in zoological nomenclature. It was defined in Article 79 in the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The LAN is likely to gain importance with the development of the online Official Registry for Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as it is potentially a source of many nomenclaturally certified names. Article 79 describes the deliberative process for adding large numbers of names to the LAN simultaneously, detailing steps and chronology for submission of a candidate Part to the LAN and consideration of a candidate Part by the public and Commission, but it is largely mute about the contents of a candidate Part. It does make clear that a name within the scope of a Part but not on the LAN has no nomenclatural standing, even if it had previously been considered available, thereby preventing long-forgotten names from displacing accepted ones and the accumulation of nomina dubia. Thus, for taxa on the LAN, nomenclatural archaeology - the resurrecting of old unused names to replace by priority names in current usage - will not be worthwhile. Beyond that, it has been unclear if Article 79 is intended to document every available name known within the scope of the Part, or if its intention is to pare the inventory of available names within the scope of the Part. Consideration by the Commission and two committees to deal with the LAN have defined steps to implement Article 79 with the latter intent. Procedures for consideration of a candidate Part are defined in a manual, published as an appendix in this volume.

  20. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aïda M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  1. Toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from Keswick Reservoir, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlayson, B.; Fujimura, R.; Huang, Z.Z.

    2000-02-01

    Keswick Reservoir, California, USA, receives metal-laden acid-mine drainage (AMD) from the abandoned Iron Mountain Mine. Mixing of the AMD with reservoir water causes precipitation and deposition of metal-rich sludge in the reservoir. Hydroelectric generation activities can scour the sediments and mobilize trace metals cadmium, copper, and zinc into the water column, thus creating potentially toxic conditions to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Sediment samples collected from Keswick Reservoir in 1993 and 1994 were analyzed for acid-volatile sulfides and for simultaneously extractable metals (SEM), and whole sediments and sediment elutriates were tested for toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations in the sediments were low (<10 {micro}mol/g H{sub 2}S), indicating that dissolved metals in the sediment pore water were not limited by sulfide. The SEM concentrations were generally high (up to 11 {micro}g/g Cd, 4,800 {micro}g/g Cu, and 1,600 {micro}g/g Zn, dry weight) in the sediments. Whole sediments and 20% w/w sediment elutriates from 16 sites were tested for toxicity. Low survival (as low as 0{degree}) in whole sediments was generally associated with copper and zinc, and to a lesser extent cadmium, concentrations that exceeded probable effect level values for freshwater sediments; survival also may have been influenced by low pH and alkalinity conditions. Low survival (as low as 0%) in sediment elutriates was also generally associated with higher concentrations of dissolved zinc. Further study is required to formulate sediment cleanup levels that are protective of fish and wildlife. Source control in the Iron Mountain Mine drainage will eventually significantly lessen the production of sediments.

  2. The status of toxicity tests with sediment in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, R.P.A. [Companhia de Tecnologia e Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The earliest studies in Brazil aiming to evaluate sediment quality through toxicity tests started in the beginning of the 80`s. These were developed by the Environmental Sanitation Agency of Sao Paulo State (CETESB) in Cubatao River and Billings Reservoir, which are located in industrialized and populous regions. Elutriate phase sediment toxicity tests were run with Daphnia similis. In the Cubatao River Basin the combination of toxicity, chemistry data and benthic community structure provided clear indications of sites with different levels of pollution. At this time there was a consensus that the study of a complex compartment such as sediment needed improvements in sampling and analysis procedures. Only in the 90`s the investigations involving sediment toxicity assessment were resumed by CETESB, and it was clear that integrative studies were needed in order to make environmental quality assessment. This kind of studies were conducted by CETESB in some highly polluted areas of Sao Paulo State, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Photobacterium phosphoreum interstitial water tests and Hyalella sp whole sediment tests were run, and the results correlated with several sediment organic and inorganic contaminants. The Sediment Quality Triad proposed by Chapman was applied in one of these studies. This approach was extremely useful in interpreting the data. At the same time marine sediment toxicity tests were developed by CETESB in collaboration with Sao Paulo University, and tests were run with the amphipods Tiburonella viscana, Battyporeiapus bisetosus; tanaidacean Kalliapseudes shubarti and the echinoderm Lytechinus variegatus. The embryo test with L. variegatus was the most adequate in these studies. Nowadays there are other groups in some universities developing sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella and Chironomus in response to a growing concern in Brazil to establish adequate sediment quality assessment guidelines.

  3. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  4. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J W; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J A; van Huis, Arnold

    2010-12-29

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3)), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.

  5. Changing agricultural practices: Potential consequences to aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, Peter J.; Urich, Matthew L.; Hassan, Sayed M.; Jacobs, Whitney N.; Bringolf, Robert B.; Owens, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural practices pose threats to biotic diversity in freshwater systems with increasing use of glyphosate-based herbicides for weed control and animal waste for soil amendment becoming common in many regions. Over the past two decades, these particular agricultural trends have corresponded with marked declines in populations of fish and mussel species in the Upper Conasauga River watershed in Georgia/Tennessee, USA. To investigate the potential role of agriculture in the population declines, surface waters and sediments throughout the basin were tested for toxicity and analyzed for glyphosate, metals, nutrients, and steroid hormones. Assessments of chronic toxicity with Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca indicated that few water or sediment samples were harmful and metal concentrations were generally below impairment levels. Glyphosate was not observed in surface waters, although its primary degradation product, aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA), was detected in 77% of the samples (mean = 509 μg/L, n = 99) and one or both compounds were measured in most sediment samples. Waterborne AMPA concentrations supported an inference that surfactants associated with glyphosate may be present at levels sufficient to affect early life stages of mussels. Nutrient enrichment of surface waters was widespread with nitrate (mean = 0.7 mg NO3-N/L, n = 179) and phosphorus (mean = 275 μg/L, n = 179) exceeding levels associated with eutrophication. Hormone concentrations in sediments were often above those shown to cause endocrine disruption in fish and appear to reflect the widespread application of poultry litter and manure. Observed species declines may be at least partially due to hormones, although excess nutrients and herbicide surfactants may also be implicated.

  6. Relationships among exceedences of metals criteria, the results of ambient bioassays, and community metrics in mining-impacted streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Michael B; Lazorchak, James M; Herlihy, Alan T

    2004-07-01

    If bioassessments are to help diagnose the specific environmental stressors affecting streams, a better understanding is needed of the relationships between community metrics and ambient criteria or ambient bioassays. However, this relationship is not simple, because metrics assess responses at the community level of biological organization, while ambient criteria and ambient bioassays assess or are based on responses at the individual level. For metals, the relationship is further complicated by the influence of other chemical variables, such as hardness, on their bioavailability and toxicity. In 1993 and 1994, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted a Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) survey on wadeable streams in Colorado's (USA) Southern Rockies Ecoregion. In this ecoregion, mining over the past century has resulted in metals contamination of streams. The surveys collected data on fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages, physical habitat, and sediment and water chemistry and toxicity. These data provide a framework for assessing diagnostic community metrics for specific environmental stressors. We characterized streams as metals-affected based on exceedence of hardness-adjusted criteria for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in water; on water toxicity tests (48-h Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia survival); on exceedence of sediment threshold effect levels (TELs); or on sediment toxicity tests (7-d Hyalella azteca survival and growth). Macroinvertebrate and fish metrics were compared among affected and unaffected sites to identify metrics sensitive to metals. Several macroinvertebrate metrics, particularly richness metrics, were less in affected streams, while other metrics were not. This is a function of the sensitivity of the individual metrics to metals effects. Fish metrics were less sensitive to metals because of the low diversity of fish in these streams.

