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Sample records for camu-camu myrciaria dubia

  1. An efficient method for in vitro callus induction in Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh "Camu Camu"

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    Ana M. Córdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high variability in vitamin C production in Myrciaria dubia "camu camu", biotechnological procedures are necessary for mass clonal propagation of promising genotypes of this species. The aim was to establish an efficient method for in vitro callus induction from explants of M. dubia. Leaf and knot sex plants were obtained from branches grown in the laboratory and from fruit pulp collected in the field. These were desinfected and sown on Murashige-Skoog (1962 medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin(Kin. The cultures were maintained at 25±2°C in darkness for 2 weeks and subsequently with a photoperiod of 16 hours in light and 8 hours in dark for 6 weeks. Treatment with 2 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/L BAP allowed major callus formation in the three types of explants. Calluswere generated from the first week (knots, fourth week (leaves and sixth week (pulp and these were friable (leaves and nodes and non-friable (pulp. In conclusion, the described method is efficient for in vitro callus induction in leaves, knots and pulp of M. dubia, been leaves and knots explants more suitable for callus obtention

  2. Aproveitamento do camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia para produção de bebida alcoólica fermentada The use of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia for the production of a fermented alcoholic beverage

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    Roberto Nobuyuki Maeda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O elevado teor de ácido ascórbico no camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh, Myrtaceae desperta o interesse de extrativistas, agricultores e consumidores, e leva à necessidade de desenvolvimento de tecnologias adequadas para produção em terra firme e aproveitamento industrial do fruto. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a adequação do camu-camu para a produção de bebida alcoólica fermentada, assim como o efeito do branqueamento do fruto e da incorporação da casca à polpa nas características nutricionais e sensoriais da bebida. Os frutos foram separados em quatro lotes, sendo dois branqueados (90 ºC por 7 min. Após a despolpa, as cascas de um lote de cada tratamento (com e sem branqueamento foram incorporadas às respectivas polpas e avaliadas quanto à composição química (umidade, pH, acidez, sólidos solúveis, açúcares, ácido ascórbico, compostos fenólicos, antocianinas e flavonóides. Após a correção do mosto com açúcar, pasteurização, fermentação (25 dias, trasfega, pasteurização (70 ºC por 15 min, filtragem e clarificação, as bebidas foram avaliadas quanto a composição química, edulcoradas e submetidas à análise sensorial. O branqueamento reduziu a concentração de ácido ascórbico das polpas (33 % e a agregação da casca aumentou os teores de matéria seca (39 % polpa, ácido ascórbico (33 % na polpa, 23 % no mosto e 50 % na bebida e fenólicos (50 % bebida. O perfil sensorial e a aceitabilidade sugerem que o camu-camu é adequado para a produção de bebida alcoólica fermentada e que a agregação da casca à polpa contribuiu positivamente para a aceitabilidade (6,7 com casca e 6,2 sem casca, na escala de 9 pontos. As bebidas apresentaram flavor característico do fruto, limpidez, coloração vermelho-laranjada e sabor agradável.The high levels of ascorbic acid in camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh, Myrtaceae have stimulated interest of extractivists, farmers and consumers. This has led

  3. Efecto citoprotector del camu-camu Myrciaria dubia en tres líneas celulares de ratón expuestos in vivo a bromato de potasio

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    Alvis Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó in vivo la capacidad citoprotectora del fruto de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh Camu-camu frente al daño mutagénico producido por bromato de potasio (68,5 mg/k sobre tres líneas celulares de ratón (hígado, riñón y células sanguíneas. Se utilizó ratones (n= 120 divididos en tres grupos los cuales bebieron ad libitum: TI= control negativo (solo agua y el grupo TIII (control positivo; El grupo TII bebió el extracto acuoso (2% p/v del fruto de camu-camu. A los diez días se inyectó una dosis única de KBr03 (68,5 mg/kg peso corporal vía intraperitoneal, a los grupos TII y TIII. El tratamiento con camu-camu continuo 35 días más, luego los ratones fueron eutanizados para determinar la frecuencia del daño al DNA mediante el protocolo del ensayo cometa alcalino. El grupo TII mostró en todas las líneas celulares el efecto citoprotector del camu-camu (p< 0,05. El efecto dañino al DNA por la acción oxidativa del KBrO3 es inhibido por el extracto acuoso del fruto de camu camu, probablemente por la presencia de los agentes antioxidantes como el Acido ascórbico y los flavonoides.

  4. Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera : Scolytidae) nueva plaga del "camu camu" (Myrciaria dubia, Myrtaceae), en la Amazonia Peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Guy; Tanchiva, E.

    1991-01-01

    #Myrciaria dubia$ H.B.K. est un arbuste fruitier amazonien qui est cultivé dans plusieurs instituts de recherche amazoniens à des fins d'amélioration culturale. Ses insectes ravageurs sont peu connus. Dans les pépinières d'Iquitos les plants sont attaqués par un scolyte, Ipinae, #Xylosandrus compactus$ Eichhoff, qui provoque des pertes importantes. (Résumé d'auteur)

  5. Antocianinas, ácido ascórbico, polifenoles totales y actividad antioxidante, en la cáscara de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K) McVaugh) Antocianinas, ácido ascórbico, polifenóis totais e atividade antioxidante na casca do camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K) McVaugh)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Edson Villanueva-Tiburcio; Luis Alberto Condezo-Hoyos; Eduardo Ramirez Asquieri

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo fue realizado en la UNAS, Tingo María, Perú. Los objetivos fueron evaluar el contenido de antocianinas, ácido ascórbico, y polifenoles totales, en la cáscara fresca y seca de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K) McVaugh) en diferentes estados de madurez; evaluar la actividad antioxidante en la cáscara seca, usando diferentes tipos de radicales (DPPH, ABTS+ y Peroxilo) y correlacionar el valor de ácido ascórbico y polifenoles totales con la actividad antioxidante. La extracción fue ...

  6. Los insectos plaga del camu camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K.) y del araza (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh) identificacion y control

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    Couturier, Guy; Tanchiva Flores, E.; Cardenas M., R.; Gonzales T., J.; Inga Sanchez, H.

    1994-01-01

    Le camu camu (#Myrciaria dubio$ H.B.K.) et l'araza (#Eugenia stipitata$ Mc Vaugh) sont des cultures nouvelles en Amazonie péruvienne. Dans ce travail sont citées 21 espèces d'insectes nuisibles au camu camu, parmi lesquelles 6 espèces doivent être considérées comme des ravageurs économiquement importants, ce sont : #Austrotachardiella$ sp, #Ceroplastes$ sp., #Conotrachelus$ sp.1., #Dysmicoccus brevipes$ Cock, #Tuthillia cognata$ Hodk. y #Xylosandrus compactus$ Heichh. Sur araza 9 espèces ont ...

  7. Antocianinas, ácido ascórbico, polifenoles totales y actividad antioxidante, en la cáscara de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K McVaugh Antocianinas, ácido ascórbico, polifenóis totais e atividade antioxidante na casca do camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K McVaugh

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    Juan Edson Villanueva-Tiburcio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo fue realizado en la UNAS, Tingo María, Perú. Los objetivos fueron evaluar el contenido de antocianinas, ácido ascórbico, y polifenoles totales, en la cáscara fresca y seca de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K McVaugh en diferentes estados de madurez; evaluar la actividad antioxidante en la cáscara seca, usando diferentes tipos de radicales (DPPH, ABTS+ y Peroxilo y correlacionar el valor de ácido ascórbico y polifenoles totales con la actividad antioxidante. La extracción fue realizada en medio acuoso, y los resultados de las evaluaciones de cada experimento fueron analizados por un diseño completamente al azar (DCA, según la prueba de t-student (p A pesquisa foi realizada na UNAS em Tingo Maria, Peru, teve como objetivos: avaliar o teor de antocianinas, ácido ascórbico e polifenóis totais, na casca fresca e na casca seca do camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK McVaugh em diferentes tempos de maturação; avaliar a atividade antioxidante na casca seca utilizando diferentes tipos de radicais (DPPH, ABTS+ e Peroxilo e correlacionar o teor de ácido ascórbico e polifenóis totais com a atividade antioxidante. A extraç��o foi realizada em meio aquoso, os resultados das avaliações de cada experiência são analisados no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC, pelo teste de t-student (p < 0,05. O extrato da casca da amostra madura fresca apresentou as concentrações mais elevadas de ácido ascórbico e de antocianinas em relação a meio madura e verde, com 21,95 mg.g-1 de casca e 46,42 mg.L-1 de cianidin-3-glucosídeo, respectivamente, enquanto que o extrato da casca seca meio madura apresentou o maior teor de ácido ascórbico em relação a madura e verde (53,49 mg.g-1 e de polifenóis totais: 7,70 mg Ác. Gálico/g. A maior atividade antioxidante foi encontrada no extrato da casca seca da amostra meio madura com IC50 = 46,20; 20,25 e 8,30 μg.mL-1, em comparação com DPPH radical, ABTS+ e Perox

  8. Effect of location and diameter of the branch in three genotypes of Myrciaria dubia (HBK "camu camu" for vegetative propagation by air layering

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    Jiang Oliver Liao Torres

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the location and diameter of the branch in three genotypes of camu camu using the technique of air layering on rooting and sprouting. The mother plants were bent and then rooted branches were transplanted following the design of randomized complete block with three replications. At 3 months after transplantation was the assessment of the variables, finding the best values for the number of roots to the middle third, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 and the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 with 28.67 and 28.33 roots, respectively, in the variable length of the upper third roots, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 showed the best results with 15.27 cm. Regarding the number of outbreaks upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-014 and the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 achieved the best results with 13.00 and 12.67 outbreaks, respectively, in the length of shoots, the best treatment was the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 with 30.73 cm, and finally in the variable number of leaves / shoot highlights the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-014 and the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 with 15.10 leaves per shoot and 14.83, respectively. The results allowed identifying the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 as the best in terms of rooting and sprouting capacity.

  9. Estabilidade de ácido ascórbico e antocianinas em néctar de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H. B. K.) McVaugh) Stability of ascorbic acid and anthocyanin on camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh) nectar

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    Roberto Nobuyuki Maeda; Lílian Pantoja; Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki Yuyama; José Merched Chaar

    2007-01-01

    O camu-camu é um fruto com notável potencial nutricional, pelo seu alto conteúdo em ácido ascórbico. Sendo assim, objetivou-se avaliar a estabilidade do ácido ascórbico e pigmentos presentes no néctar de camu-camu, armazenados sob diferentes condições de luminosidade e temperatura. Os frutos foram despolpados e avaliados quanto às características físico-químicas. O néctar, obtido a partir da polpa, foi acondicionado em garrafas PET e armazenado em temperatura ambiente e sob refrigeração na pr...

  10. Determinação da formulação e caracterização do néctar de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh Formulation determination and characterisation of the camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh nectar

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    Roberto N. Maeda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu é um fruto silvestre, encontrado nas margens de rios e lagos da Amazônia, com grande potencial econômico pelas suas características agronômicas, tecnológicas e nutricionais. Entretanto, seu consumo ainda é restrito, devido à alta acidez, amargor e adstringência da casca, necessitando, dessa forma, de tecnologias adequadas para o seu uso. O presente estudo teve por objetivo determinar a formulação ideal do néctar de camu-camu e avaliar as suas caraterísticas físicas e físico-químicas. Para a obtenção do néctar, foram elaboradas nove formulações com diferentes concentrações de polpa e açúcar, as quais foram submetidas ao teste de preferência de 30 provadores não treinados. Dentre as formulações testadas, a de maior preferência foi a preparada com 17,5% de açúcar e 17% de polpa, a qual apresentou valor de L Hunter de 32,00, aHunter de 3,22 e bHunter de -0,38, ácido ascórbico de 382,07 mg/100 mL, antocianinas de 2,51 mg/100 g e aceitabilidade global de 89,1%. Os resultados demonstram a viabilidade tecnológica e nutricional do néctar de camu-camu por ser um produto atraente de cor, sabor, aroma, aceitabilidade e como fonte de Vitamina C.Camu-camu is a wild fruit distributed throughout the banks of lakes and rivers in Amazonia, which presents a great economical potential on account of its agronomic, technological and nutritional features. Nevertheless, its consumption is still restricted due to its high acidity, bitterness, and skin astringency, thus needing the use of proper technologies for its use. The objective of the present study was to determine the ideal camu-camu nectar formulation and to assess its physical and physical-chemical characteristics. Nine formulations with different pulp and sugar concentrations, which were submitted to a preference test by a board of 30 untrained tasters, were prepared in order to obtain the nectar. Among the tested formulations, the one presenting the highest

  11. Estabilidade de ácido ascórbico e antocianinas em néctar de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H. B. K. McVaugh Stability of ascorbic acid and anthocyanin on camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh nectar

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    Roberto Nobuyuki Maeda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu é um fruto com notável potencial nutricional, pelo seu alto conteúdo em ácido ascórbico. Sendo assim, objetivou-se avaliar a estabilidade do ácido ascórbico e pigmentos presentes no néctar de camu-camu, armazenados sob diferentes condições de luminosidade e temperatura. Os frutos foram despolpados e avaliados quanto às características físico-químicas. O néctar, obtido a partir da polpa, foi acondicionado em garrafas PET e armazenado em temperatura ambiente e sob refrigeração na presença e ausência de luz, sendo avaliado por 120 dias quanto à estabilidade de ácido ascórbico e antocianinas. O teor de ácido ascórbico nos néctares armazenados sob luz não diferiu estatisticamente dos armazenados protegidos da luz (343,25 e 340,48 mg.100 g -1, respectivamente, nos armazenados sob refrigeração, e (330,48 e 333,56 mg.100 g -1 nos armazenados em temperatura ambiente. Constatou-se que esta vitamina em néctares armazenados por 120 dias em temperatura de refrigeração apresentou boa estabilidade, com perda de apenas 12 a 14%. Quanto às antocianinas, a temperatura ambiente contribuiu negativamente, ocasionando uma degradação mais acelerada, no entanto, a exposição à luz não teve efeito. Nestas condições experimentais, conclui-se que o fator luminosidade tem pouca influência sobre o ácido ascórbico e antocianinas no néctar de camu-camu, e que a temperatura ambiente de armazenamento é fator negativo na estabilidade destes pigmentos.Camu-camu is a fruit with a remarkable nutritional potential due to its high ascorbic acid content. Hence, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the stability of ascorbic acid and pigments present in camu-camu nectar stored under different light and temperature conditions. Fruits were depulped and assessed as to their physico-chemical characteristics. Nectar obtained from the pulp was placed in plastic bottles and stored at room temperature and refrigerated, with and

  12. Survival of Seasonal Flooding in the Amazon by the Terrestrial Insect Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien & Couturier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a Pest of the Camu-Camu Plant, Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae).

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    Delgado, C; Couturier, G; Fine, P V A

    2014-08-01

    The weevil Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien & Couturier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of an economically important Amazonian fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae). This tree grows in seasonally flooded environments, and how weevil larvae survive flooding has not been studied. From December 2004 to May 2009, five experiments were conducted in natural conditions and in the laboratory, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms that allow the survival of C. dubiae larvae in seasonal floods in Amazonia. The larvae of C. dubiae were kept under water for over 93 days. Older instars exposed to periodic circulation of water survived better than younger instars in addition to all larvae that were kept continuously under uncirculated water. Individuals that were collected from plots of M. dubia located in flooded soils and non-flooded soils did not exhibit statistically significant differences in their levels of survival indicating that the variation in survival of flooding events is due to phenotypic plasticity of the species and not to local adaptation by the populations in different environments. We speculate that larvae can survive floods without major physiological changes as larvae appear to obtain oxygen from water by cutaneous diffusion, assisted by caudal movements. PMID:27193817

  13. Propagação vegetativa de camu-camu por meio de enxertia intergenérica na família Myrtaceae Vegetative propagation of camu-camu by intergeneric grafting in Myrtaceae family

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    Eduardo Suguino; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória; Paulo Sérgio Rodrigues de Araújo; Salim Simão

    2003-01-01

    O camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth) McVaugh], da família Myrtaceae, é encontrado em áreas inundáveis da Região Amazônica e utilizado como conservante em antioxidantes por seu alto teor de ácido ascórbico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar porta-enxertos desta família, adaptados a terra firme, visando à propagação vegetativa de camu-camu. Selecionaram-se duzentas e quarenta mudas de camu-camu, goiabeira (Psidium guajava L.) e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L.), que recebera...

  14. Ciclo biológico, comportamiento y censo del picudo del camu camu, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en Pucallpa, Perú Biological cycle, behavior and census of camu camu weevil, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Pucallpa, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Perez; José Iannacone

    2008-01-01

    El picudo, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995, es una de las plagas mas importantes del camu camu Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh en la Amazonía Peruana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el ciclo biológico de este insecto bajo condiciones de laboratorio y describir su comportamiento y fluctuación en condiciones de campo en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. El porcentaje de eclosión de larvas fue de 87%, la duración del periodo de incubación de los huevos fue de 5,5±0,9 (4 a 7) día...

  15. Propagação vegetativa de camu-camu por meio de enxertia intergenérica na família Myrtaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Suguino Eduardo; Appezzato-da-Glória Beatriz; Araújo Paulo Sérgio Rodrigues de; Simão Salim

    2003-01-01

    O camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth) McVaugh], da família Myrtaceae, é encontrado em áreas inundáveis da Região Amazônica e utilizado como conservante em antioxidantes por seu alto teor de ácido ascórbico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar porta-enxertos desta família, adaptados a terra firme, visando à propagação vegetativa de camu-camu. Selecionaram-se duzentas e quarenta mudas de camu-camu, goiabeira (Psidium guajava L.) e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L.), que recebera...

  16. Ciclo biológico, comportamiento y censo del picudo del camu camu, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en Pucallpa, Perú Biological cycle, behavior and census of camu camu weevil, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, in Pucallpa, Peru

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    Diana Perez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El picudo, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995, es una de las plagas mas importantes del camu camu Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh en la Amazonía Peruana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el ciclo biológico de este insecto bajo condiciones de laboratorio y describir su comportamiento y fluctuación en condiciones de campo en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. El porcentaje de eclosión de larvas fue de 87%, la duración del periodo de incubación de los huevos fue de 5,5±0,9 (4 a 7 días, del estado larval en el fruto 22,2±1,9 (20 a 25 días y en el suelo (fase pre-pupa, 54,4±5,5 (46 a 67 días, del periodo pupal 11,8±0,9 (9 a 13 días y la longevidad del adulto fue de 51,8±18,9 (9 a 75 días. Los adultos se alimentaron de frutos de diferentes diámetros y estados de maduración y de botones florales, ramas tiernas y flores. No se registró la presencia de adultos de C. dubiae en frutos secos, ni en la base del tallo, sino en ritidomas. La mayor actividad de alimentación y de reproducción de los adultos fue entre 18:30 a 22:00 h. Los adultos fueron observados en el cultivo durante todo el año, encontrándose con mayor frecuencia en los meses de enero a marzo en pisos bajos inundables y entre octubre a diciembre en tierra firme no inundable, coincidiendo con la fase de floración y fructificación de la planta.Camu camu weevil Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 is a one of the main pests of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Peruvian Amazonia. The aim of this study was to determine the biological cycle of this insect under laboratory conditions, to describe its behavior and population numbers under field conditions in Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru. The percentage of hatching was 87%; the egg incubation period was 5.5±0.9 (4 to 7 days; the length of the larval stage inside the fruit was 22.2±1.9 (20 to 25 days, and the length larval stage (pre-pupa underground was 54.4±5.5 (46 to 67 days. The length of pupal period was 11.8

  17. Clonagem do camu-camu arbustivo em porta-enxertos de camu-camu arbustivo e arbóreo Cloning of shrubby camu-camu on shrubby and arboreal camu-camu rootstocks

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    Mario Moreira Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, espécie frutífera nativa da Amazônia, de porte arbustivo, é propagado, normalmente, por sementes, ocasionando grande variação na entrada em frutificação e no ciclo de produção, bem como no teor de ácido ascórbico (vitamina C dos frutos. outra espécie de camu-camu, M. floribunda (West ex Willd. o. Berg, de porte arbóreo, ocorre em menor densidade na região amazônica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes métodos de enxertia e a compatibilidade interespecífica entre camu-camu arbustivo e camu-camu arbóreo na fase de formação de mudas de M. dubia. o ensaio foi desenvolvido no período de março a agosto de 2008, no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, em Manaus-AM, com delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 (métodos de enxertia x 2 (espécies de porta-enxerto, com quatro repetições. M. dubia, como porta-enxerto, apresentou melhor percentual de pegamento de enxertos (78,4%, comparada a M. floribunda (49,3%. os melhores resultados na clonagem de M. dubia foram obtidos pelos métodos de garfagem, em que a parte aérea do porta-enxerto foi removida após 30 dias da enxertia: fenda lateral (89,3% e lateral com lingueta (79,3%. o menor resultado foi obtido nos métodos de garfagem, em que a parte aérea do porta-enxerto foi removida na ocasião da enxertia: topo em fenda cheia (51,6% e inglês complicado (31,5%.The camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh is a shrubby indigenous fruit species found in the floodplains of Amazonia region. There is considerable local and international commercial interest in this fruit, because of its high Vitamin C content. The species is commonly propagated by seeds, showing considerable variation in age of bearing, production cycle, fruit yields and Vitamin C contents. Another species, Myrciaria floribunda (West ex Willd. o. Berg, occurs less frequently in the region. The present study

  18. Determinación de la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá) y Myrcyaria dubia HBK (camu-camu)

    OpenAIRE

    Littman Gonzáles; Beder Aylas; Kike Paima; Alberto Bazán

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se determinó diariamente la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá)  y Myrcyaria dubia  HBK (camu-camu) a temperaturas de 10, 20 y 28°C, utilizando un respirómetro construido en el laboratorio. Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh, mostró un comportamiento climatérico, debido a su elevada tasa respiratoria y la presencia de picos climatéricos que coincidieron con el inicio de la maduración sensorial. Las tasas respiratorias registradas en los picos climatéricos fu...

  19. Propagação vegetativa de camu-camu por meio de enxertia intergenérica na família Myrtaceae

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    Suguino Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth McVaugh], da família Myrtaceae, é encontrado em áreas inundáveis da Região Amazônica e utilizado como conservante em antioxidantes por seu alto teor de ácido ascórbico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar porta-enxertos desta família, adaptados a terra firme, visando à propagação vegetativa de camu-camu. Selecionaram-se duzentas e quarenta mudas de camu-camu, goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L., que receberam quatro tipos de enxertia, originando doze tratamentos de sessenta plantas, com cinco repetições. Apenas o porta-enxerto de camu-camu se mostrou compatível. A incompatibilidade entre camu-camu e os porta-enxertos de goiabeira e pitangueira foi demonstrada por análises anatômicas.

  20. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E ACEITABILIDADE DE BARRAS DE CEREAIS ADICIONADAS DE PROTEÍNA TEXTURIZADA DE SOJA E CAMU - CAMU (MYRCIARIA DÚBIA

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    Yanna Paz PEUCKERT

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A associação entre barras de cereais e alimentos saudáveis é uma tendência no setor de alimentos, beneficiando assim, o mercado desses produtos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo a elaboração e análise sensorial de barra de cereal adicionada de proteína de soja e camu-camu (Myrciaria dúbia. Avaliou-se a composição química (umidade, proteínas, lipídios, fi bra bruta, cinzas e carboidratos e o teor de vitamina C da fruta e da barra elaborada, além de efetuar-se análise sensorial e determinação do valor calórico da barra. As análises de pH, acidez e °Brix foram realizadas somente na fruta. A barra de cereal apresentou resultados de 12,24% de umidade, 6% de lipídios, 1,75% de fi bra, 3,06% de cinzas, 17,1% e 59,95% de proteínas e carboidrato, respectivamente, além de um aporte calórico de 361,8kcal/100g e um teor de vitamina C de 57,23mg%. O produto ainda apresentou boa aceitabilidade em todos os atributos sensoriais (cor, aparência, sabor e textura, os quais foram considerados similares às barras de cereais industrializadas, com alta aceitabilidade global e resultado satisfatório na pesquisa de mercado, demonstrando ser um produto com grande potencial.

  1. Post-harvest conservation of camu–camu fruits (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh using different temperatures and packages

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    Maria Luiza GRIGIO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The camu-camu tree (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh is fruit-bearing tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae. This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the type of storage temperature and package which allow better conservation of the quality attributes of camu-camu. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized with three replications in a factorial arrangement (3x3x8, constituted of three different storage temperatures (laboratory ambiente or 25 ± 2 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C, three types of packages (no package, PET and PVC and fourteen days’ storage, the fruits being analyzed every two days. The fruits were evaluated as to fresh mass loss, pH, soluble solids contents, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, anthocyanins, chlorophylls A and B and maturation index (SS/AT. According to the results obtained, the quality attributes and ascorbic acid content were conserved for longer time in the fruits stored on PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene trays at 15 °C. It follows that the best temperature for the storage of camu-camu is 15 °C and the package that best keeps its quality attributes is the PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene tray.

  2. Determinación de la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá y Myrcyaria dubia HBK (camu-camu

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    Littman Gonzáles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinó diariamente la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá  y Myrcyaria dubia  HBK (camu-camu a temperaturas de 10, 20 y 28°C, utilizando un respirómetro construido en el laboratorio. Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh, mostró un comportamiento climatérico, debido a su elevada tasa respiratoria y la presencia de picos climatéricos que coincidieron con el inicio de la maduración sensorial. Las tasas respiratorias registradas en los picos climatéricos fueron de 91,87 mgCO2/kg.h a los 21 días de almacenamiento a 10°C, 116,82 mgCO2/kg.h a los 7 días de almacenamiento a 20°C y 125,74 mgCO2/kg.h a los 5 días de almacenamiento a 28°C, respectivamente. Fue establecido que Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh a bajas temperaturas presenta menores tasas de respiración, prolongando de esta manera su vida comercial  a 10°C  hasta 3 semanas acompañado de óptimas características organolépticas, mientras que a temperaturas más altas como 20 y 28°C la vida comercial del producto desciende a 7 y 5 días respectivamente. Del mismo modo fue estudiado Myrcyaria dubia HBK el cual mostró un comportamiento no climatérico con bajas tasas de producción de CO2 con tendencia decreciente en el tiempo y ausencia de picos climatéricos. Cuando fue sometido a una temperatura de 10°C, la tasa de respiración alcanzó 12 mgCO2/kg.h, a los 20 días. El almacenamiento a mayores temperaturas como 20 y 28°C produjo un incremento en la tasa respiratoria de más del 200% alcanzando valores de 47 y 51 mgCO2/kg.h al 10° y 7° día respectivamente.

  3. Produção, caracterização e aceitabilidade de licor de camu-camu (Myrciaria dúbia (H.B.K. McVaugh
    Production, characterization and acceptability camu-camu (Myrciaria dúbia (H.B.K McVaugh liquor

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    C. S. ROSA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar um licor de camu-camu como alternativa para o aproveitamento desse fruto, que apresenta boas características agronômicas, tecnológicas e nutricionais, sendo pouco consumido in natura devido à elevada acidez e amargor de sua casca. Para a elaboração do licor, foi utilizado como matéria-prima o fruto de camu-camu (adquirido em uma empresa de São Paulo, álcool de cereais e xarope de açúcar. Os frutos sem as sementes foram macerados juntamente com o álcool de cereais por sete dias. Após esse processo, foram fi ltrados e adicionados à calda, tornando-se um licor com 33° Brix e teor alcoólico fi nal de 18%. Foram realizadas as análises de pH, acidez, sólidos solúveis e vitamina C dos frutos e do licor, e teor alcoólico pelo aparelho eletrônico de destilação Gibertini do licor. Para a determinação dos principais atributos sensoriais, aplicou-se o teste afetivo de aceitação com 47 provadores não treinados. O teste foi aplicado em cabines individuais utilizando a escala hedônica de cinco pontos para avaliar os atributos cor, odor e sabor. O camu-camu apresentou boas características para o processamento de licor, com o pH baixo, alto teor de acidez e boa aceitabilidade.

  4. Capacidad de enraizamiento de plantas matrices promisorias de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh en cámaras de subirrigación¹

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    Carlos Abanto Rodríguez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Camu camu es una fruta nativa de la Amazonía, que llama la atención por el alto contenido de vitamina C (6,116 mg/ 100 g de pulpa, está en proceso de domesticación, por lo cual se está investigando un método de propagación vegetativa que permita avanzar en el proceso de mejoramiento genético. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad rizogénica de plantas matrices promisorias de camu camu "Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh" según el aumento del número de hojas, mediante la técnica de estacas herbáceas en cámaras de subirrigación. El ensayo fue conducido mediante un Diseño de Bloques Completamente al Azar (DBCA con arreglo factorial 9Ax3B, con 3 repeticiones y 15 estacas por unidad experimental. El factor A, estuvo constituido por nueve plantas matrices y el factor B: pares de hojas con 3 niveles: 1; 2 y 3 pares. El enraizamiento fue evaluado después de 90 días. Se observó que existió interacción estadística significativa para las variables: porcentaje de enraizamiento, longitud y número de raíces. Para las variables porcentaje de callo y porcentaje de mortalidad se encontró efecto de la planta matriz y pares de hojas. Los resultados muestran que el porcentaje de enraizamiento estuvo influenciado por efectos intrínsecos adherentes a la variabilidad genotípica de las plantas matrices, presentando un alto grado de dispersión, que osciló entre 91,11 % y 0,00 %, mostrando una alta variabilidad y marcada influencia de la planta matriz sobre el proceso de rizogénesis, influyendo de manera altamente significativa en el enraizamiento. Con respecto al área foliar, estacas con 2 y 3 pares de hojas, independiente de la planta matriz, presentaron mayor capacidad de enraizamiento. Con base en estos resultados se concluye que el efecto de la variabilidad genotípica y el área foliar influyen de manera altamente significativa en el proceso de rizogénesis de estacas herbáceas de camu camu.

  5. Avances de investigación para la propagación vegetativa por cultivo in vitro de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh “camu camu”

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    Sergio Pinedo Freyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo fue realizado en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos Vegetales de la Estación Experimental Agraria San Roque, del INIA Loreto con el objetivo de establecer un protocolo para el cultivo in vitro de segmentos nodales de camu camu" Myrciaria dubia " (H.B.K Mc Vaugh. La fuente de material vegetal, fueron ramas de la parte apical de plantas adultas de la Colección Nacional de camu camu del INIA Loreto, se realizaron ensayos de desinfección, medios de cultivo y diferentes concentraciones de hormonas. El medio de cultivo utilizado fue Murashige & Skoog, MS 1962; más factores constantes 20 g/L sacarosa, 0,25 g/L carbón activado, 7 g/L agar y pH 5,7. Los tratamientos de desinfección que presentaron los mayores porcentajes (100% de supervivencia de segmentos nodales, fueron: Hipoclorito 0.3%  + Chupadera 1 g/L en M&S, M&S ½ y M&S + AIB y Hipoclorito 0,5%  + Chupadera 2 g/L en M&S, M&S ½ y M&S + AIB. El mejor medio de cultivo para la fase de crecimiento in vitro fue M&S + 1,5 mg/L GA3 + 10 mg/L AIA con 72% de supervivencia a los 45 días después de la siembra. El mejor medio de cultivo para la fase de multiplicación fue M&S + 2,5 mg/L BAP + 0,1 mg/L ANA con 80% de supervivencia a los 30 días después del subcultivo.

  6. Effect of pruning height on the architecture of plants of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh in the experimental station of IIAP, Ucayali, Peru.

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    Carlos Abanto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response camu camu’s plants in plantations initial undergoing training pruning, an experiment was installed in EE - IIAP-Ucayali, under a design randomized complete block, with 3 replications, making use of 20 plants per experimental unit. The pruning treatments were performing at different heights from the base of the stem, it was considered T0 [witness without pruning], T1 [pruning to 10 cm from the base], T2 [pruning to 20 cm from the base] and T3 [pruning to 40 cm from the base] in plants of known provenance. The investigation was directed to evaluate the number of shoots, shoot growth, plant height, basal diameter, crown diameter and number of branches. After of 9 months of evaluation was found significant differences between the variables except in top diameter. In the variable Height, treatment T0 [witness without pruning] outstanding because they were not pruned, among the remaining treatments has similarly behaved, surpassing the control treatment by 267 %. In addition to this, the basal diameter was found that T1 [pruning to 10 cm from the base] has a better performed with an average value of 1.96 cm compared with the control (1.7cm. The pruning had a positive influence in the number of branches, with an average of 13.4 branches compared with T0 that get 3.1 branches on average, its shows that the pruning can increased up the production of branches to 432.3%.

  7. Report control Chrysomelids in the experimental field of camu-camu from Embrapa Roraima-Brazil

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    Carlos Abanto Rodriguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Camu-camu is a native fruit tree of the Amazon, is highly value nutritious and great economic potential due to the high content of ascorbic acid (6112 mg/100 g present in fruits. Camu-camu, like any other plant, when it becomes cultivated outside their natural environment, loses its ecological balance and, consequently, is attacked by phytophagous and severe insect pests, which cause serious damage to the orchard. In this sense, the aim with this study, reporting the identification and control of insect pests in the cultivation of camu-camu, using different methods to attract and capture. It was observed that the best results were obtained in applying Neenmax®, followed by traps shading of black color screen, furthermore, higher occurrence of insects were recorded belonging to the family Chrysomelidae.

  8. Teor de vitamina C e características físicas do camu-camu em dois estádios de maturação. = Physical characteristics and C vitamin content of Camu-camu two maturation phases.

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    Oscar José Smiderle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Camu-Camu é uma das frutas amazônicas que está merecendo atenção pelos teores de vitamina C e sua introdução recente nos mercados mundiais. Desperta interesse de setores industriais como fármaco, cosmético, conservante natural, alimentício e da casca extrai-se corante natural (antocianinas. Considerando a importância do camu-camu como alimento, da vitamina C na dita humana, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o teor de vitamina C em frutos de camu-camu colhidos em Roraima, em dois estádios de maturação. Frutos colhidos manualmente, em dois estádios dematuração (maduros e imaturos foram avaliados quanto ao peso médio de frutos, número de sementes por fruto, rendimento de polpa e teor de vitamina C. O camu-camu é uma fruta com potencial de aproveitamento como fonte natural de vitamina C e os dois estádios de maturação, não diferem quanto ao teor de vitamina C. = Camu-camu is an of Amazonian fruit deserv attention due to its contents of C vitamin and its recent introduction into the world market. Camu-camu invokes the interests of industrial sectors such as pharmaceutics,cosmetics, natural conservants, and the food industry, while a natural dye (antocianin can be the extracted from the skin. Due to the importance of camu-camu as food, vitamin C of the human diet, the present study at its objective the determination of the vitamin C content of camu-camu fruits harvested in Roraima, from two maturation phases. Mature and immature manually harvested fruits were assessed according to average weights of fruit, the number ofseeds per fruit, pulp yield, and the percentage of C vitamin. Camu-camu is a fruit of useful potentially as a natural source of C vitamin and there were no differences between the two maturation phases relative to the amuont of vitamin C.

  9. Teor de vitamina C e características físicas do camu-camu em dois estádios de maturação

    OpenAIRE

    Smiderle, Oscar José; Sousa, Rita de Cássia Pompeu de

    2010-01-01

    O Camu-Camu é uma das frutas amazônicas que está merecendo atenção pelos teores de vitamina C e sua introdução recente nos mercados mundiais. Desperta interesse de setores industriais como fármaco, cosmético, conservante natural, alimentício e da casca extrai-se corante natural (antocianinas). Considerando a importância do camu-camu como alimento, da vitamina C na dieta humana, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o teor de vitamina C em frutos de camu-camu colhidos em...

  10. Teor de vitamina C e características físicas do camu-camu em dois estádios de maturação

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Rita de Cássia Pereira de

    2011-01-01

    O Camu-Camu é uma das frutas amazônicas que está merecendo atenção pelos teores de vitamina C e sua introdução recente nos mercados mundiais. Desperta interesse de setores industriais como fármaco, cosmético, conservante natural, alimentício e da casca extrai-se corante natural (antocianinas). Considerando a importância do camu-camu como alimento, da vitamina C na dieta humana, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o teor de vitamina C em frutos de camu-camu colhidos em...

  11. AISLAMIENTO DE ADN GENÓMICO DE Myrciaria dubia (HBK) “CAMU CAMU” APROPIADO PARA ANÁLISIS MOLECULARES

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Castro Gómez; Marianela Cobos Ruiz; Roberson Ramírez Saavedra; Sixto Imán Correa

    2012-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”, una especie nativa de la Amazonía que produce frutos con alto contenido de vitamina C y otras sustancias importantes. Sin embargo, los estudios moleculares de esta planta son escasos, por falta de un protocolo reproducible para purificar sus ácidos nucléicos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer un protocolo para aislar el ADN genómico a partir de hojas de M. dubia, apropiado para análisis moleculares. El ADN se purificó con un protocolo modificado, la calid...

  12. Fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu”

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Correa Meléndez; Marianela Cobos Ruiz; Roberson Ramirez Saavedra; Sixto Imán Correa; Juan Castro Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia “camu camu” es un frutal del trópico amazónico caracterizado por sus frutos con gran contenido de vitamina C, siendo considerado un producto importante del país. Sin embargo, hay pocos reportes sobre el metabolismo y transporte de vitamina C en esta especie. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de M. dubia “camu camu”. Las hojas se colectaron de la colección de germoplasma de “camu camu” del INIA a las 2, 6, ...

  13. TOXICIDAD DE PAULLINIA CLAVIGERA SCHLTDL. (SAPINDACEAE) Y CHONDRODENDRON TOMENTOSUM RUIZ ET PAV. (MENISPERMACEAE) SOBRE EL PIOJO SALTADOR DEL CAMU CAMU TUTHILLIA COGNATA (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) TOXICITY OF PAULLINIA CLAVIGERA SCHLTDL. (SAPINDACEAE) AND CHONDRODENDRON TOMENTOSUM RUIZ ET PAV. (MENISPERMACEAE) ON JUMPING LICE OF CAMU CAMU TUTHILLIA COGNATA (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Pérez; José Iannacone; Alfredo Tueros

    2008-01-01

    Se determinó el efecto tóxico de dos extractos hidroalcohólicos procedentes de dos plantas amazónicas de importancia etnobotánica, Paullinia clavigera Schltdl. "sachayoco" (Sapindaceae) y Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz et Pav "curare" (Menispermaceae), ambas en desarrollo vegetativo, sobre ninfas del III estadio de Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 "piojo saltador del camu camu" (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Las ninfas de T. cognata se colectaron en plantaciones del caserío San ...

  14. Ciclo de vida y aspectos poblacionales de Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae chinche del fruto del camu camu (Myrtaceae en zona de restinga, Ucayali, Perú Life cycle and population aspects of camu camu fruit stink bug Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in restinga zone, Ucayali, Peru

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    José Iannacone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El camu camu es uno de los frutales nativos con gran potencial económico para la agroindustria y agro exportación. Edessa es una de las plagas del camu camu que provoca sequedad en los brotes, y en los frutos una mancha decolorada con círculos concéntricos bien marcados y un punto central al alimentarse. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el ciclo biológico bajo condiciones de laboratorio y la fluctuación poblacional de Edessa aff. aulacosterna "Chinche del fruto del camu camu" durante enero a noviembre del 2004 en el cultivo de camu camu, en parcelas en desarrollo y producción ubicadas en áreas de restinga inundables en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. Se colectaron huevos, ninfas y adultos procedentes del distrito de Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú para iniciar la crianza artificial. El tiempo de duración del huevo al I estadio ninfal fue 5,1 días. Se encontró un 94,6% de eclosión de los huevos, variando entre 12 hasta 14 huevos por postura. El tiempo transcurrido desde el huevo hasta II estadío fue de 37,3 días y del III al V estadío ninfal fue de 81,9 días. El porcentaje de mortalidad del primer estadio ninfal a adulto fue de 98,1%. Los adultos colectados se localizaron preferentemente sobre las ramas y el tallo de la planta, mientras que las ninfas se encontraron en los brotes tiernos. Con relación a su fluctuación poblacional, solo se registró posturas a lo largo del año en parcelas en producción. No se encontraron diferencias entre ninfas I a V, y adultos de Edessa aff. aulacosterna, entre plantaciones en producción y desarrollo de camu camu. Solo se encontró diferencias entre la época seca y lluviosa en las ninfas de III a V estadio en las plantas de camu camu en desarrollo. Edessa aff. aulacosterna presentó mayormente una distribución contagiosa. El adecuado conocimiento de la bioecología nos permite mejorar la estrategia de control de esta plaga.Camu camu is one of the native fruits with a great

  15. AISLAMIENTO DE ADN GENÓMICO DE Myrciaria dubia (HBK “CAMU CAMU” APROPIADO PARA ANÁLISIS MOLECULARES

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    Juan Castro Gómez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”, una especie nativa de la Amazonía que produce frutos con alto contenido de vitamina C y otras sustancias importantes. Sin embargo, los estudios moleculares de esta planta son escasos, por falta de un protocolo reproducible para purificar sus ácidos nucléicos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer un protocolo para aislar el ADN genómico a partir de hojas de M. dubia, apropiado para análisis moleculares. El ADN se purificó con un protocolo modificado, la calidad y cantidad se estimó por espectrofotometría y electroforesis en gel de agarosa. Adicionalmente, la calidad se evaluó mediante RAPD. El ratio de calidad (A260/A280 promedio del ADN fue 1.9±0.1 y el espectro de absorción UV/Vis presentó un único pico de máxima absorbancia a 260nm. Mediante electroforesis el ADN fue íntegro y sin ARN. También, la síntesis de amplicones RAPD nos sugiere ausencia de inhibidores para polimerasas. La concentración promedio del ADN fue 99±33 ng/ml y el rendimiento promedio fue 237±80 mg ADN/g hoja. En conclusión, se ha establecido un protocolo de aislamiento de ADN genómico a partir de hojas de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu”, caracterizado por permitirnos obtener ADN de alta calidad y cantidad suficiente para análisis moleculares como el RAPD.

  16. CLONACIÓN Y FILOGENIA MOLECULAR DE UN SEGMENTO DEL GEN CODANTE DE LA ACTINA DE MYRCIARIA DUBIA “CAMU-CAMU”: UN CANDIDATO PARA GEN DE REFERENCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Castro Gómez; Marianela Cobos Ruiz; Alina Egoavil Reátegui; Roberson Ramírez Saavedra; Sixto Imán Correa; Pedro Adrianzen Julca; Jorge Marapara del Águila

    2012-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu” es un frutal amazónico caracterizado por su amplia variación de vitamina C. Pero los estudios genético moleculares que puedan explicar esta variación son limitados. Por ello nuestro objetivo fue realizar la clonación y filogenia molecular de un segmento del gen codante de la actina de M. dubia. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de la colección de germoplasma del INIA. Luego, el ARN fue purificado y mediante RT-PCR con cebadores degenerados se amplificó un segmento del ...

  17. Fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu”

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    Franz Correa Meléndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia “camu camu” es un frutal del trópico amazónico caracterizado por sus frutos con gran contenido de vitamina C, siendo considerado un producto importante del país. Sin embargo, hay pocos reportes sobre el metabolismo y transporte de vitamina C en esta especie. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de M. dubia “camu camu”. Las hojas se colectaron de la colección de germoplasma de “camu camu” del INIA a las 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 y 22 horas; de cuatro plantas y en tres fechas diferentes. La vitamina C fue extraída de las hojas con un método estandarizado en el laboratorio y se cuantificó mediante espectrofotometría a 530nm, previa reacción con 2,6-diclorofenolindofenol. Los resultados muestran que el contenido de vitamina C de las hojas de “camu camu” fue en promedio 231±35 mg vitamina C/100g de hoja. Además, el contenido de vitamina C en las hojas del “camu camu” mostró fluctuación diurna, siendo menor a las 6 horas y mayor a las 2 y 14 horas del día. También, se registraron concentraciones intermedias en horas de menor o ausencia de radiación solar (235±17 y 237±35 mg vitamina C/100g de hoja a las 18 y 22 horas respectivamente. Se concluye que existe alto contenido de vitamina C en las hojas del “camu camu” y que este contenido presenta fluctuación diurna.

  18. CLONACIÓN Y FILOGENIA MOLECULAR DE UN SEGMENTO DEL GEN CODANTE DE LA ACTINA DE MYRCIARIA DUBIA “CAMU-CAMU”: UN CANDIDATO PARA GEN DE REFERENCIA

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    Juan Castro Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu” es un frutal amazónico caracterizado por su amplia variación de vitamina C. Pero los estudios genético moleculares que puedan explicar esta variación son limitados. Por ello nuestro objetivo fue realizar la clonación y filogenia molecular de un segmento del gen codante de la actina de M. dubia. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de la colección de germoplasma del INIA. Luego, el ARN fue purificado y mediante RT-PCR con cebadores degenerados se amplificó un segmento del gen. En base a la secuencia obtenida se diseñaron cebadores específicos para PCR en tiempo real. Los resultados muestran que se ha aislado, clonado y secuenciado un segmento del gen codante de actina de M. dubia y detectado su expresión en hojas, pulpa y cáscara de M. dubia. Así, con el soporte de herramientas bioinformáticas y uso de técnicas de biología molecular hemos aislado, clonado y secuenciado un segmento del gen codante de la actina de M. dubia. Asimismo, los análisis realizados muestran que el gen se expresa y presenta niveles similares de expresión en hojas, pulpa y cáscara de M. dubia. Sin embargo, es necesario realizar más experimentos a fin de verificar su estabilidad de expresión.

  19. Los insectos plaga de las Myrtaceae frutales en Pucallpa, Amazonia peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Guy; Quinonez R., L.; Gonzalez R., I.; Riva R., R.; Young R., F.

    1996-01-01

    During two series of observations realized in the Pucallpa region, Peru in 1994 and 1995, some species of insect pests have been observed on cultivated trees of #Eugenia stipitata$ ("araza"), #Myrciaria dubia$ ("camu-camu") and #Myrciaria uniflora ("pitanga") belonging to the family #Myrtaceae$. #Anastrepha sororcula$ Zucchi and #Pseudoparlatoria turgida$ Ferris are reported for the first time in Peru. (Résumé d'auteur)

  20. La expresión y actividad catalítica diferencial de GDP-manosa pirofosforilasa influye en la producción de vitamina C en Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castro Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia muestra una amplia variación en la producción de vitamina C (vit.C. Para entender las bases moleculares de esta variación, se determinó la relación del nivel de expresión genética y actividad de GDP-Manosa pirofosforilasa (GMP con la variación del contenido de vit.C en M. dubia. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de una colección de germoplasma. La vit.C se cuantificó por HPLC, la actividad de GMP se midió por  espectrofotometría. El ARN se purificó, el ADNc se sintetizó, amplificó, clonó y secuenció con técnicas estándares. La expresión del gen se midió mediante PCR en tiempo real. Las diferencias en el contenido de vit.C de las hojas, pulpa y cáscara dependieron de la expresión y actividad de GMP. Esta relación también se observó entre plantas que producen frutos con bajo y alto contenido de vit.C. En conclusión, Las hojas, pulpa y cáscara de M. dubia muestran diferencias significativas en el contenido de vit.C, el cual se atribuye a la expresión y actividad catalítica diferencial de la GMP. Asimismo, las plantas que producen frutos con diferencias marcadas en el contenido de vit.C en sus pulpas, también dependen del nivel de expresión y actividad catalítica de esta enzima.

  1. Inducción de la biosíntesis local de antocianinas en frutos de Myrciaria dubia mediante lesiones mecánicas

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    Daniel Motta-Santillán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En las plantas las antocianinas cumplen roles fundamentales en sus interacciones con el medio ambiente, son una de las líneas de defensa contra los radicales libres, la radiación ultravioleta y el ataque de patógenos. Observaciones realizadas muestran que los frutos de M. dubia acumulan antocianinas alrededor de lesiones mecánicas probablemente causadas por insectos. Por tanto, hemos probado la hipótesis que produciendo lesiones mecánicas en frutos verdes de M. dubia se induce la biosíntesis local de antocianinas. De tres plantas en fructificación de la colección de germoplasma del INIA se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 40 frutos verdes (25 ± 5 mm de Ø y se causaron lesiones mecánicas con estilete o bisturí al 75% de ellos. Posteriormente, se registró el porcentaje de acumulación de antocianinas por área superficial del fruto a las 0, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Se observó acumulación de antocianinas en ~10% (24 horas, ~30% (48 horas y ~70% (72 horas del área superficial de los frutos. En conclusión, las lesiones mecánicas causadas en frutos de M. dubia inducen la biosíntesis local de antocianinas, probablemente como un mecanismo de defensa efectivo desarrollado por esta especie. La comprensión de los mecanismos moleculares implicados en esta respuesta fisiológica nos permitirá establecer las bases para la mejora genética de esta especie.

