WorldWideScience

Sample records for camshafts

  1. Fracture analysis of chilled cast iron camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping; Li Fengjun; Cai Anke; Wei Bokang

    2009-01-01

    The fracture of a camshaft made of chilled cast iron, installed in a home-made Fukang car, happened only after running over a distance of 6,200 km. The fractured camshaft was received to conduct a series of failure analyses using visual inspection, SEM observation of fracture section, microstructure analysis, chemical composition analysis and hardness examination and so on, while those of CKD camshaft made by Citroen Company in France was also simultaneously analyzed to compare the difference between them. The results showed that the fracture of the camshaft mainly results from white section in macrostructure and Ledeburite in microstructure; the crack in the fractured camshaft should be recognized to initiate at the boundary of coarser needle-like carbide and matrix, and then propagate through the transverse section. At the same time, the casting defects such as dendritic shrinkage, accumulated inclusion and initiated crack and abnormal external force might stimulate the fracture of camshaft as well. Based on failure analysis, some measures have been employed, and as a result, the fracture of home-made camshafts has been effectively prevented.

  2. Development of an assembled camshaft by mechanical bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Egami, Yasuyoshi; Shimizu, Koichi

    1996-09-01

    Design of valve train systems for recent automotive diesel engines trends towards four-valve and roller-follower type. Accordingly, camshafts to be used in these engines are required to ensure higher contact pressure due to rolling contact which is accompanied by occasional sliding. This paper describes composite type assembled camshafts which have successfully been developed with excellent results of light weight, reduced cost and superior durability.

  3. STUDI MEKANISME KINETIK DENGAN PARAMETRIK CAMSHAFT PADA SELUBUNG BANGUNAN ADAPTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firza Utama Sjarifudin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is essential to manage the problem of climate change. In order to meet the challenge, this paper proposes an adaptive building envelope system that can optimize its configuration by responding environmental changes to achieve new levels of sustainable performance and energy efficiency. Most current adaptive building envelope uses kinetic techniques make its formation transformable. However, the use of kinetic components such as a large amount of interactive motorized system that requires electrical power may also cause further decrease the building energy efficiency. This paper proposes a camshaft mechanism system for adaptive building envelope that uses less motors, controllers, and sensors. This system uses pre-programmed analysis data of daily solar radiation changes to parametrically drive the number of rotation phase and length of nose (Lobe Lift that generates the shape of camshaft. The camshaft then controls the values of opening and closing of the building envelope components. The advantages of this system are less energy consumption, less maintenance and lower cost since it uses fewer motors, controllers and wiring. In conclusion, this paper has developed a prototypical tool that facilitates a new approach to energy-efficient kinetic buildings.

  4. Vane-Cam - camshaft controls with new functionalities; Vane-Cam - Nockenwellenversteller mit neuen Funktionalitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, A.; Pohl, D. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany); Hannibal, W. [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany). Labor fuer Konstruktion und CAE-Anwendungen; enTec Consulting GmbH, Hemer (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Infinitely variable camshaft phasing systems will be used in the future in practically all gasoline internal combustion engines high volume production. This paper of Hydraulik-Ring GmbH gives an overview of the current system concepts of the latest generation of camshaft controls utilizing the principle of the vane motor. (orig.)

  5. Camshaft with roller bearings to reduce mechanical losses; Waelzgelagerte Nockenwelle zur Reduzierung von Reibungsverlusten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artur, Christophe; Lemaitre, Fabrice [Timken Europe, Colmar (France); Schneider, Falk; Kreisig, Michael [Mahle Ventiltrieb GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Reducing frictional losses in combustion engine and power train applications is imperative to achieve future CO-2 emissions targets. Mahle and Timken have combined their expertise to develop new camshaft technology which could positively contribute to this industry effort. This paper describes the content and the results of this joint work and highlights the potential benefits of the proposed solution. (orig.)

  6. Daylight Adaptive Shading Using Parametric Camshaft Mechanism for SOHO in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama Sjarifudin, Firza; Justina, Laurensia

    2014-03-01

    This research analyzes SOHO (Small Office Home Office) which can adjust to the need of visual comfort for the users through natural daylighting and also can be adapted to standard requirements of 14 creative industry workspace in Jakartas. The method of the research is by simulating the SOHO unit with variation of shading opening angles in order to adapt to each unit. Analysis done to every shading opening angle to get the appropriate daylight intensity level which support the work activities in every unit for the whole day. In order for the shading to be able to adapt to the changing daylight condition, previously developed parametric camshaft mechanism was used. The study found that the visual comfort for SOHO with creative industries workers in Jakarta can be achieve by varying the shading opening angles between 15-75°.

  7. Design Methodology of Camshaft Driven Charge Valves for Pneumatic Engine Starts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Idling losses constitute a significant amount of the fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. Therefore, shutting down the engine during idling phases can improve its overall efficiency. For driver acceptance a fast restart of the engine must be guaranteed. A fast engine start can be performed using a powerful electric starter and an appropriate battery which are found in hybrid electric vehicles, for example. However, these devices involve additional cost and weight. An alternative method is to use a tank with pressurized air that can be injected directly into the cylinders to start the engine pneumatically. In this paper, pneumatic engine starts using camshaft driven charge valves are discussed. A general methodology for an air-optimal charge valve design is presented which can deal with various requirements. The proposed design methodology is based on a process model representing pneumatic engine operation. A design example for a two-cylinder engine is shown, and the resulting optimized pneumatic start is experimentally verified on a test bench engine. The engine’s idling speed of 1200 rpm can be reached within 350 ms for an initial pressure in the air tank of 10 bar. A detailed system analysis highlights the characteristics of the optimal design found.

  8. FE-simulation of the Presta joining process for assembled camshafts - local widening of shafts through rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, R.; Silbermann, C. B.; Ihlemann, J.

    2016-03-01

    Considerable weight benefits and the option to combine various steel alloys of the single parts are the major advantages of assembled over conventional camshafts. The Presta joining process is the leading manufacturing method of assembled camshafts in the global market. The process is divided into two substeps. At first, the outer diameter of the shaft is widened with a profile oriented orthogonal to the shaft axis at the intended cam seat. At this position the shaft is subsequently joined with a cam with an internal profile oriented parallel to the shaft axis. As a result, these perpendicular profiles form a tight fit due to plastic deformations. Consequently the simulation of the manufacturing process has to start with the simulation of the rolling of the shaft. The resulting profile requested in this step is axisymmetric, but the arrangement of tools is not. Thus a three-dimensional model is required, which is presented in this work. Furthermore, the infeed of the rolling tool is unknown and controlled by the stiffness of the holders of the rolling tool. This work shows the modeling of this behavior. To predict realistic results for the underlying process, the use of precise material models is essential in order to take several hardening mechanisms into account. However, the use of complex material models implies additional effort, which is shown in this work.

  9. System Design and Analysis of a Directly Air-Assisted Turbocharged SI Engine with Camshaft Driven Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of compressed air in combination with downsizing and turbocharging is a promising approach to improve the fuel economy and the driveability of internal combustion engines. The compressed air is used to boost and start the engine. It is generated during deceleration phases by running the engine as a piston compressor. In this paper, a camshaft-driven valve is considered for the control of the air exchange between the tank and the combustion chamber. Such a valve system is cost-effective and robust. Each pneumatic engine mode is realized by a separate cam. The air mass transfer in each mode is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the tank pressure dependence. The air demand in the boost mode is found to increase with the tank pressure. However, the dependence on the tank pressure is small in the most relevant operating region. The air demand of the pneumatic start shows a piecewise continuous dependence on the tank pressure. Finally, a tank sizing method is proposed which uses a quasi-static simulation. It is applied to a compact class vehicle, for which a tank volume of less than 10 L is sufficient. A further reduction of the tank volume is limited by the specifications imposed on the pneumatic start.

  10. The Dual Overhead Camshaft Design and Modeling Study Based on Solid Works%基于Solid Works的双顶置凸轮轴的设计与建模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远阳; 王红

    2012-01-01

    本文以Solid Works为平台,利用其强大的参数化造型技术和Solid Works提供的二次开发模块,建立汽车的双顶置凸轮轴参数化设计与三维实体建模,以适应机车新产品的设计和开发,与CAD软件建库方案相比较,Solid Works具有基于特征,全尺寸的约束,尺寸驱动设计修改,全数据相关等特点,适合标准件的建模,提高了设计效率.%Based on the powerful meritorious service capacity, the manual detailed elaborates application situation in three dimensions design. This specification book takes the camshaft as the example, elaborate the full process of using Solid Works to design camshaft. It consists of the camshaft structural analysis, mastering how to create the different features of Solid Works, how to construct date room and two dimension engineering drawing export and so on many-sides work, Using Solid Works to design camshaft and constructing parts date room are the key of the introduction. It illustrates the fundamental train of thought of camshaft model making, detailed introduces how to construct the main step of constricting parts date room.

  11. Torsional vibrations in camshaft drives: A new procedure for evaluating the dynamic deviation of positions in rotary systems. Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung und Bewertung der dynamischen Positionsdifferenz in rotierenden Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintzen, D.; Krohm, H.; Schilly, H.

    1993-04-01

    During the optimization of variable valve timing systems by AFT Atlas Fahrzeugtechnik GmbH (Werdohl), the mobile data acquisition and analyzing system 'TMG TYPE 1' was devloped with a special package of evaluation software onboard. The concept was drawn up in close cooperation with the automotive and supplier's industry. The results delivered by this system permit a broader perspective of the vibration phenomena. New critical areas of engine operation are made evident by regarding the actual deviation of the camshaft position related to the angle position determined by the crankshaft. The theoretical camshaft position is calculated by using degree signals from an encoder attached to the crankshaft. The results are then compared to the real momentary position given by a camshaft encoder. (orig.).

  12. 高速精密磨削汽车凸轮轴的加工技术%On the Technique of High-Speed-and-Precision Grinding Processing Mobile Camshafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立民

    2011-01-01

    Camshaft is one of the key components of the Engine,and its contour accuracy has a direct impact on performance and life of the engine.Processing camshafts by the technique of high-speed-and-precision grinding can meet our satisfaction for high speed,efficiency and precision.Stable quality level can bring good economic returns.%凸轮轴是发动机的关键零部件之一,其轮廓精度直接影响到发动机的性能和寿命。采用高速精密磨削方法和工艺加工凸轮轴可以满足高速、高效、高精度的加工要求。稳定凸轮轴的加工质量,可望取得良好的经济效益。

  13. 曲轴位置传感器和凸轮轴位置传感器原理及检测%Principle and detection of crankshaft position sensor and camshaft position sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨光; 王茂美

    2016-01-01

    文章针对应用较广的磁电式传感器和霍尔式传感器展开论述,介绍两者的工作原理和区别,并以伊兰特车型的曲轴位置传感器和凸轮轴位置传感器展开研究,通过检测确认伊兰特车型的曲轴位置传感器和凸轮轴位置传感器的型式及工作原理。%This article launches the elaboration on the widely used magnetoelectric sensor and hall sensor, introduce the principle and difference. and study the crankshaft position sensor and camshaft position sensor of Elantra models. Conform the type and principle of Elantra crankshaft position sensor and camshaft position sensor by detecting.