  7. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian–Albian) of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Lockley, Martin G.; Marty, Daniel; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Yan; Klein, Hendrik; McCrea, Richard T.; Buckley, Lisa G.; Belvedere, Matteo; Mateus, Octávio; Gierliński, Gerard D.; Piñuela, Laura; Persons, W. Scott; Wang, Fengping; Ran, Hao; Dai, Hui; Xie, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5–3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod) and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69%) accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%), sauropod (10%), and pterosaur (3%). Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically-, paleontologically- and a

  8. Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria) from the Cretaceous of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Taissa; Kellner, Alexander Wilhelm Armin

    2013-01-01

    Over a decade after the last major review of the Cambridge Greensand pterosaurs, their systematics remains one of the most disputed points in pterosaur taxonomy. Ornithocheiridae is still a wastebasket for fragmentary taxa, and some nomenclatural issues are still a problem. Here, the species from the Cretaceous of England that, at some point, were referred in Ornithocheirus, are reviewed. Investigation of the primary literature confirmed that Criorhynchus should be considered an objective junior synonym of Ornithocheirus. Taxonomic review of more than 30 species known from fragmentary remains showed that 16 of them are undiagnosable (nomina dubia): Palaeornis cliftii, Cimoliornis diomedeus, Pterodactylus compressirostris, Pterodactylus fittoni, Pterodactylus woodwardi, Ornithocheirus brachyrhinus, Ornithocheirus carteri, Ornithocheirus crassidens, Ornithocheirus dentatus, Ornithocheirus enchorhynchus, Ornithocheirus eurygnathus, Ornithocheirus oxyrhinus, Ornithocheirus scaphorhynchus, Ornithocheirus tenuirostris, Ornithocheirus xyphorhynchus, and Pterodactylus sagittirostris. Fourteen species are considered valid, and diagnoses are provided to all of them: Ornithocheirus simus, Lonchodraco giganteus comb. n., Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus comb. n., Lonchodraco(?) microdon comb. n., Coloborhynchus clavirostris, 'Ornithocheirus' capito, Camposipterus nasutus comb. n., Camposipterus(?) sedgwickii comb. n., Camposipterus(?) colorhinus comb. n., Cimoliopterus cuvieri comb. n., 'Ornithocheirus' polyodon, 'Ornithocheirus' platystomus, 'Pterodactylus' daviesii, and 'Ornithocheirus' denticulatus. These species are referred in the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodraco gen. n., Coloborhynchus, Cimoliopterus gen. n., and Camposipterus gen. n., but additional genera are probably present, as indicated by the use of single quotation marks throughout the text. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that Anhangueridae lies within a newly recognized clade, here named Anhangueria, which also

  9. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian-Albian) of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Lockley, Martin G; Marty, Daniel; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Yan; Klein, Hendrik; McCrea, Richard T; Buckley, Lisa G; Belvedere, Matteo; Mateus, Octávio; Gierliński, Gerard D; Piñuela, Laura; Persons, W Scott; Wang, Fengping; Ran, Hao; Dai, Hui; Xie, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5-3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod) and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69%) accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%), sauropod (10%), and pterosaur (3%). Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically-, paleontologically- and a

  10. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian-Albian of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Xing

    Full Text Available The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5-3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69% accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%, sauropod (10%, and pterosaur (3%. Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically

  11. Aquatic toxicity of nine aircraft deicer and anti-icer formulations and relative toxicity of additive package ingredients alkylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, S.R.; Geis, S.W.; Loyo-Rosales, J. E.; Rice, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of the effects of aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF) runoff on aquatic organisms in receiving streams is a complex issue because the identities of numerous toxic additives are proprietary and not publicly available. Most potentially toxic and endocrine disrupting effects caused by ADAF are due to the numerous additive package ingredients which vary among manufacturers and types of ADAF formulation. Toxicity investigations of nine ADAF formulations indicate that endpoint concentrations for formulations of different manufacturers are widely variable. Type IV ADAF (anti-icers) are more toxic than Type I (deicers) for the four organisms tested (Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Selenastrum capricornutum). Acute toxicity endpoint concentrations ranged from 347 to 7700 mg/L as ADAF for Type IV and from 1550 to 45 100 mg/L for Type I formulations. Chronic endpoint concentrations ranged from 70 to 1300 mg/L for Type IV and from 37 to 18 400 mg/L for Type I formulations. Alkylphenol ethoxylates and tolyltriazoles are two known classes of additives. Nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, octylphenol, octylphenol ethoxylates, and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles were quantified in the nine ADAF formulations, and toxicity tests were conducted with nonylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles. Toxicity units computed for glycol and these additives, with respect to toxicity of the ADAF formulations, indicate that a portion of ADAF toxicity can be explained by the known additives and glycols, but much of the toxicity is due to unidentified additives. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  12. Aquatic toxicity of airfield-pavement deicer materials and implications for airport runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, S.R.; Geis, S.W.; Bowman, G.; Failey, G.G.; Rutter, T.D.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of airfield-pavement deicer materials (PDM) in a study of airport runoff often exceeded levels of concern regarding aquatic toxicity. Toxicity tests on Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (commonly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) were performed with potassium acetate (K-Ac) PDM, sodium formate (Na-For) PDM, and with freezing- point depressants (K-Ac and Na-For). Results indicate that toxicity in PDM is driven by the freezing-point depressants in all tests except the Vibrio fisheri test for Na-For PDM which is influenced by an additive. Acute toxicity end points for different organisms ranged from 298 to 6560 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 1780 to 4130 mg/L (as formate) for Na- For PDM. Chronic toxicity end points ranged from 19.9 to 336 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 584 to 1670 mg/L (as formate) for Na-For PDM. Sample results from outfalls at General Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee, Wl (GMIA) indicated that 40% of samples had concentrations greater than the aquatic-life benchmark for K-Ac PDM. K-Ac has replaced urea during the 1990s as the most widely used PDM at GMIA and in the United States. Results of ammonia samples from airport outfalls during periods when urea-based PDM was used at GMIA indicated that41% of samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1 -h water-quality criterion. The USEPA 1-h water-quality criterion for chloride was exceeded in 68% of samples collected in the receiving stream, a result of road-salt runoff from urban influence near the airport. Results demonstrate that PDM must be considered to comprehensively evaluate the impact of chemical deicers on aquatic toxicity in water containing airport runoff. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. A review of the species in the genus Cryptops Leach, 1815 from the Old World and the Australasian region related to Cryptops (Cryptops) doriae Pocock, 1891 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Cryptopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John G E

    2013-01-01

    The 25 putative species and two subspecies of the doriae group of the genus Cryptops (subgenus Cryptops) from the Old World and the Australasian region are here reviewed. The following are regarded as valid: C. audax Attems, 1928, C. australis Newport, 1845, C. dentipes Lawrence, 1960, C. dilagus Archey, 1921, C. doriae Pocock, 1891, C. japonicus Takakuwa, 1934, C. lamprethus Chamberlin, 1920, C. milloti Lawrence, 1960, C. modiglianii Silvestri, 1895, C. nanus Attems, 1938, C. navis Chamberlin, 1930, C. nepalensis Lewis, 1999, C. niuensis Chamberlin, 1920, C. pauliani Law- rence, 1960, C. philammus Attems, 1928, C. polyodontus Attems, 1903, C. setosior Chamberlin, 1959, C. stupendus Attems, 1928, C. tahitianus Chamberlin, 1920, C. typhloporus Lawrence, 1955. South African material assigned to C. australis by Attems (1928) is described as a new species C. capensis, and C. (C.) australis africanus Lawrence, 1955 is raised to full specific status as C. africanus. C. sinesicus Chamberlin, 1940 is a new junior subjective synonym of C. navis. C. afghanus Loksa, 1971, C. gracilimus Machado, 1951 and C. pauperatus Attems, 1937 are nomina dubia. Of the species here regarded as valid, further material from Australia and New Zealand is required to clarify the characteristics of C. australis. There has been confusion over the identities of the New Zealand species C. dilagus, C. lamprethus and C. polyodontus; their relationship should be further examined. The South African C. philammus and C. stupendus are also very similar and it is possible that further work may show them to be conspecific. The widely distributed C. doriae populations would, likewise, merit further investigation as would the relationship of the species to C. nepalensis and C. niuensis. It is possible that the inadequately described C. afghanus is identical to C. doriae. A provisional key to these species is provided.