  2. Frutos tropicales como fuente de carotenoides: biosíntesis, composición, biodisponibilidad y efectos del procesamiento

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    Tania Chacón Ordóñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los carotenoides son compuestos sintetizados a partir del isopentenil difosfato y pueden ser encontrados en una gran diversidad de frutos. Estos pigmentos han sido de interés por sus beneficios en la salud y sus aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria. Existen muchos factores que pueden afectar su concentración y biodisponibilidad para el ser humano; entre ellas las condiciones de cultivo, el manejo poscosecha y el procesamiento que se les dé a los frutos antes de ser consumidos. Esta revisión se enfoca en los conocimientos actuales sobre aspectos relevantes de los carotenoides en diferentes frutos tropicales como la acerola (Malpighia sp., camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia, mango (Mangifera indica, naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, papaya (Carica papaya, pitanga (Eugenia uniflora, pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata y zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota, para presentar el estado del conocimiento y recomendar aspectos importantes para futuras investigaciones en este campo.

  3. Frutos tropicales como fuente de carotenoides: biosíntesis, composición, biodisponibilidad y efectos del procesamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Chacón Ordóñez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los carotenoides son compuestos sintetizados a partir del isopentenil difosfato y pueden ser encontrados en una gran diversidad de frutos. Estos pigmentos han sido de interés por sus beneficios en la salud y sus aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria. Existen muchos factores que pueden afectar su concentración y biodisponibilidad para el ser humano; entre ellas las condiciones de cultivo, el manejo poscosecha y el procesamiento que se les dé a los frutos antes de ser consumidos. Esta revisión se enfoca en los conocimientos actuales sobre aspectos relevantes de los carotenoides en diferentes frutos tropicales como la acerola (Malpighia sp., camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia, mango (Mangifera indica, naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, papaya (Carica papaya, pitanga (Eugenia uniflora, pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata y zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota, para presentar el estado del conocimiento y recomendar aspectos importantes para futuras investigaciones en este campo.

  4. Longevity and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia in receiving waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia are commonly used to estimate toxicity of effluents or receiving waters but can sometimes yield no toxicity outcomes even if pollutants are present. The authors conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) determine whether tests with longer exposure periods to low concentrations of contaminants in ambient water might reveal evidence of toxicity that could not be discerned from 7-d tests and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia longevity and reproduction. In the first set of tests, C. dubia was reared in diluted mineral water (a negative control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a retention basin containing sediments contaminated with mercury, other metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only. Before testing, though, water in the second set of tests was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added. Ceriodaphnia dubia longevity and reproduction did not differ much among the three water types in the first set of tests, but both longevity and reproduction were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia appeared to be relatively insensitive to general water quality factors but sensitive to food-related factors. In five of the six full life-cycle tests, lifetime reproduction by C. dubia could not be reliably predicted from reproduction data from the first 7 d of testing. The increase in predictability of lifetime reproduction of C. dubia as a function of test duration also differed among water types in the first set of tests and among treatments in the second set of tests. This, it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of 7-d tests with C. dubia to longer time scales

  5. Morpho-anatomy of the leaf of Myrciaria glomerata

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    Nemes Veiga Pacheco-Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myrciaria glomerata O. Berg., Myrtaceae, popularly known as "cabeludinha", has high content of ascorbic acid and anti-inflammatory property and is used in folk medicine. The objectives of this study were the morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization of the leaves. Leaf studies were made with optical, scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The collection of botanical material was held at the Tijuca Forest, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Histochemical tests aimed the identification of lipids, starch grains, phenolic compounds and crystals. The leaves are simple, opposite, lanceolate, pinnate, hairy, with involute margins, hypostomatic and dorsiventral. The stomata are anomocytic. The epidermis presents simple trichomes. Epidermal cells show uneven thickening of their periclinal outer walls, mainly on the adaxial side of the leaf. Secretory cavities of essential oils are subepidermal and exceed, in height, the palisade parenchyma, formed by one cell layer. Four to five cellular layers, rich in phenolic compounds and lipids form the spongy parenchyma. The bundles are collateral and there are many crystals of calcium oxalate spread throughout the mesophyll. In the midrib and petiole the bundles are bicollateral. Analysis by scanning electron revealed epicuticular wax rod-shaped and as grains. In confocal microscopy, the adaxial epidermis, the fibers and the secretory epithelium of the cavities show autofluorescence. The data obtained are important in quality control exams of samples of this species.

  6. Life-cycle testing of receiving waters with Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia are commonly used to estimate the toxicity of effluents or receiving waters, but may yield no toxicity outcomes even when pollutants are present (a possible type II error). The authors conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) see if tests with longer exposure periods revealed evidence for toxicity that might not be evident from shorter tests, and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia reproduction. In the first set of tests, daphnids were reared in diluted mineral water (control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a mercury-contaminated retention basin. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only, but this water was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added. C. dubia survival and reproduction did not differ much among the three waters in the first set of tests. However, both parameters were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia seems to be moderately insensitive to general water-quality factors, but quite sensitive to food-related parameters. Regression analysis showed that the predictability of life-time reproduction of C. dubia from 7-day test results was low in five of six cases. The increase in predictability as a function of test duration also differed among water types (first set of tests), and among treatments (second set of tests). Thus, 7-day tests with C. dubia may be used to quantify water-quality problems, but it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of such tests to longer time scales

  7. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    OpenAIRE

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo; Thiago de Mello Silva; Monica Lopes; Paula Villela; Antônio Flávio de Carvalho Alcântara; Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni-Pinto

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH), ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample), FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample) and β-carotene/linoleic aci...

  8. Phytochemical characterization of bioactive compounds on methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp.

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    Nathalia F. Naspolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the native species of importance in Brazil, jabuticabeira (Myrciaria sp. is a native fruit tree from several Brazilian regions. Few studies report the chemical constituents of the leaves and its pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. The aim of this study was to identify the phenolic compounds of the methanolic (MeOH and ethanolic (EtOH leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp. Phytochemical profile of the extracts was carried-out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavenging capacity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and total phenolics were determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. A total of nine different compounds were identified in the free and bound phenolics extractions: 2,4 dihydroxybenzoic, vanillin, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapinic, rutin, epicatechin, trans-caffeic and myricetin. The extracts demonstrated high radical scavenging capacity (MeOH: 1.83 and EtOH: 8.05 mg/mL and high phenolic content (MeOH: 1.15; and EtOH: 1.04 mg/g dry matter. The wide variability of compounds revealed and the amount of peaks not identified, gives us a background of a potential plant matrix for further investigations in order to develop a nutraceutical agent.

  9. Fruit and seed biometry of cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg = Biometria de fruto e semente de cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg

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    Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cambuí tree (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg is native to Brazil and its fruits are harvested by extraction for fresh consumption in the state of Sergipe (Brazil. Because of the regional importance of the species, this work aims to characterize the cambuí fruits and seeds. The fruits were harvested mature from native trees in the Reserva do Caju Experimental Field, on Itaporanga d’Ajuda (Sergipe, Brazil, belonging to Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros. Two hundred fruits and seeds were biometrically analyzed. In addition, we evaluated the fruit, pulp, and seed color based on RHS Color Chart. Two different skin colors were found: 1. yellow [orange - red (group 32A] with yellow pulp [yellow - orange (group 17A]; and 2. purple [violet -blue (group 93A] with red pulp [red - purple (group 60A]. The seeds have only one color, green [yellow-green (group 152A] with dark stripes [Brown (group 200C]. The fruits mean diameter was 9.23 mm.fruit-1, and average width 8.50 mm.fruit-1. The seeds mean diameter was 5.34 mm.seed-1, mean width 6.52 mm.seed-1 and thickness 5.08 mm.seed-1. The cambuí is a little red fruit. The biometry had a high variability as expected, because it is a native species without any type of management.=Resumo - O cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg é nativo do Brasil e os frutos são colhidos por extrativismo para consumo in natura no estado de Sergipe (Brasil. Por causa da importância regional da espécie, objetivou-se com este trabalho caracterizar os frutos e sementes de cambuí. Os frutos foram colhidos maduros provenientes de plantas nativas do Campo Experimental Reserva do Caju, no município de Itaporanga d’Ajuda (Sergipe, Brasil pertencente a Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros. Foram analisados 200 frutos e sementes biometricamente. Além disso, caracterizou-se a cor da fruta, da polpa, e da semente com base na cartela de cores RHS. Foram identificados duas cores diferentes para a fruta: 1. de cor amarela [laranja - vermelho (grupo32A

  10. Non-fermented and fermented jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces as valuable sources of functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ramirez Asquieri, Eduardo; Berrios, José De J

    2016-10-01

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora. Mart) is a highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. This processing generates a large amount of waste by-products, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit weight. The by-products are of interest for obtaining valuable bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. In this study, fermented and non-fermented jabuticaba pomaces were studied regarding their hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, as well as their antioxidant properties, including: soluble sugars, organic acids and tocopherols (using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index, diode array and fluorescence detector, respectively); phenolics and anthocyanins, (using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, and mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization); and fatty acids (using gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection). The analytical data demonstrated that jabuticaba pomaces are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds (namely hydrolyzable tannins and anthocyanins) with antioxidant potential. Therefore, jabuticaba pomace may have good potential as a functional ingredient in the fabrication of human foods and animal feed. PMID:27132843

  11. Interaction of chemical cues from fish tissues and organophosphorous pesticides on Ceriodaphnia dubia survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cladocera are frequently used as test organisms for assessing chemical and effluent toxicity and have been shown to respond to stimuli and cues from potential predators. In this study, the interactive effects of visual and chemical cues of fish and two organophosphorous pesticides on survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia were examined. A significant chemical cue (homogenized Pimephales promelas) and malathion interaction was observed on C. dubia survival (P = 0.006). Chemical cue and 2.82 μg/L malathion resulted in a 76.0% reduction in survival compared to malathion alone (P < 0.01). Furthermore, potentiation of malathion toxicity varied based on the source of chemical cues (i.e., epithelial or whole body). It is unclear in this study whether these chemical cues elicited a predation-related stress in C. dubia. Future research should examine the mechanism of this interaction and determine what role, if any, stress responses by C. dubia might play in the interaction. - Potentiation of organophosphorous pesticide toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia by fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) chemical cues was observed

  12. Eficácia do extrato de Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg. (jabuticabeira sobre bactérias orais Effectiveness of the Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg. extract on oral bacteria

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    Maria R. Macedo-Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato da folha de Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg., Myrtaceae (jabuticabeira sobre: Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 903, Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 15300, Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557, Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 7073 e Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 9595. A pesquisa foi realizada através de técnicas bacteriológicas laboriosas. Os ensaios foram realizados pelo método da diluição em meio sólido para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM. Os resultados obtidos foram transferidos para um banco de dados informatizado e calculados os parâmetros estatísticos mediante o emprego do programa SPSS versão 13.0. Utilizou-se, ao nível de 5% de significância, o teste t-Student. Em estudo comparativo, foi determinada a CIM do digluconato de clorexidina a 0,12%. O extrato de jabuticabeira formou halos de inibição variando de 10 a 18 mm de diâmetro e apresentou desempenho médio significativamente inferior em relação a clorexidina, na comparação do extrato bruto vs substância pura e nas concentrações 1:2 e 1:4. Conclui-se, que o extrato de Myrciaria cauliflora produziu uma significante atividade bacteriostática in vitro sobre as bactérias do biofilme dental, o que sugere a utilização dessa substância como meio alternativo e economicamente viável para o controle de afecções em Odontologia.The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity of Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg., Myrtaceae leaves extract on: Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 903, Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 15300, Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557, Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 7073 and Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 9595. The study was done using laborious bacteriological techniques. The assays were made through dilution in agar diffusion method in order to reach the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration

  13. EFFECTIVE CONCENTRATIONS OF 6 CONTAMINANTS TO LEMMA MINOR, PIMEPHALES PROMELA, DAPHNIA MAGNA, AND CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here resulted in EC50 and LOEC values for the contaminants copper, cadmium, diazinon, atrazine, and cyanide to the species Lemna Minor, Pimephales promelas, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Observed values were used as benchmarks for assessing the se...

  14. Bioaccumulation of Fe2O3(magnetic) nanoparticles in Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While nano-Fe2O3(magnetic) is generally considered non-toxic, it could serve as a carrier of other toxic chemicals such as As(V) and enhance their toxicity. The bioaccumulation of nano-Fe2O3(m) with different exposure times, NP concentrations, and pH conditions was investigated using Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as the model organism. Under natural pH conditions, C. dubia significantly accumulated nano-Fe2O3(m) in the gut, with the maximum accumulation being achieved after 6 h of exposure. The concentration of nano-Fe2O3 also impacted its accumulation, with the maximum uptake occurring at 20 mg/L or more. In addition, the highest bioaccumulation occurred in a pH range of 7–8 where the highest feeding rate was reported, confirming that the ingestion of NPs is the main route of nano-Fe2O3(m) bioaccumulation. In a clean environment without NPs, depuration of nano-Fe2O3(m) occurred, and food addition accelerated the depuration process. - Highlights: ► Nano-Fe2O3(m) enhances the toxicity of As(V). ► C. dubia significantly accumulate nano-Fe2O3(m) through ingestion. ► The bioaccumulation of nano-Fe2O3(m) is affected by time, NP concentration, and pH. ► Food addition accelerates the depuration process of accumulated nano-Fe2O3(m). - Nano-Fe2O3(m) could enhance the toxicity of As(V) due to the significant accumulation of nano-Fe2O3(m) along with sorbed As(V) by C. dubia through ingestion.

  15. Evaluation of chemical changes during Myrciaria cauliflora (jabuticaba fruit) fermentation by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Gilmara A.C.; Naves, Sara S.; Ferri, Pedro H.; Santos, Suzana C., E-mail: suzana.quimica.ufg@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Bioatividade Molecular

    2012-10-15

    Organic acids, sugars, alcohols, phenolic compounds, color properties, pH and titratable acidity were monitored during the commercial fermentation of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, spectrophotometric assays and standard methods of analysis. Data collected was analyzed by principal component (PCA), hierarchical cluster (HCA) and canonical correlation (CCA) analyses. Two sample groups were distinguished and the variables responsible for separation were sugars, anthocyanins, alcohols, hue and acetic and succinic acids. The canonical correlation analysis confirmed the influence of alcohols (ethanol, methanol and glycerol), organic acids (citric, succinic and acetic acids), pH and titratable acidity on the extraction and stability of anthocyanins and co pigments. As a result, color properties were also affected by phenolic variation throughout the fermentative process. (author)

  16. ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE Y PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS DE LAS SEMILLAS DE JABUTICABA (Myrciaria cauliflora BERG Antioxidant Activity and Profile Fatty Acids of Jabuticaba Seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg

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    JORGE NEUZA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Múltiples compuestos naturales encontrados en frutas, cereales y vegetales presentan actividad antioxidante. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las semillas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg en cuanto a su composición proximal y potencial antioxidante, y evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos en el aceite extraído de las mismas. Para la obtención del extracto, las semillas deshidratadas y trituradas fueron extraídas con alcohol etílico por 30 minutos, en la proporción de 1:3 de semillas:alcohol etílico, bajo agitación continua, a temperatura ambiente. Seguidamente, la mezcla fue filtrada y el sobrenadante deshidratado a 40 ºC con la finalidad de determinar, por pesaje directo, rendimiento en materia seca del extracto. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, las semillas de jabuticaba mostraron ser fuente de carbohidratos totales importante, además presentaron actividad antioxidante relevante. El aceite de jabuticaba presentó porcentaje significativo de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, con predominancia del ácido linoleico y α-linolénico, ácidos grasos esenciales.Numerous natural compounds found in fruits, grains and vegetables have antioxidant activity. This work aimed to characterize jabuticaba seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg by proximate composition, antioxidant activity and fatty acids profile of their extracted oil. To obtain the extract, the dehydrated and triturated seeds were extracted with ethyl alcohol for 30 min, at a proportion of 1:3 of seeds:ethyl alcohol, under continuous agitation, at room temperature. Afterwards, the mixture was filtered and the supernatant dehydrated at 40 ºC aiming to determine, by direct weighing, the extract’s dry matter yield. According to the results, the jabuticaba seeds are an important source of total carbohydrates, and also presented relevant antioxidant activity. In the jabuticaba seeds oil, a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids stood out, with

  17. Reproductive aspects of the spider crab Libinia dubia under laboratory conditions Aspectos reproductivos del cangrejo araña Libinia dubia bajo condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Carmona-Osalde

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study documents some aspects of the reproductive biology of the spider crab Libinia dubia (H. Milne Edwards, 1834 in conditions of captivity. Forty males and 43 ovigerous females were collected with traps and transported to the laboratory, where they were kept in seawater tanks. Average egg count per female was 20,637 (±SD 12,683.33, with an 81% (±SD 4.62 viability until hatching. Males were larger and heavier than females. On average, females measured 69 mm in length × 59 mm in width. The equation for the linear relationship between female weight (W and number of eggs produced per female was: Y = -10,290.03 + 242.89 X (r² = 0.866. Egg development at a temperature of 24 ± 1 °C occurred in five stages based on coloration: stage 1 (day 1-10, bright orange; stage 2 (day 11-24, orange; stage 3 (day 25-29, gray; stage 4 (day 30-34, light gray; and stage 5 (35-37, white, visible larvae. Females spawned at least twice and were receptive to males after each spawning event, although no spermatophore transfer was observed. The adaptive capacity of L. dubia to captivity makes its use feasible in breeding under controlled conditions, suggesting that it has potential for aquaculture.El presente estudio documenta algunos aspectos acerca de la biología reproductiva del cangrejo araña Libinia dubia (H. Milne Edwards, 1834 en condiciones de cautiverio. Cuarenta machos y 43 hembras ovígeras fueron recolectados con trampas y transportados al laboratorio, donde se les mantuvo en estanques de agua marina. El promedio de huevos por hembra fue de 20,637 (±SD 12,683.33, con un 81% (±SD 4.62% de viabilidad hasta el momento de la eclosión. Los machos fueron más grandes y pesados que las hembras. Estas registraron una talla promedio de 69 mm de longitud × 59 mm de ancho. La ecuación para la regresión linear entre el peso de las hembras y el número de huevos producido por hembra fue: Y = -10,290.03 + 242.89 X (r² = 0.866. El desarrollo de los

  18. Actividad antioxidante y perfil de ácidos grasos de las semillas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Neuza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las semillas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg en cuanto a su composición proximal y potencial antioxidante y evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos en el aceite extraído de las mismas. Para la obtención del extracto, las semillas deshidratadas y trituradas fueron extraídas con alcohol etílico por 30 minutos, en la proporción de 1:3 de semillas:alcohol etílico, bajo agitación continua, a temperatura ambiente. Seguidamente, la mezcla fue filtrada y el sobrenadante fue deshidratado a 40oC con la finalidad de determinar, por pesaje directo, el rendimiento en materia seca del extracto. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, las semillas de jabuticaba mostraron ser una importante fuente de carbohidratos totales, además presentaron una relevante actividad antioxidante. El aceite de jabuticaba presentó porcentaje significativa de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, con predominancia del ácido linoleico y α-linolénico, ácidos grasos esenciales.

  19. Development and validation of a chronic copper biotic ligand model for Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict chronic Cu toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia was developed and tested. The effect of cationic competition, pH and natural organic matter complexation of Cu was examined to develop the model. There was no effect of cationic competition using increasing Ca and Na concentrations in our exposures. However, we did see a significant regression of decreasing toxicity (measured as the IC25; concentration at which there was a 25% inhibition of reproduction) as Mg concentration increased. However, taking into account the actual variability of the IC25 and since the relative increase in IC25 due to additional Mg was small (1.5-fold) Mg competition was not included in the model. Changes in pH had a significant effect on Cu IC25, which is consistent with proton competition as often suggested for acute BLMs. Finally, natural organic matter (NOM) was added to exposures resulting in significant decreases in toxicity. Therefore, our predictive model for chronic Cu toxicity to C. dubia includes the effect of pH and NOM complexation. The model was validated with Cu IC25 data generated in six natural surface waters collected from across Canada. Using WHAM VI, we calculated Cu speciation in each natural water and using our model, we generated 'predicted' IC25 data. We successfully predicted all Cu IC25 within a factor of 3 for the six waters used for validation

  20. Effects of diet on seven-day Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda, B.; Olive, J.H. (Univ. of Akron, OH (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four diets on the results of seven-day Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests. Survival and reproduction were used as indices to detect the sensitivity of this species to acute and chronic copper stress. All toxicity tests were conducted using the moderately hard reconstituted water recommended in 1989 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Diet differentially affected the acute and chronic toxicity of copper. Daphnids fed Selenastrum capricornutum (alga) showed the greatest sensitivity, followed by those fed the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardti, then by animals fed a Yeast-Cerophyll[sup TM]-Trout Food (YCTF) mixture plus Selenastrum, and finally by animals fed YCTF alone. These differences may result from the poor nutritional adequacy of Selenastrum when fed alone, the different caloric contents of the diets, the increased toxicant uptake by the organisms through ingestion of copper-laden algal cells, and/or copper ions sequestered by fats and insoluble substances in YCTF. The authors recognize that diet is an important variable in seven-day toxicity tests, and that the selection of a diet should not be based only on its effects on long-term culturing of C. dubia, but also on its possible effects on test results.

  1. Benthimermithid nematode parasites of the amphipod Hirondellea dubia in the Kermadec Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-04-01

    Parasitic nematodes have evolved to exploit a wide variety of hosts living in a range of marine environments. Benthimermithid nematodes occur deeper than any other nematode parasites (down to 5880 m depth) but are mostly known from free-living adult stages living in the sediments, and parasitic juveniles are seldom encountered. In the present study, the benthimermithid Trophomera cf. marionensis was discovered in the body cavity of the lysianassoid amphipod Hirondellea dubia sampled between 7018 and 10,005 m depths in the Kermadec Trench. The nematode specimens, which could be readily observed through the transparent exoskeleton of freshly caught amphipods, were up to twice the length of T. marionensis specimens described from the Atlantic and East Pacific Oceans but were otherwise morphologically identical. Because of its wide geographical and water depth distribution (almost 10,000 m), T. marionensis likely consists of several cryptic species. The prevalence of Trophomera parasites among the host population was estimated to be substantially less than 1 %; such a low proportion of parasitised hosts could help explain why so few Trophomera specimens have been obtained from their host so far. The present study demonstrates that parasites can occur throughout the entire ocean depth and that they likely occur in other hadal trenches where H. dubia and other lysianassoid amphipods also dominate. PMID:26779924

  2. MULTIGENERATIONLIFE-SPAN TESTS OF THE NUTRITIONAL ADEQUACY OF SEVERAL DIETS AND CULTURE WATERS FOR CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of four diets [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Selenastrum capricornutum, yeast-trout chow-Cerophyl (YTC) and YTC plus S. capricornutum] and two reconstituted waters on the vitality and fecundity of five to six life-span generations of Ceriodaphnia dubia were determined. T...

  3. Ecotoxicological evaluation of water of the hydrographic Basin of the Una River using the bioindicator Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the Una River Basin is located in Taubaté County and contributes significantly to its water supply. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the water quality of the Una River using the microcrustacean C. dubia as bioindicator for tests of chronic and acute toxicity. Bimonthly water samples were obtained from each of six localities throughout the Una Basin, from March to October, 2011. Physical-chemical water parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, hardness, dissolved oxygen and precipitation were measured and correlated to the C. dubia reproductive rates. No significant relationships were found between the water’s electrical conductivity and precipitation with respect to bioindicator reproductive rates. However, at the Sete Voltas, Antas and Rocinha Sub-Basins, significant interactions were detected between some water parameters and reproductive rates, suggesting that water may constrain the reproduction of C. dubia. Acute toxicity was not detected in any of the six sites, while chronic toxicity was recorded at Rocinha, Sete Voltas, Antas, Médio and Baixo Una Sub-Basins. In general, the water quality of the Una Basin, as indicated by the absence of acute toxicity, still remains in an acceptable conservation condition. Caution is needed, however, since slight pollution sources are causing chronic toxicity in some localities. In addition, as the microcrustacean C. dubia, appeared to be a reliable bioindicator in this investigation, we suggest that it be used for continuous water quality monitoring programs.

  4. Toxicity of the phenolic extract from jabuticabeira (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg fruit skins on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula C Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is the main pest of maize, besides attacking sorghum and cotton crops. The control of this pest has been accomplished mainly with the use of synthetic insecticides but, due to the growing concern about the environment and food quality, phenolic compounds have shown their potential for the biological control of this insect. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the extract of jabuticabeira, Myrciaria cauliflora [Mart.] O. Berg (Myrtaceae fruit skin flour in the control of S. frugiperda. Skins of M. cauliflora Sabará genotype were dried at 45 °C in a forced air oven. In order to obtain the extract, 1.0 g flour was mixed with 10 mL acetone: water solution (7:3 v/v. Forty-eight-hour-old S. frugiperda caterpillars were placed in glass tubes with an artificial diet containing the extract at concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L-1. The extract, in which the phenolic compounds gallic acid, gallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid, and salicylic acid were identified at a concentration of 2000 mg L-1, in average, increased mortality rates by 150% in the larval stage, duration of larval stages by 60%, and pupal by 17%, and decreased amount of females by 55%. On the other hand, the extract at 1000 mg L-1 only increased duration of larval period by 24%. It was concluded that the extract is harmful to this insect, probably due to the presence of phenolic compounds.

  5. Effects of depleted uranium on the health and survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, W.W.; Caldwell, C.A.; Gould, W.R.; Fresquez, P.R.; Finger, S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been used as a substitute for the fissionable enriched uranium component of atomic weapons tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) (Los Alamos, NM, USA) since the early 1950s, resulting in considerable concentrations of DU in the soils within the test sites. Although the movement of DU into major aquatic systems has been shown to be minimal, there are many small-order ephemeral streams and areas of standing water in canyons throughout LANL that may be affected by inputs of DU via runoff, erosion, and leaching. Ninety-six-hour acute and 7-d chronic toxicity assays were conducted to measure the toxicity of DU on survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia. A 14-d water-only assay was conducted to measure survival and growth of Hyalella azteca. The estimated median lethal concentration (LC50) to produce 50% mortality of the test population for the 96-h Ceriodaphnia dubia assay was 10.50 mg/L. Reproductive effects occurred at a lowest-observable-effect concentration ???3.91 mg/L with a no-observable-effect concentration of 1.97 mg/L. The estimated 14-d LC50 for the Hyalella azteca assay was 1.52 mg/L No significant relationship was detected between growth and DU concentrations. Concentrations at which toxicity effects were observed in this study for both invertebrates exceeded concentrations of total uranium observed in runoff from LANL lands. Thus, it is likely that current runoff levels of uranium do not pose a threat to these types of aquatic invertebrates.

  6. Variation in toxicity response of Ceriodaphnia dubia to Athabasca oil sands coke leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Turcotte, Dominique; Liber, Karsten

    2010-07-01

    Coke from the Athabasca (Alberta, Canada) oil sands operations may someday be integrated into reclamation landscapes. It is hypothesized that the metals associated with the solid coke may leach into the surrounding environment. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to characterize the toxicity and chemistry of coke leachates collected from two field lysimeters (i.e. shallow lysimeter and deep lysimeter) over a period of 20months, as well as from other oil sands coke storage sites. In addition, a batch renewal leaching of coke was conducted to examine the rate of metals release. Chronic toxicity of key metals (e.g. Al, Mn, Ni and V) found in lysimeter coke leachate was evaluated separately. Toxicity test results revealed that whole coke leachates (100% v/v) were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; the 7-day LC50 values were always coke leachate. The deep lysimeter leachate was generally more toxic than the shallow lysimeter leachate, likely because of significantly higher concentrations of vanadium (V) found in the deep lysimeter leachate at all sampling times. Vanadium concentrations were higher than all other metals found in the leachate from both lysimeters, and in the batch renewal leaching study. Furthermore, V found in leachates collected from other oil sands field sites showed a concentration-response relationship with C. dubia survival. Mass balance calculations indicated that 94-98% of potentially leachable V fraction was still present in the coke from two field lysimeters. Evidence gathered from these assessments, including toxic unit (TU) calculations for the elements of concern, suggests that V was the likely cause of toxicity of the deep lysimeter leachate, whereas in the shallow lysimeter leachate both Ni and V could be responsible for the observed toxicity. PMID:20553931

  7. Toxic effects of Pseudanabaena tenuis (Cyanobacteria) on the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia Efectos tóxicos de Pseudanabaena tenuis (Cyanobacteria) en los cladóceros Daphnia magna y Ceriodaphnia dubia

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Olvera-Ramírez; Carla Centeno-Ramos; Fernando Martínez-Jerónimo

    2010-01-01

    Some cyanobacteria can produce toxins that affect the aquatic biota and represent a human health risk. The cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena tenuis was isolated from the Valle de Bravo dam, and cultured in the laboratory under controlled conditions. We determined the acute toxic effects and performed a chronic (consumption) test in the cladocerans Daphnia magna (a reference test organism) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (a cosmopolitan species). To determine acute toxicity, three exposure ways were assayed...

  8. Characterization of antioxidant polyphenols from Myrciaria jaboticaba peel and their effects on glucose metabolism and antioxidant status: A pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Merichel; Batista, Ângela Giovana; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Sandahl, Margareta; Turner, Charlotta; Östman, Elin; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

    2016-11-15

    Brazilian berries, such as Myrciaria jaboticaba (jaboticaba), are good sources of polyphenols with a recognized function in oxidative stress attenuation proved in non-clinical studies. In the present study, the polyphenols profile and their contribution to the antioxidant capacity of the jaboticaba peel were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (DAD), electrochemical (ECD), charged aerosol (CAD), and mass spectrometry (MS) detections. Anthocyanins, ellagitannins and gallotannins, ellagic acid and derivatives, and flavonols were found in jaboticaba. Anthocyanins were the phenolics found in higher concentrations. However, ellagitannins were the main contributors to the total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the effect of jaboticaba peel intake on antioxidant and glucose parameters in a single-blind placebo-controlled crossover study was investigated. The serum antioxidant capacity was significantly higher when the subjects had consumed the test meal containing jaboticaba. Serum insulin decreased subsequent to the second meal at 4h after jaboticaba peel consumption. PMID:27283622

  9. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial investigations on Melia Dubia Bark: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, Rocklands, P.B. No.20, Ootacamund – 643 001, Tamilnadu, India.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The various parts of Melia dubia (Meliaceae) plant was observed to be used by the local tribes of Nilgiris for various infections. There was no report on antimicrobial activity of Melia dubia. Therefore, a preliminary phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial investigations were carried out on different extracts of Melia dubia bark. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the bark were found to posses significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Comparative aquatic toxicity evaluation of 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole and selected degradation products using Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, S T; Drake, K D; Watson, C F; Foster, G D; Maier, K J

    2005-04-01

    2-(Thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole (TCMTB) is a biocide used in the leather, pulp and paper, and water-treatment industries. TCMTB may enter aquatic ecosystems during its manufacture and use. TCMTB is environmentally unstable; therefore, it is important to evaluate the toxicity of the more persistent degradation products. This study compared the toxicity of TCMTB with its degradation products 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-MBT), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (MTBT), benzothiazole (BT), and 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (HOBT). Toxicity was determined using Ceriodaphnia dubia 48-hour acute and 7-day chronic test protocols. TCMTB was the most toxic compound evaluated in both the acute and chronic tests with EC50s of 15.3 and 9.64 microg/L, respectively. 2-MBT, the first degradation product, was the second most toxic compound with acute and chronic EC50s of 4.19 and 1.25 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of MTBT and HOBT were similar with acute EC50s of 12.7 and 15.1 mg/L and chronic EC50s of 6.36 and 8.31 mg/L, respectively. The least toxic compound was BT with acute and chronic EC50s of 24.6 and 54.9 mg/L, respectively. TCMTB was orders of magnitude more toxic than its degradation products. Toxicity data on these benzothiazole degradation products is important because of concerns regarding their release, degradation, persistence, and non-target organism effects in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:15750776

  11. Individual and binary toxicity of anatase and rutile nanoparticles towards Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswarya, V; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-09-01

    Increasing usage of engineered nanoparticles, especially Titanium dioxide (TiO2) in various commercial products has necessitated their toxicity evaluation and risk assessment, especially in the aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, a comprehensive toxicity assessment of anatase and rutile NPs (individual as well as a binary mixture) has been carried out in a freshwater matrix on Ceriodaphnia dubia under different irradiation conditions viz., visible and UV-A. Anatase and rutile NPs produced an LC50 of about 37.04 and 48mg/L, respectively, under visible irradiation. However, lesser LC50 values of about 22.56 (anatase) and 23.76 (rutile) mg/L were noted under UV-A irradiation. A toxic unit (TU) approach was followed to determine the concentrations of binary mixtures of anatase and rutile. The binary mixture resulted in an antagonistic and additive effect under visible and UV-A irradiation, respectively. Among the two different modeling approaches used in the study, Marking-Dawson model was noted to be a more appropriate model than Abbott model for the toxicity evaluation of binary mixtures. The agglomeration of NPs played a significant role in the induction of antagonistic and additive effects by the mixture based on the irradiation applied. TEM and zeta potential analysis confirmed the surface interactions between anatase and rutile NPs in the mixture. Maximum uptake was noticed at 0.25 total TU of the binary mixture under visible irradiation and 1 TU of anatase NPs for UV-A irradiation. Individual NPs showed highest uptake under UV-A than visible irradiation. In contrast, binary mixture showed a difference in the uptake pattern based on the type of irradiation exposed. PMID:27522033

  12. Esfenvalerate toxicity to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia in the presence of green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Susanne M; Mosser, Christopher M; Geist, Juergen; Hladik, Michelle L; Werner, Inge

    2012-11-01

    The presence of phytoplankton, like other particulate organic matter, can interfere with the effects of hydrophobic contaminants such as pyrethroid pesticides. However, the reduction or elimination of toxicity by algae added as food during testing is not taken into account in standard US EPA whole effluent toxicity (WET) zooplankton tests. On the other hand, WET test conditions may overestimate toxicity of such compounds in highly productive surface waters with high concentrations of detritus and other particulate matter. In addition, WET tests do not measure impaired swimming ability or predator avoidance behavior as an indicator of increased mortality risk. This study used a modified version of the US EPA WET Ceriodaphnia dubia acute test to investigate the effects of phytoplankton on toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide, esfenvalerate. Animals were exposed simultaneously to different concentrations of esfenvalerate and green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Mortality and predation risk were recorded after 4 and 24 h. Algae at or below concentrations specified in the WET protocol significantly reduced mortality. Regardless, organisms exposed to esfenvalerate were unable to avoid simulated predation in the presence of algae at any concentration. After 12 h, esfenvalerate adsorbed to algae represented 68-99 % of the total amount recovered. The proportion of algae-bound insecticide increased with algal concentration indicating that conclusions drawn from toxicity tests in which algae are added as food must be interpreted with caution as the dissolved fraction of such hydrophobic contaminants is reduced. Additionally, our results strongly suggest that the EPA should consider adding ecologically-relevant endpoints such as swimming behavior to standard WET protocols. PMID:22975895

  13. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides: influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; James F. Ranville; Emily K. Lesher; Daniel J. Diedrich; Diane M. McKnight; Ruth M. Sofield

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on ,i>Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  14. Trophic transfer potential of aluminium oxide nanoparticles using representative primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of alumina nanoparticles using Chlorella ellipsoides and Ceriodaphnia dubia. • Subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. • Disruption the energy flow through the food chain. • Transmission electron microscopy validated the disrupted feeding behaviour. - Abstract: The transfer of nanoparticles through the food chain can lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnification resulting in a long term negative impact on the ecosystem functions. The primary objective of this study was evaluation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles transfer from primary producers to primary consumers. A simple set up consisting of a primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia) was used. Here, C. ellipsoides were exposed to the varying concentrations of the nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 120 μg/mL (196 to 1176 μM) for 48 h and the infested algal cells were used as the feed to C. dubia. The bioaccumulation of the nanoparticles into the daphnids was noted and the biomagnification factors were computed. The exposure was noted to cause subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. This might have long term consequences in the energy flow through the food chain. The reproductive behaviour of the daphnids remained unaffected upon exposure to nanoparticle infested algal feed. Distinct observations at ultra-structural scale using transmission electron microscopy provided visual evidences for the disrupted feeding behaviour upon exposure to nanoparticle treated algae. Internalization of nanoparticle like inclusion bodies in the intracellular space of algae was also detected. The findings were further substantiated by a detailed analysis of hydrodynamic stability, bioavailability and dissolution of ions from the nanoparticles over the exposure period. Altogether, the study brings out the first of its kind of observation of trophic transfer potential/behaviour of aluminium oxide nanoparticles and

  15. Trophic transfer potential of aluminium oxide nanoparticles using representative primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of alumina nanoparticles using Chlorella ellipsoides and Ceriodaphnia dubia. • Subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. • Disruption the energy flow through the food chain. • Transmission electron microscopy validated the disrupted feeding behaviour. - Abstract: The transfer of nanoparticles through the food chain can lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnification resulting in a long term negative impact on the ecosystem functions. The primary objective of this study was evaluation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles transfer from primary producers to primary consumers. A simple set up consisting of a primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia) was used. Here, C. ellipsoides were exposed to the varying concentrations of the nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 120 μg/mL (196 to 1176 μM) for 48 h and the infested algal cells were used as the feed to C. dubia. The bioaccumulation of the nanoparticles into the daphnids was noted and the biomagnification factors were computed. The exposure was noted to cause subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. This might have long term consequences in the energy flow through the food chain. The reproductive behaviour of the daphnids remained unaffected upon exposure to nanoparticle infested algal feed. Distinct observations at ultra-structural scale using transmission electron microscopy provided visual evidences for the disrupted feeding behaviour upon exposure to nanoparticle treated algae. Internalization of nanoparticle like inclusion bodies in the intracellular space of algae was also detected. The findings were further substantiated by a detailed analysis of hydrodynamic stability, bioavailability and dissolution of ions from the nanoparticles over the exposure period. Altogether, the study brings out the first of its kind of observation of trophic transfer potential/behaviour of aluminium oxide nanoparticles and

  16. Toxic effects of Pseudanabaena tenuis (Cyanobacteria on the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia Efectos tóxicos de Pseudanabaena tenuis (Cyanobacteria en los cladóceros Daphnia magna y Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Olvera-Ramírez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some cyanobacteria can produce toxins that affect the aquatic biota and represent a human health risk. The cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena tenuis was isolated from the Valle de Bravo dam, and cultured in the laboratory under controlled conditions. We determined the acute toxic effects and performed a chronic (consumption test in the cladocerans Daphnia magna (a reference test organism and Ceriodaphnia dubia (a cosmopolitan species. To determine acute toxicity, three exposure ways were assayed: a cell-free culture medium, b crude cell extracts of the cyanobacterium after lysing, and c aqueous extracts of P. tenuis phycobiliproteins. On the other hand, both cladocerans were fed P. tenuis, assessing the effects on survival and reproduction. For comparison, a control culture of both cladocerans was fed the green microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Exposure to the cell-free culture medium did not produce any mortality in either cladoceran, but the aqueous and crude extracts generated acute toxicity. D. magna and C. dubia were negatively affected when fed P. tenuis, since their survival, total progeny, average number of neonates per clutch, and the number of clutches decreased. C. dubia was more sensitive than D. magna, both in the acute toxicity tests and to the effects of P. tenuis consumption. Although most of the blooms around the world are dominated by cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis, attention should be given to other species, such as P. tenuis, because, frequently, it is not recognized that smaller cyanobacteria could exceed the larger species in terms of biomass, and produce noxious biological effects.Algunas cianobacterias producen toxinas que afectan la biota acuática y representan un riesgo para la salud humana. La cianobacteria Pseudanabaena tenuis fue aislada del embalse Valle de Bravo y cultivada en el laboratorio. Se determinaron los efectos tóxicos agudos (por exposición y se evaluó la toxicidad crónica (por consumo

  17. Comparison between four and seven-day Ceriodaphnia dubia survival and reproduction test protocols using oil refinery effluent samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia survival and reproduction test with a 4 day test to evaluate the toxicity of oil refinery effluents. Both shown identical NOECs with three of 6 tested samples. With one of the tested samples, the 4-day NOEC was one tested-concentration lower, and with the remaining two samples, it was one tested-concentration higher than those obtained using the 7-day protocol. Then results suggested that 4 and 7-day protocols were comparable to detect toxic effects.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os protocolos de sobrevivência e reprodução de Ceriodaphnia dubia com 7 e 4 dias de duração, avaliando a toxicidade de amostras de efluentes de refinaria de petróleo. Ambos os protocolos apresentaram NOECs idênticos para 3 das 6 amostras testadas. Com uma das amostras o NOEC no ensaio de 4 dias ficou numa concentração testada menor, e nas duas amostras restantes ele ficou numa concentração testada maior do que os NOECs obtidos no ensaio de 7 dias. Esses resultados sugerem que os protocolos de ensaio com 4 e 7 dias são comparáveis quanto a sensibilidade para detectar o efeito tóxico crônico de efluentes de refinaria de petróleo.

  18. Revision of Campsurus violaceus species group (Ephemeroptera: Polymitarcyidae) with new synonymies and nomina dubia in Campsurus Eaton, 1868.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineri, C; Salles, F F; Emmerich, D

    2015-01-01

    The violaceus species group (formerly notatus species group) of Campsurus Eaton is revised. All the species in the violaceus group are diagnosed. A new species, C. molinai sp. nov. is described based on male imagos from Bolivia, characterized by their large and sclerotized penes. The violaceus group is proposed to include the following species: C. assimilis Traver, C. truncatus Ulmer (=C. mahunkai Puthz = C. melanocephalus Pereira & da Silva, new synonyms), C. violaceus Needham & Murphy (= C. meyeri Navás = C. notatus Needham & Murphy = C. paranensis Navás, new synonyms), C. emersoni Traver, C. decoloratus (Hagen), and C. molinai sp.nov. Additionally we consider the following species as nomina dubia: C. longicauda Navás, C. pfeifferi Navás, C. zikani Navás, C. albicans (orig. Ephemera albicans Percheron in Guerin & Percheron), C. burmeisteri Ulmer, C. dallasi Navás, C. quadridentatus Eaton, C. claudus Needham & Murphy, C. corumbanus Needham & Murphy, C. dorsalis (Burmeister), C. mutilus Needham & Murphy, and C. striatus Needham & Murphy. Given the results presented herein (five species synonymized and 12 proposed as nomina dubia), only 28 valid species remain in the genus Campsurus. Additionally, the nymphal stages of C. violaceus and C. truncatus are described and illustrated. Female adult genitalia (sockets) and eggs of C. decoloratus are described for the first time. Diagnoses, new country records, and redescriptions of selected characters of the imagos for the species of the violaceus group are given. PMID:25781239

  19. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ''Guideline'' for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application

  20. A Comparison of the Daphnids, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia ambigua, for their Utilization in Routine Toxicity Testing in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, S.M.; Chandler, G.T.; Specht, W.L.

    2003-02-18

    U.S. regulatory agencies commonly require effluent toxicity testing with Ceriodaphnia dubia- a practice which has led to the criticism that this species and test protocol often does not reflect local taxa nor site-specific conditions. Using an indigenous test species may produce a more realistic model of local effects and may minimize test endpoint variance due to regional differences in water quality. This study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with Daphnia ambigua for toxicity testing in the southeastern United States. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol, and that the life-cycle characteristics of this species were conducive to traditional acute and chronic aquatic toxicity test methods used with other daphnids. Acute toxicity tests showed that D. ambigua was less sensitive to some toxicants (sodium chloride, copper sulfate, and sodium lauryl sulfate) yet more sensitive to others (chlorpyrifos). Chronic tests with copper sulfate and sodium chloride resulted in lower EC50s for D. ambigua reproduction with both compounds. When exposed to low-alkalinity, low-pH stream waters typical of many southeastern United States watersheds, C. dubia demonstrated a significant reproductive depression in two of three streams tested, while D. ambigua experienced no chronic effect. These results suggest that D. ambigua may serve as a suitable surrogate for C. dubia as an toxicity indicator species in these types of receiving streams.

  1. Reproductive success and mortality rates of Ceriodaphnia dubia maintained in water from Upper Three Runs, Pen Branch, and Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is anticipated that the new SRS NPDES permit will require toxicity testing of at numerous outfalls and receiving streams, using the standard test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Because SRS surface waters differ markedly from the standard culture water that is used for Ceriodaphnia, studies were undertaken to determine if unimpacted SRS surface waters will support this species. Three SRS surface waters were evaluated; Upper Three Runs at Road 8-1, Pen Branch at Road B, and Fourmile Branch at Road F. Toxicity tests were performed monthly on each water source for eleven months. All three water sources exhibited varying degrees of toxicity to Ceriodaphnia, with Pen Branch being the least toxic and Fourmile Branch being the most toxic. These results indicate that if in-stream toxicity testing is required, it may not be possible to separate the naturally occurring toxic effects of the receiving water from possible toxic effects of SRS effluents

  2. Abelhas visitantes nas flores da jabuticabeira (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg. e produção de frutos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1890 Bees visits associated to Brazilian grape tree flowers (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg. and fruit production - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Nogueira-Couto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a atratividade das flores da jabuticabeira (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg. para os insetos, o comportamento, o tipo de coleta e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos. Foram observados o tempo de desenvolvimento e a quantidade de açúcar solúvel do néctar de flores; os insetos e o tipo de coleta desses insetos. Foram marcados 400 botões florais (200 descobertos e 200 cobertos, para impedir a visita dos insetos. A duração da flor foi de 48 ± 4,6 horas. A quantidade de açúcar solúvel foi baixa (7.14 ± 0.70µg glicose/flor e semelhante entre os horários. As abelhas Apis mellifera, Tetragonisca angustula, Chloralictus sp e Trigona spinipes foram os únicos insetos nas flores (98,0%, 0,88%, 0,57% e 0,55%, respectivamente e coletaram exclusivamente pólen. A porcentagem de frutificação não foi diferente nos tratamentos coberto (19,80% e descoberto (18,62%, mostrando que a presença das abelhas não afetou a produção.This research aimed to verify the Brazilian grape tree flowers’ Myrciaria cauliflora attraction to insects, including their behaviour, sample kind and effect of insect visits on fruit production. The development time and the amount of flower’s nectar soluble sugar, the insects and sample kind were observed. Four hundred flower buds were tagged (200 covered and 200 uncovered, with 5 replications to determine fruiting percentage. Only the bees Apis mellifera, Tetragonisca angustula, Chloralictus sp and Trigona spinipes visited the flowers (98.0, 0.88, 0.57 and 0.55%, respectively, collecting exclusively pollen. Percentage of fruiting did not differ between covered (19.80% and uncovered (18.62% treatments, showing that the bees visits did not affect fruit production.

  3. Toxicity of waters from the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern to the plankton species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Duffy, Brian T.; Smith, Alexander J; George, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The lower Genesee River and Rochester Embayment of Lake Ontario are a designated Area of Concern (AOC) under the binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The “degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations” or plankton Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) was classified as unknown and in need of further assessment in this AOC because water quality data suggested plankton communities could be effected and community data were either unavailable or indicated impacts. The plankton BUI may now be obsolete because local contaminant sources have been largely eliminated. The present study was conducted between July 2013 and August 2014 to assess the BUI-removal criteria: “AOC plankton bioassays confirm that toxicity in ambient waters (i.e., no growth inhibition) is not significantly higher than comparable non-AOC controls”. Acute and chronic toxicity of waters from 13 sites were quantified seasonally using standardized bioassays with the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia to test the hypothesis that toxicity of waters from AOC sites was not higher than that of waters from comparable non-AOC reference sites. Survival and reproduction of C. dubia did not differ significantly between site types, systems, or months. The growth of P. subcapitata did not differ between site types, but differed among systems and months. All results indicate that waters from AOC sites were no more toxic to both plankton species than waters from reference sites. Assuming test species represent natural plankton assemblages, water quality should not negatively affect survival and growth of resident plankton populations in the Rochester Embayment AOC.

  4. Search bioactive substances from two species of the Colombian flora: In vitro antiprotozoal activity of alkaloids from Phaedranassa dubia (Amaryllidaceae) and Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-antioxidant biflavonoids from Garcinia madruno

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Durango, Edison Javier

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido la búsqueda de sustancias bioactivas en dos especies de la flora colombiana. Se pretendió aislar y caracterizar los metabolitos secundarios sintetizados por Phaedranassa dubia (Amaryllidaceae) y Garcinia madruno (Clusiaceae), además de estudiar la actividad antiprotozoaria in vitro y de evaluar la actividad antioxidante de los metabolitos aislados. El trabajo fitoquímico realizado con Phaedranassa dubia ha permitido el aislamiento de un nuevo alcaloide...