  14. An Investigation on the Relationship between Breaking Loads and Deflections in Three Points Bending Test of Camshaft%凸轮轴三点弯曲断裂载荷与挠度的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 高致文; 张昊

    2012-01-01

    使用WE-500型液压式万能拉伸试验机测定了IAE6半激冷合金铸铁凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷,研究了其三点弯曲断裂载荷和挠度之间的关系.研究表明:(1)不同炉次的凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷存在一定的分散性;(2)凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷与挠度之间存在正相关关系,凸轮轴中含有适量碳化物对其强度和挠度都是有益的.%The breaking load in three points bending test of the 1AE6 semi-chilled alloyed cast iron camshaft was determined by using WE-500 model hydraulic universal tensile test machine and thereby the relationship between its breaking loads and ite defections was; investigated. The resuit showed: (a )There was some dispersivity existing in the three point bonding breaking loads of camshafts of different melting heats; (b)There was a positive correlation existing between the breaking loads and deflections, and a proper amount of carbide contained in the camshaft was beneficial to both its strength and deflection.

  15. Measures to Eliminate Coarse Graphite in lngate Area of Gray Iron Camshaft%消除灰铁凸轮轴内浇口附近粗大石墨的措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 岳昌林; 徐家富

    2011-01-01

    化学成分分析发现:凸轮轴w(Ti)量较低时,内浇口附近不但石墨较粗大,而且局部区域还有缩松,硬度为177~198 HB;而w(Ti)量较高时,内浇口附近的石墨不但较细小而且局部还出现D、E型石墨,硬度提高到205~210 HB.讨论了国内文献介绍的几种细化石墨的方法,包括提高铸件凝固冷却速度、降低灰铸铁的CE、合金化、熔体处理等.结合工厂实际生产条件,采用在炉料中增Ti(加四川V-Ti生铁或加Ti铁)的方法,使凸轮轴的石墨得到细化并使其硬度提高.%It was revealed by analyzing chemical compositions that when the titanium content of the camshaft was relatively low, the graphite in the ingate area was relatively coarse, and there was also shrinkage porosities found in local zones, the hardness of camshafts was of 177-198 HB; however, when the titanium content of the camshaft was relatively higher, the graphite in the ingate area was relatively fine, and there was also D type graphite and E type graphite found in local zones, the hardness of camshafts was increased to 205-210 HB. Some graphite refining methods reported in both the Chinese and overseas references was discussed including increasing cooling rate during casting solidification, lowering CE of gray irons, alloying, melt treatment, etc. Based on the practical productive conditions of the foundry and by adopting the method of adding Sichuan-produced V-Ti containing pig iron or adding ferrotitanium to increase titanium content of the melting charge, it was realized that the graphite of the camshafts was refined, and the hardness was also raised.

  16. ''VaneCAM'' - the third generation of camshaft adjustment systems; ''VaneCAM'' - Nockenwellenversteller der dritten Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, A. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany). Entwicklung Motorentechnik; Stephan, W. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany); Hannibal, W. [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany). Labor fuer Konstruktion und CAE-Anwendungen

    2002-04-01

    Continuously variable camphasers are now well established for modern spark-ignition engines in high-volume production. With the latest generation of camshaft adjustment systems using the vane-type actuator principle, it is possible to move rapidly and reliably through a large adjustment angle. The layout of these adjusting systems is very simple. The production costs are low in comparison to the first generation of camphasers using spur/helical gears to vary the valve timing. The new-generation systems are mechatronic, with the function depending on the coordination and tuning of hydraulic actuation and engine electronics. The term 'VaneCAM' is used for the continuously variable systems of this new generation supplied by Hydraulik-Ring in Nuertingen, Germany. (orig.) [German] Stufenlos wirkende Nockenwellenversteller haben sich an modernen Ottomotoren in den letzten Jahren in der Grossserie etabliert. Mit der neuesten Generation von Nockenwellenverstellern, die nach dem Schwenkmotor-Prinzip aufgebaut sind, lassen sich grosse Verdrehwinkel sehr schnell und betriebssicher verstellen. Der Aufbau dieser Versteller ist einfach, und die Herstellkosten sind gering im Vergleich zur ersten Generation von Verstellern. Bei den Systemen der neuen Generation handelt es sich um mechatronische Systeme, deren Funktion von dem Zusammenspiel und der Abstimmung von hydraulischer Ansteuerung und Motorelektronik abhaengt. Mit dem Begriff 'VaneCAM' werden die stufenlos wirkenden Systeme dieser neuen Generation von Hydraulik-Ring aus Nuertingen bezeichnet. (orig.)

  17. Failure analysis on surface wear of 20CrMnTi steel camshaft%20 CrMnTi钢凸轮轴表面磨损失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦丽; 葛保红; 张燕明; 徐向阳; 孙思东

    2015-01-01

    Wear cause of the 20CrMnTi steel monoblock pump camshaft was analyzed by means of macroscopic examination, lubricating oil property test, chemical compositions analysis, mechanical property test, metallographic examination and microhardness test.The results show that the main reason for the surface wear of the camshaft is attributed to the hard and brittle blocky and network carbide in the surface layer which reduces the contact fatigue strength of the camshaft journals and increases the probability of the spalling along grain boundary. Secondly, the secondary quenched martensite after grinding leads to the crack and brittle spalling on the basis of the structure defects.The spalled particles are play intensive abrasion role and lead to the early wear failure of the monoblock pump camshaft.%采用宏观检验、润滑油油品性能测试、化学成分分析、力学性能测试、金相检验和显微硬度测试等手段对20CrMnTi钢单体泵凸轮轴表面磨损失效的原因进行了分析。结果表明,造成该凸轮轴表面磨损的主要原因是,凸轮轴表层组织中硬而脆的块状及网状碳化物降低了轴颈表面的接触疲劳强度,加大了其沿晶剥落的可能性。其次,磨削二次淬火马氏体的出现,在迭加了上述组织缺陷的基础上,产生了裂纹和脆性剥落。剥落的颗粒成为磨粒参与磨削,导致凸轮轴早期磨损失效。

  18. Effect of Two Pig Irons on the Metallurgical Structure and Hardness of the Hardened Camshaft%两种生铁对可淬硬凸轮轴金相组织和硬度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 岳昌林; 白维均; 徐家富

    2011-01-01

    研究了四川钒钛生铁和河北球墨生铁对491Q可淬硬凸轮轴金相组织和硬度的影响.研究表明:四川钒钛生铁的金相组织由细小点状石墨+A型石墨+碳化物+珠光体组成;河北球墨生铁的金相组织由A型石墨+C型石墨+珠光体组成.由Ⅰ组配料(230kg四川钒钛生铁+100kg废钢+220kg回炉料+其它合金)铸造的凸轮轴的金相组织为4-6级A石墨+少量E型石墨+95%珠光体+5%渗碳体,基体硬度为252~255HB;由Ⅱ组配料(150kg河北球墨生铁+80kg四川钒钛生铁+100kg废钢+220kg回炉料+其它合金)铸造的凸轮轴的金相组织为4-6级A型+少量E型石墨+100%珠光体,基体硬度为210~229HB.作者初步分析了产生上述现象的原因.%Sichuan V-Ti pig iron and Hebei ductile iron have been used to manufacture 491Q type hardened camshaft and the effect of both iron on the microstructure and hardness of the camshaft been researched.Studies have shown that the microstructure of Sichuan vanadium-titanium pig iron consists of as tiny dot graphite+A type graphite+carbide+ pearlite while the microstructure of Hebei ductile iron consists of A-type graphite+C-type graphite+pearlite.The microstructure in the camshaft manufactured from the group- Ⅰ ingredient (230 kg Sichuan V-Ti pig iron + 100 kg scrap steel +220kg back charge+other alloys ) consists of the 4-6 grade A-type graphite +small amount E-type graphite +95% pearlite +about 5% cementite, and his matrix hardness is 252-255HB.The microstructure in the camshaft manufactured from the group- Ⅱ ingredient ( 150 kg Sichuan V-Ti pig iron+80 kg Hebei ductile iron+100 kg scrap steel+220 kg back charge+other alloys) consists of the 4-6 grade A-type graphite +small amount E-type graphite +100% pearlite,and its matrix hardness 210-229HB.The above-mentioned phenomenon has been given preliminary analysis.

  19. 汽油机连续可变进气凸轮轴相位策略的数值模拟%Numerical simulation on phasing strategy for a gasoline engine with continuously variable intake camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 尚会超; 袁志强; 马为; 付秋波; 陈明飞

    2012-01-01

    针对486Q汽油机连续可变进气凸轮轴配气相位系统的研制,采用发动机循环模拟数值方法研究连续可变进气凸轮轴配气相位系统的相位策略。数值模拟表明486Q汽油机在高负荷中低转速工况通过进气相位提前抑制进气在气门关闭时刻向进气道的倒流可有效提高循环进气量,使中低转速工况动力输出性能提高6%-8%,其结果与随后试验测试获得进气相位变化量一致。综合考虑燃油消耗率和有害排放物生成,数值模拟中等负荷工况进气相位参数的调节优化,通过进气相位提前,示例工况缸内残余废气系数可从9%增加到20%,NO排放量低减约80%,燃油消耗率降低2%左右;通过试验测试确定中等负荷各工况进气相位最佳范围。探讨怠速低负荷工况改善燃烧稳定性、低减HC排放和改善低温起动性能的相位策略,数值模拟低负荷工况通过进气相位延迟抑制排气向进气道倒流以低减缸内残余废气量的效果;通过试验测试获取486Q汽油机怠速低负荷工况最佳相位器变化量。%Intake gasoline engine. camshaft equipped with continuously adjustable cam phasing units is applied to a 486Q Phasing strategies are researched through engine cycle simulation to achieve superior engine performance. The simulation results show that at high load and low and moderate speed of the engine,phasing adjustment can lead to 6% to 8% increase in power performance because phasing advance contributes to suppressing intake backflow at IVC (intake valve closed). Cam phases obtained from numerical optimization have good agreement with engine test. At moderate load, cycle simulations show that phasing advance can increase residual gas coefficient from 9 % to 20%, and reduce NO emission by80%,BSFC(brake specific fuel consumption) by 2O//oo at a demonstration operation. With regard to fuel economy and emissions,adjustment and optimization

  20. A Research on Cylinder Pressure Sensor as an Alternative for the Camshaft and Crankshaft Position Sensors of Engine%关于缸压传感器替代发动机凸轮轴和曲轴位置传感器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金力; 杨福源; 欧阳明高; 黄颖; 方成; 杨学青

    2014-01-01

    For developing cylinder pressure-based engine combustion state control system, by using a set of piezo-resistance type of cylinder pressure sensors with glow-plug function and building a cylinder pressure prediction model, the techniques of cylinder identification and phase and speed estimations of engine are analyzed on a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine to investigate the feasibility of substituting the camshaft and crankshaft signals with cylinder pressure signal. The results show that cylinder pressure sensor can be used to identify cylinder instead of camshaft and crankshaft position sensors, and the models built for the phase and rotational speed estimations of engine have relatively high accuracy.%为开发基于缸压的发动机燃烧控制系统,在一台高压共轨柴油机上,利用一组兼有电热塞功能的压阻型缸压传感器,通过构建缸压预测模型,分析了发动机的气缸识别、相位估计和转速估计方法,探讨了用缸压信号替代凸轮轴和曲轴信号的可行性。结果表明,缸压传感器可以替代凸轮轴和曲轴位置传感器进行判缸,所建的发动机相位和转速估计模型具有较高的精度。

  1. Bearing and retention apparatus for a camshaft phase change device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danieli, O.G.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes a phase change device. It comprises: an output member, in input member, bearing means supporting the input member for rotation on the output member, an advancing member received between the input and output member and being operative upon axial movement thereof to effect limited relative rotation between the input and output member, drum means engaged with the advancing member to effect the axial movement of the advancing member when a retarding force is applied to the drum means, and actuating means operable to apply the retarding force. This patent describes improvement in the bearing means. It comprises a first peripheral groove formed in the input member, a second peripheral groove formed in the output member, and a plurality of balls received in the first and second grooves.