  14. Evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity of DSS and LAS surfactants undergoing the irradiation with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade aguda e cronica dos surfactantes DSS e LAS submetidos a irradiacao com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, Maria Fernanda

    2004-07-01

    Surfactants are synthetic organic compounds widely used in cosmetic, food, textile, dyers and paper production industries and in particular detergents and others cleaning products industries. The world consumption is nearly 8 million tons per year. One of the main environmental issues coming from the use of these compounds is their toxicity that compromises the biological treatment of effluents and the quality of receiving waters. The objective of this work was the application of ionizing radiation by electron beam in the degradation and reduction of acute and chronic toxicities of surfactants sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate acid (LAS) and sodium dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate (LAS). This treatment technology has been studied as a pre-treatment for effluents containing toxic and non-biodegradable compounds, before the biological treatment. Two acute toxicity assays were employed, one with the micro-crustacean Daphnia similis and the other with the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri along with a chronic toxicity assay with the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (just for SDS and acid LAS) for the non-irradiated and irradiated samples and radiation doses 3.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 9.0 kGy and 12.0 kGy. Physical-chemical parameters were evaluated for the following up the degradation of the surfactant molecules. The reductions of acute toxicity varied between 72.49% and 90.98% for SDS, 18.22% and 78.98% for acid LAS and 82.66% and 94.26% for sodium LAS. For the chronic toxicity, the reduction percentages varied between 64.03% and 83.01% for SDS and 47.48% and 64.91% for acid LAS. When one considers the application of the electron beam as a pre-treatment of effluents containing high concentrations of surfactants, the toxicity is an essential parameter allowing the further biological treatment of these effluents. (author)

  15. Changing agricultural practices: potential consequences to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, Peter J; Urich, Matthew L; Hassan, Sayed M; Jacobs, Whitney N; Bringolf, Robert B; Owens, Kathleen M

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural practices pose threats to biotic diversity in freshwater systems with increasing use of glyphosate-based herbicides for weed control and animal waste for soil amendment becoming common in many regions. Over the past two decades, these particular agricultural trends have corresponded with marked declines in populations of fish and mussel species in the Upper Conasauga River watershed in Georgia/Tennessee, USA. To investigate the potential role of agriculture in the population declines, surface waters and sediments throughout the basin were tested for toxicity and analyzed for glyphosate, metals, nutrients, and steroid hormones. Assessments of chronic toxicity with Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca indicated that few water or sediment samples were harmful and metal concentrations were generally below impairment levels. Glyphosate was not observed in surface waters, although its primary degradation product, aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA), was detected in 77% of the samples (mean = 509 μg/L, n = 99) and one or both compounds were measured in most sediment samples. Waterborne AMPA concentrations supported an inference that surfactants associated with glyphosate may be present at levels sufficient to affect early life stages of mussels. Nutrient enrichment of surface waters was widespread with nitrate (mean = 0.7 mg NO 3 -N/L, n = 179) and phosphorus (mean = 275 μg/L, n = 179) exceeding levels associated with eutrophication. Hormone concentrations in sediments were often above those shown to cause endocrine disruption in fish and appear to reflect the widespread application of poultry litter and manure. Observed species declines may be at least partially due to hormones, although excess nutrients and herbicide surfactants may also be implicated.

  16. Comparison of Separation of Seed Oil Triglycerides Containing Isomeric Conjugated Octadecatrienoic Acid Moieties by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Van Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative retention analysis and increment approach were applied for the comparison of triglycerides (TGs retention of a broad set of plant seed oils with isomeric conjugated octadecatrienoic acids (CLnA by reversed-phase HPLC for “propanol-2-acetonitrile” mobile phases and Kromasil 100-5C18 stationary phase with diode array detection (DAD and mass spectrometric (MS detection. The subjects of investigation were TGs of seed oils: Calendula officinalis, Catalpa ovata, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Centranthus ruber, Momordica charantia, Trichosanthes anguina, Punica granatum, Thladiantha dubia, Valeriana officinalis, and Vernicia montana. It was found that a sequence of elution of TGs of the same types is the same without any inversions for full range of mobile phase compositions: punicic (C18:39Z11E13Z < jacaric (C18:38Z10E12Z < catalpic (C18:39E11E13Z < α-eleostearic (C18:39Z11E13E < calendic (C18:38E10E12Z < β-eleostearic (C18:39E11E13E < all-E calendic (C18:38E10E12E acids. TGs and fatty acid compositions were calculated for all oil samples. Regularities of solute retentions as a function of isomeric conjugated octadecatrienoic acid moiety structure are discussed. Thus, it was proven that it is possible to differentiate TGs of complex composition with moieties of all natural CLnA by retention control accomplished by electronic spectra comparison, even though there are only three types of electronic-vibration spectra for seven isomeric CLnA.

  17. Temporal pattern of toxicity in runoff from the Tijuana River Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersberg, Richard M; Daft, Daniel; Yorkey, Darryl

    2004-02-01

    Samples were collected from the Tijuana River under both dry weather (baseflow) conditions and during wet weather, and tested for toxicity using Ceriodaphnia dubia tests. Toxicity of waters in the Tijuana River was generally low under baseflow conditions, but increased markedly during high flow runoff events. In order to determine the temporal pattern of toxicity during individual rain events, sequential grab samples were collected using an autosampler at 5-7 h intervals after the start of the rain event, and tested for acute toxicity. In all cases, peak toxicity values (ranging from 2.8 to 5.8TU) for each storm occurred within the first 1-2 h of initiation of the rain event, and were statistically higher (using the 95% CL) for each of the pre-storm base flow values. However, there was no statistically significant correlation (p<0.05) between flow rate and toxicity when all storm data was pooled. Additionally, we used toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to attempt to identify the classes of chemicals that account for this early storm toxicity. Solid phase extraction was the only treatment that showed consistent and significant (P<0.05) removal of toxicity. These TIEs, conducted on the most toxic sample of the river's flow during runoff events, suggest that non-polar organics may be responsible for such toxicity. The temporal pattern of toxicity, both during a given storm event and seasonally, indicates that wash-off from the watershed by rainfall may deplete the supply of toxicity available for wash-off in subsequent events, so that a clearly consistent relationship between flow and toxicity was not evident.