  5. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral de plantas de camucamuzeiro Effect of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition in camucamuzeiro plants (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos Viégas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e do micronutriente boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em plantas de camucamuzeiro, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e B. Os sintomas visuais de deficiências foram, de modo geral, de fácil caracterização para todos os nutrientes. Com exceção do fósforo, as omissões dos demais nutrientes afetaram a produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g kg-1, dos macronutrientes, e em mg kg-1, do micronutriente boro nas folhas, infere-se em uma primeira aproximação dos valores adequados (completo, ou seja: 16,9 a 18,2 de N ; 1,2 a 1,9 de P; 5,2 a 6,0 de K; 9,9 a 11,7 de Ca; 1,4 a 3,6 de Mg; 2,4 a 2,8 de S ; 8,4 a 9,5 de B e do deficiente (omissão , 6,5 a 7,9 de N ; =0,9 de P; =1,7 de K ; 5,4 a 6,5 de Ca; =0,7 de Mg; 0,7 a 1,2 de S e 1,1 a 1,9 de BThe effects of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition of plants of "camucamuzeiro" were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, by means of the missing element technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with eight treatments and four repetitions, including complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and B. The visual symptoms of deficiency were easily characterized for all the nutrients. Excepting for P, dry mass was affected by the omission of all the other nutrients, when compared with the complete treatment. Based on the macronutrient (g kg-1 and on the micronutrient boron (mg kg-1 on leaves contents, a first approach of the adequate values is inferred as being: N= 16,9 to 18,2; P= 1,2 to 1,9; K= 5,2 to 6,0; C= 9,9 to 11,7; Mg = 1,4 to 3,6; S= 2,4 to 2,8; and B= 8,4 to 9,5 for the complete treatment, and N= 6,5 to 7,9; P= 0,9; K= 1,7; Ca = 5,4 to 6,5; Mg = 0,7; S= 0,7 to 1,2 and B= 1,1 to 1,9 for the deficient ones (omission.

  6. Influence of glyphosate and its formulation (Roundup[reg]) on the toxicity and bioavailability of metals to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the toxicological interaction between glyphosate (or its formulation, Roundup[reg]) and several heavy metals to a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. We demonstrated that all binary combinations of Roundup[reg] and metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) exhibited 'less than additive' mixture toxicity, with 48-h LC50 toxic unit>1. Addition of glyphosate alone could significantly reduce the acute toxicity of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (but not Hg and Se). The ratio between glyphosate and metal ions was important in determining the mitigation of metal toxicity by glyphosate. A bioaccumulation study showed that in the presence of glyphosate the uptake of some metals (e.g. Ag) was halted but that of others (e.g. Hg) was increased significantly. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that glyphosate and its commercial formulations can control the toxicity as well as the bioavailability of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems where both groups of chemicals can co-occur. - Glyphosate can control the toxicity and bioavailability of many heavy metals in the aquatic environment

  7. Toxicity of cobalt-complexed cyanide to Oncorhynchus mykiss, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia: Potentiation by ultraviolet radiation and attenuation by dissolved organic carbon and adaptive UV tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Theodorakos, P.; Brown, Z.A.; Johnson, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Cobalt cyanide complexes often result when ore is treated with cyanide solutions to extract gold and other metals. These have recently been discovered in low but significant concentrations in effluents from gold leach operations. This study was conducted to determine the potential toxicity of cobalt-cyanide complexes to freshwater organisms and the extent to which ultraviolet radiation (UV) potentiates this toxicity. Tests were also conducted to determine if humic acids or if adaptation to UV influenced sensitivity to the cyanide complexes. Methods. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to potassium hexacyanocobaltate in the presence and absence of UV radiation, in the presence and absence of humic acids. Cyano-cobalt exposures were also conducted with C. dubia from cultures adapted to elevated UV. Results. With an LC50 concentration of 0.38 mg/L, cyanocobalt was over a 1000 times more toxic to rainbow trout in the presence of UV at a low, environmentally relevant irradiance level (4 ??W/cm2 as UVB) than exposure to this compound in the absence of UV with an LC50 of 112.9 mg/L. Toxicity was immediately apparent, with mortality occurring within an hour of the onset of exposure at the highest concentration. Fish were unaffected by exposure to UV alone. Weak-acid dissociable cyanide concentrations were observed in irradiated aqueous solutions of cyanocobaltate within hours of UV exposure and persisted in the presence of UV for at least 96 hours, whereas negligible concentrations were observed in the absence of UV. The presence of humic acids significantly diminished cyanocobalt toxicity to D. magna and reduced mortality from UV exposure. Humic acids did not significantly influence survival among C. dubia. C. dubia from UV-adapted populations were less sensitive to metallocyanide compounds than organisms from unadapted populations. Conclusions. The results indicate that metallocyanide complexes may pose a

  8. Names for Ixodidae (Acari: Ixodoidea): valid, synonyms, incertae sedis, nomina dubia, nomina nuda, lapsus, incorrect and suppressed names--with notes on confusions and misidentifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    A major, but not exhaustive, literature revision has been made to compile the names of Ixodidae from Linnaeus to present. Names are classified as valid, synonyms, lapsus, incertae sedis, nomina dubia, nomina nuda, incorrect and suppressed. Notes are included for confusions and misidentifications among different tick species. The lists included in this study are neither aimed to be consensual nor focusing to stabilize nomenclature, but rather part of a discussion on the species forming Ixodidae and a potential aid for research on tick taxonomy and phylogeny. PMID:24871038

  9. Caracterización morfológica y molecular de Leptochloa dubia (Poaceae en Chihuahua, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales-Nieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El gigante [Leptochloa dubia(Kunth Nees.] es una importante gramínea forrajera nativa de México, cuyas poblaciones naturales se han reducido debido a malas prácticas de pastoreo. En este trabajo se analizó la variabilidad morfológica y genética de 32 poblaciones del gigante en el estado de Chihuahua, México. Nueve características morfológicas fueron evaluadas en estas poblaciones, después de dos años de trasplantadas y establecidos en un jardín de observación y bajo condiciones de temporal. La variabilidad genética se determinó utilizando los perfiles de amplificación de cuatro pares de iniciadores u oligonucleótidos. El análisis de componentes principales mostró que los tres primeros componentes explicaron el 75.3% de la variación morfológica. Los cuatro pares de iniciadores produjeron un total de 186 bandas, de las cuales el 56.45% presentó polimorfismo. La combinación de iniciadores EcoRI-AAC+MseI-CAG detectó el mayor porcentaje de polimorfismo (69.57% y 32 bandas polimórficas. El coeficiente de Dice y análisis de agrupamiento generaron cinco grupos. La variabilidad genética y morfológica encontrada en las diferentes poblaciones, podrían servir de base para la selección de ecotipos de gigante para diversos propósitos como producción de semilla, retención de suelo, restauración de ecosistemas y forraje para libre pastoreo o de corte, entre otros. Así también, los resultados de este trabajo son la base para iniciar programas de mejoramiento genético en esta especie.

  10. Thermal biology of prey (Melongena corona bispinosa, Strombus pugilis, Callinectes similis, Libinia dubia) and predators (Ocyurus chrysurus, Centropomus undecimalis) of Octopus maya from the Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola Regil, Javier; Mascaro, Maite; Díaz, Fernando; Denisse Re, Ana; Sánchez-Zamora, Adolfo; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Rosas, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    On the Yucatan Peninsula there is an upwelling which allows access to a body of cold water that controls temperature in this area. This modulates the ecology and distribution of organisms that inhabit the continental shelf. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different acclimation temperatures on the thermal biology of prey as mollusc, crustacean (Melongena corona bispinosa, Strombus pugilis, Callinectes similis, Libinia dubia) and predators as fish (Ocyurus chrysurus, Centropomus undecimalis) of Octopus maya. Octopus prey preferred temperatures between 23.5°C and 26.0°C, while predators preferred temperatures 26.4-28.5°C. The species with largest thermal windows were M. corona bispinosa (328.8°C(2)), C. similis (322.8°C(2)), L. dubia (319.2°C(2)), C. undecimalis (288.6°C(2)), O. chrysurus (237.5°C(2)), while the smallest thermal window was for S. pugilis (202.0°C(2)). The acclimation response ratios (ARR) estimated for prey ranged from 0.24-0.55 in animals exposed to CTMax and 0.21-0.65 in those exposed to CTMin. Amongst predators, ARR ranged from 0.30 to 0.60 and 0.41 to 0.53 for animals exposed to CTMax and CTMin, respectively. Correlating the optimal temperature limits of prey and predators with surface temperatures on the continental shelf and those 4m deep showed that the main prey, Callinectes similis and L. dubia, shared a thermal niche and that an increase in temperature could force these species to migrate to other sites to find optimal temperatures for their physiological functions. As a consequence the continental shelf community would undergo a structural change. Predators were found to be near their optimal temperatures in surface temperatures on the continental shelf. We conclude that they would remain in the area in a warming scenario. The size of the thermal window was related to the type of ecosystem inhabited by these species. These ARR intervals allowed us to categorize the species as temperate or tropical

  11. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22--29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis activities. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Reference toxicant test information; and Personnel training documentation.

  12. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of July 22--29, 1993. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 19.0 and Mile 22.0 on July 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Reference toxicant test information.

  13. Influence of inorganic anions on metals release from oil sands coke and on toxicity of nickel and vanadium to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

    2012-02-01

    In a previous study it was shown that pH significantly influences the release of metals from oil sands coke, particularly Ni and V which were identified as the cause of coke leachate toxicity. Coke comes in contact with oil sands process water (OSPW) during its transport to and long term storage in reclamation landscapes. However, the influence of dominant inorganic anions present in OSPW (i.e. HCO(3)(-), Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-)) on metals release from coke and on speciation and toxicity of Ni and V, has not been characterized before. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at four levels of HCO(3)(-), Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) to determine the influence on metals release and speciation. Further, the effects of each of the three anions on Ni and V toxicity, as well as the mixture toxicity of Ni and V, were assessed using the three-brood Ceriodaphnia dubia test. Inorganic anions had a significant influence on the type and amount of metals released from coke. Specifically, sulfate increased the mobilization of cationic metals (e.g. Ni, Fe, Mn and Zn), whereas bicarbonate enhanced the release of oxyanion forming metals (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V) from coke. Chloride had no particular effect on the type and amount of metals released. With respect to toxicity, elevated bicarbonate levels decreased the 7-d Ni IC50 from 6.3 to 2.3 μg L(-1), whereas sulfate showed an ameliorative effect against V toxicity to C. dubia. In combination, Ni and V acted additively at their highest sub-lethal concentrations. Aqueous chemistry and toxicity of Ni and V are discussed with the goal of informing reclamation efforts at the Athabasca oil sands. PMID:22138340

  14. Contribution of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil to the development of plant cultivars and their impact on agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Aparecida das Graças Claret de Souza; Nelcimar Reis Sousa; Ricardo Lopes; André Luiz Atroch; Edson Barcelos; Everton Cordeiro; Maria do Socorro Padilha de Oliveira; Rafael Moisés Alves; João Tomé de Farias Neto; Hiroshi Noda; Danilo F Silva Filho; Kaoru Yuyama; Caio Márcio Vasconcellos Cordeiro de Almeida; Maria Teresa Gomes Lopes; Selma Toyoko Ohashi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of breeding programs in northern Brazil and their main impacts on agriculture. Their contribution to the breeding of the species palm oil, acai fruit, cacao, cupuaçu, guarana, tomato, camu-camu, cocona, peach palm, and rubber was laid out in detail. Advances in breeding programs of institutions such as Embrapa, Ceplac, Inpa, and Universities require investments in infrastructure and in human and financial resources to ensure continuity and efficiency in ec...

  15. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25--February 1, 1994. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Meter calibrations; and Reference toxicant test information.

  16. Synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Carolina da Silva; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Dionisio, Ana Paula; Lacerda Soares, Marcia Valéria; Rocha Bastos, Maria do Socorro; Elesbão Alves, Ricardo; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was investigate the synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices, and optimize its formulation by the response surface methodology based on the responses: total polyphenols (TP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ascorbic acid content and sensorial acceptance. Camu-camu, acerola and acai were the major factors that influenced the antioxidant potential of the juice; and the yellow mombin showed a positive effect on the acceptance of the tropical juice. It was observed an/antagonistic effect between acerola and camu-camu for the TAC response. The optimum formulation obtained was 20% acerola, 10% camu-camu, 10% yellow mombin, 10% cashew apple and 10% acai, which was responsible for a response of 155.46 mg.100 g(-1) of ascorbic acid, 103.01 mg of GAE.100 g-1 of TP, 10.27 µM Trolox g(-1) of TAC and approximately 6.1 of acceptance. PMID:26817384

  17. Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Camargo Neves; Ronaldo Moreno Benedette; Jéssica Milanez Tosin; Edvan Alves Chagas; Vanuza Xavier da Silva; Marcos André de Souza Prill; Sergio Ruffo Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. Foi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% d...

  18. Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.

  19. Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12 day at 15 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889 mg GAE 100 g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532 mg AA 100 mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-288 1 μmol Trolox Eq 100 g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses. PMID:25529669

  20. False Heraclitus. Heraclitean Dubia and Their Typology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 3 (2012), s. 161-197. ISSN 0031-2355 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Heraclitus * Pre-Socratics * authenticity of sources * Ancient Greece Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. Distinctive exotic flavor and aroma compounds of some exotic tropical fruits and berries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim A

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed. PMID:22591343

  2. Contribution of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil to the development of plant cultivars and their impact on agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida das Graças Claret de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of breeding programs in northern Brazil and their main impacts on agriculture. Their contribution to the breeding of the species palm oil, acai fruit, cacao, cupuaçu, guarana, tomato, camu-camu, cocona, peach palm, and rubber was laid out in detail. Advances in breeding programs of institutions such as Embrapa, Ceplac, Inpa, and Universities require investments in infrastructure and in human and financial resources to ensure continuity and efficiency in economic, social and environmental gains. The improvement of native species, the main focus of the breeding programs of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil, is a form of exploiting the Amazonian biodiversity for the benefit of society. Therefore, policies to foster research institutions should be a subject of deliberation and action of the scientific and technological community in Brazil.

  3. Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia Production of blends based on tropical and native fruits from brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. Foi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% de maracujá; 1 blend entre as matrizes - 50% de abacaxi + 50% de maracujá; 7 blends de cada matriz com cada fruto escolhido, na proporção de 1:1. Foram adicionados benzoato de sódio e dióxido de enxofre, nas concentrações de 500 e 200 ppm, respectivamente, em todos os néctares e blends trabalhados. Os resultados referentes à composição nutricional dos blends refletiram aumento significativo nos valores nutricionais quando em comparação com as matrizes, bem como com os néctares individuais de cada fruto. O mesmo comportamento foi observado mesmo após 10 dias de armazenamento não refrigerado. Com relação à estabilidade microbiológica, apenas os blends que utilizaram o buriti como componente apresentaram comprometimento. As análises químicas dos blends demonstraram padrões distintos das matrizes; entretanto, quando submetidos à análise sensorial, mostraram-se satisfatórias por parte dos julgadores. As composições que mais agradaram os julgadores foram os blends de ambas as matrizes associadas ao camu-camu e murici.The aim of this work was to obtain the nutritional enrichment of nectars of fruits, by means of blends processament, using tropical and Amazonian fruit produced in Roraima. Nectars of pineapple, buriti, cashew, camu-camu, star fruit, passion fruit, murici, Tahiti lime and taperebá were used. A preliminary assay was carried out where it was observed that the nectars of pineapple and passion fruit would be used as

  4. Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. Foi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% de maracujá; 1 blend entre as matrizes - 50% de abacaxi + 50% de maracujá; 7 blends de cada matriz com cada fruto escolhido, na proporção de 1:1. Foram adicionados benzoato de sódio e dióxido de enxofre, nas concentrações de 500 e 200 ppm, respectivamente, em todos os néctares e blends trabalhados. Os resultados referentes à composição nutricional dos blends refletiram aumento significativo nos valores nutricionais quando em comparação com as matrizes, bem como com os néctares individuais de cada fruto. O mesmo comportamento foi observado mesmo após 10 dias de armazenamento não refrigerado. Com relação à estabilidade microbiológica, apenas os blends que utilizaram o buriti como componente apresentaram comprometimento. As análises químicas dos blends demonstraram padrões distintos das matrizes; entretanto, quando submetidos à análise sensorial, mostraram-se satisfatórias por parte dos julgadores. As composições que mais agradaram os julgadores foram os blends de ambas as matrizes associadas ao camu-camu e murici.

  5. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  6. Anthocyanins, pigment stability and antioxidant activity in jabuticaba [Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de Jesus Boari Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Different solvents were evaluated for the extraction of jabuticaba anthocyanin pigments, identifying, quantifying and verifying the stability of the anthocyanins, as well as the conduction of three antioxidant activity assays and determination of the vitamin C levels. The maceration with ethanol acidified with HCl 1.5 mol L-1 (85:15 provides better pigment extraction and stability. The skin is anthocyanin rich, presenting 1.59 and 2.06 g 100 g-1 of dry matter in the Paulista and Sabará varieties, respectively. Cyanidin 3-glucoside is the majority pigment of the skins, followed by delphinidin 3-glucoside. The highest level of vitamin C was found in the skins and seeds of both varieties. It was verified that the skins, presented more antioxidant activity, in free radical capture, as well as in retarding the lipid oxidation process.

  7. Diagnóstico de um projeto de enriquecimento florestal na Comunidade do Brasileirinho, Manaus, Amazonas Diagnosis of a project of forest enrichment in the Community of the Brasileirinho, Manaus, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Willerding

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As ações do projeto consistiram no reconhecimento da comunidade, realizando-se entrevistas, seguidas de um levantamento da demanda por espécies florestais e frutíferas, aquisição, transporte e distribuição das mudas e sementes. Das 28 propriedades cadastradas, 18 tornaram-se participantes, engajando-se no projeto. Na comunidade, a fruticultura é a principal atividade e o cupuaçu a principal cultura, presente em oito propriedades participantes com 2950 indivíduos plantados. Outras culturas importantes são: manga, pupunha, açaí, coco. O projeto promoveu também a introdução e o plantio de espécies vegetais com valor de mercado. Com as atividades do projeto, diversificaram-se as espécies florestais e frutíferas existentes na comunidade. Distribuíram-se 12.455 mudas de pau-rosa, cedro, andiroba, mogno, maçaranduba, seringueira, camu-camu (caçari, araçá-boi, cubiu e outras. Como perspectiva, as ações pretendem fixar o agricultor no campo, propor alternativas econômicas, sensibilizar a comunidade com relação à preservação da floresta e exploração racional dos recursos naturais.The activities of this project consisted in the recognition of the community by interviews, followed by a survey of the demand for forest and fruitful species, the acquisition, transport and distribution of seedlings and seeds. Of the 28 registered properties, 18 participated in the project. In the community, fruit culture is the main activity, and cupuaçu the main fruit in eight participant properties with 2950 plants. Other cultures are: mango, pupunha, açaí, coconut. The project also promoted the introduction and plantation of vegetal species with market value. Among the project activities, community forest and fruit species were diversified with 12,455 seedlings of wood-rose, cedar andiroba, mahogany, maçaranduba, seringueira, camu-camu, araçá-boi, cubiu and anothers were distributed. As the perspective, the activities intend to fix

  8. Mineral composition of fruit by-products evaluated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is one of the largest producers of fruits cropping 40 million tons per year. In agro-food processing, approximately 50 % of raw material is discarded generating large amounts of by-products. The lack of information on the nutritional quality of agroindustrial by-products precludes their potential use in the manufacture of food products accessible to all. In this context, the objective of this work was to investigate the nutritional quality of by-products of the industrial processing of fruits. Samples of bagasse, peel and seeds of several fruits (banana, camu camu, coconut, cupuacu, guava, jackfruit, mango, orange, papaya, pineapple, and soursop) were analysed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. In general, higher levels of minerals were found in the by-products rather than in the pulps of fruits. This indicates that the use of the by-products should be encouraged, thereby reducing the economic and environmental impact of waste generated by agroindustrial processing. (author)

  9. Influência de embalagens e temperatura no armazenamento de jabuticabas (Myrciaria jabuticaba (Vell Berg cv 'SABARÁ' Packaging and temperature influences on the storage of jaboticaba (Myrciaria jabuticaba (Vell Berg fruits cv.'SABARÁ'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amalia Brunini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas jabuticabas 'sabará' maduras, acondicionadas em bandejas de polietileno tereftalato, revestidas externamente com filme plástico de PVC, esticável e alto aderente, de 12 e 20 micras, e em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, revestidas externamente com filme plástico de PVC, esticável e alto aderente, de 12 e 20 micras. Cada bandeja recebeu 25 frutos. As bandejas foram armazenadas à temperatura de 11±1ºC com 98%UR e em condições de ambiente (23,6 a 28,3ºC com 53,7 a 68,3%UR. Como controle utilizaram-se frutos acondicionados em bandejas de polietileno tereftalato (12x20x5cm não recobertas com filme plástico. Considerando-se os resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que o uso de embalagem associada à baixa temperatura reduziu a perda de massa fresca, prolongou a vida-útil dos frutos com manutenção da aparência até 6 dias, não influenciou na evolução dos teores de acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais e pH, mas interferiu na evolução de carboidratos solúveis e vitamina C. Os frutos acondicionados não recobertos com filme plástico e armazenados em condições ambiente resistiram 2 dias, mas ao final não apresentaram aparência aceitável para comercialização, pois haviam emurchecido e enrugado. As condições de refrigeração (11±1ºC melhoraram a resistência dos frutos acondicionados não recobertos com filmes plásticos, entretanto, após 4 dias apresentaram má aparência.Were evaluated mature jaboticaba 'sabará' fruits packaged into polystyrene expanded trays covered with stretching and sticking PVC plastic film, with stretching thickness of 12 and 20µm, and packaged into tereftalato polyethylene trays covered with stretching and sticking PVC plastic film, with thickness of 12 and 20µm. Into each tray were placed 25 fruits. The trays were stored at 11±1ºC with 98%UR and at environmental conditions (23,6ºC to 28,3ºC with 53,7% to 68,3%UR. Jaboticaba fruits packaged into tereftalato polyethylene trays (12x20x5cm and not corvered with plastic film were used as controls. Taking into considerations the results obtained it is observed that of the use of packaging reduced the weight loss, prolonged the postharvest life of fruits with maintenance the appearance until 6 days,; didn´t interfere, significantly, in the titrable acidity, total soluble solids and pH, but influenced the soluble carbohydrates and vitamin C content. The fruits packed and not recovered with plastic films stored at environmental conditions, resisted until 2 days, but at the end of storage their aspect was not appropriate for market purpose, because showed shrinvelling skin and wither. The refrigeration condition improving the firmness of packaged fruits not covered with plastic film, however after 4 days showed bad appearance, with shrinvelling skin.

  10. Avaliação da composição química de fermentados alcoólicos de jabuticaba (myrciaria jabuticaba Evaluation of the chemical compostion of wine produced from jabuticaba (Myrciaria jabuticaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Alves da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize the chemical composition of samples of alcoholic beverages fermented from jabuticaba produced in five successive crops. Up to 2005 most of the results didn't meet the current legal standards for wines and there was a negative correlation between parameters such as pH and volatile acidity, pH and total acidity, volatile acidity and alcohol content (p<0.01. The implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and must sulfitation during the 2006 harvest lowered volatile acidity and more than 60% of the samples were in accordance with legislation. Also, a significant improvement in alcohol content was found (p<0.05

  11. Microencapsulated jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) extract added to fresh sausage as natural dye with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, Juliana Cristina; Michelin, Euder Cesar; Polizer, Yana Jorge; Rodrigues, Isabela; de Godoy, Silvia Helena Seraphin; Fregonesi, Raul Pereira; Pires, Manoela Alves; Carvalho, Larissa Tátero; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen Silvia; de Lima, César Gonçalves; Fernandes, Andrezza Maria; Trindade, Marco Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the addition of microencapsulated jabuticaba extract (MJE) to fresh sausage as natural dye with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Fresh sausages without dye, with cochineal carmine and with addition of 2% and 4% MJE were evaluated for chemical, microbiological and sensory properties during 15days of refrigerated storage. TBARS values were lower (Psausages with 2% and 4% MJE (below 0.1mg of malondialdehyde/kg sample) than in control and carmine treatments (from 0.3 to 0.6mg of malondialdehyde/kg sample). T2% and T4% also showed lower microbial counts on storage days 4 and 15 for APCs. The addition of 4% MJE negatively influenced (P0.05) sensory acceptance to control and carmine treatments in most of the attributes evaluated except for a decrease in color. Thus, addition of 2% MJE to fresh sausage can be considered as a natural pigment ingredient. PMID:27016672

  12. Estrategias bioinformáticas y moleculares para aislar genes con potencial biotecnológico a partir de especies huérfanas de la ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castro Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La amazonía peruana es megabiodiversa y posee millones de genes con potencial biotecnológico que debemos descubrir. Para identificarlos, aislarlos y poder aprovecharlos tenemos que secuenciar los genomas y transcriptomas de las especies más importantes. Sin embargo, hasta concretar este tipo de proyectos, combinando estrategias bioinformáticas y moleculares podemos aislar genes con potencial biotecnológico. El objetivo fue aislar genes involucrados en la biosíntesis de vitamina C en Myrciaria dubia. De acuerdo a las relaciones filogenéticas de M. dubia con otras especies, se buscaron secuencias homólogas en el banco de genes del gen que codifica L-galactono-1,4-lactona deshidrogenasa (L-GalLDH. En base al alineamiento múltiple obtenido, se construyó un filograma consenso y de los clados formados se diseñaron cebadores degenerados. Los frutos fueron obtenidos de una colección de germoplasma y el ARN total se purificó, el ADNc se sintetizó y amplificó con cebadores degenerados. El amplicón sintetizado se clonó y secuenció con técnicas estándares. Con las aproximaciones empleadas se logró aislar, clonar y secuenciar un segmento de 921 pb del gen L-GalLDH de M. dubia. En conclusión, con las estrategias bioinformáticas y moleculares descritas se aisló el segmento de un gen que codifica la enzima L-galactono-1,4-lactona deshidrogenasa de la vía biosintética de vitamina C en M. dubia, especie de la que no se disponía de secuencias génicas. Con estas mismas aproximaciones será posible aislar genes de interés biotecnológico de esta y otras especies amazónicas que aún no cuentan con bases de datos de secuencias nucleotídicas.

  13. Comparative sensitivity of centroptilum triangulifer, ceriodaphnia dubia and daphnia magna to standard salt and copper reference toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of methods for assessing exposure and effects of produced waters from energy and mineral resource extraction operations on stream invertebrate species is important in order to elucidate environmentally relevant information. Centroptilum triangulifer is a parthenogene...

  14. Efecto de compuestos no fenólicos en la capacidad antioxidante en açai (Euterpe oleracea) y jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora)

    OpenAIRE

    Arévalo Fernández, Melisa

    2013-01-01

    El consumo mundial de fitoquímicos naturales en la alimentación está en expansión. Los beneficios asociados a los diversos compuestos bioactivos presentes en las frutas y hortalizas han contribuido a aumentar el consumo de estos alimentos en todo el mundo. Tanto el açaí como la jabuticaba se consideran alimentos ricos en antocianinas, ácidos polifenólicos y flavonoides. Estos compuestos están implicados en la prevención de dolencias como arterioesclerosis, artritis, catarata...

  15. Desarrollo de técnicas de extracción y análisis de antocianinas y compuestos fenólicos en Jaboticaba (Myrciaria Cauliflora)

    OpenAIRE

    Mera Morillo, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Desarrollo de técnicas de extracción mediante ultrasonidos y mediante fluidos presurizados para así, obtener las condiciones óptimas de extracción de las antocianinas mayoritarias y compuestos fenólicos totales presentes en la jaboticaba

  16. Formulação e estabilidade de corantes de antocianinas extraídas das cascas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria ssp.
    Formulation and stability of anthocyanins’s colorants formulated with peels jabuticaba (Myrciaria ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. F. SILVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A busca de fontes alternativas de pigmentos naturais tem estimulado o desenvolvimento de pesquisas em diferentes frutos tropicais, como a jabuticaba. Esse fruto é rico em antocianinas, um pigmento natural que, além da capacidade de conferir cor, também possui capacidade antioxidante na captura de radicais livres, responsáveis, dentre outras ações, pela proliferação de células tumorais e pelo envelhecimento precoce. Assim, o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi caracterizar e avaliar a estabilidade de corantes formulados a partir de cascas de jabuticaba. Os pigmentos naturais desse fruto foram associados a dois veículos estabilizantes (maltodextrina e goma arábica em três proporções diferente, submetidos ao processo de atomização e expostos a luz a uma temperatura de 25 ± 2°C, comparando-se com amostras controle não expostas a luz, armazenadas a 10 ± 2°C. A estabilidade foi avaliada através de análises de antocianinas totais, polifenóis totais, atividade antioxidante e avaliação colorimétrica. Os corantes apresentaram elevados teores de antocianinas (p0,05, tendo havido maiores degradações nas amostras armazenadas sob incidência de luz a 25°C (p0,05, evidenciando o efeito deletério da luz sob esses compostos. Comparando as três proporções dos dois carboidratos utilizados, os pigmentos antociânicos mostraram-se mais estáveis quando utilizados somente o carboidrato maltodextrina na proporção de 30%. Portanto, as cascas de jabuticaba apresentaram-se como boas fontes de pigmentos naturais, apresentando-se como alternativa viável na obtenção de corantes.

  17. Distribution, habitat ecology, soil seed bank and seed dispersal of threatened Lindernia procumbens and alien Lindernia dubia (Antirrhinaceae) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šumberová, Kateřina; Lososová, Z.; Ducháček, M.; Horáková, V.; Fabšičová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2012), s. 39-72. ISSN 0079-2047 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600050803; GA ČR GA206/09/0329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : fishpond * neophyte * wetlan vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2012

  18. In vitro germination and acclimatization of cambui tree type seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Lédo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports in literature on the in vitro behavior of cambui tree (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg and acclimatization conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of culture media on in vitro germination and the effect of different substrates on the acclimatization of two Myrciaria tenella types. The study was carried out at the Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros Laboratory of Plant Tissue Culture, Aracaju, SE. Seeds were extracted from fruits of two Myrciaria tenella types: Orange and Purple Types. The seeds were inoculated in the following culture media: T1 - MS medium + 30g L -1 sucrose, T2 - 1/2 MS medium + 15g L -1 sucrose and T3 - control without MS salts. To study the effect of substrates on acclimatization, seedlings were transferred to plastic containers with capacity of 300cm 3 containing the following sterilized substrates: S1 - soil and powdered coconut husk - SPC (1:1 by volume; S2 - soil, washed sand and powdered coconut husk - SAPC (1:1:1 by volume and S3 - Biomix (r commercial substrate - SC. The medium without MS salts promoted 100% in vitro germination and 1/2 MS medium greater development of seedlings. All substrates studied are suitable for acclimatization of seedlings germinated in vitro. Myrciaria tenella of yellow type showed greater vigor during acclimatization.

  19. Mathematical modeling and determination of thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel during the drying process

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian F. Costa; Paulo C. Corrêa; Jaime D. B. Vanegas; Fernanda M. Baptestini; Renata C. Campos; Lara S. Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Jabuticaba is a fruit native of Brazil and, besides containing many nutritional qualities, it also has a good field for use in products such as flour for cakes and biscuits, juice, liqueur, jelly and others. This study aimed to model the drying kinetics and determine the thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel at different drying air temperatures. Ripe fruits of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) were collected and pulped manually. Drying was carried out in a forced-air circulatio...

  20. Characterization and evaluation of five jaboticaba accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit of five Jaboticaba (Myrciaria caulifloria) cultivars ‘MC-05-06’, ‘MC-05-14’, ‘MC-05-12’, ‘MC-06-15,’ and ‘MC-06-14’ were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clona...

  1. Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term whole effluent toxicity testing, which is currently a requirement of the U.S. EPA's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), commonly uses the cladoceran species Ceriodaphnia dubia. Despite the advantages to using a common test species to model the toxic effects of effluents, it could be argued that toxicity test results would be more meaningful if a wider variety of test organisms were commonly used. One particular argument against C. dubia is that tests conducted with this species do not always reflect local, site-specific conditions. The careful selection and use of an indigenous test species would produce a more realistic model of local instream effects and would account for regional differences in water quality. Permitted effluent discharges from Savannah River Site (SRS), a government weapons facility operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, require toxicity testing with C. dubia. However, water quality in these receiving streams is markedly different (lower pH and hardness) from standard laboratory water used for the culturing and testing of C. dubia, and it has been shown that this receiving water presents varying degrees of toxicity to C. dubia. Based on these results, it is possible that toxic effects observed during an effluent study could be the result of test organism stress from the dilution water and not the effects of SRS effluents. Therefore, this study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with an indigenous cladoceran species, Daphnia ambigua for routine regulatory testing at SRS. Given the indigenous nature of this species, combined with the fact that it has been successfully cultured by other investigators, D. ambigua was ideal for consideration as a replacement for C. dubia, but further study of the overall success and sensitivity of laboratory-reared D. ambigua was required. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol and

  2. Irrigation runoff insecticide pollution of rivers in the Imperial Valley, California (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaming, V. de [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: vldevlaming@ucdavis.edu; DiGiorgio, C. [Department of Water Resources, P.O. Box 942836, Sacramento, CA 94236 (United States); Fong, S. [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Deanovic, L.A. [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Paz Carpio-Obeso, M. de la [Colorado River Basin Region Water Quality Control Board, 73-720 Fred Waring Drive, Suite 100, Palm Desert, CA 92260 (United States); Miller, J.L. [AQUA-Science, 17 Arboretum Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, M.J. [AQUA-Science, 17 Arboretum Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Richard, N.J. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States)

    2004-11-01

    The Alamo and New Rivers located in the Imperial Valley, California receive large volumes of irrigation runoff and discharge into the ecologically sensitive Salton Sea. Between 1993 and 2002 we conducted a series of studies to assess water quality using three aquatic species: a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), a mysid (Neomysis mercedis), and a larval fish (Pimephales promelas). Although no mortality was observed with the P. promelas, high-level toxicity to the invertebrate species was documented in samples from both rivers during many months of each year. Toxicity identifications and chemical analyses identified the organophosphorus insecticides (OP), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as the cause of C. dubia toxicity. The extent of the C. dubia mortality was highly correlated with quantities of these OPs applied in the river watersheds. C. dubia mortality occurred during more months of our 2001/2002 study than in the 1990s investigations. During 2001/2002, the extensive C. dubia mortality observed in New River samples was caused by OP insecticide pollution that originated from Mexico. Mortality to N. mercedis in New River samples was likely caused by contaminants other than OP insecticides. Our studies document OP insecticide-caused pollution of the Alamo River over a 10-year period and provide the necessary information for remediation efforts. - Capsule: Organophosphorous insecticides in runoff water from the USA and Mexico have impacted rivers in the Imperial Valley, California.

  3. Irrigation runoff insecticide pollution of rivers in the Imperial Valley, California (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alamo and New Rivers located in the Imperial Valley, California receive large volumes of irrigation runoff and discharge into the ecologically sensitive Salton Sea. Between 1993 and 2002 we conducted a series of studies to assess water quality using three aquatic species: a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), a mysid (Neomysis mercedis), and a larval fish (Pimephales promelas). Although no mortality was observed with the P. promelas, high-level toxicity to the invertebrate species was documented in samples from both rivers during many months of each year. Toxicity identifications and chemical analyses identified the organophosphorus insecticides (OP), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as the cause of C. dubia toxicity. The extent of the C. dubia mortality was highly correlated with quantities of these OPs applied in the river watersheds. C. dubia mortality occurred during more months of our 2001/2002 study than in the 1990s investigations. During 2001/2002, the extensive C. dubia mortality observed in New River samples was caused by OP insecticide pollution that originated from Mexico. Mortality to N. mercedis in New River samples was likely caused by contaminants other than OP insecticides. Our studies document OP insecticide-caused pollution of the Alamo River over a 10-year period and provide the necessary information for remediation efforts. - Capsule: Organophosphorous insecticides in runoff water from the USA and Mexico have impacted rivers in the Imperial Valley, California

  4. Espessura da polpa como condicionante do parasitismo de mosca-das-frutas (Diptera:Tephritidae) por Hymenoptera: braconidae Fruit pulp thickness conditioning fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) parasitism by Hymenoptera: braconidae

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rodrigues Hickel

    2002-01-01

    Dentre as estratégias de manejo integrado de mosca-das-frutas está a manutenção de refúgios, vizinhos aos pomares, para proliferação de inimigos naturais. Objetivando verificar quais hospedeiros de mosca-das-frutas seriam mais adequados para incrementar o controle natural, estabeleceu-se uma correlação entre o nível de parasitismo e a espessura da polpa de frutos. Frutos em maturação de café (Coffea arabica), jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora), cajá-mirim (Spondias lutea) e laranja (Citrus aur...

  5. PRODUÇÃO, CARACTERIZAÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DA FARINHA DE CASCA DE JABUTICABA EM BISCOITOS TIPO COOKIE

    OpenAIRE

    Aérica Edna FERREIRA; Bárbara Santos FERREIRA; Melina Maria Burgarelli LAGES; Vanessa Ayala Felício RODRIGUES; Patricia Maria Pontes THÉ; Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni PINTO

    2012-01-01

    A jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) é um fruto muito apreciado e de importância nutricional encontrado em grande parte do Brasil. Sua casca é um subproduto descartado ou, no máximo, utilizado em ração animal. Diante da necessidade de melhor aproveitar o potencial nutritivo e funcional da jabuticaba, este estudo visou à elaboração, caracterização química e nutricional da farinha da casca da jabuticaba (FCJ) e seu aproveitamento em massas de biscoito tipo cookie. Os frut...

  6. Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, a new species from central Veracruz, Mexico Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, una especie nueva de la región central de Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Croat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, a new species in section Monstera, endemic to central Veracruz, Mexico, is described and illustrated. This species appears to be most closely related to Monstera siltepecana Matuda and Monstera dubia (Kunth Engl. et K. Krause.Se describe e ilustra Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, una nueva especie de la sección Monstera, endémica de la región central del estado de Veracruz, México. Esta especie parece estar más cercanamente relacionada a los taxones Monstera siltepecana Matuda y Monstera dubia (Kunth Engl. et K. Krause.

  7. ent-Kaurane Glycosides from Tricalysia okelensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricalysia is a genus of the plant family Rubiaceae, with approximately 50 species distributed in subtropical and tropical areas in Asia and Africa, some of these used as folk medicine.1,2) Extensive phytochemical studies on Tricalysia dubia led to the isolation of a number of structurally diverse d...

  8. Postexposure effects of brief cadmium, zinc, and phenol exposures on freshwater organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, R.N.; Herricks, E.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-10-01

    Conventional toxicity testing has relied heavily on fixed duration continuous exposure conditions. These conditions have little relevance to the exposure conditions of many environmental pollutants, particularly the highly variable and often brief exposure regimes of episodic pollution events. This research was designed to assess the effects of brief exposures using a postexposure observation period. The common freshwater organisms Ceriodaphnia dubia, Hyalella azteca, and Pimephales promelas were exposed to a range of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and/or phenol concentrations for durations ranging from 15 to 240 min. Immobility was measured for up to 7 d after the exposure period. Results showed that organisms exposed to Cd and Zn exhibited delayed effects that resulted in increasing immobility for up to 172 h after the exposure period. Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and P. promelas exposed to Cd for as short as 30 min exhibited 100, 95, and 85% immobility, respectively, during postexposure observation. Ceriodaphnia dubia and H. azteca exposed to Zn for as short as 30 min exhibited 100 and 30% immobility, respectively, during postexposure observation. Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to phenol exhibited recovery of mobility after the exposure period. The presence of delayed effects or organism recovery suggests that toxicity tests used to monitor brief exposures should use environmentally relevant exposure durations and postexposure observations.

  9. Fitch’s Aphis mali Varieties are Rhopalosiphum insertum (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight specimens of Asa Fitch’s Aphis mali "varieties" were recently rediscovered in the National Aphidoidea Collection at Beltsville, MD. Previously regarded as nomina dubia, those specimens include: A. mali var. fulviventris, var. nigricollis, var. nigriventris, var. obsoleta, var. pallidicornis, ...

  10. Further notes on New Zealand Enantiobuninae (Opiliones, Neopilionidae, with the description of a new genus and two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangatangi parvum gen. n. and sp. and Forsteropsalis pureroa sp. n. are described from the North Island of New Zealand. Pantopsalis listeri (White 1849 and P. cheliferoides (Colenso 1882 are redescribed and no longer regarded as nomina dubia; P. luna (Forster 1944 is identified as a junior synonym of P. listeri. A key to Pantopsalis species is provided.

  11. Further notes on New Zealand Enantiobuninae (Opiliones, Neopilionidae), with the description of a new genus and two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher K

    2013-01-01

    Mangatangi parvum gen. n. and sp. and Forsteropsalis pureroa sp. n. are described from the North Island of New Zealand. Pantopsalis listeri (White 1849) and Pantopsalis cheliferoides (Colenso 1882) are redescribed and no longer regarded as nomina dubia; Pantopsalis luna (Forster 1944) is identified as a junior synonym of Pantopsalis listeri. A key to Pantopsalis species is provided. PMID:23653517

  12. Carideorum catalogus: the recent species of the dendrobranchiate, stenopodidean, procarididean and caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    De Grave, S; Fransen, C.H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A checklist of recent species of dendrobranchiate, stenopodidean, procarididean and caridean shrimps including synonyms and type localities. Also listed are unavailable names, larval names, nomina dubia and nomina nuda. A complete list of references to original descriptions of taxa listed is provided.

  13. Assessment of the potential toxicity of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) to freshwater animal life by means of cladoceran bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Katiuscia da Silva; Rocha, Odete

    2010-04-01

    The acute and chronic toxic effects of LAS on the cladocerans Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii were tested. Both types of toxicity bioassays and the methods of culture and stock maintenance of the test organisms conformed to the recommendations of ABNT (Brazilian Society of Technical Standards), which closely follow the standard methods of USEPA. The results obtained for EC(50) (48 h) were: 14.17 mg L(-1) for D. similis, 11.84 mg L(-1) for C. dubia and 13.52 mg L(-1) for C. silvestrii. In the chronic toxicity tests performed on C. dubia and C. silvestrii, there was a significant decrease in the fecundity of the exposed animals; the value of NOEC for C. dubia and C. silvestrii were 1.00 mg L(-1) and 2.50 mg L(-1), respectively. Cladoceran bioassays provided evidence that LAS concentration as low as 1.00 mg L(-1) can damage invertebrate animal life in freshwaters, concentrations that can be found in many eutrophic rivers and reservoirs. PMID:20091119

  14. Insect lipid profile: aqueous versus organic solvent-based extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Yi, L.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In view of future expected industrial bio-fractionation of insects, we investigated the influence of extraction methods on chemical characteristics of insect lipids. Lipids from Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia, reared in the Netherlands, were extracted

  15. AVALIAÇÃO DA AÇÃO DE EXTRATOS VEGETAIS SOBRE A FORMAÇÃO DE BIOFILMES POR Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noara Taline Pereira dos Reis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biofilm consists of a diverse community of microorganisms attached on biotic and abiotic surfaces, formed by Candida albicans. In the oral cavity, the presence of biofilm is the first step towards the development of dental caries and periodontal disease, which makes it necessary to assess the effectiveness of new alternatives, such as the use of plant extracts, to promote prevention. We evaluated the inhibitory activities of the extract of the jabuticabeira leaf (Myrciaria cauliflora and leaf extract of guava (Psidium guajava L in biofilm formation by Candida albicans, as this yeast is generally associated with diseases of the mouth. Microplates were used for yeast cultivation and to assess the degree of biofilm formation inhibition through the tack checked by turbidity in the ELISA reader. None of the extracts inhibited biofilm formation at the concentrations used.

  16. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  17. Phytotoxic and antioxidant activity of seven native fruits of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and phytotoxic effects in seven species of fruit native to Brazil: Acrocomia aculeata, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Tamarindus indica, Byrsonima intermedia, Psidium firmum, Myrciaria cauliflora and Ficus obtusifolia. Phytotoxic effects were assessed from crude ethanol extracts and semipurified fractions. In four of the seven fruits, total phenolic content, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, was higher in the peel than in the pulp. We found that total phenolic content correlated significantly with antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in some fruits. We also evaluated the allelopathic effects of the crude ethanol extract and semipurified fractions. In most of the essays, the ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest level of activity.

  18. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  19. Water quality assessment in piracicamirim creek upstream and downstream a sugar and ethanol industry through toxicity tests with cladocerans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Grossi Botelho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An environmental impact study was conducted to determine the Piracicamirim's creek water quality in order to assess the influence of effluents from a sugar industry in this water body. For this, toxicity tests were performed with a water sample upstream and downstream the industry using the microcrustaceans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii as test organisms, as well as physical and chemical analysis of water. Results showed that physical and chemical parameters did not change during the sampling period, except for the dissolved oxygen. No toxicity was observed for D. magna and reproduction of C. dubia and C. silvestrii in both sampling points. Thus, the industry was not negatively impacting the quality of this water body.

  20. Phototransformation of Amlodipine in Aqueous Solution: Toxicity of the Drug and Its Photoproduct on Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina DellaGreca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The phototransformation of amlodipine in water was investigated under various conditions. A quantum yield ΦS2.2×10−4 and a half-life time t1/2 0.419 days were calculated when the drug in water (10−4 M was exposed to sunlight. The only photoproduct found was its pyridine derivative. Formation of this product was explained on the basis of a radical cation intermediate. The acute and chronic toxicity of the drug and its photoproduct were evaluated on different organisms of the freshwater chain (Brachionus calyciflorus, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia. The photoproduct exhibited a stronger toxic potential than the parent drug on the long time for C. dubia.

  1. Feasibility of constructed wetlands for removing chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos from aqueous mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrard, R.M.; Bearr, J.S.; Murray-Gulde, C.L.; Rodgers, J.H.; Shah, Y.T

    2004-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos (an insecticide) and chlorothalonil (a fungicide) are transported in stormwater runoff and can be lethal to receiving aquatic system biota. This study determined removal rates of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in simulated stormwater runoff treated in constructed wetland mesocosms. Using sentinel species, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas, observed declines in toxicity of the simulated runoff after treatment were 98 and 100%, respectively. First order removal rates were 0.039/h for chlorpyrifos and 0.295/h for chlorothalonil in these experiments. Constructed wetland mesocosms were effective for decreasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in simulated stormwater runoff, and decreasing P. promelas and C. dubia mortality resulting from these exposures. The results from this study indicate that constructed wetlands could be part of an efficient mitigation strategy for stormwater runoff containing these pesticides. - Constructed wetlands have potential for treatment of pesticide mixtures in stormwater runoff.

  2. Elimination of Whole Effluent Toxicity NPDES Permit Limits through the Use of an Alternative Testing Species and Reasonable Potential Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia), is required by the State of South Carolina to be used in whole effluent toxicity (WET) compliance tests in order to meet limits contained within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) experienced WET test failures for no clear reason over a long period of time. Toxicity identification examinations on effluents did not indicate the presence of toxicants; therefore, the WET test itself was brought under suspicion. Research was undertaken with an alternate cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (D. ambigua). It was determined that this species survives better in soft water, so approval was obtained from regulating authorities to use this ''alternate'' species in WET tests. The result was better test results and elimination of non-compliances. The successful use of D. ambigua allowed WSRC to gain approval from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to remove WET limits from the NPDES permit

  3. Feasibility of constructed wetlands for removing chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos from aqueous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorpyrifos (an insecticide) and chlorothalonil (a fungicide) are transported in stormwater runoff and can be lethal to receiving aquatic system biota. This study determined removal rates of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in simulated stormwater runoff treated in constructed wetland mesocosms. Using sentinel species, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas, observed declines in toxicity of the simulated runoff after treatment were 98 and 100%, respectively. First order removal rates were 0.039/h for chlorpyrifos and 0.295/h for chlorothalonil in these experiments. Constructed wetland mesocosms were effective for decreasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in simulated stormwater runoff, and decreasing P. promelas and C. dubia mortality resulting from these exposures. The results from this study indicate that constructed wetlands could be part of an efficient mitigation strategy for stormwater runoff containing these pesticides. - Constructed wetlands have potential for treatment of pesticide mixtures in stormwater runoff

  4. Evaluation of the efficiency of the sewage treatment plant from the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC), RS, Brazil Avaliação da eficiência da estação de tratamento de esgoto da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC), RS, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Düpont; Eduardo Alcayaga Lobo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The main objective was to evaluate the efficiency of the sewage treatment plant (STP) of UNISC, through the ecotoxicological characterization and the analyses of the physical, chemical and microbiological variables from the raw and treated effluent. METHODS: Samples were collected during 2008 and 2009 for performing acute toxicity (Daphnia magna), chronic toxicity (Ceriodaphnia dubia), as well as the determination of environmental variables. RESULTS: The results indicated acute toxicity ...