  2. The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin/CaMKK2 Axis: Nature's Metabolic CaMshaft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Kathrina L; Means, Anthony R; York, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential ligand that binds its primary intracellular receptor calmodulin (CaM) to trigger a variety of downstream processes and pathways. Central to the actions of Ca(2+)/CaM is the activation of a highly conserved Ca(2+)/CaM kinase (CaMK) cascade that amplifies Ca(2+) signals through a series of subsequent phosphorylation events. Proper regulation of Ca(2+) flux is necessary for whole-body metabolism and disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis has been linked to various metabolic diseases. Here we provide a synthesis of recent advances that highlight the roles of the Ca(2+)/CaMK axis in key metabolic tissues. An appreciation of this information is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent signaling contributes to metabolic homeostasis and disease.

  3. Providing Wear Protection for Flat-Tappet (Sliding) Camshaft Followers in Rebuilt Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larry M. Bendele; Nian Z. Sun

    2007-01-01

    Rebuilt engine "break-in" is the most critical period for long-term durability for a flat-tappet valvetrain. Zinc dialkyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) has proven to be a cost-effective engine oil additive for anti-wear protection and oxidation resistance. But, tightening exhaust emission standards are requiring modern lubricants to have reduced levels of ZDDP additives. If the valvetrain break-in is successfully completed, then modern low-phosphorus lubricants can be used with confidence at subsequent oil change service intervals.

  4. Production of near-finished components by casting, illustrated by the example of a camshaft. Final reports of the partners of the motor car industry; Endnah-Guss am Beispiel Kurbelwelle (EGK). Abschlussbericht der Partnerschaft der Automobilindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    The extensive content of investigations required a dynamic procedure of the project, charactericed by simultaneousness of partial investigations. So, intensive investigation was executed on the partial processes which are very important for automotive production lines: Casting, machining of main and pin bearings, strengthening of radius and finishing of bearing surfaces. The decrease of production contents was forced, resulting in proposals to avoid drilling of oil channels, only premachining of main and pin bearings by CBN-grinding and to avoid undercut radius. The investigations concerning grinding by CBN took the largest volume, yielding recommendations for the layout of the extremely shortened processing chain and pointing out the possible cost reductions. During establishing and operating of the shortened production line ecological improvements beside the reduction in raw material and energy appear in outlines as a result of reduced load of the environment by critical residue from cooling lubrication material. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der weitgespannte Untersuchungsinhalt erforderte den Ansatz einer dynamisierten Projektabwicklung, die durch die Gleichzeitigkeit der Teiluntersuchungen gekennzeichnet war. Als bedeutend fuer die Automobilindustrie wurden die Prozessschritte Giessen, Haupt- und Hublagerbearbeitung, Lagerradienverfestigen und Lagerfinishen naeher untersucht. Besonderer Wert wurde auf das Reduzieren jeglicher Fertigungsinhalte gelegt, woraus sich Vorschlaege zum Entfall des Bohrens der Oelkanaele, zum Vorbearbeiten der Haupt- und Hublager nur durch Schleifen mit CBN-Schneidstoff, zum Entfall des Radieneinstechens und des Haertens ergaben. Die Untersuchungen zum Schleifen mit CBN nahmen den groessten Rahmen ein, woraus Empfehlungen zur Auslegung der so verkuerzten Prozesskette gegeben und die moeglichen Kostenreduktionen genannt wurden. Oekologische Verbesserungen zeichnen sich neben der Einsparung an Rohstoff- und Energieaufwand bei Herstellung und Betrieb der verkuerzten Prozesskette durch die verminderte Belastung der Umwelt infolge Sondermuell aus Kuehl-Schmierstoffen ab. (orig.)

  5. 双顶置凸轮轴正时齿形带传动系统的设计研究%The Design and Study of Synchronous Belt Drives For Double Overhead Camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴梅香; 郑国璋

    2002-01-01

    本文概述了同步齿形带的结构特点,分析了双顶置凸轮轴正时传动系统的布置形式,给出了各个环节的设计过程、经验数据及应遵循的法则,并着重强调了各设计阶段应注意的问题,使正时传动系统的设计研究趋于完善.

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IX, ENGINE COMPONENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION, FUNCTION, AND MAINTENANCE OF DIESEL ENGINE CRANKSHAFTS, CAMSHAFTS, AND ASSOCIATED BEARINGS. TOPICS ARE SHAFTS AND BEARINGS, CAMSHAFTS, BEARINGS AND THEIR MAINTENANCE, AND DETECTING FAILURE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED…

  7. Flow coefficient measurements for an engine cylinder head under transient flow conditions with continuous valve lift change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daesan Oh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A flow coefficient measurement system which is operated under an unsteady intake flow condition in the intake port of a diesel engine cylinder head was developed. In order to determine the actual engine intake flow condition, the valve lift of the intake valve, whose rod is in contact with the camshaft, is varied continuously by rotating the camshaft directly. While varying the rotation speed of the camshaft, the flow coefficients were calculated by measuring various sensor signals, in this case the surge tank pressure, differential pressure in the flow meter, the valve lift when synchronized with the camshaft angle position, and the intake air temperature. The measurement of the flow coefficient was automated using a DAQ board and a computer. The flow coefficients change with the valve lift, and the effects of inertia of the intake flow on the flow coefficients are identified. The mean flow coefficients are obtained by integrating flow coefficients over the camshaft angle position.

  8. Failure analysis of camshaft idle gear & crank gear in 20CrMnTiH steel and preventive measures%20CrMnTiH凸轮轴惰齿轮及曲轴齿轮失效分析及应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锴

    2010-01-01

    通过光学显微镜、扫描电镜、洛氏硬度计及维氏硬度计对失效的20crMnTiH材质的凸轮轴惰齿轮和曲轴齿轮分别进行了微观组织、表面断裂形貌、表面硬度、心部硬度的分析.结果表明,失效的主要原因为热处理过程中渗碳层深超深及心部硬度超标.在采取措施控制渗碳层深及降低心部硬度后,发动机齿轮的服役寿命得以延长.

  9. A New Type of Continuously Variable Displacement Mechanism Used for Hydraulic Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; SHI Guang-lin; CHEN Zhao-neng

    2007-01-01

    A continuously variable displacement mechanism, which is composed of a hydraulic control valve with mechanical-positional feedback to camshaft, was designed for changing the displacement of traditional camshaft connecting-rod low speed high torque (LSHT) hydraulic motor continuously. The new type of continuously variable displacement mechanism is simple and easy to be made. The structure and principle of a continuously variable displacement mechanism was introduced. The mathematic model of the continuously variable displacement mechanism was set up and its static and dynamic characteristics were analyzed with the help of computer simulation. It can be seen that the cam ring on camshaft of the traditional LSHT hydraulic motor can stop at any position between minimum and maximum eccentricity, according to an input fluid pressure signal. And it can also stay anywhere stably through self-adjusting. Besides, it can work stabilized when load impact or oil leakage exists.

  10. COMPUTATIONAL TOOL FOR SIMULATION OF THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF VALVE TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Osman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the MOTORI 2004 computing tool that calculates the distance, speed and acceleration of a car engine valve train’s oscillating mass m, which is reduced to the valve axis. Distance diagrams, speed and accelerations are provided in dependence on the camshaft twist angle at a constant rotational speed in several consecutive revolutions. The computing tool implements a mathematical description and numerical solution for the motion of mass m of a valve gear dynamic model. Valve lift h is given numerically using a series of equidistant points in the period of one camshaft revolution. The variabilities of camshaft rotation and spring thread vibration as a result of cam lift harmonic excitation. The computing solutions were tested at valve opening points and in imaginary extreme operating conditions (soft/hard spring, low/high damping, low/high rotational speed and increased clearance.

  11. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  12. Diagnostic for two-mode variable valve activation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Andrew M

    2014-01-07

    A method is provided for diagnosing a multi-mode valve train device which selectively provides high lift and low lift to a combustion valve of an internal combustion engine having a camshaft phaser actuated by an electric motor. The method includes applying a variable electric current to the electric motor to achieve a desired camshaft phaser operational mode and commanding the multi-mode valve train device to a desired valve train device operational mode selected from a high lift mode and a low lift mode. The method also includes monitoring the variable electric current and calculating a first characteristic of the parameter. The method also includes comparing the calculated first characteristic against a predetermined value of the first characteristic measured when the multi-mode valve train device is known to be in the desired valve train device operational mode.

  13. Design Alteration of Motor-Cycle Engine Cam for Pneumatic Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimil M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Power produced by pressurized gases/air has been used in many applications since decades. The power produced by that means is pollution free too. Hence substitution of petrol/diesel in engines with compressed air will be a step towards pollution free engine. The 4-stroke IC engine is to be converted into a 2-stroke pneumatic engine. Various design changes in camshaft design were carried out. The valve timing diagram was derived for the same. The cam profile of a double lobed cam as required in the valve timing diagram was designed in Pro-e software and was cut on a wire cut machine. The cam and camshaft were manufactured separately and then assembled.

  14. 采用数字技术的船用低速柴油机%Diesel used the electronically controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于祺昌; 崔艳

    2004-01-01

    Along with development of Electronically Controls technology, MAN-B&W and Wartsila-SULZER, the world famous engine manufactures have developed the new generation two-stroke low speed diesel engines featuring camshaft-less which is a milestone in diesel history. At the moment, we would like prefer to call this kind of new generation diesel “NC-diesel engine”。

  15. Potential of valve train variability in passenger car diesel engines; Potenziale eines variablen Ventiltriebs beim PKW-Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Simon; Genieser, Patric; Birke, Stiev; Buecker, Christian [Mahle International GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Zentrale Vorausentwicklung

    2012-03-15

    Variable valve control systems are state-of-the-art technology in today's gasoline engines, although their application in diesel engines has also become the focus of recent studies. These systems offer one possibility of resolving the conflict of objectives between a further reduction in engine-out emissions and an improvement in fuel efficiency. Mahle has examined their potentials on the basis of the Cam-in-Cam variable camshaft for the intake valves. (orig.)