  18. Specifically Designed Constructed Wetlands: A Novel Treatment Approach for Scrubber Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Rodgers Jr; James W. Castle; Chris Arrington: Derek Eggert; Meg Iannacone

    2005-09-01

    A pilot-scale wetland treatment system was specifically designed and constructed at Clemson University to evaluate removal of mercury, selenium, and other constituents from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to measure performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system in terms of decreases in targeted constituents (Hg, Se and As) in the FGD wastewater from inflow to outflow; (2) to determine how the observed performance is achieved (both reactions and rates); and (3) to measure performance in terms of decreased bioavailability of these elements (i.e. toxicity of sediments in constructed wetlands and toxicity of outflow waters from the treatment system). Performance of the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems was assessed using two criteria: anticipated NPDES permit levels and toxicity evaluations using two sentinel toxicity-testing organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). These systems performed efficiently with varied inflow simulations of FGD wastewaters removing As, Hg, and Se concentrations below NPDES permit levels and reducing the toxicity of simulated FGD wastewater after treatment with the constructed wetland treatment systems. Sequential extraction procedures indicated that these elements (As, Hg, and Se) were bound to residual phases within sediments of these systems, which should limit their bioavailability to aquatic biota. Sediments collected from constructed wetland treatment systems were tested to observe toxicity to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus tetans. Complete survival (100%) was observed for H. azteca in all cells of the constructed wetland treatment system and C. tentans had an average of 91% survival over the three treatment cells containing sediments. Survival and growth of H. azteca and C. tentans did not differ significantly between sediments from the constructed wetland treatment system and controls. Since the sediments of the constructed

  19. An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J. A.; van Huis, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. Methodology/Principal Findings An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as well as NH3 by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO2 and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO2 production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH3 by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. Conclusions/Significance This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH3 emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis. PMID:21206900

  20. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Greenhouse gas (GHG production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3, leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂ and average daily gain (ADG as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄ and nitrous oxide (N₂O as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.

  1. Antagonistic effects of hypertrehalosemic neuropeptide on the activities of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cockroach fat body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A; Liewald, J F; Stypa, H; Wegener, G

    2001-03-15

    Hypertrehalosemic neuropeptides from the corpora cardiaca such as the decapeptide Bld HrTH bring about a profound switch in the metabolic activity of cockroach fat body during which production of the blood sugar trehalose is stimulated while the catabolism of carbohydrate (glycolysis) is inhibited. The mechanisms of the metabolic switch are not fully understood. Incubation of isolated fat body from the cockroach Blaptica dubia with 10(-8) M Bld HrTH, for 10-60 min, stimulated glycogen breakdown and increased the content of the substrates of both the glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK, EC 2.7.1.11) and the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, EC 3.1.3.11) in the tissue. The glycolytic signal fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was markedly decreased in fat body on incubation with Bld HrTH. The content of ATP was slightly reduced, while the contents of ADP and AMP were increased after incubation with the hormone. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is a potent activator of PFK and a strong inhibitor of FBPase purified from fat body. The activity of PFK was decreased by about 90% when the hormone-dependent changes in effectors and substrates in fat body were simulated in vitro. FBPase, in contrast, was activated about 25-fold under these conditions, suggesting the hormone to stimulate gluconeogenesis in fat body. The data support the view that fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is a pivotal intracellular messenger in the hormone-induced metabolic switch from carbohydrate degradation to trehalose production in cockroach fat body.

  2. Aquatic hazard assessment of MON 0818, a commercial mixture of alkylamine ethoxylates commonly used in glyphosate-containing herbicide formulations. Part 1: Species sensitivity distribution from laboratory acute exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gil, Jose L; Prosser, Ryan; Poirier, David; Lissemore, Linda; Thompson, Dean; Hanson, Mark; Solomon, Keith R

    2017-02-01

    The sensitivity of 15 aquatic species, including primary producers, benthic invertebrates, cladocerans, mollusks, and fish, to MON 0818, a commercial surfactant mixture of polyoxyethylene tallow amines, was evaluated in standard acute (48-96-h) laboratory tests. In addition, the potential for chronic toxicity (8 d) was evaluated with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Exposure concentrations were confirmed. No significant effects on any endpoint were observed in the chronic test. A tier-1 hazard assessment was conducted by comparing species sensitivity distributions based on the generated data, as well as literature data, with 4 exposure scenarios. This assessment showed moderate levels of hazard (43.1% of the species exposed at or above median effective concentration levels), for a chosen worst-case scenario-unintentional direct over-spray of a 15-cm-deep body of water with the maximum label application rate for the studied formulations (Roundup Original, Vision Forestry Herbicide; 12 L formulation ha -1 , equivalent to 4.27 kg acid equivalent [a.e.] ha -1 ). The hazard decreased to impairment of 20.9% of species under the maximum application rate for more typical uses (6 L formulation ha -1 , 2.14 kg a.e. ha -1 ), and down to 6.9% for a more frequently employed application rate (2.5 L formulation ha -1 , 0.89 kg a.e. ha -1 ). Finally, the percentage (3.8%) was less than the hazardous concentration for 5% of the species based on concentrations of MON 0818 calculated from maximum measured concentrations of glyphosate in the environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:501-511. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. An integrated vegetated ditch system reduces chlorpyrifos loading in agricultural runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Cahn, Michael; Rego, Jessa L; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Siegler, Katie; Zhang, Xuyang; Budd, Robert; Goh, Kean; Tjeerdema, Ron S

    2017-03-01

    Agricultural runoff containing toxic concentrations of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has led to impaired water body listings and total maximum daily load restrictions in California's central coast watersheds. Chlorpyrifos use is now tightly regulated by the Central Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board. This study evaluated treatments designed to reduce chlorpyrifos in agricultural runoff. Initial trials evaluated the efficacy of 3 different drainage ditch installations individually: compost filters, granulated activated carbon (GAC) filters, and native grasses in a vegetated ditch. Treatments were compared to bare ditch controls, and experiments were conducted with simulated runoff spiked with chlorpyrifos at a 1.9 L/s flow rate. Chlorpyrifos concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia were measured at the input and output of the system. Input concentrations of chlorpyrifos ranged from 858 ng/L to 2840 ng/L. Carbon filters and vegetation provided the greatest load reduction of chlorpyrifos (99% and 90%, respectively). Toxicity was completely removed in only one of the carbon filter trials. A second set of trials evaluated an integrated approach combining all 3 treatments. Three trials were conducted each at 3.2 L/s and 6.3 L/s flow rates at input concentrations ranging from 282 ng/L to 973 ng/L. Chlorpyrifos loadings were reduced by an average of 98% at the low flow rate and 94% at the high flow rate. Final chlorpyrifos concentrations ranged from nondetect (Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:423-430. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@Ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rodriguez, P. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica (CIMM), Santiago (Chile); Vleminckx, K. [Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University (Belgium); Janssen, C.R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data