  5. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary medicine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca de Souza Maselli; Luis Augusto Visani de Luna; Joice de Oliveira Palmeira; Sandro Babosa; Luiz Alberto Beijo; Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro; Fábio Kummrow

    2013-01-01

    Effluents from veterinary pharmaceutical industries that formulate medicines are mainly generated during the washing of equipment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical industry. The industrial effluent treatment system comprises a step of chemical treatment (coagulation-sedimentation forced) followed by aerobic biological treatment (activated s...

  6. Apuntes sobre la flora gallega, XVII

    OpenAIRE

    Amigo Vázquez, Javier; Pulgar Sañudo, Íñigo

    2005-01-01

    Presentamos un nuevo capítulo dentro de la serie de contribuciones al conocimiento actualizado de la Flora de Galicia, aportando información de interés corológico sobre 11 taxa recolectados: Bidens frondosa L., Crypsis alopecuroides (Piller & Mitterp.) Schrad., Cyperus fuscus L., Cyperus michelianus (L.) Link, Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Desf., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. subsp. hispidula (Retz.) Honda, Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees, Hypericum hirsutum L., Lindernia dubia (L.) Pe...

  7. An aglaspidid arthropod from the Upper Ordovician of Morocco with remarks on the affinities and limitations of Aglaspidida

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, P

    2006-01-01

    A new aglaspidid arthropod, Chlupacaris dubia gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Pusgillian (lower Ashgill, Upper Ordovician) Upper Tiouririne Formation near Erfoud, southeastern Morocco. Although disarticulated, careful documenting of the tergites allows a reconstruction of the exoskeleton to be made. Although somewhat trilobite-like in appearance, the lack of facial sutures, a well-defined axis with articulating half-rings and a pygidium clearly prove Chlupacaris gen. nov. is not a tri...

  8. Limnological and ecotoxicological studies in the cascade of reservoirs in the Tietê river (São Paulo, Brazil) Estudos limnológicos e ecotoxicológicos na cascata de reservatórios do rio Tietê (São Paulo, Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rodgher; E. L. G. Espíndola; O. Rocha; R. Fracácio; R. H. G. Pereira; M. H. S. Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the quality of samples of water and sediment collected from a series of reservoirs in the Tietê River (SP), based on limnological and ecotoxicological analyses. The samples were collected during two periods (Feb and Jul 2000) from 15 sampling stations. Acute toxicity bioassays were performed using the test organism Daphnia similis, while chronic bioassays were carried out withCeriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio larvae. The water samples were analyzed for total nutrien...

  9. Trichoscapa Karawajewi and its Synonyms (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, William L.

    1994-01-01

    A recent loan fom the Zoological Institute, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukrainia, through the kindness of Dr. Alexander G. Radchenko, has allowed me for the first time to examine the type of Strumigenys emeryi Karawajew, which proves to be an example of the same species I later described as Smithistruma dubia. Since S. emeryi was preoccupied in Strumigenys, I had already given it the replacement name Strumigenys (Trichoscapa) karawajewi. The necessary synonymy follows.

  10. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  11. Selecting a sensitive battery of bioassays to detect toxic effects of metals in effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Magalhães, Danielly; da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; Fernandes Baptista, Darcilio; Forsin Buss, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The use of bioassay batteries is necessary to evaluate toxic effects at various biological levels. The selection of bioassays without prior testing and determination of the most sensitive/suitable groups for each impact may allow the discharge of effluents that pose a threat to the environment. The present study tested and selected a battery of sensitive ecotoxicological bioassays for detecting toxic effects of metals. The sensitivities of six organisms were evaluated (algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris, Cladocera Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia, and fish Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio) after exposure to 10 individual metal species deemed toxic to the aquatic environment (Ag(+), Cd(2+), Cu(+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Cr(6+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Hg(2+)) and to real (steel-mill) and laboratory simulated effluents. In the bioassays, fish were the least sensitive; D. rerio showed no sensitivity to any of the effluents tested. P. subcapitata was a good bioindicator of Cr(3+) toxicity, and D. similis was the most sensitive organism to Hg(2+); but the toxic effect of effluents with higher levels of Hg(2+) was better detected by C. dubia. The most sensitive battery of bioassays to detect low concentrations of dissolved metals in effluents was the 72-h chronic test with C. vulgaris and the 48-h acute test with C. dubia. PMID:25199585

  12. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  13. Toxicity and bioavailability of metals in the Missouri River adjacent to a lead refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Allert, Ann L.; Fairchild, James F.; May, Thomas W.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Callahan, Edward V.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of contaminated groundwater from the ASARCO metals refining facility adjacent to the Missouri River in Omaha, Nebraska. Surface waters, sediments, and sediment pore waters were collected from the Burt-Izard drain, which transects the facility, and from the Missouri River adjacent to the facility. Groundwater was also collected from the facility. Waters and sediments were analyzed for inorganic contaminants, and the toxicity of the waters was evaluated with the Ceriodaphnia dubia 7-day test. Concentrations of several elemental contaminants were highly elevated in the groundwater, but not in river sediment pore waters. Lead concentrations were moderately elevated in whole sediment at one site, but lead concentrations in pore waters were low due to apparent sequestration by acid-volatile sulfides. The groundwater sample was highly toxic to C. dubia, causing 100% mortality. Even at the lowest groundwater concentration tested (6.25%) C. dubia survival was reduced; however, at that concentration, reproduction was not significantly different from upstream porewater reference samples. Sediment pore waters were not toxic, except reproduction in pore water collected from one downstream site was somewhat reduced. The decrease in reproduction could not be attributed to measured elemental contaminants.

  14. Assessment of photoinduced toxicity of crude oil-contaminated sediments on aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental crude oil releases resulting in environmental contamination are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent occurrences. Investigations of impacts to aquatic ecosystems following crude oil spills have often uncovered alterations in invertebrate community diversity and species abundance. Crude oil is partially composed of aromatic hydrocarbons, including some phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To assess organism phototoxic response to PAHs present in crude oil, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted with porewater extracts from crude oil-contaminated sediments and reference sediments using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca. Test organisms were exposed to porewater samples under artificial near-ultraviolet (UV) radiation and normal laboratory white fluorescent lighting. Controls under both lighting exposures included: culture water controls, anthracene controls (representing a known phototoxic PAH), and solvent controls. Following acute exposure periods, C. dubia mortality under near-UV light in crude oil porewater was significantly different from corresponding mortality under fluorescent light. C. dubia experienced 100% mortality in crude oil sediment porewater under near-UV light, 0% mortality in reference sediment porewater under near-UV light, and 0% mortality across corresponding treatments under fluorescent light exposures. H. azteca mortality under near-UV light in crude oil porewater was also significantly different from corresponding treatments under fluorescent light. Laboratory results suggest that PAHs in crude oil-contaminated sediments in the aquatic environment have the potential to substantially adversely affect survival of UV-exposed aquatic invertebrates

  15. Chemical and toxicological characterization of slurry reactor biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.

    1998-08-01

    Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil in the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) soil slurry bioreactor (SSBR) eliminated detectable TNT but left trace levels of residual monoamino and diamino metabolites under some reactor operating conditions. The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) field demonstration. Aquatic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia from TNT in the leachates of TNT-contaminated soil was eliminated in the leachates of JAAP SSBR product soil. The toxicity of soil product leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia was reasonably predicted using the specific toxicities of the components detected, weighted by their leachate concentrations. In samples where TNT metabolites were observed in the soil product and its leachates, this method determined that the contribution to predicted toxicity values was dominated by trace amounts of the diamino-metabolites, which are very toxic to ceriodaphnia dubia. When the SSBR operating conditions reduced the concentrations of TNT metabolites in the product soils and their leachates to undetectable concentrations, the main contributors to predicted aquatic toxicity values appeared to be molasses residues, potassium, and bicarbonate. Potassium and bicarbonate are beneficial or benign to the environment, and molasses residues are substantially degraded in the environment. Exotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, inorganic particles, ammonia, and dissolved metals did not appear to be important to soil product toxicity.

  16. Influence of the temperature in germination of seeds of jabuticaba tree Influência da temperatura na germinação de sementes de jabuticabeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida de Andrade

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The jaboticaba tree (Myrciaria spp. is originated from the center-south of Brazil and presents different types. It's a medium size tree, with tendency to form a crown with great number of branches. A characteristic considered as limitant for the commercial crop is the great juvenility, advicing producing good rootstocks of seedlings and graft wanted varieties, and other vegetative processes. With the purpose of evaluating the effect of temperature on germination of three clones of jaboticaba tree, was carried out a laboratorial research. It was observed influence of the temperature on germination. The highest percentage of germination was obtained at low temperature (15ºC and 20ºC. When it was used the temperature of 35ºC, two clones had only 8% of germination, while the other one was verified 35%. These values show the possibility of the ocurrence of variability among the clones of jaboticaba tree.A jabuticabeira (Myrciaria spp. é uma fruteira originada do centro-Sul do Brasil e apresenta tipos diferentes. É uma árvore de tamanho médio, com tendência a formar copa com grande número de ramos desde pouco acima do solo. Uma característica considerada como limitante para a cultura comercial dessa frutífera é o grande período juvenil, aconselhando-se então produzir bons porta-enxertos de pés-francos e enxertar as variedades desejadas, ou ainda por outros processos vegetativos. Objetivando-se avaliar a influência da temperatura na germinação de sementes de três clones de jabuticabeira, realizou-se um experimento em condições de laboratório. Observou-se que há influência da temperatura na porcentagem de germinação, sendo que, nas mais baixas temperaturas (15ºC e 20ºC, foi verificada uma maior porcentagem de germinação para os três clones em estudo. Quando do uso da temperatura de 35ºC, dois clones tiveram apenas 8% de germinação, enquanto, para o outro, foi verificado 35%. Estes dados mostram a possibilidade de ocorr

  17. Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region. METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superficial de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de

  18. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments. PMID:21779820

  19. Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes. PMID:21898553

  20. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical. PMID:21191883

  1. Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), a new species from central Veracruz, Mexico Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), una especie nueva de la región central de Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Croat, Thomas B.; Thorsten Krömer; Amparo Acebey

    2010-01-01

    Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), a new species in section Monstera, endemic to central Veracruz, Mexico, is described and illustrated. This species appears to be most closely related to Monstera siltepecana Matuda and Monstera dubia (Kunth) Engl. et K. Krause.Se describe e ilustra Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), una nueva especie de la sección Monstera, endémica de la región central del estado de Veracruz, México. Esta especie parece estar más cercanamente relacionada a los taxones Monster...

  2. Competencia en Cladocera: implicancias de la sobreposición en el uso de los recursos tróficos Competition in Cladocera: implications of the trophic resources use overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GINGER MARTINEZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar que numerosa evidencia demuestra el uso de diferentes estrategias de alimentación entre cladóceros, la clásica descripción de una conducta alimentaria pasiva ha conducido a una subestimación de la sobreposición de nicho trófico sobre sus patrones de coexistencia. En condiciones de microcosmos, se mantuvieron experimentos pareados de dinámica poblacional de los cladóceros Moina micrura (Moinidae y Ceriodaphnia dubia (Daphnidae, especializados en los recursos Chlorella sp. y Oocystis sp. (Chlorococcales respectivamente y del generalista Daphnia ambigua (Daphnidae, durante 35 - 45 días. Mientras que los especialistas M. micrura y C. dubia no dieron evidencias de competencia, la presencia de cada uno produjo un significativo decrecimiento de la densidad del generalista D. ambigua, ocasionando en algunos casos su extinción. A pesar que las dinámicas poblacionales de cada especialista fueron afectadas cualitativamente por la presencia del generalista, no hubo efecto de esta especie sobre las densidades, resultando una interacción asimétrica entre cada especialista con el generalista. Estos resultados demuestran que la conducta alimentaria y la sobreposición en el uso de los recursos serían condiciones determinantes en la composición de ensambles de cladócerosAlthough numerous evidence reveals the use of different feeding strategies among cladocerans, the impact of trophic niche overlap on their patterns of coexistence has been underestimated due to the classical description of passive feeding behavior. Under microcosm conditions, paired experiments of population dynamics were conducted for the cladocerans Moina micrura (Moinidae and Ceriodaphnia dubia (Daphnidae, specialists on the resources Chlorella sp. and Oocystis sp. (Chlorococcales respectively, and for the generalist species Daphnia ambigua (Daphnidae, during 35 - 45 days. While, the specialists M. micrura and C. dubia did not show evidences of competition, their

  3. DNA barcoding and male genital morphology reveal five new cryptic species in the West Palearctic bee Seladonia smaragdula (Vachal, 1895) (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Alain; Devalez, Jelle; Sonet, Gontran; Nagy, Zoltán Tamás; Boevé, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Several forms or variants have long been recognized in the West Palearctic sweat bee Seladonia smaragdula (Vachal, 1895). Using DNA barcoding and morphological characters, primarily of the male genitalia, these variants are here recognized and described as five new species: S. gemmella Pauly sp. nov., S. submediterranea Pauly sp. nov., S. orientana Pauly & Devalez sp. nov., S. phryganica Pauly & Devalez sp. nov., and S. cretella Pauly & Devalez sp. nov. Also, we designate a lectotype for Halictus smaragdulus Vachal, consider Seladonia butea (Warncke, 1975) and S. morinella (Warncke, 1975) as nomina dubia, and discuss the identity of the Seladonia specimens from Australia currently determined as S. smaragdula. PMID:26624441

  4. The myriapodological legacy of Victor Ivanovich Motschoulsky (1810–1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Golovatch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The little that remains of Motschoulsky’s myriapodological legacy in the collection of Moscow’s Zoological Museum proves to be of very limited value. Only one species of Diplopoda described by Motschoulsky, the Caucasian Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839, is still in use, yet requiring a neotype designation, whereas the remaining few myriapod names he proposed are either nomina dubia or nomina nuda. The former include Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae and Strongylosoma carinulatum Motschoulsky, 1866 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae, both from Japan, as well as Julus costulatus Motschoulsky, 1851 (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Schizopetalidae?, from Montenegro, because their type material is either inadequate or missing.

  5. Taxonomic notes on the crab spider genus Tobias Simon, 1895 (Araneae, Thomisidae, Stephanopinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Miguel; Teixeira, Renato Augusto; Lise, Arno Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The males of Tobias caudatus Mello-Leitão, 1929 and Tobias pustulosus Simon, 1929 are described for the first time, females are redescribed and both sexes are illustrated. New distribution records are presented for both species. Tobias monstruosus Mello-Leitão, 1929 is considered a junior synonym of T. pustulosus. The types of Tobias albovittatus Caporiacco, 1954, and Tobias gradiens Mello-Leitão, 1929 are lost, and Tobias albicans Mello-Leitão, 1929 and Tobias corticatus Mello-Leitão, 1917 are known only from poorly preserved specimens, thus they all are considered nomina dubia. PMID:26624458

  6. The myriapodological legacy of Victor Ivanovich Motschoulsky (1810-1871).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The little that remains of Motschoulsky's myriapodological legacy in the collection of Moscow's Zoological Museum proves to be of very limited value. Only one species of Diplopoda described by Motschoulsky, the Caucasian Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839), is still in use, yet requiring a neotype designation, whereas the remaining few myriapod names he proposed are either nomina dubia or nomina nuda. The former include Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) and Strongylosoma carinulatum Motschoulsky, 1866 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), both from Japan, as well as Julus costulatus Motschoulsky, 1851 (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Schizopetalidae?), from Montenegro, because their type material is either inadequate or missing. PMID:25147455

  7. Phisicals, chemicals and biologicals evaluations of microbasin in the Modeneis Stream in Limeira –SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Baddo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an evaluation of the water quality from Modeneis stream belonging the microbasin of Barroca Funda stream, affluent of the Ribeirão Tatu in the city of Limeira, São Paulo. Three points of collection for analyses had been chosen: spring, middle and end of microbasin. The study was realized through the monitoring of waters and sediment during eight weeks, being verified the physical parameter (pH, Color, Turbidity, Conductivity and Total Solids, chemical (Alkalinity, Acidity, Nitrate, Hardness and TOC and biological ( acute Toxicity- Daphnia similis and chronic- Ceriodaphnia dubia of the samples.

  8. CÉLULAS SOLARES SENSIBILIZADAS POR CORANTES NATURAIS: UM EXPERIMENTO INTRODUTÓRIO SOBRE ENERGIA RENOVÁVEL PARA ALUNOS DE GRADUAÇÃO

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    Gabriela G. Sonai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An interesting practical experiment about the preparation of dye–sensitized solar cells (DSSC using natural dyes were carried out by the undergraduate students in the chemistry course at UNICAMP . Natural dyes were extracted from blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L., jabuticabas (Myrciaria cauliflora, raw and cooked beets (Beta vulgaris L., and annattos (Bixa orellana L., which were used to sensitize TiO2 films that composed the photoanode in the DSSC. A polymer electrolyte containing an iodide/triiodide redox couple was used in lieu of the use of liquid solutions to prevent any leakage in the devices. A maximum solar-to-electric energy conversion of 0.26 ± 0.02% was obtained for the solar cell prepared with annatto extracts. This experiment was an effective way to illustrate to the undergraduate students how to apply some of the chemical concepts that they learned during their chemistry course to produce electric energy from a clean and renewable energy source. Teachers could also exploit the basics of the electronic transitions in inorganic and organic compounds (e.g., metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ϖ-ϖ* transitions, thermodynamics (e.g., Gibbs free energy, acid–base reactions in the oxide solid surface and electrolyte, and band theory (i.e., the importance of the Fermi level energy.

  9. Mathematical modeling and determination of thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel during the drying process

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    Cristian F. Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Jabuticaba is a fruit native of Brazil and, besides containing many nutritional qualities, it also has a good field for use in products such as flour for cakes and biscuits, juice, liqueur, jelly and others. This study aimed to model the drying kinetics and determine the thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel at different drying air temperatures. Ripe fruits of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba were collected and pulped manually. Drying was carried out in a forced-air circulation oven with a flow of 5.6 m s-1 at temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. Six mathematical models commonly used to represent the drying process of agricultural products were fitted to the experimental data. The Arrhenius model was used to represent the drying constant as a function of temperature. The Midilli model showed the best fit to the experimental data of drying. The drying constant increased with the increment in drying temperature and promoted an activation energy of 37.29 kJ mol-1. Enthalpy and Gibbs free energy decreased with the increase in drying temperature, while entropy decreased and was negative.

  10. Predation of Fruit Fly Larvae Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae by Ants in Grove

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    W. D. Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence that ants are population regulatory agents, we examined their efficiency in predation of fruit fly larvae Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae. Hence, we considered the differences among species of fruit trees, the degree of soil compaction, and the content of soil moisture as variables that would explain predation by ants because these variables affect burying time of larvae. We carried out the experiment in an orchard containing various fruit bearing trees, of which the guava (Psidium guajava Linn., jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell. Berg., and mango trees (Mangifera indica Linn. were chosen for observations of Anastrepha. We offered live Anastrepha larvae on soil beneath the tree crowns. We observed for 10 min whether ants removed the larvae or the larvae buried themselves. Eight ant species were responsible for removing 1/4 of the larvae offered. The Pheidole Westwood, 1839 ants were the most efficient genus, removing 93% of the larvae. In compacted and dry soils, the rate of predation by ants was greater. Therefore, this study showed that ants, along with specific soil characteristics, may be important regulators of fruit fly populations and contribute to natural pest control in orchards.

  11. Espessura da polpa como condicionante do parasitismo de mosca-das-frutas (Diptera:Tephritidae por Hymenoptera: braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickel Eduardo Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as estratégias de manejo integrado de mosca-das-frutas está a manutenção de refúgios, vizinhos aos pomares, para proliferação de inimigos naturais. Objetivando verificar quais hospedeiros de mosca-das-frutas seriam mais adequados para incrementar o controle natural, estabeleceu-se uma correlação entre o nível de parasitismo e a espessura da polpa de frutos. Frutos em maturação de café (Coffea arabica, jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora, cajá-mirim (Spondias lutea e laranja (Citrus aurantium foram coletados e mantidos em bandejas plásticas sobre uma camada de areia. As pupas de mosca-das-frutas retiradas da areia foram mantidas em estufa incubadora para emergência dos adultos. O diâmetro dos frutos e das sementes foi medido para se calcular a espessura da polpa. O café, com 1,8mm de polpa, foi o hospedeiro em que ocorreu maior índice de parasitismo de mosca-das-frutas (13,73%. O nível de parasitismo apresentou uma correlação negativa com a espessura da polpa dos frutos, sendo os frutos de polpa fina mais adequados para proliferação de parasitóides de mosca-das-frutas.

  12. Anthocyanin composition of wild Colombian fruits and antioxidant capacity measurement by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Liliana; Carriazo, José G; Almanza, Ovidio; Osorio, Coralia

    2012-02-15

    The qualitative and quantitative anthocyanin composition of four wild tropical fruits from Colombia was studied. Compounds of "mora pequeña" ( Rubus megalococcus Focke.), "uva de árbol" ( Myrciaria aff. cauliflora O. Berg), coral, and motilón ( Hyeronima macrocarpa Mull. Arg.) fruits were separately extracted with methanol-acetic acid (95:5, v/v). The anthocyanin-rich extracts (AREs) were obtained by selective adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7. Each extract was analyzed by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-HRESI-MS(n) with LCMS-IT-TOF equipment in order to characterize the anthocyanin pigments and the coinjection in HPLC using standards allowed identifying the major constituents in each extract. The antioxidant activity was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-vis spectroscopy, using ABTS and DPPH free radicals. The ARE of motilón ( H. macrocarpa Müll. Arg) exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity in comparison to the other extracts. A second-order kinetic model was followed in all of the cases. These results suggested that the studied fruits are promising not only as source of natural pigments but also as antioxidant materials for food industry. PMID:22242913

  13. New species of Bakeria (Nematoda; Strongylida; Molineidae), new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda; Ascaridida; Kathlaniidae) and other helminths in Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria; Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Grismer, L Lee

    2014-10-01

    Two new nematode species, Bakeria schadi sp. nov. and Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. from the gastrointestinal tract of McGuire's rock gecko, Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria: Gekkonidae) collected in Peninsular Malaysia are described. The two species now assigned to Bakeria are separated on the bases of male bursa type and location of the excretory pore: type II in B. schadi sp. nov. and type I in B. bakeri; location of excretory pore, anterior to nerve ring in B. schadi sp. nov. and posterior to nerve ring in B. bakeri. Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. is most similar to F. chabaudi, F. concinnae, F. condorcanquii, F. barbi, F. dubia, and F. tchadi in that these 7 species possess 1 pseudosucker, 1 median papilla plus 10 pairs caudal papillae, and spicules with lengths between 1 and 2 mm. F. barbi and F. tchadi lack adcloacal papillae; the remaining 5 species possess 1 pair of adcloacal papillae. Falcaustra chabaudi is known from Nearctic salamanders; F. concinnae from Nearctic turtles; F. condorcanquii from Neotropical frogs, F. dubia from Oriental frogs, and F. malaysiaia sp. nov. from Oriental geckos. Two additional species of Nematoda were found, Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. Cnemaspis mcguirei represents a new host record for Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. PMID:25236275

  14. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  15. Prediction and assessment of ecogenotoxicity of antineoplastic drugs in binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, Michael; Parrella, Alfredo; Lavorgna, Margherita; Criscuolo, Emma; Russo, Chiara; Isidori, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The combined genotoxic effects of four anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], cisplatin [CDDP], etoposide [ET], and imatinib mesylate [IM]) were studied testing their binary mixtures in two crustaceans that are part of the freshwater food chain, namely Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Genotoxicity was assessed using the in vivo comet assay. Assessment was based on two distinct effect sizes determined from dose-response experiments. Doses for single and combined exposures expected to result in these effect sizes were computed based on Bliss independence as reference model. Statistical comparison by analysis of variance of single and combined toxicities allowed accepting or rejecting the independency hypothesis. The results obtained for D. magna showed independent action for all mixtures except for IM+5-FU that showed an antagonistic interaction. In C. dubia, most mixtures had antagonist interactions except IM+5-FU and IM+CDDP that showed Bliss independence. Despite the antagonistic interactions, our results demonstrated that combinations of anticancer drugs could be of environmental concern because effects occur at very low concentrations that are in the range of concentrations encountered in aquatic systems. PMID:26139396

  16. Investigating the relationship between toxicity and organic sum-parameters in kraft mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Catherine E; Juraske, Ronnie; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    Elaborate toxicity diagnostics, such as toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and effects-directed analysis (EDA) have helped in identifying the causative agents of effluent wastewater toxicity. However, simpler means of relating ecotoxicological effects to effluent composition could be useful for effluent management practices when there is no scope for more complex procedures. The aim of this work was to investigate and isolate the relationship between biological responses and commonly measured organic sum-parameters, such as chemical- and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD, respectively) in kraft mill effluents. In a top-down approach, the whole effluent toxicity (WET) of effluent samples was first determined from Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays. The theoretical toxicity that could be attributed to the metal content was then estimated, via a combination of equilibrium chemical speciation- and metal toxicity modelling. By assuming concentration addition, the metal toxicity was subtracted from the WET, isolating the toxicity thought to be caused by the organics. Strong and significant correlations between the 'corrected' toxicity and organic sum-parameters were found for both species. The growth of P. subcapitata was negatively associated with increasing COD concentrations, whereas reproduction of C. dubia was negatively associated with increasing BOD concentrations. The linear relationships, along with robust estimations of their uncertainty bounds, can provide valuable, albeit rough, guidance for kraft mill effluent management practices. PMID:25213683

  17. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  18. Assessment of the ecotoxicological risk of combined sewer overflows for an aquatic system using a coupled "substance and bioassay" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooré Bi, Eustache; Monette, Frederic; Gasperi, Johnny; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Very few tools are available for assessing the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) on receiving aquatic environments. The main goal of the study was to assess the ecotoxicological risk of CSOs for a surface aquatic ecosystem using a coupled "substance and bioassay" approach. Wastewater samples from the city of Longueuil, Canada CSO were collected for various rainfall events during one summer season and analyzed for a large panel of substances (n = 116). Four bioassays were also conducted on representative organisms of surface aquatic systems (Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and Oncorhynchus mykiss). The analytical data did not reveal any ecotoxicological risk for St. Lawrence River organisms, mainly due to strong effluent dilution. However, the substance approach showed that, because of their contribution to the ecotoxicological hazard posed by the effluent, total phosphorus (Ptot), aluminum (Al), total residual chlorine, chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), pyrene, ammonia (N-NH4 (+)), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) require more targeted monitoring. While chronic ecotoxicity tests revealed a potential impact of CSO discharges on P. promelas and C. dubia, acute toxicity tests did not show any effect on D. magna or O. mykiss, thus underscoring the importance of chronic toxicity tests as part of efforts aimed at characterizing effluent toxicity. Ultimately, the study leads to the conclusion that the coupled "substance and bioassay" approach is a reliable and robust method for assessing the ecotoxicological risk associated with complex discharges such as CSOs. PMID:25315929

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF WOOD AND BARK EXTRACTIVES AND THEIR TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE TMP EFFLUENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaokunZhang; MohiniSain

    2004-01-01

    Wood extractives in model TMP effluents and bio-treated TMP mill effluent were extracted, isolated with liquid-liquid extraction, and analyzed with GC/MS following sylilation. Acute and chronic toxicity of the effluent samples were tested with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Wood and bark extractives are responsible for the toxicity of the TMP effluent to aquatic life. Resin and fatty acids have a dominating contribution to acute toxicity. Removal of them from the effluent cannot deplete all toxicants, some neutral extractives such as phytosterols, are still chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Wood bark has a dramatic impact on acute toxicity of the TMP effluent. Only 5% of spruce bark addition can increase acute toxicity by 38.4%. However, it has a reverse trend for chronic toxicity, which indicates that some neutral wood extractives may play important role in chronic toxicity of the TMP effluent as well. Successful control of the debarking process and debark effluents is essential for achieving high-quality effluent treatment.

  20. Chromosomal variation and constitutive heterochromatin in three porpoise species (genus Stenella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, A D

    1981-01-01

    Chromosomes from cultured fibroblasts of two Pacific porpoise species, Stenella attenuata and S. longirostris, and one Atlantic species, S. dubia, were compared to test the feasibility of using variation in constitutive heterochromatin and other chromosomal characteristics for analyses of population relationships and defining stocks of endangered porpoises. The G-band karyotypes of the three species were identical except for minor band differences resulting from heterochromatin variation. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located on the same two pairs of acrocentric chromosomes in all three species, although individual variation occurred in the number of active NORs present. Differences in the distribution and amount of C-band heterochromatin were observed between the three species. Stenella attenuata and S. dubia were very similar in C-band pattern, while S. longirostris was distinctly different. Conspicuous heteromorphism between the C-heterochromatin of the homologs of several pairs of chromosomes was noted in all individuals examined. In addition, variation in the amount of heterochromatin was observed between the four S.attenuata individuals studied. Of the chromosomal characteristics studied, only C-heterochromatin variation holds promise for distinguishing interspecific populations of porpoises. The final decision regarding the feasibility of using C-band heterochromatin to distinguish interspecific populations of porpoises must await comparison of morphologically differing populations within what is currently regarded as a single species. PMID:7307585

  1. Assessment of metal releases and leachate toxicity of oil sands coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large volumes of coke are produced as a by-product of thermal upgrading of oil sands bitumen in Alberta. This paper examined the feasibility of integrating this stored by-product at wetland reclamation sites. Coke leachate water toxicity was evaluated in this study since coke is known to releases trace amounts of metals when it comes in contact with water. The objective was to determine the cause of toxicity by performing toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) on the leachate. The leachability of metals from coke was examined over a 45 day period in 2-L glass jars using reconstituted water with a hardness of 300 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) at pH levels 5.5 and 9.5. Coke porewater samples and overlying water samples collected periodically were analyzed for trace metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The toxicity of coke leachate was evaluated at the end of the 45 day period using a Ceriodaphnia dubia standard three-brood chronic test with survival and reproduction as endpoints. Coke leachate water from both pH treatments had a negative effect on survival and reproduction of C. dubia. The coke leachate had high concentrations of vanadium, according to metal analysis of leachate water from both pH treatments. In order to identify the cause of toxicity, the coke leachate water will be subjected to several TIE processes

  2. Assessment of sediments from Tiete River - toxicity and trace elements - from Salesopolis to Suzano counties, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, sediment samples from the Tiete River were evaluated for toxicity and trace metals (5 sampling sites). The studied region includes Salesopolis to Suzano and surroundings, a highly industrialized area. The study involved toxicity evaluation (sediment, elutriate and pore-water) and the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements on sediments. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). The concentration values obtained for the metals As, Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL). Regarding toxicity, whole sediments and elutriate fractions were evaluated using chronic assays for Ceriodaphnia dubia, while the pore water was carried out for Vibrio fischeri toxicity assays. These assays followed Brazilian Standardized Methods (ABNT). Whole sediments and elutriate evidenced negative biological effects, even at Salesopolis county, the control site (less impacted area). The worst effects were obtained at Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano counties (sampling stations 3 and 4). The elutriate fractions collected at the same stations showed acute toxicity in two of three samples (C. dubia). When pore water was evaluated, a toxicity gradient which increased as the river flowed through Mogi das Cruzes county was obtained. Regarding toxic metal contents in the sediment samples points 3 and 4 exceeded the TEL oriented values for As, Cr, Hg and Zn and point 4 also exceeded the PEL values for all these elements. (author)

  3. Evaluation of wetlands designed to transfer and transform selected metals in an aqueous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constructed wetlands can be used as an alternative to traditional wastewater treatment. Two wetlands were constructed at a Louisiana petroleum refinery and were used to study transfers and transformations of selected metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) in a refinery effluent. In order to optimize metal removal from the aqueous matrix and subsequently decrease metal bioavailability, the hydroperiod, hydrosoil, and vegetation were specifically selected and incorporated into the wetland design. To test the metal removal efficiency of the constructed wetlands, refinery effluent was amended with 4 mg Zn/L as ZnCl2 for 150 d. From influent to effluent, average total recoverable and soluble zinc concentrations decreased by 41 and 72%, respectively. Toxicity tests (7 d) using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas illustrated a decrease in zinc bioavailability. Average C. dubia survival increased from 0--73% as a result of wetland treatment; for P. promelas, the increase in average survival was 37--94%. Based upon this field experiment, constructed wetlands can be specifically designed for zinc removal and concomitant decreases in toxicity

  4. Assessment of sediments from Tiete River - toxicity and trace elements - from Salesopolis to Suzano counties, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegre, Gabriel F.; Borrely, Sueli, E-mail: gabrielfonseca@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Nascimento, Thuany M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, sediment samples from the Tiete River were evaluated for toxicity and trace metals (5 sampling sites). The studied region includes Salesopolis to Suzano and surroundings, a highly industrialized area. The study involved toxicity evaluation (sediment, elutriate and pore-water) and the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements on sediments. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). The concentration values obtained for the metals As, Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL). Regarding toxicity, whole sediments and elutriate fractions were evaluated using chronic assays for Ceriodaphnia dubia, while the pore water was carried out for Vibrio fischeri toxicity assays. These assays followed Brazilian Standardized Methods (ABNT). Whole sediments and elutriate evidenced negative biological effects, even at Salesopolis county, the control site (less impacted area). The worst effects were obtained at Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano counties (sampling stations 3 and 4). The elutriate fractions collected at the same stations showed acute toxicity in two of three samples (C. dubia). When pore water was evaluated, a toxicity gradient which increased as the river flowed through Mogi das Cruzes county was obtained. Regarding toxic metal contents in the sediment samples points 3 and 4 exceeded the TEL oriented values for As, Cr, Hg and Zn and point 4 also exceeded the PEL values for all these elements. (author)

  5. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  6. A world checklist of Onychophora (velvet worms), with notes on nomenclature and status of names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ivo de Sena; Read, V Morley St J; Mayer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the number of valid species of Onychophora is uncertain. To facilitate taxonomic work on this understudied animal group, we present an updated checklist for the two extant onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with an assessment of the status of each species. According to our study, 82 species of Peripatidae and 115 species of Peripatopsidae have been described thus far. However, among these 197 species, 20 are nomina dubia due to major taxonomic inconsistencies. Apart from nomina dubia, many of the valid species also require revision, in particular representatives of Paraperipatus within the Peripatopsidae, and nearly all species of Peripatidae. In addition to extant representatives, the record of unambiguous fossils includes three species with uncertain relationship to the extant taxa. For all species, we provide a list of synonyms, information on types and type localities, as well as remarks on taxonomic and nomenclatural problems and misspellings. According to recent evidence of high endemism and cryptic speciation among the Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, previous synonyms are revised. Putative mutations, subspecies and variations are either raised to the species status or synonymised with corresponding taxa. In our revised checklist, we follow the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to clarify previous inconsistencies. PMID:22930648

  7. A world checklist of Onychophora (velvet worms, with notes on nomenclature and status of names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the number of valid species of Onychophora is uncertain. To facilitate taxonomic work on this understudied animal group, we present an updated checklist for the two extant onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with an assessment of the status of each species. According to our study, 82 species of Peripatidae and 115 species of Peripatopsidae have been described thus far. However, among these 197 species, 20 are nomina dubia due to major taxonomic inconsistencies. Apart from nomina dubia, many of the valid species also require revision, in particular representatives of Paraperipatus within the Peripatopsidae, and nearly all species of Peripatidae. In addition to extant representatives, the record of unambiguous fossils includes three species with uncertain relationship to the extant taxa. For all species, we provide a list of synonyms, information on types and type localities, as well as remarks on taxonomic and nomenclatural problems and misspellings. According to recent evidence of high endemism and cryptic speciation among the Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, previous synonyms are revised. Putative mutations, subspecies and variations are either raised to the species status or synonymised with corresponding taxa. In our revised checklist, we follow the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to clarify previous inconsistencies.

  8. Acute toxicity screening of Hanford Site waste grouts using aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. The current strategy for the disposal of the low-level radioactive portion of these wastes involves immobilization of the waste in the form of grout. Because the potential risk of animal and plant exposure to grouts is unknown, acute toxicity screening of grouts is needed. Grouts were prepared by mixing a surrogate nonradioactive liquid waste with a blend consisting of cement, fly ash, and clay. Aqueous extracts of the grout were then screened for acute toxicity using aquatic invertebrates as test organisms and a fluorogenic substrate as the toxic stress indicator. After a 1-hour exposure of juvenile daphnids (D, magna, D. pulex, and C. dubia) to the grout extracts followed by a 15-minute reaction with the fluorogenic substrate, the degree of in vivo enzymatic inhibition was measured by the number of resulting fluorescent daphnids. The EC50 values calculated by probit analysis were 2,877 mg/L, 2,983 mg/L, and 3,174 mg/L for D. pulex, D. magna, and C. dubia, respectively. The slight difference in the responses may be attributed to the subjective pass-fail scoring of the fluorescence criterion. The results indicated that the grout studied is nonhazardous and nondangerous

  9. Limnological and ecotoxicological studies in the cascade of reservoirs in the Tietê River (São Paulo, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgher, S; Espíndola, E L G; Rocha, O; Fracácio, R; Pereira, R H G; Rodrigues, M H S

    2005-11-01

    An evaluation was made of the quality of samples of water and sediment collected from a series of reservoirs in the Tietê River (SP), based on limnological and ecotoxicological analyses. The samples were collected during two periods (Feb and Jul 2000) from 15 sampling stations. Acute toxicity bioassays were performed using the test organism Daphnia similis, while chronic bioassays were carried out with Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio larvae. The water samples were analyzed for total nutrients, total suspended matter and total cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc concentrations, while the sediment samples were examined for organic matter, granulometry and potentially bioavailable metals (cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc). The results obtained for the limnological variable, revealed differences in the water quality, with high contribution of nutrients and metals for Tietê and Piracicaba rivers, besides the incorporation and sedimentation, consequently causing a reduction of materials in Barra Bonita reservoir, thus promoting the improvement of the water quality in the other reservoirs. The toxicity bioassays revealed acute toxicity for Daphnia similis only in the reservoirs located below Barra Bonita dam. On the other hand, chronic toxicity for Ceriodaphnia dubia and acute for Danio rerio showed a different pattern, decreasing in magnitude from Barra Bonita to Três Irmãos, demonstrating an environmental degradation gradient in the reservoirs. PMID:16532194

  10. Rainwater toxicity and contamination study from São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Renata S L; Abessa, Denis M S; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Borrely, Sueli I

    2014-02-01

    Wet deposition is an important process that removes pollutants from the atmosphere and transfers them to waters and soil. The goal of this study was to assess the biological effects of the atmospheric contamination of rainwater in the metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP) using Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Vibrio fischeri. Experimental assays were carried out according to standard toxicity methodology. Twenty-three rainwater samples were collected from October 2007 to December 2008, at the Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN), in MASP. Major ions were determined by ionic chromatography, which showed NH4(+) and NO3(-) as prevalent ions. Ecotoxicological results confirmed toxic potential of rainwater, as all samples were toxic to D. similis and C. dubia. The V. fischeri luminescence reduction confirmed those negative effects of rainwater and percentage inhibition of relative luminescence ranged from 0.2 to 0.9 for 16 samples. Worse conditions were observed during the rainy season, suggesting convective rains are more effective in transferring contaminants and toxicity from atmosphere to surface. PMID:24122140

  11. Are there toxic interactions between salinity and naphthenic acids in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Pasloski, A.; Lanser, B.; Alm, K.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Large volumes of water are used to extract oil from the oil sands in the Athabasca deposit. The resulting oil sands process water (OSPW) has been proposed for use in future reclamation landscapes. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates in order to develop environmentally acceptable OSPW reclamation plans. The OSPW generally contains high concentrations of salts and naphthenic acids (NAs), but low levels of other contaminants such as PAHs and metals. This study investigated the combined toxic effect of NAs and salinity on freshwater invertebrates. Laboratory cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were used initially to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The pond waters that generated a toxic response had elevated levels of NAs and salinity, but the concentrations of salinity ions varied considerably among ponds. Results suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Subsequent bioassays were performed with single salts and with mixtures representing major ion combinations present in the OSPW, such as carbonate, sulphate, chloride and sodium. The interaction between NAs and salinity was evaluated by exposing Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia pulex to mixtures of NAs extracted from OSPW and relevant major ions chosen according to the salt toxicity test results.

  12. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediments from Tiete river between Salesopolis and Suzano, SP (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once introduced into the aquatic environment, many substances can bind or be adsorbed by organic particles in suspension. Depending on the river morphology and hydrological conditions, these particles in suspension containing the contaminants can be deposited along its course, becoming part of the bottom sediments, making them actual sinks and often a source of contamination for the water column and benthic organisms. In the assessment of water, sediment has been one of the most important indicators of the contamination levels in aquatic ecosystems, representing the deposition of contaminants in the environment that occurred over the years and even decades. The Tiete River cross the Sao Paulo state, however, in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, the river shows the most severe degradation. In the region of Salesopolis, the waters of the Tiete River are used for public supply, but across the city of Mogi das Cruzes the water quality decreases significantly. Considering the importance of the Tiete river and the sediment for the aquatic biota, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of the sediment at five points along the Tiete river, between the cities of Salesopolis and Suzano, Sao Paulo. Four sampling were carried out: two in the summer (rainy season) and two in winter (dry season). The whole sediment was assessed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia, respectively, the elutriate was assessed by chronic toxicity test using C. dubia, while the porewater was evaluated by acute toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri. Samples of river water were also evaluated for chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia. The quantification of metals and hydrocarbons in sediment samples was also carried out in order to correlate the biological effects with the chemical contamination. The obtained results with the whole sediment test indicate Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano cities as the most toxic sites and also as the sites with the highest

  13. Ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, I C; Rast, C; Veber, A M; Vasseur, P

    2007-06-01

    Soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. The toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox test, Daphnia magna) and chronic (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays and the EC values were expressed as percentage water extract in the test media (v/v). Algal growth (EC50-3d=2.4+/-0.2% of the water extracts) and reproduction of C. dubia (EC50-7d=4.3+/-0.6%) were the most severely affected, compared to bacterial luminescence (EC50-30 min=12+/-3%) and daphnid viability (EC50-48 h=30+/-3%). The Ames and Mutatox tests indicated mutagenicity of water extracts, while no response was found with the umu test. The toxicity of the soil samples was assessed on the survival and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and collembolae (Folsomia candida), and on the germination and growth of higher plants (Lactuca sativa L.: lettuce and Brassica chinensis J.: Chinese cabbage). The EC50 values were expressed as percentage contaminated soil in ISO soil test medium (weight per weight-w/w) and indicated severe effects on reproduction of the collembola F. candida (EC50-28 d=5.7%) and the earthworm E. fetida (EC50-28 d=18% and EC50-56 d=8%, based on cocoon and juvenile production, respectively). Survival of collembolae was already affected at a low concentration of the contaminated soil (EC50-28 d=11%). The viability of juvenile earthworms was inhibited at much lower concentrations of the cokery soil (EC50-14 d=28%) than the viability of adults (EC50-14 d=74%). Only plant growth was inhibited (EC50-17d=26%) while germination was not. Chemical analyses of water extracts allowed

  14. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediments from Tiete river between Salesopolis and Suzano, SP (Brazil); Avaliacao ecotoxicologica de sedimentos do rio Tiete, entre os municipios de Salesopolis e Suzano, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegre, Gabriel Fonseca

    2009-07-01

    Once introduced into the aquatic environment, many substances can bind or be adsorbed by organic particles in suspension. Depending on the river morphology and hydrological conditions, these particles in suspension containing the contaminants can be deposited along its course, becoming part of the bottom sediments, making them actual sinks and often a source of contamination for the water column and benthic organisms. In the assessment of water, sediment has been one of the most important indicators of the contamination levels in aquatic ecosystems, representing the deposition of contaminants in the environment that occurred over the years and even decades. The Tiete River cross the Sao Paulo state, however, in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, the river shows the most severe degradation. In the region of Salesopolis, the waters of the Tiete River are used for public supply, but across the city of Mogi das Cruzes the water quality decreases significantly. Considering the importance of the Tiete river and the sediment for the aquatic biota, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of the sediment at five points along the Tiete river, between the cities of Salesopolis and Suzano, Sao Paulo. Four sampling were carried out: two in the summer (rainy season) and two in winter (dry season). The whole sediment was assessed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia, respectively, the elutriate was assessed by chronic toxicity test using C. dubia, while the porewater was evaluated by acute toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri. Samples of river water were also evaluated for chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia. The quantification of metals and hydrocarbons in sediment samples was also carried out in order to correlate the biological effects with the chemical contamination. The obtained results with the whole sediment test indicate Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano cities as the most toxic sites and also as the sites with the highest

  15. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P

    2016-06-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4). Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.), guava (Psidium guajava (L.)), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.), at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC), 1:200 (RC), 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions). For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential. PMID:27143049

  16. Novo registros de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera do Amazonas e Pará, Brasil Newrecords of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera from Amazonas and Pará States, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Species of batflies of bats from Amazonas and Pará, Brazil are reported. Eleven species of Streblidae and three of Nycteribiidae were found on nine species of bats, belonging to seven genera. Pseudostrebla greenwelli Wenzel, 1996, Trichobius affinis Wenzel, 1976, Trichobius silvicolae Wenzel, 1976, and Hershkovitzia inaequalis Theodor, 1967 were collected for the first time in Brazil. Strebla consocia Wenzel, 1966, Strebla galindoi Wenzel, 1966, Trichobius dugesioides phyllostomus Guerrero, 1998, and Trichobius joblingi Wenzel, 1966 are new records for state of Amazonas. Noctiliostrebla maai Wenzel, 1966, Basilia dubia Guimarães & D'Andretta, 1956, and Basilia ferruginea Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 are new records for state of Pará.

  17. 上海植物区系新资料(Ⅵ)%Newly recorded plants in Shanghai (Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏庆; 熊申展; 陈纪云; 桂萍; 胡超

    2013-01-01

    A newly exotic genus Kickxia Dumort. (Scrophulariaceae) is recorded in Shanghai and China. And 11 newly recorded species are found in Shanghai, namely, Kickxia elatine (L. ) Dumort. , Amaranthus polygonoides L. , Ampelopsis japonica (Thunb. ) Makino, Asarum forbesii Maxim. , Ammannia multiflora Roxb. , Elymus shandongensis B. Salomon, Rorippa dubia (Pers. ) H. Hara, Cardamine scutata Thunb. , Corydalis sheareri S. Moore, Basella alba L. and Melochia corchorifolia L. respectively.%记载了中国及上海新记录外来植物凯氏草属,上海新记录植物戟叶凯氏草、合被苋、白蔹、杜衡、多花水苋菜、山东披碱草、无瓣蔊菜、圆齿碎米荠、地锦苗、落葵及马松子等11种.

  18. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao e identificacao da toxicidade (Toxity Identification Evaluation - TIE) do efluente liquido do polo industrial de Belford Roxo, RJ, e sua contribuicao na qualidade das aguas do corso inferior do Rio Sarapui, sub-bacia do Rio Iguacu, Bacia da Baia da Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-07-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  19. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests. PMID:25732700

  20. Microcrustaceans escape behavior as an early bioindicator of copper, chromium and endosulfan toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, María Florencia; Paggi, Juan César; Gagneten, Ana María

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to experimentally analyze the impact of copper, chromium and a commercial pesticide with endosulfan on the escape behavior of two copepods (Notodiaptomus conifer, Argyrodiaptomus falcifer) and three cladocerans (Daphnia magna, Pseudosida variabilis and Ceriodaphnia dubia). The experimental assays were carried out using a novel hydraulic devise designed to mimic three-speed predator capture behavior. Two concentrations, one "high" and one "low", were employed and the exposure time was 15 (±5) minutes. With two exceptions, the species exposed to heavy metals manifested higher ability to escape than controls. Both concentrations of the pesticide reduced the escape ability of cladocerans but copepods responded, in general, in a similar manner as for heavy metals. The immediate apparent advantage of low and early toxic effects is discussed and the high sensitivity of the escape behavior suggests that it could be a complementary endpoint to be used in future ecotoxicological tests. PMID:22038688

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15010-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R382128_448( CR382128 |pid:none) Yarrowia lipolytica strain CLIB1... 332 3e-89 AB261063_1( AB261063 |pid:non...infantum chromosome 29. 45 0.008 CR382130_712( CR382130 |pid:none) Yarrowia lipolytica strain CLIB1... 45 0....O200903... 42 0.050 AJ312021_1( AJ312021 |pid:none) Scherffelia dubia mRNA for co...382131_1348( CR382131 |pid:none) Yarrowia lipolytica strain CLIB... 37 1.6 BC065471_1( BC065471 |pid:none) D......done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( U44890 ) Dictyosteli

  2. A revision of the Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon (Araneae: Philodromidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Van den Berg

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon, 1875, are revised. Of the 10 previously recognised species of long-bodied grss spiders from this region, eight are redescribed and figured. Two species, T. punctifasciatus Strand, 1906, and T. robustus Simon, 1886, are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, T. cobusi, T. gerhardi, T. nimbaensis, T. somaliensis and T. sunetae, are described and three previously recognised subspecies of T. vossioni Simon, 1884, namely T. v. armatus Lessert, 1928, T. v. flavipes Caporiacco, 1941, and T. v. minor Lessert, 1919, are given species status. The genus Tibellinus Simon, 1910, is a junior synonym of Tibellus. Tibellinus australis is transferred to the genus Tibellus. The males of T. armatus stat. nov. and T. hollidayi Lawrence, 1952, are described for the first time. A key to 17 recognised species is given. Distributional data are provided for all species.