  16. Miniaturised cylinder head production by rapid prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Rodrigo; Monteiro, A. Caetano; Martins, Jorge; Coene, Stijn; Puga, Hélder; Barbosa, J

    2009-01-01

    This work shows the development of the design and manufacturing of a very small engine, namely its head. The engine works under the 4-stroke cycle, therefore having a very complex cylinder head, housing the camshaft, valves and its auxiliaries (seats, guides, springs), spark plug, inlet and exhaust passages and a coolant chamber. The geometries, both inner and outer are highly intricate which makes the production of such a part a very difficult job. In addition, when the engine is...

  17. A study of fluid flow and combustion with variable valve timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, F.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of variable valve timing (VVT) were examined by in-cylinder Laser Doppler Velocimetry flow measurements and heat-release calculations. A single-cylinder Volvo B5254 engine was used for all experiments and the valve timing was altered by phasing or exchanging the camshaft. Special cam lobes were developed for simulation of throttle-less operation. With the standard double camshaft, a tumbling flow was generated and with valve deactivation, a swirling flow was generated. The turbulence was increased with valve deactivation. This increased the combustion rate making lean burn possible. The standard camshaft with inlet valve deactivation and late cam phasing had a faster combustion at {lambda} = 1.8 than the standard camshaft with normal cam phasing at {lambda} = 1.0. Early and late inlet valve closing was used for enabling throttle-less operation. Early inlet valve closing (EIVC) generated a very slow tumble with low turbulence. Late inlet valve closing generated both very high and low turbulence. The net indicated efficiency was improved with up to 10%. Some reduction was observed for the gross indicated efficiency, due to a too large reduction in effective compression ratio. A very stable combustion was obtained for EIVC with gasoline, possibly due to a sheering flow over the inlet valves resulting in improved fuel-air preparation. Wavelet analysis was used for dividing LDV flow measurements into time and frequency resolved information. The technique rendered the same flow results as the moving window technique, but with a separation of the turbulence into different frequencies. The choice of wavelet was shown not to be crucial. The frequency resolved turbulence was studied for tumble and swirl. A tumbling flow had a larger transfer of energy from low frequency turbulence into high frequency turbulence than a swirling flow. This is caused by the tumble breakdown. A correlation against heat-release indicated that high frequency turbulence have a larger

  18. エンジンバルブのリフト・位相連続可変制御システムの開発

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 洋之; 長屋, 幸助; 小池, 和也

    2003-01-01

    A new type engine valve control system has been presented, in which both valve lift and phase are controlled directly by electric motors. A mechanism of the phase control system is made of planetary gears. The outer gear is the timing pulley which has timing belt driven by the crank of an engine. Two planetary gears are inside of the pulley. The gears engage in inner gear of the pulley. The center of the disc which has centers of the planetary gear is connected to the camshaft. Then, the cran...

  19. Influence of Hot Plasma Pressure on Global Structure of Saturn's Magnetodisk

    CERN Document Server

    Achilleos, N; Arridge, C S; Sergis, N; Wilson, R J; Thomsen, M F; Coates, A J

    2010-01-01

    Using a model of force balance in Saturn's disk-like magnetosphere, we show that variations in hot plasma pressure can change the magnetic field configuration. This effect changes (i) the location of the magnetopause, even at fixed solar wind dynamic pressure, and (ii) the magnetic mapping between ionosphere and disk. The model uses equatorial observations as a boundary condition-we test its predictions over a wide latitude range by comparison with a Cassini high-inclination orbit of magnetic field and hot plasma pressure data. We find reasonable agreement over time scales larger than the period of Saturn kilometric radiation (also known as the camshaft period).

  20. LUBRICATION FILM FORMATION MECHANISM OF SLIPPER PAIRS IN LOW SPEED HIGH TORQUE HYDRAULIC MOTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; SHI Guanglin; CHEN Zhaoneng

    2007-01-01

    Pressure-flow analytical formulas of lubrication film of slipper pairs on camshaft connecting rod type low speed high torque (LSHT) hydraulic motors are put forward. The bottom surface of slipper pairs is rectangle, and the effect of squeeze flow and pressure differential flow is considered. The dynamic process of lubrication film formation through squeezing is numerically studied by computer simulation. Effects of supply pressure, initial lubrication film thickness, velocity damping coefficient, loading impact and gravity, etc are studied. Advantages of novel slipper pairs with large oil cavity area are pointed out.

  1. Industrial multibeam lasers and their technological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhanova, I. F.; Zhuravel, V. M.; Divinsky, V. V.

    1994-04-01

    A variety of industrial technological laser systems with 1.5, 2.5 - 3.5, 8 - 10 kW power have been developed around the multibeam diffusion-cooled CO2 lasers. A number of technological processes of parts hardening and reconditioning (sleeves made in cast iron, cylinder of diesel locomotive engines, crankshafts and camshafts of tractor engines, parts of car and tractor running gears, rings of drilling bearings, lead screws, machine guides), that employ the LTS have been developed and introduced at various industries.

  2. Electronic Unit Pump Diesel Engine Control Unit Design for Integrated Powertrain System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo-lan; ZHAO Chang-lu; ZHANG Fu-jun; HUANG Ying

    2005-01-01

    The performance of the electronic unit pump (EUP) diesel engine is studied, it will be used in the integrated powertrain and its multi parameters are controllable. Both the theoretical analysis and experiment research are taken. A control unit for the fuel quantity and timing in crankshaft domain is designed on this basis and the engine experiment test has been done. For the constant speed camshaft driving EUP system, the fuel quantity will increase as the supply angle goes up and injection timing has no effect. The control precision can reach 1°CA. The full injection timing MAP and engine peak performance curves are made successfully.

  3. Design Alteration of Motor-Cycle Engine Cam for Pneumatic Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Jimil M. Shah; Akash B. Pandey; Ujjwell Y. Trivedi

    2013-01-01

    Power produced by pressurized gases/air has been used in many applications since decades. The power produced by that means is pollution free too. Hence substitution of petrol/diesel in engines with compressed air will be a step towards pollution free engine. The 4-stroke IC engine is to be converted into a 2-stroke pneumatic engine. Various design changes in camshaft design were carried out. The valve timing diagram was derived for the same. The cam profile of a double lobed cam as required i...

  4. Dynamic analysis of a motorbike engine timing system: Experimental and numerical investigation of the geartrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivola, Alessandro; Troncossi, Marco

    2014-10-01

    The development of high-performance vehicle engines requires advanced investigations in order to provide engineers with proper analysis tools to optimize the system design. The elastodynamic behaviour of the engine powertrain may be critical at high velocities (when the flexibility of the system components can have a major role on the overall performance) with consequences on the valve timing and the transmission of dynamic loads. A thorough numerical/experimental investigation was performed on the timing system of a racing motorbike engine. The timing system included the geartrain, which transmits power from the crankshaft to the camshafts, and the valve train, formed by the camshafts and the cam-follower mechanisms for the valve actuation. An experimental campaign was designed and carried out with the purpose of inspecting the timing system behaviour for different velocities and different design parameters. A numerical model was developed in order to provide a simulation/analysis tool that permits the design optimization of the main system components. The present work focuses on the geartrain elastodynamic analysis, which is the main novelty of a long-lasting activity carried out by the authors in collaborations with Ducati Motor Holding S.p.a. (Bologna, Italy). The experimental campaign, the model development and validation, and some simulation results are reported and discussed.

  5. Parameter design and performance analysis of shift actuator for a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of pure electric vehicles have shown that pure electric vehicles equipped with two-speed or multi-speed gearbox possess higher energy efficiency by ensuring the drive motor operates at its peak performance range. This article presents the design, analysis, and control of a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles. The shift actuator is based on a motor-controlled camshaft where a special geometric groove is machined, and the camshaft realizes the axial positions of the synchronizer sleeve for gear engaging, disengaging, and speed control of the drive motor. Based on the force analysis of shift process, the parameters of shift actuator and shift motor are designed. The drive motor’s torque control strategy before shifting, speed governing control strategy before engaging, shift actuator’s control strategy during gear engaging, and drive motor’s torque recovery strategy after shift process are proposed and implemented with a prototype. To validate the performance of the two-speed gearbox, a test bed was developed based on dSPACE that emulates various operation conditions. The experimental results indicate that the shift process with the proposed shift actuator and control strategy could be accomplished within 1 s under various operation conditions, with shift smoothness up to passenger car standard.

  6. Collection Method of Synchronous Signal in Engine Control%发动机控制中同步信号获取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白思春; 褚全红; 孟长江; 况涪洪; 姜成赋; 张春; 张维彪; 李晨; 相楠

    2014-01-01

    介绍了发动机控制中凸轮与曲轴盘信号的获取方法。采用合理性判别机制,把发动机信号盘的齿型系数固化到RO M中,在发动机运行过程中,采集凸轮齿、曲轴齿单齿齿宽时间,通过相邻齿之间的比值对正常齿、缺齿、多齿信号之外的高频干扰信号、丢齿信号问题进行滤波处理。在发动机工作转速范围建立曲轴信号、凸轮信号各个齿型的相邻齿齿宽比例系数MAP图,依照最大转速变化率,通过理论分析计算出单齿齿宽比例的上、下边界;同时在发动机台架上,对多转速工况下的齿型宽度信号进行测试记录,修正齿宽比例的合理性系数边界值,得出凸轮轴正常齿、多齿以及曲轴正常齿、缺齿的合理性系数,完成发动机控制同步信号的可靠获取。%The collection method of camshaft and crankshaft signals was introduced .With the reasonable discrimination mech‐anism ,the coefficient of tooth form for signal disc was written into ROM .The duration of single camshaft tooth and single crankshaft tooth was colleted during the engine operation .According to the ratio of adjacent teeth ,the high‐frequency interfer‐ence signal and lost‐tooth signal except normal tooth ,missing tooth and multi‐tooth were filtered .The tooth width ratio MAP of adjacent tooth for each tooth form of camshaft and crankshaft signals was built during the whole range of engine speed .Ac‐cording to the change rate of maximum speed ,the upper and lower borders of tooth width ratio for single tooth were calculated by the theoretical analysis .The signals of tooth width in different speed conditions were tested and recorded ,the boundary val‐ue of reasonable coefficient for tooth width ratio was corrected ,the reasonable coefficients for the normal tooth and multi‐tooth of camshaft and the normal tooth and missing tooth of crankshaft were acquired and finally the synchronous control signals

  7. Neural control of fast nonlinear systems--application to a turbocharged SI engine with VCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Guillaume; Chamaillard, Yann; Bloch, Gérard; Corde, Gilles

    2007-07-01

    Today, (engine) downsizing using turbocharging appears as a major way in reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of spark ignition (SI) engines. In this context, an efficient control of the air actuators [throttle, turbo wastegate, and variable camshaft timing (VCT)] is needed for engine torque control. This paper proposes a nonlinear model-based control scheme which combines separate, but coordinated, control modules. Theses modules are based on different control strategies: internal model control (IMC), model predictive control (MPC), and optimal control. It is shown how neural models can be used at different levels and included in the control modules to replace physical models, which are too complex to be online embedded, or to estimate nonmeasured variables. The results obtained from two different test benches show the real-time applicability and good control performance of the proposed methods.