  5. Phantom spiders: notes on dubious spider species from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitling, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A surprisingly large number of European spider species have never been reliably rediscovered since their first description many decades ago. Most of these are probably synonymous with other species or unidentifiable, due to insufficient descriptions or missing type material. Here we discuss about 50 of these cases, declare some names as nomina dubia and establish the following new or re-confirmed synonymies: Agelena mengeella Strand, 1942 = Allagelena gracilens (C. L. Koch, 1841 syn. conf.; Anyphaena accentuata obscura (Sundevall, 1831 = Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802 syn. conf.; Anyphaena accentuata obscura Lebert, 1877 = Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802 syn. nov.; Araneus diadematus stellatus C. L. Koch, 1836 = Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus diadematus islandicus (Strand, 1906 = Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus quadratus minimus Simon, 1929 = Araneus quadratus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus quadratus subviridis (Franganillo, 1913 = Araneus quadratus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Centromerus unctus (L. Koch, 1870 = Leptorhoptrum robustum (Westring, 1851 syn. nov.; Clubiona caliginosa Simon, 1932 = Clubiona germanica Thorell, 1871 syn. nov.; Coelotes atropos anomalus Hull, 1955 = Coelotes atropos (Walckenaer, 1830 syn. nov.; Coelotes atropos silvestris Hull, 1955 = Coelotes atropos (Walckenaer, 1830 syn. nov.; Coelotes obesus Simon, 1875 = Pireneitega pyrenaea (Simon, 1870 syn. conf.; Coelotes simoni Strand, 1907 = Coelotes solitarius (L. Koch, 1868 syn. nov.; Diplocephalus semiglobosus (Westring, 1861 nomen oblitum = Entelecara congenera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879 syn. nov.; Drassodes voigti (Bösenberg, 1899 = Scotophaeus blackwalli (Thorell, 1871 syn. conf.; Erigone decens Thorell, 1871 = Hylyphantes graminicola (Sundevall, 1830 syn. nov.; Liocranoeca striata gracilior (Kulczynski, 1898 = Liocranoeca striata (Kulczynski, 1882 syn. conf.; Phlegra rogenhoferi (Simon, 1868 = Phlegra cinereofasciata

  6. Acute sensitivity of the vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi (Anostraca; Branchinectidae), and surrogate species to 10 chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Rogers, Christopher; Raimondo, Sandy; Bauer, Candice R.; Hammer, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi, (Branchiopoda; Anostraca) and other fairy shrimp species have been listed as threatened or endangered under the US Endangered Species Act. Because few data exist about the sensitivity of Branchinecta spp. to toxic effects of contaminants, it is difficult to determine whether they are adequately protected by water quality criteria. A series of acute (24-h) lethality/immobilization tests was conducted with 3 species of fairy shrimp (B. lynchi, Branchinecta lindahli, and Thamnocephalus platyurus) and 10 chemicals with varying modes of toxic action: ammonia, potassium, chloride, sulfate, chromium(VI), copper, nickel, zinc, alachlor, and metolachlor. The same chemicals were tested in 48-h tests with other branchiopods (the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and in 96-h tests with snails (Physa gyrina and Lymnaea stagnalis). Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for B. lynchi were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.975) with EC50s for the commercially available fairy shrimp species T. platyurus for most chemicals tested. Comparison of EC50s for fairy shrimp and EC50s for invertebrate taxa tested concurrently and with other published toxicity data indicated that fairy shrimp were relatively sensitive to potassium and several trace metals compared with other invertebrate taxa, although cladocerans, amphipods, and mussels had similar broad toxicant sensitivity. Interspecies correlation estimation models for predicting toxicity to fairy shrimp from surrogate species indicated that models with cladocerans and freshwater mussels as surrogates produced the best predictions of the sensitivity of fairy shrimp to contaminants. The results of these studies indicate that fairy shrimp are relatively sensitive to a range of toxicants, but Endangered Species Act-listed fairy shrimp of the genus Branchinecta were not consistently more sensitive than other fairy shrimp taxa. Environ Toxicol Chem

  7. Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria) from the Cretaceous of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Taissa; Kellner, Alexander Wilhelm Armin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over a decade after the last major review of the Cambridge Greensand pterosaurs, their systematics remains one of the most disputed points in pterosaur taxonomy. Ornithocheiridae is still a wastebasket for fragmentary taxa, and some nomenclatural issues are still a problem. Here, the species from the Cretaceous of England that, at some point, were referred in Ornithocheirus, are reviewed. Investigation of the primary literature confirmed that Criorhynchus should be considered an objective junior synonym of Ornithocheirus. Taxonomic review of more than 30 species known from fragmentary remains showed that 16 of them are undiagnosable (nomina dubia): Palaeornis cliftii, Cimoliornis diomedeus, Pterodactylus compressirostris, Pterodactylus fittoni, Pterodactylus woodwardi, Ornithocheirus brachyrhinus, Ornithocheirus carteri, Ornithocheirus crassidens, Ornithocheirus dentatus, Ornithocheirus enchorhynchus, Ornithocheirus eurygnathus, Ornithocheirus oxyrhinus, Ornithocheirus scaphorhynchus, Ornithocheirus tenuirostris, Ornithocheirus xyphorhynchus, and Pterodactylus sagittirostris. Fourteen species are considered valid, and diagnoses are provided to all of them: Ornithocheirus simus, Lonchodraco giganteus comb. n., Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus comb. n., Lonchodraco(?) microdon comb. n., Coloborhynchus clavirostris, ‘Ornithocheirus’ capito, Camposipterus nasutus comb. n., Camposipterus(?) sedgwickii comb. n., Camposipterus(?) colorhinus comb. n., Cimoliopterus cuvieri comb. n., ‘Ornithocheirus’ polyodon, ‘Ornithocheirus’ platystomus, ‘Pterodactylus’ daviesii, and ‘Ornithocheirus’ denticulatus. These species are referred in the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodraco gen. n., Coloborhynchus, Cimoliopterus gen. n., and Camposipterus gen. n., but additional genera are probably present, as indicated by the use of single quotation marks throughout the text. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that Anhangueridae lies within a newly recognized clade, here

  8. Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Chris A; Hendrixson, Brent E; Bond, Jason E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 within the United States. By employing phylogenomic, morphological, and geospatial data, we evaluated all 55 nominal species in the United States to examine the evolutionary history of Aphonopelma and the group's taxonomy by implementing an integrative approach to species delimitation. Based on our analyses, we now recognize only 29 distinct species in the United States. We propose 33 new synonymies (Aphonopelma apacheum, Aphonopelma minchi, Aphonopelma rothi, Aphonopelma schmidti, Aphonopelma stahnkei = Aphonopelma chalcodes; Aphonopelma arnoldi = Aphonopelma armada; Aphonopelma behlei, Aphonopelma vogelae = Aphonopelma marxi; Aphonopelma breenei = Aphonopelma anax; Aphonopelma chambersi, Aphonopelma clarum, Aphonopelma cryptethum, Aphonopelma sandersoni, Aphonopelma sullivani = Aphonopelma eutylenum; Aphonopelma clarki, Aphonopelma coloradanum, Aphonopelma echinum, Aphonopelma gurleyi, Aphonopelma harlingenum, Aphonopelma odelli, Aphonopelma waconum, Aphonopelma wichitanum = Aphonopelma hentzi; Aphonopelma heterops = Aphonopelma moderatum; Aphonopelma jungi, Aphonopelma punzoi = Aphonopelma vorhiesi; Aphonopelma brunnius, Aphonopelma chamberlini, Aphonopelma iviei, Aphonopelma lithodomum, Aphonopelma smithi, Aphonopelma zionis = Aphonopelma iodius; Aphonopelma phanum, Aphonopelma reversum = Aphonopelma steindachneri), 14 new species (Aphonopelma atomicum sp. n., Aphonopelma catalina sp. n., Aphonopelma chiricahua sp. n., Aphonopelma icenoglei sp. n., Aphonopelma johnnycashi sp. n., Aphonopelma madera sp. n., Aphonopelma mareki sp. n., Aphonopelma moellendorfi sp. n., Aphonopelma parvum sp. n., Aphonopelma peloncillo sp. n., Aphonopelma prenticei sp. n., Aphonopelma saguaro sp. n., Aphonopelma superstitionense sp. n., and Aphonopelma xwalxwal sp. n.), and seven nomina dubia (Aphonopelma baergi, Aphonopelma cratium, Aphonopelma hollyi

  9. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857), Turin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-fu

    2015-01-01

    distinguenda Spinola, 1838, and Chrysis coronata Spinola, 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrum alterum Lepeletier, 1806, and Hedychrum aulicum Spinola, 1843, are considered nomina oblita. Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854, and Hedychrum niemelai Linsenmaier, 1959, are retained as nomina protecta. The first available name for Chrysis succinctula sensu Linsenmaier is Chrysis tristicula Linsenmaier, 1959, (stat. n.) The current status and validity of some types in the Spinola collection are discussed. Photographs of fifty-three types are given. PMID:25632245

  10. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857, Turin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera, belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; C. comparata Lepeletier, 1806; C. dives Dahlbom, 1854; C. pumila Klug, 1845; C. succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; C. analis Spinola, 1808; C. assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; C. bihamata Spinola, 1838; C. chilensis Spinola, 1851; C. dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; C. distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; C. episcopalis Spinola, 1838; C. grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; C. incrassata Spinola, 1838; C. pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; C. pulchella Spinola, 1808; C. ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; C. refulgens Spinola, 1806; C. splendens Dahlbom, 1854; C. succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; C. versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; He. chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; He. difficile Spinola, 1851; He. virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Ho. luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984; C. calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965; C. elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986; He. rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984. Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781; Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of C. elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of C. germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis distinguenda Spinola, 1838, and C. coronata Spinola, 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrum alterum Lepeletier, 1806, and He. aulicum Spinola

  11. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  12. Gain and loss of polyadenylation signals during evolution of green algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glöckner Gernot

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants consist of two monophyletic lineages: the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta. Most green algae belong to the Chlorophyta, while the Streptophyta include all land plants and a small group of freshwater algae known as Charophyceae. Eukaryotes attach a poly-A tail to the 3' ends of most nuclear-encoded mRNAs. In embryophytes, animals and fungi, the signal for polyadenylation contains an A-rich sequence (often AAUAAA or related sequence 13 to 30 nucleotides upstream from the cleavage site, which is commonly referred to as the near upstream element (NUE. However, it has been reported that the pentanucleotide UGUAA is used as polyadenylation signal for some genes in volvocalean algae. Results We set out to investigate polyadenylation signal differences between streptophytes and chlorophytes that may have emerged shortly after the evolutionary split between Streptophyta and Chlorophyta. We therefore analyzed expressed genes (ESTs from three streptophyte algae, Mesostigma viride, Klebsormidium subtile and Coleochaete scutata, and from two early-branching chlorophytes, Pyramimonas parkeae and Scherffelia dubia. In addition, to extend the database, our analyses included ESTs from six other chlorophytes (Acetabularia acetabulum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Helicosporidium sp. ex Simulium jonesii, Prototheca wickerhamii, Scenedesmus obliquus and Ulva linza and one streptophyte (Closterium peracerosum. Our results indicate that polyadenylation signals in green algae vary widely. The UGUAA motif is confined to late-branching Chlorophyta. Most streptophyte algae do not have an A-rich sequence motif like that in embryophytes, animals and fungi. We observed polyadenylation signals similar to those of Arabidopsis and other land plants only in Mesostigma. Conclusion Polyadenylation signals in green algae show considerable variation. A new NUE (UGUAA was invented in derived chlorophytes and replaced

  13. A synopsis of the tribe Micrutalini Haupt (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula

  14. Anhanguera taxonomy revisited: is our understanding of Santana Group pterosaur diversity biased by poor biological and stratigraphic control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Felipe L; Rodrigues, Taissa

    2017-01-01

    Anhanguerids comprise an important clade of pterosaurs, mostly known from dozens of three-dimensionally preserved specimens recovered from the Lower Cretaceous Romualdo Formation (northeastern Brazil). They are remarkably diverse in this sedimentary unit, with eight named species, six of them belonging to the genus Anhanguera. However, such diversity is likely overestimated, as these species have been historically diagnosed based on subtle differences, mainly based on the shape and position of the cranial crest. In spite of that, recently discovered pterosaur taxa represented by large numbers of individuals, including juveniles and adults, as well as presumed males and females, have crests of sizes and shapes that are either ontogenetically variable or sexually dimorphic. We describe in detail the skull of one of the most complete specimens referred to Anhanguera, AMNH 22555, and use it as a case study to review the diversity of anhanguerids from the Romualdo Formation. In order to accomplish that, a geometric morphometric analysis was performed to assess size-dependent characters with respect to the premaxillary crest in the 12 most complete skulls bearing crests that are referred in, or related to, this clade, almost all of them analyzed first hand. Geometric morphometric regression of shape on centroid size was highly statistically significant (p = 0.0091) and showed that allometry accounts for 25.7% of total shape variation between skulls of different centroid sizes. Premaxillary crests are both taller and anteroposteriorly longer in larger skulls, a feature consistent with ontogenetic growth. A new diagnosis is proposed for Anhanguera, including traits that are nowadays known to be widespread within the genus, as well as ontogenetic changes. AMNH 22555 cannot be referred to "Anhanguera santanae" and, in fact, "Anhanguera santanae", "Anhanguera araripensis", and "Anhanguera robustus" are here considered nomina dubia. Historically, minor differences in crest

  15. Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria from the Cretaceous of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taissa Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over a decade after the last major review of the Cambridge Greensand pterosaurs, their systematics remains one of the most disputed points in pterosaur taxonomy. Ornithocheiridae is still a wastebasket for fragmentary taxa, and some nomenclatural issues are still a problem. Here, the species from the Cretaceous of England that, at some point, were referred in Ornithocheirus, are reviewed. Investigation of the primary literature confirmed that Criorhynchus should be considered an objective junior synonym of Ornithocheirus. Taxonomic review of more than 30 species known from fragmentary remains showed that 16 of them are undiagnosable (nomina dubia: Palaeornis cliftii, Cimoliornis diomedeus, Pterodactylus compressirostris, Pterodactylus fittoni, Pterodactylus woodwardi, Ornithocheirus brachyrhinus, Ornithocheirus carteri, Ornithocheirus crassidens, Ornithocheirus dentatus, Ornithocheirus enchorhynchus, Ornithocheirus eurygnathus, Ornithocheirus oxyrhinus, Ornithocheirus scaphorhynchus, Ornithocheirus tenuirostris, Ornithocheirus xyphorhynchus, and Pterodactylus sagittirostris. Fourteen species are considered valid, and diagnoses are provided to all of them: Ornithocheirus simus, Lonchodraco giganteus comb. n., Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus comb. n., Lonchodraco(? microdon comb. n., Coloborhynchus clavirostris, ‘Ornithocheirus’ capito, Camposipterus nasutus comb. n., Camposipterus(? sedgwickii comb. n., Camposipterus(? colorhinus comb.n., Cimoliopterus cuvieri comb. n., ‘Ornithocheirus’ polyodon, ‘Ornithocheirus’ platystomus, ‘Pterodactylus’ daviesii, and ‘Ornithocheirus’ denticulatus. These species are referred in the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodraco gen. n., Coloborhynchus, Cimoliopterus gen. n., and Camposipterus gen. n., but additional genera are probably present, as indicated by the use of single quotation marks throughout the text. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that Anhangueridae lies within a newly recognized clade

  16. Anhanguera taxonomy revisited: is our understanding of Santana Group pterosaur diversity biased by poor biological and stratigraphic control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe L. Pinheiro

    2017-05-01

    considered nomina dubia. Discussion Historically, minor differences in crest morphology have been used in the definition of new anhanguerid species. Nowadays, this practice resulted in a considerable difficulty in referring well-preserved skulls into known taxa. When several specimens are analyzed, morphologies previously believed to be disparate are, in fact, separated by a continuum, and are thus better explained as individual or temporal variations. Stratigraphically controlled excavations on the Romualdo Formation have showed evidence for faunal turnover regarding fish communities. It is thus possible that some of the pterosaurs from this unit were not coeval, and might even represent anagenetic morphotypes. Unfortunately, amateur collecting of Romualdo Formation fossils, aimed especially at commerce, resulted in the lack of stratigraphic data of virtually all its pterosaurs and precludes testing of these further hypotheses.