  3. Parachironomus lenz from china and Japan (Diptera, chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chun-Cai; Yan, Jiao; Jiang, Li; Guo, Qin; Liu, Ting; Ge, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xin-Hua; Pan, Bao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genus Parachironomus Lenz known from China and Japan are revised, and a key to their male adults is given. Parachironomuspoyangensis sp. n. is described in this life stage. Parachironomusfrequens (Johannsen) and Parachironomusmonochromus (van der Wulp) are recorded from China for the first time, thus are redescribed from Chinese specimens. Parachironomuskamaabeus Sasa & Tanaka and Parachironomustoneabeus Sasa & Tanaka are new junior synonyms of Parachironomusfrequens. Three Chinese or Japanese species formerly placed in Parachironomus are transferred to other genera, resulting in the new combinations Cryptochironomusinafegeus (Sasa, Kitami & Suzuki), Demicryptochironomus (Irmakia) lobus (Yan, Sæther, Jin & Wang), and Microchironomuslacteipennis (Kieffer). Chironomussauteri Kieffer, Parachironomuskisobilobalis Sasa & Kondo and Parachironomuskuramaexpandus Sasa are removed from Parachironomus; the last of these three denotes a valid species of uncertain generic placement, the first two are nomina dubia. PMID:25901113

  4. Review of Baeolidia, the largest genus of Aeolidiidae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia), with the description of five new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M; Cervera, Juan Lucas

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the systematics of the aeolid genus Baeolidia Bergh, 1888. To date, this monophyletic genus is the most diverse within Aeolidiidae with sixteen valid species. Excluding Baeolidia cryoporos Bouchet, 1977, the genus is restricted to the Indo-Pacific and Eastern Pacific. Species of Baeolidia show a huge intrageneric variability in several morphological characters. Only oral glands, if present, may distinguish Baeolidia from other aeolidiids genera. Aeolidiella occidentalis Bergh, 1875, Aeolidiella faustina Bergh, 1900 and Spurilla orientalis Bergh, 1905 are transferred to Baeolidia but they are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, Baeolidia rieae sp. nov., Baeolidia variabilis sp. nov., Baeolidia lunaris sp. nov., Baeolidia gracilis sp. nov. and Baeolidia scottjohnsoni sp. nov. are described. PMID:24871026

  5. The families Carditidae and Condylocardiidae in the Magellan and Perú-Chile provinces (Bivalvia: Carditoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güller, Marina; Zelaya, Diego G

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of available types and extant collections, this paper provides a systematic revision of the living species of Carditoidea occurring in the Magellan and Perú-Chile Provinces. Out of the 19 nominal species reported for the area, eight species are recognized as valid: Cyclocardia compressa, C. spurca, C. thouarsii, C. velutina, Carditella naviformis, C. semen, C. tegulata and Carditopsis flabellum. Other eight nominal species are regarded as synonyms: Cardita magellanica of Cyclocardia velutina; Carditella pallida of C. tegulata; Cardita australis and Actinobolus philippi of Carditella naviformis; Cardium pygmaeum of Carditella semen; Cardita paeteliana of Cyclocardia spurca; Carditella pallida duodecimcostata of Carditopsis flabellum; and Cardita congelascens of Cyclocardia thouarsii. Furthermore, Cardita malvinae and Cardium parvulum are nomina dubia, and the occurrence of Carditella exulata in Magellanic waters is doubtful. PMID:25243284

  6. Five new species and new records of biting midges of the genus Dasyhelea Kieffer from the Near East (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Patrycja; Alwin, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the entomological surveys in the Near East, seventeen species of biting midges of the genus Dasyhelea Kieffer are reported. Five new species are described and illustrated from adult males: D. (Dicryptoscena) antonii sp. nov., D. (Pseudoculicoides) avia sp. nov., D. (Ps.) libanensis sp. nov., D. (Ps.) nauta sp. nov. and D. (Ps.) sandrageorgei sp. nov. Among the remaining species, four are recorded for the first time from this region. Furthermore, new country records for Iran (1 sp.), Israel (2 spp.), Lebanon (9 spp.) and Yemen (1 sp.) are given. Four species described by Kieffer in 1918, namely D. distalis, D. flaviscapula, D. scutellaris and D. trifasciata, are treated as doubtful names (nomina dubia) and excluded from the Turkish fauna. In addition, an updated checklist of Dasyhelea of the Near East is presented. Dasyhelea labinoda Mazumdar & Chaudhuri, 2009 is proposed as a new junior synonym of D. deemingi Boorman & Harten, 2002. New synonymy. PMID:25250442

  7. The genus Macrostemum Kolenati 1859 (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) in the Neotropical Region: Description of two new species, taxonomic notes, distributional records and key to males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Diogo; Paprocki, Henrique; Calor, Adolfo R

    2013-01-01

    The genus Macrostemum Kolenati contains 105. described species, with 15 valid species in the Neotropical region. The Adults are recognized principally by wing membranes strongly marked with dark and light colors. The Neotropical species Of Macrostemum were described based on the wing colors patterns and body morphology. In this paper we present a taxonomic study of the Neotropical species, descriptions of two new species from Brazil, distributional records and a key to males. The male of Macrostemum negrense Flint 1978 is described for the first time, Names of three Neotropical species, M. ramosum (Navás 1916), M. trigramma (Navás 1916), and M. triste (Navás 1916) are designated nomina dubia. PMID:26106778

  8. Parachironomus Lenz from China and Japan (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuncai Yan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Parachironomus Lenz known from China and Japan are revised, and a key to their male adults is given. Parachironomus poyangensis sp. n. is described in this life stage. Parachironomus frequens (Johannsen and P. monochromus (van der Wulp are recorded from China for the first time, thus are redescribed from Chinese specimens. Parachironomus kamaabeus Sasa & Tanaka and P. toneabeus Sasa & Tanaka are new junior synonyms of P. frequens. Three Chinese or Japanese species formerly placed in Parachironomus are transferred to other genera, resulting in the new combinations Cryptochironomus inafegeus (Sasa, Kitami & Suzuki, Demicryptochironomus (Irmakia lobus (Yan, Sæther, Jin & Wang, and Microchironomus lacteipennis (Kieffer. Chironomus sauteri Kieffer, Parachironomus kisobilobalis Sasa & Kondo and P. kuramaexpandus Sasa are removed from Parachironomus; the last of these three denotes a valid species of uncertain generic placement, the first two are nomina dubia.

  9. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  10. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  11. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) Study, ambient water toxicity. Final report, October 21, 1993--October 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of October 21-28, 1993, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Due to serious reproduction/embryo abortion problems with the TVA daphnid cultures, TVA conducted tests during this study period using only fathead minnows. A split sample test using daphnids only will be scheduled during 1994 as a substitute for this study period. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 2.9, Mile 4.3, and Mile 5.1 on October 20, 22, and 25. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) in testing conducted by TVA.

  12. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.L.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of July 22-29, 1993, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 19.0 and Mile 22.0 on July 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA.

  13. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of October 21--28, 1993. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Due to serious reproduction/embryo abortion problems with the TVA daphnid cultures, TVA conducted tests during this study period using only fathead minnows. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 2.9, Mile 4.3, and Mile 5.1 on October 20, 22, and 25. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Reference toxicant test information.

  14. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22-29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase II Sampling and Analysis activities as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA.

  15. Metals, Parasites, and Environmental Conditions Affecting Breeding Populations of Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in Northern Arkansas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMali, Heather M; Trauth, Stanley E; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) is indigenous to northern Arkansas, and several breeding sites are known to exist in the region. Spotted salamanders (n = 17) were collected and examined for parasites and only three females harbored nematodes (Physaloptera spp.). Chronic aquatic bioassays were conducted using water collected from eight breeding ponds during different hydroperiod events. No lethal or sublethal effects were measured in Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, decreased growth and survival were seen in Pimephales promelas. Aqueous, sediment, and salamander hepatic samples were analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Metal analysis revealed possible increased metal exposure following precipitation, with greatest metal concentrations measured in sediment samples. Hepatic metal concentrations were similar in parasitized and non-parasitized individuals, and greatest Pb concentrations were measured following normal precipitation events. Determining environmental stressors of amphibians, especially during their breeding and subsequent larval life stage, is imperative to improve species conservation. PMID:26886425

  16. Limnological and ecotoxicological studies in the cascade of reservoirs in the Tietê river (São Paulo, Brazil Estudos limnológicos e ecotoxicológicos na cascata de reservatórios do rio Tietê (São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodgher

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation was made of the quality of samples of water and sediment collected from a series of reservoirs in the Tietê River (SP, based on limnological and ecotoxicological analyses. The samples were collected during two periods (Feb and Jul 2000 from 15 sampling stations. Acute toxicity bioassays were performed using the test organism Daphnia similis, while chronic bioassays were carried out withCeriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio larvae. The water samples were analyzed for total nutrients, total suspended matter and total cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc concentrations, while the sediment samples were examined for organic matter, granulometry and potentially bioavailable metals (cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc. The results obtained for the limnological variable, revealed differences in the water quality, with high contribution of nutrients and metals for Tietê and Piracicaba rivers, besides the incorporation and sedimentation, consequently causing a reduction of materials in Barra Bonita reservoir, thus promoting the improvement of the water quality in the other reservoirs. The toxicity bioassays revealed acute toxicity for Daphnia similis only in the reservoirs located below Barra Bonita dam. On the other hand, chronic toxicity for Ceriodaphnia dubia and acute for Danio rerio showed a different pattern, decreasing in magnitude from Barra Bonita to Três Irmãos, demonstrating an environmental degradation gradient in the reservoirs.O presente trabalho visou avaliar a qualidade de amostras de água e sedimento dos reservatórios em cascata do rio Tietê (SP através de análises limnológicas e ecotoxicológicas. Foram realizadas coletas de água e sedimento em dois períodos (fevereiro e julho de 2000 e em 15 estações de amostragem. Foram realizados bioensaios de toxicidade aguda para Daphnia similis, de toxicidade crônica para Ceriodaphnia dubia e para larvas pós-eclodidas de Danio rerio. Análises de nutrientes totais, material

  17. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  18. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical compound Triclosan to freshwater invertebrates with emphasis to spiked sediment tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) occurrence in the aquatic environment cause adverse effects on the human health and aquatic communities. The environmental risk of the PPCPs associated with the possibility of synergic effects between PCPPs and the increase of the use of synthetic organic compounds, unchained a great concern on the toxic potential to biota aquatic. Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) is a pharmaceutical compound widely used due your antibacterial mechanism effect, found in at least 932 products such as shampoos, toilet soaps, deodorants, lotions, toothpaste, detergents, socks and underwear, among others. Currently, studies about the Triclosan toxicity in the water and, mainly in the sediment, are poorly. We have the knowledge that the photodegradation of this product results into dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and now it has great discussion on environmental agencies, like EPA, about the release or restriction of this product. The aim of this work is to assess the effects of Triclosan on mortality of insect larvae Chironomus xanthus and mortality and reproduction inhibition of microcrustacea Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to Triclosan spiked sediments based on standard methods EPA and OECD. The EC50;96H obtained on acute toxicity tests with C. xanthus was 45,26 mg.Kg-1. The chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia using spiked sediments were performed following the procedure in Burton and MacPherson (1995). A no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentration were 5,78 e 6,94 mg.Kg-1, respectively. (author)

  19. Composition of the seed bank in drawdown areas of navigation pool 8 of the upper Mississippi river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, K.P.; Lyon, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to enhance aquatic plant production and habitat diversity on the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), resource managers considered water level reduction as a management tool to increase the area of emergent and submersed aquatic vegetation by natural seed germination. To quantify the availability of seed, we assessed the potential seed bank of selected areas of Navigation Pool 8 of the UMR from substrate samples collected in spring 2000. We tested these samples for viable seed content under four hydrologic conditions: dry, moist, shallow flooded and submerged. Forty-seven species were identified in the seed bank, including 27 obligate wetland, 10 facultative wetland and 7 upland species. Dominant taxa within the seed bank included Sagittaria spp., Lindernia dubia, Zosterella dubia, Cyperus spp., Eragrostis spp. and Leersia oryzoides. Of the four hydrologic treatments, moist substrates had the greatest species diversity and were the most productive, yielding an average density of 1420 seedlings m-2. Emergent and submersed aquatic species were widely distributed, each type occurring in more than 90% of the samples. Timing of seedling germination varied among species and has implications for scheduling drawdowns to promote establishment of desired species. Seed bank results were correlated with the vegetation response on substrates exposed during a reduction of water levels of Pool 8 during summer 2001. Experimentally determining the composition and viability of seed banks from drawdown areas provides information useful in predicting the types of vegetation that may develop on exposed substrates. Further, these findings provide resource managers a better understanding of the potential for achieving desired vegetation response through water level reductions.

  20. Toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and niclosamide to snails and nontarget aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, E C; Paumgartten, F J

    2000-07-01

    The toxicity of Euphorbia milii molluscicidal latex and niclosamide (NCL) to target snails (Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila) and nontarget aquatic organisms is evaluated. Planorbidae snails were killed by very low concentrations of lyophilized latex (48-h LC(50), mg/L: B. glabrata, 0.12; B. tenagophila, 0.09; Helisoma duryi, 0.10). Latex was less toxic (48-h LC(50) or EC(50), mg/L) to oligochaeta (Tubifex tubifex, 0.31), planktonic crustacea (Daphnia similis, 0.38; C. dubia, 1.07; Artemia sp., 0.93), and fishes (Danio rerio, 0.96; Poecilia reticulata, 1. 39), and considerably less toxic to Ampullariidae snails (Pomacea sp. , 10.55) and frog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana, 7.50). Latex (up to 100 mg/L) was not toxic to bacteria (P. putida and V. fischeri), algae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris), and mosquito larvae (Anopheles albitarsis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes fluviatilis). NCL was very toxic (48-h LC(50) or EC(50), mg/L) to Planorbidae snails (B. glabrata, 0.15, B. tenagophila, 0.13; H. duryi, 0.10), T. tubifex (0.11), crustacea (D. similis, 0.19; Ceriodaphnia dubia, 0.47; Artemia sp. 0.18), fishes (D. rerio, 0.25; P. reticulata, 0.29), R. catesbeiana (0.16), and Pomacea sp. (0.76). NCL was toxic to bacteria, algae (96-h IC(50), mg/L: S. capricornutum, 0.34; C. vulgaris, 1.23) and slightly toxic to mosquito larvae. In conclusion, E. milii latex, as compared with the reference molluscicide niclosamide, presents a higher degree of selectivity toward snails which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma trematodes. PMID:10903832

  1. Evaluación ecotoxicológica de sedimentos en una zona del Río Uruguay, con puntos finales indicadores de toxicidad aguda, sub-letal, crónica, reproductiva y teratogénica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Míguez Carames

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la toxicidad de los sedimentos de una zona del Río Uruguay, aplicando una batería de bioensayos. Las muestras provinieron de: una zona de influencia de descargas domésticas y efluentes de una planta de celulosa (Fray Bentos, una ciudad turística aguas abajo (Las Cañas y otra aguas arriba (Nuevo Berlín, sin influencia directa de dichos vertidos. Los bioensayos aplicados en elutriados fueron: de toxicidad con Photobacterium leiognathi, de reproducción con Ceriodaphnia dubia, de teratogenicidad y letalidad con Pimephales promelas y el ensayo sub-letal en sedimento completo con Hyalella curvispina. Para evaluar la biodisponibilidad y las rutas de toxicidad, se midió el fraccionamiento del 2,4,5-triclorofenol, con resultados: 63% disuelto, 27% adsorbido sobre partículas y el resto sedimentado.Se observó toxicidad por orgánicos y metales con P. leioghnati para todos los sitios. La frecuencia de malformaciones vertebralesde P. promelas fue de 3.3% en Fray Bentos, pero C. dubia sólo mostró efectos en Nuevo Berlín y Las Cañas. Los efectos con H. curvispina se evidenciaron en todas las muestras. Las rutas de toxicidad incluirían la ingestión de contaminantes disueltos y particulados asociados a arcillas y limo. El vínculo causa-efecto para la toxicidad se continuará investigando.

  2. Evaluating the risk to aquatic ecosystems posed by leachate from tire shred fill in roads using toxicity tests, toxicity identification evaluations, and groundwater modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Patrick J; Warmerdam, John M; Ogle, Scott; Humphrey, Dana N; Patenaude, Stacey M

    2006-02-01

    The risk to adjacent aquatic systems posed by leachates from scrap tires used in engineering applications has not been characterized adequately. Toxicity testing, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), and groundwater modeling were used to determine the circumstances under which tire shreds could be used as roadbed fill with negligible risk to aquatic organisms in adjacent water bodies. Elevated levels of iron, manganese, and several other chemicals were found in tire shred leachates. However, chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) showed no adverse effects caused by leachates collected from tire shreds installed above the water table. Exposure to leachates collected from tire shreds installed below the water table resulted in significant reductions to both survival and reproduction in C. dubia. The TIE results indicated that exposure to soluble metals (likely ferrous iron primarily) and the formation of iron hydroxide precipitates on this invertebrate species likely were the causes of the observed effects. The available chemistry data show that iron concentrations in the affected groundwater decreased substantially within a short distance (0.61 m) downgradient of tire shred fill. Based on geochemical modeling, the use of tire shreds in applications below the water table is appropriate in settings where dissolved oxygen is greater than 2.0 mg/L, pH is greater than 5.8, and a downgradient buffer of approximately 3.0 m exists between the fill and the surface water. For settings with lower dissolved oxygen concentrations or lower pH, results of groundwater modeling indicate that a greater buffer distance (approximately 11 m) is needed to dilute the leachate to nontoxic levels under various soil and groundwater conditions solely through advection and dispersion processes. PMID:16519300

  3. Role of a Comprehensive Toxicity Assessment and Monitoring Program in the Management and Ecological Recovery of a Wastewater Receiving Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Mark S.; Kszos, Lynn A.; Morris, Gail W.; Smith, John G.; Stewart, Arthur J.

    2011-06-01

    National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven effluent toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than 20 years to assess and monitor the effects of wastewaters at the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Toxicity testing was also conducted on water samples from East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the wastewater receiving stream, as part of a comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment program. In this paper, we evaluate the roles of this long-term toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of EFPC. Effluent toxicity testing, associated toxicant evaluation studies, and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicant sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. The elimination of untreated wastewater discharges, the dechlorination of remaining wastewater streams, and the implementation of flow management at the stream headwaters were the primary actions associated with significant reductions in the toxicity of stream water in the upper reaches of EFPC from the late 1980s through mid 1990s. Through time, as regulatory requirements changed and water quality improved, emphasis shifted from comprehensive toxicity assessments to more focused toxicity monitoring efforts. Ambient toxicity testing with C. dubia and fathead minnows was supplemented with less-standardized but more sensitive alternative laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the value of toxicity studies to the management of a wastewater receiving stream.

  4. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide

  5. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S

    2003-08-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  6. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ivey, Christopher D; Kunz, James L; May, Thomas W; Dwyer, F James; Roberts, Andy D; Augspurger, Tom; Kane, Cynthia M; Neves, Richard J; Barnhart, M Chris

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 microg Cu/L (except 15 microg Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were copper and 1999 acute WQC for ammonia. However, the chlorine EC50s for mussels generally were >40 microg/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. PMID:17867873

  7. Use of submitochondrial particle (SMP) assays for assessing wetlands constructed for sequestering acid mine runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of constructed wetlands to sequester metals from acid mine drainage is part of a USEPA SITE demonstration at Burleigh Tunnel near Silverplume, Colorado. Samples are collected on a seasonal basis for toxicity evaluation of two different pilot treatment systems. Water samples were obtained from the outflow of two experimental wetland cells utilizing either upflow and downflow treatment, as well as upstream and downstream of the discharge of Burleigh Tunnel to Clear Creek. Submitochondrial Particle (SMP), Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas acute bioassays were used to evaluate the water quality. The SMP bioassay is based on the electron transfer complex derived from mitochondria. Toxic responses result from subcellular perturbations of various subsets of enzyme systems contained in the complex. In prior work, a 0.79 r2 was reported between the SMP bioassay and P. promelas for 11 inorganics on the EPA Priority Pollutant list. The SMP bioassay provided data consistent with the whole organism results. The two most toxic samples: the Burleigh outflow, and the Clear Creek Upstream sample, gave C. dubia LC50s of 1.01% and 8.41%, respectively. The Burleigh outflow P. promelas LC50 was 1.55%. SMP EC50s for the Burleigh outflow and the Clear Creek Upstream sample were 0.63% and 1.63%, respectively. As the SMP bioassay requires 1 hour to run and costs approximately 1/10th of whole organism assays, it was feasible to determine EC50 values for 7 samples vs. the two sample LC50s determined using whole organism assays. The SMP bioassays can provide sufficient sampling density, at low cost, allowing effective delineation of wetland performance over time

  8. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical compound Triclosan to freshwater invertebrates with emphasis to spiked sediment tests; Avaliacao ecotoxicologica do farmaco Triclosan para invertebrados de agua doce com enfase em ensaios com sedimento marcado ('spiked sediment')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusceddu, Fabio Hermes

    2009-07-01

    The increasing of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) occurrence in the aquatic environment cause adverse effects on the human health and aquatic communities. The environmental risk of the PPCPs associated with the possibility of synergic effects between PCPPs and the increase of the use of synthetic organic compounds, unchained a great concern on the toxic potential to biota aquatic. Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) is a pharmaceutical compound widely used due your antibacterial mechanism effect, found in at least 932 products such as shampoos, toilet soaps, deodorants, lotions, toothpaste, detergents, socks and underwear, among others. Currently, studies about the Triclosan toxicity in the water and, mainly in the sediment, are poorly. We have the knowledge that the photodegradation of this product results into dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and now it has great discussion on environmental agencies, like EPA, about the release or restriction of this product. The aim of this work is to assess the effects of Triclosan on mortality of insect larvae Chironomus xanthus and mortality and reproduction inhibition of microcrustacea Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to Triclosan spiked sediments based on standard methods EPA and OECD. The EC50;96H obtained on acute toxicity tests with C. xanthus was 45,26 mg.Kg{sup -1}. The chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia using spiked sediments were performed following the procedure in Burton and MacPherson (1995). A no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentration were 5,78 e 6,94 mg.Kg{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  9. A review of the Veronicellidae from Mexico (Gastropoda: Soleolifera Revisión de los Veronicellidae de México (Gastropoda: Soleolifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Naranjo-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Information is presented regarding the species of the Family Veronicellidae in Mexico. Data were gathered from specimens deposited in the Colección Nacional de Moluscos (Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, from field trips, and from the literature. These slugs are distributed mainly in the central and southern regions of Mexico, although there are a few records from the northern part of the country. Five species in three genera have been recorded, namely: Leidyula floridana, L. moreleti, Phyllocaulis gayi, Sarasinula dubia and S. plebeia. The occurrence of Leidyula floridana and Phyllocaulis gayi in Mexico needs confirmation. The Los Tuxtlas region, southern Veracruz, is a hotspot where veronicellid slugs have become a pest and farmers have stopped growing beans, switching to other crops as a measure to contain the pest.Se sintetiza la información conocida de los Veronicellidae de México. Los datos provienen de ejemplares depositados en la Colección Nacional de Moluscos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, de salidas complementarias de trabajo al campo y recopilación de la literatura. Estas babosas se distribuyen principalmente en el centro y sur de México, aunque existen algunos registros en el norte del país. Se han registrado 3 géneros y 5 especies: Leidyula floridana, L. moreleti, Phyllocaulis gayi, Sarasinula dubia, y S. plebeia. Los registros en México de L. floridana y P. gayi deben confirmarse. En la región de Los Tuxtlas, al sur del estado de Veracruz, se localizó un foco donde las babosas Veronicellidae son plaga, los agricultores dejaron de sembrar frijol y cambiaron a otros cultivos para evitar la plaga.

  10. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  11. On a pterosaur jaw from the Upper Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Unwin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A short section of a mandibular symphysis is the first cranial fossil of a pterosaur to be reported from the Upper Jurassic of Tendaguru, Tanzania. It is made the holotype of a new dsungaripteroid pterosaur, Tendaguripterus recki n. gen. n. sp. All previously named pterosaur taxa from Tendaguru are shown to be nomina dubia. The pterosaur assemblage from Tendaguru contains a "rhamphorhynchoid", as well as the dsungaripteroid, and is similar in its systematic composition to other Late Jurassic pterosaur assemblages from Laurasia. The diversity and broad distribution of dsungaripteroids in the Late Jurassic suggests that the group was already well established by this time. Der erste Schädelrest eines Flugsauriers aus dem Oberjura von Tendaguru in Tansania wird beschrieben. Bei dem Fundstück handelt es sich um ein bezahntes Unterkieferbruchstück aus der Symphysenregion. Der Fund gehört zu einem neuen Taxon, das als Tendaguripterus recki n. gen. n. sp. bezeichnet und zur Überfamilie Dsungaripteroidea gestellt wird. Alle zuvor aus den Tendaguru-Schichten beschriebenen Taxa werden als nomina dubia angesehen. In Tendaguru sind Verteter der „Rhamphorhynchoidea“ und Dsungaripteroidea nachgewiesen. Diese systematische Zusammensetzung ist derjenigen anderer Flugsaurier-Vergesellschaftungen der späten Jura-Zeit ähnlich. Die Vielfalt und die weite Verbreitung der Dsungaripteroidea in Laurasia läßt darauf schließen, daß sich diese Flugsauriergruppe bereits in der späten Jura-Zeit erfolgreich durchgesetzt hatte. doi:10.1002/mmng.1999.4860020109

  12. Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle, 1841: the senior synonym of the freshwater stingray disceus thayeri Garman, 1913 (chondrichthyes: potamotrygonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S. Rosa

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the original descriptions and available types of the South American freshwater stingrays Trygon aiereba Müller & Henle, 1841, Trygon strogylopterus Schomburgk, 1843 and Disceus thayeri Garman, 1913 indicates that these three nominal species are synonymous. The senior name, placed in the monotypic genus Paratrygon Duméril, 1865, established for Trygon aiereba, is available and valid. Based on its description, T. aiereba is a freshwater stingray. Therefore, this taxon is not the same as Raja ajereba Walbaum and Raja orbicularis Schneider, both names established for the marine "Aiereba" of Marcgrave, and which preferably should be treated as nomina dubia. Paratrygon does not replace Potamotrygon Garman, 1877 as the type genus, because the family name Potamotrygonidae Garman, 1877 has priority over Paratrygonidade Gill, 1893.A revisão das descrições originais e dos tipos existentes das raias de água doce Trygon aiereba Müller & Henle, 1841, Trygon strogylopterus Schomburgk, 1843, e Disceus thayeri Garman, 1913, indica que essas três espécies nominais são sinônimas. O nome sênior, colocado no gênero monotípico Paratrygon Duméril, 1865, estabelecido para T. aiereba, é disponível e válido. A descrição de T. aiereba corresponde claramente a uma raia de agua doce; portanto esta espécie não é um sinônimo de Raja ajereba Walbaum e de Raja orbicularis Schneider, ambos os nomes propostos para a "Aiereba " marinha de Marcgrave, e que preferivelmente devem ser tratados como nomina dubia. Paratrygon não substitui Potamotrygon Garman, 1877 como gênero-tipo, porque o nome de família Potamotrygonidae Garman, 1877 tem prioridade sobre Paratrygonidae Gill. 1893.

  13. Chronic toxicity of chloride to freshwater species: effects of hardness and implications for water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphick, James R F; Bergh, Kelli D; Bailey, Howard C

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity tests using nine freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pimephales promelas, Lumbriculus variegatus, Tubifex tubifex, Chironomus dilutus, Hyallela azteca, and Brachionus calyciflorus) were conducted to evaluate their sensitivity to chloride. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) from these tests indicate the ACR of 7.59 employed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in deriving its water quality guideline for chloride may be conservative; a revised ACR of 3.50 is presented here. The endpoints used to calculate the ACR included 24-h to 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) for acute tests, and 48-h to 54-d inhibition concentration (ICx) values for growth or reproduction for chronic exposures. Data from the present chronic toxicity tests, and other investigators, were used to propose a water quality guideline for long-term exposure to chloride using a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach. The 5th percentile from the SSD was calculated as 307 mg/L and proposed as the water quality guideline. Cladocerans were the most sensitive species in the dataset. Ceriodaphnia dubia was used to evaluate the relationship between water hardness and sensitivity to chloride. A strong relationship was observed and was used to establish a hardness-related equation to modify the proposed water quality guideline on the basis of water hardness, resulting in values ranging from 64 mg/L chloride at 10 mg/L hardness to 388 mg/L chloride at 160 mg/L hardness (as CaCO₃). These data suggest that current water quality guidelines for chloride may be overly conservative in water with moderate-to-high hardness, and may not be sufficiently protective under soft-water conditions. PMID:20872898

  14. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  15. Comparative study of the sensitivities of neonates and adults of selected cladoceran (Cladocera: Crustacea) species to acute toxicity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, S S S; Peredo-Alvarez, V M; Nandini, S

    2007-08-01

    The body size differences between neonates and adults of many cladoceran species are large and this influences their susceptibility to toxicants. In this study we quantified the mortality rates based on acute toxicity tests using 7 species of Cladocera (Alona rectangula,Daphnia laevis, D. pulex, D. similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Moina macrocopa and Macrothrix triserialis) subjected to stress from methyl parathion (a pesticide) and mercury (a heavy metal). Among the test species, the body size of D. pulex was the largest while that of A. rectangula was the smallest, for both adults and neonates. Regardless of the toxicant, for a given species, neonates were more sensitive than the adults. For mercury, the 24h LC(50) for neonates varied from 5.6 to 16.6 microg/L while for the adults the range was higher (7.6 to 42.5 microg/L); the ratio of LC(50) of neonates to adults of D. laevis was > 3.5, while it was lowest (1.3) for M. triserialis. For methyl parathion, the range of LC(50) for neonates was from 2.5 to 15.6 microg/L, while for the adults it was from 8.2 to 25.9 microg/L. The ratio of LC(50) of neonate to adults was lowest (about 1.1) for C. dubia but was highest (> 5.5) for Alona rectangula. Our study also showed the need to employ a range of cladoceran species for ecotoxicological tests since no single species was consistently sensitive for stress from heavy metal or pesticide. PMID:17680484

  16. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset. PMID:27045773

  17. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhofer, Axel L

    2013-01-01

    An update of the systematics and determination key of the Opiliones suborder Dyspnoi is provided. The included catalogue represents the first comprehensive species and synonymy listing since Roewer (1923). It summarises all taxonomic changes to date and attempts to be a sound basis against the exponential growing number of online errors, for which examples are given. Species taxonomy features most obvious changes within the Nemastomatidae. The number of species in the collective genus Nemastoma is reduced from 96 (Hallan 2005) to its sensu stricto definition of 7, and the excluded names are transferred to other genera or considered as nomina dubia, predominantly in Paranemastoma. The systematics of the superfamily Ischyropsalidoidea is discussed and family-level diagnoses are renewed to support taxonomical changes: The morphological heterogeneity in the Sabaconidae is resolved by reverting the family to its original monogeneric state. Taracus and Hesperonemastoma are separated as Taracidae fam. n., and Crosbycus is tentatively transferred to this assembly. The remaining genera of Ceratolasmatidae, Acuclavella and Ceratolasma, are included as subfamily Ceratolasmatinae in the Ischyropsalididae and Ischyropsalis is assigned subfamily status, respectively. Other nomenclatural acts are restricted to species-group level with the following synonymies established: Sabacon jonesi Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942 syn. n. (=cavicolens (Packard, 1884)), Dicranolasma diomedeum Kulczyński, 1907 syn. n. (=hirtum Loman, 1894), Mitostoma (Mitostoma) sketi Hadži, 1973a syn. n. (=chrysomelas (Hermann, 1804)), Mitostoma asturicum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=pyrenaeum (Simon, 1879a)), Nemastoma formosum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Nemastomella bacillifera bacillifera (Simon, 1879a)), Nemastoma reimoseri Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma bicuspidatum (C.L. Koch, 1835)), Nemastoma tunetanum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma bureschi (Roewer, 1926)), Phalangium flavimanum C.L. Koch, 1835 syn. n

  18. Cloning and expression features of a Doublesex gene in Daphnia pulex during different reproduction modes%蚤状溞doublesex的克隆及在不同生殖状态时的表达特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 宁俊佳; 张清科; 张萌萌; 周伟; 吴仓仓; 王丹丽

    2015-01-01

    利用RACE技术从蚤状溞( Daphnia pluex)中克隆到doublesex( dpdsx),dpdsx cDNA全长为1636 bp,其中开放阅读框( ORF)1008 bp,编码335个氨基酸,含有1个DM结构域和1个Dimersation domain。同源性比对结果显示蚤状溞dpdsx与大型溞( Daphnia magna)同源性最高为77%,其次盔形溞( Daphnia galeata)为61%,模糊网纹溞( Ce-riodaphnia dubia)为54%;进化分析发现蚤状溞dpdsx与盔形溞、大型溞、模糊网纹溞等溞科的亲缘关系最近;Real time-PCR实验结果表明,dpdsx在雄溞表达水平最高,其次是孤雌溞(带夏卵)和两性溞(带冬卵),雌溞与雄溞有显著性差异( P>0.05)。表明doublesex有可能在蚤状溞生殖转化和性别分化调控上起一定作用。%The full-length cDNA of a doublesex ( dpdsx) gene was cloned from the cladoceran Daphnia pulex using rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends ( RACE ) method.The dpdsx cDNA is 1636 bp in length; and it has a 1008-bp open reading frame ( ORF) that encodes a 335-amino-acid polypeptide containing a DM structural domain and a dimersation domain.Homology comparison showed Daphnia pulex′s dpdsx sharing homology of up to 77%with Daphnia magna, 61% with Daphnia magna and 54% with Ceri-odaphnia dubia.Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Daphnia pulex′s dpdsx had a close genetic relationship with Daphniidae such as D. magna, D.magna, C.dubia and so on.Real time-PCR showed that dpdsx had the highest expression level in the male, followed by the parthenogenetic female ( with summer egg) and sexual female ( with winter egg) .The expression had significant difference ( P>0.05) between the male and the female.The experiment indicated that doublesex gene may be play a role in reproduction switching and controlling sex differentiation of D.pulex.

  19. Development of a biofilm inhibitor molecule against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with gestational urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan eP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is a globally widespread human infection caused by an infestation of uropathogens. Eventhough, Escherichia coli is often quoted as being the chief among them, Staphylococcus aureus involvement in UTI especially in gestational UTI is often understated. Staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA is a quorum regulator of S. aureus that controls the expression of various virulence and biofilm phenotypes. Since SarA had been a focussed target for antibiofilm agent development, the study aims to develop a potential drug molecule targeting the SarA of S. aureus to combat biofilm associated infections in which it is involved. In our previous studies, we have reported the antibiofilm activity of SarA based biofilm inhibitor, (SarABI with a 50% minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 value of 200 µg/mL against S. aureus associated with vascular graft infections and also the antibiofilm activity of the root ethanolic extracts of Melia dubia against uropathogenic E. coli. In the present study, in silico design of a hybrid molecule composed of a molecule screened from M. dubia root ethanolic extracts and a modified SarA based inhibitor (SarABIM was undertaken. SarABIM is a modified form of SarABI where the fluorine groups are absent in SarABIM. Chemical synthesis of the hybrid molecule, 4-(Benzylaminocyclohexyl 2-hydroxycinnamate (henceforth referred to as UTI Quorum-Quencher, UTIQQ was then performed, followed by in vitro and in vivo validation. The MBIC¬50 and MBIC90 of UTIQQ were found to be 15 µg/mL and 65 µg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM images witnessed biofilm reduction and bacterial killing in either UTIQQ or in combined use of antibiotic gentamicin and UTIQQ. Similar results were observed with in vivo studies of experimental UTI in rat model. So, we propose that the drug UTIQQ would be a promising candidate when used alone or, in combination with an antibiotic for staphylococcal

  20. Water quality and toxicity of river water downstream of the uranium mining facility at Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mining site of Pocos de Caldas consists of open mine pit, tailings, waste rock dumps and an acid rock drainage problem, which has the potential to impact upon freshwater of the Ribeirao das Antas catchment. The high level of manganese (value of 1.8 mg/L) contained in the discharge water (DW) is an important factor affecting the water quality of the river (water quality criterion for aquatic life for Mn is 0.1 mg/L). Water quality criteria (WQC) are used for regulatory purpose and intended to define concentrations of chemicals in water that are protective of aquatic life and human health. WQC is a standard, although it is recognized that in some instances these criteria may be overprotective as metal bioavailability and hence toxicity is dependent on water chemistry. The toxicity assessment of WD was performed by bioassays with Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia as bioindicators. As DW showed no toxicity to the organisms and the chemical analysis and dose assessments pointed U and Mn as the most important metals for water toxicity, the U and Mn toxicities were evaluated in the DW spiked with U and Mn. Acute uranium toxicity (48 h immobilisation test) for Daphnia similis was determined as a LC50 value (concentration that is toxic to 50% of test organisms) around 0.05-0.06 mg/L, value close to the one found for effects on reproduction, a 7 day LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) of 0.062 mg/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia. The value of NOEC (no-observed effect concentration) for U was 0.03 mg U/L, which is higher than the concentration corresponded to the authorized dose limit for 238U (0.004 mg/L) and higher than the uranium WQC (0.02 mg U/L). The manganese concentration in the DW is lower than the found value of LC50 (11.5 mg/L), LOEC (10 mg/L) and NOEC (5 mg Mn/L). (author)

  1. Comparative toxicity of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate to freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Tyler D; Kinley, Ciera M; Iwinski, Kyla J; Calomeni, Alyssa J; Rodgers, John H

    2016-10-01

    Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (SCP) is a granular algaecide containing H2O2 as an active ingredient to control growth of noxious algae. Measurements of sensitivities of target and non-target species to hydrogen peroxide are necessary for water resource managers to make informed decisions and minimize risks for non-target species when treating noxious algae. The objective of this study was to measure and compare responses among a target noxious alga (cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa) and non-target organisms including a eukaryotic alga (chlorophyte Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), microcrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia), benthic amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to exposures of hydrogen peroxide as SCP. Hydrogen peroxide exposures were confirmed using the I3(-) method. SCP margins of safety for these organisms were compared with published toxicity data to provide context for other commonly used algaecides and herbicides (e.g. copper formulations, endothall, and diquat dibromide). Algal responses (cell density and chlorophyll a concentrations) and animal mortality were measured after 96h aqueous exposures to SCP in laboratory-formulated water to estimate EC50 and LC50 values, as well as potency slopes. Despite a shorter test duration, M. aeruginosa was more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide as SCP (96h EC50:0.9-1.0mgL(-)(1) H2O2) than the eukaryotic alga P. subcapitata (7-d EC50:5.2-9.2mgL(-1) H2O2), indicating potential for selective control of prokaryotic algae. For the three non-target animals evaluated, measured 96-h LC50 values ranged from 1.0 to 19.7mgL(-1) H2O2. C. dubia was the most sensitive species, and the least sensitive species was P. promelas, which is not likely to be affected by concentrations of hydrogen peroxide as SCP that would be used to control noxious algae (e.g. M. aeruginosa). Based on information from peer-reviewed literature, other algaecides could be similarly selective for cyanobacteria. Of the

  2. Water quality and toxicity of river water downstream of the uranium mining facility at Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira C.; Vascocnellos, Luisa M.H.; Simoes, Francisco F. Lamego; Clain, Almir F., E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.b, E-mail: luisa@ird.gov.b, E-mail: flamego@ird.gov.b, E-mail: almir@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Scassiotti, Walter F.; Antunes, Ivan, E-mail: scassiotti@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil); Ferreira, Ana M., E-mail: anaferreira@dmaepc.mg.gov.b [Departamento Municipal de Aguas e Esgotos de Pocos de Caldas (DMAE), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos R.L., E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Pocos de Caldas Lab.

    2009-07-01

    The uranium mining site of Pocos de Caldas consists of open mine pit, tailings, waste rock dumps and an acid rock drainage problem, which has the potential to impact upon freshwater of the Ribeirao das Antas catchment. The high level of manganese (value of 1.8 mg/L) contained in the discharge water (DW) is an important factor affecting the water quality of the river (water quality criterion for aquatic life for Mn is 0.1 mg/L). Water quality criteria (WQC) are used for regulatory purpose and intended to define concentrations of chemicals in water that are protective of aquatic life and human health. WQC is a standard, although it is recognized that in some instances these criteria may be overprotective as metal bioavailability and hence toxicity is dependent on water chemistry. The toxicity assessment of WD was performed by bioassays with Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia as bioindicators. As DW showed no toxicity to the organisms and the chemical analysis and dose assessments pointed U and Mn as the most important metals for water toxicity, the U and Mn toxicities were evaluated in the DW spiked with U and Mn. Acute uranium toxicity (48 h immobilisation test) for Daphnia similis was determined as a LC50 value (concentration that is toxic to 50% of test organisms) around 0.05-0.06 mg/L, value close to the one found for effects on reproduction, a 7 day LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) of 0.062 mg/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia. The value of NOEC (no-observed effect concentration) for U was 0.03 mg U/L, which is higher than the concentration corresponded to the authorized dose limit for {sup 238}U (0.004 mg/L) and higher than the uranium WQC (0.02 mg U/L). The manganese concentration in the DW is lower than the found value of LC50 (11.5 mg/L), LOEC (10 mg/L) and NOEC (5 mg Mn/L). (author)

  3. Utility of population models to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ecological risk assessments of pesticides: an example based on acute mortality data for daphnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Niklas; Stark, John D

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, ecological risk assessments (ERA) of pesticides have been based on risk ratios, where the predicted concentration of the chemical is compared to the concentration that causes biological effects. The concentration that causes biological effect is mostly determined from laboratory experiments using endpoints on the level of the individual (e.g., mortality and reproduction). However, the protection goals are mostly defined at the population level. To deal with the uncertainty in the necessary extrapolations, safety factors are used. Major disadvantages with this simplified approach is that it is difficult to relate a risk ratio to the environmental protection goals, and that the use of fixed safety factors can result in over- as well as underprotective assessments. To reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ERA, it has been argued that population models should be used more frequently. In the present study, we have used matrix population models for 3 daphnid species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and D. pulex) to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in the ERA of a pesticide (spinosad). The survival rates in the models were reduced in accordance with data from traditional acute mortality tests. As no data on reproductive effects were available, the conservative assumption that no reproduction occurred during the exposure period was made. The models were used to calculate the minimum population size and the time to recovery. These endpoints can be related to the European Union (EU) protection goals for aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of agricultural fields, which state that reversible population level effects are acceptable if there is recovery within an acceptable (undefined) time frame. The results of the population models were compared to the acceptable (according to EU documents) toxicity exposure ratio (TER) that was based on the same data. At the acceptable TER, which was based on the most sensitive species (C. dubia

  4. Comparison between the efficiency of two bioindicators for determining surface water quality in an urban environment = Comparação entre a eficiência de dois bioindicadores para a determinação da qualidade de águas superficiais em um ambiente urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of two bioindicators, fecal coliforms and ecotoxicity tests, set out in CONAMA Resolution 274/00 and CONAMA Resolution 357/05, in assessment of water quality. For this study, Lake Paranoá, Federal District of Brazil, was chosen, since it is a water body directly contaminated by effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Four sampling points were chosen in accordance with the map of recreational water quality published weekly by CAESB/DF, after analysis of fecal coliforms. Samples from these points were collected for 6 months and tested on Danio rerio fish (acute toxicity and on the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (acute and chronic toxicity, besides measuring chemical and physico-chemical parameters. The data obtained show great consistency between the observed biological parameters, suggesting that in this urbanaquatic environment, under great anthropogenic pressure, the fecal coliform bioindicator seems to be more restrictive and enough to evaluate the safety of surface water. Este trabalho comparou a eficiência dos bioindicadores coliformes fecais ou termotolerantes e ensaios de ecotoxicidade, propostos pelas Resoluções Conama 274/00 e Conama 357/05, na avaliação da qualidade de água. Para a realização desse estudo foi escolhido o Lago Paranoá,Brasília, Distrito Federal, por ser um corpo hídrico impactado diretamente pelo lançamento de efluentes de uma estação de tratamento de esgotos. Foram definidos quatro pontos de acordo com o mapa de balneabilidade, publicado semanalmente pela Caesb/DF, em função do teor de coliformes termotolerantes. Amostras desses pontos colhidas durante seis meses foram testadas com o peixe Danio rerio (toxicidade aguda e o com o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia (toxicidade aguda e crônica, além da determinação de parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram grande equivalência entre osparâmetros biológicos observados

  5. Embalagens plásticas e refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de jabuticaba Plastic packages and cold storage on the postharvest preservation of jabuticaba fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicácia Portella Machado

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do uso de embalagens plásticas associadas à refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de jabuticabas (Myrciaria spp para consumo in natura e processamento. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, na Embrapa Clima Temperado - Pelotas-RS, com os seguintes tratamentos: T1- testemunha (não-embaladas; T2- bandeja plástica (capacidade da embalagem de 200g (dimensões de 18cm de comprimento x 12cm de largura x 3cm de altura com duas perfurações de 1mm cada, na tampa, e T3- saco plástico (15m de espessura com perfurações de aproximadamente 0,5mm. No experimento 1, os frutos (destinados ao consumo in natura foram armazenados durante 08 dias, a 0ºC e 90% UR, em câmara fria, com liberação de oxigênio ionizado (0,03 e 0,09ppm na atmosfera, mais dois dias a 20-22ºC e 70-75% UR e, no experimento 2 (frutos destinados ao processamento, utilizou-se a mesma condição de armazenamento do experimento 1, porém as avaliações das jabuticabas foram realizadas 10 dias após o armazenamento a 0ºC e 90% UR. Avaliaram-se a perda de peso (%; sólidos solúveis totais (SST (ºBrix; pH; acidez titulável (AT (% de ácido cítrico e relação SST/AT. Observou-se, em ambos os experimentos, que as jabuticabas embaladas com saco plástico de 15m apresentaram significativamente menor perda de peso. A AT, SST, pH e relação SST/AT apresentaram variações entre os tratamentos, nos dois experimentos, sem afetar a qualidade comercial dos frutos. Conclui-se que o uso de saco plástico de 15m de espessura e com perfurações de 0,5mm é eficiente para manter a qualidade comercial de jabuticabas armazenadas durante 8 dias, a 0ºC e 90% UR, mais dois dias a 20-22ºC e 70-75% UR (frutos destinados ao consumo in natura e por 10 dias a 0ºC e 90% UR (frutos destinados ao processamento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the plastic packages use in cold storage on the preservation of jabuticabas

  6. Assessment of the ecological effects of arsenic on a southern Ohio, USA stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, George M; Dorn, Philip B; Gillespie, W Barry; Wong, Diana C L; Slocomb, John P

    2009-04-01

    Davis Creek is a southern Ohio, USA stream that receives a permitted discharge from the Belpre Elastomers Plant (BEP). A sediment quality triad investigation of Davis Creek was conducted over a 2-y period that included sediment and surface water chemistry measurements, toxicity tests of whole sediment, interstitial and surface water, and benthic and artificial substrate community assessments. The concentration of arsenic in surface and interstitial water was below United States Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria and was not toxic in laboratory tests (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas). Similarly, sediments did not significantly affect survival and growth of Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans at most sampling locations despite sediments exceeding arsenic sediment screening values in nearly all samples collected. Differences in benthic community structure, determined by rapid bioassessment and Hester-Dendy sampling methods, were related primarily by variations in sediment moisture, particle size, and ammonia and not to arsenic concentrations. The Invertebrate Community Index (ICI) for Davis Creek was lower than values established for other warm-water ecoregional reference streams in Ohio. However, this ICI comparison may have been invalid because, unlike the reference streams, the Davis Creek watershed is small with intermittent headwater flow that limits macroinvertebrate recruitment and energy input. The sediment quality triad investigation indicated that Davis Creek was not significantly affected by arsenic associated with the BEP discharge despite having measured arsenic concentrations that exceeded sediment screening values. PMID:19055317

  7. Oxidized starch solutions for environmentally friendly aircraft deicers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plahuta, Joseph M; Teel, Amy L; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Beutel, Mark W; Rentz, Jeremy A; Watts, Richard J

    2011-09-01

    Deicers currently used for aircraft deicing, including ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, pose significant threats to surface waters, as a result of high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Oxidized starch may provide a less toxic deicer with lower BOD. The freezing point depression of starch formulations oxidized using hydrogen peroxide and catalysts (i.e., catalyzed hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] propagations-CHP) was 28 degrees C, and viscosities similar to those of commercial deicers were achieved after post-treatment with granular activated carbon. The most effective oxidized starch formulation exerted a 5-day BOD up to 6 times lower than glycol deicers (103 versus 400 to 800 g O2/L). Toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia for this formulation (48-hour lethal concentration, 50% [LC50] of 2.73 g/L) was greater than pure propylene glycol (13.1 g/ L), but lower than propylene glycol deicer formulations (1.02 g/L). Organic acids were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as the primary constituents in the oxidized starch solution. The proposed deicing system would provide effective deicing while exerting minimal environmental effects (e.g., lower toxicity to aquatic organisms and lower BOD). Furthermore, these deicers could be made from waste starch, promoting sustainability. PMID:22073730

  8. Biosorption and growth inhibition of wetland plants in water contaminated with a mixture of arsenic and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soyoung [Department of Ocean Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Daeseok; Kim, Youngyun; Lee, Suk Mo; Chung, Yonghyun; Sung, Kijune [Department of Ecological Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The potential of wetland plants as an onsite biosorbent and a biomonitor for combined pollution of arsenic and four heavy metals from non-point sources was investigated in this study. Ceratophyllum demersum, Hydrilla verticillata, Hydrocharis dubia, and Salvinia natans were exposed to a water containing mixture of As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Growth inhibition and biosorption potential of the wetland plants in artificially contaminated conditions were studied. These contaminants significantly reduced the growth of the plants. The tested wetland plants accumulated appreciable amounts of the contaminants in the following order: Pb>Cr>Cu>Zn>As. H. verticillata showed distinct visual change and a high biosorption factor (BSF) rank for As and heavy metals among the plants used in the study. As an unspecific collector of contaminants, it might be useful as a biomonitor and biosorbent in the As and heavy metal-contaminated aquatic system. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems

  10. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  11. Bartonella spp. in fruit bats and blood-feeding Ectoparasites in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara E Brook

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We captured, ectoparasite-combed, and blood-sampled cave-roosting Madagascan fruit bats (Eidolon dupreanum and tree-roosting Madagascan flying foxes (Pteropus rufus in four single-species roosts within a sympatric geographic foraging range for these species in central Madagascar. We describe infection with novel Bartonella spp. in sampled Eidolon dupreanum and associated bat flies (Cyclopodia dubia, which nest close to or within major known Bartonella lineages; simultaneously, we report the absence of Bartonella spp. in Thaumapsylla sp. fleas collected from these same bats. This represents the first documented finding of Bartonella infection in these species of bat and bat fly, as well as a new geographic record for Thaumapsylla sp. We further relate the absence of both Bartonella spp. and ectoparasites in sympatrically sampled Pteropus rufus, thus suggestive of a potential role for bat flies in Bartonella spp. transmission. These findings shed light on transmission ecology of bat-borne Bartonella spp., recently demonstrated as a potentially zoonotic pathogen.

  12. Site-specific sediment clean-up objectives developed by the sediment quality triad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected and evaluated in concert (1) to characterize adverse effects of hydrocarbon and metal contaminants in the sediments of a small inlet of Superior Bay, Lake Superior and a tributary creek and (2) to derive numeric objectives for the clean up of this system. Sediments from reference locations and eight study sites were analyzed for a range of contaminants, including hydrocarbons (measured both as diesel range organics (DRO) and oil and grease), lead, chromium, and ammonia. A range of sediment toxicity was observed across the eight study sites using a variety of tests and endpoints: Hyalella azteca (10 day survival and growth), Chironomus tentans (10 day survival and growth), Ceriodaphnia dubia (48 hour survival), and Daphnia magna (48 hour survival and 10 day survival and reproduction). A range of alterations of the benthic macroinvertebrate community compared with communities from reference locations were observed. Benthic community alterations were summarized quantitatively by taxa richness and Shannon-Weiner mean diversity. Lowest effect levels determined through this study included 150 microg/g dry sediment for DRO (as measured in this study) and 40 microg/g dry sediment for lead. Effects thresholds determined through this study included 1,500 microg/g dry sediment for DRO and 90 microg/g dry sediment for lead. These levels and concentrations measured in relevant reference locations are being used to define objectives for sediment clean up in the inlet and creek

  13. Establishment of Native Grasses with Biosolids on Abandoned Croplands in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jurado-Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate establishment and forage production of native grasses with application of biosolids, a byproduct of waste-water treatment, at an abandoned field, in Ejido Nuevo Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico. Four biosolids rates from 0 (control to 30 dry Mg ha−1 and two methods of application, surface applied (BioSur and soil incorporated (BioInc, were evaluated. Seedbed preparation included plowing and harrowing before rainfall. Field plots of 5 × 5 m were manually sown with a mix of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (50% and green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia (50% in early August 2005. Experimental design was a randomized block with a split plot arrangement. Grass density, height, and forage production were estimated for three years. Data were analyzed with mixed linear models and repeated measures. Green sprangletop density increased under all biosolids rates regardless of method of application, while blue grama density slightly decreased. Biosolids were more beneficial for green sprangletop height than for blue grama height. Blue grama forage production slightly increased, while green sprangletop forage production increased the most at 10 Mg ha−1 biosolids rate under BioSur method. It was concluded that BioSur application at 10 and 20 Mg ha−1 rates had positive effects on the establishment and forage production of native grasses, especially green sprangletop.

  14. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary medicine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Souza Maselli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from veterinary pharmaceutical industries that formulate medicines are mainly generated during the washing of equipment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical industry. The industrial effluent treatment system comprises a step of chemical treatment (coagulation-sedimentation forced followed by aerobic biological treatment (activated sludge process. Five samplings campaigns were performed from October 2011 to July 2012. The raw effluent samples showed high acute and chronic toxicity (acute: fourth sampling with EC50 - 48-h of <0.001% and chronic: third sampling with IC50 - 7-d of <0.0001%. The chemically treated effluent samples were the most toxic with EC50 - 48-h between <0.001 and 0.1% and IC50 - 7-d between 0.00001 and 0.0001%. This increase in toxicity is probably related to the use of aluminum sulfate as flocculating agent. The biological treatment led to a small reduction in toxicity of the effluents. The selected ecotoxicological tests were adequate for detecting the effluent toxicity and useful for evaluating the efficiency of the steps of the effluent treatment. Improvements in the industrial wastewater treatment system should be implemented in order to reduce the observed toxicity of the final effluent.

  15. Sildenafil and tadalafil in simulated chlorination conditions: Ecotoxicity of drugs and their derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temussi, Fabio; DellaGreca, Marina; Pistillo, Paola; Previtera, Lucio; Zarrelli, Armando [UdR Napoli 4 INCA, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, Università Federico II, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Criscuolo, Emma; Lavorgna, Margherita; Russo, Chiara [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta (Italy); Isidori, Marina, E-mail: marina.isidori@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    Chlorination experiments on two drugs (sildenafil and tadalafil) were performed mimicking the conditions of a typical wastewater treatment process. The main transformation products were isolated by chromatographic techniques (Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Column Chromatography (CC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)) and fully characterized employing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) analyses. The environmental effects of the parent compounds and transformation products were evaluated using an overall toxicity approach that considered aquatic acute and chronic toxicity on Brachionus calyciflorus and Ceriodaphnia dubia as well as mutagenesis and genotoxicity on bacterial strains. The results revealed that both parent drugs did not show high acute and chronic toxicity for the organisms utilized in the bioassays while, chronic exposure to chlorine derivatives caused inhibition of growth population on rotifers and crustaceans. A mutagenic potential was found for all the compounds investigated. - Highlights: • Simulated disinfection process of pharmaceuticals was performed. • Toxicity and genotoxicity of sildenafil, tadalafil and their derivatives were evaluated. • Chlorine derivatives caused chronic toxicity on rotifers and crustaceans. • A mutagenic potential was found for all the compounds investigated.

  16. Callibrachion and Datheosaurus, two historical and previously mistaken basal caseasaurian synapsids from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Spindler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a re-investigation of two historical fossil discoveries, Callibrachion gaudryi (Artinskian of France and Datheosaurus macrourus (Gzhelian of Poland, that were originally classified as haptodontine-grade sphenacodontians and have been lately treated as nomina dubia. Both taxa are here identified as basal caseasaurs based on their overall proportions as well as dental and osteological characteristics that differentiate them from any other major synapsid subclade. As a result of poor preservation, no distinct autapomorphies can be recognized. However, our detailed investigations of the virtually complete skeletons in the light of recent progress in basal synapsid research allow a novel interpretation of their phylogenetic positions. Datheosaurus might represent an eothyridid or basal caseid. Callibrachion shares some similarities with the more derived North American genus Casea. These new observations on Datheosaurus and Callibrachion provide new insights into the early diversification of caseasaurs, reflecting an evolutionary stage that lacks spatulate teeth and broadened phalanges that are typical for other caseid species. Along with Eocasea, the former ghost lineage to the Late Pennsylvanian origin of Caseasauria is further closed. For the first time, the presence of basal caseasaurs in Europe is documented.

  17. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schallreuter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The revision of ostracodes originally established by Aurel Krause is continued and finished with the description of the following species: Primitia distans, P. elongata, P. cincta, P. excavata, P. papillata, P. plicata, P. schmidtii, Strepula limbata, S. simplex, Entomis obliqua, E. plicata, E. sigma, E. sigma ornata, E. simplex, E. trilobata, Beyrichia erratica, B. erratica granulosa, B. erratica acuta, B. harpa, and B. marchica lata. Three of these species are younger primary homonyms. For Beyrichia erratica granulosa Krause, 1891 a respective decision of the ICZN according to art. 23.9.5 is presently unnecessary, because it has an older synonym (Beyrichia grewingkii Bock, 1867, and Primitia excavata Krause, 1892 has a younger synonym (Laccochilina paucigranosa Jaanusson, 1957. The third homonym, Beyrichia marchica lata Krause, 1891, is considered as a nomen protectum. Entomis sigma ornata, and E. plicata are presently considered as nomina dubia. Since the type material of the three species P. distans, E. sigma, and E. simplex is apparently lost, neotypes are designated. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300007

  18. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schallreuter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a revision of the ostracodes described by Aurel Krause at the end of the 19th century from glacial erratic boulders from Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg (Northern Germany has led to taxonomic confusion in the corresponding literature of the 20th century. To attain stability in names, some of Krause's ostracode species have been revised based on the types stored in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, namely Primitia plana, P. plana tuberculata, P. intermedia, P. globifera, Entomis sigma antiquata, Bollia v-scripta, B. granulosa, B. duplex, Strepula lineata, Isochilina canaliculata, Beyrichia dissecta, B. mamillosa, B. signata, and B. bidens. Most species have up to four younger synonyms among species described later from outcrops or borings in Baltoscandia or glacial erratic boulders of Northern Germany and Sweden. Three of Krause's species, which have been considered as nomina dubia by Jaanusson are in fact valid species. Some of Krause's species or of their synonyms are type species. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000015

  19. Development of an operational tool for biomonitoring using constant pressure respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) policy statement (FR 49, 9016, 9 March 1984) for the development of water quality based permit limitations includes toxicity testing of effluents as an important part of a water quality approach to controlling toxics (Pickering, 1988). To assure that state waters are free of toxics, both chemical and biological methods were recommended for assessing effluent quality. The US EPA validated bioassay procedures for toxicity testing of wastewater discharges use three distinctive organisms groups: vertebrates, invertebrates, and algae (Weber, 1989). The specific species for these three groups are fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; water tea, Ceriodaphnia, dubia; and the green algae, Selenastrum capricornum, respectively. Definitive testing estimates the concentration atwhich a certain percentage of organisms exhibit a certain response. The definitive test exposes several replicate groups of organisms to the target substrate for a predetermined time period effluent concentration. The overall goal of this study is to develop an acceptable protocol for operational biomonitoring based on constant pressure respirometry for LANL. The specific objectives include: Development an appropriate toxicity testing protocol based on constant pressure respirometry for whole effluent toxicity testing, and evaluate the protocol based on factors such as sensitivity, response time, cost of analysis, and simplicity of operation

  20. Sildenafil and tadalafil in simulated chlorination conditions: Ecotoxicity of drugs and their derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorination experiments on two drugs (sildenafil and tadalafil) were performed mimicking the conditions of a typical wastewater treatment process. The main transformation products were isolated by chromatographic techniques (Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Column Chromatography (CC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)) and fully characterized employing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) analyses. The environmental effects of the parent compounds and transformation products were evaluated using an overall toxicity approach that considered aquatic acute and chronic toxicity on Brachionus calyciflorus and Ceriodaphnia dubia as well as mutagenesis and genotoxicity on bacterial strains. The results revealed that both parent drugs did not show high acute and chronic toxicity for the organisms utilized in the bioassays while, chronic exposure to chlorine derivatives caused inhibition of growth population on rotifers and crustaceans. A mutagenic potential was found for all the compounds investigated. - Highlights: • Simulated disinfection process of pharmaceuticals was performed. • Toxicity and genotoxicity of sildenafil, tadalafil and their derivatives were evaluated. • Chlorine derivatives caused chronic toxicity on rotifers and crustaceans. • A mutagenic potential was found for all the compounds investigated

  1. Identifying the cause of toxicity in an algal whole effluent toxicity study - an unanticipated toxicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; Tapp, Kelly; Rehner, Anita B; Pillard, David A; Schrage, Laura

    2011-10-01

    Toxicity was observed in whole effluent toxicity (WET) studies with the freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, in three consecutive monthly studies, (NOEC=50-75%). Toxicity was not observed to Ceriodaphnia dubia or the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas in concurrent studies. Selected toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests were conducted in a tiered approach to eliminate possible toxicants and progressively identify the causative agent. Filtration following alkaline adjustment (pH 10 or 11) was effective in eliminating significant growth effects and also reduced phosphate concentration. The TIE studies confirmed that the observed effluent toxicity was caused by excess ortho-phosphate in the effluent not by overstimulation or related to unfavorable N:P ratios; but due to direct toxicity. The 96-h 25% inhibition concentration (IC25) of ortho-phosphate to P. subcapitata was 3.4 mg L⁻¹ while the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration was 4.8 mg L⁻¹. This study illustrates the value of multi-species testing and also provides an example of an effective TIE using algae identifying an unanticipated toxicant. PMID:21840029

  2. Aquatic toxicity of dyes before and after photo-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Luis A V; da Silva, Thiago H G; Nogueira, Raquel F Pupo; Kummrow, Fábio; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2014-07-15

    This study evaluated the ecotoxicity of five dyes to freshwater organisms before and during their photo-Fenton degradation. EC50 (48h) of the five tested dyes ranged from of 6.9 to >1000mgL(-1) for Daphnia similis. In the chronic tests IC50 (72h) varied from 65 to >100mgL(-1) for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and IC50 (8 days) from 0.5 to 410mgL(-1) for Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity tests revealed that although the applied treatment was effective for decolorization of the dye, the partial mineralization may be responsible for the presence of degradation products which can be either more toxic than the original dye, as is the case of Vat Green 3 and Reactive Black 5, lead to initially toxic products which may be further degraded to non toxic products (acid Orange 7 and Food Red 17), or generate non toxic products as in the case of Food Yellow 3. The results highlighted the importance of assessing both acute and chronic toxicity tests of treated sample before effluent discharge. PMID:24910910

  3. Systematics of disakisperma (poaceae, chloridoideae, chlorideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Neil; Peterson, Paul M; Romaschenko, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Disakisperma Steud. is a genus of four predominantly perennial C4 (NAD-ME) species in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Its species previously were treated in Eleusine, Eragrostis, Coelachyrum, Cypholepis, Leptochloa, or Diplachne by nearly all authors.It includes the widespread North and South American amphitropical disjunct Disakisperma dubium (type of the genus), Disakisperma eleusine from southern Africa, Disakisperma obtusiflorum from central and northern Africa to southern Asia, and Disakisperma yemenicum, comb. nov. from eastern and southern Africa to Yemen. This paper provides a key to the species, geographic distributions, descriptions, including comments on the anatomy of leaves, stems, lemmatal micromorphology, a phylogram based on five molecular markers, and discussions of chromosome numbers. The species are rarely, if at all, known outside of their native ranges and are unlikely to become aggressively invasive. All species are considered Least Concern following IUCN guidelines. Lectotypes are designated for Diplachne dubia var. pringleana Kuntze, Disakisperma mexicana Steud., Eragrostis yemenica Schweinf., and Leptochloa appletonii Stapf. PMID:24194669

  4. Systematics of Disakisperma (Poaceae, Chloridoideae, Chlorideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Snow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disakisperma Steud. is a genus of four predominantly perennial C4 (NAD-ME species in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Its species previously were treated in Eleusine, Eragrostis, Coelachyrum, Cypholepis, Leptochloa, or Diplachne by nearly all authors. It includes the widespread North and South American amphitropical disjunct Disakisperma dubium (type of the genus, D. eleusine from southern Africa, D. obtusiflorum from central and northern Africa to southern Asia, and D. yemenicum, comb. nov. from eastern and southern Africa to Yemen. This paper provides a key to the species, geographic distributions, descriptions, including comments on the anatomy of leaves, stems, lemmatal micromorphology, a phylogram based on five molecular markers, and discussions of chromosome numbers. The species are rarely, if at all, known outside of their native ranges and are unlikely to become aggressively invasive. All species are considered Least Concern following IUCN guidelines. Lectotypes are designated for Diplachne dubia var. pringleana Kuntze, Disakisperma mexicana Steud., Eragrostis yemenica Schweinf., and Leptochloa appletonii Stapf.

  5. Evaluation of the quality of streamlet Franquinho's water, Basin Loud Tiete, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work evaluated the water quality in Tiete River Basin, particularly of the streamlet Franquinho. The streamlet Franquinho, is located east zone of Sao Paulo metropolitan area, and receives a great load of domestic sewers. To evaluate the Franquinho's water quality, physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological parameters were used. The Aquatic Preservation Life Index (IVA) were applied. For physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological, 8 samples were taken from five stations, from 1999/March to 2000/May. Physical and chemical results indicate the eutrophic conditions, particularly the high content of organic matter and phosphorus. Toxicity tests with Daphnia similes (acute), Ceriodaphnia dubia and algae Selenastrum capricomutum (chronic) were used. The program TOXTAT 3,3 was used for the evaluation of the toxicity test results. The results of the toxicity tests show that all samples of water presented toxicity, it was verified that the toxicant agent's dilutions does not exist along the system. Metallic elements, low oxygen content and high-suspended solid were the main factors for the high toxicity. The toxicity tests, chemical analyses and the Aquatic Preservation Life Index (IVA) indicated critical conditions in the streamlet Franquinho. These findings indicated the necessity of precautionary measures and solutions to improve the water quality in these localities. (author)

  6. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of the Diamond Darter (Crystallaria cincotta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life history data are critical for the conservation and management of rare fishes. During 2008–2012 a captive propagation study was conducted on the Diamond Darter, Crystallaria cincotta, a rare species with a single extant population in the lower Elk River, West Virginia. Water temperatures during spawning ranged from 11.1–23.3 C. Females and males spawned with quick vibrations, burying eggs in fine sand in relatively swift clean depositional areas. Egg size was 1.8–1.9 mm, and embryos developed within 7 to 11 d. Diamond Darters were 6.7–7.2 mm total length (TL) at hatch. Larvae ranged from 9.0–11.0 mm TL following a 5–10 d period of yolk sac absorption. Larvae had relatively large mouth gapes and teeth and were provided brine shrimp Artemia sp., Ceriodaphnia dubia neonates, marine Brachionus rotifers, and powdered foods (50–400 µm) but did not appear to feed in captivity, except for one observation of larval cannibalization. Larvae survived for a maximum of 10 d. To increase larval survival and reduce the possibility of cannibalism, other alternative food sources are needed during captive propagation.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships among hadal amphipods of the Superfamily Lysianassoidea: Implications for taxonomy and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, H.; Jamieson, A. J.; Piertney, S. B.

    2015-11-01

    Amphipods of the superfamily Lysianassoidea are ubiquitous at hadal depths (>6000 m) and therefore are an ideal model group for investigating levels of endemism and the drivers of speciation in deep ocean trenches. The taxonomic classification of hadal amphipods is typically based on conventional morphological traits but it has been suggested that convergent evolution, phenotypic plasticity, intra-specific variability and ontogenetic variation may obscure the ability to robustly diagnose taxa and define species. Here we use phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence variation at two mitochondrial (COI and 16S rDNA) and one nuclear (18S rDNA) regions at to examine the evolutionary relationships among 25 putative amphipod species representing 14 genera and 11 families that were sampled from across seven hadal trenches. We identify several instances where species, genera and families do not resolve monophyletic clades, highlighting incongruence between the current taxonomic classification and the molecular phylogeny for this group. Our data also help extend and resolve the known biogeographic distributions for the different species, such as identifying the co-occurrence of Hirondellea dubia and Hirondellea gigas in the Mariana trench.

  8. An evaluation of soil and water toxicity at inactive drilling reserve pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of petroleum exploration on the North Slope and other areas of Alaska has resulted in methods that reduce adverse environmental impacts. However, early exploratory efforts often resulted in abandoned drilling areas containing used and unused muds that may be high in various organic and inorganic contaminants. To evaluate the potential impacts of inactive reserve pits on the surrounding environment, soil and water samples were collected f rom several pits, both near the coast and further inland. Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity tests were used to evaluate the toxicity of water samples; toxicity of soil elutriates was determined using Lactuca safiva root elongation tests. Ceriodaphnia chronic toxicity was found at only 3 sites; one of these was a reference site located a considerable distance away from any pit. Several sites displayed soil toxicity. Although no Toxicity Identification Evaluation was performed on soil elutriates, analytical data from soil samples collected at or near the same location indicated that chloride may have been responsible for much of the toxicity. Certain metals (e.g., chromium) may have some impact on root elongation, however, these effects are overshadowed by the influence of chloride

  9. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: jwhunt@ucdavis.edu; Anderson, Brian [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, Bryn [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: bmphillips@ucdavis.edu; Tjeerdema, Ron [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: rstjeerdema@ucdavis.edu; Largay, Bryan [Largay Hydrologic Sciences, LLC, 160 Farmer Street Felton, CA 95018-9416 (United States)], E-mail: bryan.largay@sbcglobal.net; Beretti, Melanie [Resources Conservation District of Monterey County, 744-A La Guardia Street, Salinas, CA 93905 (United States)], E-mail: beretti.melanie@rcdmonterey.org; Bern, Amanda [California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Coast Region, 895 Aerovista Place, Suite 101, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 (United States)], E-mail: abern@waterboards.ca.gov

    2008-11-15

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems.

  10. Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

    2000-01-01

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

  11. Assessing toxicity of copper nanoparticles across five cladoceran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lan; Vijver, Martina G; de Snoo, Geert R; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-08-01

    As a result of ever increasing applications, nanoparticles will eventually end up in the environment. However, currently no common principle has been established to help understand the toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) across species. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the potential risks of nanoparticles to untested species in the environment. The authors exposed 4 different sizes of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and 1 submicron-sized copper particle to 5 cladoceran species (Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia galeata, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Chydorus sphaericus) to investigate whether morphological attributes of species can help to assess the acute toxicity of CuNPs across species. The results showed that rod-shaped CuNPs caused much lower toxicity to all species than spherical CuNPs. Both the particles and ions contributed to the total toxicity of the CuNP suspensions. Moreover, the toxicity caused by particles in 5 different copper suspensions increases with decreasing body length, surface area, and body volume of neonates of 5 cladoceran species. Especially the correlations between body volume of the 5 cladoceran species tested and the corresponding toxicity caused by 5 different CuNPs were statistically significant, and in all cases radj (2) was higher than 0.51 (p toxicity of the 78-nm CuNPs (radj (2)  = 0.95, p toxicity of CuNPs reported in the present study evoke the possibility to assess and extrapolate the toxicity of nanoparticles across species with similar attributes. PMID:25826796

  12. Polyhydroxy fullerenes (fullerols or fullerenols: beneficial effects on growth and lifespan in diverse biological models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols, have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF. We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.

  13. Toxicity associated with produced waters from inland and offshore oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPDES permits require that discharges from oil and gas operations meet standards for aquatic life. When these aquatic life standards are violated, it is necessary to determine the causes of toxicity and to implement treatment methodologies that will eliminate significant mortalities and/or chronic growth and reproduction effects to the test organisms. Over the last several years, monitoring has been conducted on produced waters from oil and gas operations at inland and offshore locations. This work has been done in the U.S. as well as in South America. The toxicity in these discharges has been shown to be variable and due to a broad range of causes. The objective of this paper is to review the chemistry and biology with regards to the causes of toxicity in these waters. Samples collected from the Rocky Mountain west have generally demonstrated toxicity due to high total dissolved solids, hydrogen sulfides, and non-polar organics. Toxicity has ranged from extremely toxic to non-toxic. The levels of sensitivity for fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia dubia differ between the various produced water samples. Three samples are currently being investigated which show different sources of toxicity in spite of close proximity to one another. Preliminary studies indicate toxicity may be due to trace metals and polar organics associated with treatment products. Produced waters from offshore Gulf of Mexico platforms have been shown to produce high levels of toxicity in chronic and acute tests

  14. Monitoring of Odonata in Britain and possible insights into climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Parr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of recording and monitoring of Odonata in Britain is briefly described. Results are then presented which suggest that the country’s Odonata fauna is currently in a period of flux, in a manner consistent with the actions of a high-level regulatory factor such as climate change. The ranges of many resident species are shifting. Leucorrhinia dubia has recently been lost from southern England, but many species are presently expanding their ranges to the north and west, some (such as Aeshna mixta and Anax imperator with considerable speed. In addition to these changes, a number of ‘southern’ species have started to appear in Britain for the very first time. These include Lestes barbarus, Erythromma viridulum (which has now become a locally-common resident in southeast England, Anax parthenope and Crocothemis erythraea. In addition to these distributional changes, some recent trends in flight times are also discussed. Evidence indicates that many species are now emerging significantly earlier than in the past, though trends relating to the end of the flight period are less clear cut.

  15. Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus in situ toxicity tests assessing the wastewater treatment efficacy of constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ toxicity tests were designed for Ceriodaphnia dubia and Chironomus tentans as part of a larger study designed to assess the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater produced by oil production at Suncor OSG. The artificial wetlands were 50m long by 3m wide, with three replicates of the control and the treatment. Each wetland had four sample sites equidistant along its length, creating a gradient of treatment from site A being the most toxic to site D being the least toxic. Each test was conducted twice during the summer of 1994. Both the Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus test cages were a flow through design to allow for maximal exposure to the water within the wetlands. Mortality and reproduction were used as endpoints for Ceriodaphnia, whereas mortality and growth were used as endpoints for the Chironomus test. Test durations were fifteen and ten days respectively. Chironomus had very high mortality along the entire wetlands whereas Ceriodaphnia survival and fecundity increased along the length of the treatment wetlands. Both organisms had low mortality and high growth/fecundity in the control wetlands

  16. Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for acid mine drainage reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned coal mine in southcentral Kentucky had pH levels as low as 2.5 and iron concentrations as high as 630 mg/L. In the summer of 1992, the SCS constructed a wetland system to treat the AMD that involved use of both physical and biological treatment. The AMD was fed into three anoxic limestone beds, followed by an aeration pond, before entering a series of four cattail cells and a polishing pond. Flow of AMD was initiated in the fall of 1992, and chemical and biological monitoring were conducted throughout the winter months. Chemical analysis of the water along the flow path of the AMD during the first six months of operation indicated that the limestone beds improved the pH substantially, and that most of the metals were removed prior to the water entering the cattail cells. The effectiveness of the wetland system to improve water quality also was monitored using the cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test. Determination of toxic levels indicated a substantial improvement in water quality below the limestone beds, and a slight decrease in toxicity throughout the cattail cells. However, toxic levels stayed the same or increased in the polishing pond. Water quality monitoring will continue through the growing season of 1993 to assess the impact of plant growth on the reclamation of the AMD

  17. Hazard evaluation of soil contaminants from an abandoned oil refinery site with chemical and biological assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytotoxic characteristics of soil and leachates of soil from an abandoned oil refinery site were evaluated with rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed germinations and root elongation assays. Toxicity of soil leachates to aquatic animals was determined with acute and martial chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows, and Microtox reg-sign. Soil samples from uncontaminated (control) and selected contaminated areas within the old refinery were extracted with Toxic Characteristics Leachate Procedure (TCLP), an aqueous procedure and a supercritical carbon dioxide method. Aqueous extracts of soil from the oil leaded gasoline storage area exhibited greatest effects in all tests. Aqueous extracts from this site also caused a significant reduction in rice root development. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction proved to be a quick and non-toxic procedure for isolating non-polar organics for assay with aquatic toxicity tests. Subsequent supercritical extracts collected in solvent can help characterize the class of toxicants through HPLC and Gas Chromatography. The toxic constituents were characterized with a Toxicity Identification/Toxicity Reduction Evaluation protocol to fractionate the contaminants into conventional non-polar organics, weak acids, base-neutrals, or heavy metals for subsequent analysis

  18. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus

  19. Effects of predation by Hydra (Cnidaria on cladocerans (Crustacea: Cladocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rivera-De la Parra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic cladocerans have evolved different strategies to avoid predation from vertebrates; these include changes in morphology, behavior, physiology, and/or life-history traits. However, littoral cladocerans are better adapted to avoid invertebrate predation particularly from insect larvae by evolving morphological and physiological adaptations. Nevertheless, this has not been proven for some littoral predators such as Hydra. In this study, we provide quantitative data on how Hydra affects its zooplankton prey. We studied the predation behavior on Alona glabra, Ceridodaphnia dubia, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia cf. mendotae, Diaphanosoma birgei, Macrothrix triserialis, Moina macrocopa, Pleuroxus aduncus, Scapholeberis kingi, Simocephalus vetulus, Elaphoidella grandidieri, Brachionus rubens and Euchlanis dilatata. We also tested the indirect effect of allelochemicals from Hydra on the demography of Daphnia cf. mendotae. Littoral cladocerans are specially adapted to resist nematocyst injection and discharge of toxic substances from Hydra. A significant decrease in the population growth rate from 0.21 to 0.125 d-1 was observed at densities of 2 ind. ml-1. The role of carapace thickness as an adaptive strategy of littoral cladocerans against Hydra predation is discussed.

  20. Chronic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to water- and sediment-dwelling organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panko, Julie M; Kreider, Marisa L; McAtee, Britt L; Marwood, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Tire and road wear particles (TRWP) consist of a complex mixture of rubber, and pavement released from tires during use on road surfaces. Subsequent transport of the TRWP into freshwater sediments has raised some concern about the potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Previous studies have shown some potential for toxicity for tread particles, however, toxicity studies of TRWP collected from a road simulator system revealed no acute toxicity to green algae, daphnids, or fathead minnows at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg under conditions representative of receiving water bodies. In this study, the chronic toxicity of TRWP was evaluated in four aquatic species. Test animals were exposed to whole sediment spiked with TRWP at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg sediment or elutriates from spiked sediment. Exposure to TRWP spiked sediment caused mild growth inhibition in Chironomus dilutus but had no adverse effect on growth or reproduction in Hyalella azteca. Exposure to TRWP elutriates resulted in slightly diminished survival in larval Pimephales promelas but had no adverse effect on growth or reproduction in Ceriodaphnia dubia. No other endpoints in these species were affected. These results, together with previous studies demonstrating no acute toxicity of TRWP, indicate that under typical exposure conditions TRWP in sediments pose a low risk of toxicity to aquatic organisms. PMID:23001428

  1. The Sarcophaginae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) of Southern South America. I. The species of Microcerella Macquart from the Patagonian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Olea, María Sofía

    2015-01-01

    A revision is given of the species placed in the genus Microcerella Macquart, known from the southern extreme of South America, the so-called Patagonian Region. A new diagnosis of the genus is given on the basis of the revision of a large number of Neotropical species. A total of 25 valid species are recognized in the region. Most of these (21 species) are divided into four species-groups on the basis of general groundplan of genitalia and external characters. Four new species are described, M. deliae sp. nov., M. holmbergi sp. nov., M. nataliae sp. nov. and M. paetoi sp. nov. One new synonymy is established: Austrohartigia shannoni Lopes as a new junior synonym of Microcerella spinosa (Hall), syn. nov. A lectotype is designated for Doringia subandina Blanchard [a junior synonym of Microcerella spinigena (Rondani)]. Two species are recorded from Argentina for the first time: M. chicoensis (Lopes) and M. engeli (Hall). Three nominal species were not examined and are treated as nomina dubia within Microcerella: M. apicalis (Townsend), M. rufomaculata Macquart and M. sarcophagina Thomson. An illustrated key is provided to the males of Patagonian species of Microcerella allowing for separation of 25 species. Additionally, a series of images of male genitalia based on color photography and illustrations is provided to aid in the identification of these species of Microcerella. Biological information is given for the species, where known. PMID:25781852

  2. Taxonomic revision of the American spider genus Arachosia (Araneae: Anyphaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Gonzalo D; Ramírez, Martín J

    2015-01-01

    We review the American spider genus Arachosia O.P.-Cambridge, and present a descriptive taxonomic study with a comparative dichotomous key including 21 species, of which seven are newly described (A. avalosi sp. nov., A. carancho sp. nov., A. kapiipeoi sp. nov., A. magna sp. nov., A. monserrate sp. nov., A. pinhalito sp. nov. and A. tungurahua sp. nov.). Four species names are considered nomina dubia: Oxysoma dubium Berland, Gayenna duplovittata Mello-Leitão, Oxysoma polytrichium Mello-Leitão, and Arachosia sulfurea Mello-Leitão. Arachosia bonneti (Mello-Leitão) is newly synonymized with A. albiventris Mello-Leitão, and A. mezenioides Mello-Leitão with A. freiburgensis Keyserling. Previous problems with the identification of species in a species complex including A. cubana (Banks) are resolved. A disjunct distributional pattern is reported for A. kapiipeoi sp. nov.; a preliminary phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial COI sequences shows that these may correspond with two cryptic species. In this contribution, grassland and forests are discussed as the two main habitats inhabited by species of Arachosia. Finally, we propose a hypothesis of matching sexes based on functionality of some genital structures, involving sclerites of the male copulatory organ with structures of the epigyne: the prolateral projection on the primary conductor of the male would have a direct interaction with the lateral projections of the anterior pouch on the median epigynal field of females. PMID:25781851

  3. A review of the orientalis group of the Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus Porat, 1876 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John G E

    2014-01-01

    The Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus, which currently comprises 58 species, was subdivided by Lewis (2010a) into nine species groups based on Attems' (1930a) monograph. The orientalis group comprising 19 species and two subspecies is the subject of this paper. In most cases, the type material is redescribed and variation discussed. The following species are valid: O. ateles Chamberlin, 1920, O. australianus Attems, 1930, O. brevidentatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. foveolatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. kashmiranus Lewis, 1992, O. metallicus Haase, 1887, O. multidens multidens Haase, 1887, O. oatesi Kraepelin, 1903, O. orientalis Porat, 1876, O. ruficeps Pocock, 1890, and O. striolatus Verhoeff, 1937. O. seychellarum Attems, 1900, is reinstated as a valid species and O. niasensis Silvestri, 1895, and O. sucki Krae-pelin, 1903 which may be O. metallicus are regarded as valid pro tem. O. greggi Chamberlin, 1944, is a junior subjective synonym of O. astenus (Kohlrausch, 1881), and O. loriae Silvestri, 1895, and O. multidens carens Attems, 1938, junior subjective synonyms of O. multidens. O. loriae nordicus Schileyko, 1995, becomes O. multidens nordicus comb. nov. O. nemorensis Silvestri, 1895, O. poonamae Khanna & Tripathi, 1986, and O. telus Chamberlin, 1939, are nomina dubia. A key to the species is provided. PMID:25544275

  4. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Langer, Max C

    2011-03-01

    The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa. PMID:21437375

  5. Darwin’s earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrilacea with review of cosmopolitan Metaphire peguana–species group from Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakemore, R.J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A chance visit to Darwin allowed inspection of and addition to Northern Territory (NT Museum’s earthworm collection. Native Diplotrema zicsii sp. nov. from Alligator River, Kakadu NP is described. Town samples were dominated by cosmopolitan exotic Metaphire bahli (Gates, 1945 herein keyed and compared morpho-molecularly with M. peguana (Rosa, 1890 requiring revision of allied species including Filipino Pheretima philippina (Rosa, 1891, P. p. lipa and P. p. victorias sub-spp. nov. A new P. philippina-group now replaces the dubia-group of Sims & Easton, 1972 and Amynthas carinensis (Rosa, 1890 further replaces their sieboldi-group. Lumbricid Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 and Glossoscolecid Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857 are confirmed introductions to the NT. mtDNA barcodes newly include Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872 and Polypheretima elongata (Perrier, 1872 spp.-complexes from the Philippines. Pithemera philippinensis James & Hong, 2004 and Pi. glandis Hong & James, 2011 are new synonyms of Pi. bicincta (Perrier, 1875 that is common in Luzon. Vietnamese homonym Pheretima thaii Nguyen, 2011 (non P. thaii Hong & James, 2011 is replaced with Pheretima baii nom. nov. Two new Filipino taxa are also described: Pleionogaster adya sp. nov. from southern Luzon and Pl. miagao sp. nov. from western Visayas.

  6. The effect of different entomopathogens on white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in an organic hay-producing grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laznik Žiga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a field block trial examined the biological control of white grubs of June beetle (Amphimallon solstitialis, margined vine chafer (Anomala dubia and garden chafer (Phyllopertha horticola on a permanent cut grassland in Gotenica (SE Slovenia. The efficacy of Beauveria brongniartii, Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in the form of water suspension and infested grain was tested against a control treatment. The initial number of white grubs (April 12; 39 white grubs/m2 was reduced with all tested entomopathogens up until the third evaluation (May 26; 32 white grubs/m2. However, the studied treatments were not sufficient to reduce the white grub population in the soils below the economical threshold (20 individuals/m2. The average number of white grubs was affected mostly by the treatment where the active ingredient was B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. With one application in April, only the abundance of overwintered white grubs was reduced. To decrease the summer generation of white grubs, an application of biological agents is also required at a later time. The 8% higher dry matter yield at the first cut (June 10 compared to the second cut (September 6 provided evidence for the prior statement.

  7. Morphometric analysis of chameleon fossil fragments from the Early Pliocene of South Africa: a new piece of the chamaeleonid history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollion, Alexis Y.; Cornette, Raphaël; Tolley, Krystal A.; Boistel, Renaud; Euriat, Adelaïde; Boller, Elodie; Fernandez, Vincent; Stynder, Deano; Herrel, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    The evolutionary history of chameleons has been predominantly studied through phylogenetic approaches as the fossil register of chameleons is limited and fragmented. The poor state of preservation of these fossils has moreover led to the origin of numerous nomen dubia, and the identification of many chameleon fossils remains uncertain. We here examine chameleon fossil fragments from the Early Pliocene Varswater formation, exposed at the locality of Langebaanweg "E" Quarry along the southwestern coast of South Africa. Our aim was to explore whether these fossil fragments could be assigned to extant genera. To do so, we used geometric morphometric approaches based on microtomographic imaging of extant chameleons as well as the fossil fragments themselves. Our study suggests that the fossils from this deposit most likely represent at least two different forms that may belong to different genera. Most fragments are phenotypically dissimilar from the South African endemic genus Bradypodion and are more similar to other chameleon genera such as Trioceros or Kinyongia. However, close phenetic similarities between some of the fragments and the Seychelles endemic Archaius or the Madagascan genus Furcifer suggest that some of these fragments may not contain enough genus-specific information to allow correct identification. Other fragments such as the parietal fragments appear to contain more genus-specific information, however. Although our data suggest that the fossil diversity of chameleons in South Africa was potentially greater than it is today, this remains to be verified based on other and more complete fragments.

  8. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, Ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25-February 1, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids (significantly reduced reproduction) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples.

  9. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of April 14-21, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 4.3, Poplar Creek Mile 5.1, and Poplar Creek Mile 6.0 on April 13, 15, and 18. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to daphnids in undiluted samples; however, toxicity to fathead minnows (significantly reduced survival) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Daphnid reproduction was significantly less than controls in 50 percent dilutions of samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0, while no toxicity to fathead minnows was shown in diluted (50 percent) samples.

  10. Neurotoxicity of two Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (cyanobacteria) strains to mice, Daphnia, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Pedro A; Buratini, Sandra V; Aragão, Márcia A; Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio S

    2012-04-01

    In recent decades, toxic cyanobacterial blooms have become frequent in the drinking water supply and have caused serious deleterious effects to domestic and wild animals, as well as to humans. Two strains of the cyanobacterium species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (T2 and T3) were isolated from the Billings Reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil) and cultured in the laboratory for use in acute toxicity tests with mice, micro crustaceans, and fish. The results showed high toxicity of both strains in mouse bioassays (median lethal dose [LD50]; 24 h = 9.6 and 27 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injections). The symptomatology presented by mice was typical of neurotoxicosis, such as trembling, ataxia, convulsions and death by respiratory arrest. Acute and chronic effects were observed in Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia, such as immobilization and reduced fitness, respectively. Although acute effects were not detected on the adult fish Danio rerio, chronic toxicity was observed for its larval stage. Although both strains showed high toxicity to all organisms, no consistent pattern was seen between the different bioassays and strains. The results also showed that C. raciborskii toxins are stable to heat and to extreme pH variations. Because of high toxicity of these strains and the potential risk to human health, the authors propose a revision of the legislation regarding safety factors for drinking water supply. PMID:22278803

  11. Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

    2013-01-15

    The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. PMID:23270957

  12. Optimization of Hyalella azteca IQ Toxicity Test{trademark} for prediction of 28-day sediment toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, A.N.; Ezzard, C.L.; Douglas, W.S.; Home, M.T. [Aqua Survey, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The IQ Toxicity Test, which is a rapid screening toxicity test consisting of the observation of in-vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process using a fluorescent substrate, has proven successful for the determination of 24 and 48-hour EC50`s of D. magna, C. dubia, D. pulex and M. bahia. The application of this concept to utilize the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca may be an excellent way in which to reduce the standard 28-day chronic sediment toxicity test to possibly one hour`s time. This study incorporates an additive experimental design to explore the effects of and interactions between five specific variables: size of the amphipod, exposure time to the toxicant, concentration of substrate, exposure time to the substrate, and length of time starved prior to testing. The results of the IQ toxicity test were compared to those of a 28-day chronic sediment toxicity test. Preliminary data indicate that there is an optimal combination of these variables which results in a concise, reproducible toxicity test for use with Hyalella azteca, and would potentially be applicable to other freshwater amphipods in the future.

  13. Morphology of the pancreas of some species belonging to the genera Phelsuma and Gecko (family Gekkonidae): evidence of apoptotic process during the seasonal cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, S; Odierna, G; Putti, R

    2006-10-01

    In this study we investigated comparative morphology of the endocrine pancreas of several species belonging to the family Gekkonidae and apoptotic processes of the pancreas which may be correlated to the seasonal cycle. The following species of the family Gekkonidae were studied: Phelsuma lineata, P. madagascariensis, P. dubia, P. abotti, Gekko gecko, G. vittatus, and Geckonia chazaliae. In all these species the pancreas consisted of large and medium islets as well as endocrine cells which were scattered throughout the acinar cells. Exocrine parenchyma consisted of tubuli-acini. Four mayor cell types were identified in the endocrine pancreas, using immunocytochemistry: glucagon-immunoreactive (A) cells, insulin-immunoreactive (B) cells, somatostatin-immunoreactive (D) cells, and pancreatic polypeptide immunoreactive (PP) cells. In the endocrine pancreas the amount of A cells and B cells was either equal or a prevalence of A cells was observed. In the wet season the pancreatic morphology presented normal features with very rare apoptotic cells. The animals belonging to the genus Phelsuma taken in the dry season (July) showed numerous vacuolated, Caspase 3, 9 and 11-immunoreactive acinar and some endocrine cells containing picnotic nuclei which were positive to tunel reaction. The animals belonging to the genus Gekko taken at the end of the dry season (October) exhibited strongly vacuolated, Caspase 3, 9 and 11-immunoreactive endocrine and some acinar cells containing nuclei which were positive to tunel reaction. These apoptosis events could be a reaction in response to stress mechanisms, such as a starvation period during the dry season. PMID:16763810

  14. Revision of the New World genus Glyphidops Enderlein (Diptera: Neriidae) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Tatiana A; Wolff, Marta I; De Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2014-01-01

    The genus Glyphidops Enderlein, 1922, the most widespread and speciose of the New World genera of Neriidae (Diptera), is revised herein. Glyphidops (Glyphidops) ruselatus, new species, G. (G.) steyskali, new species and G. (G.) coracinus, new species are described. Of the 16 previously described species, which were last treated by Aczél (1961), the following synonyms are proposed: Chaetomeristes peruanus Enderlein is treated as a junior synonym of G. (G.) bullatus (Enderlein); Nerius dispar Cresson, Oncopsia neutra Hennig and Oncopsia dubia Hennig are treated as junior synonyms of G.(O.) durus (Cresson) and Oncopsia seductrix Hennig, is treated as a junior synonym of G. (O.) flavifrons (Bigot). The species Telostylus vittatus Cresson, is removed from synonymy with G. (G.) filosus (Fabricius) and revalidated as senior synonym of G. ochreus Hennig. A new diagnosis for the genus and all species are provided, as is an identification key to species. New locality records are provided for Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Ecuador and Brazil. PMID:24872176

  15. New data on Mustelidae (Carnivora) from Southeast Asia: Siamogale thailandica, a peculiar otter-like mustelid from the late middle Miocene Mae Moh Basin, northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohé, Camille; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; de Bonis, Louis; Yamee, Chotima; Blondel, Cécile; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    We report new dental remains of Mustelidae from the late middle Miocene of Mae Moh Basin, northern Thailand, improving the poor fossil record of the family in Southeast Asia. Siamogale thailandica is a poorly known mustelid, previously recorded from just a single tooth. Here we present over a hundred new specimens attributable to this species. S. thailandica shows a combination of primitive and convergent features of the dentition that makes its original subfamilial assignment to Lutrinae doubtful. Evidence from the dental morphology suggests that it belongs to a bunodont otter-like mustelid that evolved in convergence with “true” otters (Lutrinae) toward a semi-aquatic way of life. Autapomorphic features such as the height and the position of the m1 metaconid and the shape of the P4 lingual shelf make S. thailandica unique among Mustelidae. The morphology of this species is mostly similar to Mionictis species and Lartetictis dubia, reported in the Miocene of North America and Europe, respectively. These similarities could imply immigration events to Thailand in the early or middle Miocene. Alternately, the lineage leading to Siamogale might have deeper origins from an endemic early Miocene Southeast Asian mustelid.

  16. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    organism Ceriodaphnia dubia and the NOEC and OEC values of RPB dye (sulphatoethylsulphone) were 12.5 and 25 mg L-1, respectively. After hydrolysis of the dye (vinylsulphone and hydroxyethyl sulphone) was shown to increase the values obtained from the NOEC and OEC. There was no chronic effect for the R3AR dye and its chemical forms to C. dubia. The comet assay adapted to haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata was used to assess the genotoxicity of the dyes. The RPB dye was genotoxic at highest concentrations (1 and 2 g L-1), with quantitative values of DNA damage equal to 117 and 112 and the R3AR dye was not genotoxic. The use of radiation with electron beams have proven effective in removing the color dyes. With a dose of 10 kGy a reduction of 97.64% and 96.8% for R3AR and RPB, respectively, was achieved. Possibly, the color removal was mainly due to the interaction of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals generated in the radiolysis of water after the radiation beam of electrons. After radiation of the RPB dye a dose of 10 kGy reduced 59.52 % of the acute toxicity measured with Vibrio fischeri. For the other doses there was no significant reduction, as well as with Daphnia similis, where the values of EC5048h obtained were smaller than the non-irradiated dye. The R3AR dye showed better decreased toxicity after radiation when compared with the RPB, with reductions of 82.95% (V. fischeri) and 71.26% (D. similis) with 10 kGy. (author)

  17. Tanaidáceos (Crustacea: Peracarida de los litorales de Guerrero y Oaxaca, México Littoral tanaidaceans (Crustacea: Peracarida from Guerrero and Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Jarquín-González

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Los tanaidáceos son componentes esenciales de las cadenas tróficas del bentos marino, son fuente de alimento para especies de relevancia comercial y para otros organismos marinos. A pesar de su importancia, el conocimiento del grupo se ha rezagado debido a los problemas relacionados con su biología y taxonomía, y por la carencia de muestreos exhaustivos y sistemáticos; así, en las costas de Guerrero y Oaxaca sólo se había registrado 1 género. Por lo anterior, el objetivo fue conocer la composición específica y los patrones de distribución de los tanaidáceos litorales de Guerrero y Oaxaca. De 4 275 ejemplares, se identificaron 6 familias y 9 morfotipos: Hexapleomera robusta, Sinelobus stanfordi, Leptochelia cf. dubia, Paratanais cf. denticulatus, Paradoxapseudes cf. garthi, Apseudormorpha sp., Cyclopoapseudes cf. indecorus, Synapseudes sp. y Parapseudes pedispinis. Todos son registros nuevos para el litoral de Guerrero y Oaxaca. Se amplía el intervalo de distribución hacia el norte, para H. robusta de islas Galápagos a Guerrero. Para S. stanfordi y P. pedispinis se proporcionan localidades intermedias que rompen con la distribución disyunta previa en el Pacífico oriental. Hay 6 especies, posiblemente nuevas, con distribución restringida; 2 son de amplia distribución y 1 restringida al Pacífico oriental tropical.The tanaidaceans are essential components in food chains of marine benthos, since they are the main food source for commercially important species and other marine organisms. Despite their importance, problems related to their biology and taxonomy have delayed the understanding of the group, as observed on the coasts of Guerrero and Oaxaca, where only 1 genus was previously known. The aim was to determine the species richness and distribution patterns of littoral tanaids from Guerrero and Oaxaca. A total of 4 275 specimens were collected and 6 families and 9 morphotypes have been identified: Hexapleomera robusta

  18. Evaluation of the efficiency of the sewage treatment plant from the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC, RS, Brazil Avaliação da eficiência da estação de tratamento de esgoto da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Düpont

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective was to evaluate the efficiency of the sewage treatment plant (STP of UNISC, through the ecotoxicological characterization and the analyses of the physical, chemical and microbiological variables from the raw and treated effluent. METHODS: Samples were collected during 2008 and 2009 for performing acute toxicity (Daphnia magna, chronic toxicity (Ceriodaphnia dubia, as well as the determination of environmental variables. RESULTS: The results indicated acute toxicity with an EC(I50 48 hours average of 64.1 ± 9.9%, characterized as moderately toxic, and an average chronic toxicity CI(I25 of 8,1 ± 2.6%, characterized as highly toxic. The total phosphorus (3.6 ± 1.4 mg L-1 and the ammonia nitrogen (77.8 ± 22.5 mg L-1 showed high concentration in the treated effluent, highlighting the STP inefficiency and, specially, the large amount of nutrients that the system is introducing into the receiving waterbody, the Lajeado Stream, condition that characterizes a large potential environmental impact known as eutrophication. The treated effluent showed high levels of thermotolerant coliforms, reaching an average of 6.4 × 10(5 ± 8.6 × 10(5 NMP 100 mL-1, corresponding to a potential pollution load of high impact in the receiving waterbody, characterizing therefore a public health problem. CONCLUSIONS: The Lajeado Stream has no supporting capacity for preventing acute and chronic effects on biota.OBJETIVO: O principal objetivo foi avaliar a eficiência da estação de tratamento de efluentes (ETE da UNISC, através da caracterização ecotoxicológica e de análises das variáveis físicas, químicas e microbiológicas do efluente bruto e tratado. MÉTODOS: Amostras foram coletadas em 2008 e 2009, para a realização de ensaios de toxicidade aguda (Daphnia magna e toxicidade crônica (Ceriodaphnia dubia, além da determinação de variáveis ambientais. RESULTADOS: Os resultados indicaram toxicidade aguda, com uma CE(I50 48 horas m

  19. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects; Avaliacao da toxicidade e genotoxicidade dos corantes azo reativos Remazol Preto B e Remazol Alaranjado 3R e da eficacia da radiacao com feixe de eletrons na reducao da cor e efeitos toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa

    2011-07-01

    assessed with the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia and the NOEC and OEC values of RPB dye (sulphatoethylsulphone) were 12.5 and 25 mg L-1, respectively. After hydrolysis of the dye (vinylsulphone and hydroxyethyl sulphone) was shown to increase the values obtained from the NOEC and OEC. There was no chronic effect for the R3AR dye and its chemical forms to C. dubia. The comet assay adapted to haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata was used to assess the genotoxicity of the dyes. The RPB dye was genotoxic at highest concentrations (1 and 2 g L-1), with quantitative values of DNA damage equal to 117 and 112 and the R3AR dye was not genotoxic. The use of radiation with electron beams have proven effective in removing the color dyes. With a dose of 10 kGy a reduction of 97.64% and 96.8% for R3AR and RPB, respectively, was achieved. Possibly, the color removal was mainly due to the interaction of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals generated in the radiolysis of water after the radiation beam of electrons. After radiation of the RPB dye a dose of 10 kGy reduced 59.52 % of the acute toxicity measured with Vibrio fischeri. For the other doses there was no significant reduction, as well as with Daphnia similis, where the values of EC50{sub 48h} obtained were smaller than the non-irradiated dye. The R3AR dye showed better decreased toxicity after radiation when compared with the RPB, with reductions of 82.95% (V. fischeri) and 71.26% (D. similis) with 10 kGy. (author)

  20. Comparative leaf anatomy in argentine Galactia species Anatomía comparada de hoja en especies argentinas de Galactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Tourn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of anatomical characters of the leaves of argentine species of Genera Galactia was carried out in order to evaluate their potential value in Taxonomy. In Argentine 14 species and some varieties from Sections Odonia and Collaearia can be found. Section Odonia: G. benthamiana Mich., G. dubia DC., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart, G. glaucophylla Harms, G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban, G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi D. C. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. pretiosa, G. texana (Scheele A. Gray and G. boavista (Vell. Burkart from Section Collaearia. The characterization of sections is mainly based on reproductive characters, vegetative ones (exomorphological aspects are scarcely considered. The present paper provides a description of anatomical characters of leaves in argentine species of Galactia. Some of them, may have diagnostic value in taxonomic treatment. Special emphasis is placed on the systematic significance of the midvein structure. The aim of the present study, covering 10 species (named in bold, is a to add more data of leaf anatomy characters, thus b to evaluate the systematic relevance and/ or ecological significance.Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la anatomía foliar de especies argentinas del género Galactia (Fabaceae, a fin de evaluar su potencial en taxonomía. En la Argentina se reconocen 14 especies (con algunas variedades, 13 de la sección Odonia -G. benthamiana Mich., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart , G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban y G. texana (Scheele A. Gray, G. dubia DC., G. glaucophylla Harms, G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi DC. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. Pretiosa- y G. boavista (Vell. Burkart de la sección Collaearia (Burkart, 1971. Los estudios se realizaron en

  1. Estado del conocimiento taxonómico de la fauna de Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera de la Patagonia Current state of the taxonomic knowledge of the Chironomidae fauna (Diptera: Nematocera from Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Donato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera es uno de los grupos de insectos más ampliamente distribuidos y abundantes en cuerpos de agua dulce. Los representantes de esta familia pueden explotar áreas con amplios gradientes ambientales. La información que se presenta está basada en la recopilación de datos distribucionales bibliográficos, del estudio del material tipo de las especies de Chironomidae depositadas en el Natural History Museum (UK y del material de colección del Museo de La Plata (Argentina. En la Patagonia, se registran 9 subfamilias, la subfamilia monotípica Chilenomyiinae es endémica de esta área. Dentro de estas subfamilias, 53 de los 111 géneros conocidos para América del Sur están presentes en la Patagonia. Del total de géneros de la Patagonia, el 20 % es endémico y 7 de ellos muestran relaciones transantárticas. En la Patagonia, se registran 177 especies de Chironomidae, el 98% de éstas son endémicas, el 3 % son consideradas nomina dubia y el 17% requiere revisión ya que su ubicación sistemática es dudosa. Las descripciones originales de las especies patagónicas de Chironomidae están basadas principalmente sobre machos (n=58 y machos y hembras (n=43, ambas representan el 57% del total; el resto de las especies han sido descriptas con diferentes combinaciones de estadios del ciclo de desarrollo.The Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera family is one of the most widely distributed group of insects and often the most abundant in freshwater environments. Representatives of this family can exploit a wide range of environmental gradients. The information here presented is based on the compilation of distributional data obtained from bibliography, the study of the type material deposited in the Natural History Museum (UK and the collection material from Museo de La Plata (Argentina. Nine subfamilies are recorded from Patagonia, being the monotypic subfamily Chilenomyiinae endemic for the area. From the 111 known

  2. Revisão nomenclatural e taxonômica de liquens foliícolas e respectivos fungos liquenícolas registrados para o Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, por Batista e colaboradores Taxonomic revision of foliicolous lichens and their lichenicolous fungi as registered for Pernambuco State, Brazil, by Batista and co-workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lücking

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram revisadas as coleções de liquens foliícolas realizadas pelo micologista Augusto Chaves Batista e seus colaboradores no Estado de Pernambuco. O estudo foi desenvolvido em três partes: (1 compilação e revisão nomenclatural dos nomes aplicados por Batista et al.; (2 revisão taxonômica dos espécimes determinados por Batista et al.; (3 identificação dos espécimes também presentes nas coleções, porém não registrados por Batista et al. As coleções estudadas compreendem 474 exsicatas com 1.130 espécimes identificados por Batista e seu grupo, nas quais esses autores aplicaram 55 nomes genéricos e 159 nomes específicos. A revisão nomenclatural aqui apresentada demonstrou que esses correspondem a 36 nomes genéricos e 101 nomes específicos válidos, mais 11 nomina dubia. No entanto, a revisão taxonômica desses 1.130 espécimes revelou que apenas 37 espécies em 16 gêneros foram corretamente identificadas, enquanto que os demais nomes representam determinações incorretas. No presente estudo, foram identificados 1.670 espécimes adicionais que não haviam sido registrados por Batista et al. Como resultado final da pesquisa, foram revisados 2.800 espécimes, os quais atualmente agrupam-se em 37 gêneros e 134 espécies de liquens foliícolas e/ou fungos liquenícolas.We revised the collections of foliicolous lichens made by the Brazilian mycologist Augusto Chaves Batista and his coworkers in Pernambuco state, Brazil. The study was divided into three parts: (1 compilation and nomenclatural revision of the names published and used by Batista et al.; (2 taxonomic revision of the specimens determined by Batista et al.; (3 identification of specimens present in the collections but not registered by Batista et al. The studied material comprises 474 collections, with 1,130 specimens identified by Batista and his group, to which these authors applied 55 generic and 159 specific names. The nomenclatural revision presented here

  3. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas S. Bittencourt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.O registro osteológico de dinossauros no Mesozóico brasileiro está restrito a rochas triássicas do Rio Grande do Sul e estratos cretáceos de várias partes do país. Isto inclui 21 espécies nominais, sendo duas referidas como nomina dubia, e 19 consensualmente classificadas como dinossauros. Oito táxons supraespecíficos adicionais baseados em material fragmentado e diversas pegadas são conhecidos no Brasil. De fato, a maior parte dos espécimes é composta de dentes isolados e vértebras. Apesar do aumento em trabalhos de campo na última

  4. A fresh look at road salt: Aquatic toxicity and water-quality impacts on local, regional, and national scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, S.R.; Graczyk, D.J.; Geis, S.W.; Booth, N.L.; Richards, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    A new perspective on the severity of aquatic toxicity impact of road salt was gained by a focused research effort directed at winter runoff periods. Dramatic impacts were observed on local, regional, and national scales. Locally, samples from 7 of 13 Milwaukee, Wisconsin area streams exhibited toxicity in Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas bioassays during road-salt runoff. Another Milwaukee stream was sampled from 1996 to 2008 with 72% of 37 samples exhibiting toxicity in chronic bioassays and 43% in acute bioassays. The maximum chloride concentration was 7730 mg/L. Regionally, in southeast Wisconsin, continuous specific conductance was monitored as a chloride surrogate in 11 watersheds with urban land use from 6.0 to 100%. Elevated specific conductance was observed between November and April at all sites, with continuing effects between May and October at sites with the highest specific conductance. Specific conductance was measured as high as 30 800 ??S/cm (Cl = 11 200 mg/L). Chloride concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) acute (860 mg/L) and chronic (230 mg/L) water-quality criteria at 55 and 100% of monitored sites, respectively. Nationally, U.S. Geological Survey historical data were examined for 13 northern and 4 southern metropolitan areas. Chloride concentrations exceeded USEPA water-quality criteria at 55% (chronic) and 25% (acute) of the 168 monitoring locations in northern metropolitan areas from November to April. Only 16% (chronic) and 1% (acute) of sites exceeded criteria from May to October. At southern sites, very few samples exceeded chronic water-quality criteria, and no samples exceeded acute criteria. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Development of acute toxicity quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) and their use in linear alkylbenzene sulfonate species sensitivity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Scott E; Brill, Jessica L; Rawlings, Jane M; Price, Brad B

    2016-07-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) is high tonnage and widely dispersed anionic surfactant used by the consumer products sector. A range of homologous structures are used in laundry applications that differ primarily on the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain. This research summarizes the development of a set of acute toxicity QSARs (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships) for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and daphnids (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia) using accepted test guideline approaches. A series of studies on pure chain length LAS from C10 to C14 were used to develop the QSARs and the robustness of the QSARs was tested by evaluation of two technical mixtures of differing compositions. All QSARs were high quality (R(2) were 0.965-0.997, p < 0.0001). Toxicity normalization employing QSARs is used to interpret a broader array of tests on LAS chain length materials to a diverse group of test organisms with the objective of developing Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) for various chain lengths of interest. Mixtures include environmental distributions measured from exposure monitoring surveys of wastewater effluents, various commercial mixtures, or specific chain lengths. SSD 5th percentile hazardous concentrations (HC5s) ranged from 0.129 to 0.254 mg/L for wastewater effluents containing an average of 11.26-12 alkyl carbons. The SSDs are considered highly robust given the breadth of species (n = 19), use of most sensitive endpoints from true chronic studies and the quality of the underlying statistical properties of the SSD itself. The data continue to indicate a low hazard to the environment relative to expected environmental concentrations. PMID:27105149

  6. Specifically Designed Constructed Wetlands: A Novel Treatment Approach for Scrubber Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Rodgers Jr; James W. Castle; Chris Arrington: Derek Eggert; Meg Iannacone

    2005-09-01

    A pilot-scale wetland treatment system was specifically designed and constructed at Clemson University to evaluate removal of mercury, selenium, and other constituents from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to measure performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system in terms of decreases in targeted constituents (Hg, Se and As) in the FGD wastewater from inflow to outflow; (2) to determine how the observed performance is achieved (both reactions and rates); and (3) to measure performance in terms of decreased bioavailability of these elements (i.e. toxicity of sediments in constructed wetlands and toxicity of outflow waters from the treatment system). Performance of the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems was assessed using two criteria: anticipated NPDES permit levels and toxicity evaluations using two sentinel toxicity-testing organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). These systems performed efficiently with varied inflow simulations of FGD wastewaters removing As, Hg, and Se concentrations below NPDES permit levels and reducing the toxicity of simulated FGD wastewater after treatment with the constructed wetland treatment systems. Sequential extraction procedures indicated that these elements (As, Hg, and Se) were bound to residual phases within sediments of these systems, which should limit their bioavailability to aquatic biota. Sediments collected from constructed wetland treatment systems were tested to observe toxicity to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus tetans. Complete survival (100%) was observed for H. azteca in all cells of the constructed wetland treatment system and C. tentans had an average of 91% survival over the three treatment cells containing sediments. Survival and growth of H. azteca and C. tentans did not differ significantly between sediments from the constructed wetland treatment system and controls. Since the sediments of the constructed

  7. Evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity of DSS and LAS surfactants undergoing the irradiation with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surfactants are synthetic organic compounds widely used in cosmetic, food, textile, dyers and paper production industries and in particular detergents and others cleaning products industries. The world consumption is nearly 8 million tons per year. One of the main environmental issues coming from the use of these compounds is their toxicity that compromises the biological treatment of effluents and the quality of receiving waters. The objective of this work was the application of ionizing radiation by electron beam in the degradation and reduction of acute and chronic toxicities of surfactants sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate acid (LAS) and sodium dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate (LAS). This treatment technology has been studied as a pre-treatment for effluents containing toxic and non-biodegradable compounds, before the biological treatment. Two acute toxicity assays were employed, one with the micro-crustacean Daphnia similis and the other with the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri along with a chronic toxicity assay with the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (just for SDS and acid LAS) for the non-irradiated and irradiated samples and radiation doses 3.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 9.0 kGy and 12.0 kGy. Physical-chemical parameters were evaluated for the following up the degradation of the surfactant molecules. The reductions of acute toxicity varied between 72.49% and 90.98% for SDS, 18.22% and 78.98% for acid LAS and 82.66% and 94.26% for sodium LAS. For the chronic toxicity, the reduction percentages varied between 64.03% and 83.01% for SDS and 47.48% and 64.91% for acid LAS. When one considers the application of the electron beam as a pre-treatment of effluents containing high concentrations of surfactants, the toxicity is an essential parameter allowing the further biological treatment of these effluents. (author)

  8. The derivation of effects threshold concentrations of lead for European freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sprang, Patrick A; Nys, Charlotte; Blust, Ronny J P; Chowdhury, Jasim; Gustafsson, Jon P; Janssen, Colin J; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the present study was to derive ecologically relevant effect threshold concentrations of (dissolved) Pb for selected European Union (EU) freshwater rivers, using the 2008 EU Voluntary Risk Assessment Report as a starting point and more advanced methodologies than those used in the Voluntary Risk Assessment Report. This included 1) implementing more robust quality criteria for selecting chronic toxicity data; 2) the conversion of total to dissolved Pb concentrations using a combination of an empirical equation relating inorganic Pb solubility and geochemical speciation modeling to account for effects of dissolved organic matter; 3) the use of bioavailability models for chronic toxicity for species belonging to 3 different trophic levels; and 4) the use of robust methods for large data set handling (such as species sensitivity distribution [SSD] analysis). The authors used published bioavailability models for an algal species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and a daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and developed a new model for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The research has shown that these models are also useful for, and reasonably accurate in, predicting chronic toxicity to other species, including a snail, a rotifer, midge larvae, and an aquatic plant (read-across). A comprehensive chronic toxicity data set for Pb was compiled, comprising 159 individual high-quality toxicity data for 25 different species. By applying the total dissolved conversion and the bioavailability models, normalized toxicity values were obtained, which were then entered into a SSD analysis. Based on the parametric best-fitting SSDs, the authors calculated that ecological threshold concentrations of Pb protecting 95% of freshwater species for 7 selected European freshwater scenarios were between 6.3 μg dissolved Pb/L and 31.1 μg dissolved Pb/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1310-1320. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26590360

  9. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  10. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Greenhouse gas (GHG production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3, leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂ and average daily gain (ADG as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄ and nitrous oxide (N₂O as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.

  11. Site Specific Metal Criteria Developed Using Kentucky Division of Water Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative limits for Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were developed for treated wastewater from four outfalls at a Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Guidance from the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) was used to (1) estimate the toxicity of the effluents using water fleas (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae; (2) determine total recoverable and dissolved concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn ; (3) calculate ratios of dissolved metal (DM) to total recoverable metal (TRM); and (4) assess chemical characteristics of the effluents. Three effluent samples from each outfall were collected during each of six test periods; thus, a total of 18 samples from each outfall were evaluated for toxicity, DM and TRM. Subsamples were analyzed for alkalinity, hardness, pH, conductivity, and total suspended solids. Short-term (6 or 7 d), static renewal toxicity tests were conducted according to EPA methodology. Ceriodaphnia reproduction was reduced in one test of effluent from Outfall A , and effluent from Outfall B was acutely toxic to both test species during one test. However, the toxicity was not related to the metals present in the effluents. Of the 18 samples from each outfall, more than 65% of the metal concentrations were estimated quantities. With the exception of two total recoverable Cu values in Outfall C, all metal concentrations were below the permit limits and the federal water quality criteria. Ranges of TR for all outfalls were: Cd, ,0.1-0.4 microg/L; Cr,1.07-3.93 microg/L; Cu, 1.59-7.24 microg/L; Pb, 39%. Thus, the alternative, calculated total recoverable metal concentration provides the discharger with a ''cushion'' for meeting permit limits

  12. 莱芜水生观赏植物资源调查及其开发利用研究%Investigation and Exploitation of Hydrophilous Ornamental Plant Resources in Laiwu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绪霞; 温学森; 亓翠英; 王峰祥

    2014-01-01

    Based on the reference of related data , the field survey about the hydrophilous ornamental plants in Laiwu was done in their distribution , habitat and application situation in gardens .The results showed that there were 94 species of hydrophilous ornamental plants from 38 families were found in Laiwu area .Lyth-rum salicaria, Acorus calamus, Juncus effusus, Hydrocharis dubia, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Nymphoides pel-tatum, Salvinia natans, Marsilea quadrifolia, Azoila imbricata, Sparganium stoloniferum and so on were screened with higher ornamental value and better market application prospect .It was suggested that the wet-land plant recourses should be protected and exploited reasonably in Laiwu .%在查阅相关资料的基础上,对莱芜市范围内栽培水生观赏植物的园林应用现状进行了调查,并记录了水生观赏植物资源的种类、分布及生境特点。结果表明:莱芜水生观赏植物共计38科94种;从中筛选出了千屈菜、菖蒲、灯芯草、水鳖、水葱、荇菜、槐叶萍、苹、满江红、黑三棱等具有较高观赏价值和市场开发前景的优良植物资源。建议对湿地植物资源进行合理保护和开发利用。

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  14. The status of toxicity tests with sediment in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, R.P.A. [Companhia de Tecnologia e Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The earliest studies in Brazil aiming to evaluate sediment quality through toxicity tests started in the beginning of the 80`s. These were developed by the Environmental Sanitation Agency of Sao Paulo State (CETESB) in Cubatao River and Billings Reservoir, which are located in industrialized and populous regions. Elutriate phase sediment toxicity tests were run with Daphnia similis. In the Cubatao River Basin the combination of toxicity, chemistry data and benthic community structure provided clear indications of sites with different levels of pollution. At this time there was a consensus that the study of a complex compartment such as sediment needed improvements in sampling and analysis procedures. Only in the 90`s the investigations involving sediment toxicity assessment were resumed by CETESB, and it was clear that integrative studies were needed in order to make environmental quality assessment. This kind of studies were conducted by CETESB in some highly polluted areas of Sao Paulo State, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Photobacterium phosphoreum interstitial water tests and Hyalella sp whole sediment tests were run, and the results correlated with several sediment organic and inorganic contaminants. The Sediment Quality Triad proposed by Chapman was applied in one of these studies. This approach was extremely useful in interpreting the data. At the same time marine sediment toxicity tests were developed by CETESB in collaboration with Sao Paulo University, and tests were run with the amphipods Tiburonella viscana, Battyporeiapus bisetosus; tanaidacean Kalliapseudes shubarti and the echinoderm Lytechinus variegatus. The embryo test with L. variegatus was the most adequate in these studies. Nowadays there are other groups in some universities developing sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella and Chironomus in response to a growing concern in Brazil to establish adequate sediment quality assessment guidelines.

  15. Implications of Use of Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat on Urban Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and improve the appearance of asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central and eastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35% crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—median total PAH concentrations in dust from CT-sealcoated pavement are 2,200 mg/kg compared to a median concentration of 11 mg/kg for dust from unsealed pavement. Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, often resulting in sediment concentrations above toxicity thresholds based on effects-based sediment quality guidelines. Acute 2-day laboratory toxicity testing of simulated runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) demonstrated that toxicity continues for samples collected for weeks or months following sealcoat application and that toxicity is enhanced by exposure to UV light. Using the fish-liver cell line RTL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  16. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and Water Quality of Urban Water Bodies: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Ingersoll, C.; Kunz, J. L.; Kienzler, A.; Devaux, A.; Bony, S.

    2014-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and beautify the asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central, southern, and northeastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35 percent crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg PAHs, about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—PAH concentrations in fine particles (dust) from CT-sealcoated pavement are about 1,000 times higher than in dust from AS-sealcoated pavement (median total PAH concentrations 2,200 and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively). Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, with implications for ecological health. Acute 2-d toxicity of runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to stream biota, demonstrated for a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), continues for samples collected as long as weeks or months following sealcoat application. Using the fish-liver cell line RGL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems for at least several weeks after sealant application, and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  17. Chemical ecology of the cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae ) on a newly recorded host Senecio adonidifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Klaas

    2006-09-01

    The cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae, Arctiidae) normally feeds on Senecio jacobaea in the field. For the first time, naturally occurring populations of T. jacobaeae have been found thriving on Senecio adonidifolius, even though the moth's preferred host, S. jacobaea, is available within 50-400 m. In the laboratory, the cinnabar moth has been shown to feed on and develop on S. adonidifolius despite its different leaf morphology, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) profile and a large taxonomic distance to S. jacobaea. Here I examined whether T. jacobaeae has adapted to this new host in the field using adult oviposition behavior and plant acquired defense chemistry in pupae as criteria. Choice tests indicated local adaptation to this newly recorded host. T. jacobaeae reared on S. adonidifolius hosts laid more egg batches and total eggs on it than T. jacobaeae from S. jacobaea. The egg batches were smaller on S. adonidifolius possibly due to highly pinnate thread-like structure of its leaves. The bouquet of plant acquired PAs and the insect metabolized callimorphine in pupae differed widely between pupae collected from the two hosts. T. jacobaeae pupae taken from S. adonidifolius hosts contained more of the insect metabolized callimorphine than pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts, but they did not differ in total PA concentration. Pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts contained more unmetabolized plant PA's than pupae from S. adonidifolius hosts. Additionally, 10% of T. jacobaeae larvae taken from S. adonidifolius in Biausse were infested with Carcelia dubia, a parasitic and rare tachinid fly that typically attacks arctiid moths.

  18. Toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from Keswick Reservoir, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlayson, B.; Fujimura, R.; Huang, Z.Z.

    2000-02-01

    Keswick Reservoir, California, USA, receives metal-laden acid-mine drainage (AMD) from the abandoned Iron Mountain Mine. Mixing of the AMD with reservoir water causes precipitation and deposition of metal-rich sludge in the reservoir. Hydroelectric generation activities can scour the sediments and mobilize trace metals cadmium, copper, and zinc into the water column, thus creating potentially toxic conditions to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Sediment samples collected from Keswick Reservoir in 1993 and 1994 were analyzed for acid-volatile sulfides and for simultaneously extractable metals (SEM), and whole sediments and sediment elutriates were tested for toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations in the sediments were low (<10 {micro}mol/g H{sub 2}S), indicating that dissolved metals in the sediment pore water were not limited by sulfide. The SEM concentrations were generally high (up to 11 {micro}g/g Cd, 4,800 {micro}g/g Cu, and 1,600 {micro}g/g Zn, dry weight) in the sediments. Whole sediments and 20% w/w sediment elutriates from 16 sites were tested for toxicity. Low survival (as low as 0{degree}) in whole sediments was generally associated with copper and zinc, and to a lesser extent cadmium, concentrations that exceeded probable effect level values for freshwater sediments; survival also may have been influenced by low pH and alkalinity conditions. Low survival (as low as 0%) in sediment elutriates was also generally associated with higher concentrations of dissolved zinc. Further study is required to formulate sediment cleanup levels that are protective of fish and wildlife. Source control in the Iron Mountain Mine drainage will eventually significantly lessen the production of sediments.

  19. The infauna of three widely distributed sponge species (Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) from the deep Ekström Shelf in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersken, Daniel; Göcke, Christian; Brandt, Angelika; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Schwabe, Enrico; Anna Seefeldt, Meike; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Janussen, Dorte

    2014-10-01

    Due to their high abundance and large body size sponges have a central position in Antarctic zoobenthos, where they form the most extensive sponge grounds of the world. Though research on Antarctic benthos communities is quite established, research on sponge-associated infauna communities is scarce. We analyzed associated infauna of fifteen individuals of the sponge species Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata Kirkpatrick, 1907 (Demospongiae: Mycalina), Rossella antarctica Carter, 1872 and R. racovitzae Topsent, 1901 (both Hexactinellida: Lyssacinosida). Samples were collected from the deep Ekström Shelf at 602 m in the South-Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the ANT XXIV-2 (SYSTCO I) expedition of RV Polarstern. The number of species, α- and β-diversity and the significantly different species composition of infauna communities related to sponge species were calculated, the latter via cluster analysis. The sponge-associated infauna consisted of five phyla: Foraminifera, Nematoda, Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. In total 11,463 infaunal specimens were extracted and we found at least 76 associated species. Highest values of α-diversity were calculated for a sample of R. antarctica with a Shannon-Index of 1.84 and Simpson-Index of 0.72 respectively. Our results of the cluster-analysis show significant differences between infauna communities and a unique species composition for single sponge species. Polychaetes of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 were numerous in M. acerata and genera like Pionosyllis Malmgren, 1867 and Cirratulus Lamarck, 1801 were numerous in R. antarctica. Individuals of the amphipod species Seba cf. dubia Schellenberg, 1926 were often found in R. antarctica and R. racovitzae while Colomastix fissilingua Schellenberg, 1926 was frequent in samples of M. acerata. Molluscs were present in M. acerata and R. antarctica but absent in R. racovitzae.

  20. Molecular systematics of the wolf spider genus Lycosa (Araneae: Lycosidae) in the Western Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Enric; Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen; Ribera, Carles

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we present the first molecular phylogeny of the wolf spider genus Lycosa Latreille, 1804 in the Western Mediterranean Basin. With a wide geographic sampling comprising 90 localities and including more than 180 individuals, we conducted species delimitation analyses with a Maximum Likelihood approach that uses a mixed Yule-coalescent model to detect species boundaries. We estimated molecular phylogenetic relationships employing Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods using mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. We conducted divergence time analyses using a relaxed clock model implemented in BEAST. Our results recovered 12 species that form four groups: Lycosa tarantula group comprising L. tarantula the type species of the genus, L. hispanica and L. bedeli; Lycosa oculata group composed of L.oculata, L. suboculata and three putative new species; Lycosa baulnyi group formed by the maghrebian L. baulnyi and L. vachoni and Lycosa fasciiventris group that includes two widespread species, L. fasciiventris and L. munieri. We found that each group of species shows a characteristic burrowing behavior and molecular and morphological diagnostic characters. Molecular clock analyses support the hypothesis of a relatively recent evolutionary origin of diversification of the group (4.96 Mya (3.53-6.45 Mya)). The establishment of the Mediterranean-like climate and the Pleistocenic glacial cycles seem to have been the main factors that promoted the diversification within the group. Finally, the results obtained in this study together with the revision of museum specimens, descriptions, redescriptions and illustrations, lead us to propose 18 nomenclatural changes (synonymies, generic transfers and nomina dubia) concerning the genera Lycosa, Allocosa and Hogna in the Western Mediterranean. PMID:23416758

  1. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780-1857), Turin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2015-01-01

    , 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrumalterum Lepeletier, 1806, and Hedychrumaulicum Spinola, 1843, are considered nomina oblita. Hedychrumrutilans Dahlbom, 1854, and Hedychrumniemelai Linsenmaier, 1959, are retained as nomina protecta. The first available name for Chrysissuccinctula sensu Linsenmaier is Chrysistristicula Linsenmaier, 1959, (stat. n.) The current status and validity of some types in the Spinola collection are discussed. Photographs of fifty-three types are given. PMID:25632245

  2. The Chironomidae collection at the Zoological Institute (St Petersburg: history, current state and role for further research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Przhiboro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews the collection of Chironomidae (Diptera housed at the Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg (ZIN. Although it is the oldest and one of the largest Chironomidae collections in Russia, most of the collection has been unknown to specialists for decades. The collection consists of three main parts: dry specimens (about 20000 pinned adults, material in ethanol (over 25000 vials with larvae, pupae and adults and permanent slides (over 12000 slides with larvae, pupae and adults. Based on a study of the collection itself, published sources and archival data, major periods for the formation of the collection are here described. Collectors and expeditions, whose contributions were most important, are listed, as well as the regions where the material was collected. The role of chironomid researchers, who made important contributions to the creation, enrichment or study of the collection, is also described. The contributions by Aleksei Chernovskii and Vera Pankratova are considered in more detail. According to a preliminary estimate, the collection contains type specimens of no less than 150 species described by 24 authors, and thousands of specimens determined by experts. The Chironomidae collection of ZIN is particularly important because it hopefully will enable us to correctly interpret many species names proposed in 1930-1980’s, mostly based on brief descriptions of larvae and currently often considered nomina dubia. In addition, the collection includes the unprocessed material from vast territory of the former Soviet Union, including many distant regions, which are still difficult to access. doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1402.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  3. Systematics, conservation and morphology of the spider genus Tayshaneta (Araneae, Leptonetidae) in Central Texas Caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Joel; Paquin, Pierre; Cokendolpher, James; Campbell, Josh; Griswold, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The spider genus Tayshaneta is revised based on results from a three gene phylogenetic analysis (Ledford et al. 2011) and a comprehensive morphological survey using scanning electron (SEM) and compound light microscopy. The morphology and relationships within Tayshaneta are discussed and five species-groups are supported by phylogenetic analyses: the anopica group, the coeca group, the myopica group, the microps group and the sandersi group. Short branch lengths within Tayshaneta contrast sharply with the remaining North American genera and are viewed as evidence for a relatively recent radiation of species. Variation in troglomorphic morphology is discussed and compared to patterns found in other Texas cave invertebrates. Several species previously known as single cave endemics have wider ranges than expected, suggesting that some caves are not isolated habitats but instead form part of interconnected karst networks. Distribution maps are compared with karst faunal regions (KFR's) in Central Texas and the implications for the conservation and recovery of Tayshaneta species are discussed. Ten new species are described: Tayshaneta archambaultisp. n., Tayshaneta emeraldaesp. n., Tayshaneta fawcettisp. n., Tayshaneta grubbsisp. n., Tayshaneta madlasp. n., Tayshaneta oconnoraesp. n., Tayshaneta sandersisp. n., Tayshaneta sprouseisp. n., Tayshaneta vidriosp. n. and Tayshaneta whiteisp. n. The males for three species, Tayshaneta anopica (Gertsch, 1974), Tayshaneta devia (Gertsch, 1974) and Tayshaneta microps (Gertsch, 1974) are described for the first time. Tayshaneta furtiva (Gertsch, 1974) and Tayshaneta uvaldea (Gertsch, 1974) are declared nomina dubia as the female holotypes are not diagnosable and efforts to locate specimens at the type localities were unsuccessful. All Tayshaneta species are thoroughly illustrated, diagnosed and keyed. Distribution maps are also provided highlighting areas of taxonomic ambiguity in need of additional sampling. PMID:22363201

  4. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian-Albian) of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Lockley, Martin G; Marty, Daniel; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Yan; Klein, Hendrik; McCrea, Richard T; Buckley, Lisa G; Belvedere, Matteo; Mateus, Octávio; Gierliński, Gerard D; Piñuela, Laura; Persons, W Scott; Wang, Fengping; Ran, Hao; Dai, Hui; Xie, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5-3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod) and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69%) accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%), sauropod (10%), and pterosaur (3%). Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically-, paleontologically- and a

  5. Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria) from the Cretaceous of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Taissa; Kellner, Alexander Wilhelm Armin

    2013-01-01

    Over a decade after the last major review of the Cambridge Greensand pterosaurs, their systematics remains one of the most disputed points in pterosaur taxonomy. Ornithocheiridae is still a wastebasket for fragmentary taxa, and some nomenclatural issues are still a problem. Here, the species from the Cretaceous of England that, at some point, were referred in Ornithocheirus, are reviewed. Investigation of the primary literature confirmed that Criorhynchus should be considered an objective junior synonym of Ornithocheirus. Taxonomic review of more than 30 species known from fragmentary remains showed that 16 of them are undiagnosable (nomina dubia): Palaeornis cliftii, Cimoliornis diomedeus, Pterodactylus compressirostris, Pterodactylus fittoni, Pterodactylus woodwardi, Ornithocheirus brachyrhinus, Ornithocheirus carteri, Ornithocheirus crassidens, Ornithocheirus dentatus, Ornithocheirus enchorhynchus, Ornithocheirus eurygnathus, Ornithocheirus oxyrhinus, Ornithocheirus scaphorhynchus, Ornithocheirus tenuirostris, Ornithocheirus xyphorhynchus, and Pterodactylus sagittirostris. Fourteen species are considered valid, and diagnoses are provided to all of them: Ornithocheirus simus, Lonchodraco giganteus comb. n., Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus comb. n., Lonchodraco(?) microdon comb. n., Coloborhynchus clavirostris, 'Ornithocheirus' capito, Camposipterus nasutus comb. n., Camposipterus(?) sedgwickii comb. n., Camposipterus(?) colorhinus comb. n., Cimoliopterus cuvieri comb. n., 'Ornithocheirus' polyodon, 'Ornithocheirus' platystomus, 'Pterodactylus' daviesii, and 'Ornithocheirus' denticulatus. These species are referred in the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodraco gen. n., Coloborhynchus, Cimoliopterus gen. n., and Camposipterus gen. n., but additional genera are probably present, as indicated by the use of single quotation marks throughout the text. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that Anhangueridae lies within a newly recognized clade, here named Anhangueria, which also

  6. A review of the species in the genus Cryptops Leach, 1815 from the Old World and the Australasian region related to Cryptops (Cryptops) doriae Pocock, 1891 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Cryptopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John G E

    2013-01-01

    The 25 putative species and two subspecies of the doriae group of the genus Cryptops (subgenus Cryptops) from the Old World and the Australasian region are here reviewed. The following are regarded as valid: C. audax Attems, 1928, C. australis Newport, 1845, C. dentipes Lawrence, 1960, C. dilagus Archey, 1921, C. doriae Pocock, 1891, C. japonicus Takakuwa, 1934, C. lamprethus Chamberlin, 1920, C. milloti Lawrence, 1960, C. modiglianii Silvestri, 1895, C. nanus Attems, 1938, C. navis Chamberlin, 1930, C. nepalensis Lewis, 1999, C. niuensis Chamberlin, 1920, C. pauliani Law- rence, 1960, C. philammus Attems, 1928, C. polyodontus Attems, 1903, C. setosior Chamberlin, 1959, C. stupendus Attems, 1928, C. tahitianus Chamberlin, 1920, C. typhloporus Lawrence, 1955. South African material assigned to C. australis by Attems (1928) is described as a new species C. capensis, and C. (C.) australis africanus Lawrence, 1955 is raised to full specific status as C. africanus. C. sinesicus Chamberlin, 1940 is a new junior subjective synonym of C. navis. C. afghanus Loksa, 1971, C. gracilimus Machado, 1951 and C. pauperatus Attems, 1937 are nomina dubia. Of the species here regarded as valid, further material from Australia and New Zealand is required to clarify the characteristics of C. australis. There has been confusion over the identities of the New Zealand species C. dilagus, C. lamprethus and C. polyodontus; their relationship should be further examined. The South African C. philammus and C. stupendus are also very similar and it is possible that further work may show them to be conspecific. The widely distributed C. doriae populations would, likewise, merit further investigation as would the relationship of the species to C. nepalensis and C. niuensis. It is possible that the inadequately described C. afghanus is identical to C. doriae. A provisional key to these species is provided. PMID:25250431

  7. The List of Available Names (LAN): A new generation for stable taxonomic names in zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Fautin, Daphne Gail; Michel, Ellinor

    2016-01-01

    The List of Available Names in Zoology (LAN) is an inventory of names with specific scope in time and content, presented and approved in parts, and constituted as a cumulative index of names available for use in zoological nomenclature. It was defined in Article 79 in the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The LAN is likely to gain importance with the development of the online Official Registry for Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as it is potentially a source of many nomenclaturally certified names. Article 79 describes the deliberative process for adding large numbers of names to the LAN simultaneously, detailing steps and chronology for submission of a candidate Part to the LAN and consideration of a candidate Part by the public and Commission, but it is largely mute about the contents of a candidate Part. It does make clear that a name within the scope of a Part but not on the LAN has no nomenclatural standing, even if it had previously been considered available, thereby preventing long-forgotten names from displacing accepted ones and the accumulation of nomina dubia. Thus, for taxa on the LAN, nomenclatural archaeology - the resurrecting of old unused names to replace by priority names in current usage - will not be worthwhile. Beyond that, it has been unclear if Article 79 is intended to document every available name known within the scope of the Part, or if its intention is to pare the inventory of available names within the scope of the Part. Consideration by the Commission and two committees to deal with the LAN have defined steps to implement Article 79 with the latter intent. Procedures for consideration of a candidate Part are defined in a manual, published as an appendix in this volume. PMID:26877661

  8. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian-Albian of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Xing

    Full Text Available The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5-3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69% accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%, sauropod (10%, and pterosaur (3%. Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically

  9. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian–Albian) of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Lockley, Martin G.; Marty, Daniel; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Yan; Klein, Hendrik; McCrea, Richard T.; Buckley, Lisa G.; Belvedere, Matteo; Mateus, Octávio; Gierliński, Gerard D.; Piñuela, Laura; Persons, W. Scott; Wang, Fengping; Ran, Hao; Dai, Hui; Xie, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5–3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod) and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69%) accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%), sauropod (10%), and pterosaur (3%). Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically-, paleontologically- and a

  10. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  11. Evaluation of cyanobacteria toxicity in tropical reservoirs using crude extracts bioassay with cladocerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Denise Tieme; Sotero-Santos, Rosana Barbosa; Takenaka, Renata Akemi; Rocha, Odete

    2007-03-01

    During a cyanobacterial bloom in a eutrophic environment, particularly at the end when decomposition occurs, toxic compounds such as the cyanotoxins and the lipopolysaccharides can be released in high concentrations into the water column damaging aquatic organisms. In this work, the effects of this release of toxic compounds during a cyanobacterial bloom were investigated. The acute and chronic toxicity of cyanobacterial crude extracts from two natural blooms in the Barra Bonita and Ibitinga reservoirs (Middle Tietê River, São Paulo State, Brazil) and of a toxic strain cultured in the laboratory were tested. The cladocerans Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii were used as test organisms. In the chronic toxicity tests, only a native cladoceran found in Brazilian freshwaters, Ceriodaphnia silvestrii, was used. Microcystins were detected in all cyanobacterial samples. The acute toxicity tests showed that the crude bloom material extract from the Ibitinga Reservoir (48-h EC(50) values between 32.6 and 35.8 microg microcystin g(-1) of freeze-dried material) exhibited higher toxicity to cladoceran than did the crude bloom material extract from Barra Bonita Reservoir (48-h EC(50) values between 46.0 and 80.2 microg microcystin g(-1) of freeze-dried material). The chronic toxicity test data showed that the three extracts reduced the fecundity of C. silvestrii, and the crude extract of Barra Bonita Reservoir bloom material also affected the survival of this cladoceran. Both acute and chronic tests effectively prognosticated possible changes in the cladoceran population, and probably other components of the biota due to cyanobacterial blooms in natural aquatic ecosystems. PMID:17131179

  12. Acute toxicity tests with the tropical cladoceran Pseudosida ramosa: The importance of using native species as test organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Emanuela Cristina; Rocha, Odete

    2011-02-01

    Cladocerans have long been used for toxicological assessments of a diverse range of substances. The use of cladocerans in toxicity tests has many advantages, such as their short life cycle, parthenogenetic reproduction (clones), and high sensitivity to toxicants, as well as the easy laboratory maintenance of cultures. The most commonly used cladoceran in ecotoxicological studies of aquatic environments is undoubtedly Daphnia magna. Standard methods using cladocerans as test organisms have been documented and adopted by major international organizations and regulatory agencies of many countries. However, today there is a growing need for improving test organisms and protocols to better reflect local species sensitivity or site-specific conditions. The present study aimed to assess the tropical species Pseudosida ramosa as a potential test organism for ecotoxicological purposes, by carrying out standard acute tests with six reference compounds. Based on the results obtained in the present study and in comparison with other cladocerans, it was found that P. ramosa was more sensitive than Daphnia magna, had a sensitivity similar to that of Daphnia similis, and was less sensitive compared to Ceriodaphnia dubia and C. silvestrii (Neotropical species), except for the salts, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. Also, when P. ramosa was compared with test organisms of other taxonomic groups, we observed that it was more sensitive than most of the others, from simple coelenterates to complex fish. Considering these results and the wide distribution of the cladoceran P. ramosa in tropical and subtropical regions, we suggest that this species can be adopted as a test organism, being a good substitute for the exotic daphnid D. magna, for monitoring of toxicants in freshwaters. PMID:20464548

  13. Evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity of DSS and LAS surfactants undergoing the irradiation with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade aguda e cronica dos surfactantes DSS e LAS submetidos a irradiacao com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, Maria Fernanda

    2004-07-01

    Surfactants are synthetic organic compounds widely used in cosmetic, food, textile, dyers and paper production industries and in particular detergents and others cleaning products industries. The world consumption is nearly 8 million tons per year. One of the main environmental issues coming from the use of these compounds is their toxicity that compromises the biological treatment of effluents and the quality of receiving waters. The objective of this work was the application of ionizing radiation by electron beam in the degradation and reduction of acute and chronic toxicities of surfactants sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate acid (LAS) and sodium dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate (LAS). This treatment technology has been studied as a pre-treatment for effluents containing toxic and non-biodegradable compounds, before the biological treatment. Two acute toxicity assays were employed, one with the micro-crustacean Daphnia similis and the other with the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri along with a chronic toxicity assay with the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (just for SDS and acid LAS) for the non-irradiated and irradiated samples and radiation doses 3.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 9.0 kGy and 12.0 kGy. Physical-chemical parameters were evaluated for the following up the degradation of the surfactant molecules. The reductions of acute toxicity varied between 72.49% and 90.98% for SDS, 18.22% and 78.98% for acid LAS and 82.66% and 94.26% for sodium LAS. For the chronic toxicity, the reduction percentages varied between 64.03% and 83.01% for SDS and 47.48% and 64.91% for acid LAS. When one considers the application of the electron beam as a pre-treatment of effluents containing high concentrations of surfactants, the toxicity is an essential parameter allowing the further biological treatment of these effluents. (author)

  14. Systematics, conservation and morphology of the spider genus Tayshaneta (Araneae, Leptonetidae in Central Texas Caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Ledford

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spider genus Tayshaneta is revised based on results from a three gene phylogenetic analysis (Ledford et al. 2011 and a comprehensive morphological survey using scanning electron (SEM and compound light microscopy. The morphology and relationships within Tayshaneta are discussed and five species-groups are supported by phylogenetic analyses: the anopica group, the coeca group, the myopica group, the microps group and the sandersi group. Short branch lengths within Tayshaneta contrast sharply with the remaining North American genera and are viewed as evidence for a relatively recent radiation of species. Variation in troglomorphic morphology is discussed and compared to patterns found in other Texas cave invertebrates. Several species previously known as single cave endemics have wider ranges than expected, suggesting that some caves are not isolated habitats but instead form part of interconnected karst networks. Distribution maps are compared with karst faunal regions (KFR’s in Central Texas and the implications for the conservation and recovery of Tayshaneta species are discussed. Ten new species are described: T. archambaulti sp. n., T. emeraldae sp. n., T. fawcetti sp. n., T. grubbsi sp. n., T. madla sp. n., T. oconnorae sp. n., T. sandersi sp. n., T. sprousei sp. n., T. vidrio sp. n. and T. whitei sp. n. The males for three species, T. anopica (Gertsch, 1974, T. devia (Gertsch, 1974 and T. microps (Gertsch, 1974 are described for the first time. Tayshaneta furtiva (Gertsch, 1974 and T. uvaldea (Gertsch, 1974 are declared nomina dubia as the female holotypes are not diagnosable and efforts to locate specimens at the type localities were unsuccessful. All Tayshaneta species are thoroughly illustrated, diagnosed and keyed. Distribution maps are also provided highlighting areas of taxonomic ambiguity in need of additional sampling.

  15. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ''best'' or ''worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature

  16. The List of Available Names (LAN): A new generation for stable taxonomic names in zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Fautin, Daphne Gail; Michel, Ellinor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The List of Available Names in Zoology (LAN) is an inventory of names with specific scope in time and content, presented and approved in parts, and constituted as a cumulative index of names available for use in zoological nomenclature. It was defined in Article 79 in the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The LAN is likely to gain importance with the development of the online Official Registry for Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as it is potentially a source of many nomenclaturally certified names. Article 79 describes the deliberative process for adding large numbers of names to the LAN simultaneously, detailing steps and chronology for submission of a candidate Part to the LAN and consideration of a candidate Part by the public and Commission, but it is largely mute about the contents of a candidate Part. It does make clear that a name within the scope of a Part but not on the LAN has no nomenclatural standing, even if it had previously been considered available, thereby preventing long-forgotten names from displacing accepted ones and the accumulation of nomina dubia. Thus, for taxa on the LAN, nomenclatural archaeology – the resurrecting of old unused names to replace by priority names in current usage – will not be worthwhile. Beyond that, it has been unclear if Article 79 is intended to document every available name known within the scope of the Part, or if its intention is to pare the inventory of available names within the scope of the Part. Consideration by the Commission and two committees to deal with the LAN have defined steps to implement Article 79 with the latter intent. Procedures for consideration of a candidate Part are defined in a manual, published as an appendix in this volume. PMID:26877661

  17. Uptake and toxic effects of surface modified nanomaterials in freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Brandon Casey

    Nanomaterials are a class of materials with unique properties due to their size, and the association of these properties with the toxicity of nanomaterials is poorly understood. The present study assessed the toxic effects of stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of three distinctly different classes of nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. The fullerene, C70, was stabilized through non-covalent surface modification with gallic acid. Toxicity of C70-gallic acid was confirmed to exhibit similar toxic effects as C60-fullerene, including changes in antioxidative processes in Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna fecundity was significantly reduced in 21d bioassays at C70-gallic concentrations below quantifiable limits (0.03 mg/L C70). Antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as well as lipid peroxidation suggested that exposed organisms experienced oxidative stress. Carbon dots are a class of nanomaterials proposed for use as nontoxic alternatives to semiconductor quantum dots for photoluminescent applications, because of the difference in toxicity of their core components: carbon as opposed to heavy metals. In vivo analysis of treated organisms by confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed carbon dots were absorbed and systemically distributed regardless of particle size. The present study did not find any evidence of acute toxicity at concentrations up to 10mg/L carbon dots. These concentrations also failed to produce negative effects in Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays to predict chronic toxicity. Carbon dots also failed to elicit developmental toxic effects in zebrafish. The toxic effects of semiconductor quantum dots have been partially attributed to the release of heavy metals with their degradation, particularly cadmium. Laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry was used to compare the uptake of cadmium, selenium and zinc in Daphnia magna treated to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots or CdCl2. These quantum dots were observed to accumulate

  18. Methods For Collecting , Culturing And Performing Toxicity Tests With Daphnia ambigua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Winona L.

    2005-07-01

    Toxicity tests conducted on water collected from impacted locations in SRS streams often failed chronic toxicity tests and sometimes failed acute toxicity tests (Specht 1995). These findings prompted SRS to determine the cause of the failures. Some SRS NPDES outfalls were also failing chronic toxicity tests, even though no toxicant could be identified and when TIEs were performed, none of the TIE treatments removed the toxicity. Ultimately, it was determined that the failures were due to the low hardness of SRS surface waters, rather than to the presence of a toxicant. The species of cladoceran that the EPA recommends for toxicity testing, Ceriodaphnia dubia, is stressed by the very low hardness of SRS waters. SRS developed an alternate species toxicity test that is similar to the EPA test, but uses an indigenous cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (Specht and Harmon, 1997; Harmon et al., 2003). In 2001, SCDHEC approved the use of D. ambigua for toxicity testing at SRS, contingent upon approval by EPA Region 4. In 2002, EPA Region 4 approved the use of this species for compliance toxicity testing at SRS. Ultimately, the use of this species demonstrated that SRS effluents were not toxic, and most toxicity testing requirements were removed from the NPDES permit that was issued in December 2003, with the exception of one round of chronic definitive testing on outfalls A-01, A-11, and G-10 just before the next NPDES permit application is submitted to SCDHEC. Although the alternate species test was developed at SRS (1996-1998), the culture was transferred to a contract toxicity testing lab (ETT Environmental) located in Greer, SC in 1998. ETT Environmental became certified by SCDHEC to perform toxicity tests using D. ambigua in 2002, and at this time is the only laboratory certified by SCDHEC to perform tests with this species. Because of the expense associated with maintaining the D. ambigua culture for several years when no toxicity testing is required, SRS decided to suspend

  19. A synopsis of the tribe Micrutalini Haupt (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula

  20. Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE'S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996 - February 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE's) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE's indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not

  1. Gain and loss of polyadenylation signals during evolution of green algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glöckner Gernot

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants consist of two monophyletic lineages: the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta. Most green algae belong to the Chlorophyta, while the Streptophyta include all land plants and a small group of freshwater algae known as Charophyceae. Eukaryotes attach a poly-A tail to the 3' ends of most nuclear-encoded mRNAs. In embryophytes, animals and fungi, the signal for polyadenylation contains an A-rich sequence (often AAUAAA or related sequence 13 to 30 nucleotides upstream from the cleavage site, which is commonly referred to as the near upstream element (NUE. However, it has been reported that the pentanucleotide UGUAA is used as polyadenylation signal for some genes in volvocalean algae. Results We set out to investigate polyadenylation signal differences between streptophytes and chlorophytes that may have emerged shortly after the evolutionary split between Streptophyta and Chlorophyta. We therefore analyzed expressed genes (ESTs from three streptophyte algae, Mesostigma viride, Klebsormidium subtile and Coleochaete scutata, and from two early-branching chlorophytes, Pyramimonas parkeae and Scherffelia dubia. In addition, to extend the database, our analyses included ESTs from six other chlorophytes (Acetabularia acetabulum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Helicosporidium sp. ex Simulium jonesii, Prototheca wickerhamii, Scenedesmus obliquus and Ulva linza and one streptophyte (Closterium peracerosum. Our results indicate that polyadenylation signals in green algae vary widely. The UGUAA motif is confined to late-branching Chlorophyta. Most streptophyte algae do not have an A-rich sequence motif like that in embryophytes, animals and fungi. We observed polyadenylation signals similar to those of Arabidopsis and other land plants only in Mesostigma. Conclusion Polyadenylation signals in green algae show considerable variation. A new NUE (UGUAA was invented in derived chlorophytes and replaced

  2. O2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescent measurements in Australian native grasses: a comparison on NADP-ME and NAD-ME C4 subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: C4 grasses dominate the vegetation of Australia's tropical and arid grasslands. They have very diverse origins; however biochemically, they fall into three main types: NAD-ME, PCK and NADP-ME. The most notable differences among these subtypes are the contrasting leaf dry matter δ13C and geographic distribution according to rainfall. Our long-term aim is to understand the physiological significance of the biochemical diversification of C4 photosynthesis in grasses. Here we have investigated the O2 exchange and fluorescence characteristics in NADP-ME (C. ciliaris, B. bladhii, P. antidotale, P. alopecuroides) and NAD-ME (A. Iappacea, E. superba, L. dubia, P. coloratum) grasses. The plants were 3.5 to 5 weeks old and grown under well-watered conditions in a growth cabinet with 10/5/4/5 h of 0/400/700/400 μmol m-2 S-1 PAR. Mass spectrometric measurements of 16O2 and 18O2 exchange were made concurrently with measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence on leaf discs in a closed leaf chamber. There was a good correlation between electron transport rates estimated from chlorophyll fluorescence and 16O2 measurements (within 10%) at high light and high CO2 concentrations. At low light estimates from chlorophyll fluorescence were 15 to 20% greater than estimates obtained form 16O2 evolution. Maximal electron transport rates at saturating CO2 were similar between the two C4 subtypes at all irradiances. However, both chlorophyll fluorescence and measurements of 16O2 evolution, revealed that NAD-ME species had significantly greater electron transport rates at the CO2-compensation point than the NADP-ME species1'8O2 uptake at saturating CO2 increased with increasing irradiance and was approximately 20% of 16O2 evolution at all irradiances and for both C4 subtypes. It was approximately 3.5 times greater than dark 18O-2 uptake indicating a significant amount of O2 uptake was associated with the Mehler reaction. The observed differences between NAD and NADP ME grasses will

  3. Uptake, retention and internalization of quantum dots in Daphnia is influenced by particle surface functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feswick, A., E-mail: afeswick@yahoo.ca [Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, PO Box 110885, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 5050, Saint John NB, CA (United States); Griffitt, R.J., E-mail: joe.griffitt@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Siebein, K., E-mail: kerry.siebein@nist.gov [Major Analytical Instrumentation Center, University of Florida, PO Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Barber, D.S., E-mail: barberd@vetmed.ufl.edu [Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, PO Box 110885, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Daphnia underwent a waterborne exposure of PEG, NH{sub 2} and COOH functionalized quantum dot nanoparticles. ► There was preferential retention of COOH nanoparticles. ► TEM demonstrated that NH{sub 2} and COOH nanoparticles were internalized in cells adjacent to the GI tract. ► This cellular internalization was confirmed using energy dispersive spectroscopy. -- Abstract: Nanomaterials are a diverse group of compounds whose inevitable release into the environment warrants study of the fundamental processes that govern the ingestion, uptake and accumulation in aquatic organisms. Nanomaterials have the ability to transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems, and recent evidence suggests that the surface chemistry of both the nanoparticle and biological membrane can influence uptake kinetics. Therefore, our study investigates the effect of surface functionalization on uptake, internalization and depuration in Daphnia spp. Uncharged (polyethylene glycol; PEG), positively charged (amino-terminated: NH{sub 2}) and negatively charged (carboxyl-modified; COOH) cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide quantum dots were used to monitor ingestion, uptake and depuration of nanometals in Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia over 24 h of exposure. These studies demonstrated that particles with higher negative charge (COOH quantum dots) were taken up to a greater extent by Daphnia (259.17 ± 17.70 RFU/20 Daphnia) than either the NH{sub 2} (150.01 ± 18.91) or PEG quantum dots (95.17 ± 9.78), however this is likely related to the functional groups attached to the nanoparticles as there were no real differences in zeta potential. Whole body fluorescence associates well with fluorescent microscopic images obtained at the 24 h timepoint. Confocal and electron microscopic analysis clearly demonstrated that all three types of quantum dots could cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and be translocated to other cells. Upon cessation of exposure, elimination of

  4. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@Ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rodriguez, P. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica (CIMM), Santiago (Chile); Vleminckx, K. [Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University (Belgium); Janssen, C.R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data

  5. Species Diversity of Ceratopteris Pteridoides Community at Hubei Longgan Lake National Wetland Nature Reserve in Hubei%湖北龙感湖国家级湿地自然保护区粗梗水蕨群落的物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董元火; 雷刚; 高威; 李树华; 王贵雄

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity of the endangered aquatic fern Ceratopteris pteri doides community at Hubei Longgan Lake national wetland nature reserve in China were surveyed using sample plot andα-diversity index. The main results are as follows:there were 11 plant species belonging to 10 families and 10 genera in the community in 2011,among which Zizania. Caduciflora,Hydrochai rs-dubia,Eichhornia crassipes,Polygonum hydropiper,Ceratophyllum demersum and Lemna minor were dominant species. The vegetation was called Zizania caduciflora-Hydrochai rsdubia Ass.α-di-versity index analysis revealed that Simpson index(D),Shannon-Wiener diversity index( H′),and Pielou evenness index(J)were 0. 846、1. 939 and 0. 809,respectively,indicating low levels of spe-cies diversity at the community. Human disturbance might be the main factor responsible for the re-duction of aquatic vegetation and biodiversity. Both establishing conservation spots and changing spots conservation are two important conservation strategies of the species.%采用样方法和α-多样性指数研究了湖北龙感湖国家级湿地自然保护区粗梗水蕨群落物种多样性。结果表明:与粗梗水蕨相伴生的物种主要有10科10属11种。粗梗水蕨群落群丛名为菰-水鳖,其群丛类型为挺水类。α-多样性指数分析显示粗梗水蕨群落辛普森指数( D )、香农威纳指数( H′)和Pielou均匀度指数( J )分别为0.846、1.939和0.809。人类干扰是导致湖泊水生植被和生物多样性降低的重要原因。建立保护点和迁地保护是保护该粗梗水蕨种群的有效措施。

  6. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  7. 白洋淀台田沟渠水生植物蔓延分布特征%Distribution Characteristics of Aquatic Plants in Canals and Ditches of Raised Fields in Baiyangdian Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝艳; 崔保山; 张永涛; 李峰居; 张宇; 蔺文亭

    2013-01-01

    湖泊植物群落的形成和分布由水文和水质共同决定.以白洋淀台田沟渠内水生植物为研究对象,研究水生植物在不同营养盐含量和与台田边界不同距离条件下的蔓延分布特征.运用野外调查方法,于2012年5月和9月初,对白洋淀20个主要淀区台田沟渠内的水生植物和水质条件进行调查.本次调查在台田沟渠内共发现水生植物14种,占淀区水生植物总种数的40%.沟渠内水生植物对营养盐含量的适应性可以分为3类:金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum)、紫背浮萍(Spirodela polyhiza)、水鳖(Hydracharis dubia)、蓖齿眼子菜(Potamogeton pectinatus)、菹草(Potamogeton crispus)、槐叶萍(Salvinia natans)、莲(Nelumbo nucifera)和芦苇(Phragmites australis适宜于各种水体;狸藻(Utricularia vulgaris)、穗花狐尾藻(Myriophyllum spicatum)和品藻Lemna trisulca)适宜于低氮水体;轮藻(Chara sp.)、光叶眼子菜(Potamo geton lucens)和马来眼子菜(Potamogeton malaianus)适宜于低氮和低磷水体.不同的水生植物分布于台田沟渠的不同位置,菹草、蓖齿眼子菜多分布于台田“外边缘”;轮藻多在台田“内边缘”和“内部水域”分布;浮水植物、浮叶植物和金鱼藻在台田区内分布相对均匀.植物群落物种丰富度沿台田沟渠与台田边界的距离呈单峰曲线关系,在台田入口处达到峰值.

  8. Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Chris A; Hendrixson, Brent E; Bond, Jason E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 within the United States. By employing phylogenomic, morphological, and geospatial data, we evaluated all 55 nominal species in the United States to examine the evolutionary history of Aphonopelma and the group's taxonomy by implementing an integrative approach to species delimitation. Based on our analyses, we now recognize only 29 distinct species in the United States. We propose 33 new synonymies (Aphonopelma apacheum, Aphonopelma minchi, Aphonopelma rothi, Aphonopelma schmidti, Aphonopelma stahnkei = Aphonopelma chalcodes; Aphonopelma arnoldi = Aphonopelma armada; Aphonopelma behlei, Aphonopelma vogelae = Aphonopelma marxi; Aphonopelma breenei = Aphonopelma anax; Aphonopelma chambersi, Aphonopelma clarum, Aphonopelma cryptethum, Aphonopelma sandersoni, Aphonopelma sullivani = Aphonopelma eutylenum; Aphonopelma clarki, Aphonopelma coloradanum, Aphonopelma echinum, Aphonopelma gurleyi, Aphonopelma harlingenum, Aphonopelma odelli, Aphonopelma waconum, Aphonopelma wichitanum = Aphonopelma hentzi; Aphonopelma heterops = Aphonopelma moderatum; Aphonopelma jungi, Aphonopelma punzoi = Aphonopelma vorhiesi; Aphonopelma brunnius, Aphonopelma chamberlini, Aphonopelma iviei, Aphonopelma lithodomum, Aphonopelma smithi, Aphonopelma zionis = Aphonopelma iodius; Aphonopelma phanum, Aphonopelma reversum = Aphonopelma steindachneri), 14 new species (Aphonopelma atomicum sp. n., Aphonopelma catalina sp. n., Aphonopelma chiricahua sp. n., Aphonopelma icenoglei sp. n., Aphonopelma johnnycashi sp. n., Aphonopelma madera sp. n., Aphonopelma mareki sp. n., Aphonopelma moellendorfi sp. n., Aphonopelma parvum sp. n., Aphonopelma peloncillo sp. n., Aphonopelma prenticei sp. n., Aphonopelma saguaro sp. n., Aphonopelma superstitionense sp. n., and Aphonopelma xwalxwal sp. n.), and seven nomina dubia (Aphonopelma baergi, Aphonopelma cratium, Aphonopelma hollyi

  9. Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on abiotic and biologically-driven basalt weathering and C sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Sabrina; Dontsova, Katerina; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Chollet, Simon; Llavata, Mathieu; Massol, Florent; Cros, Alexis; Barré, Pierre; Gelabert, Alexandre; Daval, Damien; Corvisier, Jérôme; Troch, Peter; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Van Haren, Joost; Ferrière, Régis

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of primary silicates is one of the mechanisms involved in carbon removal from the atmosphere, affecting the carbon cycle at geologic timescales with basalt significantly contributing to the global weathering CO2 flux. Mineral weathering can be enhanced by microbiota and plants. Increase in both temperature and amount of CO2 in the atmosphere can directly increase weathering and can also affect weathering through impact on biological systems. This would result in possible negative feedback on climate change. The goal of this research was to quantify direct and indirect effects of temperature and elevated CO2 on basalt weathering and carbon sequestration. In order to achieve this goal we performed controlled-environment mesocosm experiments at Ecotron Ile-de-France (France). Granular basalt collected in Flagstaff (AZ, USA) was exposed to rainfall at equilibrium with two different CO2 concentrations in the air, ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm); and kept at two climate regimes, with ambient and elevated (+ 4° C) temperature. Four biological treatments were superimposed on this design: a plant-free control; N-fixing grass (Alfalfa, Medicago sativa), N-fixing tree (Velvet mesquite, Prosopis velutina); and grass that does not form symbiotic relationships with N fixers (Green Sprangletop, Leptochloa dubia). All used basalt had native microbial community. Mesocosms were equipped with solution and gas samplers. To monitor biogenic and lithogenic weathering product concentrations, soil solution samples were collected under vacuum after each rainfall event and analyzed to determine pH, electrical conductivity, major and trace elements concentrations, anions concentrations, and aqueous phase organic matter chemistry. Soil gases were monitored for CO2 using porous Teflon gas samplers connected to the Vaisala probes. Plant biomass was collected at the end of the experiment to determine dry weight, as well as removal of N and lithogenic elements by the plants

  10. Morphology and evolution of the respiratory apparatus in the family Eubelidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Pasquino; Ferrara, Franco; Taiti, Stefano

    2002-09-01

    The morphology of the respiratory apparatus in the pleopodal lungs of the family Eubelidae was investigated. The family is a monophyletic group including more than 240 species in 53 genera (three of which are nomina dubia), mostly distributed in the Afrotropical Region (tropical Africa and Arabian Peninsula). In all the Eubelidae, except for the monospecific genus Parelumoides and two species of the genus Elumoides, the exopods of pleopods have lungs. All the pulmonary morphologies present in the entire suborder Oniscidea are found: 1) uncovered lungs, composed of a pleated respiratory surface, directly exposed to the air (Atracheodillo-type) or partially enclosed within the appendage (Synarmadilloides-type); 2) covered lungs with several spiracles and respiratory trees, housed within the appendages, with spiracles surrounded by a specialized, nonrespiratory, structure (perispiracular area) (Eubelum- and Somaloniscus-types); 3) covered lungs with only one spiracle, with or without perispiracular area, and one respiratory tree (Aethiopopactes- and Periscyphis-types), which in taxa with Periscyphis-type lung crosses the insertion of the appendage and penetrates into the pleon with bundles of respiratory tubules. The evolution of the various types of lungs is discussed. It is concluded that the two main evolutionary lines, i.e., uncovered lungs and covered lungs, originated independently from an ancestral respiratory structure-the semilunar area. A first mechanism of development of the semilunar area by folding of its surface produced the Atracheodillo-type (all folds coplanar with the surface of the exopod) and Synarmadilloides-type (folds partly coplanar and partly intraflexed inside the exopod) uncovered lungs. A second mechanism of development by tubular invagination of the cuticle of the semilunar area produced the polyspiracular Eubelum-type lungs (numerous arborescent invaginations) and the monospiracular Aethiopopactes-type lungs (only one arborescent

  11. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857), Turin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-fu

    2015-01-01

    distinguenda Spinola, 1838, and Chrysis coronata Spinola, 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrum alterum Lepeletier, 1806, and Hedychrum aulicum Spinola, 1843, are considered nomina oblita. Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854, and Hedychrum niemelai Linsenmaier, 1959, are retained as nomina protecta. The first available name for Chrysis succinctula sensu Linsenmaier is Chrysis tristicula Linsenmaier, 1959, (stat. n.) The current status and validity of some types in the Spinola collection are discussed. Photographs of fifty-three types are given. PMID:25632245

  12. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857, Turin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera, belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; C. comparata Lepeletier, 1806; C. dives Dahlbom, 1854; C. pumila Klug, 1845; C. succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; C. analis Spinola, 1808; C. assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; C. bihamata Spinola, 1838; C. chilensis Spinola, 1851; C. dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; C. distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; C. episcopalis Spinola, 1838; C. grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; C. incrassata Spinola, 1838; C. pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; C. pulchella Spinola, 1808; C. ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; C. refulgens Spinola, 1806; C. splendens Dahlbom, 1854; C. succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; C. versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; He. chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; He. difficile Spinola, 1851; He. virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Ho. luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984; C. calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965; C. elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986; He. rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984. Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781; Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of C. elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of C. germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis distinguenda Spinola, 1838, and C. coronata Spinola, 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrum alterum Lepeletier, 1806, and He. aulicum Spinola

  13. Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria from the Cretaceous of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taissa Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over a decade after the last major review of the Cambridge Greensand pterosaurs, their systematics remains one of the most disputed points in pterosaur taxonomy. Ornithocheiridae is still a wastebasket for fragmentary taxa, and some nomenclatural issues are still a problem. Here, the species from the Cretaceous of England that, at some point, were referred in Ornithocheirus, are reviewed. Investigation of the primary literature confirmed that Criorhynchus should be considered an objective junior synonym of Ornithocheirus. Taxonomic review of more than 30 species known from fragmentary remains showed that 16 of them are undiagnosable (nomina dubia: Palaeornis cliftii, Cimoliornis diomedeus, Pterodactylus compressirostris, Pterodactylus fittoni, Pterodactylus woodwardi, Ornithocheirus brachyrhinus, Ornithocheirus carteri, Ornithocheirus crassidens, Ornithocheirus dentatus, Ornithocheirus enchorhynchus, Ornithocheirus eurygnathus, Ornithocheirus oxyrhinus, Ornithocheirus scaphorhynchus, Ornithocheirus tenuirostris, Ornithocheirus xyphorhynchus, and Pterodactylus sagittirostris. Fourteen species are considered valid, and diagnoses are provided to all of them: Ornithocheirus simus, Lonchodraco giganteus comb. n., Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus comb. n., Lonchodraco(? microdon comb. n., Coloborhynchus clavirostris, ‘Ornithocheirus’ capito, Camposipterus nasutus comb. n., Camposipterus(? sedgwickii comb. n., Camposipterus(? colorhinus comb.n., Cimoliopterus cuvieri comb. n., ‘Ornithocheirus’ polyodon, ‘Ornithocheirus’ platystomus, ‘Pterodactylus’ daviesii, and ‘Ornithocheirus’ denticulatus. These species are referred in the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodraco gen. n., Coloborhynchus, Cimoliopterus gen. n., and Camposipterus gen. n., but additional genera are probably present, as indicated by the use of single quotation marks throughout the text. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that Anhangueridae lies within a newly recognized clade

  14. Uptake, retention and internalization of quantum dots in Daphnia is influenced by particle surface functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feswick, A; Griffitt, R J; Siebein, K; Barber, D S

    2013-04-15

    Nanomaterials are a diverse group of compounds whose inevitable release into the environment warrants study of the fundamental processes that govern the ingestion, uptake and accumulation in aquatic organisms. Nanomaterials have the ability to transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems, and recent evidence suggests that the surface chemistry of both the nanoparticle and biological membrane can influence uptake kinetics. Therefore, our study investigates the effect of surface functionalization on uptake, internalization and depuration in Daphnia spp. Uncharged (polyethylene glycol; PEG), positively charged (amino-terminated: NH2) and negatively charged (carboxyl-modified; COOH) cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide quantum dots were used to monitor ingestion, uptake and depuration of nanometals in Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia over 24h of exposure. These studies demonstrated that particles with higher negative charge (COOH quantum dots) were taken up to a greater extent by Daphnia (259.17±17.70 RFU/20 Daphnia) than either the NH2 (150.01±18.91) or PEG quantum dots (95.17±9.78), however this is likely related to the functional groups attached to the nanoparticles as there were no real differences in zeta potential. Whole body fluorescence associates well with fluorescent microscopic images obtained at the 24h timepoint. Confocal and electron microscopic analysis clearly demonstrated that all three types of quantum dots could cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and be translocated to other cells. Upon cessation of exposure, elimination of all three materials was biphasic with rapid initial clearance that likely represents elimination of material remaining in the GI tract followed by a much slower elimination phase that likely represents elimination of internalized material. These studies demonstrate that daphnids can take up intact nanomaterial from the water column and that this uptake is strongly influenced by particle surface functionalization

  15. Uptake, retention and internalization of quantum dots in Daphnia is influenced by particle surface functionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Daphnia underwent a waterborne exposure of PEG, NH2 and COOH functionalized quantum dot nanoparticles. ► There was preferential retention of COOH nanoparticles. ► TEM demonstrated that NH2 and COOH nanoparticles were internalized in cells adjacent to the GI tract. ► This cellular internalization was confirmed using energy dispersive spectroscopy. -- Abstract: Nanomaterials are a diverse group of compounds whose inevitable release into the environment warrants study of the fundamental processes that govern the ingestion, uptake and accumulation in aquatic organisms. Nanomaterials have the ability to transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems, and recent evidence suggests that the surface chemistry of both the nanoparticle and biological membrane can influence uptake kinetics. Therefore, our study investigates the effect of surface functionalization on uptake, internalization and depuration in Daphnia spp. Uncharged (polyethylene glycol; PEG), positively charged (amino-terminated: NH2) and negatively charged (carboxyl-modified; COOH) cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide quantum dots were used to monitor ingestion, uptake and depuration of nanometals in Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia over 24 h of exposure. These studies demonstrated that particles with higher negative charge (COOH quantum dots) were taken up to a greater extent by Daphnia (259.17 ± 17.70 RFU/20 Daphnia) than either the NH2 (150.01 ± 18.91) or PEG quantum dots (95.17 ± 9.78), however this is likely related to the functional groups attached to the nanoparticles as there were no real differences in zeta potential. Whole body fluorescence associates well with fluorescent microscopic images obtained at the 24 h timepoint. Confocal and electron microscopic analysis clearly demonstrated that all three types of quantum dots could cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and be translocated to other cells. Upon cessation of exposure, elimination of all three materials was

  16. Efeito da extrusão sobre a adsorção de água de farinhas mistas pré-gelatinizadas de arroz e bagaço de jabuticaba Effect of extrusion on the water adsorption of pre-gelatinized flours from rice and jabuticaba bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego P.R. Ascheri

    2006-06-01

    farinhas extrusadas.It was studied the effect of extrusion variables on the water absorption characteristics of pre-gelatinized flours (FME resulting from the extrusion of white rice (FAP and jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba dried bagasse flour (FBJ. Response surface methodology (RSM type 2³ was used as a predictive mathematical model to evaluate the flour stability. The experimental design was used to study the effect of two levels of FBJ replacement as a fiber source (15 and 25%, two levels of screw speed (100 and 200 rpm and two temperatures of the 3rd heating zone (120 and 180ºC resulting in eight treatments. The water absorption of FME, FAP and FBJ were compared by analysing the absorption isotherms water activity (Aw, which varied from 0.113 to 0.973 at 25ºC. The isotherms experimental data were adjusted to GAB mathematical model, which generated the Xm (equilibrium moisture of the monolayer coefficient applied to RSM as a variable response to evaluate the stability of the pre-gelatinized flours. The results showed the importance of the three variables during the extrusion process. The isotherms curves presented a typical surface hydrophilic characteristic having a sigmoidal type II shape. The region of intermediate moisture revealed that FAP adsorbed higher water content per unit of Aw, followed by FME. FBJ showed the lowest hygroscopic character. Concerning the stability of pre-gelatinized flour, the three extrusion variables were statiscally significant. The stability increased with the increase of FBJ flour content and also with the extruder temperature, whereas it decreased as the screw speed reduced, although with lower effect. The combination of high temperature and FBJ content improves the stability of the extruded flours.

  17. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  18. Assessment of Eutrophication in the Lower Yakima River Basin, Washington, 2004-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Daniel R.; Zuroske, Marie L.; Carpenter, Kurt D.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    . Periphytic algal growth generally was not nutrient-limited and frequently reached nuisance levels in the Zillah reach, where some surface-water nutrient concentrations were below the reference concentrations suggested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Although lowering nutrient concentrations in this reach might limit periphytic algal growth enough to improve dissolved oxygen and pH conditions, ground water inflow at some locations might still provide an adequate supply of nutrients for periphytic algal growth. Macrophyte growth in the Kiona reach was dominated by water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia), was far greater compared to the other two reaches, varied greatly between years, and was negatively related to greater spring runoff due to lower light availability. Lowering nutrient concentrations in the Kiona reach might not impact the level of macrophyte growth because macrophytes with extensive root systems such as water stargrass can get nutrients from river sediment. In addition, the results from this study did not indicate any nutrient uptake by the macrophytes from the water column (nutrient uptake from the sediment was not examined). Creating the prolonged turbid and deep conditions during spring necessary to suppress macrophyte growth in this reach would not be possible in years with low streamflow. In addition, because of the relatively stable substrate present in much of this reach, the macrophyte root systems would likely not be disturbed under all but the most extremely high streamflows that occur in the lower Yakima River.

  19. Dyes removal of textile wastewater onto surfactant modified zeolite from coal ash and evaluation of the toxic effects; Remocao de corantes de efluente textil por zeolita de cinzas de carvao modificada por surfactante e avaliacao dos efeitos toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Patricia Cunico

    2015-07-01

    Zeolites synthesized from fly and bottom ashes and modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) were used as adsorbent to remove dyes - Solophenyl Navy (SN) and Solophenyl Turquoise (ST) and their hydrolysed forms Solophenyl Navy Hydrolysed (SNH) and Solophenyl Turquoise Hydrolysed (STH), from simulated textile wastewater. The HDTMA-modified fly zeolite (ZMF) and HDTMA-modified bottom zeolite (ZMB) were characterized by different techniques, as X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, etc. The ZMF and ZMB presented negative charge probably due to the formation of a partial bilayer of HDTMA on exchangeable active sites on the external surface of unmodified zeolite. Initial dye concentration, contact time and equilibrium adsorption were evaluated. The adsorption kinetic for SN, ST, SNH and STH onto the zeolites followed the pseudo second-order model. The equilibrium time was 20 min for SN and ST and 30 min for SNH and STH, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherms. Adsorption of the dyes were best described by the Langmuir model, with exception to SN/ZPM, SNH/ZPM and SNH/ZLM systems that followed Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 3,64; 3,57; 2,91 e 4,93 for SN, ST, SNH e STH by ZLM, respectively and 0,235; 0,492; 1,26 e 1,86 by ZPM, in this order. The best performance for hydrolyzed dyes has been attributed to reduction of the size of dyes molecules during the hydrolysis process. Acute toxicity of the dyes to a different organism were evaluated by different test-organisms. Waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia showed EC50 value of 1,25; 54,5; 0,78 and 2,56 mgL{sup -1} for SN, ST, SNH and STH, respectively. The plant Lemna minor showed EC50 values of 18,9; 69,4; 10,9 and 70,9 mgL{sup -1} for SN, ST, SNH and STH, respectively. Midges larvae of Chironomus tepperi showed EC50 values of 119 and 440 mgL{sup -1} for SN and ST, respectively. Regarding

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Meilensteine der Astronomie - Von Aristoteles bis Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, J.

    2006-12-01

    neglected, other astronomers? Before the chapter dealing with Aristoteles and other Greek thinkers, the author presents a very good introduction to prehistoric astronomy. Subsequent chapters cover medieval times (Sacrobosco), Copernicus, instruments (Apian), calendars and their makers, telescopes and theological conflicts, women in astronomy and celestial mechanics, "amateur" astronomers (Herschel and Bessel), philosophy and science (Kant and successors). "At the limits of knowledge" is the title of the last, somewhat scanty chapter on 20th century astronomy. The only confusing text is found on p. 43: Die exzentrische Lage der Spharen wurde von Hipparch im 2. Jahrhundert v. Chr. eingefuhrt. Cum grano salis, this is correct; Hipparchos assumed an eccentric orbit for the Sun. Furthermore, die Erde steht im Mittelpunkt des Deferenten, jedoch um den Betrag der Exzentrizitat E vom Mittelpunkt des Exzenters entfernt. A figure showing a deferent circle (and attached epicycle) with center M, and a lower point E called center of world = center of Earth in the caption, tries to illustrate this. The desperate reader does not find the eccenter in the figure, and also does not appreciate why the Earth is in the center of the deferent M when the caption says it is in E. The explanation is that for a planet, having two anomalies, the epicycle does not run on a concentric circle, usually called deferent, but on an eccenter. Thus, in the figure, the circle labelled deferent is the eccenter. In Cellarius' Harmonia Macrocosmica, Table 14, a similar figure explains it all: Eccentricus deferens epicyclum - the eccenter that carries around the epicycle. Since we have switched to Latin, we should mention that on p. 158, we encountered the sentence "in dubia pro res". Perhaps we are permitted to reply "si tacuisses, philosophus mansisses". The reader is cautioned: if this book is used as a road atlas for the history of astronomy, the reader will often find very rough sketches of the progress of

  1. 淮河流域河南段水生植物多样性评价及其影响因素分析%The Evaluation of the Hydrophytes Diversity and Its Influencing Factors of the Huaihe River Basin Henan Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓燕; 于鲁冀; 王莉; 范鹏宇; 徐艳红

    2015-01-01

    通过对淮河流域河南段开展野外调查及室内监测,分析河流水生植物类群组成及优势物种,从多样性、丰富度、优势度、均匀度4个方面对水生植物进行健康评价,采用CCA分析法探讨影响水生植物的关键环境因素。结果表明,淮河流域河南段共有水生植物38种,隶属于25科33属,分布广泛的优势种为芦苇、水花生、金鱼藻、轮叶黑藻、水蓼、水鳖、篦齿眼子菜。针对健康评价结果,淮河流域河南段水生植物呈现病态到健康状态。分析表明河流生态系统遭受破坏,生态系统呈现不稳定状况,主要原因为水质污染及人为活动干扰强烈。根据水生植物分布与水环境因子CCA响应关系研究,影响水生植物的主要因子为TP、COD、pH、电导率、氨氮。%On the basis of field survey and laboratory measurement, the species composition and dominant species of aquatic plants in Huaihe river basin Henan section was analyzed in this study. The community diversity index, richness index, dominance index and evenness index of aquatic plant were used to evaluate the health status of aquatic plant, and canonical correspondence analysis ( CCA ) was used to analysis the key environmental elements that affect the distribution of the hydrophytes. The results showed that there were 38 aquatic plant species which belonging to 25 families and 33 genera were recorded. The widespread plant species were Phragmites australis, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Ceratophyllum demersum, Hydrilla verticillata, Polygonum hydropiper, Hydrocharis dubia and Potamogeton crispus. The results of health evaluation of the hydrophytes showed that the health status of aquatic plant presented sick to healthy state. The analysis indicated that the river ecological system was determined and in unstable situation Because of the influence of water pollution and intense human disturbance. The CCA of the hydrophytes and water

  2. Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: Development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@ugent.be; Nys, C., E-mail: chnys.nys@ugent.be; Janssen, C.R., E-mail: colin.janssen@ugent.be

    2014-10-15

    accurate toxicity predictions. While toxicity of (filtered) Pb varied 13.7-fold across 14 different test media (including four Pb-spiked natural waters) with widely varying physico-chemistry (72h-EC50s between 26.6 and 364 μg/L), this bioavailability model displayed mean and maximum prediction errors of only 1.4 and 2.2-fold, respectively, thus indicating the potential usefulness of this bioavailability model to reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessment. A model-based comparison with other species indicated that the sensitivity difference between P. subcapitata and two of the most chronically Pb-sensitive aquatic invertebrates (the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia and the snail Lymnaea stagnalis) is strongly pH dependent, with P. subcapitata becoming the most sensitive of the three at pH > 7.4. This indicates that inter-species differences in Pb bioavailability relationships should be accounted for in risk assessment and in the derivation of water quality criteria or environmental quality standards for Pb. The chronic toxicity data with three algae species and the bioavailability model presented here will help to provide a stronger scientific basis for evaluating ecological effects of Pb in the freshwater environment.

  3. Site Specific Metal Criteria Developed Using Kentucky Division of Water Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Phipps, T.L.

    1999-10-09

    Alternative limits for Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were developed for treated wastewater from four outfalls at a Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Guidance from the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) was used to (1) estimate the toxicity of the effluents using water fleas (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae; (2) determine total recoverable and dissolved concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn ; (3) calculate ratios of dissolved metal (DM) to total recoverable metal (TRM); and (4) assess chemical characteristics of the effluents. Three effluent samples from each outfall were collected during each of six test periods; thus, a total of 18 samples from each outfall were evaluated for toxicity, DM and TRM. Subsamples were analyzed for alkalinity, hardness, pH, conductivity, and total suspended solids. Short-term (6 or 7 d), static renewal toxicity tests were conducted according to EPA methodology. Ceriodaphnia reproduction was reduced in one test of effluent from Outfall A , and effluent from Outfall B was acutely toxic to both test species during one test. However, the toxicity was not related to the metals present in the effluents. Of the 18 samples from each outfall, more than 65% of the metal concentrations were estimated quantities. With the exception of two total recoverable Cu values in Outfall C, all metal concentrations were below the permit limits and the federal water quality criteria. Ranges of TR for all outfalls were: Cd, ,0.1-0.4 {micro}g/L; Cr,1.07-3.93 {micro}g/L; Cu, 1.59-7.24 {micro}g/L; Pb, <0.1-3.20 {micro}g/L; Ni, 0.82-10.7 {micro}g/L, Zn, 4.75-67.3 {micro}g/L. DM:TRM ratios were developed for each outfall. The proportion of dissolved Cu in the effluents ranged from 67 to 82%; the proportion of dissolved Ni ranged from 84 to 91%; and the proportion of dissolved Zn ranged from 74 to 94%. The proportion of dissolved Pb in the effluents was considerably lower (37-51%). TRM and/or DM concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn differed significantly

  4. Review of the Spirobolida on Madagascar, with descriptions of twelve new genera, including three genera of 'fire millipedes' (Diplopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wesener

    2009-09-01

    , are provided. Four species, Rhinocricus collaris de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897, Spirobolus grandidieri de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897, Spirobolus olympiaceus Karsch, 1881, and Spirobolus sikorae de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897 are only known from females and are listed as nomina dubia. Some genera occur in the dry or spiny forest as well as in the rainforest ecosystem; species, however, are restricted to a single habitat type. In the rainforest, up to six different genera were collected in the same individual forest. Numerous genera are adapted to a special ecological niche. A high proportion of species are microendemic, often to some tiny, highly endangered forests. Of special conservation concern are the species which occur only in Analavelona, Ambatotsirongorongo, the subhumid, globally unique littoral forest of Petriky and the littoral rainforests of Mandena and Sainte Luce.

  5. Euophryine jumping spiders of the Afrotropical Region-new taxa and a checklist (Araneae: Salticidae: Euophryinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesołowska, Wanda; Azarkina, Galina N; Russell-Smith, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    ), Rumburak laxus (Zhang & Maddison, 2012) (ex Thyenula) and Thyenula munda (Peckham & Peckham, 1903) (ex Saitis). Two names are recognized as nomina dubia: Euophrys nigrescens Caporiacco, 1940 and Saitis magnus Caporiacco, 1947. The first member of the genus Chinophrys Zhang & Maddison, 2012 is reported from Africa. The males of Euophrys leipoldti Peckham & Peckham, 1903 and Thyenula sempiterna Wesołowska, 2000 are described for the first time. Tanzania minutus (Wesołowska & Russell-Smith, 2000) is recorded from South Africa for the first time. A list of valid species of Afrotropical Euophryinae with data on their distribution in the region is provided. A key is supplied for the known genera of the region (based on males).  PMID:24869747

  6. Assessing the concentration, speciation, and toxicity of dissolved metals during mixing of acid-mine drainage and ambient river water downstream of the Elizabeth Copper Mine, Vermont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Seal, R.R., II; Piatak, N.M.; Paul, B.

    2007-01-01

    , which is consistent with the DGT results. Although the DGT method indicates that the majority of aqueous Cu species are inorganic, BLM calculations indicate that dissolved Cu is inorganic at pH 5.5. Integrated dissolved labile concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn in the mixing and reaction zone are compared to calculated acute toxicity concentrations (LC50 values) for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) (Cd, Cu and Zn) and water fleas (Ceriodaphnia dubia) (Cd and Cu) using the BLM, and to national recommended water quality criteria [i.e., criteria maximum concentration (CMC) and criterion continuous concentration (CCC)]. Observed labile concentrations of Cd and Zn are below LC50 values and CMC for Cd, but above CCC and CMC for Zn at sites <30 m downstream of the confluence. In contrast, labile Cu concentrations exceed LC50 values for the organisms as well as CCC and CMC at sites <30 m downstream of the confluence. These results suggest that environmental conditions at sites closest to the confluence of the river and acid-mine drainage should not support healthy aquatic organisms. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: Development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    predictions. While toxicity of (filtered) Pb varied 13.7-fold across 14 different test media (including four Pb-spiked natural waters) with widely varying physico-chemistry (72h-EC50s between 26.6 and 364 μg/L), this bioavailability model displayed mean and maximum prediction errors of only 1.4 and 2.2-fold, respectively, thus indicating the potential usefulness of this bioavailability model to reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessment. A model-based comparison with other species indicated that the sensitivity difference between P. subcapitata and two of the most chronically Pb-sensitive aquatic invertebrates (the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia and the snail Lymnaea stagnalis) is strongly pH dependent, with P. subcapitata becoming the most sensitive of the three at pH > 7.4. This indicates that inter-species differences in Pb bioavailability relationships should be accounted for in risk assessment and in the derivation of water quality criteria or environmental quality standards for Pb. The chronic toxicity data with three algae species and the bioavailability model presented here will help to provide a stronger scientific basis for evaluating ecological effects of Pb in the freshwater environment

  8. Dyes removal of textile wastewater onto surfactant modified zeolite from coal ash and evaluation of the toxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeolites synthesized from fly and bottom ashes and modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) were used as adsorbent to remove dyes - Solophenyl Navy (SN) and Solophenyl Turquoise (ST) and their hydrolysed forms Solophenyl Navy Hydrolysed (SNH) and Solophenyl Turquoise Hydrolysed (STH), from simulated textile wastewater. The HDTMA-modified fly zeolite (ZMF) and HDTMA-modified bottom zeolite (ZMB) were characterized by different techniques, as X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, etc. The ZMF and ZMB presented negative charge probably due to the formation of a partial bilayer of HDTMA on exchangeable active sites on the external surface of unmodified zeolite. Initial dye concentration, contact time and equilibrium adsorption were evaluated. The adsorption kinetic for SN, ST, SNH and STH onto the zeolites followed the pseudo second-order model. The equilibrium time was 20 min for SN and ST and 30 min for SNH and STH, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherms. Adsorption of the dyes were best described by the Langmuir model, with exception to SN/ZPM, SNH/ZPM and SNH/ZLM systems that followed Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 3,64; 3,57; 2,91 e 4,93 for SN, ST, SNH e STH by ZLM, respectively and 0,235; 0,492; 1,26 e 1,86 by ZPM, in this order. The best performance for hydrolyzed dyes has been attributed to reduction of the size of dyes molecules during the hydrolysis process. Acute toxicity of the dyes to a different organism were evaluated by different test-organisms. Waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia showed EC50 value of 1,25; 54,5; 0,78 and 2,56 mgL-1 for SN, ST, SNH and STH, respectively. The plant Lemna minor showed EC50 values of 18,9; 69,4; 10,9 and 70,9 mgL-1 for SN, ST, SNH and STH, respectively. Midges larvae of Chironomus tepperi showed EC50 values of 119 and 440 mgL-1 for SN and ST, respectively. Regarding the adsorption

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Meilensteine der Astronomie - Von Aristoteles bis Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, J.

    2006-12-01

    neglected, other astronomers? Before the chapter dealing with Aristoteles and other Greek thinkers, the author presents a very good introduction to prehistoric astronomy. Subsequent chapters cover medieval times (Sacrobosco), Copernicus, instruments (Apian), calendars and their makers, telescopes and theological conflicts, women in astronomy and celestial mechanics, "amateur" astronomers (Herschel and Bessel), philosophy and science (Kant and successors). "At the limits of knowledge" is the title of the last, somewhat scanty chapter on 20th century astronomy. The only confusing text is found on p. 43: Die exzentrische Lage der Spharen wurde von Hipparch im 2. Jahrhundert v. Chr. eingefuhrt. Cum grano salis, this is correct; Hipparchos assumed an eccentric orbit for the Sun. Furthermore, die Erde steht im Mittelpunkt des Deferenten, jedoch um den Betrag der Exzentrizitat E vom Mittelpunkt des Exzenters entfernt. A figure showing a deferent circle (and attached epicycle) with center M, and a lower point E called center of world = center of Earth in the caption, tries to illustrate this. The desperate reader does not find the eccenter in the figure, and also does not appreciate why the Earth is in the center of the deferent M when the caption says it is in E. The explanation is that for a planet, having two anomalies, the epicycle does not run on a concentric circle, usually called deferent, but on an eccenter. Thus, in the figure, the circle labelled deferent is the eccenter. In Cellarius' Harmonia Macrocosmica, Table 14, a similar figure explains it all: Eccentricus deferens epicyclum - the eccenter that carries around the epicycle. Since we have switched to Latin, we should mention that on p. 158, we encountered the sentence "in dubia pro res". Perhaps we are permitted to reply "si tacuisses, philosophus mansisses". The reader is cautioned: if this book is used as a road atlas for the history of astronomy, the reader will often find very rough sketches of the progress of

  10. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persoone G.

    2009-08-01

    daphnids from lab cultures. The obvious advantages of Daphnia microbiotests over tests with Daphnias stemming from lab cultures have led to the worldwide use of these culture/maintenance free and low cost small-scale assays in both research and toxicity monitoring. The Daphnia microbiotest is in current use in several countries for toxicity testing in a regulatory framework, and recent calculations indicate that about 10 000 acute D. magna assays are now performed annually with neonates hatched from dormant eggs. The use of dormant eggs to obtain test organisms independently of stock culturing has recently also been accepted in international standards for toxicity testing. ISO standard 20665 (2008 related to the determination of chronic toxicity with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and ISO standard 20666 (2008 for the determination of the chronic toxicity with Brachionus calyciflorus in 48 h, both indicate that the assays can be conducted with organisms hatched from dormant eggs. On the basis of the extensive scientific evidence provided in this review that is justifiably supported by the two ISO methods mentioned above, the authors therefore recommend that the use of Daphnias hatched from dormant eggs should also be incorporated in national and international standards, as an alternative to the use of Daphnias taken from laboratory cultures.

  11. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31

    , chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for

  12. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Persoone

    2009-08-01

    dormant eggs.The use of dormant eggs to obtain test organisms independently of stock culturing has recently also been accepted in international standards for toxicity testing. ISO standard 20665 (2008 related to the determination of chronic toxicity with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and ISO standard 20666 (2008 for the determination of the chronic toxicity with Brachionus calyciflorus in 48 h, both indicate that the assays can be conducted with organisms hatched from dormant eggs.On the basis of the extensive scientific evidence provided in this review that is justifiably supported by the two ISO methods mentioned above, the authors therefore recommend that the use of Daphnias hatched from dormant eggs should also be incorporated in national and international standards, as an alternative to the use of Daphnias taken from laboratory cultures.