  8. Vehicular engine design

    CERN Document Server

    Hoag, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the design and mechanical development of reciprocating piston engines for vehicular applications. Beginning from the determination of required displacement and performance, coverage moves into engine configuration and architecture. Critical layout dimensions and design trade-offs are then presented for pistons, crankshafts, engine blocks, camshafts, valves, and manifolds.  Coverage continues with material strength and casting process selection for the cylinder block and cylinder heads. Each major engine component and sub-system is then taken up in turn, from lubrication system, to cooling system, to intake and exhaust systems, to NVH. For this second edition latest findings and design practices are included, with the addition of over sixty new pictures and many new equations.

  9. Engine modeling and control modeling and electronic management of internal combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Isermann, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demands for internal combustion engines with regard to fuel consumption, emissions and driveability lead to more actuators, sensors and complex control functions. A systematic implementation of the electronic control systems requires mathematical models from basic design through simulation to calibration. The book treats physically-based as well as models based experimentally on test benches for gasoline (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engines and uses them for the design of the different control functions. The main topics are: - Development steps for engine control - Stationary and dynamic experimental modeling - Physical models of intake, combustion, mechanical system, turbocharger, exhaust, cooling, lubrication, drive train - Engine control structures, hardware, software, actuators, sensors, fuel supply, injection system, camshaft - Engine control methods, static and dynamic feedforward and feedback control, calibration and optimization, HiL, RCP, control software developm...

  10. Early flame development image comparison of low calorific value syngas and CNG in DI SI gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    >Ftwi Yohaness Hagos,

    2013-06-01

    The early flame development stage of syngas and CNG are analysed and compared from the flame images taken over 20° CA from the start of ignition. An imitated syngas with a composition of 19.2% H2, 29.6% CO, 5.3% CH4 and balance with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which resembles the typical product of wood biomass gasification, was used in the study. A CCD camera triggered externally through the signals from the camshaft and crank angle sensors was used in capturing of the images. The engine was accessed through an endoscope access and a self-illumination inside the chamber. The results of the image analysis are further compared with the mass fraction burn curve of both syngas and CNG analysed from the pressure data. The analysis result of the flame image of syngas validates the double rapid burning stage of the mass fraction burn of syngas analysed from in-cylinder pressure data.

  11. Superfluid stirling refrigerator: A new method for cooling below 1 Kelvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have invented and built a new type of cryocooler, which we call the superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR). The first prototype reached 0.6 K from a starting temperature of 1.2 K. The working fluid of the SSR is the 3He solute in a superfluid 3He--4He solution. At low temperatures, the superfluid 4He is in its quantum ground state, and therefore is thermodynamically inert, while the 3He solute has the thermodynamic properties of a dense ideal gas. Thus, in principle, any refrigeration cycle that can use an ideal gas can also use the 3He solute as working fluid. In our SSR prototype, bellows-sealed superleak pistons driven by a room-temperature camshaft work on the 3He solute. Ultimately, we anticipate elimination of moving parts by analogy with pulse-tube refrigeration. 15 refs., 6 figs

  12. High voltage distributor for ignition systems of internal combustion engines. Hochspannungs-Verteiler fuer Zuendanlagen von Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betz, D.

    1990-01-11

    A high voltage distributor for ignition systems of internal combustion engines has a distributor cap (10) made of insulating material and a distributor rotor (14) rotating in a distributor case (11). A central electrode (12) and several fixed electrodes (13) are situated in the distributor cap (10). The distributor rotor (14) rotating synchronously with the camshaft of the internal combustion engine makes an electrical connection between the central electrode (12) and one of the fixed electrodes (13) in its rotation around an axis of rotation (15). To achieve point contact between the central electrode (12) and the rotor electrode (16), the distributor rotor (14) carries a dome (20) concentric with its axis of rotation (15), in which a carbon brush (24) is guided axially. The carbon brush (24) is pressed by a pressure spring (23) supported on the rotor electrode (16) with its convex curvature (25) side to the central electrode (12).

  13. 乘用车发动机结构与参数特征%Structural and Parameters Characteristic of Passenger Car Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董学锋

    2012-01-01

    Based on the statistic analysis of the current products in the world, the statistic relation between vehicle length and engine displacement, cylinder bore size and displacement, cylinder bore size and engine structure, engine stroke and cylinder bore, compression ratio and engine displacement. The arrangement characteristic of camshaft and valve is outline. It is indicated in the paper that the layout of double overhead camshaft enjoys absolutely advantage for engine with any structural style; multi -point port inject engine is the main engine for vehicle models on the current market, however direction injection and supercharging is the future development trend. Engine performance feature and the current level are introduced in the paper.%通过对世界上现有产品进行统计分析,阐述了车长与发动机排量、发动机缸径尺寸与排量、发动机缸径尺寸与发动机结构形式、发动机行程与缸径、发动机压缩比和发动机排量的统计关系.简述了凸轮轴与气门的布置特征.指出,对于任何结构型式的发动机,采用双顶置凸轮轴的布置特征占绝对优势;多点气道喷射发动机是现在市场车型的主流,但直喷加增压是技术发展方向.概述了发动机的性能特征及目前水平.

  14. The Design of a Fining Boring Machine for Three Kinds of Holes on the WD12 Cylinder%WD12气缸体三轴孔精镗机床的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海群; 李春燕

    2011-01-01

    为保证缸体曲轴孔、凸轮轴孔和惰轮孔的加工精度,设计了WD12气缸体三轴孔精镗机床,确定了单面卧式总体方案、加工示意图和电气动作循环表.曲轴孔和凸轮轴孔均是多档间断的长孔,其精度要求高.为提高镗杆的刚度,除尽量加粗镗杆、设置中间支承外,选择德国玛帕生产的直线镗杆和浮动接头及美国GATCO生产的滚动导向套保证精度.采用"一面两销"的定位方案和液压夹紧机构.并对镗模安装提出了具体的要求.设备经十个月的研制,得到用户的认可.%To ensure the accuracy of three kinds of holes of crankshaft, camshaft and idlers, a triaxial fine boring machine for the WD12 cylinder is designed. The singleside horizontal boring is determined which include the overall program machining sketch chart and electrical action cycle table The holes of crankshaft and camshaft are long with intermittent gap and high precision To improve the rigidity of boring bars,some methods are applied. They include making the boring bar thicker, adding the intermediate support,choosing the line boring bars and floating holders of Mapa, and selecting the precision rotary bushings of GATCO. Put to use the fixing scheme of "one plane and two pins" and hydraulic clamping facility and make a specific request of installation requirements of the boring mold in the machine. After ten months of research, the boring machine get user's acceptance

  15. APPLICATION OF BINOCULAR VISION TECHNOLOGY IN STRUCTURAL PARTS SIZE MEASUREMENT%双目视觉技术在结构件尺寸测量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯跃谦; 李冠楠; 谭庆昌

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the engineering applications and the detection model of structural parts measurement using machine vi -sion, and propose a method to detect the size of the structural parts based on binocular vision .We use the improved solution of cameras ’ in-ternal and external parameters to calibrate the effective focal length of the single camera , and estimate the fundamental matrix by using an op-timised method in which the distance between the pixel coordinate and the corresponding epipolar line is the objective function .Through the singular value decomposition of essential matrix , rotation matrix and translation vector between two cameras are obtained .Under laboratory conditions , the space distance between two adjacent cams on same camshaft of a light vehicle is conducted practical measurement .The results show that the measurement method is able to achieve the accuracy requirement of monitoring the cam spacing in composite camshaft .%对结构件视觉测量的工程应用、检测模型进行讨论,提出一种双目视觉检测结构件空间尺寸的方法。应用改进的求解摄像机内外参数的方法对单摄像机有效焦距进行标定,应用以像素坐标到对应的极线距离为目标函数的优化方法对基本矩阵进行了估算,通过对本质矩阵的奇异值分解得到两个摄像机之间的旋转矩阵和平移向量。实验室条件下对轻型车凸轮轴凸轮间距空间尺寸进行了实际测量,结果表明,测量方法能够达到监测组合式凸轮轴凸轮间距的要求。

  16. Investigation of the Swirl Effect on Engine Using Designed Swirl Adapter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin AKM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Swirl is the rotational flow of charge within the cylinder about its axis. The engine used in this investigation is a basic Double Overhead Camshaft (DOHC which has a capacity of 1597 cc and installed with a total of 16 valves developed by Malaysian car manufacturer PROTON. The swirl adapter is placed inside the intake port of the Engine. The Adapter angle is set to 30o to force the charge to bounce off the wall of the port to create swirl. The objective of this paper is to find the effect of swirl on the engine and to compare it with the normal turbulence mixing process. The swirl effect analysis is done by using the GT-SUITE which has a standard swirl flow embedded in the software. The effect is simulated on the GT-SUITE and it is found that the swirl affects the engine in reducing the fuel consumption and increasing the volumetric efficiency. The experimental result shows that the effect of swirl increases the power as well as torque in the idle and cruising speed conditions in comparison with normal turbulence. But it decreases rapidly in the acceleration speed. This happens due to the inability of the swirl adapter to generate swirl at higher wind flow velocity during the higher throttle opening condition.ABSTRAK: Pusar merupakan aliran putaran cas melingkungi silinder pada paksinya. Enjin yang digunakan untuk penyelidikan ini merupakan Enjin Aci Sesondol Stas Kembar (Double Overhead Camshaft (DOHC asas, yang mempunyai kapasiti 1597 cc. Ia dipasangkan dengan 16 injap yang dibangunkan oleh pembuat kereta Malaysia, PROTON. Penyesuai pusar diletakkan di dalam masukan liang enjin. Sudut penyesuai di tetapkan pada 30o untuk memaksa cas supaya melantun kepada dinding liang agar membentuk pusaran. Tujuan tesis ini ditulis adalah untuk mendapatkan kesan pusar ke atas enjin dan membandingkannya dengan proses percampuran gelora normal. Analisis kesan pusaran dilakukan dengan menggunakan GT-SUITE yang mempunyai aliran pusar yang telah dipiawaikan di

  17. Influence of Cycle Temperature on the Wear Resistance of Vermicular Iron Derivatized with Bionic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Yan; Ren, Luquan

    2016-11-01

    Depending on their applications, such as in brake discs, camshafts, etc., the wear behavior of vermicular iron is influenced by the thermal cycling regime. The failure of a working part during its service life is a consequence of both thermal fatigue and wear. Previously, the wear and thermal fatigue resistance properties of vermicular iron were separately investigated by researchers, rather than a study combining these two factors. In the present work, the effect of cycle temperature on the wear resistance of specimens with bionic units processed by laser has been investigated experimentally. The wear behavior pre- and post-thermal cycling has also been investigated, and the influence of different cycle temperatures on the wear resistance is discussed. The results indicate that the thermal cycling regime brought about negative influences with varying degrees, on the material properties, such as the microstructures, micro-hardness, cracks, and oxidation resistance properties. All these factors synergistically reduced the wear resistance of vermicular iron. In particular, the negative influence apparently increased with an increase in cycle temperature. Nevertheless, the post-thermal-cycle wear resistance of the specimens with bionic units was superior to those without bionic units. Hence, the laser bionic process is an effective way to improve the performance of vermicular iron in combined thermal cycling and wear service conditions.