  17. Ecological status of high altitude medicinal plants and their sustainability: Lingshi, Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey; Dorji, Kinley

    2016-10-11

    Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks. Out of the 16 priority species identified by the expert group, collectors' perception on ecological status of the priority species differed from survey findings. Chrysosplenium nudicaule (clumps) ranked as most threatened species followed by Corydalis dubia, and Meconopsis simplicifolia. Onosma hookeri, Corydalis crispa and Delphinium glaciale were some of the species ranked as threatened species followed by Halenia elliptica (not in priority list). Percent relative abundance showed irregular pattern of species distribution. High species evenness was recorded among Nardostachys grandiflora, Chrysosplenium nudicaule, Saussurea gossypiphora and Aconitum orochryseum with average species density of 8 plant m-2. Rhodiola crenulata, and Dactylorhiza hatagirea followed by Meconopsis horridula and Meconopsis simplicifolia were ranked as most threatened species with average species density of 0.4, 0.4, 5.6 and 6.0 plant m-2, respectively. The most abundant (common) species was Onosma hookeri (plant m-2). Species composition and density also differed with vegetation, altitude, slope and its aspects. Priority species identified by expert group were found vulnerable and patchy in distribution. Survey results and collectors' perceptions tally to an extent. Some of the species (Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Rhodiola crenulata

  18. Plant 115-kDa actin-filament bundling protein, P-115-ABP, is a homologue of plant villin and is widely distributed in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Etsuo; Vidali, Luis; Tominaga, Motoki; Tahara, Hiroshi; Orii, Hidefumi; Morizane, Yosuke; Hepler, Peter K; Shimmen, Teruo

    2003-10-01

    In many cases, actin filaments are arranged into bundles and serve as tracks for cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. We have isolated an actin-filament bundling protein, which is composed of 115-kDa polypeptide (P-115-ABP), from the germinating pollen of lily, Lilium longiflorum [Nakayasu et al. (1998) BIOCHEM: Biophys. Res. Commun. 249: 61]. P-115-ABP shared similar antigenicity with a plant 135-kDa actin-filament bundling protein (P-135-ABP), a plant homologue of villin. A full-length cDNA clone (ABP115; accession no. AB097407) was isolated from an expression cDNA library of lily pollen by immuno-screening using antisera against P-115-ABP and P-135-ABP. The amino acid sequence of P-115-ABP deduced from this clone showed high homology with those of P-135-ABP and four villin isoforms of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtVLN1, AtVLN2, AtVLN3 and AtVLN4), especially AtVLN4, indicating that P-115-ABP can also be classified as a plant villin. The P-115-ABP isolated biochemically from the germinating lily pollen was able to arrange F-actin filaments with uniform polarity into bundles and this bundling activity was suppressed by Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM), similar to the actin-filament bundling properties of P-135-ABP. The P-115-ABP type of plant villin was widely distributed in plant cells, from algae to land plants. In root hair cells of Hydrocharis dubia, this type of plant villin was co-localized with actin-filament bundles in the transvacuolar strands and the sub-cortical regions. Microinjection of the antiserum against P-115-ABP into living root hair cells caused the disappearance of transvaculor strands and alteration of the route of cytoplasmic streaming. In internodal cells of Chara corallina in which the P-135-ABP type of plant villin is lacking, the P-115-ABP type showed co-localization with actin-filament cables anchored on the intracellular surface of chloroplasts. These results indicated that plant villins are widely distributed and involved in the organization of actin

  19. Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

  20. Revision of the Australian Union-Jack wolf spiders, genus Tasmanicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae, Lycosinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framenau, Volker W; Baehr, Barbara C

    2016-12-23

    The Australian wolf spider (Lycosidae Sundevall, 1833) genus Tasmanicosa Roewer, 1959 with Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905 as type species is revised to include 14 species: T. godeffroyi (L. Koch, 1865), comb. nov. (= Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.; = Lycosa zualella Strand, 1907, syn. nov.; = Lycosa woodwardi Simon, 1909, syn. nov.); T. fulgor sp. nov.; T. gilberta (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov.; T. harmsi sp. nov.; T. hughjackmani sp. nov.; T. kochorum sp. nov.; T. leuckartii (Thorell, 1870), comb. nov. (= Lycosa molyneuxi Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. musgravei (McKay, 1974) comb. nov.; T. phyllis (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov. (= Lycosa stirlingae Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. ramosa (L. Koch, 1877), comb. nov.; T. salmo sp. nov.; T. semicincta (L. Koch, 1877) comb. nov.; T. stella sp. nov.; and T. subrufa (Karsch, 1878) comb. nov. Within the Australian wolf spider fauna, the genus Tasmanicosa can be diagnosed by the distinct pattern of radiating light and dark lines forming a "Union-Jack" pattern on the carapace. Male pedipalp morphology identifies the genus as part of the subfamily Lycosinae Sundevall, 1833 due to the presence of a transverse tegular apophysis with dorsal groove guiding the embolus during copulation. However, genital morphology is variable and a synapomorphy based on male pedipalp or female epigyne morphology could not be identified. Members of Tasmanicosa are comparatively large spiders (body length ca. 12-30 mm), that build a shallow burrow, which is sometimes covered with a flimsy trapdoor. Species of Tasmanicosa are largely a Bassian faunal element with preference for open woodlands and/or floodplains, although some species can be found into the semi-arid Australian interior. Two Australian wolf spider species may represent Tasmanicosa based on their original descriptions, but due to immature types in combination with the somatic similarities of all Tasmanicosa species, cannot be identified with certainty. They are therefore considered nomina dubia

  1. Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on abiotic and biologically-driven basalt weathering and C sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Sabrina; Dontsova, Katerina; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Chollet, Simon; Llavata, Mathieu; Massol, Florent; Cros, Alexis; Barré, Pierre; Gelabert, Alexandre; Daval, Damien; Corvisier, Jérôme; Troch, Peter; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Van Haren, Joost; Ferrière, Régis

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of primary silicates is one of the mechanisms involved in carbon removal from the atmosphere, affecting the carbon cycle at geologic timescales with basalt significantly contributing to the global weathering CO2 flux. Mineral weathering can be enhanced by microbiota and plants. Increase in both temperature and amount of CO2 in the atmosphere can directly increase weathering and can also affect weathering through impact on biological systems. This would result in possible negative feedback on climate change. The goal of this research was to quantify direct and indirect effects of temperature and elevated CO2 on basalt weathering and carbon sequestration. In order to achieve this goal we performed controlled-environment mesocosm experiments at Ecotron Ile-de-France (France). Granular basalt collected in Flagstaff (AZ, USA) was exposed to rainfall at equilibrium with two different CO2 concentrations in the air, ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm); and kept at two climate regimes, with ambient and elevated (+ 4° C) temperature. Four biological treatments were superimposed on this design: a plant-free control; N-fixing grass (Alfalfa, Medicago sativa), N-fixing tree (Velvet mesquite, Prosopis velutina); and grass that does not form symbiotic relationships with N fixers (Green Sprangletop, Leptochloa dubia). All used basalt had native microbial community. Mesocosms were equipped with solution and gas samplers. To monitor biogenic and lithogenic weathering product concentrations, soil solution samples were collected under vacuum after each rainfall event and analyzed to determine pH, electrical conductivity, major and trace elements concentrations, anions concentrations, and aqueous phase organic matter chemistry. Soil gases were monitored for CO2 using porous Teflon gas samplers connected to the Vaisala probes. Plant biomass was collected at the end of the experiment to determine dry weight, as well as removal of N and lithogenic elements by the plants

  2. Uptake and toxic effects of surface modified nanomaterials in freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Brandon Casey

    Nanomaterials are a class of materials with unique properties due to their size, and the association of these properties with the toxicity of nanomaterials is poorly understood. The present study assessed the toxic effects of stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of three distinctly different classes of nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. The fullerene, C70, was stabilized through non-covalent surface modification with gallic acid. Toxicity of C70-gallic acid was confirmed to exhibit similar toxic effects as C60-fullerene, including changes in antioxidative processes in Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna fecundity was significantly reduced in 21d bioassays at C70-gallic concentrations below quantifiable limits (0.03 mg/L C70). Antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as well as lipid peroxidation suggested that exposed organisms experienced oxidative stress. Carbon dots are a class of nanomaterials proposed for use as nontoxic alternatives to semiconductor quantum dots for photoluminescent applications, because of the difference in toxicity of their core components: carbon as opposed to heavy metals. In vivo analysis of treated organisms by confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed carbon dots were absorbed and systemically distributed regardless of particle size. The present study did not find any evidence of acute toxicity at concentrations up to 10mg/L carbon dots. These concentrations also failed to produce negative effects in Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays to predict chronic toxicity. Carbon dots also failed to elicit developmental toxic effects in zebrafish. The toxic effects of semiconductor quantum dots have been partially attributed to the release of heavy metals with their degradation, particularly cadmium. Laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry was used to compare the uptake of cadmium, selenium and zinc in Daphnia magna treated to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots or CdCl2. These quantum dots were observed to accumulate

  3. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    former Avicularia species: Caribenagen. n., composed of Caribena laeta (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n. and Caribena versicolor (Walckenaer, 1837), comb. n.; Antillenagen. n., with a single species, Antillena rickwesti (Bertani & Huff, 2013), comb. n., both from the Caribbean; and Ybyraporagen. n., composed of Ybyrapora sooretama (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009), comb. n., Ybyrapora gamba (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009), comb. n. and Ybyrapora diversipes (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n. from Brazilian rainforest. The subspecies Avicularia avicularia variegata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 is elevated to species status, resulting in the combination Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n.. The following new synonymies are established: Avicularia velutina Simon 1889, Avicularia exilis Strand, 1907, Avicularia ancylochyra Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia cuminami Mello-Leitão, 1930, and Avicularia nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão, 1940 are junior synonyms of Avicularia avicularia; Avicularia bicegoi Mello-Leitão, 1923 is a junior synonym of Avicularia variegatastat. n., and Avicularia urticans Schmidt, 1994 is a junior synonym of Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923. Species transferred to other genera: Avicularia affinis (Nicolet, 1849) is transferred to Euathlus Ausserer, 1875, making the new combination Euathlus affinis (Nicolet, 1849), comb. n.; Avicularia subvulpina Strand, 1906 is transferred to Grammostola Simon, 1892, making the new combination Grammostola subvulpina (Strand, 1906), comb. n.; Avicularia aymara (Chamberlin, 1916) is transferred to Thrixopelma Schmidt, 1994, making the new combination Thrixopelma aymara (Chamberlin, 1916), comb. n.; Avicularia leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841) and Avicularia plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842) are transferred to Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, making the new combinations Iridopelma leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841), comb. n. and Iridopelma plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n.; the two last species are considered nomina dubia. The

  4. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae with description of three new aviculariine genera01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sayuri Fukushima

    2017-03-01

    Avicularia species: Caribena gen. n., composed of Caribena laeta (C. L. Koch, 1842, comb. n. and Caribena versicolor (Walckenaer, 1837, comb. n.; Antillena gen. n., with a single species, Antillena rickwesti (Bertani & Huff, 2013, comb. n., both from the Caribbean; and Ybyrapora gen. n., composed of Ybyrapora sooretama (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009, comb. n., Ybyrapora gamba (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009, comb. n. and Ybyrapora diversipes (C. L. Koch, 1842, comb. n. from Brazilian rainforest. The subspecies Avicularia avicularia variegata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 is elevated to species status, resulting in the combination Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 stat. n.. The following new synonymies are established: Avicularia velutina Simon 1889, Avicularia exilis Strand, 1907, Avicularia ancylochyra Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia cuminami Mello-Leitão, 1930, and Avicularia nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão, 1940 are junior synonyms of A. avicularia; Avicularia bicegoi Mello-Leitão, 1923 is a junior synonym of A. variegata stat. n., and Avicularia urticans Schmidt, 1994 is a junior synonym of Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923. Species transferred to other genera: Avicularia affinis (Nicolet, 1849 is transferred to Euathlus Ausserer, 1875, making the new combination Euathlus affinis (Nicolet, 1849, comb. n.; Avicularia subvulpina Strand, 1906 is transferred to Grammostola Simon, 1892, making the new combination Grammostola subvulpina (Strand, 1906, comb. n.; Avicularia aymara (Chamberlin, 1916 is transferred to Thrixopelma Schmidt, 1994, making the new combination Thrixopelma aymara (Chamberlin, 1916, comb. n.; Avicularia leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841 and Avicularia plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842 are transferred to Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, making the new combinations Iridopelma leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841, comb. n. and Iridopelma plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842, comb. n.; the two last species are considered nomina dubia. The following species are considered nomina dubia

  5. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    nomina dubia. The following species are considered nomina dubia: Avicularia hirsutissima (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Ischnocolus hirsutum Ausserer, 1875 nomen dubium; Ischnocolus gracilis Keyserling, 1891 nomen dubium; Avicularia arabica (Strand, 1908) nomen dubium; Araneus hirtipes (Fabricius, 1787) nomen dubium; Avicularia ochracea (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium; Avicularia walckenaerii (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium; Avicularia testacea (C. L. Koch, 1841) nomen dubium; Avicularia detrita (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Ischnocolus doleschalli Ausserer, 1871 nomen dubium; Avicularia metallica Ausserer, 1875 nomen dubium; Avicularia rapax (Ausserer, 1875) nomen dubium; Avicularia holmbergi Thorell, 1890 nomen dubium; Avicularia aurantiaca Bauer, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia azuraklaasi Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia huriana Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia ulrichea Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia braunshauseni Tesmoingt, 1999 nomen dubium; Avicularia geroldi Tesmoingt, 1999 nomen dubium; Avicularia soratae Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; Avicularia fasciculata Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; Avicularia fasciculata clara Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; and Avicularia surinamensis Strand, 1907 nomen dubium. Avicularia vestiaria (De Geer, 1778) is considered nomen nudum. Keys are provided for identification of all avic