  18. Influence of Cycle Temperature on the Wear Resistance of Vermicular Iron Derivatized with Bionic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Yan; Ren, Luquan

    2016-08-01

    Depending on their applications, such as in brake discs, camshafts, etc., the wear behavior of vermicular iron is influenced by the thermal cycling regime. The failure of a working part during its service life is a consequence of both thermal fatigue and wear. Previously, the wear and thermal fatigue resistance properties of vermicular iron were separately investigated by researchers, rather than a study combining these two factors. In the present work, the effect of cycle temperature on the wear resistance of specimens with bionic units processed by laser has been investigated experimentally. The wear behavior pre- and post-thermal cycling has also been investigated, and the influence of different cycle temperatures on the wear resistance is discussed. The results indicate that the thermal cycling regime brought about negative influences with varying degrees, on the material properties, such as the microstructures, micro-hardness, cracks, and oxidation resistance properties. All these factors synergistically reduced the wear resistance of vermicular iron. In particular, the negative influence apparently increased with an increase in cycle temperature. Nevertheless, the post-thermal-cycle wear resistance of the specimens with bionic units was superior to those without bionic units. Hence, the laser bionic process is an effective way to improve the performance of vermicular iron in combined thermal cycling and wear service conditions.

  19. 汽车发动机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [ 篇名 ] Automated tuning of an engine management unit for an automotive engine,[ 篇名 ] Automotive Signal Fault Diagnostics-Part I: Signal Fault Analysis, Signal Segmentation, Feature Extraction and Quasi-Optimal Feature Selection,[ 篇名 ] Automotive tribology overview of current advances and challenges for the future,[ 篇名 ] Camshaft roller chain drive With reduced meshing impact noise levels,[ 篇名] Combating Automotive Engine Valve Recession,[ 篇名 ] Comparison of reliability enhancement tests for electronic equipment,[ 篇名 ] Competitive surface interactions of critical additives with piston ring/cylinder linear components under lubricated breaking-in conditions,[ 篇名 ] Component-based distributed control systems for automotive manufacturing machinery developed under the foresight vehicle program,[ 篇名 ] Compression ratio influence on maximum load of a natural gas-fueled HCCI engine,[ 篇名 ] Computerized analysis of fuel systems performance dynamics,[ 篇名 ] Concepts for the control of boost pressure and EGR-rate for a heavy duty engine,[ 篇名 ] Condition monitoring for a car engine using higher order time frequency method,[ 篇名 ] Design and evaluation of the ELEVATE two-stroke automotive engine,[ 篇名 ] Development of a cheep creep resistant Mg-Al-Zn-Si-base alloy,[ 篇名 ] Development of a nozzle-fouling test for additive rating in heavy-duty DI diesel engines。

  20. 基于虚拟仪器的车载电子电气测试平台设计%Design of Automotive Electrical and Electronic Test Platform Based on Virtual Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永祥; 王子龙; 彭杨

    2013-01-01

    The hardware system is based on PXI modular and customized board,the software system uses LabVIEW.Dynamic controls of H&H,TOELLNER,programmable variable resistor board and programmable CAN fault injection board are developed.According to the requirements,the interface of user management is designed.The crankshaft camshaft sensor signal,the wheel speed sensor signal and the vehicle speed sensor signal are simulated.Automated and semi-automated testing of electrical and electronic system is realized.%车载电子电气测试平台硬件系统采用PXI模块化板卡与特制信号模拟板卡,软件系统采用LabVIEW模块化软件.集成开发了H&H电源、TOELLNER电源、程控可变电阻模拟板卡与程控CAN故障注入板卡的动态控制;依据测试需求开发了用户管理界面;模拟了曲轴凸轮轴传感器信号、轮速传感器信号及车速传感器信号;实现了车载电子电气系统测试的自动化与半自动化.

  1. DOE Backup Power Working Group Best Practices Handbook for Maintenance and Operation of Engine Generators, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.E.

    1998-10-30

    The lubricating oil system provides a means to introduce a lubricant in the form of a film to reduce friction and wear between surfaces that bear against each other as they move.1 The oil film which is established also cools the parts by carrying generated heat away from hot surfaces, cleans and carries dirt or metal wear particles to the filter media, and helps seal the piston to the cylinder during combustion. Most systems are pressure lubricated and distribute oil under pressure to bearings, gears, and power assemblies. Lubricating oil usually reaches main, connecting rod, and camshaft bearings through drilled passages in the cylinder block and crankshaft or through piping and common manifolds.Many parts rely on oil for cooling, so if the lube oil system fails to perform its function the engine will overheat. Metal to metal surfaces not separated by a thin film of oil rapidly build up frictional heat. As the metals reach their melting point, they tend to weld together in spots or streaks. Lube oil system failures can cause significant damage to an engine in a short period of time. Proper maintenance and operation of the lubricating oil system is essential if your engine is to accomplish its mission.

  2. Design of Synchronous Belt Drive System for 469Q Gasoline Engine%469Q汽油机正时传动系统的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志香; 苏铁熊; 郑国璋

    2011-01-01

    根据469Q汽油机双顶置凸轮轴配气机构的特点,进行了正时传动系统的布置,给出了正时传动系统各个环节的设计计算过程、所用的经验数据及应遵循的原则,并提出了一种正时标记方法,设计了发动机正时传动系统的防护装置,提出了各阶段设计应注意的问题.试验表明,汽油机性能稳定,正时传动系统设计可靠.%Based on the admission gear of double overhead camshafts of 469Q gasoline engine, the synchronous belt drive system is ananged. The design calculation process, experience data and principle to be followed in various stages are given. A method used to be timing marking is put forward. Besides, the protective device of synchronous belt driving system is designed. The matters that need attention in the each design phase are emphasized. The test shows that the performance of 469Q gasoline engine is stabilization and the synchronous belt drive system is credibility.

  3. Design and study of synchronous toothed belt drive system for 4100Q gasoline engine%4100Q汽油机同步齿形带传动系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志香; 苏铁熊; 郑国璋

    2011-01-01

    根据4100Q汽油机双项置凸轮轴配气机构及机油泵同步传动的特点,考虑了同步带的横向振动,进行了同步带传动系统的布置,给出了同步带传动系统各个环节的设计计算过程和所用的经验数据.提出了一种正时标记方法及与带轮啮合的同步带外侧表面和同步带防护罩壳内侧之间最小距离的计算方法,利用此方法设计了同步带传动系统防护装置.%Based on the features as the double overhead camshafts valve mechanism and the synchronous drive of oil pump of 4100Q gasoline engine, by considering the transverse vibration of synchronous belts, the synchronous belts drive system was configured.The design calculation process and empirical data at various links of synchronous belts drive system were given.A timing mark method as well as the calculation method for minimum distance between synchronous belt side face of the pulley mesh and inside of the synchronous belt protective enclosure was put forward.The protective device of synchronous belt driving system was designed by using this method.

  4. ZeroFlow - new, environmentally friendly method of controlled gas nitriding used for selected car parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, J.; Małdziński, L.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents new method of controlled gas nitriding called ZeroFlow, which is used for nitriding of selected car parts, such as crankshafts, camshafts, piston rings, poppet valve springs and discs, piston pins or nozzles for unit injectors. This article will discuss the essence of controlled gas nitriding process, with an emphasis on the influence of process parameters on results of nitriding process. This information are the basis to understand the issue of the kinetics of nitrided layer growth, and as it follows - for its practical application in designing, regulation and control of nitriding processes using simulation models (simulator of the kinetics of nitrided layer growth). This article will also present the simulator of the kinetics of nitrided layer growth, which supports nitriding using ZeroFlow method - through the use of simulator layers are obtained in the shortest possible time, which is connected with the lowest energy consumption; therefore, nitriding process using ZeroFlow method and simulator of the kinetics of nitrided layer growth is both economical and environmentally friendly.

  5. Control of fast non linear systems - application to a turbo charged SI engine with variable valve timing; controle des systemes rapides non lineaires - application au moteur a allumage commande turbocompresse a distribution variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, G.

    2006-10-15

    Spark ignition engine control has become a major issue for the compliance with emissions legislation while ensuring driving comfort. Engine down-sizing is one of the promising ways to reduce fuel consumption and resulting CO{sub 2} emissions. Combining several existing technologies such as supercharging and variable valve actuation, down-sizing is a typical example of the problems encountered in Spark Ignited (SI) engine control: nonlinear systems with saturation of actuators; numerous major physical phenomena not measurable; limited computing time; control objectives (consumption, pollution, performance) often competing. A methodology of modelling and model-based control (internal model and predictive control) for these systems is also proposed and applied to the air path of the down-sized engine. Models, physicals and generics, are built to estimate in-cylinder air mass, residual burned gases mass and air scavenged mass from the intake to the exhaust. The complete and generic engine torque control architecture for the turbo-charged SI engine with variable cam-shaft timing was tested in simulation and experimentally (on engine and vehicle). These tests show that new possibilities are offered in order to decrease pollutant emissions and optimize engine efficiency. (author)

  6. Experimental Investigation of 2nd Generation Bioethanol Derived from Empty-fruit-bunch (EFB of Oil-palm on Performance and Exhaust Emission of SI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuandri Putrasari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigation of 2nd generation bioethanol derived from EFB of oil-palm blended with gasoline for 10, 20, 25% by volume and pure gasoline were conducted on performance and exhaust emission tests of SI engine. A four stroke, four cylinders, programmed fuel injection (PGMFI, 16 valves variable valve timing and electronic lift control (VTEC, single overhead camshaft (SOHC, and 1,497 cm3 SI engine (Honda/L15A was used in this investigation. Engine performance test was carried out for brake torque, power, and fuel consumption. The exhaust emission was analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO and hydrocarbon (HC. The engine was operated on speed range from1,500 until 4,500 rev/min with 85% throttle opening position. The results showed that the highest brake torque of bioethanol blends achieved by 10% bioethanol content at 3,000 to 4,500 rpm, the brake power was greater than pure gasoline at 3,500 to 4,500 rpm for 10% bioethanol, and bioethanol-gasoline blends of 10 and 20% resulted greater bsfc than pure gasoline at low speed from 1,500 to 3,500 rpm. The trend of CO and HC emissions tended to decrease when the engine speed increased.

  7. High-voltage distributor for ignition systems of internal combustion engines. Hochspannungs-Verteiler fuer Zuendanlagen von Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, H.; Perner, M.

    1990-01-11

    A high voltage distributor for ignition systems of internal combustion engines has a distributor cap (10) made of insulating material with a central electrode (12) and several fixed electrodes (13), which is set on a distributor housing (11) containing the distributor rotor (14) or the cylinder head. The distributor (14) or the cylinder head. The distributor rotor (14) rotating synchronously with the camshaft of the internal combustion engine provides an electrical connection between the central electrode (12) and the fixed electrodes (13) via a rotor electrode (16). To contact the distributor rotor (14), the central electrode (12) has a carbon brush (22), which is situated to be axially movable in a cylindrical guide (23) in the distributor gap (10) and makes contact with the rotor electrode (16) under the action of a pressure spring (23). To prevent damage to the carbon brush (22) when the distributor cap (10) is pushed sideways on to the housing (11), the guide (23) widens like a funnel at the carbon brush outlet end, so that in the unloaded state the carbon brush (22) projecting far out of the guide (23) can move sideways and is not exposed to a bending stress leading to fracture.

  8. EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

    2009-06-30

    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special

  9. 四冲程汽油机点火装置的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Four-stroke Gasoline Engine Ignition System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤晓萍; 胥布工; 郭国坤

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the four-stroke gasoline engine based on the magneto rotor with double-camshaft. We design the sampling and the igniting circuit according to the characteristics of the magneto rotor. On this basis, compensation strategy is adopted to design a new ignition system. The real-time speed and throttle o-pening signal can be read according to the SCM. The engine ignition-timing map was created according to the engine power curve. The experiments on the data show that the solution improved the control precision of motorcycle ignition timing and the energy of the ignition system, and enhanced the power and the torque of engine.%本文以四冲程汽油发动机为基础,该发动机采用了双凸轮轴的磁电机转子设计.针对该磁电机转子的特点,设计采样和点火电路,结合点火补偿策略设计并实现一套新的发动机点火系统.单片机实时读取速度和节气门开度信号,并通过对发动机功率曲线的测量绘制发动机点火提前角的MAP图.整机测试结果显示,该系统提高了摩托车的点火提前角的控制精度和点火能量,提高了发动机的输出功率和转拒.

  10. Dynamic imaging with a triggered and intensified CCD camera system in a high-intensity neutron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Brunner, J.; Gildemeister, A. E.; Engelhardt, M.

    2005-04-01

    When time-dependent processes within metallic structures should be inspected and visualized, neutrons are well suited due to their high penetration through Al, Ag, Ti or even steel. Then it becomes possible to inspect the propagation, distribution and evaporation of organic liquids as lubricants, fuel or water. The principle set-up of a suited real-time system was implemented and tested at the radiography facility NEUTRA of PSI. The highest beam intensity there is 2×107 cm s, which enables to observe sequences in a reasonable time and quality. The heart of the detection system is the MCP intensified CCD camera PI-Max with a Peltier cooled chip (1300×1340 pixels). The intensifier was used for both gating and image enhancement, where as the information was accumulated over many single frames on the chip before readout. Although, a 16-bit dynamic range is advertised by the camera manufacturers, it must be less due to the inherent noise level from the intensifier. The obtained result should be seen as the starting point to go ahead to fit the different requirements of car producers in respect to fuel injection, lubricant distribution, mechanical stability and operation control. Similar inspections will be possible for all devices with repetitive operation principle. Here, we report about two measurements dealing with the lubricant distribution in a running motorcycle motor turning at 1200 rpm. We were monitoring the periodic stationary movements of piston, valves and camshaft with a micro-channel plate intensified CCD camera system (PI-Max 1300RB, Princeton Instruments) triggered at exactly chosen time points.

  11. A New, Highly Improved Two-Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The figure presents a cross-sectional view of a supercharged, variable-compression, two-cycle, internal-combustion engine that offers significant advantages over prior such engines. The improvements are embodied in a combination of design changes that contribute synergistically to improvements in performance and economy. Although the combination of design changes and the principles underlying them are complex, one of the main effects of the changes on the overall engine design is reduced (relative to prior two-cycle designs) mechanical complexity, which translates directly to reduced manufacturing cost and increased reliability. Other benefits include increases in the efficiency of both scavenging and supercharging. The improvements retain the simplicity and other advantages of two-cycle engines while affording increases in volumetric efficiency and performance across a wide range of operating conditions that, heretofore have been accessible to four-cycle engines but not to conventionally scavenged two-cycle ones, thereby increasing the range of usefulness of the two-cycle engine into all areas now dominated by the four-cycle engine. The design changes and benefits are too numerous to describe here in detail, but it is possible to summarize the major improvements: Reciprocating Shuttle Inlet Valve The entire reciprocating shuttle inlet valve and its operating gear is constructed as a single member. The shuttle valve is actuated in a lost-motion arrangement in which, at the ends of its stroke, projections on the shuttle valve come to rest against abutments at the ends of grooves in a piston skirt. This shuttle-valve design obviates the customary complex valve mechanism, actuated from an engine crankshaft or camshaft, yet it is effective with every type of two-cycle engine, from small high-speed single cylinder model engines, to large low-speed multiple cylinder engines.

  12. Simulation Optimization of Lifting Mechanism of Cassava Tuber Harvester%木薯块根拔起机构仿真优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科余; 覃海鑫; 杨望

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve mass problem of lifting mechanism of dig-pull cassava tuber harvester designed by Guangxi University, dynamic simulation model of lifting mechanism was established by ADAMS.Load conditions of main compo-nents of the mechanism were analyzed in the dynamic simulation.Lightweight optimization on the components was carried out by using ANSYS and the parametric optimization method.The results show that the simulation model of lifting mecha-nism has high accuracy.Mass of optimized front and back straight bars, splined shaft and camshaft are reduced by 81. 6%,41.1%,51.3%and 53.2%, respectively.The lightweight optimization is achieved.%针对广西大学设计的挖拔式木薯块根收获机拔起机构存在质量较大的问题,先采用 ADAMS 仿真软件,建立拔起机构的动力学仿真模型,通过动力学仿真,分析各主要部件的受力情况;后采用ANSYS软件及参数化优化方法,对各主要部件进行轻量化优化。结果表明:所建立的木薯收获拔起机构仿真模型精度较高,优化后块根拔起机构的前后直杆、花键轴及凸轮轴的质量分别减轻了81.6%、41.1%、51.3%、53.2%,达到了轻量化的优化目的。

  13. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  14. Evaluation of Process Capability in Gas Carburizing Process to Achieve Quality through Limit Design Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Palaniradja; N. Alagumurthi; V. Soundararajan

    2004-01-01

    Steel is the most important metallic material used in industry. This is because of the versatility of its engineering properties under different conditions. In one condition it can be very mild, soft and suitable for any forming operation. In another condition the same steel can be very hard and strong. This versatility is made possible by the different heat treatments that the steel can be subject to. One such treatment is Gas carburizing. This is the most widely used process for surface hardening of low carbon steels. In this method the surface composition of the steel changes by diffusion of carbon and or nitrogen and result in hard outer surface with good wear resistance properties. A striking feature of Gas Carburizing process is that in this process the original toughness and ductility remains unaffected even after heat treatment. 3% nickel chromium case hardened low carbon steels are widely used for critical automotive and machine applications such as rack and pinion, gears, camshaft, valve rocker shafts and axles which requires high fatigue resistance. Fatigue behaviour of case carburized parts depends to a great extent on the correct combination of Hardness Penetration Depth (HPD) and the magnitude of hardness at the surface and beneath the surface with low size and shape distortion. In order to reduce the manufacturing costs in terms of material consumption and elimination of the number of processing steps, the effect of Gas carburizing parameters on the fatigue behaviour should already be considered in the parameter design stage. Therefore it is of importance to optimize the gas carburizing process variables to attain quality products with respect to hardness and case depth. In the present paper, the evaluation of process capability was carried out through a Limit Design Concept called orthogonal array design of experiment. To optimize the process variables the influence of several parameters (Holding time,Carbon potential, Furnace temperature and Quench

  15. The Simulating Techniques Study Based on the Multi-flexible-body Model of a V8 Diesel Engine%某V8型柴油机运动机构动力学仿真技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玺; 苏铁熊; 石磊; 李兴然; 崔俊杰

    2011-01-01

    介绍一种使用宽域氧传感器进行发动机失火检测的方法,在发动机各工况下对该方法的有效性进行了实验研究,并研究了失火对排放的影响.实验结果表明:失火对发动机排放的影响显著,利用宽域氧传感器信号可以有效地检测发动机失火,该检测方法在发动机的高速区存在优势.虽然失火循环排出的气体到达宽域氧传感器有一定的延迟,但不会影响失火检测的结果.%In the period of design and application of kinematic mechanisms, combined with the verification jobs,the method of multi-body dynamics is an important way to improve dynamical performance, to promote durability of products , and to shorten R&D cycle time of products. In this paper, the dissertation brought forward the hierarchy framework of I. C. E kinematic mechanisms'dynamical behavior research. Taking a certain type of military diesel as an example, the solid assembly model and multi-body dynamical model of the whole kinematic mechanisms, including crank train, valve train and gear train, were established. The dynamics of the multi-flexilblebody system dynamics model is analyzed, and the results of Kinematic characteristics of the piston and valve,piston flank attack power, camshaft bearing load and crankshaft dynamic characteristics are given. The method can describe kinematic and dynamic characteristics of I. C. E kinematic mechanisms' dynamical more precisely and the simulation results are given as a more accurate boundary condition to analyze and predict the vibration and noise characteristics of the diesel engine in the future.

  16. 高速立方氮化硼砂轮与绿色制造%High speed CBN grinding wheel and the green manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨威; 刘将先; 王帅; 李学文; 李学仁; 李世华

    2014-01-01

    In this study the vitrified bond CBN wheels are compared with the conventional corundum wheels in the grinding of automotive engine camshaft and crankshaft The results show that the durability of the high speed vitrified bond CBN wheels is 100 times that of the conventional corundum wheels and its service life is 44 4 times that of the conventional corundum wheels but the raw material consumption is only 1 5 6 When in the same amounts preparation the abrasive consumption of using corundum wheels is more than 400 times that of the high speed vitrified bond CBN wheels When the conventional corundum wheels are replaced by the high speed vitrified bond CBN wheels it would improve production efficiency more than 30% and save more than 60% production cost The high speed grinding wheel is an environment-protection products with high precision high efficiency low production costs less environment pollution which make it be a sharp weapon for realizing the target of green process.%以磨削加工汽车发动机凸轮轴、曲轴为例,对陶瓷 CBN 砂轮与普通刚玉砂轮进行了加工效果对比。结果表明:高速陶瓷 CBN 砂轮的耐用度是普通陶瓷刚玉砂轮的100倍,寿命是普通砂轮的的44.4倍,而原材料消耗仅为其1/56;加工相同的工件数量,使用刚玉砂轮进行加工,磨料消耗是高速CBN砂轮的400余倍;采用高速陶瓷CBN砂轮代替刚玉砂轮可提高生产效率30%以上,综合生产成本比刚玉砂轮磨削降低60%。高速CBN砂轮具有高效率、高精度、低磨削成本,低环境污染的技术优势,其代表了当今世界磨具产品发展的一个主要方向,是实现绿色加工目标的有效手段。

  17. The effects of novel surface treatments on the wear and fatigue properties of steel and chilled cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jason William

    Contact fatigue driven wear is a principal design concern for gear and camshaft engineering of power systems. To better understand how to engineer contact fatigue resistant surfaces, the effects of electroless nickel and hydrogenated diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings on the fatigue life at 108 cycles of SAE 52100 steel were studied using ultrasonic fatigue methods. The addition of DLC and electroless nickel coatings to SAE 52100 bearing steel had no effect on the fatigue life. Different inclusion types were found to affect the stress intensity value beyond just the inclusion size, as theorized by Murakami. The difference in stress intensity values necessary to propagate a crack for Ti (C,N) and alumina inclusions was due to the higher driving force for crack extension at the Ti (C,N) inclusions and was attributed to differences in the shape of the inclusion: rhombohedral for the Ti (C,N) versus spherical for the oxides. A correction factor was added to the Murakami equation to account for inclusion type. The wear properties of DLC coated SAE 52100 and chilled cast iron were studied using pin-on-disk tribometry and very high cycle ultrasonic tribometry. A wear model that includes sliding thermal effects as well as thermodynamics consistent with the wear mechanism for DLCs was developed based on empirical results from ultrasonic wear testing to 108 cycles. The model fit both ultrasonic and classic tribometer data for wear of DLCs. Finally, the wear properties of laser hardened steels - SAE 8620, 4140, and 52100 - were studied at high contact pressures and low numbers of cycles. A design of experiments was conducted to understand how the laser processing parameters of power, speed, and beam size, as well as carbon content of the steel, affected surface hardness. A hardness maximum was found at approximately 0.7 wt% carbon most likely resulting from increased amounts of retained austenite. The ratcheting contact fatigue model of Kapoor was found to be useful in

  18. Los batanes hidráulicos de la cuenca del Guadalquivir a fines de la Edad Media. Explotación y equipamiento técnico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordóba de la Llave, Ricardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a technological analysis of the waterpowered fulling mills working in the Guadalquivir basin in the Late Middle Ages. After briefl y reviewing the process of fulling woollen cloth, this paper focuses on the discussion about the origin and spread of fulling mills in Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. It then describes the features of their architecture and it looks at the places where they were located on the most important rivers of the basin. The main chapter is devoted to studying how they worked, analyzing the systems used for making better use of water-power (dams, channels, vertical water wheels and camshafts and the various components or pieces of machinery (castle, beams, triphammers, stack. The study ends with a brief refl ection on the technology used in the mills.

    El presente trabajo tiene por objeto el análisis tecnológico de los batanes hidráulicos que funcionaron en la cuenca del Guadalquivir a fi nes de la Edad Media. Tras repasar brevemente el proceso de abatanado de los paños de lana, el artículo se centra en la discusión acerca del origen y difusión del batán hidráulico en Europa y en la Península Ibérica. A continuación se describen los rasgos de su arquitectura y se exponen los lugares donde se ubicaron en los ríos más importantes de la cuenca. El capítulo principal es el dedicado a estudiar su funcionamiento, analizando los sistemas empleados para el aprovechamiento de la energía hidráulica (presas, canales, ruedas hidráulicas y árbol de levas y los diversos componentes o piezas de la maquinaria (castillo, astiles, mazos, pila. Una breve refl exión sobre la pervivencia a lo largo de los siglos de la tecnología utilizada en los batanes cierra el trabajo.

  19. A tool for Load Modeling in Induction Hardening Equipment Driven by Power Semiconductor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelvin effect (Skin effect) is used in surface hardening produced by induction heating of gears, camforms, camshafts and other work pieces of fairly complex geometries.The induction heating equipment for surface hardening of metals and alloys (using LF or medium frequencies in the jargon of induction heating) is composed by a coil or coil assembly and a power semiconductor driving system up to 50kHz. The load seen by the driving system is equivalent to a transformer. The primary corresponds to the excitation coil or coil assembly, and the work piece corresponds to a short-circuited secondary. To asses the electrical load it is necessary to determine the variations in skin depth from place to place due to local curvature effects in the work piece, and its variations in space and time due to variations in conductivity and magnetic properties coupled with thermal effects. In these and others technical applications of Kelvin effect it is often necessary to be able to relate local skin depths with local curvatures of the surface of electrically conductive bodies.The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, derive a closed form analytical formula that relates the local skin depth with the local mean curvature and the well known skin depth for a flat conductive body. The limits of applicability of this formula are discussed. The predicted skin depths are compared with available experimental results obtained in the framework of surface hardening processes. Second, apply the above mentioned formula to describe the electrical load of the induction heating equipment in the conditions used for surface hardening. In the choice or design of an induction heating system the parameters of the intended process (depth of Kelvin effect, temperatures to be reached and duration of the heating process, amongst others) put restrictions over the coils and the power driving system. To determine the best shape and size of induction coils or coil assemblies, the complex thermal and

  20. PID Parameters of PSO-GA Combination Algorithm Optimization and Design of Visual Platform%PSO-GA组合算法优化PID参数及可视化平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晋伟; 梅钦; 李海涌; 宁堃; 金爱韦

    2013-01-01

    PID控制是机床伺服控制系统中广泛应用的一种控制方式,PID参数是否合理直接影响着伺服系统的性能.以MKS8332A数控凸轮轴磨床砂轮架伺服系统为模型,提出一种基于粒子群-遗传组合算法(PSO-GA)的PID控制器参数优化方法.仿真结果表明,该算法寻优性能比单独的遗传算法和粒子群算法表现更为优异,证实了该算法能有效的优化伺服系统PID参数.为了使用户无需去了解复杂的算法源代码,而只需在平台上进行操作就可以解决PID参数的优化问题.多种智能算法被引入称为可视化平台的优化软件设计,用MATLAB GUI编程环境构建了PID参数可视化平台,为用户提供一个友好的图形界面.%PID control is widely used in machine tool servo control system.Whether the parameters are reasonable or not is very important to affect the performance of the servo control system.MKS8332A CNC camshaft grinding wheel servo system is seen as a model,PID controller parameters optimization method based on PSO-GA combination algorithm is proposed.The simulation results in PID controller parameters optimization show that the algorithm is superior to the single GA or PSO algorithm,which confirmed that the algorithm can effectively optimize the PID controller parameters of the servo system.In order not to make users need to understand the complex source code of the algorithms,optimization problem of PID parameters can be solved just to execute operations on the platform.Some intelligent algorithms are introduced to the optimization software,called visual platform,using MATLAB GUI programming environment to construct PID parameters visual platform,which provide a friendly graphical interface for users.

  1. 基于肤色识别的人机交互方法在游戏中的应用研究%Research on Human-Computer Interaction Methods in Game Application Based on Skin Color Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玉宝; 夏露; 侯宪锋

    2012-01-01

    利用计算机视觉技术实现游戏人机交互来提高游戏的娱乐性,是当前国内外应用研究的热点.文中提出了采用肤色检测技术应用于游戏交互的方法.通过摄像头对肤色进行采样,再利用统计方法对皮肤颜色进行分析建立肤色模型;采用背景差分阈值分割法和Camshift算法进行手势跟踪监测,获取手的位置;将手的位置作为信号传递给游戏角色,从而控制游戏.在VC ++6.0下,使用OpenCV和OpenGL开源库,构建了普通摄像头视觉游戏实验平台,通过手势的运动轨迹控制粒子系统喷射方向.实验结果表明,通过肤色进行手势跟踪监测,进而控制游戏角色运动,具有很好的实时性和交互性.%The game human-computer interaction is fulfilled by making use of computer vision technology to improve the game entertainment. It is a current research hotspot at home and abroad. This paper puts forward the method that the skin detection technology is applied to game interaction. Skin detection technology is applied in human-computer interaction in this paper. Skin color is sampled through the camera, and skin color model is established by making use of statistical methods for analysis of skin color. In order to reduce the influence of the background color recognition, the RGB model translates into HSV model. It takes advantage of the background difference threshold segmentation method and Camshaft algorithm for hand tracking monitoring to get the position of the hand. So as to control the game, the position of handle as a signal is transmitted to characters. And in VC+ + 6. 0, it uses open source library OpenCV and gestures OpenGL to build a common experimental platform game camera vision, with gestures trajectory controlling particle system injection. The experimental result shows that making use of the skin color tracking and monitoring gesture to control game character movement has very good real-time and interactivity.

  2. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  3. Homogeneous charge compression ignition compared with Otto-Atkinson in a passenger car size engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Andreas

    2000-07-01

    The use of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) was investigated in an ordinary SI (spark ignition) engine, in this case a modified Volvo 850, working on one cylinder only, the others towed. The major purpose of this study was to examine whether there were the same kind of throttle losses in this engine as in a Diesel engine (Volvo TD 100). One reason for throttling is that HCCI causes very cold exhaust gases. The Diesel engine has a larger cylinder volume (1.6 compared to 0.5 litre), working at low engine speed (1000 rpm) and only two valves with comparably small area. The smaller Volvo 850 engine has four valves and was in this examination working at up to 3500 rpm. To make the engine run by HCCI following modifications were made. The compression was set to 20:1 by changing the piston. To affect the ignition an electrical heater was installed near the air inlet. Mixing iso-octane (ON 100) and N-heptane (ON 0) set the octane number. A couple of camshafts with different cam-profiles were used to achieve the right valve opening duration depending on which kind of combustion that was studied. There could then also be a comparison between Otto and HCCI combustion both working with wide-open throttle. To obtain comparable indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) the engine was working with late (LIVC) or early inlet valve closing (EIVC) at SI combustion. Measurements were taken involving in-cylinder pressure, temperature, speed, fuel-consumption, emissions etc. Regarding emissions there were special consideration taken to hydrocarbon and NO{sub x}, which are known to be extremely high respectively low with HCCI combustion. Important questions that should be answered were: * How does higher engine speed affect the combustion ?, * How does the engine size affect emissions ?, * How much is the valve area affecting gas exchange losses ?, and * How high is the efficiency with HCCI compared with Otto (LIVC/EIVC) ?. The best results are achieved at an indicated mean

  4. Pneumatic-Combustion Hybrid Engine: A Study of the Effect of the Valvetrain Sophistication on Pneumatic Modes Moteur hybride pneumatique: une étude de l’effet de la complexité de la distribution sur les modes pneumatiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brejaud P.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although internal combustion engines display high overall maximum global efficiencies, this potential cannot be fully exploited in automotive applications: in real conditions, the average engine load (and thus efficiency is quite low and the kinetic energy during a braking phase is lost. This work presents a hybrid pneumatic-combustion engine and the associated thermodynamic cycles, which is able to store and recover energy in the form of compressed air. The study focuses on the two major pneumatic modes: pneumatic pump mode and pneumatic motor mode. For each of them, three valvetrain technologies are considered: 4-stroke mode, 4-stroke mode with one camshaft disengaged, and 2-stroke fully variable. The concept can be adapted to SI or CI engines. In any case the valvetrain technology is the key to best fuel economy. A kinematic model of the charging valve’s actuator is introduced, and implemented in a quasi dimensional model of the pneumatic-combustion hybrid engine. Simulation results are presented for each pneumatic mode, for each valvetrain technology, in order to determine the best valve train configuration, and to show the impact of the kinematic valve actuator on the performance of the engine The tradeoffs between valvetrain sophistication and fuel economy will be presented for each case. Bien que le rendement total d’un moteur à combustion interne soit élevé, ce potentiel ne peut être pleinement exploité sur une automobile : dans les conditions réelles d’utilisation, la charge moteur moyenne (et donc le rendement est souvent faible. De plus, l’énergie cinétique en phase de freinage est totalement dissipée sous forme de chaleur. Cet article présente un concept de moteur hybride pneumatique, et les cycles thermodynamiques associés, capable de stocker de l’énergie (et de la réutiliser sous forme d’air comprimé. Le concept est adaptable au moteur à allumage commandé aussi bien qu’au moteur à allumage par

  5. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar