Sample records for camshafts

  1. Fracture analysis of chilled cast iron camshaft


    Li Ping; Li Fengjun; Cai Anke


    The fracture of a camshaft made of chilled cast iron, installed in a home-made Fukang car, happened only after running over a distance of 6,200 km. The fractured camshaft was received to conduct a series of failure analyses using visual inspection, SEM observation of fracture section, microstructure analysis, chemical composition analysis and hardness examination and so on, while those of CKD camshaft made by Citro雗 Company in France was also simultaneously analyzed to compare the difference ...

  2. Fracture analysis of chilled cast iron camshaft

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    Li Ping


    Full Text Available The fracture of a camshaft made of chilled cast iron, installed in a home-made Fukang car, happened only after running over a distance of 6,200 km. The fractured camshaft was received to conduct a series of failure analyses using visual inspection, SEM observation of fracture section, microstructure analysis, chemical composition analysis and hardness examination and so on, while those of CKD camshaft made by Citro雗 Company in France was also simultaneously analyzed to compare the difference between them. The results showed that the fracture of the camshaft mainly results from white section in macrostructure and Ledeburite in microstructure; the crack in the fractured camshaft should be recognized to initiate at the boundary of coarser needle-like carbide and matrix, and then propagate through the transverse section. At the same time, the casting defects such as dendritic shrinkage, accumulated inclusion and initiated crack and abnormal external force might stimulate the fracture of camshaft as well. Based on failure analysis, some measures have been employed, and as a result, the fracture of home-made camshafts has been effectively prevented.

  3. Fracture analysis of chilled cast iron camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping; Li Fengjun; Cai Anke; Wei Bokang


    The fracture of a camshaft made of chilled cast iron, installed in a home-made Fukang car, happened only after running over a distance of 6,200 km. The fractured camshaft was received to conduct a series of failure analyses using visual inspection, SEM observation of fracture section, microstructure analysis, chemical composition analysis and hardness examination and so on, while those of CKD camshaft made by Citroen Company in France was also simultaneously analyzed to compare the difference between them. The results showed that the fracture of the camshaft mainly results from white section in macrostructure and Ledeburite in microstructure; the crack in the fractured camshaft should be recognized to initiate at the boundary of coarser needle-like carbide and matrix, and then propagate through the transverse section. At the same time, the casting defects such as dendritic shrinkage, accumulated inclusion and initiated crack and abnormal external force might stimulate the fracture of camshaft as well. Based on failure analysis, some measures have been employed, and as a result, the fracture of home-made camshafts has been effectively prevented.

  4. Researching the technology of high-accuracy camshaft measurement (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong-Le; Wang, Hong; Liao, Hai-Yang


    This paper states the cam's data processing algorithm in detail in high accurate camshaft measurement system. It contains: 1) using minimum error of curve symmetry to seek the center position of the key slot; 2) Calculating the minimum error by cam's curve in theory to search top area; 3) According to cam's tolerance E(i) function and minimum angle error at cam top, seeking the best position of cam top and getting the best angle value and error curve. The algorithm is suitable for measuring all kinds of symmetry or asymmetry cam, and plain push-rod or spherical push-rod cam, for example, bus camshaft, car camshaft, motor camshaft, etc. Using the algorithm, high accuracy measurement can be achieved.

  5. Restoring diesel engine camshafts by laser treatement (United States)

    Astashkevich, B. M.; Zinov'ev, G. S.; Voronin, I. N.


    The reliability of parts of the gas-distributing mechanism and drives of fuel pumps determines to a great degree the operating conditions of cylinder-piston parts and the economic characteristics of diesel engines. Intense wear of the camshaft pair disturbs the distribution phases and the lead angle of fuel supply to the diesel cylinders and increases the rigidity of the operation of the connecting rod-piston group. This causes incomplete combustion of fuel and fuming, a rise in the temperature of exhaust gases, sticking of the rings in the piston grooves and their premature failure, wear cracks, and chips and failure of the parts of the cylinder-piston unit, decreasing the efficiency of the diesel. Laser surface treatment is used to restore cams. It makes it possible to increase substantially the wear resistance of cams and restore their worn surfaces. This paper concerns the characteristics of the cams after such a treatment.

  6. New class of camshaft transfer functions with improved characteristics


    Pavlović, Vlastimir D.; Lutovac, Maja M.


    The design of camshaft transfer functions is straightforward and explained in many scientific papers. Modern systems require a new design procedure in order to minimize unwanted movements and to reduce the power consumption. This paper presents a new class of transfer functions that reduces maximal deviations and increases number of cycles. The results are based on combined symbolic-numeric optimization. .

  7. Modeling and analysis of the transient vibration of camshaft in multi-cylinder diesel engine


    Jie Guo; Wenping Zhang; Xinyu Zhang


    The dynamics and vibrations of camshaft excited by multi-follower elements are modeled and analyzed. A pushrod valve train system from a four-cylinder diesel engine is selected as the case study. The camshaft is modeled to analyze the interactions of multi-follower elements. Both the camshaft angular vibration and bending vibration are taken into consideration. Each follower element is simplified as a multi-mass system. The lumped masses are connected by the spring elements and the damping el...

  8. Analisis Kelelahan dan Hubungannya dengan Umur Material Pada Camshaft


    Kurnia Brahmana


    Tekanan yang berubah-ubah secara berulang-ulang selama selang waktu tertentu pada bahan akan mengakibatkan kegagalan akibat kelelahan, selanjutnya penyebaran keretakan dan keretakan yang semakin melebar dan sehingga mengakibatkan patah. Umur lelah dari suatu bahan dipengaruhi oleh tingkat amplitudo dari beban yang diberikan kepada bahan tersebut, dan pada umumnya kelelahan pada benjolan camshaft terjadi mulai pada 50 juta getaran. Analisis kelelahan akibat stress, strain, dan gaya memberikan ...


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    Firza Utama Sjarifudin


    Full Text Available Adaptation is essential to manage the problem of climate change. In order to meet the challenge, this paper proposes an adaptive building envelope system that can optimize its configuration by responding environmental changes to achieve new levels of sustainable performance and energy efficiency. Most current adaptive building envelope uses kinetic techniques make its formation transformable. However, the use of kinetic components such as a large amount of interactive motorized system that requires electrical power may also cause further decrease the building energy efficiency. This paper proposes a camshaft mechanism system for adaptive building envelope that uses less motors, controllers, and sensors. This system uses pre-programmed analysis data of daily solar radiation changes to parametrically drive the number of rotation phase and length of nose (Lobe Lift that generates the shape of camshaft. The camshaft then controls the values of opening and closing of the building envelope components. The advantages of this system are less energy consumption, less maintenance and lower cost since it uses fewer motors, controllers and wiring. In conclusion, this paper has developed a prototypical tool that facilitates a new approach to energy-efficient kinetic buildings.

  10. 3-D measuring of engine camshaft based on machine vision (United States)

    Qiu, Jianxin; Tan, Liang; Xu, Xiaodong


    The non-touch 3D measuring based on machine vision is introduced into camshaft precise measuring. Currently, because CCD 3-dimensional measuring can't meet requirements for camshaft's measuring precision, it's necessary to improve its measuring precision. In this paper, we put forward a method to improve the measuring method. A Multi-Character Match method based on the Polygonal Non-regular model is advanced with the theory of Corner Extraction and Corner Matching .This method has solved the problem of the matching difficulty and a low precision. In the measuring process, the use of the Coded marked Point method and Self-Character Match method can bring on this problem. The 3D measuring experiment on camshaft, which based on the Multi-Character Match method of the Polygonal Non-regular model, proves that the normal average measuring precision is increased to a new level less than 0.04mm in the point-clouds photo merge. This measuring method can effectively increase the 3D measuring precision of the binocular CCD.

  11. Vane-Cam - camshaft controls with new functionalities; Vane-Cam - Nockenwellenversteller mit neuen Funktionalitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, A.; Pohl, D. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany); Hannibal, W. [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany). Labor fuer Konstruktion und CAE-Anwendungen; enTec Consulting GmbH, Hemer (Germany)


    Infinitely variable camshaft phasing systems will be used in the future in practically all gasoline internal combustion engines high volume production. This paper of Hydraulik-Ring GmbH gives an overview of the current system concepts of the latest generation of camshaft controls utilizing the principle of the vane motor. (orig.)

  12. New camshaft phaser module for automobile engines; Neues Nockenwellenverstellermodul fuer PKW-Motoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinig, Uwe; Bohner, Juergen [SHW Automotive GmbH, Bad Schussenried (Germany)


    SHW Automotive GmbH has developed a new, fast setting camshaft phaser module, utilising the principles of the hydraulic pivoting motor. The incorporation of a spring-loaded hydraulic reservoir and the consequential reduction of cross-sectional drag enabled the realisation of setting speeds which lie substantially above those of conventional camshaft phasers while maintaining good control characteristics. (orig.)

  13. The effects of manganese phosphate coating wear resistance of chilled ductile iron camshafts

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    Tarık Gün


    Full Text Available The ductile iron camshafts are preferred due to high toughness and strength features in the automobile industry. Through the coolants used in the camshaft production high surface hardness is achieved. In this study, the wear resistance effects of ductile iron chill produced camshafts coated with manganese phosphate are researched. The camshaft surfaces produced as ductile iron chill are coated with manganese phosphate. The coating surfaces are observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM. The changes occurring on the cam profiles are measured with running the wear resistance of the manganese phosphate coating on the camshafts on the engine test rig with 30 minutes interval in 1000rpm. In order to compare the results of uncoated camshafts run on engines are checked against simultaneously. As result, the manganese phosphate coated cams were 2,8 times less worn up than the uncoated cams. The manganese phosphate coated ductile iron chill camshafts are less worn up according to uncoated camshafts because of the oil holding feature of manganese phosphate coating.

  14. Optimising the Design Process of the Injection Camshaft by Critical Path Method (CPM)


    Olga-Ioana Amariei; Codruţa Oana Hamat; Vadim Chistruga


    In the present paper a series of advantages of the CPM method are presented, focusing on the optimization of design duration of an injection camshaft, by cost criteria. The minimum duration of finalizing the design of the injection camshaft will be determined, as well as the total cost associated to this project, normally, and then under crash regime. At the end, two types of sensitivity analysis will be performed: Meeting the desire completation time and Meeting the desired...

  15. Optimising the Design Process of the Injection Camshaft by Critical Path Method (CPM

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    Olga-Ioana Amariei


    Full Text Available In the present paper a series of advantages of the CPM method are presented, focusing on the optimization of design duration of an injection camshaft, by cost criteria. The minimum duration of finalizing the design of the injection camshaft will be determined, as well as the total cost associated to this project, normally, and then under crash regime. At the end, two types of sensitivity analysis will be performed: Meeting the desire completation time and Meeting the desired budget cost

  16. Modeling and analysis of the transient vibration of camshaft in multi-cylinder diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Guo


    Full Text Available The dynamics and vibrations of camshaft excited by multi-follower elements are modeled and analyzed. A pushrod valve train system from a four-cylinder diesel engine is selected as the case study. The camshaft is modeled to analyze the interactions of multi-follower elements. Both the camshaft angular vibration and bending vibration are taken into consideration. Each follower element is simplified as a multi-mass system. The lumped masses are connected by the spring elements and the damping elements. The contact force model at the cam–tappet interfaces was developed based on the elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication theory of finite line conjunction. From the analysis results, it can be seen that the bending vibration of camshaft is mainly in the normal direction at the cam–tappet interfaces. Moreover, the bending vibration is mainly influenced by the overlapping of inlet cam function and exhaust cam function of each cylinder. The angular vibration of camshaft mainly focuses at the fundamental frequency and the harmonic frequency corresponding to the cylinder number.

  17. Concentric camshaft system for gasoline and diesel engines; Konzentrische Verstellnockenwellen fuer Otto- und Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, Steve [BorgWarner Morse TEC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Joergl, Volker; Becker, Michael [BorgWarner, Ludwigsburg (Germany); Stapelmann, Andreas [ThyssenKrupp Presta Camshafts Gruppe, Chemnitz (Germany)


    BorgWarner and ThyssenKrupp Presta have jointly developed a system of phaser and adjustable concentric camshafts that are applicable to both diesel and gasoline engines. Comprehensive simulation work and experimental investigations on an engine dyno have proven considerable potential for reducing emissions and improving fuel consumption. (orig.)

  18. Camshaft with roller bearings to reduce mechanical losses; Waelzgelagerte Nockenwelle zur Reduzierung von Reibungsverlusten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artur, Christophe; Lemaitre, Fabrice [Timken Europe, Colmar (France); Schneider, Falk; Kreisig, Michael [Mahle Ventiltrieb GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Reducing frictional losses in combustion engine and power train applications is imperative to achieve future CO-2 emissions targets. Mahle and Timken have combined their expertise to develop new camshaft technology which could positively contribute to this industry effort. This paper describes the content and the results of this joint work and highlights the potential benefits of the proposed solution. (orig.)

  19. Development of welded Hollow Camshaft%焊接式空心凸轮轴的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仲江; 杨勇新; 张辉


    通过对现有凸轮轴和焊接式空心凸轮轴从制造难易程度、强度、试验验证等方面进行分析,得出成本低、周期短、强度可靠的新式凸轮轴。%The new camshaft with low cost, short cycle and reliable strength is reached based on the analysis of existing camshaft and welded hollow camshaft from manufacturing difficulty, strength, test, etc.

  20. 柴油机凸轮轴断裂分析%Fracture Analysis of Diesel Engine Camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹耕原; 刘岩; 杜冈峰; 杨玉; 张雪花; 曹淑芬


    试验和使用中凸轮轴发生多起断裂,通过分析得出:凸轮轴止推片材料的选用和热处理工艺皆不符合技术标准要求,凸轮轴与止推片两者之间的摩擦、严重粘着磨损,是造成凸轮轴异常受力疲劳断裂的主要原因。%The fatigue cracks occurred on the camshaft during experiments and usage. The analysis showed that the raw material selection and heat treatment technologies of camshaft thrust pad were all not accord with technical standard demands. The frication and the serious adhesive wear between camshaft and thrust pad were the main reasons that resulted in abnormal stress and fatigue rupture of camshaft.

  1. Surface hardening with remelting of functional surfaces of cast iron camshafts (United States)

    Chernyshev, A. N.; Kaplina, I. N.; Serapin, M. I.


    The most important requirements on engines of passenger cars include a low specific consumption of fuel, which depends on the process of the gas distribution controlled mechanically with the help of the camshaft. In operation, camshafts are subjected to rolling friction with elements of slip. Wear is mainly developed at the top of the cams, causing a change in the design contour. This worsens the operating regime of the gas-distributing mechanism and, correspondingly, the characteristics of the engine. At present, the processes of gas distribution in the engine are optimized using cams with a sharpened profile and a long stroke, with accelerates their wear. This stimulates a search for new methods of increasing the wear resistance of the cam-pusher pair.

  2. 一种装配式凸轮轴磨削工艺方案%Assembling Camshaft Grinding Process Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The camshaft, as one of engine gas distribution system''s important component, is always in the running state when the engine is running, for opening and closing air valve. The manufacturing quality, directly affects the engine power, fuel economy and emissions targets, etc. Assembled camshaft as a new type of camshaft, represents a trend of application of automobile engine camshaft. Grinding process is the key process of the camshaft machining process; the camshaft grinding quality is directly related to the final product quality. An assembled camshaft grinding process technique and application are introduced.%凸轮轴作为发动机配气系统的重要组成部件之一,在发动机工作时,始终处于运转状态,用于控制气门的开启和闭合.其制造质量好坏,直接影响到发动机的动力性、排放指标、燃油经济性等.装配式凸轮轴作为一种新型的凸轮轴,代表了汽车发动机凸轮轴的一种应用趋势.磨削工序是凸轮轴加工过程中的关键工序,磨削质量直接关系到凸轮轴的最终产品质量,介绍了一种装配式凸轮轴的磨削加工工艺方案及其应用.

  3. A valve camshaft load torque calculation and camshaft vibration control analysis%发动机凸轮轴负载扭矩计算及振动控制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉梅; 范芳; 雷应锋; 胡成太


    Aiming at the overhead camshaft valve mechanism, the theoretical and numerical solutions of camshaft load torque are calculated respectively by a derived formula and transient finite element analysis. The two solutions show good agreement, thus the correctness of the transient finite element model is verified. By combining with camshaft instantaneous constraint modal analysis and vibration response with consideration of gas pressure, it is found the position of camshaft which easily excites resonance and the main influence factors of camshaft vibration. Then the effect of the width of bearing seat on the camshaft vibration is investigated and the results show that the vibration of camshaft is mainly bending vibration, appropriate width of bearing seat can effectively control the camshaft vibration.%针对顶置配气凸轮轴,推导出其凸轮轴负载扭矩理论计算公式.分别用理论公式和瞬态有限元分析对该配气凸轮轴负载扭矩进行了计算,将两种方法的计算结果进行了对比,结果显示两者吻合良好,验证了瞬态有限元模型的正确性.结合配气凸轮轴的瞬时约束模态分析与燃气爆发压力作用下凸轮轴的振动响应分析,找到了凸轮轴易发生共振的部位及影响凸轮轴振动的主要因素,分析了轴承座宽度对凸轮轴振动的影响.结果表明:凸轮轴的振动主要是弯曲振动,适当调整凸轮轴轴承座的宽度对控制凸轮轴的振动有明显的效果.

  4. Development and modification of a single overhead camshaft 4-valve 4-stroke 135 cc formula varsity race car engine (United States)

    Abdullah, M. A.; Tamaldin, N.; Rusnandi, H.; Manoharan, T.; Samsir, M. A.


    The engine that was chosen to be developed and modified is Yamaha LC 135 Single Overhead Camshaft (SOHC) 4-valve 4-stroke 135cc liquid-cooled engine. The engine selection is based on the specification, rule and regulation in UTeM Formula Varsity 2012 (FV 2012). The engine performance is determined by engine operating characteristics. The engine air flow affects the filtration, intake and exhaust systems. The heat from the engine rejected to the surrounding through the active cooling system which has radiator and fan. The selection of the engine is based on weighted decision matrix which consists of reliability, operating and maintenance cost, fuel consumption and weight. The score of the matrix is formulated based on relative weighted factor among the selections. It been compared between Yamaha LC 135 Single Overhead Camshaft (SOHC) 4-valve 4-stroke 135cc liquid-cooled engine, Honda Wave 125 X Air Cooled, 4 Cycle Engine Overhead Camshaft (OHC) and Suzuki Shogun RR 4 stroke air cooled Single Overhead Camshaft (SOHC). The modification is applied to the engine through the simulation and tuning of Capacitor Discharge Ignition (CDI).

  5. Research on Measuring and Correcting Method for Camshaft Eccentricity%凸轮轴偏心的测量与修正方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔明; 丁力华; 赵军; 周广才


    A practical harmonic analysis technology and its application in the correction of main journal eccentricity of camshaft ends was proposed,a calculation model of camshaft eccentric distance and eccentric angle was established based on the main journal eccentricity of camshaft ends and the algorithm was analyzed,which would reduce system errors caused by the disunity between measurement datum and design datum of camshaft,and the deflection of the camshaft itself and avoid interpolation errors of traditional eccentricity correction algorithm.Experimental platform for measuring camshaft was built,measured data was corrected according to the proposed eccentricity correction algorithm.Experimental results demonstrate the proposed algorithm can correct eccentricity of main journal eccentricity of camshaft ends and camshaft itself effectively,the accuracy of instrument is improved.%将实用谐波分析技术应用于凸轮轴两端主轴颈偏心修正中,建立了基于凸轮轴两端主轴颈的各凸轮偏心距和偏心角的计算模型并对其算法进行了分析,通过偏心修正减小了凸轮轴测量基准和设计基准不统一以及凸轮轴自身弯曲带来的系统误差,避免了传统修正偏心算法中的插值误差。搭建了测量凸轮轴的实验平台,对主轴颈和凸轮的实测数据进行了偏心修正。实验结果表明,该方法对主轴径和凸轮偏心量的修正效果明显,提高了仪器的测量精度。

  6. Daylight Adaptive Shading Using Parametric Camshaft Mechanism for SOHO in Jakarta (United States)

    Utama Sjarifudin, Firza; Justina, Laurensia


    This research analyzes SOHO (Small Office Home Office) which can adjust to the need of visual comfort for the users through natural daylighting and also can be adapted to standard requirements of 14 creative industry workspace in Jakartas. The method of the research is by simulating the SOHO unit with variation of shading opening angles in order to adapt to each unit. Analysis done to every shading opening angle to get the appropriate daylight intensity level which support the work activities in every unit for the whole day. In order for the shading to be able to adapt to the changing daylight condition, previously developed parametric camshaft mechanism was used. The study found that the visual comfort for SOHO with creative industries workers in Jakarta can be achieve by varying the shading opening angles between 15-75°.

  7. Daylight Adaptive Shading Using Parametric Camshaft Mechanism for SOHO in Jakarta

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    Sjarifudin Firza Utama


    Full Text Available This research analyzes SOHO (Small Office Home Office which can adjust to the need of visual comfort for the users through natural daylighting and also can be adapted to standard requirements of 14 creative industry workspace in Jakartas. The method of the research is by simulating the SOHO unit with variation of shading opening angles in order to adapt to each unit. Analysis done to every shading opening angle to get the appropriate daylight intensity level which support the work activities in every unit for the whole day. In order for the shading to be able to adapt to the changing daylight condition, previously developed parametric camshaft mechanism was used. The study found that the visual comfort for SOHO with creative industries workers in Jakarta can be achieve by varying the shading opening angles between 15-75°.

  8. Effect of Lanthanun on micructure and properties of a chilled iron camshaft

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    He Binfeng


    Full Text Available Inoculation can reduce the chill depth of a chilled iron, and therefore influence the microstructure and properties of the iron. In this paper, the effect of rare earth Lanthanun (La on the microstructure and properties of a chilled iron camshaft was studied. The results show that the La addition efficiently enhances the mechanical properties, yet with the unfavorable effect of decreasing the chilled depth and hardness. Moreover, La promotes graphite concentration and results in large graphite size, as well as A-type graphite. It is also found that excessive La destroys the interconnection and directivity of ledeburite. According to the experimental results, the optimum adding content of La should be no more than 0.02wt.%.

  9. The charateristics and the research status of powder metallurgy camshafts%粉末冶金凸轮轴的特点及研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨萍; 贾成厂; 曲选辉; 王林山; 汪礼敏


    The important position of powder metallurgy camshafts in automobile engines and the present situation of camshafts development at home and abroad are presented. The advantages of powder metallurgy camshafts over traditional camshafts and the assembly procedures of powder metallurgy camshafts are explained emphatically. The camshafts made by powder metallurgy possess the advantages of high precision, high efficiency, low cost, low energy consumption, and pollution-free.%阐述了粉末冶金凸轮轴在汽车发动机中的重要地位以及粉末冶金凸轮轴在国内外的研发现状.重点介绍了粉末冶金凸轮轴相对于传统的凸轮轴的优势和粉末冶金凸轮轴的装配方式.采用粉末冶金工艺制造的凸轮轴具有高精度、高效率、低成本、低能耗、无污染的优良特性.

  10. 凸轮轴数控加工工艺研究%Research on The Camshaft CNC Processing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Combined with the actual production, it analyzes the main problem in camshaft processing, presents some measures such as reasonable arrangement of the clamping form, adjusting the cutting tool and cutting way. These measures can reduce the machine tool vibration, improve the camshaft surface machining quality and efficiency, reduce production cost.%结合企业生产实际,对凸轮轴加工面临的主要问题进行了分析.通过采用合理安排装夹方式、改变加工刀具和切削方式等方法,减少了机床振动,提高了凸轮轴表面加工质量和效率,最终达到了降低生产成本的目的.

  11. SB25125凸轮轴高速外铣%High Speed Milling Outside of SB25125 Camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙进; 李学志


    High Speed Milling Outside of SB25125 Camshaft made a high efficiency NC milling machine as the main movement of high-speed rotating milling cutter. The camshaft slowly rotate a week to complete a shaft diameter or connecting rod diameter and finish machining process of the spoke plates of the diameter, it is efficient CNC milling machine.%SB25125凸轮轴高速外铣是以刀盘的高速旋转为切削的主运动,凸轮轴慢速旋转一周完成一个轴径或连杆径的加工过程以及完成辐板的外径和侧面的加工的高效数控铣床。

  12. 凸轮轴位置传感器故障浅析%Troubleshooting on Camshaft Position Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程娟; 陈若飞; 马占芹


    This paper demonstrates several failure cases of the camshaft position sensor from situations of development to after-sales, and also illustrates the failure detail and relevant solutions.%介绍凸轮轴位置传感器从开发阶段到售后出现的几起故障,描述具体的故障现象及解决措施。

  13. 浅析摩托车CG发动机双凸轮的应用%Application of Double Camshaft on CG Series Engines for Motorcycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    基于原凸轮轴下置式配气机构,把原单凸轮分开为进、排气双凸轮。采用现有的CB机型气门升程曲线重新设计CG机型进、排气凸轮和气门配气相位,并对新设计凸轮进行了运动学和动力学计算分析,保证新设计的双凸轮配气机构具有良好的可靠性。%This paper introduces a new design of adopting separate double camshaft (intake camshaft and exhaust camshaft) based on former valve gear design. It redesigns the valve timing and the arrangement of intake and exhaust camshafts in accordance with the camshaft valve lift curve if CG series engines. The kinematic and dynamic calculation for the resigned camshaft is also conducted to ensure the reliable performance of the whole valve mechanism.

  14. Design Methodology of Camshaft Driven Charge Valves for Pneumatic Engine Starts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Michael M.


    Full Text Available Idling losses constitute a significant amount of the fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. Therefore, shutting down the engine during idling phases can improve its overall efficiency. For driver acceptance a fast restart of the engine must be guaranteed. A fast engine start can be performed using a powerful electric starter and an appropriate battery which are found in hybrid electric vehicles, for example. However, these devices involve additional cost and weight. An alternative method is to use a tank with pressurized air that can be injected directly into the cylinders to start the engine pneumatically. In this paper, pneumatic engine starts using camshaft driven charge valves are discussed. A general methodology for an air-optimal charge valve design is presented which can deal with various requirements. The proposed design methodology is based on a process model representing pneumatic engine operation. A design example for a two-cylinder engine is shown, and the resulting optimized pneumatic start is experimentally verified on a test bench engine. The engine’s idling speed of 1200 rpm can be reached within 350 ms for an initial pressure in the air tank of 10 bar. A detailed system analysis highlights the characteristics of the optimal design found.

  15. Study on the mass production of FCD700 camshafts%FCD700凸轮轴批量生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭阳; 王海泉; 王杰; 李树春; 张希兴; 陈增玉


      In order to meet a large market demand for FCD700 camshafts, a study is made on the mass production of FCD700 camshafts. Based on former experiences in camshaft production, a design of the camshaft mould is improved and the melting process, moulding process, and casting process are optimized to control the casting defects. Producing three pieces in a mould has been achieved for FCD700 camshafts on the 2013LP DISA production line. The actual production in workshop showed a stable casting rejection rate and machining rejection rate, stable casting size, and stable process. Viewing from present situation of production, such defects as shrinkage cavity, shrinkage porosity, pores, slag eyes, sand drop, etc. are avoided, so that the rejection rate is reduced and the productivity of FCD700 camshafts is improved.%  为了满足市场对 FCD 凸轮轴大量需求,总结原有凸轮轴生产经验,对凸轮轴模具进行了设计与改进,调整与优化了熔炼工艺、铸型工艺、铸造工艺,控制铸造缺陷,在2013LP DISA 线上实现 FCD700凸轮轴一模三件生产。车间生产过程中得到了稳定的铸造不良率、机加不良率和铸件尺寸。从目前生产的状况看,在工艺上解决了缩孔、缩松、气孔、渣孔、掉砂等缺陷的出现,降低了废品率,提高了 FCD700凸轮轴的生产率。

  16. Research on Fatigue Fracture of Diesel Engine Camshaft%柴油发动机凸轮轴疲劳断裂研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马天源; 李发宗; 邓艳宁; 胡如夫


    凸轮轴是发动机关键部件,控制着进排气系统的配气相位,凸轮运转时承受着交变载荷,长时间工作易产生疲劳裂纹,裂纹扩展会导致凸轮轴的断裂,造成配气部件的损坏.针对某柴油发动机凸轮轴断裂情况,根据疲劳断裂生长理论,运用实验分析和有限元分析方法,对凸轮轴疲劳断裂成因进行分析,计算出了凸轮轴极限应力和疲劳安全系数,分析了凸轮轴的疲劳安全可靠性同时发现柴油发动机凸轮轴在制造和设计中存在的问题,提出避免柴油发动机凸轮轴发生疲劳断裂的措施,为设计高质量的凸轮轴提供依据.%The camshaft is a key component of engine,which controls distribution phase of intake and exhaust system,while camshaft running,it bearing alternating load,and it is easy to produce fatigue crack with long time working,and crack propagation can lead to fracture of the camshaft,causing the damage of distribution gas aims at fracture of a diesel engine camshaft,according to fatigue fracture growth theory, using experimental analysii and finite element analysis method, calculated the limit stress and fatigue safety coefficient of camshaft, and analyzed the fatigue safety reliability of the CAM shaft.The cause of the fatigue fracture of the camshaft was analyzed,and the measures which can improve the fatigue property of the diesel engine camshaft was put forward and the evidence for the design of high quality camshaft was provided.

  17. FE-simulation of the Presta joining process for assembled camshafts - local widening of shafts through rolling (United States)

    Scherzer, R.; Silbermann, C. B.; Ihlemann, J.


    Considerable weight benefits and the option to combine various steel alloys of the single parts are the major advantages of assembled over conventional camshafts. The Presta joining process is the leading manufacturing method of assembled camshafts in the global market. The process is divided into two substeps. At first, the outer diameter of the shaft is widened with a profile oriented orthogonal to the shaft axis at the intended cam seat. At this position the shaft is subsequently joined with a cam with an internal profile oriented parallel to the shaft axis. As a result, these perpendicular profiles form a tight fit due to plastic deformations. Consequently the simulation of the manufacturing process has to start with the simulation of the rolling of the shaft. The resulting profile requested in this step is axisymmetric, but the arrangement of tools is not. Thus a three-dimensional model is required, which is presented in this work. Furthermore, the infeed of the rolling tool is unknown and controlled by the stiffness of the holders of the rolling tool. This work shows the modeling of this behavior. To predict realistic results for the underlying process, the use of precise material models is essential in order to take several hardening mechanisms into account. However, the use of complex material models implies additional effort, which is shown in this work.

  18. Research on laser melting-alloying combined strengthening of the camshaft of air-cooled diesel engine (United States)

    Liu, Wenjin; Zhong, Minlin; Zhao, Haiyun; Zhang, Hongjun; Zhang, Weimin; Huang, Guoqing


    This paper reported the research results on 3 kw cw CO2 laser melting-alloying combined strengthening of the camshaft of air-cooled diesel engine used in the desert oil field. The 45 steel camshaft was pretreated with the conventional quenching and high temperature tempering. A focused laser beam with power density 1.5 - 1.7 X 104 w/cm2 was used to alloy the cam lobe area, while the other area of the cam was treated by laser melting using a focused 12 X 1.5 mm rectangular beam (power density 1.1 X 104 w/cm2) produced by a newly developed binary optics. The microstructure of the laser alloyed region is fine Fe-Cr-Si-B multi-element hypereutectic structure with hardness HRC 63 - 64. The melted layer consists of fine needle-shaped martensite and residual austenite structure with hardness HRC 58 - 61. The strengthened layer is 1.0 - 1.3 mm in thickness with pore-free and crack-free and good surface quality. Under the same condition, the Ring-block (SiN ceramic) wear test proves that the wear of the laser alloyed 45 steel ring is only 29 percent of that of induction quenching 45 steel ring. And a 500 hours test engine experiment demonstrates that the average wear of the laser alloyed cam is only 20 percent of that of induction quenched one.

  19. Research on Repair Technology for Camshaft of Aviation Piston Engine%航空活塞发动机凸轮轴修理技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    According to the repair for camshaft of the aviation piston engine, the influences of grinding camshaft on the profile line, the contact stress, the lubrication characteristics and the wear resistance are analyzed in this paper, and the feasibility of repair is then demonstrated.The key technology of camshaft repair is analyzed, while method of reverse measurement for the profile line and theoretical model of the profile line reconstruction are then presented, thus the theoretical instruction for the re-pair of camshaft is finally provided.%针对航空活塞发动机凸轮轴修理,分析了轮廓磨削对型线、接触应力、润滑特性以及耐磨性的影响,论证了修理的可行性。分析了凸轮轴修理的关键技术,提出了轮廓型线反求的测量方法和型线重构的理论模型,为凸轮轴的修理提供了理论指导。

  20. Grinding Error and Its Compensation Analysis for Camshaft%凸轮轴磨削误差及补偿分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世平; 李青锋; 石军


    The reason of grinding error for camshaft was come up with. The changing rules of grinding error for camshaft were analyzed by means of mathematical model and software simulation. The method of error compensation is proposed.%提出了凸轮轴磨削误差产生的原因,以及凸轮轴磨削误差的变化规律,从数学模型和软件仿真2个方面分析了凸轮轴磨削中误差的变化规律,提出了误差补偿的方法.通过该方法,可获得理想的凸轮轮廓和较高的表面质量.

  1. Analysis of Surface Cracking of Fuel Injection Pump Camshaft for Diesel Engine%柴油机喷油泵凸轮轴裂纹浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    简要介绍了柴油机喷油泵凸轮轴的材料及生产工艺,通过对凸轮轴在生产过程中产生的裂纹的金相检测,分析了裂纹形成的机理,找出了产生裂纹的原因,并提出了预防措施。%This paper introduces the material and production process for the fuel injection pump camshaft for diesel engine in brief.Through metal graphic detection of cracking during camshaft production,mechanism of crack formation is analyzed,cracking causes are worked out and some preventive measures are offered.

  2. 凹面轮廓凸轮轴成形磨削工艺研究%Research on profile grinding process of concave camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓朝晖; 彭欢欢; 万林林; 粟福喻; 黄强


    By analyzing the difficulties about the concave contour of camshaft in CNC grinding ,a new grinding process that the concave camshaft is machined by two grinding wheels of different diameters was proposed .A calculation formula about the small wheel radius is given ,and calculating the minimum radius of curvature of the concave contour can help us decide whether it need to switch the grinding wheel .Analyzes in detail the profile grinding process with large size and small size grinding wheels .Be-sides,some experiments are also carried out on the CNC 8325B ultra high speed camshaft grinder .The experimental results show that the concave contour grinding of camshaft can be achieved by this new process and meet the machining accuracy require -ments.%分析带有凹面轮廓的凸轮轴(简称凹面凸轮轴)数控磨削加工难点,提出采用大砂轮与小砂轮复合数控成形磨削凹面凸轮轴新工艺。给出了小砂轮半径的计算公式,通过计算凹面轮廓的最小曲率半径,对比判断是否需要切换砂轮。详细分析了大砂轮与小砂轮复合数控成形磨削凹面凸轮轴新工艺过程,并在CNC8325B全数控凸轮轴超高速复合磨床上进行了高速磨削加工实验,实验结果表明,该工艺方法可以实现凹面凸轮轴轮廓的磨削成形加工,满足了加工精度要求。

  3. 中速柴油机凸轮轴优化设计%The Optimizing Design of Camshaft for the Medium Speed Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the process of the optimizing design of camshaft for a medium-speed 8-cylinder L-type of diesel engine, the advanced design methods of CAD&CAE are applied to simulate and analyze the operating state of the camshaft, and to calculate and verify the intensity of the connecting bolts and the operating reliability of the camshaft so as to provide an effective access for improving the independent-research& development, independent-manufacture level of our diesel engine.%在一台中速8缸直列柴油机的凸轮轴优化设计过程中,应用先进的CAD、CAE设计方法,对凸轮轴的工作受力状态进行了仿真分析,计算并校核了连接螺栓的强度和凸轮轴工作可靠性,为提高我国柴油机自主研发、自主制造的水平提供了一条有效的途径。

  4. 发动机凸轮轴磨削变形补偿技术研究%Compensation Technology of Grinding Deformation for Engine Camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇军; 范晋伟; 李云


    针对发动机凸轮轴数控磨削时产生连续变化的弹性变形问题,分析了凸轮轴受到磨削力变形对凸轮轮廓精度的影响,对轴向和径向变形进行了解耦,推导了不同位置、不同相位下凸轮受力变形量求解方程.分析了数控凸轮轴磨床的插补原理,建立了含有变形量误差的、工件旋转轴和砂轮进给轴联动的磨削运动学方程,提出了X轴变形量与理论插补值进行几何叠加的指令修正误差补偿方法.对某发动机进排气凸轮轴磨削变形进行了建模与仿真,对数控凸轮轴磨床进行了补偿与加工试验,仿真与加工试验结果均表明磨削变形补偿可以将凸轮轴的轮廓精度提高5 μm.%To solve the camshaft's deformation compressed by the continuous and variable force when grinding,the influence of grinding force on the cam's curve accuracy was analyzed.The axial deformation and radial deformation were decoupled.The deformation value solution equation in variable position and angle was deduced.The interpolation principle of the CNC (computer numerical control) camshaft grinder was analyzed.The X-C linkage kinematics equation which included deformation errors,workpiece rotation axis,and grinding wheel axis was built.The soft error compensation manner by adding the errors to the interpolation value was proposed.The deformation error of one intake-exhaust camshaft was modeled and simulated.The CNC camshaft grinder was compensated and the manufacturing test was executed.The simulation and manufacturing result showed that camshaft's contours accuracy was improved 5 μm by the deformation compensation.

  5. 凸轮轴磨削加工过程的动态优化和仿真%Dynamic Optimization and Simulation of Camshaft Grinding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓朝晖; 王娟; 曹德芳; 万林林; 张晓红


    An independent dynamic optimization and simulation module for camshaft grinding was developed to improve the camshaft grinding efficiency and accuracy.First, an optimization algorithm based on the constant linear velocity mathematical model of the camshaft was proposed according to the least square method to finish the curve optimization and simulation, and the fluctuations of the speed and acceleration curves were reduced.Then, on the basis of the optimized motion curves, the real time 3-dimension dynamic simulation of the camshaft grinding process was finished to perform the machining status according to the motion path of the process system components.The user could directly observe whether there were collisions and interferences during the grinding process.So this optimization and simulation module will provide guidance for the production of different kinds of camshafts.%为了提高凸轮轴的加工效率及加工精度,开发凸轮轴磨削加工过程动态优化仿真模块.根据凸轮轴恒线速加工的数学模型,提出一种基于最小二乘法的速度优化算法,对加工过程运动曲线进行优化仿真,得到了波动较小的速度曲线并减小了联动轴加速度的跳动.在此基础上根据工艺系统各组件的运动轨迹完成凸轮轴加工过程的实时三维动态仿真,全面、逼真地反映现实的加工状态和加工环境,使操作者可以直观地观测加工过程中是否存在碰撞和干涉现象,对各种型号凸轮轴的生产具有指导意义.

  6. Design of Software for Camshaft Grinding on Siemens 840D CNC System%西门子840D数控系统的凸轮轴磨削软件开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于拯; 何永义; 沈南燕; 李静


    According to the demand of grinding camshaft, the software for camshaft grinding is programmed using VB and Microsoft Access database. With the support of OEM software developing packet, the language dynamic link library is built utilizing VC + +. And the software for camshaft grinding is embedded so as to the efficient combination of Siemens 840D CNC System and the software for camshaft grinding is finished. The special function of grinding camshaft is achieved.%根据凸轮轴磨削加工的需要,利用VB编程语言和Microsoft Access数据库技术编写了凸轮轴磨削软件,在OEM软件开发包的支持下,运用VC++编写了语言动态链接库,嵌入了凸轮轴磨削软件,完成了西门子840D数控系统与凸轮轴磨削软件的有机结合,实现了磨削凸轮轴的特殊功能.

  7. The Dual Overhead Camshaft Design and Modeling Study Based on Solid Works%基于Solid Works的双顶置凸轮轴的设计与建模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远阳; 王红


    本文以Solid Works为平台,利用其强大的参数化造型技术和Solid Works提供的二次开发模块,建立汽车的双顶置凸轮轴参数化设计与三维实体建模,以适应机车新产品的设计和开发,与CAD软件建库方案相比较,Solid Works具有基于特征,全尺寸的约束,尺寸驱动设计修改,全数据相关等特点,适合标准件的建模,提高了设计效率.%Based on the powerful meritorious service capacity, the manual detailed elaborates application situation in three dimensions design. This specification book takes the camshaft as the example, elaborate the full process of using Solid Works to design camshaft. It consists of the camshaft structural analysis, mastering how to create the different features of Solid Works, how to construct date room and two dimension engineering drawing export and so on many-sides work, Using Solid Works to design camshaft and constructing parts date room are the key of the introduction. It illustrates the fundamental train of thought of camshaft model making, detailed introduces how to construct the main step of constricting parts date room.

  8. System Design and Analysis of a Directly Air-Assisted Turbocharged SI Engine with Camshaft Driven Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella


    Full Text Available The availability of compressed air in combination with downsizing and turbocharging is a promising approach to improve the fuel economy and the driveability of internal combustion engines. The compressed air is used to boost and start the engine. It is generated during deceleration phases by running the engine as a piston compressor. In this paper, a camshaft-driven valve is considered for the control of the air exchange between the tank and the combustion chamber. Such a valve system is cost-effective and robust. Each pneumatic engine mode is realized by a separate cam. The air mass transfer in each mode is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the tank pressure dependence. The air demand in the boost mode is found to increase with the tank pressure. However, the dependence on the tank pressure is small in the most relevant operating region. The air demand of the pneumatic start shows a piecewise continuous dependence on the tank pressure. Finally, a tank sizing method is proposed which uses a quasi-static simulation. It is applied to a compact class vehicle, for which a tank volume of less than 10 L is sufficient. A further reduction of the tank volume is limited by the specifications imposed on the pneumatic start.

  9. System Design and Analysis of a Directly Air-Assisted Turbocharged SI Engine with Camshaft Driven Valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voser, Christoph; Onder, Christopher; Guzzella, Lino [Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)


    The availability of compressed air in combination with downsizing and turbocharging is a promising approach to improve the fuel economy and the driveability of internal combustion engines. The compressed air is used to boost and start the engine. It is generated during deceleration phases by running the engine as a piston compressor. In this paper, a camshaft-driven valve is considered for the control of the air exchange between the tank and the combustion chamber. Such a valve system is cost-effective and robust. Each pneumatic engine mode is realized by a separate cam. The air mass transfer in each mode is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the tank pressure dependence. The air demand in the boost mode is found to increase with the tank pressure. However, the dependence on the tank pressure is small in the most relevant operating region. The air demand of the pneumatic start shows a piecewise continuous dependence on the tank pressure. Finally, a tank sizing method is proposed which uses a quasi-static simulation. It is applied to a compact class vehicle, for which a tank volume of less than 10 L is sufficient. A further reduction of the tank volume is limited by the specifications imposed on the pneumatic start.

  10. 凸轮轴铁型覆砂铸造自动化生产线的设计%Design of Automatic Production Line of Iron-type Coated Sand for Camshaft Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱焕立; 刘许亮


    根据凸轮轴的工艺和生产特点,成功设计出凸轮轴铁型覆砂铸造自动化生产线,提高了凸轮轴的生产效率,同时实现高产能、低排放,并为铁型覆砂铸造技术的推广应用奠定了基础.%According to the production process characteristics and the structure characteristics of the camshaft,an automated production line of iron-type coated sand casting process for camshaft castings was successfully designed to improve the efficiency of production camshaft with high productivity and low emissions,which lay the foundation for the popularization and application of iron-type coated sand casting process.

  11. 四种灰铸铁凸轮轴硬度HB与HRB关系的统计分析%Statistical Analysis of Relationship Between Hardness HB and HRB of Four Kinds of Gray Cast Iron Camshafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 沈保罗; 岳昌林; 周蓉; 白维均; 张吴; 孙大鹏


    通过统计分析研究了四种灰铸铁凸轮轴硬度HB与HRB之间的关系,获得了四种灰铸铁凸轮轴HB与HRB之间回归方程.研究发现,灰铸铁凸轮轴的基体硬度HB与HRB在试验范围内正相关,并对此做了分析.%The relationship between the base hardness HB and HRB of four kinds of gray cast iron camshafts have been studied by using statistical analysis and the regression equations of the relationship between HB and HRB for four gray cast iron camshafts been obtained, Results have showed a positive correlation in the experimental range with the base hardness between HB and HRB in four kinds of gray cast iron camshafts. A preliminary analysis in the above relations has been made.

  12. Effect of Cr on Three-point Bending Fracture Load of Camshaft%铬对凸轮轴三点弯曲断裂载荷的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 岳昌林; 高致文; 刘大川; 王伟


    Camshaft in the service process will bear alternating bending and torsion. Three-point bending fracture test and Weibull statistical analysis of three-point bending fracture loads have been used to two Citroen camshafts contained 0.21%Cr or traces of Cr (0.02%Cr) to evaluate the reliability. The results showed that the three-point bending fracture loads of the two camshafts were in line with the three parameter Weibull model, their shape parameters m were 14.3 (the camshaft contained 0.21% chromium) and 11.4 (the camshaft contained 0.02%Cr) respectively, which shows the former has a higher reliability. The average fracture Ioad were 7.0kN (the camshaft contained 0.21% chromium) and 6.5kN (the camshaft contained 0.02% Cr) respectively, which shows Cr can improve the fracture resistance of the camshaft. Preliminary analysis of the reasons for the above-mentioned phenomena has been done.%凸轮轴在服役过程中承受弯曲和扭转的复杂交变载荷,凸轮轴异常断裂是严重的失效形式.本文采用Weilbull统计分析方法研究了两种(其中一种含0.02%Cr,另一种含0.21%Cr)神龙富康激冷灰铸铁凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷.结果表明,上述两种凸轮轴三点弯曲断裂载荷的Weibull模量分别为11.4和14.3;其三点弯曲断裂载荷平均值分别为6.5kN和7.0kN;表明含Cr凸轮轴比不含Cr凸轮轴的可靠性更高.作者初步分析了产生上述现象的原因.

  13. Fracture Analysis of Chilled Nodular Iron Camshafts%激冷铸铁凸轮轴铸造工艺及断裂分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程里; 黄伟九


    某批次激冷铸铁HT300CrMoCu汽车凸轮轴装配时,近1/4的凸轮轴在中间轴颈处发生断裂,采用宏观、微观对凸轮轴进行了理化检测,并对凸轮轴的铸造工艺进行分析.结果表明,凸轮轴致裂的原因首先是由于Cr含量超标,强烈阻碍铸铁的石墨化,形成合金碳化物;再就是冬天气温下降快,浇注温度低,冷铁未作及时调整,引起凸轮部分全白口,轴颈也出现了白口组织.通过控制合金成分、浇注温度、孕育处理、过热温度和保温时间、冷铁的尺寸等因素,来控制石墨的形成,改善和提高凸轮轴的性能.%A batch of chilled nodular iron camshafts were broken during assembling. The reasons of broken were analyzed on the cracking position, fracture observation by SEM and microstructure inspection. The results show that Cr exceed content and low pouring temperature created large amount of carbide, even whole cam became white iron. They also weaken the mechanical properties of camshafts production, causing a batch of camshafts broke. Some technical measures were taken, on the control of chemical and pouring temperature and inoculations well as on the change the size of chills and heat treatment parameters, to improve the graphite morphology and the mechanic performances.

  14. Research on Fatigue and Transient Dynamic Analysis of Camshaft%凸轮轴疲劳及瞬态动力学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘功文; 郝志勇; 张庆辉; 郑康; 王连生


    综合考虑轴承支承刚度、轴段摩擦状况、曲轴转速波动及缸内爆发压力的影响,建立某凸轮轴动力学模型。基于该模型进行凸轮轴三维瞬态动力学及疲劳安全分析,结果显示凸轮轴最大应力点出现在第1缸轴段的圆角位置,最小疲劳安全系数为3.094。将原瞬态动力学模型的计算结果与不考虑曲轴转速波动时的结果进行比较表明,转速波动的存在可以改变凸轮轴瞬态的动力学状态,在气门全开位置时最大应力点峰值普遍偏小且发动机基频第2阶次对该处应力幅值影响较大。%A camshaft dynamic model is built with consideration of bearing support stiffness, friction, crankshaft speed fluctuation and cylinder explosion pressure. 3D analysis of camshaft transient dynamics and fatigue safety is made based on this model, the results show that the camshaft's maximum stress appears at the rounded corner of the first cylinder and the minimum fatigue safety factor is 3.094. Meanwhile the calculation results with the original transient dynamic model are compared with the calculation without consideration f crankshaft speed fluctuation, which show that speed fluctuation can change transient dynamics state of the camshaft, and the maximum stress peak is generally small when throttle valves are fully open, and engine's 2nd order of basic frequency has substantial influence on the stress amplitude.

  15. Machining of Crankshaft and Camshaft Bores%缸体曲轴孔和凸轮轴孔的加工方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The process of machining the crankshaft and camshaft bores of an engine was analyzed according totheir structure features, technical requirements and production conditions. The key issue was how todesign and manufacture the boring tools and fixtures that can attain the required precisions of the bores. Optimal design and proper processing were made for making the boring fixture that can ensure the quality of the crankshaft and camshaft bores.%介绍了某型柴油机缸体曲轴孔、凸轮轴孔的结构特点和技术要求,分析了加工工艺,重点阐述了镗夹具的设计制造过程,通过优选设计方案和选用合理的工艺方法,来保证镗夹具的质量满足曲轴孔和凸轮轴孔高精度的加工要求。

  16. 基于BP神经网络的汽车发动机凸轮轴数控磨削加工工艺优化%Optimization of NC Camshaft Grinding Process Based on BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着汽车工业的迅速发展,作为汽车发动机的关键零件,凸轮轴的需求量越来越大,对其加工质量和加工效率的要求也越来越高。本文概述了凸轮轴磨削加工的现状,介绍了人工神经网络特别是BP神经网络的相关理论,最后采用BP神经网络算法对凸轮轴磨削加工部分工艺参数进行优化。%Camshaft is a key part of automobile engine. With the rapid development of automobile industry, the demand for camshaft is growing and the requirements for its processing quality and efficiency are increasingly high. In this paper, the current situation of camshaft grinding is summarized. The artificial neural network theory, especially BP neural network, is introduced. Finally, some processing parameters for camshaft grinding are optimized based on BP neural network algorithm.

  17. The Development of Camshaft Grinding Software Based on Siemens 840D sl%基于西门子840Dsl系统的凸轮轴磨削软件开发∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩; 韩秋实; 彭宝营


    Select Siemens 840D sl CNC system as development platform, with Camshaft grinding software as the object of the research,using SINUMERIK Operate programming package offered by Siemens provides Qt Designer interface design,VS 2008 C++ language environment to write the underlying code,achieve cam-shaft grinding software interface development,adoptting C++ interface technology embedded HMI camshaft grinding Siemens 840D sl CNC system,ultimately achieve the camshaft grinding software applications.%选取西门子840 D sl数控系统为开发平台,以凸轮轴磨削软件为研究对象,采用西门子公司提供的SINUMERIK Operate编程包提供的Qt Designer设计界面,Visual Studio 2008环境下的C++语言编写底层代码,实现凸轮轴磨削软件界面开发,采用C++接口技术将凸轮轴磨削HMI嵌入西门子840 D sl数控系统,最终实现了凸轮轴磨削软件的应用。

  18. Research and design of automation displacement device of tighten wrench camshaft%拧紧扳手凸轮轴自动变位装置研发与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 李龙晶; 韩秀茹; 许晓敏; 李增林


    文章介绍了拧紧扳手凸轮轴自动变位装置的工作原理和制造目标。简述了实现拧紧扳手凸轮轴自动变位装置制造目标的结构:凸轮轴自动变位模块、电气控制模块、误差调整模块等。给出了拧紧扳手凸轮轴自动变位装置发展趋势,对汽车发动机自动化装配生产线的研发具有重要的参考价值。%This paper introduces the working principle of automation displacement device of tighten wrench camshaft and the purpose of setting up automation displacement device of tighten wrench camshaft. It presents the key component, including automation displacement module of camshaft, electrical control module, adjust error module. At last, the development trends of automation displacement device of tighten wrench camshaft is prospected. It has important reference value to the development of automation assemble line of engine.

  19. About Quenching Cracking of Motorcycle Camshaft%摩托车凸轮轴淬火开裂问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武振鸿; 李莉


    This paper introduces the solutions for 3 main reasons of the quenching cracking of motorcycle camshaft through analyzing the classified statistics on the quality problems of these products. By these ways, the reject rate is reduced to 2% from 4.9%.%通过对摩托车发动机凸轮轴质量问题分类统计结果分析,找出了造成凸轮轴裂纹的3个主要原因,通过采取相应措施,使凸轮轴的废品率由原来的4.9%降至2%。

  20. 粉末冶金凸轮轴信号盘的研发%The Reseach of Powder Metallurgy Camshaft Signal-plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    根据产品的结构及使用工况情况,合理运用粉末冶金成形和烧结原理,实现了上二下三凸轮轴信号盘的自动成形、自动整形;正确选用材质以及工艺,使产品尺寸、性能满足了工况使用要求。%According to the structure and working product condition, it rationally use of powder metallurgy forming and sintering theory. It realize over two three camshaft signal wheel automatic shaping and automatic forming. Due to the correct selection of materials and process,the size of products, meet the conditions of used requirements.

  1. 直线电动机在全数控凸轮轴磨床上的应用%Application of Linear Motor in CNC Camshaft Grinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹鹏举; 黄贵刚; 黄辉; 张育平; 黄绍强


    介绍了直线电动机在全数控凸轮轴磨床上的应用,说明了直线电动机的工作原理、特点、应用的优越性以及在全数控凸轮轴磨床上的机械装配、系统连接、冷却保护和实际调试的注意事项.将理论设计与实际应用很好地结合起来.实践证明,采用直接驱动的设备,在表面质量、尺寸精度、加工节拍等方面都有一定的突破,基本达到高速、高效、高精的目的.%An Introduction of direct drive and the difference between indirect drive, linear motor in application and the superiority of the linear motor in CNC camshaft grinding machine application was given,a detailed description of the linear motor's working principle,characteristics,application superiority as well as in the CNC camshaft grinder machine assembly, connection,and cooling protection system the actual debugging matters needing attention. The theory and practice are good combination. Practice has proved that adopt direct drive device on the surface quality,dimension precision, processing time and a certain breakthrough,achieved high speed,efficient,and high-precision.

  2. An Analysis for Cause of Shrinkage near the Intake of the Ductile Iron Camshaft%球铁凸轮轴进水口产生缩孔的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 岳昌林; 黄明俊


    The results of analysis have showed that the excessive arsenic content in the 477F-type ductile iron camshaft was the root cause of the shrinkage produced near the intake of the camshaft. The defect would be avoided with control of arsenic content less than 0.01% in ductile iron production.%分析结果表明,477F球铁凸轮轴中砷含量超标是该凸轮轴进水口附近产生缩孔的根本原因,生产中将砷含量控制在0.01%以下可以避免球铁凸轮轴产生该缺陷.

  3. Research of the Relations Between Camshaft Gear Backlash and Diesel Engine's NVH%减小柴油机凸轮轴齿轮啮合侧隙对整机宽频噪声改善的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乐; 孙立永; 屈伟; 张建川; 尚运


    For improving the NVH (Noise Vibration and Harshness)of 4-cylinder turbocharger diesel engine, a research and test of adjusting the camshaft gear backlash proves that the backlash effects NVH . NVH improves obviously with decreasing the camshaft gear backlash.%为改善某四缸增压柴油发动机的NVH(Noise Vibration and Harshness)性能,通过改变发动机凸轮轴传动齿轮啮合侧隙并对振动及噪声进行测试,结果显示:减小凸轮轴传动齿轮啮合侧隙对发动机宽频噪声有明显改善。

  4. 高速精密磨削汽车凸轮轴的加工技术%On the Technique of High-Speed-and-Precision Grinding Processing Mobile Camshafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Camshaft is one of the key components of the Engine,and its contour accuracy has a direct impact on performance and life of the engine.Processing camshafts by the technique of high-speed-and-precision grinding can meet our satisfaction for high speed,efficiency and precision.Stable quality level can bring good economic returns.%凸轮轴是发动机的关键零部件之一,其轮廓精度直接影响到发动机的性能和寿命。采用高速精密磨削方法和工艺加工凸轮轴可以满足高速、高效、高精度的加工要求。稳定凸轮轴的加工质量,可望取得良好的经济效益。

  5. 曲轴位置传感器和凸轮轴位置传感器原理及检测%Principle and detection of crankshaft position sensor and camshaft position sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨光; 王茂美


    文章针对应用较广的磁电式传感器和霍尔式传感器展开论述,介绍两者的工作原理和区别,并以伊兰特车型的曲轴位置传感器和凸轮轴位置传感器展开研究,通过检测确认伊兰特车型的曲轴位置传感器和凸轮轴位置传感器的型式及工作原理。%This article launches the elaboration on the widely used magnetoelectric sensor and hall sensor, introduce the principle and difference. and study the crankshaft position sensor and camshaft position sensor of Elantra models. Conform the type and principle of Elantra crankshaft position sensor and camshaft position sensor by detecting.

  6. 数控凸轮轴磨床砂轮架进给闭式静压导轨的设计%Design of Closed Hydrostatic Guideway for Wheel Rack Feeding of Numerical Controlling Camshaft Grinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 戴瑜兴; 陈永富; 许世雄


    针对滚珠丝杆副+V-平导轨存在的油膜厚度不均匀,产生爬行、振纹等现象,提出一种直线电机驱动砂轮架闭式矩形静压导轨的设计方法.分析导轨的受力情况,设计并计算导轨油腔尺寸、供油压力、毛细管节流器长度.将该设计部件运用到某公司生产的YTMK8326-10数控凸轮轴磨床中,加工了2000套油泵凸轮轴.测试结果表明:采用该方法解决了爬行和振纹问题,性能指标与LANDIS数控凸轮轴磨床的相当.%Aiming at the following problems of flat rail of ball screw:uneven thickness,crawling,chattering etc,a design method of closed rectangle hydrostatic guideway for linear motor driving was proposed.The forces of the guideway were analyzed.Size of oil reservoir of guideway,oil supply pressure,and length of restrictor of capillary tube were all computed.The designed component was applied to CNC camshaft grinder YTMK8326-10 produced by a company,and 2000 camshafts of oil pump were machined by this CNC camshaft grinder.The test results show that the proposed method is used to solve problems of both scrawling and chattering,and its performance is equivalent to that of CNC camshaft grinder LANDIS.

  7. An Investigation on the Relationship between Breaking Loads and Deflections in Three Points Bending Test of Camshaft%凸轮轴三点弯曲断裂载荷与挠度的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 高致文; 张昊


    使用WE-500型液压式万能拉伸试验机测定了IAE6半激冷合金铸铁凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷,研究了其三点弯曲断裂载荷和挠度之间的关系.研究表明:(1)不同炉次的凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷存在一定的分散性;(2)凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷与挠度之间存在正相关关系,凸轮轴中含有适量碳化物对其强度和挠度都是有益的.%The breaking load in three points bending test of the 1AE6 semi-chilled alloyed cast iron camshaft was determined by using WE-500 model hydraulic universal tensile test machine and thereby the relationship between its breaking loads and ite defections was; investigated. The resuit showed: (a )There was some dispersivity existing in the three point bonding breaking loads of camshafts of different melting heats; (b)There was a positive correlation existing between the breaking loads and deflections, and a proper amount of carbide contained in the camshaft was beneficial to both its strength and deflection.

  8. 基于 LabVIEW 的凸轮加工磨削力测量系统设计%Design of Camshaft Grinding Force Measuring System Based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万真武; 韩秋实; 李启光; 彭宝营


    基于PM AC的数控系统凸轮轴磨床,使用扭矩传感器与数据采集卡,搭建磨削力测量平台,并基于LabVIEW 2010平台开发了磨削力测量软件系统。本系统采用测量凸轮轴扭矩的方法,通过扭矩传感器测量磨削力,不仅测量响应速度快,而且给凸轮轴磨削的变磨削力测量带来很大的便利。%Based on PMAC NC camshaft grinding system ,a grinding force measuring platform was set up ,which used a data acquisi‐tion card and atorque sensor .And a grinding force measurement software system based on LabVIEW2010 was developed .The sys‐tem used a camshaft torque measurement method ,the grinding force was measured by torque sensor .This method is of fast re‐sponse ,but also convenient in measuring the variable camshaft grinding force .

  9. 激冷铸铁凸轮轴 D 型石墨的成因与控制%The control of affecting factors of forming D-type graphite on the chilled iron camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树春; 王海泉; 王杰; 王旭阳


      This article describes the course of development of the D-type graphite and analyzes the condition of forming D-type graphite on the chilled iron camshaft. A test was conducted to identify and determine the factors of forming type D graphite in the process of chilling production of cast iron camshaft of the Beijing Hyundai sedan α series of chilled iron camshaft journal. The D-type graphite should be controlled within a certain range, otherwise it will reduce the strength and machining properties of the camshaft. By controlling alloying elements, molten iron overheat duration, superheating temperature, pouring time, pouring speed, molten iron inoculating treatment, inoculant choice, chilled-iron dimensions and so on, the amount of D-type graphite can be reduced, and controlled within 10% in the camshaft journal.%  介绍了 D 型石墨的发展历程,分析了激冷铸铁凸轮轴 D 型石墨形成条件,并通过试验的方法来寻找和确定影响北京现代轿车α系列激冷铸铁凸轮轴轴颈出现 D 型石墨的因素。在生产激冷铸铁凸轮轴过程中,要将 D 型石墨控制在一定范围内,否则会降低凸轮轴的强度和机械加工性能。通过控制合金元素、铁液的过热保温时间、过热温度、浇注时间、浇注速度、铁液的孕育处理、孕育剂的选择、冷铁的尺寸等因素,来控制凸轮轴的轴颈处的 D 型石墨在10%以内。

  10. Fault feature extraction of automotive engine camshaft bearing loosening%车用发动机凸轮轴轴承松脱的故障特征提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻菲菲; 杜灿谊


    Automotive engine camshaft bearing loosening fault will cause impact force because of uneven stress on camshaft , so abnormal vibration and noise appear on the body surface near the camshaft .By the test for engine camshaft bearing loosening fault,vibration acceleration signal of cylinder head is collected to analyze in time domain ,cyclical shock can be seen .Then wave-let packet decomposition method is used to decompose the signal and demodulation analysis is applied to higher frequency band signal,fault excitation frequency in the demodulation spectrum is very obvious .The analysis result shows that camshaft bearing loosening fault would cause mid-high frequency modulation phenomenon ,it could extract the corresponding fault feature by com-positely using time domain analysis ,frequency spectrum analysis and wavelet packer decomposition and demodulation analysis .%车用发动机凸轮轴轴承松脱故障使得凸轮轴受力不均而引起冲击力,导致凸轮轴附近机体表面出现异常振动和显著噪声。通过对某发动机凸轮轴轴承松脱故障的试验测试,提取缸盖振动加速度信号进行时域分析,发现有明显的周期性冲击;利用小波包分解至较高频段并做解调分析,解调谱的故障激励频率非常显著。分析结果表明,凸轮轴轴承松脱故障有中高频调制现象,可综合利用时域分析、频谱分析和小波包分解与解调分析进行相应的故障特征提取。

  11. Measures to Eliminate Coarse Graphite in lngate Area of Gray Iron Camshaft%消除灰铁凸轮轴内浇口附近粗大石墨的措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 岳昌林; 徐家富


    化学成分分析发现:凸轮轴w(Ti)量较低时,内浇口附近不但石墨较粗大,而且局部区域还有缩松,硬度为177~198 HB;而w(Ti)量较高时,内浇口附近的石墨不但较细小而且局部还出现D、E型石墨,硬度提高到205~210 HB.讨论了国内文献介绍的几种细化石墨的方法,包括提高铸件凝固冷却速度、降低灰铸铁的CE、合金化、熔体处理等.结合工厂实际生产条件,采用在炉料中增Ti(加四川V-Ti生铁或加Ti铁)的方法,使凸轮轴的石墨得到细化并使其硬度提高.%It was revealed by analyzing chemical compositions that when the titanium content of the camshaft was relatively low, the graphite in the ingate area was relatively coarse, and there was also shrinkage porosities found in local zones, the hardness of camshafts was of 177-198 HB; however, when the titanium content of the camshaft was relatively higher, the graphite in the ingate area was relatively fine, and there was also D type graphite and E type graphite found in local zones, the hardness of camshafts was increased to 205-210 HB. Some graphite refining methods reported in both the Chinese and overseas references was discussed including increasing cooling rate during casting solidification, lowering CE of gray irons, alloying, melt treatment, etc. Based on the practical productive conditions of the foundry and by adopting the method of adding Sichuan-produced V-Ti containing pig iron or adding ferrotitanium to increase titanium content of the melting charge, it was realized that the graphite of the camshafts was refined, and the hardness was also raised.

  12. Study for CamShaft Manufacturing Process of 16V265 Diesel Engine%16 V265 H型柴油机凸轮轴制造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    凸轮轴是16 V265型柴油机的重要部件,直接影响到燃烧室气门的开合时间及顺序和控制喷油泵的动作,高质量的完成凸轮轴加工和组装任务是保证柴油机正常运行的前提。论文主要讨论比较经济、实用的凸轮轴加工工艺流程,使之在保证产品质量的前提下,达到既节省加工时间又降低劳动强度;同时充分挖掘生产实践中的经验,确保关键工序加工的精度,设计了新模式组装工艺方案:保证了整根凸轮轴具有良好的机械性能和动力性能,为其它凸轮轴加工提供了良好的借鉴。%Camshaft is an important component 16V265 diesel engine, a direct impact on the time and se-quence of opening and closing operation of the combustion chamber and the valve controlling fuel injection pump, high-quality finish camshaft machining and assembly tasks is to ensure the normal operation of the diesel engine premise. Thesis focuses more economical and practical camshaft machining process, so that in the premise of ensuring product quality, to achieve both save processing time and reduce labor intensity;and fully tap the production practice experience, the key to ensuring the accuracy of machining processes, design a new model of the assembly process plan:to ensure that the entire root camshaft has good mechanical prop-erties and dynamic performance, provides a good reference for other camshaft machining.

  13. 凸轮轴磨削加工速度优化调节与自动数控编程研究%Research on Camshaft Grinding Speed Optimization and Automatic NC Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹德芳; 邓朝晖; 刘伟; 张晓红; 王娟


    In order to improve the machining precision,surface quality and processing efficiency of a camshaft,a theoretical model of constant linear velocity grinding process of the camshaft was established according to the X - C axis linkage motion principle of grinding machine. Based on this theoretical model,a numerical calculation model of grinding speed optimization and regulation was also built by means of cubic spline fitting interpolation method. Combined with the specific camshaft part and the real parameter of the grinding process plan,the processing motion data of the all grinding machine kinematic axises were calculated. And then the motion data were changed automatically into NC processing program of specified numerical control system under the conditions of no process faults. Thereby the automatic NC programming of camshaft grinding was realized. At last, one experiment was done on a NC high speed camshaft grinding machine, CNC8312A. In this experiment, the admission cams and the exhaust cams of Qianjiang 32F camshaft were ground separately, and the expected machining effects were also achieved. With the experimental evidence,it is shown that the methods of the grinding speed optimization and regulation and automatic NC programming are feasible whether theoretically or practically. And the methods meet the needs of the practical camshaft production well.%为进一步提高凸轮轴的加工精度、表面质量和加工效率,根据X—C轴联动磨床的运动原理,建立了凸轮轴恒线速加工理论数学模型,依据该数学模型采用三次样条拟合插值法,建立了凸轮转速优化调节的数值计算模型.结合具体凸轮轴零件及其磨削加工工艺方案的具体参数,计算出机床各运动轴加工过程的运动数据,在确保无工艺故障的前提下,最终把各轴的运动数据自动转换为对应数控控制系统的数控加工程序,从而实现了凸轮轴磨削的自动数控编程.最后在CNC8312A数控高

  14. ''VaneCAM'' - the third generation of camshaft adjustment systems; ''VaneCAM'' - Nockenwellenversteller der dritten Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, A. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany). Entwicklung Motorentechnik; Stephan, W. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany); Hannibal, W. [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany). Labor fuer Konstruktion und CAE-Anwendungen


    Continuously variable camphasers are now well established for modern spark-ignition engines in high-volume production. With the latest generation of camshaft adjustment systems using the vane-type actuator principle, it is possible to move rapidly and reliably through a large adjustment angle. The layout of these adjusting systems is very simple. The production costs are low in comparison to the first generation of camphasers using spur/helical gears to vary the valve timing. The new-generation systems are mechatronic, with the function depending on the coordination and tuning of hydraulic actuation and engine electronics. The term 'VaneCAM' is used for the continuously variable systems of this new generation supplied by Hydraulik-Ring in Nuertingen, Germany. (orig.) [German] Stufenlos wirkende Nockenwellenversteller haben sich an modernen Ottomotoren in den letzten Jahren in der Grossserie etabliert. Mit der neuesten Generation von Nockenwellenverstellern, die nach dem Schwenkmotor-Prinzip aufgebaut sind, lassen sich grosse Verdrehwinkel sehr schnell und betriebssicher verstellen. Der Aufbau dieser Versteller ist einfach, und die Herstellkosten sind gering im Vergleich zur ersten Generation von Verstellern. Bei den Systemen der neuen Generation handelt es sich um mechatronische Systeme, deren Funktion von dem Zusammenspiel und der Abstimmung von hydraulischer Ansteuerung und Motorelektronik abhaengt. Mit dem Begriff 'VaneCAM' werden die stufenlos wirkenden Systeme dieser neuen Generation von Hydraulik-Ring aus Nuertingen bezeichnet. (orig.)

  15. 凸轮轴数控磨削工件主轴转速优化建模与实验研究%Modeling and Experimental Research of Workpiece Spindle Speed Optimization in CNC Camshaft Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨寿智; 邓朝晖; 吴桂云; 刘伟; 万林林; 彭克立


    According to the constant speed camshaft grinding mathematical model in XC axis,the equations of horizontal feed displacement and velocity of wheelhead,cam workpiece spindle theory speed were established.Based on the machine capacity constraints of CNC camshaft grinder,the alG lowed values of workpiece spindle speed were calculated with integration reverse method,where the values of horizontal feed velocity,acceleration or jerk of wheelhead exceeded the limit in the correG sponding corner section.Then the calculated values of workpiece spindle speed were replaced with the theoretical speed value of constant speed camshaft grinding on the corresponding corner section.With the workpiece spindle speed curves before and after optimization,the camshaft grinding experiments were carried out.The experimental results indicate that:using the optimized workpiece spindle speed, the maximum cam lifting errors and maximum adjacent errors of the camshaft decrease compared to that processed by the theoretical constant speed;and the surface roughness also decreases.It shows that optimization method can improve the processing quality of the precision and efficient camshaft grinding.%根据凸轮轴 XC 轴联动恒线速度磨削加工数学模型,建立了砂轮架进给位移与速度、凸轮工件主轴转速的理论方程。根据数控凸轮轴磨床加工能力的约束条件,对砂轮架进给中速度、加速度或加加速度值超出限定值的凸轮转角区间,通过积分反求方法求解出相应转角区间工件主轴所允许的转速值,并以该段转速值替换对应的转角区间上凸轮轴恒线速度磨削时理论转速值。对优化计算前后的工件主轴转速曲线进行了凸轮轴磨削加工实验。实验结果表明:采用优化后的凸轮工件主轴转速进行加工,相比于恒线速度理论转速加工,其升程最大误差与最大相邻误差减小,工件表面粗糙度降低,提高了凸轮轴高效精密磨削加工质量。

  16. Measurement and Suppression Method Analysis of Camshaft Grinding Lift Error%凸轮轴磨削加工升程误差测量及抑制方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余良伟; 陈绪兵; 余志; 张锋


    Camshaft lift error is an important indicator to evaluate the contour geometric accuracy and surface grinding marks.Under the condition of daily CNC grinding process,the six cylinder four-stroke YC6108 camshaft lift error doesn’t meet requirement.Therefore,from artifacts,fixture,process parameters,coolant,grinding wheel radius,diamond dresser,cen-ter rest,centre,tailstock,inspection and other aspects of suppression method of cam lift error are analyzed.Verified by actu-al measurement,this paper puts forward the suppression method cam shape line to ensure that the cam profile meet the tol-erance requirements.The results of research have a certain referential significance for process analysis and related parts of the camshaft quality control.%凸轮轴的升程误差是评价其轮廓几何精度及表面磨削振纹的重要指标。在数控磨削加工工艺条件下发现,六缸四冲程货车YC6108凸轮轴的升程误差不符合要求。因此,从工件、夹具、工艺参数、冷却液、砂轮半径、金刚笔、中心架、顶尖、尾架和检验等方面分析了凸轮升程误差的抑制方法。经实测验证,提出的抑制方法能够确保凸轮型线满足公差要求。研究成果对于凸轮轴相关零件的工艺分析和质量控制具有一定的借鉴意义。

  17. Failure analysis on surface wear of 20CrMnTi steel camshaft%20 CrMnTi钢凸轮轴表面磨损失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦丽; 葛保红; 张燕明; 徐向阳; 孙思东


    Wear cause of the 20CrMnTi steel monoblock pump camshaft was analyzed by means of macroscopic examination, lubricating oil property test, chemical compositions analysis, mechanical property test, metallographic examination and microhardness test.The results show that the main reason for the surface wear of the camshaft is attributed to the hard and brittle blocky and network carbide in the surface layer which reduces the contact fatigue strength of the camshaft journals and increases the probability of the spalling along grain boundary. Secondly, the secondary quenched martensite after grinding leads to the crack and brittle spalling on the basis of the structure defects.The spalled particles are play intensive abrasion role and lead to the early wear failure of the monoblock pump camshaft.%采用宏观检验、润滑油油品性能测试、化学成分分析、力学性能测试、金相检验和显微硬度测试等手段对20CrMnTi钢单体泵凸轮轴表面磨损失效的原因进行了分析。结果表明,造成该凸轮轴表面磨损的主要原因是,凸轮轴表层组织中硬而脆的块状及网状碳化物降低了轴颈表面的接触疲劳强度,加大了其沿晶剥落的可能性。其次,磨削二次淬火马氏体的出现,在迭加了上述组织缺陷的基础上,产生了裂纹和脆性剥落。剥落的颗粒成为磨粒参与磨削,导致凸轮轴早期磨损失效。

  18. Reason Analyzing and Improving Methods for Burning Out of Camshaft Bearing Sleeves for 320 Diesel Engines%320柴油机凸轮轴轴承套烧坏原因分析及改进措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 李志军


    This paper analyzes the reasons for that camshaft bearing sleeves of 320 series diesel engines are burnt out for many times during test-bed test, and proposes the improving methods for it.%本文针对一段时间内320系列柴油机台架试验时连续多次出现凸轮轴轴承套烧坏事故,通过分析找到引起事故原因,并提出改进措施。

  19. Modal Analysis of High Speed Motorized Spindle for Camshaft Grinder Based on the Finite Element Method%基于有限元方法的高速凸轮轴磨床电主轴的模态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张尚; 柳懿麟; 彭碧; 郑孟昆


    利用有限元法分析高速凸轮轴磨床主轴的动态特性,并对前后轴承的刚度和止推轴承的位置进行分析,为类似的液压主轴设计提供依据.%By adoption of the finite element analysis to analyze the dynamic characteristics of the spindle in high-speed camshaft grinding machine and analysis of the location of the thrust bearing and the stiffness of front and rear bearings. It is able to provide theoretical references in design of hydraulic spindles.

  20. 凸轮轴高速数控磨削在位测量技术%On-machine Measurement Technology of Camshaft High Speed NC Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万林林; 邓朝晖; 黄强; 刘志坚


    基于 USB 总线技术与自复位光栅位移传感器开发了凸轮轴轮廓在位测量装置,对磨削后的凸轮轴进行了在位升程测量。介绍了测量原理及升程测量过程,采用“敏感点”法并结合三次均匀 B 样条拟合与最小二乘法对测量数据进行了处理,求解了凸轮升程的起始转角,获得了凸轮的实测升程。利用在位测量装置与 BG1310-10型凸轮轮廓检测仪针对同一凸轮轴样件进行了对比检测实验。结果表明,该在位测量装置能够满足凸轮轴加工轮廓误差检测的精度要求。%An on-machine measurement device was proposed based on the USB bus technology and re-centering grating displacement sensor.Cam lift was measured directly on the grinding machine. The on-machine measuring principles and lift measuring process were studied.To solve the cam lift initial turning angle and get cam measured lift,the sensitive point method were used to process the measured lift data combining with cubic uniform B-spline interpolation fitting and least square meth-od.A grinded camshaft was measured by the on-machine measurement device and BG1310-10 cam contour detector,and the measuring results were compared to confirm the validity of the proposed de-v i c e .


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾振元; 郭东明; 傅南红; 王振国; 郭丽莎


    根据摇摆式凸轮轴磨削运动几何原理,提出了一种多约束凸轮轴凸轮型线数控磨削插补技术,建立了以凸轮矢角θ为参变量的插补算法模型。给出了插补过程与实时伺服相分离的前后台式控制策略思想,并验证了插补算法的精度和效率,为研制摇摆式凸轮轴数控磨床提供了理论参考。%According to the geometric principle of the swinging typecamshaft grinding setup,an interpolating technology of multi-constrained camshaft profile CNC grinding is proposed. The interpolation algorithm model involving the cam vector angle θ is developed. Based on foreground and background control theory,the controlling strategy with the separation of the interpolation process and real time servo are proposed. Furthermore,the precision and efficiency of the interpolation algorithm are experimentally verified. The theoretical references and criteria for developing swinging type camshaft CNC grinding machine have been established.

  2. Research on signals of crankshaft and camshaft position sensors based on LabCar%基于LabCar曲轴与凸轮轴传感器信号的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学平; 申立中


    通过LabCar软硬件结合实现了曲轴与凸轮轴位置传感器信号模拟,对比分析研究了模拟信号与理论转速信号的差异。结果表明,基于LabCar模拟出的曲轴凸轮轴位置信号与理论信号一致,模拟信号能被ECU精确识别,从而提高了高压共轨ECU硬件在环测试效率,具有很好的应用价值。%The simulation of crankshaft and camshaft position sensor signals is realized by combining LabCar hardware with software. The difference between analog signal and theory speed signal is compared and analyzed. The results show that the crankshaft and camshaft position sensor signals simulated by LabCar are consistent with theory signal. The analog signals can be exactly identified by ECU. The test efficiency of high-pressure common rail ECU hardware in loop was improved. It is of practi-cal value.

  3. Effect of Two Pig Irons on the Metallurgical Structure and Hardness of the Hardened Camshaft%两种生铁对可淬硬凸轮轴金相组织和硬度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 岳昌林; 白维均; 徐家富


    研究了四川钒钛生铁和河北球墨生铁对491Q可淬硬凸轮轴金相组织和硬度的影响.研究表明:四川钒钛生铁的金相组织由细小点状石墨+A型石墨+碳化物+珠光体组成;河北球墨生铁的金相组织由A型石墨+C型石墨+珠光体组成.由Ⅰ组配料(230kg四川钒钛生铁+100kg废钢+220kg回炉料+其它合金)铸造的凸轮轴的金相组织为4-6级A石墨+少量E型石墨+95%珠光体+5%渗碳体,基体硬度为252~255HB;由Ⅱ组配料(150kg河北球墨生铁+80kg四川钒钛生铁+100kg废钢+220kg回炉料+其它合金)铸造的凸轮轴的金相组织为4-6级A型+少量E型石墨+100%珠光体,基体硬度为210~229HB.作者初步分析了产生上述现象的原因.%Sichuan V-Ti pig iron and Hebei ductile iron have been used to manufacture 491Q type hardened camshaft and the effect of both iron on the microstructure and hardness of the camshaft been researched.Studies have shown that the microstructure of Sichuan vanadium-titanium pig iron consists of as tiny dot graphite+A type graphite+carbide+ pearlite while the microstructure of Hebei ductile iron consists of A-type graphite+C-type graphite+pearlite.The microstructure in the camshaft manufactured from the group- Ⅰ ingredient (230 kg Sichuan V-Ti pig iron + 100 kg scrap steel +220kg back charge+other alloys ) consists of the 4-6 grade A-type graphite +small amount E-type graphite +95% pearlite +about 5% cementite, and his matrix hardness is 252-255HB.The microstructure in the camshaft manufactured from the group- Ⅱ ingredient ( 150 kg Sichuan V-Ti pig iron+80 kg Hebei ductile iron+100 kg scrap steel+220 kg back charge+other alloys) consists of the 4-6 grade A-type graphite +small amount E-type graphite +100% pearlite,and its matrix hardness 210-229HB.The above-mentioned phenomenon has been given preliminary analysis.

  4. Measures to Prevent Surface Depression of the Semi-Chilled Gray Iron Camshaft%半激冷灰铸铁凸轮轴表面缩陷的防止措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 岳昌林; 刘大川; 王伟


    采用覆膜树脂砂壳型、铁液从一端进入型腔的侧浇工艺,生产一种半激冷4100型Cr-Ni-Mo灰铸铁凸轮轴.讨论了铁液白口宽度、w(C)量、浇注温度对收缩缺陷的影响,将铁液w(C)量控制在3.65%~3.7%,CE控制在4.25%~4.38%,适当降低铁液浇注前的白口宽度,以及控制浇注温度在1 400~1 420℃,可以避免4100凸轮轴产生收缩缺陷.%A sort of semi-chilled Cr-Ni-Mo-alloyed gray cast iron camshaft was produced hy adopting resin-coated sand vertically parted shell mold and the casting method that the iron melt enters the mold cavity from one end of the casting . The influence of the chilling width of the iron melt,w (C),pouring temperature on the shrinkage defects formation was discussed.It is possihle to prevent the shrinkage defects of the camshaft by keeping the w(C) in the range of 3.65%~3.7%.keeping CE in the range of 4.25% ~4.38%,reducing appropriately the chilling width of the iron melt before pouring and,as well as,keeping the pouring temperature in the range of 1 400~1 420 ℃.

  5. 碳含量对TU5JP4灰铸铁冷激凸轮轴铸造弯曲变形和气孔的影响%Effect of Carbon Content on Bending Deformation and Porosity of TU5JP4 Chilled Grey Cast Iron Camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 张昊


    本文采用生产现场的大量数据,统计分析了碳含量对TU5JP4灰铸铁冷激凸轮轴弯曲变形和气孔的影响.统计数据表明,碳含量从3.4%~3.6%提高到3.6%~3.7%之间,可以较明显地降低凸轮轴的过度弯曲变形(跳动超过1mm)和气孔缺陷.用户机械加工的统计数据表明,碳含量提高后,因皮下气孔导致的废品率下降约30%.%The production data on spot have been used for statistical analysis of effect of the carbon content on bending deformation and blowhole defect of TU5JP4 chilled cast iron camshaft. It showed that increasing carbon content of the camshaft from 3.4%~3.6% to 3.6%~3.7%, has significantly reduced the bending deformation of the camshaft (radial runout more than lmm) and porosity defect. The statistics of the user showed that as the carbon content increased, the waste rate caused due to the blowhole defect decreased by about 30%.

  6. Study on Abrasiveness of Argon Arc Remelted Quenching Area of Alloy Cast Iron Camshaft%合金铸铁凸轮轴氩弧重熔淬火硬化层的磨损试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泉华; 张祝君


    研究了合金铸铁凸轮轴氩弧重熔淬火后强化层的组织、耐磨性及磨损机理。试验结果表明,合金铸铁凸轮轴氩弧重熔硬化层具有较高的抗擦伤性能和疲劳磨损性能,优良的热稳定性和莱氏体枝晶显著细化是提高耐磨性的主要因素。%The microstructure,wear-resisting and abrasive mechanism of argon arc remelting area of alloyed casting iron camshaft is studied.The result showed that the properties of wear-resisting and fatigue-resisting of the argon arc remelted harding area is high. The heat stability and fine ledeburite is the main reason for the increase of the wear-resisting.

  7. 铸造模拟软件在凸轮轴铸造工艺优化中的应用%Application of MAGMA Software in Casting Method Optimizing of Camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桦; 陈之伟; 宋吉浩; 荣玉良; 王旭淞


    介绍了MAGMA软件在凸轮轴铸造工艺设计及优化中的应用,包含了几何前处理、网格划分、参数设置、模拟结果、分析和决策等.根据分析结果,可以判断设计的合理性,预防铸件可能出现的缺陷,缩短工艺设计验证和投入使用的周期,降低生产成本.%The application of MAGMA software in casting method design and optimizing of camshaft was introduced including previous geometric treating,mesh plotting,parameters setting,simulating result,analysis and decision making etc. Based on the analysis results,it is possible to judge the rationality of method design,prevent defects which may occur with the casting, shorten the time cycle of method design and its validation and reduce production cost.

  8. Study on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the cast QT750-5 synthetic ductile iron camshaft%铸态QT750-5合成球铁凸轮轴的组织及力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠士; 邹泽昌; 林燕清; 温丽娜


    采用先进的铁模覆砂铸造技术和废钢增碳技术,选择合适的化学成分和控制工艺来生产QT750-5合成球铁凸轮轴,其力学性能为:抗拉强度超过≥750 MPa,断后伸长率≥5%;基体组织是铁素体和珠光体的混合基体,基本无自由渗碳体和磷共晶存在,实现了内燃机凸轮轴材质从传统合金铸铁向高强高韧性球墨铸铁发展的飞跃。%The cast QT750-5 synthetic ductile iron camshaft was produced by using the advanced iron coated sand casting technology and scrap steel carburizing technology,with choosing the proper chemical composition and controlling production process. The tensile strength of the cast QT750-5 synthetic ductile iron camshaft was more than or equal to 750 MPa,and the elongation is greater than or equal to 5%. The matrix microstructure was the mixed matrix of ferrite and pearlite,and there was no free cementation and phosphorus eutectic. The development of the engine camshaft material from the traditional alloy cast iron to high strength and toughness ductile iron has been realized.

  9. The Application of Constant Angle Re-sampling Method in Camshaft Fault Diagnosis Based on EMD Theory%基于EMD理论的等角度重采样方法在凸轮轴故障诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翠丽; 秦荣; 杜灿谊


    将一种无转速测量信号,基于希尔伯特—黄变换等角度重采样的阶次分析方法应用于发动机凸轮轴故障诊断,从而有效消除转速波动的影响,使信号处理与分析结果更加准确.应用所提出的方法对某6缸柴油机缸体振动信号进行分析,对比凸轮轴轴瓦断裂修复前后振动信号特征的变化,有效地提取出了故障特征.%The order analysis method based on the Hilbert-Huang transformation constant angle re-sampling was applied to the fault diagnosis of camshaft, the disturbance of speed was effectively eliminated and the signal processing and analysis results were improved. By analyzing the vibration signal of a 6-cylinder diesel engine and comparing the variation of vibration signal before and after the camshaft bearing fracture repair, the fault characteristics were extracted effectively.

  10. A Research on Cylinder Pressure Sensor as an Alternative for the Camshaft and Crankshaft Position Sensors of Engine%关于缸压传感器替代发动机凸轮轴和曲轴位置传感器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金力; 杨福源; 欧阳明高; 黄颖; 方成; 杨学青


    For developing cylinder pressure-based engine combustion state control system, by using a set of piezo-resistance type of cylinder pressure sensors with glow-plug function and building a cylinder pressure prediction model, the techniques of cylinder identification and phase and speed estimations of engine are analyzed on a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine to investigate the feasibility of substituting the camshaft and crankshaft signals with cylinder pressure signal. The results show that cylinder pressure sensor can be used to identify cylinder instead of camshaft and crankshaft position sensors, and the models built for the phase and rotational speed estimations of engine have relatively high accuracy.%为开发基于缸压的发动机燃烧控制系统,在一台高压共轨柴油机上,利用一组兼有电热塞功能的压阻型缸压传感器,通过构建缸压预测模型,分析了发动机的气缸识别、相位估计和转速估计方法,探讨了用缸压信号替代凸轮轴和曲轴信号的可行性。结果表明,缸压传感器可以替代凸轮轴和曲轴位置传感器进行判缸,所建的发动机相位和转速估计模型具有较高的精度。

  11. 汽油机连续可变进气凸轮轴相位策略的数值模拟%Numerical simulation on phasing strategy for a gasoline engine with continuously variable intake camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 尚会超; 袁志强; 马为; 付秋波; 陈明飞


    针对486Q汽油机连续可变进气凸轮轴配气相位系统的研制,采用发动机循环模拟数值方法研究连续可变进气凸轮轴配气相位系统的相位策略。数值模拟表明486Q汽油机在高负荷中低转速工况通过进气相位提前抑制进气在气门关闭时刻向进气道的倒流可有效提高循环进气量,使中低转速工况动力输出性能提高6%-8%,其结果与随后试验测试获得进气相位变化量一致。综合考虑燃油消耗率和有害排放物生成,数值模拟中等负荷工况进气相位参数的调节优化,通过进气相位提前,示例工况缸内残余废气系数可从9%增加到20%,NO排放量低减约80%,燃油消耗率降低2%左右;通过试验测试确定中等负荷各工况进气相位最佳范围。探讨怠速低负荷工况改善燃烧稳定性、低减HC排放和改善低温起动性能的相位策略,数值模拟低负荷工况通过进气相位延迟抑制排气向进气道倒流以低减缸内残余废气量的效果;通过试验测试获取486Q汽油机怠速低负荷工况最佳相位器变化量。%Intake gasoline engine. camshaft equipped with continuously adjustable cam phasing units is applied to a 486Q Phasing strategies are researched through engine cycle simulation to achieve superior engine performance. The simulation results show that at high load and low and moderate speed of the engine,phasing adjustment can lead to 6% to 8% increase in power performance because phasing advance contributes to suppressing intake backflow at IVC (intake valve closed). Cam phases obtained from numerical optimization have good agreement with engine test. At moderate load, cycle simulations show that phasing advance can increase residual gas coefficient from 9 % to 20%, and reduce NO emission by80%,BSFC(brake specific fuel consumption) by 2O//oo at a demonstration operation. With regard to fuel economy and emissions,adjustment and optimization

  12. Analysis of camshaft gear transmission for a ship engine


    Closs, Katrine Fosdal


    This thesis investigates the dynamic behavior of a spur gear pair. The gears studied are somewhat similar to the ones found in Bergen Engines medium-speed diesel engine with regards to design, but some assumptions have been made when it comes to stiffness and damping. Gear components are an important part in advanced machines and have been a subject of studies due to increasing demands for higher performance and reliability and noise control. At first a dynamic model of a sp...

  13. Saturnian magnetospheric dynamics: Elucidation of a camshaft model (United States)

    Southwood, D. J.; Kivelson, M. G.


    Periodic modulation of magnetospheric phenomena at Earth and Jupiter results principally from the tilt of the dipole axis relative to the rotation axis. Saturn's nearly aligned dipole moment is tilted by less than 0.5° from the spin axis, yet the power of radio-frequency emissions, the orientation of the magnetic field, and many properties of the magnetospheric plasma vary periodically at the approximate rate of Saturn's rotation. Here we examine properties of the periodic magnetic signal detected in the magnetospheric regions inside ~12-15 R S . We show that it is associated with a rotating nonaxisymmetric system of field-aligned currents flowing on magnetic shells bounding the region where the signals are seen. Magnetohydrodynamic ideas suggest that these currents would drive rotating plasma flow patterns in the northern and southern ionospheres, with the flows oppositely directed in the two hemispheres. On magnetic shells beyond the sheets of field-aligned current, the magnetic perturbations generate an effective rotating equatorial dipole moment that when added to the planetary dipole moment, produces a dipole moment tilted relative to the spin axis at an angle of order 12-15°. The overt source of the north-south asymmetric ionospheric circulation could link to different ionospheric conductances that result from nonuniform solar illumination. Other possible sources are discussed but, although we can elucidate much, the origin of the cam signal (as well as other phenomena such as the Saturn kilometric radio emission with close to the same period) remains enigmatic.

  14. The technolgy of simulation of grinding camshaft in the CNC camshaft grinder%数控凸轮轴磨床加工中的仿真技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志永; 韩秋实; 褚大雁



  15. The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin/CaMKK2 Axis: Nature's Metabolic CaMshaft. (United States)

    Marcelo, Kathrina L; Means, Anthony R; York, Brian


    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential ligand that binds its primary intracellular receptor calmodulin (CaM) to trigger a variety of downstream processes and pathways. Central to the actions of Ca(2+)/CaM is the activation of a highly conserved Ca(2+)/CaM kinase (CaMK) cascade that amplifies Ca(2+) signals through a series of subsequent phosphorylation events. Proper regulation of Ca(2+) flux is necessary for whole-body metabolism and disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis has been linked to various metabolic diseases. Here we provide a synthesis of recent advances that highlight the roles of the Ca(2+)/CaMK axis in key metabolic tissues. An appreciation of this information is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent signaling contributes to metabolic homeostasis and disease.

  16. Providing Wear Protection for Flat-Tappet (Sliding) Camshaft Followers in Rebuilt Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larry M. Bendele; Nian Z. Sun


    Rebuilt engine "break-in" is the most critical period for long-term durability for a flat-tappet valvetrain. Zinc dialkyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) has proven to be a cost-effective engine oil additive for anti-wear protection and oxidation resistance. But, tightening exhaust emission standards are requiring modern lubricants to have reduced levels of ZDDP additives. If the valvetrain break-in is successfully completed, then modern low-phosphorus lubricants can be used with confidence at subsequent oil change service intervals.

  17. The powerstroke and camshaft of the RIG-I antiviral RNA detection machine. (United States)

    O'Neill, Luke A J; Bowie, Andrew G


    The innate immune sensor RIG-I responds to infection by binding to viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In this issue of Cell, Kowalinski et al. (2011) and Luo et al. (2011) reveal the structure of RIG-I, and in combination with functional analyses, they show how RIG-I recognizes viral RNA to initiate signaling and a type I interferon response.

  18. Camels and Camshafts: Career and Technical Education in the Persian Gulf. (United States)

    Harnish, Dorothy


    Describes a cooperative project of the University of Georgia and the Ministry of Education and Youth in the United Arab Emirates to improve the secondary technical education system. Provides background information, describes project activities, looks at cultural issues, and discusses similarities and differences in education. (JOW)

  19. Contribution to the theoretical and experimental analysis of camshaft engine operation (United States)

    Sutter, Guy


    A study concerning an alternative engine whose linkage is replaced by a piston-pad-cam assembly is presented. The transmission systems are described in order to study the volume generated by the piston movement at output shaft rotation. The cam power transmission study is presented as follows: global description; piston dynamics; cam shaft synchronization; profile analysis. A mathematical model of the real time operation of the engine related to a cam shaft engine prototype study shows the advantage of choosing a cam profile, particularly during combustion. A method for determining the principle characteristics of the main components of a cam shaft engine, whose desired performances are known, is defined.

  20. Zeros of regular functions of quaternionic and octonionic variable: a division lemma and the camshaft effect


    Ghiloni, Riccardo; Perotti, Alessandro


    We study in detail the zero set of a slice regular function of a quaternionic or octonionic variable. By means of a division lemma for convergent power series, we find the exact relation existing between the zeros of two octonionic regular functions and those of their product. In the case of octonionic polynomials, we get a strong form of the fundamental theorem of algebra. We prove that the sum of the multiplicities of zeros equals the degree of the polynomial and obtain a factorization in l...

  1. Evaluation of Future Fuels in a High Pressure Common Rail System. Part 3. John Deere 4.5L Powertech Plus (United States)


    BUSHING .............................................................................................. 38 3.9 CAMSHAFT LOBE...39 Figure 31. Camshaft Lobe...The high pressure pump consists of two plunger assemblies oriented in an opposed fashion and a transfer pump all driven from a common camshaft . The

  2. Evaluation of Future Fuels in a High Pressure Common Rail System - Part 2. 2011 Ford 6.7L Diesel Engine (United States)


    5 Figure 5. High Pressure Pump Camshaft ....................................................................................... 6...8 Figure 10. Camshaft Follower...configuration and driven off of common camshaft lobes. Examples of the pump housing can be seen in Figure 3 and Figure 4. UNCLASSIFIED 4

  3. 偏心凸轮轴锻造工艺分析%Forging Process Analysis on Eccentricity Camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  4. Comparison of the dynamics and structure of Saturn and Jupiter magnetospheres: camshaft, magnetic anomalies and corotating convection models compared. (United States)

    Southwood, D. J.; Kivelson, M. G.

    Scenarios are presented for the overall flux and mass circulation in the jovian and saturnian magnetospheres It is argued that similar fundamanetal processes underly the dynamical processes at both planets However the differences in parameter regime for the two systems leads to substantial resulting differences in morphology Transport is accomplished from the inner magnetosphere by interchange motion which then feeds into the outer magnetosphere where ballooning driven by centrifugal stress leads to field reconnection and plasma loss It seems likely that Jupiter loses much more material per rotation cycle than Saturn and is possibly much more symmetrically loaded in respect of planetary longitude Material loss and flux return at Jupiter have fixed orientations in local time early evening and morning sector respectively and newly returned flux is probably responsible for the morningside cushion region in the outer magnetosphere At Jupiter the dawn-dusk asymmetry in the current sheet thin in morning thick in afternoon is also a dominant feature At Saturn there seems no evidence of a cushion region flux return is thought to take place sporadically over much of the nightside Although definitive statements about the dusk plasma sheet await the orbit evolution of Cassini a fundamental observational feature in the Saturnian context is a planetary rotation induced magnetic field asymmetry which argues against major dawn-dusk asymmetry We propose the rotational feature could originate from a localized ionospheric magnetic anomaly The

  5. Pulse Detonation Engine Thrust Tube Heat Exchanger for Flash Vaporization and Supercritical Heating of JP-8 (United States)


    position of the camshaft in the PDE. The camshaft position is read by a BEI optical encoder (Model H25, S/N 44 Y0013039) and sent to the...research uses the head from a General Motors Quad 4 head with dual overhead camshafts shown in Figure 19. The camshafts are belt driven by a

  6. Automobile: the engine gets rid of the cam-shaft; Automobile: le moteur s'affranchit de l'arbre a cames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, P.Y.


    Presented by Valeo company at the Frankfurt exhibition, the system of electromagnetic valve management ('Camless') allows to improve the efficiency of spark ignition engines with an expected fuel saving of 20%. In this system, the opening and closing of each valve is independently controlled by an electromagnet, which allows to improve the fuel-air mixture and eventually neutralize one or several cylinders at idle speed. The main stakes remains the electrical consumption which is linked with the fastness of the system. Short paper. (J.S.)

  7. Characterization of Pulse Detonation Engine Performance with Varying Free Stream Stagnation Pressure Levels (United States)


    compressible 38 flow equations. The Quad 4 cylinder head is a standard cylinder head with a dual overhead camshaft . As when installed in an...automobile engine each camshaft independently opens and closes a set of 8 purge and 8 fill valves. The camshaft lobes are each geometrically designed for...given lift and duration. The lift of a camshaft lobe refers to the overall distance the valve will be moved off the seat at maximum lift. The

  8. Extending the Performance of Net Shape Molded Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Valves for Use in Internal Combustion Engines (United States)


    varying connecting rod mass ..... 19 Figure 9. Additive effects of reducing component mass ................................ 20 Figure 10. Camshaft Torque vs... camshaft angle, from Mufti ......................... 24 Figure 11. Effects of reduced valve mass on engine performance ................ 25 Figure...adapted from M iw a ......................................................................................... 28 Figure 14. Camshaft torque vs

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 85 - Vehicle and Engine Parameters and Specifications (United States)


    ... valve lash dimension. 4. Camshaft timing. a. Valve opening (degrees BTDC). b. Valve closing (degrees... diameter dimension. b. Valve lifter or actuator type and valve lash dimension. 5. Camshaft timing. a. Valve... dimension. b. Valve lifter or actuator type and valve lash dimension. 5. Camshaft timing. a. Valve...

  10. Feasibility of Using Full Synthetic Low Viscosity Engine Oil at High Ambient Temperatures in U.S. Army Engines (United States)


    12.7 L direct injected turbocharged intercooled diesel engine. Its valve train consists of an overhead camshaft actuating roller rocker arms that... camshaft by roller rocker arms. The engine is rated at 375 hp @ 2100 rpm, and 1350 lb*ft of torque @ 1200 rpm using diesel fuel. The engine was from...21 Camshaft Bearing Weight Loss, grams

  11. A Dynamic Neural Network Approach to CBM (United States)


    crankshaft gear train to actuate the camshaft . To generate a reference position, one of the 24 protuberances is omitted. The VRS generates a modulated...inputs. For camshaft data, time intervals are combined in pairs, while for encoder data three consecutive intervals are combined. This difference...noise is related to the gear-train that links the crankshaft to the camshaft . Mar15 Corrected Final Report Page| 71 From To ENC CAM2 (RPM/Lb*Ft

  12. Detonation Propagation Through Ducts in a Pulsed Detonation Engine (United States)


    camshaft used for test series two.................................................................... 27  Figure 23. Cross-over geometry for test series two...34  Figure 32. PDE phase offset for tubes 2 and 4 with stock camshaft . Approximately 8 ms overlap in each phase...state at end of tube 2’s purge phase with stock camshaft . Blue represents fresh fuel/air mixture, beige represents pure air

  13. Braking, Wheeled Vehicles. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) (United States)


    shields removed, inspect the internal brake components, perform a camshaft rotation test and record the measurement obtained. c. If with non-removable...preceding 24 months, perform a camshaft rotation test and record the measurement. (2) When proof of wheel removal is not provided, remove brake drum(s...adjustment. Reject the vehicle if: • The adjustment is not within the manufacturer’s specifications. 15. Brake Camshafts Procedure: With

  14. Evaluation of Future Fuels in a High Pressure Common Rail System - Part 1 Cummins XPI (United States)


    compressed against the underside of the pump head to maintain contact with the pump camshaft . The underside of the pump head is shown in Figure 5...half of the engine angular velocity for a rated condition speed of 1050 rpm. On the high pressure side of the pump, the camshaft drives two plungers...the camshaft drives two plungers which pressurize the fuel entering the rail. Each plunger is driven by three lobes which, when correctly timed

  15. Direct Initiation Through Detonation Branching in a Pulsed Detonation Engine (United States)


    Detonation Engine The core of the PDE used in this research is a General Motors (GM) Quad 4 engine head with dual overhead camshafts . The head...manifold injection lines labeled The conventional poppet style valves are mechanically actuated by their respective camshafts which are in turn driven by...the angular position of the camshaft which is then used by the control computer to determine valve position and subsequent firing times. Depending

  16. Military Fuel and Alternative Fuel Effects on a Modern Diesel Engine Employing a Fuel-Lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System (United States)


    Fuel-lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System, Adam C. Brandt, et al. Page 3 of 7 UNCLASSIFIED contains a two lobe camshaft ... camshafts rotation. These follower assemblies are then used to actuate the fuel plunger within the barrel to generate high pressure fuel. Fuel & bottom Camshaft light polish, seal contact wear light polish, very light burnish, seal contact wear light polish, light burnish, seal

  17. Fuel Composition and Performance Analysis of Endothermically Heated Fuels for Pulse Detonation Engines (United States)


    computer. The position of the camshaft driving the valves on the engine is measured by a BEI optical encoder (Model #H25). The encoder relays the... camshaft position to the control computer, and the computer calculates the timing of the fill valves. The user inputs an ignition delay, and the computer...Quad Four engine. The head is a 16 valve, dual overhead cam design with separate camshafts for intake and exhaust. There are four valves per cylinder

  18. Applications of Laser Diagnostics (United States)


    is adapted to the intake camshaft to provide both an index of the valve timing sequence and the relative position of the valves. This signal serves...Header’ Effect • Extra Valves for Predetonator or Purge Cycles • Cheap/Mass Produced To Intake Manifold Fuel Injection or Vapor Carburetor Valve/ Camshaft ... Camshafts 0.5-64 Hz currently (per tube) 100 Hz possible • Vapor Fuels: Hydrogen, Propane, etc. • Liquid FI: Gasoline, Ethanol, JP, etc. • Off The

  19. Inspection of Stryker Engines Evaluated Using SCPL in a 20K Mile RAM-D Test (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED 12 Lastly each camshaft was measured to determine the overall profile variation across the cam lobes. This gives an indication of...overall camshaft wear. Table 5 (below) shows the lobe by lobe waviness parameter, which is a measurement between the highest and lowest point across the...very little wear seen on the camshafts when removed from the engine, and this again shows that both oils tested provided adequate protection of the

  20. Flow coefficient measurements for an engine cylinder head under transient flow conditions with continuous valve lift change


    Daesan Oh; Choong Hoon Lee


    A flow coefficient measurement system which is operated under an unsteady intake flow condition in the intake port of a diesel engine cylinder head was developed. In order to determine the actual engine intake flow condition, the valve lift of the intake valve, whose rod is in contact with the camshaft, is varied continuously by rotating the camshaft directly. While varying the rotation speed of the camshaft, the flow coefficients were calculated by measuring various sensor signals, in this c...

  1. Branch Detonation of a Pulse Detonation Engine With Flash Vaporized JP-8 (United States)


    head with dual overhead camshafts . Four intake/exhaust valves control the amount of fuel-air mixture into the engine. Up to four thrust tubes can be...The valves are controlled by the camshafts that are in turn driven by a variable speed Baldor Electrical motor (Model# M4102T). Within each...position of the camshaft and sends it to the control room. The computer then translates that information to valve position. When both valves are

  2. Integration of Carbon Fiber Composite Materials into Air-Cooled Reciprocating Piston Engines for UA V Applications (United States)


    Composite MMC: …………………...………..Metal Matrix Composite OHC: …………………...………...Overhead Camshaft ...chosen as the test platform because it is inexpensive, air-cooled (similar to UAV engines), and uses an overhead camshaft (OHC) design which...facilitated the design of the crankcase. An OHC design avoids the necessity to align the camshaft as well as. Extending this study to a diesel engine would

  3. S195球铁凸轮轴金属型铸造工艺实践%Permanent Mold Casting Technology of S195 Nodular Cast Iron Camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 王守忠



  4. 汽车发动机凸轮轴相位检具的设计与计算%The Design and Calculation of Camshaft Phase Inspection Device for Auto Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  5. Unsteady Specific Work and Isentropic Efficiency of a Radial Turbine Driven by Pulsed Detonations (United States)


    entrance. Fill distribution and ignition takes place using an automotive engine head, shown in Fig. 10, with camshafts to operate intake and...purge lines, and fill and purge valves The camshafts are driven by an electric motor and are aligned to provide approximately equal time with main

  6. Design, Development and Application of New, High-Performance Gear Steels (United States)


    high contact fatigue resistance, which makes it a candidate for applications such as camshafts and bearings, as well as gear sets. (Printed with...applications, camshafts and bearing surfaces. High case hardness is correlated with high contact fatigue resistance and bending fatigue resistance. The


    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.


  8. Novel Acoustic Projectors for Non-Lethal Swimmer Deterrence (United States)


    variable up to 190 dBre1μP at 1 m. On the fixed-output device, we used an inverse flextensional (Class VII) shell driven by an elliptical camshaft ...assembly of the variable-output projector. We have manually turned over the drive system and associated camshaft and are in the process of verifying

  9. Fuel System Durability--U.S. Coast Guard (United States)


    injection pump test facility would require a cam support, camshaft components, and fuel injection system components. Due to the low rpm, large the cam lobe and camshaft . The cam box was built with steel plates, bearings, and shafting shown in Figure 7. Machining and fabrication of the

  10. Composite cam carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, Christopher Donald; Madin, Mark Michael


    A cam carrier assembly includes a cylinder head having valves and a camshaft having lobes. A cam carrier has a first side coupled with the cylinder head engaging around the valves and a second side with bearing surfaces supporting the camshaft. A series of apertures extend between the first and second sides for the lobes to interface with the valves. The cam carrier is made of carbon fiber composite insulating the camshaft from the cylinder head and providing substantial weight reduction to an upper section of an associated engine.

  11. Engine Tests Using High-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (United States)


    inspected and replaced, if not in good service condition. In addition, camshaft Journals to bearings and oil pump clearances shall be checked against...main bearing clearance 0.0011-0.0041 Camshaft bearing clearance 0.0045-0.0060 Connecting rod bearing clearance 0.0010-0.0040 Crankshaft and-play...0.0041 ’ Camshaft Bearing-to- Shaft Clearance Not removed or rebuilt for this test 0.0045-0.0060 All measurements are in inches. 69 :1 . --- Q 03 oN L~J (.A

  12. Cycle Performance of a Pulse Detonation Engine with Supercritical Fuel Injection (United States)


    initiates combustion. The angular position of the camshaft is read by a BEI optical endcoder (Model # H25) and sent to the LabVIEW program. The LabVIEW...PDE in D-Bay uses the head of a General Motors Quad 4 engine with dual overhead camshafts shown in Figure 27. A variable speed Baldor electrical...motor (Model # M4102T) drives a timing belt to turn the camshafts . The LabVIEW program supplies the motor control and frequency. The General Motors

  13. Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS). (United States)


    IELW EL AZ where: KE= kinetic energy . PE potential energy of spring . ‘AZ = iner t ia of camshaft , moto r , and azimuth facet wheel . = 3 .887 ( lb-sec 2 . - - - 4 . 2 ‘EL inertia of elevation mi r ro r 1.113 (10 ) in- lb-sec W AZ angular velocity of camshaft , W EL = angular v...1.113 ( 10~~~) in- lb-sec 2 . bocity of camshaft , locity of elevation m i r r o r f rom Figure A-2 , ~placement of elevation mirro r froma

  14. Simpler valve for reciprocating engines (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W.


    Simpler design eliminating camshafts, cams, and mechanical springs should improve reliability of hydrazine powered reciprocating engines. Valve is expected to improve efficiency, and reduce weight of engines in range up to 50 horsepower.

  15. The baolai car engine idle dithering fault maintenance%宝来汽车发动机怠速抖动故障的检修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴华; 牛志芳


    宝来汽车的发动机电控系统,因为凸轮轴调节机构故障导致发动机工作不良,最后更换凸轮轴调节机构修复。%The baolai car engine electronic control system, because the engine camshaft adjusting mechanism failure bad work, finally replace camshaft adjusting mechanism to repair.

  16. Surface Wear Measurement Using Optical Correlation Technique (United States)

    Acinger, Kresimir


    The coherent optical correlation technique was applied for measuring the surface wear of a tappet (part of car engine), worn by friction with the camshaft. It was found that maximum correlation intensity decays exponentially with the number of wear cycles (i.e. camshaft revolutions). Tappets of the same make have an identical rate of correlation decay. Tappets of different makes have different rates of correlation decay which are in agreement with observed long term wear.

  17. Analysis of Impact of Chosen Parameters on the Wear of Camshft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdzik R.


    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of the reasons for excessive wear of the camshafts system components based on models developed to describe the impact of selected material, technological and operational factors. The subject of the research was wear of camshaft cams studied in accordance with results of operation tests. Based on the said tests, the dependence of wear intensity of cams from their angular position was established. The respective calculation results enabled the function of cam fallibility to be determined.

  18. A New Type of Continuously Variable Displacement Mechanism Used for Hydraulic Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; SHI Guang-lin; CHEN Zhao-neng


    A continuously variable displacement mechanism, which is composed of a hydraulic control valve with mechanical-positional feedback to camshaft, was designed for changing the displacement of traditional camshaft connecting-rod low speed high torque (LSHT) hydraulic motor continuously. The new type of continuously variable displacement mechanism is simple and easy to be made. The structure and principle of a continuously variable displacement mechanism was introduced. The mathematic model of the continuously variable displacement mechanism was set up and its static and dynamic characteristics were analyzed with the help of computer simulation. It can be seen that the cam ring on camshaft of the traditional LSHT hydraulic motor can stop at any position between minimum and maximum eccentricity, according to an input fluid pressure signal. And it can also stay anywhere stably through self-adjusting. Besides, it can work stabilized when load impact or oil leakage exists.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Osman


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the MOTORI 2004 computing tool that calculates the distance, speed and acceleration of a car engine valve train’s oscillating mass m, which is reduced to the valve axis. Distance diagrams, speed and accelerations are provided in dependence on the camshaft twist angle at a constant rotational speed in several consecutive revolutions. The computing tool implements a mathematical description and numerical solution for the motion of mass m of a valve gear dynamic model. Valve lift h is given numerically using a series of equidistant points in the period of one camshaft revolution. The variabilities of camshaft rotation and spring thread vibration as a result of cam lift harmonic excitation. The computing solutions were tested at valve opening points and in imaginary extreme operating conditions (soft/hard spring, low/high damping, low/high rotational speed and increased clearance.

  20. Modeling and Investigation of Electromechanical Valve Train Actuator at simulated Pressure conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail


    In an electromechanical valve actuated engine, the valves are driven by solenoid-type actuators and cam-shaft is eliminated. Control of each valve provides flexibility in valve timings over all engine conditions and achieves the benefits of variable valve timing(VVT). This paper is about investig......In an electromechanical valve actuated engine, the valves are driven by solenoid-type actuators and cam-shaft is eliminated. Control of each valve provides flexibility in valve timings over all engine conditions and achieves the benefits of variable valve timing(VVT). This paper is about...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 94 - Emission-Related Engine Parameters and Specifications (United States)


    ... valve lash dimension. 4. Camshaft timing. a. Valve opening—intake exhaust (degrees from TDC or BDC). b. Valve closing—intake exhaust (degrees from TDC or BDC). c. Valve overlap (degrees). 5. Ports—two stroke engines (intake and/or exhaust). a. Flow area. b. Opening timing (degrees from TDC or BDC). c....

  2. 78 FR 64197 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 8-Toledo, Ohio, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Whirlpool... (United States)


    ... washing machines; transmission and camshafts for washing machines agitators; gears and gearing for speed changers related to washing machines; clutch assemblies for washing machines; gears and gearing for..., Whirlpool would be able to choose the duty rates during customs entry procedures that apply to...

  3. 76 FR 9000 - Foreign-Trade Zone 29-Louisville, KY, Application for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority... (United States)


    ..., and electronic control units for engines and transmissions (capacity-- up to 8.5 million units..., camshafts, gears, pulleys, couplings, clutches, parts of electric motors, pinions, magnets, ignition parts..., shafts, and measuring instruments (duty rate range: free--9.0%). Expanded FTZ procedures could...

  4. New cylinder head concept for reducing costs, weight and friction losses; Neues Zylinderkopfkonzept - Reduzierung von Kosten, Masse und Reibungsverlusten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywood, Jonathan [ThyssenKrupp Presta Chemnitz GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany). Simulation/Testing R and D Valve Train Systems


    The camshaft bearing in an internal combustion engine plays a major role in the design of the cylinder head. The name Presta Integrated Cam Assembly (PICA) describes a large number of different development approaches for the cylinder head area. ThyssenKrupp presents a solution for reducing costs, weight and friction losses while at the same time providing lower engine-out emissions. (orig.)

  5. Motorcycle Repair. (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  6. Proračunski modeli vijčanih spojeva motora s unutarnjim izgaranjem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želimir Parat


    Full Text Available Simplified calculation methods of internal combustion engine screw joints are presented, with respect to screw fastenings of connecting rod bearing; crankshaft main bearing and fuel pump camshaft bearing. Design criteria for proper bolt dimensioning and tightening force estimate as conditions for screw joint safety are discussed.

  7. Improving the quality and longevity of the valve-gear lever of VAZ automobiles (United States)

    Tikhonov, A. K.; Bogdanova, N. V.; Krishtal, M. A.


    The basic causes of the scouring of the nitrided layer are its increased brittleness as a result of supersaturation with nitrogen, the presence of stress raisers on the effective surface of the lever (increased roughness), and the insufficient extent to which the surface layers of the components of the camshaft couple are worn in.

  8. Diesel Goes Digital to Save Energy, Lower Emissions (United States)


    Forty years ago, actuators requiring constant energy to help power the Apollo spacecraft in space were replaced by magnetically holding and releasing, electronically controlled valves. Today, these same magnetic, electronic valves are on the verge of replacing entire camshaft systems in cars and trucks on Earth, thus leading to a whole new generation of low-emission engines.

  9. High-strength cast irons used for manufacturing parts of vaz passenger cars (United States)

    Kitaigora, N. I.


    Methods for solving problems arising in the production of high-strength cast iron with stable properties and structure are considered. Results of introduction of new grades of high-strength cast iron instead of malleable cast iron and camshaft cast iron in the Volzhskii Automobile Plant are described.

  10. 可变气门正时机构特殊模式控制策略的仿真研究%Simulative study of control strategy of special modes for the mechanism of variable valve timing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓松; 滕勤; 李杰


    针对发动机可变气门正时(variable valve timing ,VVT )控制系统凸轮轴调节过程中可能出现的特殊工作模式 ,文章建立了相应的控制策略 ,并计算对应的凸轮轴目标相位 . 当机油温度过高 、发动机转速下降太快导致机油压力降低时 ,为了防止凸轮轴调节速度明显降低 ,提出停调排气凸轮轴的控制策略 ;为了预防发动机工作中产生的碎屑阻塞相位器和机油控制阀 ,提出预防性清洗策略 ;根据这 2 种控制策略对凸轮轴调节效果的影响 ,对其进行了优先级划分 . 在 ASCET-MD 环境中建立了控制模型 ,通过仿真实验验证了控制逻辑 ,结果表明 ,凸轮轴目标位置完全适合相应的控制策略 .%For some special operating modes that may occur during the adjustment of camshaft in the engine with variable valve timing (VVT ) ,the corresponding control systems are established and the corresponding target positions are calculated .Low oil pressure may occur when the oil temperature is too high and the engine speed drops too quickly ,and in order to prevent the adjustment rate of cam-shaft dropping too significantly ,the strategy of stopping the adjustment of exhaust camshaft is estab-lished ;in order to prevent the dirt deposits generated in the engine blocking the camshaft phaser and oil control valve ,the strategy of preventive cleaning is established ;then the two control strategies are prioritized based on their effects on the adjustment of camshaft .Finally ,the models of control sys-tems are established and some simulation experiments are done in ASCET-MD .The experimental re-sults verify the control logic and indicate that the target positions of camshaft are completely fit for the corresponding control strategy .

  11. Timing belts - development milestones and innovations; Meilensteine und Innovationen der Zahnriemenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, H. [ContiTech Antriebssysteme GmbH, Hannover (Germany)


    Modern Timing Belts made of high temperature resistant elastomers for camshaft drives are designed for engine lifetime. Timing Belt drives gained in Europe 75% market share because of their advantages. The Belt drives generate up to 25% less friction than chain drives and create significantly lower noise levels. The new generation of Timing Belts are manufactured using: - special fibre glass types to transmit high forces with very high length stability - reinforced and Teflon treated fabrics to reduce friction and noise -high temperature resistant HNBR Elastomer to cover the temperature range (-40 C to +150 C) New belt drive developments are using Oval sprocket technology to eliminate unwanted vibrations and to reduce drive forces by 35%. Oil resistant Belts can substitute oil lubricated chains used for oil pump and camshaft drives to reduce the friction and noise level of the chain drives. (orig.)

  12. Design Alteration of Motor-Cycle Engine Cam for Pneumatic Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimil M. Shah


    Full Text Available Power produced by pressurized gases/air has been used in many applications since decades. The power produced by that means is pollution free too. Hence substitution of petrol/diesel in engines with compressed air will be a step towards pollution free engine. The 4-stroke IC engine is to be converted into a 2-stroke pneumatic engine. Various design changes in camshaft design were carried out. The valve timing diagram was derived for the same. The cam profile of a double lobed cam as required in the valve timing diagram was designed in Pro-e software and was cut on a wire cut machine. The cam and camshaft were manufactured separately and then assembled.

  13. Diagnostic for two-mode variable valve activation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedewa, Andrew M


    A method is provided for diagnosing a multi-mode valve train device which selectively provides high lift and low lift to a combustion valve of an internal combustion engine having a camshaft phaser actuated by an electric motor. The method includes applying a variable electric current to the electric motor to achieve a desired camshaft phaser operational mode and commanding the multi-mode valve train device to a desired valve train device operational mode selected from a high lift mode and a low lift mode. The method also includes monitoring the variable electric current and calculating a first characteristic of the parameter. The method also includes comparing the calculated first characteristic against a predetermined value of the first characteristic measured when the multi-mode valve train device is known to be in the desired valve train device operational mode.

  14. A petrol engine valve system design optimization analysis%某款汽油发动机阀系设计优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 惠昭晨


    为了提升某款汽油机发动机动力性和经济性。在原发动机凸轮轴型线的基础上进行了设计优化,设计了两种新的凸轮轴型线,为此做了阀系运动学和动力学分析,并作以比较。%In order to promote a petrol engine, engine performance and fuel economy. On the basis of the original engine camshaft lines for design optimization, design the two kinds of new type camshaft line, do the valves kinematics and dynamics analysis, and to compare.

  15. Modelling, Analysis, Control and Experimental Validation of Electromechanical Valve Actuators in Automotive Systems


    Hoyos Velasco, Carlos Ildefonso


    This Thesis is concerned with the modelling, analysis and control of novel mechatronic valve actuators for automotive systems, specifically, the control of the mechanical valves to intake and exhaust gases in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). Scientific studies have shown that significant benefits in terms of engine efficiency and emissions can be obtained through the adoption of variable valve actuation. Current engine technology are based on the use of a mechanical driven camshaft, which i...

  16. Actionneur linéaire rapide - Application aux soupapes électromagnétiques


    Raminosoa, Ando


    Variable valve actuation is one of automotive constructors' strategies to fulfil environmental queries about emission of pollutant gases. It brings improvement to the thermal engine, and many constructors have their own devices associated to the camshaft, with a gain between 8 and 10% on fuel consumption. The use of camless actuator brings further more gain, from 15 to 20%. The established approach during this thesis consists in modelling a chosen topology of actuator, and next in optimizatio...

  17. Performance and analysis of a 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine with CAI combustion


    Zhao, H.; Li, J; Ma, T.; Ladommatos, N


    Copyright © 2002 SAE International. This paper is posted on this site with permission from SAE International. Further use of this paper is not permitted without permission from SAE Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was realised in a production type 4-stroke 4-cylinder gasoline engine without intake charge heating or increasing compression ratio. The CAI engine operation was achieved using substantially standard components modified only in camshafts to restrict the gas exchange proc...

  18. Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate The McCook Field Years (1917-1927) (United States)


    and $3 million producing the Hispano- Suiza engine, and achieved only limited production. Similar results were experienced producing the Le Rhone, the...foreign types, mostly Hispano- Suiza and Le Rhones.79 The weight of the Liberty 12-cylinder varied depending on accessories and equipment. The basic engine...of Mercedes, Rolls-Royce, and Lorraine-Dietrich camshaft based on Mercedes, Hispano- Suiza , Rolls-Royce, Renault, Fiat, and Hall-Scott 45-degree angle

  19. Potential of valve train variability in passenger car diesel engines; Potenziale eines variablen Ventiltriebs beim PKW-Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Simon; Genieser, Patric; Birke, Stiev; Buecker, Christian [Mahle International GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Zentrale Vorausentwicklung


    Variable valve control systems are state-of-the-art technology in today's gasoline engines, although their application in diesel engines has also become the focus of recent studies. These systems offer one possibility of resolving the conflict of objectives between a further reduction in engine-out emissions and an improvement in fuel efficiency. Mahle has examined their potentials on the basis of the Cam-in-Cam variable camshaft for the intake valves. (orig.)

  20. 采用数字技术的船用低速柴油机%Diesel used the electronically controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于祺昌; 崔艳


    Along with development of Electronically Controls technology, MAN-B&W and Wartsila-SULZER, the world famous engine manufactures have developed the new generation two-stroke low speed diesel engines featuring camshaft-less which is a milestone in diesel history. At the moment, we would like prefer to call this kind of new generation diesel “NC-diesel engine”。

  1. Zebra tape identification for the instantaneous angular speed computation and angular resampling of motorbike valve train measurements (United States)

    Rivola, Alessandro; Troncossi, Marco


    An experimental test campaign was performed on the valve train of a racing motorbike engine in order to get insight into the dynamic of the system. In particular the valve motion was acquired in cold test conditions by means of a laser vibrometer able to acquire displacement and velocity signals. The valve time-dependent measurements needed to be referred to the camshaft angular position in order to analyse the data in the angular domain, as usually done for rotating machines. To this purpose the camshaft was fitted with a zebra tape whose dark and light stripes were tracked by means of an optical probe. Unfortunately, both manufacturing and mounting imperfections of the employed zebra tape, resulting in stripes with slightly different widths, precluded the possibility to directly obtain the correct relationship between camshaft angular position and time. In order to overcome this problem, the identification of the zebra tape was performed by means of the original and practical procedure that is the focus of the present paper. The method consists of three main steps: namely, an ad-hoc test corresponding to special operating conditions, the computation of the instantaneous angular speed, and the final association of the stripes with the corresponding shaft angular position. The results reported in the paper demonstrate the suitability of the simple procedure for the zebra tape identification performed with the final purpose to implement a computed order tracking technique for the data analysis.

  2. How can Saturn impose its rotation period in a noncorotating magnetosphere? (United States)

    Espinosa, StéPhane A.; Southwood, David J.; Dougherty, MichèLe K.


    A conceptual model is proposed, where Saturn can impose its rotation period in a noncorotating magnetosphere, as observed by Pioneer 11, Voyager 1 and 2. The fundamental hypothesis for this so-called "Camshaft model" is that Saturn has an equatorial anomaly, likely to be magnetic. It is restricted in longitude, and the source is yet to be detected. This longitudinal asymmetry is equivalent to a variation of pressure for the magnetospheric subcorotating plasma, and therefore as the planet rotates, a compressional wave is generated. That is, we use the MHD fast mode, which can propagate across the magnetic field, rather than the transverse mode for momentum transfer from the planet to the magnetospheric plasma. The wave propagates radially outward across the background magnetic field, inducing a motion in the plasma that is decoupled from and superposed on its azimuthal motion. Consequently, as the planet rotates, magnetic field observations fixed in an inertial frame would present a periodic signature with the planetary rotation period. This is true at each local time, independently of the level of plasma subcorotation. We then show that the Camshaft model accounts very well for the previously reported observations of spin-periodic perturbations in Saturn's magnetic field. Finally, we consider the perturbation magnetic field (obtained by subtracting only the model planetary field from the observations) measured by Pioneer 11 while outbound, and find its orientation consistent with the Camshaft model once the propagation delay of the compressional wave is included.

  3. Elastodynamic analysis of the desmodromic valve train of a racing motorbike engine by means of a combined lumped/finite element model (United States)

    Rivola, A.; Troncossi, M.; Dalpiaz, G.; Carlini, A.


    A combined lumped/finite element model of a portion of the desmodromic valve train of a racing motorbike engine was developed and validated in order to simulate the elastodynamic behaviour of such a particular timing system. The model includes the lumped parameter model of the belt transmission that drives the camshafts, the finite element model of the camshafts, and the lumped parameter model of two cam-valve mechanisms (one for each camshaft). The procedure to validate the model, based on experimental tests carried out on a test bench described here, is presented and discussed. The comparison between the numerical results and the experimental data shows that the effectiveness of the model is satisfactorily achieved. It will be possible, in a further study, to add the other cam-valve mechanisms and the missing external forces, in order to obtain a complete system model. Some possible applications of the presented model are provided in order to show how the overall model could be employed to perform both design optimisation and diagnostics.

  4. Joining of composite shafts and workpieces by rolling-in; Fuegen von gebauten Wellen und Verbundbauteilen durch Einwalzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagedorn, M. [MHP Mannesmann Praezisrohr GmbH, Muelheim (Germany). Bereich Automobilindustrie; Kessler, N.; Weinert, K. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Spanende Fertigung; Wilcke, G.; Roettger, K. [Ecoroll AG, Celle (Germany)


    The roller burnishing and deep rolling of drill holes or other profiles is a well established process for achieving a very high surface quality and for enhancing the fatigue strength significantly. With the development of the rolling-in process for manufacturing composite workpieces like e.g. composite shafts and camshafts the possible fields of application of the rolling process can be extended by an interesting aspect. For rolling0in specially adapted tools were used with a higher rolling oversize to join by expanding an inner component inside an outer part, both optimised for special requirements.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The dynamic responses of roller gear indexing cam mechanism are investigated .With applying Lagarange equation and Gear method,motion equations of this mechanism including clearance,motor characteristic,torsion flexibility are developed and solved.The results show that clearance affects primarily the response on turret,and has little effects on the responses on rotary table.At the same time,the velocity fluctuation of motor shaft is not serious for the existence of inertia of reducer,and the high frequency of velocity fluctuation of camshaft is related with the torsion stiffness of shaft and the clearance between pairs.

  6. A study of fluid flow and combustion with variable valve timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, F.


    The effects of variable valve timing (VVT) were examined by in-cylinder Laser Doppler Velocimetry flow measurements and heat-release calculations. A single-cylinder Volvo B5254 engine was used for all experiments and the valve timing was altered by phasing or exchanging the camshaft. Special cam lobes were developed for simulation of throttle-less operation. With the standard double camshaft, a tumbling flow was generated and with valve deactivation, a swirling flow was generated. The turbulence was increased with valve deactivation. This increased the combustion rate making lean burn possible. The standard camshaft with inlet valve deactivation and late cam phasing had a faster combustion at {lambda} = 1.8 than the standard camshaft with normal cam phasing at {lambda} = 1.0. Early and late inlet valve closing was used for enabling throttle-less operation. Early inlet valve closing (EIVC) generated a very slow tumble with low turbulence. Late inlet valve closing generated both very high and low turbulence. The net indicated efficiency was improved with up to 10%. Some reduction was observed for the gross indicated efficiency, due to a too large reduction in effective compression ratio. A very stable combustion was obtained for EIVC with gasoline, possibly due to a sheering flow over the inlet valves resulting in improved fuel-air preparation. Wavelet analysis was used for dividing LDV flow measurements into time and frequency resolved information. The technique rendered the same flow results as the moving window technique, but with a separation of the turbulence into different frequencies. The choice of wavelet was shown not to be crucial. The frequency resolved turbulence was studied for tumble and swirl. A tumbling flow had a larger transfer of energy from low frequency turbulence into high frequency turbulence than a swirling flow. This is caused by the tumble breakdown. A correlation against heat-release indicated that high frequency turbulence have a larger

  7. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator (United States)

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond; Miller, John Michael


    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  8. A Kinematic Analysis of the Variable Valve Timing Mechanism with Three Elements and Continuous Valve Lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Mihalcea


    Full Text Available An innovating solution for throttle-free load control for spark-ignition engines is Variable Valve Timing system (VVT System, or VVA - Variable Valve Actuation System. In this paper is presented an analytic method for kinematic analysis of the valve timing mechanism with three elements, which mainly includes the camshaft, the roller rocker finger and an intermediate rocker arm. This type of mechanism ensures a continuous valve lift (VVL System between two extreme valve heights. It is also presented the numerical example for the variable valve lift mechanism’s motion.

  9. Influence of Hot Plasma Pressure on Global Structure of Saturn's Magnetodisk

    CERN Document Server

    Achilleos, N; Arridge, C S; Sergis, N; Wilson, R J; Thomsen, M F; Coates, A J


    Using a model of force balance in Saturn's disk-like magnetosphere, we show that variations in hot plasma pressure can change the magnetic field configuration. This effect changes (i) the location of the magnetopause, even at fixed solar wind dynamic pressure, and (ii) the magnetic mapping between ionosphere and disk. The model uses equatorial observations as a boundary condition-we test its predictions over a wide latitude range by comparison with a Cassini high-inclination orbit of magnetic field and hot plasma pressure data. We find reasonable agreement over time scales larger than the period of Saturn kilometric radiation (also known as the camshaft period).

  10. Electronic Unit Pump Diesel Engine Control Unit Design for Integrated Powertrain System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo-lan; ZHAO Chang-lu; ZHANG Fu-jun; HUANG Ying


    The performance of the electronic unit pump (EUP) diesel engine is studied, it will be used in the integrated powertrain and its multi parameters are controllable. Both the theoretical analysis and experiment research are taken. A control unit for the fuel quantity and timing in crankshaft domain is designed on this basis and the engine experiment test has been done. For the constant speed camshaft driving EUP system, the fuel quantity will increase as the supply angle goes up and injection timing has no effect. The control precision can reach 1°CA. The full injection timing MAP and engine peak performance curves are made successfully.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; SHI Guanglin; CHEN Zhaoneng


    Pressure-flow analytical formulas of lubrication film of slipper pairs on camshaft connecting rod type low speed high torque (LSHT) hydraulic motors are put forward. The bottom surface of slipper pairs is rectangle, and the effect of squeeze flow and pressure differential flow is considered. The dynamic process of lubrication film formation through squeezing is numerically studied by computer simulation. Effects of supply pressure, initial lubrication film thickness, velocity damping coefficient, loading impact and gravity, etc are studied. Advantages of novel slipper pairs with large oil cavity area are pointed out.

  12. On the prediction of impact noise, part VIII: Diesel engine noise (United States)

    Cuschieri, J. M.; Richards, E. J.


    The noise energy radiated from a diesel engine due to combustion and piston slap excitation is investigated by considering single impacts. From the results obtained, possible methods of noise control are studied, and the expected results due to changes in the liner mounting to the engine frame, and the bearings of the camshaft for an injected engine, are compared to the measured noise levels. This proves to be very successful and radical modifications in the engine for noise control can be investigated in this way prior to full development of the prototype engine.

  13. 上海通用英朗新技术剖析(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 2.1.6L(LDE)和1.8L(2HO)发动机正时 该发动机采用顶置双凸轮轴,双可变正时机构DCVCP(Double Continuous Variable Camshaft Phaser).两个凸轮轴正时带轮一侧是凸点,一侧是凹点,但这两个点并不在一条水平线上,这个位置是靠正时专用工具KM6340保证的.

  14. Influence of hot plasma pressure on the global structure of Saturn’s magnetodisk (United States)

    Achilleos, N.; Guio, P.; Arridge, C. S.; Sergis, N.; Wilson, R. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Coates, A. J.


    Using a model of force balance in Saturn's disk-like magnetosphere, we show that variations in hot plasma pressure can change the magnetic field configuration. This effect changes (i) the location of the magnetopause, even at fixed solar wind dynamic pressure, and (ii) the magnetic mapping between ionosphere and disk. The model uses equatorial observations as a boundary condition—we test its predictions over a wide latitude range by comparison with a Cassini high-inclination orbit of magnetic field and hot plasma pressure data. We find reasonable agreement over time scales larger than the period of Saturn kilometric radiation (also known as the camshaft period).

  15. Rotating magnetospheres: transport compared at Jupiter and Saturn (United States)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Southwood, D. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    The magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are dominated by the effects of rotation and the associated outward stress exerted by heavy ions picked up near the inner moons Fields and particle measurements in both systems show dramatic signatures of rotational periodicity At Jupiter the periodicity results principally from the effects of dipole tilt and the related displacements of the equatorial plasma sheet At Saturn there is little dipole tilt yet field and plasma properties vary periodically Efforts to understand how Saturn s rotational motion can be converted into what appears to be radial motion a conversion from rotation to rocking or reciprocating motion that is imposed in mechanical systems by a camshaft have recently focused on convective patterns with preferred sectors for transport see Southwood et al this session It is possible that similar effects are present at Jupiter and can account for plasma properties that have been described in terms of what has been referred to as the magnetic anomaly model Hill Goertz and Dessler 1983 This talk will use magnetometer data for the two systems to identify the possibly subtle signatures of the camshaft effect at Jupiter

  16. Research on controlling grinding cracks of PM pump camShaft%PM泵凸轮轴磨削裂纹控制方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童景琳; 钟莉娟; 王志增


    Through analyzing the reasons causing cracking on camshaft of PM pump in grinding process, it pointed that grinding temperature, grinding stress and cooling effect are the main factors influencing grinding cracks. The experiments showed that it can reduce camshaft grinding cracks through controlling carburized layer thickness, normalizing, quenching and tempering technological parameters, and selecting high speed grinding, keeping wheel and cool liquid in good condition.%通过对PM泵凸轮轴磨削过程中产生裂纹的原因进行分析,指出磨削温度、磨削应力及冷却效果是产生磨削裂纹的主要因素.实验表明,通过控制渗碳层厚度及正火、淬火和回火工艺参数,选用高速磨削,保持良好的砂轮和冷却液状态,能够减少凸轮轴磨削裂纹.

  17. Parameter design and performance analysis of shift actuator for a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu


    Full Text Available Recent developments of pure electric vehicles have shown that pure electric vehicles equipped with two-speed or multi-speed gearbox possess higher energy efficiency by ensuring the drive motor operates at its peak performance range. This article presents the design, analysis, and control of a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles. The shift actuator is based on a motor-controlled camshaft where a special geometric groove is machined, and the camshaft realizes the axial positions of the synchronizer sleeve for gear engaging, disengaging, and speed control of the drive motor. Based on the force analysis of shift process, the parameters of shift actuator and shift motor are designed. The drive motor’s torque control strategy before shifting, speed governing control strategy before engaging, shift actuator’s control strategy during gear engaging, and drive motor’s torque recovery strategy after shift process are proposed and implemented with a prototype. To validate the performance of the two-speed gearbox, a test bed was developed based on dSPACE that emulates various operation conditions. The experimental results indicate that the shift process with the proposed shift actuator and control strategy could be accomplished within 1 s under various operation conditions, with shift smoothness up to passenger car standard.

  18. Collection Method of Synchronous Signal in Engine Control%发动机控制中同步信号获取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白思春; 褚全红; 孟长江; 况涪洪; 姜成赋; 张春; 张维彪; 李晨; 相楠


    介绍了发动机控制中凸轮与曲轴盘信号的获取方法。采用合理性判别机制,把发动机信号盘的齿型系数固化到RO M中,在发动机运行过程中,采集凸轮齿、曲轴齿单齿齿宽时间,通过相邻齿之间的比值对正常齿、缺齿、多齿信号之外的高频干扰信号、丢齿信号问题进行滤波处理。在发动机工作转速范围建立曲轴信号、凸轮信号各个齿型的相邻齿齿宽比例系数MAP图,依照最大转速变化率,通过理论分析计算出单齿齿宽比例的上、下边界;同时在发动机台架上,对多转速工况下的齿型宽度信号进行测试记录,修正齿宽比例的合理性系数边界值,得出凸轮轴正常齿、多齿以及曲轴正常齿、缺齿的合理性系数,完成发动机控制同步信号的可靠获取。%The collection method of camshaft and crankshaft signals was introduced .With the reasonable discrimination mech‐anism ,the coefficient of tooth form for signal disc was written into ROM .The duration of single camshaft tooth and single crankshaft tooth was colleted during the engine operation .According to the ratio of adjacent teeth ,the high‐frequency interfer‐ence signal and lost‐tooth signal except normal tooth ,missing tooth and multi‐tooth were filtered .The tooth width ratio MAP of adjacent tooth for each tooth form of camshaft and crankshaft signals was built during the whole range of engine speed .Ac‐cording to the change rate of maximum speed ,the upper and lower borders of tooth width ratio for single tooth were calculated by the theoretical analysis .The signals of tooth width in different speed conditions were tested and recorded ,the boundary val‐ue of reasonable coefficient for tooth width ratio was corrected ,the reasonable coefficients for the normal tooth and multi‐tooth of camshaft and the normal tooth and missing tooth of crankshaft were acquired and finally the synchronous control signals

  19. Vehicular engine design

    CERN Document Server

    Hoag, Kevin


    This book provides an introduction to the design and mechanical development of reciprocating piston engines for vehicular applications. Beginning from the determination of required displacement and performance, coverage moves into engine configuration and architecture. Critical layout dimensions and design trade-offs are then presented for pistons, crankshafts, engine blocks, camshafts, valves, and manifolds.  Coverage continues with material strength and casting process selection for the cylinder block and cylinder heads. Each major engine component and sub-system is then taken up in turn, from lubrication system, to cooling system, to intake and exhaust systems, to NVH. For this second edition latest findings and design practices are included, with the addition of over sixty new pictures and many new equations.

  20. application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Chiang


    Full Text Available The bottleneck of a production line is a machine that impedes the system performance in the strongest manner. In production lines with the so-called Markovian model of machine reliability, bottlenecks with respect to the downtime, uptime, and the cycle time of the machines can be introduced. The two former have been addressed in recent publications [1] and [2]. The latter is investigated in this paper. Specifically, using a novel aggregation procedure for performance analysis of production lines with Markovian machines having different cycle time, we develop a method for c-bottleneck identification and apply it in a case study to a camshaft production line at an automotive engine plant.

  1. Engine modeling and control modeling and electronic management of internal combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Isermann, Rolf


    The increasing demands for internal combustion engines with regard to fuel consumption, emissions and driveability lead to more actuators, sensors and complex control functions. A systematic implementation of the electronic control systems requires mathematical models from basic design through simulation to calibration. The book treats physically-based as well as models based experimentally on test benches for gasoline (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engines and uses them for the design of the different control functions. The main topics are: - Development steps for engine control - Stationary and dynamic experimental modeling - Physical models of intake, combustion, mechanical system, turbocharger, exhaust, cooling, lubrication, drive train - Engine control structures, hardware, software, actuators, sensors, fuel supply, injection system, camshaft - Engine control methods, static and dynamic feedforward and feedback control, calibration and optimization, HiL, RCP, control software developm...

  2. Prediction of useful casting structure applying Cellular Automaton method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ignaszak


    Full Text Available The results of simulation investigations of primary casting’s structure made of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy using the Calcosoft system with CAFE 3D (Cellular Automaton Finite Element module are presented. CAFE 3-D module let to predict the structure formation of complete castings indicating the spatial distribution of columnar and equiaxed grains. That simplified model concerns only hypoeutectic phase. Simulation investigations of structure concern the useful casting of camshaft which solidified in high-insulation mould with properly chills distribution. These conditions let to apply the expedient locally different simplified the grains blocs geometry which are called by the authors as pseudo-crystals. The mechanical properties in selected cross-sections of casing are estimated.

  3. Dynamic characterization of a new accelerated heart valve tester. (United States)

    Menzler, F; Haubold, A D; Hwang, N H


    This paper presents a new accelerated prosthetic heart valve tester prototype that incorporates a camshaft and poppet valves. A three element Windkessel system is used to mimic the afterload of the human systemic circulation. The device is capable of testing eight valves simultaneously at a rate up to 1,250 cycles/min, while the flow rate, the pressure, and the valve loading can be monitored and adjusted individually. The tester was characterized and calibrated using a set of eight Carpentier-Edwards bioprostheses at a flow rate varying between 3 and 5 L/min. The experiment was carried out with the pressure difference across the closed heart valve maintained between 140 and 190 mmHg. Smooth and complete opening and closing of the valve leaflets was achieved at all cycling rates. This confirms that the velocity profiles approaching the test valves were uniform, an important factor that allows the test valves to open and close synchronously each time.

  4. c-Bottlenecks in serial production lines: Identification and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang S.-Y.


    Full Text Available The bottleneck of a production line is a machine that impedes the system performance in the strongest manner. In production lines with the so-called Markovian model of machine reliability, bottlenecks with respect to the downtime, uptime, and the cycle time of the machines can be introduced. The two former have been addressed in recent publications [1] and [2]. The latter is investigated in this paper. Specifically, using a novel aggregation procedure for performance analysis of production lines with Markovian machines having different cycle time, we develop a method for c-bottleneck identification and apply it in a case study to a camshaft production line at an automotive engine plant.

  5. Current Automotive Holometry Studies (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.


    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  6. a Study on Fracture Characteristics of the SM53C Used in the Cam Shaft (United States)

    Jeon, Hyun-Bae; Song, Tae-Hoon; Park, Sung-Ho; Huh, Sun-Chul; Park, Won-Jo

    This experimental study investigates the fracture characteristics of the camshaft made with newly developed SM53C material. As part of the countermeasure, use the surface hardening heat treatment. Cam shaft which is a part of automobile engine is very essential when traveling and significant to fuel injection timing. Stiffness and efficiency are important for automobile sash which have a durability of the engine. High hardness and durability are necessary, because engine output is affected by cam shaft directly. So, high-frequency induction hardening is very important because of increasing the surface strength. The shape of hardening depth, hardened structure, hardness, and fracture characteristics of SM53C composed by carbon steel are also investigated.

  7. Early flame development image comparison of low calorific value syngas and CNG in DI SI gas engine (United States)

    >Ftwi Yohaness Hagos,


    The early flame development stage of syngas and CNG are analysed and compared from the flame images taken over 20° CA from the start of ignition. An imitated syngas with a composition of 19.2% H2, 29.6% CO, 5.3% CH4 and balance with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which resembles the typical product of wood biomass gasification, was used in the study. A CCD camera triggered externally through the signals from the camshaft and crank angle sensors was used in capturing of the images. The engine was accessed through an endoscope access and a self-illumination inside the chamber. The results of the image analysis are further compared with the mass fraction burn curve of both syngas and CNG analysed from the pressure data. The analysis result of the flame image of syngas validates the double rapid burning stage of the mass fraction burn of syngas analysed from in-cylinder pressure data.

  8. The new 1.8 l TFSI engine from Audi. Pt. 1. Base engine and thermomanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiser, Alex; Jung, Michael; Adam, Stephan [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Engine Development Dept.; Doerr, Joachim [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Longitudinally Mounted Engines Dept.


    The launch of the new 1.8 l TFSI engine marks the third generation of the successful four-cylinder gasoline engine family from Audi. It has been completely revised in order to meet ambitious CO{sub 2} targets and ensure compliance with future Euro 6 emissions standards. The new generation features numerous innovative technologies, including an exhaust gas cooling system integrated into the cylinder head, a dual fuel injection system with direct and port-fuel injection as well as the Audi valvelift system with twin camshaft adjustment. A new-style fully electronic coolant control also enables an innovative thermomanagement system to be implemented. This first part of the article details the base engine and the thermomanagement system of the new engine. The second part of the article, which will be published in MTZ 7/8, covers the mixture formation, the combustion method and the turbocharging. (orig.)

  9. Shoaling Large Amplitude Internal Solitary Waves in a Laboratory Tank (United States)

    Allshouse, Michael; Larue, Conner; Swinney, Harry


    The shoaling of internal solitary waves onto the continental shelf can change both the wave dynamics and the state of the environment. Previous observations have demonstrated that these waves can trap fluid and transport it over long distances. Through the use of a camshaft-based wavemaker, we produce large amplitude shoaling waves in a stratified fluid in a laboratory tank. Simulations of solitary waves are used to guide the tuning of the wave generator to approximate solitary waves; thus nonlinear waves can be produced within the 4m long tank. PIV and synthetic schlieren measurements are made to study the transport of fluid by the wave as it moves up a sloping boundary. The results are then compared to numerical simulations and analyzed using finite time Lyapunov exponent calculations. This Lagrangian analysis provides an objective measure of barriers surrounding trapped regions in the flow. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N000141110701 (WHOI).

  10. [Fractures of the head and tuberosities of the humerus: treatment of malposition (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Kipfer, M


    Fractures of the head and tuberosities of the humerus combine "horizontalisation" with impaction of the head of the humerus into the cortical funnel of the upper metaphysis which then forms a "buffer" with a sub-acromial "camshaft effect". In addition, there may be a subjacent metaphyseal comminution or even a split in the head. These various factors render surgical treatment difficult, when it is sought to restore normal anatomical conditions by osteosynthesis, with uncertain anatomical and functional results because of the double risk of early separation of the fragments and of secondary necrosis. There exists the possibility of operation vis a transdeltoid approach which combines resection of the cortical cuff and lateral transposition with bringing down of the capsulo-tendinous layer. This simple technique has the advantage of almost invariably offering a satisfactory functional result.

  11. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction (United States)

    Gabbey, D. J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D. J.


    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force, and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  12. Superfluid Stirling refrigerator: A new method for cooling below 1 Kelvin (United States)

    Kotsubo, V.; Swift, G. W.

    We have invented and built a new type of cryocooler, which we call the superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR). The first prototype reached 0.6 K from a starting temperature of 1.2 K. The working fluid of the SSR is the (sup 3)He solute in a superfluid He(3) - He(4) solution. At low temperatures, the superfluid He(4) is in its quantum ground state, and therefore is thermodynamically inert, while the He(3) solute has the thermodynamic properties of a dense ideal gas. Thus, in principle, any refrigeration cycle that can use an ideal gas can also use the He(3) solute as working fluid. In our SSR prototype, bellows-sealed superleak pistons driven by a room-temperature camshaft work on the He(3) solute. Ultimately, we anticipate elimination of moving parts by analogy with pulse-tube refrigeration.

  13. Neural control of fast nonlinear systems--application to a turbocharged SI engine with VCT. (United States)

    Colin, Guillaume; Chamaillard, Yann; Bloch, Gérard; Corde, Gilles


    Today, (engine) downsizing using turbocharging appears as a major way in reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of spark ignition (SI) engines. In this context, an efficient control of the air actuators [throttle, turbo wastegate, and variable camshaft timing (VCT)] is needed for engine torque control. This paper proposes a nonlinear model-based control scheme which combines separate, but coordinated, control modules. Theses modules are based on different control strategies: internal model control (IMC), model predictive control (MPC), and optimal control. It is shown how neural models can be used at different levels and included in the control modules to replace physical models, which are too complex to be online embedded, or to estimate nonmeasured variables. The results obtained from two different test benches show the real-time applicability and good control performance of the proposed methods.

  14. Piezoelectric Windmill: A Novel Solution to Remote Sensing (United States)

    Priya, Shashank; Chen, Chih-Ta; Fye, Darren; Zahnd, Jeff


    This study demonstrates a technology, “Piezoelectric Windmill”, for generating the electrical power from wind energy. The electric power-generation from wind energy is based on piezoelectric effect and utilizes the bimorph actuators. Piezoelectric Windmill consists of piezoelectric actuators arranged along the circumference of the mill in the cantilever form. Using the camshaft gear mechanism an oscillating torque is generated through the flowing wind and applied on the actuators. A working prototype was fabricated utilizing 12 bimorphs (60 × 20 × 0.5 mm3) having a preload of 23.5 gm. Under a nominal torque level corresponding to normal wind flow and oscillating frequency of 6 Hz, a power of 10.2 mW was successfully measured across a load of 4.6 kΩ after rectification. Combined with the wireless transmission, this technology provides a practical solution to the remote powering of sensors and communication devices.

  15. Research on the processing speed of cam grinding (United States)

    Peng, Baoying; Han, Qiushi


    Cam Grinding is a special kind of non-circular machining. The processing speed of cam grinding has a major influence on cam machining precision. In this paper, decomposed the X-axis feed speed and C-axis velocity by the tangential speed and normal speed in accordance with the curvature circle at the point of cam profile grinding. Proposed the cam grinding processing speed model and linear velocity calculation formula, the processing experiment on the CNC camshaft grinding machine results show that the cam grinding speed model is correct. Constant angular speed grinding and constant linear speed grinding are analyzed respectively, which provides a theoretical basis for cam grinding processing speed optimization.

  16. The Development of Running-in Oil for High Speed and Large Power Motorcycle Engine%高速高负荷大功率摩托车发动机磨合油的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋世远; 李华峰; 彭安伟; 王天懿


    高速高负荷大功率摩托车发动机凸轮轴与挺杆间载荷高,使用传统磨合油,在磨合过程中凸轮轴-挺杆出现严重擦伤,导致磨合合格率低。凸轮轴-挺杆处于边界润滑状态,解决其严重磨损、擦伤与烧结的关键在于提高磨合油的极压性能。在配方设计上,选用较高黏度的基础油,并以极压抗磨剂为主剂,通过正交试验,确定添加剂的最佳添加量,研制出满足该型号摩托车发动机磨合要求的专用磨合油,使磨合合格率达到95%以上。该油的配方组成与传统磨合油有显著差异,其最重要的性能特征为具有优异的极压性。%The severe scratch occurred on the surface of camshaft and jib when the traditional running-in oil was used to grind the parts of high speed and large power motorcycle engine,because the duty between camshaft and jib is heavy and the lubricating means between them is boundary lubrication.In order to prevent scratch,the extreme-pressure performance of running-in oil must be greatly enhanced.The formula of the running-in oil is composed of higher viscosity base oil and several kinds of additives,and the extreme-pressure agent is dominant among additives.The special purpose running-in oil was developed by means of orthogonal experiment,which can completely meet the running-in needs.The most important difference between the traditional running-in oil and the special purpose running-in oil is that the latter one is provided with outstanding extreme-pressure performance.

  17. The Design of a Fining Boring Machine for Three Kinds of Holes on the WD12 Cylinder%WD12气缸体三轴孔精镗机床的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海群; 李春燕


    为保证缸体曲轴孔、凸轮轴孔和惰轮孔的加工精度,设计了WD12气缸体三轴孔精镗机床,确定了单面卧式总体方案、加工示意图和电气动作循环表.曲轴孔和凸轮轴孔均是多档间断的长孔,其精度要求高.为提高镗杆的刚度,除尽量加粗镗杆、设置中间支承外,选择德国玛帕生产的直线镗杆和浮动接头及美国GATCO生产的滚动导向套保证精度.采用"一面两销"的定位方案和液压夹紧机构.并对镗模安装提出了具体的要求.设备经十个月的研制,得到用户的认可.%To ensure the accuracy of three kinds of holes of crankshaft, camshaft and idlers, a triaxial fine boring machine for the WD12 cylinder is designed. The singleside horizontal boring is determined which include the overall program machining sketch chart and electrical action cycle table The holes of crankshaft and camshaft are long with intermittent gap and high precision To improve the rigidity of boring bars,some methods are applied. They include making the boring bar thicker, adding the intermediate support,choosing the line boring bars and floating holders of Mapa, and selecting the precision rotary bushings of GATCO. Put to use the fixing scheme of "one plane and two pins" and hydraulic clamping facility and make a specific request of installation requirements of the boring mold in the machine. After ten months of research, the boring machine get user's acceptance

  18. A survey of mortality at two automotive engine manufacturing plants. (United States)

    Park, R M; Mirer, F E


    Mortality at two engine plants was analyzed using proportional mortality and logistic regression models of mortality odds ratios to expand previous observations of increased cancers of the stomach, pancreas, and bladder, and cirrhosis of the liver among workers exposed to machining fluids. Causes of death and work histories were available for 1,870 decendents. There was a significant excess of deaths coded as diabetes for white men in both plants (PMR = 25/16.7 = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and a deficit of respiratory diseases. Black men had fewer than expected diabetes deaths and more emphysema deaths. Elevated PMRs for cancers of the stomach, pancreas, prostate, bladder, and kidney were not statistically significant in plantwide populations. However, stomach cancer mortality increased with duration in camshaft and crankshaft production at Plant 1 (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.6, 17; at mean duration of exposed cases), and among tool room workers (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.3, 31), but these results were based on five cases. Nitrosamines were probably present in camshaft and crankshaft grinding at Plant 1. Pancreas cancer risk increased among workers at both plants ever employed in inspection (OR = 2.5, 16), in machining with straight oil (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.04, 12), or in skilled trades (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 7.5). Lung cancer increased in cylinder head machining (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 11), millwright work (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 9.0), and in Plant 2 generally (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.97, 2.2). Potential lung carcinogens included heat treatment emissions, chlorinated oils, and coal tar fumes (millwrights). Bladder cancer increased with duration among workers grinding in straight oil MF (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.15, 7.8) and in machining/heat-treat operations (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.14, 7.2).

  19. Investigation of the Swirl Effect on Engine Using Designed Swirl Adapter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin AKM


    Full Text Available Swirl is the rotational flow of charge within the cylinder about its axis. The engine used in this investigation is a basic Double Overhead Camshaft (DOHC which has a capacity of 1597 cc and installed with a total of 16 valves developed by Malaysian car manufacturer PROTON. The swirl adapter is placed inside the intake port of the Engine. The Adapter angle is set to 30o to force the charge to bounce off the wall of the port to create swirl. The objective of this paper is to find the effect of swirl on the engine and to compare it with the normal turbulence mixing process. The swirl effect analysis is done by using the GT-SUITE which has a standard swirl flow embedded in the software. The effect is simulated on the GT-SUITE and it is found that the swirl affects the engine in reducing the fuel consumption and increasing the volumetric efficiency. The experimental result shows that the effect of swirl increases the power as well as torque in the idle and cruising speed conditions in comparison with normal turbulence. But it decreases rapidly in the acceleration speed. This happens due to the inability of the swirl adapter to generate swirl at higher wind flow velocity during the higher throttle opening condition.ABSTRAK: Pusar merupakan aliran putaran cas melingkungi silinder pada paksinya. Enjin yang digunakan untuk penyelidikan ini merupakan Enjin Aci Sesondol Stas Kembar (Double Overhead Camshaft (DOHC asas, yang mempunyai kapasiti 1597 cc. Ia dipasangkan dengan 16 injap yang dibangunkan oleh pembuat kereta Malaysia, PROTON. Penyesuai pusar diletakkan di dalam masukan liang enjin. Sudut penyesuai di tetapkan pada 30o untuk memaksa cas supaya melantun kepada dinding liang agar membentuk pusaran. Tujuan tesis ini ditulis adalah untuk mendapatkan kesan pusar ke atas enjin dan membandingkannya dengan proses percampuran gelora normal. Analisis kesan pusaran dilakukan dengan menggunakan GT-SUITE yang mempunyai aliran pusar yang telah dipiawaikan di

  20. FemtoSpeX: a versatile optical pump-soft X-ray probe facility with 100 fs X-ray pulses of variable polarization. (United States)

    Holldack, Karsten; Bahrdt, Johannes; Balzer, Andreas; Bovensiepen, Uwe; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Erko, Alexei; Eschenlohr, Andrea; Follath, Rolf; Firsov, Alexander; Frentrup, Winfried; Le Guyader, Loïc; Kachel, Torsten; Kuske, Peter; Mitzner, Rolf; Müller, Roland; Pontius, Niko; Quast, Torsten; Radu, Ilie; Schmidt, Jan Simon; Schüssler-Langeheine, Christian; Sperling, Mike; Stamm, Christian; Trabant, Christoph; Föhlisch, Alexander


    Here the major upgrades of the femtoslicing facility at BESSY II (Khan et al., 2006) are reviewed, giving a tutorial on how elliptical-polarized ultrashort soft X-ray pulses from electron storage rings are generated at high repetition rates. Employing a 6 kHz femtosecond-laser system consisting of two amplifiers that are seeded by one Ti:Sa oscillator, the total average flux of photons of 100 fs duration (FWHM) has been increased by a factor of 120 to up to 10(6) photons s(-1) (0.1% bandwidth)(-1) on the sample in the range from 250 to 1400 eV. Thanks to a new beamline design, a factor of 20 enhanced flux and improvements of the stability together with the top-up mode of the accelerator have been achieved. The previously unavoidable problem of increased picosecond-background at higher repetition rates, caused by `halo' photons, has also been solved by hopping between different `camshaft' bunches in a dedicated fill pattern (`3+1 camshaft fill') of the storage ring. In addition to an increased X-ray performance at variable (linear and elliptical) polarization, the sample excitation in pump-probe experiments has been considerably extended using an optical parametric amplifier that supports the range from the near-UV to the far-IR regime. Dedicated endstations covering ultrafast magnetism experiments based on time-resolved X-ray circular dichroism have been either upgraded or, in the case of time-resolved resonant soft X-ray diffraction and reflection, newly constructed and adapted to femtoslicing requirements. Experiments at low temperatures down to 6 K and magnetic fields up to 0.5 T are supported. The FemtoSpeX facility is now operated as a 24 h user facility enabling a new class of experiments in ultrafast magnetism and in the field of transient phenomena and phase transitions in solids.

  1. Commande en boucle fermee sur un profil d'aile deformable dans la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis (United States)

    Brossard, Jeremy

    The purpose of the ATR-42 project is to apply the concept of morphing wings by fabricating a morphing composite wing model of the Regional Transport Aircraft-42 to reduce drag and improve the aerodynamic performance. A control-command system coupled to an actuator mechanism will morph the wing skin. However, for best results, the control of the deformation must be studied carefully to insure the precision. Thus, a dual digitalexperimental approach is required. The solution proposed in this paper focuses on the controlled deformation of the upper wing of the ATR-42. A composite wing model with morphing capabilities was built and tested in the wind tunnel to evaluate its aerodynamic performance and serve as reference. A deformation mechanism, consisting of two engines and two camshafts, was subsequently designed and integrated within this model to obtain the optimum wing shapes according to the different flight condition. A control loop position was modeled in Matlab / Simulink and implemented experimentally to control the mechanism. Two types of results have been obtained. The first set concerned regulation and the second concerned aerodynamics. The control loop has achieved the desired skin displacement with an accuracy of 5%. Deformations of the upper skin were performed by a actuation system driven by motors, limitations supply were assured by the regulation architecture. For several flight conditions, the pressure measurements, validated with simulation results, have confirmed a reduction of the induced drag, compared to the original ATR-42 airfoil drag reduction.

  2. Nodularization Comparison between Pour-Over Process and Cored Wire Injection Process%冲入法与喂线法球化处理工艺对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚成方; 李明; 张行河; 房夺


    Nodular iron camshafts of QT600-3 grade were produced with pour-over nodularizing process and cored wire injection process, their chemical composations, microstructures and properties were compared. The result showed that, for the nodular iron produced with cored wire injection process, the residual S content was relatively lower reaching the order of magnitude of 10~\\ fluctuation range of the residual Mg content was also narrow; nodularity and nodule count of castings was relatively higher, graphite size was small; mechanical properties of castings were good and stable.%采用冲入法和喂线法两种球化处理工艺生产QT600-3凸轮轴,对比其成分、组织和性能,结果表明:用喂线法生产的铸件,w(S残)量达到双零级、w(Mg残)量的波动亦小,且球化效果好(石墨球数量多、尺寸小、圆整度高、球化率高),力学性能良好稳定.

  3. The possibility of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and gas to liquid (GTL) as a fuel of diesel engine in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, D. [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejou (Korea)


    A significant challenge grows from the ever-increasing demands for the optimization of performance, emissions, fuel economy and drivability. The most powerful technologies in the near future to improve these factors are believed Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and Gas to Liquid (GTL) as a fuel of Diesel engine. In recent years there has been an increasing trend to use more complex valvetrain designs from traditional camshaft driven mechanical systems to camless electromagnetic or electrohydraulic solutions. Comparing to fixed valve actuation systems, variable valve actuation (VVA) should be powerful to optimize the engine cycle. The matching of valve events to the engine performance and to emission requirements at a given engine or vehicle operating condition can be further optimized to the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine, which has benefits in NOx emission, fuel consumption, combustion stability and intake throttle load. In case of Diesel engine, the increasing demands for NOx and soot emission reduction have introduced aftertreatment technologies recently, but been in need of basic solution for the future, such as a super clean fuel like Gas to Liquid (GTL), which has benefits in comparability to diesel fuel, independency from crude oil and reduction of CO, THC and soot emissions. Korea looks to the future with these kinds of technologies, and tries to find the possibility for reaching the future targets in the internal combustion engine. (orig.)

  4. ZeroFlow - new, environmentally friendly method of controlled gas nitriding used for selected car parts (United States)

    Kowalska, J.; Małdziński, L.


    This article presents new method of controlled gas nitriding called ZeroFlow, which is used for nitriding of selected car parts, such as crankshafts, camshafts, piston rings, poppet valve springs and discs, piston pins or nozzles for unit injectors. This article will discuss the essence of controlled gas nitriding process, with an emphasis on the influence of process parameters on results of nitriding process. This information are the basis to understand the issue of the kinetics of nitrided layer growth, and as it follows - for its practical application in designing, regulation and control of nitriding processes using simulation models (simulator of the kinetics of nitrided layer growth). This article will also present the simulator of the kinetics of nitrided layer growth, which supports nitriding using ZeroFlow method - through the use of simulator layers are obtained in the shortest possible time, which is connected with the lowest energy consumption; therefore, nitriding process using ZeroFlow method and simulator of the kinetics of nitrided layer growth is both economical and environmentally friendly.

  5. 基于虚拟仪器的车载电子电气测试平台设计%Design of Automotive Electrical and Electronic Test Platform Based on Virtual Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永祥; 王子龙; 彭杨


    The hardware system is based on PXI modular and customized board,the software system uses LabVIEW.Dynamic controls of H&H,TOELLNER,programmable variable resistor board and programmable CAN fault injection board are developed.According to the requirements,the interface of user management is designed.The crankshaft camshaft sensor signal,the wheel speed sensor signal and the vehicle speed sensor signal are simulated.Automated and semi-automated testing of electrical and electronic system is realized.%车载电子电气测试平台硬件系统采用PXI模块化板卡与特制信号模拟板卡,软件系统采用LabVIEW模块化软件.集成开发了H&H电源、TOELLNER电源、程控可变电阻模拟板卡与程控CAN故障注入板卡的动态控制;依据测试需求开发了用户管理界面;模拟了曲轴凸轮轴传感器信号、轮速传感器信号及车速传感器信号;实现了车载电子电气系统测试的自动化与半自动化.

  6. DOE Backup Power Working Group Best Practices Handbook for Maintenance and Operation of Engine Generators, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.E.


    The lubricating oil system provides a means to introduce a lubricant in the form of a film to reduce friction and wear between surfaces that bear against each other as they move.1 The oil film which is established also cools the parts by carrying generated heat away from hot surfaces, cleans and carries dirt or metal wear particles to the filter media, and helps seal the piston to the cylinder during combustion. Most systems are pressure lubricated and distribute oil under pressure to bearings, gears, and power assemblies. Lubricating oil usually reaches main, connecting rod, and camshaft bearings through drilled passages in the cylinder block and crankshaft or through piping and common manifolds.Many parts rely on oil for cooling, so if the lube oil system fails to perform its function the engine will overheat. Metal to metal surfaces not separated by a thin film of oil rapidly build up frictional heat. As the metals reach their melting point, they tend to weld together in spots or streaks. Lube oil system failures can cause significant damage to an engine in a short period of time. Proper maintenance and operation of the lubricating oil system is essential if your engine is to accomplish its mission.

  7. Control of fast non linear systems - application to a turbo charged SI engine with variable valve timing; controle des systemes rapides non lineaires - application au moteur a allumage commande turbocompresse a distribution variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, G.


    Spark ignition engine control has become a major issue for the compliance with emissions legislation while ensuring driving comfort. Engine down-sizing is one of the promising ways to reduce fuel consumption and resulting CO{sub 2} emissions. Combining several existing technologies such as supercharging and variable valve actuation, down-sizing is a typical example of the problems encountered in Spark Ignited (SI) engine control: nonlinear systems with saturation of actuators; numerous major physical phenomena not measurable; limited computing time; control objectives (consumption, pollution, performance) often competing. A methodology of modelling and model-based control (internal model and predictive control) for these systems is also proposed and applied to the air path of the down-sized engine. Models, physicals and generics, are built to estimate in-cylinder air mass, residual burned gases mass and air scavenged mass from the intake to the exhaust. The complete and generic engine torque control architecture for the turbo-charged SI engine with variable cam-shaft timing was tested in simulation and experimentally (on engine and vehicle). These tests show that new possibilities are offered in order to decrease pollutant emissions and optimize engine efficiency. (author)

  8. 汽车发动机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [ 篇名 ] Automated tuning of an engine management unit for an automotive engine,[ 篇名 ] Automotive Signal Fault Diagnostics-Part I: Signal Fault Analysis, Signal Segmentation, Feature Extraction and Quasi-Optimal Feature Selection,[ 篇名 ] Automotive tribology overview of current advances and challenges for the future,[ 篇名 ] Camshaft roller chain drive With reduced meshing impact noise levels,[ 篇名] Combating Automotive Engine Valve Recession,[ 篇名 ] Comparison of reliability enhancement tests for electronic equipment,[ 篇名 ] Competitive surface interactions of critical additives with piston ring/cylinder linear components under lubricated breaking-in conditions,[ 篇名 ] Component-based distributed control systems for automotive manufacturing machinery developed under the foresight vehicle program,[ 篇名 ] Compression ratio influence on maximum load of a natural gas-fueled HCCI engine,[ 篇名 ] Computerized analysis of fuel systems performance dynamics,[ 篇名 ] Concepts for the control of boost pressure and EGR-rate for a heavy duty engine,[ 篇名 ] Condition monitoring for a car engine using higher order time frequency method,[ 篇名 ] Design and evaluation of the ELEVATE two-stroke automotive engine,[ 篇名 ] Development of a cheep creep resistant Mg-Al-Zn-Si-base alloy,[ 篇名 ] Development of a nozzle-fouling test for additive rating in heavy-duty DI diesel engines。

  9. Influence of Cycle Temperature on the Wear Resistance of Vermicular Iron Derivatized with Bionic Surfaces (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Yan; Ren, Luquan


    Depending on their applications, such as in brake discs, camshafts, etc., the wear behavior of vermicular iron is influenced by the thermal cycling regime. The failure of a working part during its service life is a consequence of both thermal fatigue and wear. Previously, the wear and thermal fatigue resistance properties of vermicular iron were separately investigated by researchers, rather than a study combining these two factors. In the present work, the effect of cycle temperature on the wear resistance of specimens with bionic units processed by laser has been investigated experimentally. The wear behavior pre- and post-thermal cycling has also been investigated, and the influence of different cycle temperatures on the wear resistance is discussed. The results indicate that the thermal cycling regime brought about negative influences with varying degrees, on the material properties, such as the microstructures, micro-hardness, cracks, and oxidation resistance properties. All these factors synergistically reduced the wear resistance of vermicular iron. In particular, the negative influence apparently increased with an increase in cycle temperature. Nevertheless, the post-thermal-cycle wear resistance of the specimens with bionic units was superior to those without bionic units. Hence, the laser bionic process is an effective way to improve the performance of vermicular iron in combined thermal cycling and wear service conditions.

  10. Control System for Bench Test of CVCT%连续可变凸轮相位台架试验控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建荣; 秦文虎; 李诚


    The control system based on Compact RIO platform for bench test of CVCT is developed according to the requirements of bench test. The hardware and software structure of system are introduced, the detailed design of crankshaft speed measurement, phase calculation and control algorithms are presented. Test results show that the parameters of control system has good reliability and can meet the requirements.%针对连续可变凸轮相位(CVCT,continue variable camshaft timing)系统台架试验控制需求,研制了一套基于CompactRIO平台的CVCT台架试验控制系统.介绍了系统的硬件组成和软件结构,重点给出了转速测量、相位计算和控制算法的详细设计.试验结果表明系统各项指标均符合要求,可靠性好.

  11. The influence of stoichiometry on the growth of tellurium-doped indium antimonide for magnetic field sensors (United States)

    Partin, D. L.; Pelczynski, M.; Cooke, P.; Green, L.; Heremans, J.; Thrush, C. M.


    Indium antimonide magnetoresistors are used as magnetic position sensors in very demanding automotive environments such as crankshaft and camshaft sensors for engine control. The use of tellurium as an n-type dopant was studied using Hall effect measurements up to 200°C, Hall depth profiling, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using trimethyl indium, trisdimethylamino antimony, and diethyl telluride. It was found that the incorporation of tellurium strongly depends upon the V/III ratio during growth, implying that it is influenced by the availability of antimony vacancies. Thus, our results show that the reproducibility of tellurium doping is not limited by memory effects in a well-designed reactor, but by the control of stoichiometry. It is now possible to grow films with optimum doping profile and with good uniformity and reproducibility over hundreds of growth runs. These films can be used to make magnetoresistors that have good sensitivity to a magnetic field and good stability over a wide temperature range.

  12. Deductions concerning dynamics and structure of the Saturn magnetosphere using the Cassini magnetometer (United States)

    Southwood, D. J.; Kivelson, M. G.; Dougherty, M.; Arridge, C.

    The presently accumulated Cassin spacecraft magnetometer data set is used as a basis for describing a scenario for the dynamics of the Saturn magnetosphere where mass transport accomplished in the inner magnetosphere by interchange motion feeds into the outer magnetosphere where ballooning driven by centrifugal stress leads to field reconnection and plasma loss It is shown that the model can be consistent with aspects of the empirical camshaft model proposed by Espinosa et al 2003 to explain Pioneer and Voyager data A fundamental observational feature in the Saturnian context is a planetary induced magnetic field asymmetry which we propose could originate from a localized ionospheric magnetic anomaly while the resulting cyclic stress modulation leads to the current in the current sheet itself being modulated as well as moving up and down Rotating field aligned current structures would thus be a basic feature of the Saturn system The site of magnetic flux return lightly loaded flux tubes moving inwards seems to be localised and may not clearly be related to rotation phase

  13. Integration of CMM software standards for nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines (United States)

    Sparrer, E.; Machleidt, T.; Hausotte, T.; Manske, E.; Franke, K.-H.


    The paper focuses on the utilization of nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines as a three dimensional coordinate measuring machine by means of the international harmonized communication protocol Inspection plus plus for Dimensional Measurement Equipment (abbreviated I++DME). I++DME was designed 1999 to enable the interoperability of different measuring hardware, like coordinate measuring machines, form tester, camshaft or crankshaft measuring machines, with a priori unknown third party controlling and analyzing software. Our recent work was focused on the implementation of a modular, standard conform command interpreter server for the Inspection plus plus protocol. This communication protocol enables the application of I++DME compliant graphical controlling software, which is easy to operate and less error prone than the currently used textural programming via MathWorks MATLab. The function and architecture of the I++DME command interpreter is discussed and the principle of operation is demonstrated by means of an example controlling a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine with Hexagon Metrology's controlling and analyzing software QUINDOS 7 via the I++DME command interpreter server.

  14. Experimental Investigation of 2nd Generation Bioethanol Derived from Empty-fruit-bunch (EFB of Oil-palm on Performance and Exhaust Emission of SI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuandri Putrasari


    Full Text Available The experimental investigation of 2nd generation bioethanol derived from EFB of oil-palm blended with gasoline for 10, 20, 25% by volume and pure gasoline were conducted on performance and exhaust emission tests of SI engine. A four stroke, four cylinders, programmed fuel injection (PGMFI, 16 valves variable valve timing and electronic lift control (VTEC, single overhead camshaft (SOHC, and 1,497 cm3 SI engine (Honda/L15A was used in this investigation. Engine performance test was carried out for brake torque, power, and fuel consumption. The exhaust emission was analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO and hydrocarbon (HC. The engine was operated on speed range from1,500 until 4,500 rev/min with 85% throttle opening position. The results showed that the highest brake torque of bioethanol blends achieved by 10% bioethanol content at 3,000 to 4,500 rpm, the brake power was greater than pure gasoline at 3,500 to 4,500 rpm for 10% bioethanol, and bioethanol-gasoline blends of 10 and 20% resulted greater bsfc than pure gasoline at low speed from 1,500 to 3,500 rpm. The trend of CO and HC emissions tended to decrease when the engine speed increased.

  15. Evidence for Corotating Convection in Saturn's Magnetosphere (United States)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Southwood, D. J.; Dougherty, M. K.


    Saturn's magnetic field exhibits a high degree of azimuthal symmetry, yet the field and plasma signatures of the magnetosphere are modulated at a period close to that of planetary rotation. How, then, is a clear periodicity imposed on the magnetic field and plasma of the planetary magnetosphere? In this talk, Cassini magnetometer data are used to develop a scenario for the dynamics of the Saturn magnetosphere. The proposal is that mass transport, accomplished in the inner magnetosphere by interchange motion, feeds into the outer magnetosphere where ballooning driven by centrifugal stress leads to outward transport, field reconnection and plasma loss in a favored local time sector; flux is transported inward in other regions. The model is closely related to the concept of corotating convection proposed by Dessler, Hill, and co-workers for Jupiter. The proposed mechanism can be consistent with aspects of the empirical camshaft model introduced by Espinosa et al., 2003 to explain Pioneer and Voyager magnetometer data. Anomalous transport here proposed could originate from a localized ionospheric conductivity anomaly. The resulting cyclic stress modulates the current in the current sheet and can account for its north-south excursions. The convection patterns proposed also imply that corotating, field-aligned currents would be a basic feature of the Saturn system.

  16. The new engine generation of the R4 TFSI from Audi; Die neue Motorengeneration des R4 TFSI von Audi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiduk, T.; Dornhoefer, R.; Eiser, A.; Grigo, M.; Pelzer, A.; Wurms, R [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)


    The new 1.8l TFSI engine in the Audi B8 family (A4, A5) is the third generation of the fourcylinder inline TFSI technology to be launched onto the market by Audi. The engine has been completely revised in order to meet ambitious CO2 targets and ensure compliance with future EU6 emissions standards. The development also incorporated other strategic objectives, such as cross-market applicability and integration into the VW Group's worldwide manufacturing network, as ongoing key elements of the EA888 global engine family. The new generation features numerous innovative technologies, including a cooled exhaust manifold integrated into the cylinder head, a combined FSI/MPI fuel injection system with 200 bar high-pressure injection, and the Audi valve lift system [1, 2] on the exhaust side in combination with an exhaust camshaft adjuster. A particular highlight is the world's first deployment of an entirely newly developed rotary slide control system to implement intelligent thermo-management. Bringing together all the fundamental revisions to components with a view to optimising thermodynamics, friction and weight, the first embodiment of this new engine generation - the 1.8l TFSI - represents a new benchmark in its class in terms of fuel efficiency and performance. (orig.)

  17. Measurement and analysis of angular velocity variations of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft (United States)

    Bulatović, Ž. M.; Štavljanin, M. S.; Tomić, M. V.; Knežević, D. M.; Biočanin, S. Lj.


    This paper presents the procedures for measuring and analyzing the angular velocity variation of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft on its free end and on the power-output end. In addition, the paper deals with important aspects of the measurement of crankshaft torsional oscillations. The method is based on digital encoders placed at two distances, and one of them is a sensor not inserted directly on the shaft, i.e. a non-contact method with a toothed disc is used. The principle based on toothed disc is also used to measure the actual camshaft angular velocity of in-line compact high-pressure pump the engine is equipped with, and this paper aims to demonstrate the possibility of measuring the actual angular velocity of any rotating shaft in the engine, on which it is physically possible to mount a toothed disc. The method was created completely independently during long-range development and research tests of V46 family engines. This method is specific for its particular adaptability for use on larger engines with extensive vibrations and torsional oscillations. The main purpose of this paper is a practical contribution to all the more interesting research of the use of engine crankshaft angular velocity as a diagnostic tool for identifying the engine irregular running.

  18. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems. (United States)

    Darby, Scott G; Moore, Matthew R; Friedlander, Troy A; Schaffer, David K; Reiserer, Ron S; Wikswo, John P; Seale, Kevin T


    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central camshaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanolitres of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL min(-1) to above 1.0 µL min(-1). At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices.

  19. Titanium in Engine Valve Systems (United States)

    Allison, J. E.; Sherman, A. M.; Bapna, M. R.


    Titanium alloys offer a unique combination of high strength-to-weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and favorable high temperature mechanical properties. Still, their relatively high cost has discouraged consideration for widespread use in automotive components. Recent demands for increased fuel economy have led to the consideration of these alloys for use as valve train materials where higher costs might be offset by improvements in performance and fuel economy. Lighter weight valve train components permit the use of lower spring loads, thus reducing friction and increasing fuel economy. Camshaft friction measurements made on a typical small displacement engine indicate that a twoto-four percent increase in fuel economy can be achieved. Valve train components are, however, subject to a severe operating environment, including elevated temperatures, sliding wear and high mechanical loads. This paper discusses the details of alloy and heat treatment selection for optimizing valve performance. When properly manufactured, titanium valves have been shown to withstand very stringent durability testing, indicating the technical feasibility of this approach to fuel economy improvement.

  20. Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals (United States)

    Heimann, P. A.; Larsson, J.; Chang, Z.; Lindenberg, A.; Schuck, P. J.; Judd, E.; Padmore, H. A.; Bucksbaum, P. H.; Lee, R. W.; Murnane, M.; Kapteyn, H.; Wark, J. S.; Falcone, R. W.


    An apparatus has been developed for measuring time-dependent x-ray diffraction. X-ray pulses from an Advanced Light Source bend magnet are diffracted by a sagittally-focusing Si (111) crystal and then by a sample crystal, presently InSb (111). Laser pulses with 100 fs duration and a repetition rate of 1 KHz irradiate the sample inducing a phase transition. Two types of detectors are being employed: an x-ray streak camera and an avalanche photodiode. The streak camera is driven by a photoconductive switch and has a 2 ps temporal resolution determined by trigger jitter. The avalanche photodiode has high quantum efficiency and sufficient time resolution to detect single x-ray pulses in ALS two bunch or `camshaft' operation. A beamline is under construction dedicated for time resolved and micro-diffraction experiments. In the new beamline a toroidal mirror collects 3 mrad horizontally and makes a 1:1 image of the bend magnet source in the x-ray hutch. A laser induced phase transition has been observed in InSb occurring within 70 ps.

  1. Design and study of synchronous toothed belt drive system for 4100Q gasoline engine%4100Q汽油机同步齿形带传动系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志香; 苏铁熊; 郑国璋


    根据4100Q汽油机双项置凸轮轴配气机构及机油泵同步传动的特点,考虑了同步带的横向振动,进行了同步带传动系统的布置,给出了同步带传动系统各个环节的设计计算过程和所用的经验数据.提出了一种正时标记方法及与带轮啮合的同步带外侧表面和同步带防护罩壳内侧之间最小距离的计算方法,利用此方法设计了同步带传动系统防护装置.%Based on the features as the double overhead camshafts valve mechanism and the synchronous drive of oil pump of 4100Q gasoline engine, by considering the transverse vibration of synchronous belts, the synchronous belts drive system was configured.The design calculation process and empirical data at various links of synchronous belts drive system were given.A timing mark method as well as the calculation method for minimum distance between synchronous belt side face of the pulley mesh and inside of the synchronous belt protective enclosure was put forward.The protective device of synchronous belt driving system was designed by using this method.

  2. Design of Synchronous Belt Drive System for 469Q Gasoline Engine%469Q汽油机正时传动系统的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志香; 苏铁熊; 郑国璋


    根据469Q汽油机双顶置凸轮轴配气机构的特点,进行了正时传动系统的布置,给出了正时传动系统各个环节的设计计算过程、所用的经验数据及应遵循的原则,并提出了一种正时标记方法,设计了发动机正时传动系统的防护装置,提出了各阶段设计应注意的问题.试验表明,汽油机性能稳定,正时传动系统设计可靠.%Based on the admission gear of double overhead camshafts of 469Q gasoline engine, the synchronous belt drive system is ananged. The design calculation process, experience data and principle to be followed in various stages are given. A method used to be timing marking is put forward. Besides, the protective device of synchronous belt driving system is designed. The matters that need attention in the each design phase are emphasized. The test shows that the performance of 469Q gasoline engine is stabilization and the synchronous belt drive system is credibility.

  3. Fault Analysis and Management of Diesel Engine Using the Valve-Train%柴油机配气机构使用中的故障分析及管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Valve-train diesel engine is an important part of diesel engine,and is also one of the main moving parts of diesel engine.Damage of valve spare parts includes damage of camshaft,damage of air valve,break of air valve spring.The management in using valve train should attach importance to examination,adjustment,maintenance and necessary repair of valve spare parts.%柴油机配气机构是柴油机的重要组成部分,同时也是柴油机的主要运动部件之一。配气机构零部件的损坏包括凸轮轴的损坏、气阀的损坏、气阀弹簧的折断等。配气机构使用中的管理应注重对机构零件的检查、调整、保养和进行必要的修理。


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.


    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special

  5. The new 1.7 ltr. Zetec-SE engine for Ford`s sports coupe Puma; Der neue 1,7-l-Zetec-SE-Motor fuer das Sportcoupe Puma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuser, G. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany); Oppel, R. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany); Eden, M.; Farenden, G.; Warren, G.A. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany); Menne, R.J. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany)


    For the 1996 model year, as well as a much revised Fiesta, Ford has introduced an entire generation of newly-developed engines. These were four-valve engines with swept volumes of 1.25 and 1.4 litres. On the basis of these engines, in close collaboration with Yamaha Ford has developed a high-performance engine with a swept volume of 1.7 litres. This engine will be launched in the course of this year in the sports coupe based on the Fiesta. In this engine, Ford is using a continuously variable advance/retard adjustment of the inlet camshaft for the first time. The essential features of this new engine are presented in this article, focusing on the most important differences and innovations compared with the 1.25 ltr. and 1.4 ltr. engines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem Modelljahr 1996 fuehrte Ford zusammen mit dem stark ueberarbeiteten Fiesta eine komplett neu entwickelte Motorengeneration ein. Hierbei handelt es sich um Motoren in Vierventiltechnik mit Hubraeumen von 1,25 l und 1,4 l. Basierend auf diesen Motoren hat Ford in enger Zusammenarbeit mit Yamaha einen Hochleistungsmotor mit einem Hubraum von 1,7 l entwickelt. Er kommt im Verlauf dieses Jahres im auf dem Fiesta basierenden Sportcoupe zum Einsatz. Bei diesem Motor setzt Ford erstmals eine kontinuierlich einstellbare Einlassnockenwellen-Verstellung ein. In diesem Beitrag wird der neue Motor in seinen Grundzuegen vorgestellt. Den Schwerpunkt stellt jedoch die Darstellung der wichtigsten Unterschiede und Neuerungen im Vergleich zum 1,25-l- und zum 1,4-l-Motor dar. (orig.)

  6. Simulation Optimization of Lifting Mechanism of Cassava Tuber Harvester%木薯块根拔起机构仿真优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科余; 覃海鑫; 杨望


    In order to solve mass problem of lifting mechanism of dig-pull cassava tuber harvester designed by Guangxi University, dynamic simulation model of lifting mechanism was established by ADAMS.Load conditions of main compo-nents of the mechanism were analyzed in the dynamic simulation.Lightweight optimization on the components was carried out by using ANSYS and the parametric optimization method.The results show that the simulation model of lifting mecha-nism has high accuracy.Mass of optimized front and back straight bars, splined shaft and camshaft are reduced by 81. 6%,41.1%,51.3%and 53.2%, respectively.The lightweight optimization is achieved.%针对广西大学设计的挖拔式木薯块根收获机拔起机构存在质量较大的问题,先采用 ADAMS 仿真软件,建立拔起机构的动力学仿真模型,通过动力学仿真,分析各主要部件的受力情况;后采用ANSYS软件及参数化优化方法,对各主要部件进行轻量化优化。结果表明:所建立的木薯收获拔起机构仿真模型精度较高,优化后块根拔起机构的前后直杆、花键轴及凸轮轴的质量分别减轻了81.6%、41.1%、51.3%、53.2%,达到了轻量化的优化目的。

  7. Throttle-free load control - an engine concept for future requirements; Drosselfreie Laststeuerung - ein Motorkonzept zur Erfuellung zukuenftiger Anforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueting, M.; Flierl, R.; Unger, H. [Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), Muenchen (Germany)


    The SI-Engine has a disadvantage in fuel economy compared with a DI-Diesel engine. One of the major effects is the throttle driven load control with its pumping losses. The priority target is to reduce these losses in the thermodynamic process with a throttle-free load control. Fully variable valve trains are one technical solution to realize a load-controlled closing of the inlet-valves. The essential variability can be achieved by fully variable mechanical valve trains or mechatronic systems. The camshaft driven mechanical system is based on the technology of the BMW Double-VANOS system. An additional variability makes it possible to shift the valve lift continuously in order to control the valve closing. The highest variability is given by a system with each valve being controlled separately. The electromechanical valve train enables the optimized timing of the individual valve. The energy is supplied by a Starter/Alternator with high efficiency mounted directly on the crankshaft. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Ottomotor ist insbesondere gegenueber dem direkteinspritzenden Dieselmotor in Puncto Verbrauch im Nachteil. Ein wesentlicher Verlustanteil heutiger Ottomotoren liegt im Prinzip der Drosselsteuerung begruendet. Primaeres Ziel ist daher die Verringerung der thermodynamischen Verlustanteile durch eine `drosselfreie Laststeuerung`. Einen moeglichen Loesungsansatz bieten vollvariable Ventiltriebe, die ein fuellungssteuerndes Schliessen der Einlassventile ermoeglichen. Die dafuer erforderliche Variabilitaet kann sowohl mit rein mechanischen Ventiltrieben als auch mit mechatronischen Systemen dargestellt werden. Das mechanische, nockenwellengetriebene System basiert auf der Technologie des Doppel-VANOS Systems und erlaubt ueber eine zusaetzliche Variabilitaet, den Ventilhub stufenlos zu verstellen. Die hoechste Variabilitaet bieten nockenwellenlose Konzepte. Der elektromechanische Ventiltrieb erlaubt, die optimale Steuerzeit jedes einzelnen Ventils in Abhaengigkeit vom

  8. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14 (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.


    that eliminated the conventional camshaft was demonstrated on the test bed. High pressure fuel injection via a common rail system was also developed to reduce particulate emissions.

  9. Some measurements in synthetic turbulent boundary layers (United States)

    Savas, O.


    Synthetic turbulent boundary layers are examined which were constructed on a flat plate by generating systematic moving patterns of turbulent spots in a laminar flow. The experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number based on plate length of 1,700,000. Spots were generated periodically in space and time near the leading edge to form a regular hexagonal pattern. The disturbance mechanism was a camshaft which displaced small pins momentarily into the laminar flow at frequencies up to 80 Hz. The main instrumentation was a rake of 24 hot wires placed across the flow in a line parallel to the surface. The main measured variable was local intermittency; i.e., the probability of observing turbulent flow at a particular point in space and time. The results are reported in x-t diagrams showing the evolution of various synthetic flows along the plate. The dimensionless celerity or phase velocity of the large eddies is found to be 0.88, independent of eddy scale. All patterns with sufficiently small scales eventually showed loss of coherence as they moved downstream. A novel phenomenon called eddy transposition was observed in several flows which contained appreciable laminar regions. The large eddies shifted in formation to new positions, intermediate to their original ones, while preserving their hexagonal pattern. The present results, together with some empirical properties of a turbulent spot, are used to estimate the best choice of scales for constructing a synthetic boundary layer suitable for detailed study. The values recommended are: spanwise scale/thickness = 2.5, streamwise scale/thickness = 8.

  10. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine (United States)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  11. The new RENAULT TCe 130 1.4 I turbocharged gasoline engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccadoro, Yves; Tranchant, Olivier; Pionnier, Robert; Engelhardt, Helmut [Renault s.a.s., Rueil-Malmaison (France). Powertrain Div.


    Committed to remain amongst the best car manufacturers in term of CO{sub 2} emissions, RENAULT is pursuing the development of an affordable ''downsized'' engine line-up referred to as TCe engines, initiated two years ago with TCe 100 1.2 I turbocharged gasoline engine. This paper describes the development of TCe 130 1.4 I turbocharged engine meant to replace the existing 2.0 I naturally aspirated engine thus significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in the 130 HP range. Like other engines in the TCe family, TCe 130 offers optimum cost to value, combining fuel economy with performance and liveliness. The engine has a maximum torque of 190 Nm rate at 2250 rpm with maximum power of 96 kW rate at 5500 rpm. Low rpm torque and particularly low end torque were given special attention in order to have very pleasing acceleration capabilities. Compared to a similar 2.0 I naturally aspirated engine on the existing Megane (C segment), fuel economy of new Megane III is improved by about 20% on NEDC cycle. The engine derives from NISSAN's 1.6 I naturally aspirated engine which shows reduced weight and total cost of ownership, it has an aluminium block with cast iron inserted cylinder liners. Other design features include a forged crankshaft with 8 counterweights, a variable valve timing system on the inlet camshaft and a timing chain. The engine has been co-developed by RENAULT and NISSAN Engineering Teams. (orig.)

  12. A New, Highly Improved Two-Cycle Engine (United States)

    Wiesen, Bernard


    The figure presents a cross-sectional view of a supercharged, variable-compression, two-cycle, internal-combustion engine that offers significant advantages over prior such engines. The improvements are embodied in a combination of design changes that contribute synergistically to improvements in performance and economy. Although the combination of design changes and the principles underlying them are complex, one of the main effects of the changes on the overall engine design is reduced (relative to prior two-cycle designs) mechanical complexity, which translates directly to reduced manufacturing cost and increased reliability. Other benefits include increases in the efficiency of both scavenging and supercharging. The improvements retain the simplicity and other advantages of two-cycle engines while affording increases in volumetric efficiency and performance across a wide range of operating conditions that, heretofore have been accessible to four-cycle engines but not to conventionally scavenged two-cycle ones, thereby increasing the range of usefulness of the two-cycle engine into all areas now dominated by the four-cycle engine. The design changes and benefits are too numerous to describe here in detail, but it is possible to summarize the major improvements: Reciprocating Shuttle Inlet Valve The entire reciprocating shuttle inlet valve and its operating gear is constructed as a single member. The shuttle valve is actuated in a lost-motion arrangement in which, at the ends of its stroke, projections on the shuttle valve come to rest against abutments at the ends of grooves in a piston skirt. This shuttle-valve design obviates the customary complex valve mechanism, actuated from an engine crankshaft or camshaft, yet it is effective with every type of two-cycle engine, from small high-speed single cylinder model engines, to large low-speed multiple cylinder engines.

  13. Dynamic imaging with a triggered and intensified CCD camera system in a high-intensity neutron beam (United States)

    Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Brunner, J.; Gildemeister, A. E.; Engelhardt, M.


    When time-dependent processes within metallic structures should be inspected and visualized, neutrons are well suited due to their high penetration through Al, Ag, Ti or even steel. Then it becomes possible to inspect the propagation, distribution and evaporation of organic liquids as lubricants, fuel or water. The principle set-up of a suited real-time system was implemented and tested at the radiography facility NEUTRA of PSI. The highest beam intensity there is 2×107 cm s, which enables to observe sequences in a reasonable time and quality. The heart of the detection system is the MCP intensified CCD camera PI-Max with a Peltier cooled chip (1300×1340 pixels). The intensifier was used for both gating and image enhancement, where as the information was accumulated over many single frames on the chip before readout. Although, a 16-bit dynamic range is advertised by the camera manufacturers, it must be less due to the inherent noise level from the intensifier. The obtained result should be seen as the starting point to go ahead to fit the different requirements of car producers in respect to fuel injection, lubricant distribution, mechanical stability and operation control. Similar inspections will be possible for all devices with repetitive operation principle. Here, we report about two measurements dealing with the lubricant distribution in a running motorcycle motor turning at 1200 rpm. We were monitoring the periodic stationary movements of piston, valves and camshaft with a micro-channel plate intensified CCD camera system (PI-Max 1300RB, Princeton Instruments) triggered at exactly chosen time points.

  14. 基于肤色识别的人机交互方法在游戏中的应用研究%Research on Human-Computer Interaction Methods in Game Application Based on Skin Color Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玉宝; 夏露; 侯宪锋


    利用计算机视觉技术实现游戏人机交互来提高游戏的娱乐性,是当前国内外应用研究的热点.文中提出了采用肤色检测技术应用于游戏交互的方法.通过摄像头对肤色进行采样,再利用统计方法对皮肤颜色进行分析建立肤色模型;采用背景差分阈值分割法和Camshift算法进行手势跟踪监测,获取手的位置;将手的位置作为信号传递给游戏角色,从而控制游戏.在VC ++6.0下,使用OpenCV和OpenGL开源库,构建了普通摄像头视觉游戏实验平台,通过手势的运动轨迹控制粒子系统喷射方向.实验结果表明,通过肤色进行手势跟踪监测,进而控制游戏角色运动,具有很好的实时性和交互性.%The game human-computer interaction is fulfilled by making use of computer vision technology to improve the game entertainment. It is a current research hotspot at home and abroad. This paper puts forward the method that the skin detection technology is applied to game interaction. Skin detection technology is applied in human-computer interaction in this paper. Skin color is sampled through the camera, and skin color model is established by making use of statistical methods for analysis of skin color. In order to reduce the influence of the background color recognition, the RGB model translates into HSV model. It takes advantage of the background difference threshold segmentation method and Camshaft algorithm for hand tracking monitoring to get the position of the hand. So as to control the game, the position of handle as a signal is transmitted to characters. And in VC+ + 6. 0, it uses open source library OpenCV and gestures OpenGL to build a common experimental platform game camera vision, with gestures trajectory controlling particle system injection. The experimental result shows that making use of the skin color tracking and monitoring gesture to control game character movement has very good real-time and interactivity.

  15. Los batanes hidráulicos de la cuenca del Guadalquivir a fines de la Edad Media. Explotación y equipamiento técnico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordóba de la Llave, Ricardo


    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a technological analysis of the waterpowered fulling mills working in the Guadalquivir basin in the Late Middle Ages. After briefl y reviewing the process of fulling woollen cloth, this paper focuses on the discussion about the origin and spread of fulling mills in Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. It then describes the features of their architecture and it looks at the places where they were located on the most important rivers of the basin. The main chapter is devoted to studying how they worked, analyzing the systems used for making better use of water-power (dams, channels, vertical water wheels and camshafts and the various components or pieces of machinery (castle, beams, triphammers, stack. The study ends with a brief refl ection on the technology used in the mills.

    El presente trabajo tiene por objeto el análisis tecnológico de los batanes hidráulicos que funcionaron en la cuenca del Guadalquivir a fi nes de la Edad Media. Tras repasar brevemente el proceso de abatanado de los paños de lana, el artículo se centra en la discusión acerca del origen y difusión del batán hidráulico en Europa y en la Península Ibérica. A continuación se describen los rasgos de su arquitectura y se exponen los lugares donde se ubicaron en los ríos más importantes de la cuenca. El capítulo principal es el dedicado a estudiar su funcionamiento, analizando los sistemas empleados para el aprovechamiento de la energía hidráulica (presas, canales, ruedas hidráulicas y árbol de levas y los diversos componentes o piezas de la maquinaria (castillo, astiles, mazos, pila. Una breve refl exión sobre la pervivencia a lo largo de los siglos de la tecnología utilizada en los batanes cierra el trabajo.

  16. Dynamic characteristic analysis of diesel timing gear trains%柴油机正时齿轮系动力学特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一民; 郝志勇; 叶慧飞


    为了分析柴油机正时齿轮系的动力学特性以及对前端噪声的影响,建立正时齿轮系的多体动力学模型.分析考虑各齿轮负载及曲轴角速度波动时的齿轮扭转角位移、啮合齿对相对运动以及动态啮合力,并对比了不考虑曲轴角速度波动时的计算结果.结果表明,由曲轴扭振引起的角速度波动能够明显加大齿轮系的振动与冲击.凸轮轴齿轮扭转角位移的实验结果与计算结果较为一致.前端声强实验表明在1 000 Hz以下,齿轮系动态特性对噪声影响较大,高频处由齿轮加工精度影响的传递误差引起的噪声较大.通过设计曲轴扭振减振器,可以改善齿轮系的啮合振动与冲击,相应地减小前端的辐射噪声.%To analyze dynamic characteristic of diesel timing gear trains and whose influence on noise of engine front, muti-body dynamic model of diesel timing gear trains was established. Gear torsional angular displacement, relative motion in the tooth pair meshed and dynamic meshing force were analyzed considering gear trains loads and crankshaft angular velocity fluctuation, which were compared with that without considering crankshaft angular velocity fluctuation. Results showed that angular velocity fluctuation caused by crankshaft torsional vibration can increase vibration and shock among gear trains obviously. Test result of camshaft gear torsional angular displacement was consistent with the simulation result. Front sound intensity experiment displayed that radiated noise is mainly affected by dynamic characteristic of gear trains below 1000'Hz and by transmission error due to machining accuracy in high frequency range. Through design of crankshaft torsional vibration damper, meshing vibration and shock of gear trains can be improved and the radiated noise can be reduced correspondingly.

  17. PID Parameters of PSO-GA Combination Algorithm Optimization and Design of Visual Platform%PSO-GA组合算法优化PID参数及可视化平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晋伟; 梅钦; 李海涌; 宁堃; 金爱韦


    PID控制是机床伺服控制系统中广泛应用的一种控制方式,PID参数是否合理直接影响着伺服系统的性能.以MKS8332A数控凸轮轴磨床砂轮架伺服系统为模型,提出一种基于粒子群-遗传组合算法(PSO-GA)的PID控制器参数优化方法.仿真结果表明,该算法寻优性能比单独的遗传算法和粒子群算法表现更为优异,证实了该算法能有效的优化伺服系统PID参数.为了使用户无需去了解复杂的算法源代码,而只需在平台上进行操作就可以解决PID参数的优化问题.多种智能算法被引入称为可视化平台的优化软件设计,用MATLAB GUI编程环境构建了PID参数可视化平台,为用户提供一个友好的图形界面.%PID control is widely used in machine tool servo control system.Whether the parameters are reasonable or not is very important to affect the performance of the servo control system.MKS8332A CNC camshaft grinding wheel servo system is seen as a model,PID controller parameters optimization method based on PSO-GA combination algorithm is proposed.The simulation results in PID controller parameters optimization show that the algorithm is superior to the single GA or PSO algorithm,which confirmed that the algorithm can effectively optimize the PID controller parameters of the servo system.In order not to make users need to understand the complex source code of the algorithms,optimization problem of PID parameters can be solved just to execute operations on the platform.Some intelligent algorithms are introduced to the optimization software,called visual platform,using MATLAB GUI programming environment to construct PID parameters visual platform,which provide a friendly graphical interface for users.

  18. Evaluation of Process Capability in Gas Carburizing Process to Achieve Quality through Limit Design Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Palaniradja; N. Alagumurthi; V. Soundararajan


    Steel is the most important metallic material used in industry. This is because of the versatility of its engineering properties under different conditions. In one condition it can be very mild, soft and suitable for any forming operation. In another condition the same steel can be very hard and strong. This versatility is made possible by the different heat treatments that the steel can be subject to. One such treatment is Gas carburizing. This is the most widely used process for surface hardening of low carbon steels. In this method the surface composition of the steel changes by diffusion of carbon and or nitrogen and result in hard outer surface with good wear resistance properties. A striking feature of Gas Carburizing process is that in this process the original toughness and ductility remains unaffected even after heat treatment. 3% nickel chromium case hardened low carbon steels are widely used for critical automotive and machine applications such as rack and pinion, gears, camshaft, valve rocker shafts and axles which requires high fatigue resistance. Fatigue behaviour of case carburized parts depends to a great extent on the correct combination of Hardness Penetration Depth (HPD) and the magnitude of hardness at the surface and beneath the surface with low size and shape distortion. In order to reduce the manufacturing costs in terms of material consumption and elimination of the number of processing steps, the effect of Gas carburizing parameters on the fatigue behaviour should already be considered in the parameter design stage. Therefore it is of importance to optimize the gas carburizing process variables to attain quality products with respect to hardness and case depth. In the present paper, the evaluation of process capability was carried out through a Limit Design Concept called orthogonal array design of experiment. To optimize the process variables the influence of several parameters (Holding time,Carbon potential, Furnace temperature and Quench

  19. The effects of novel surface treatments on the wear and fatigue properties of steel and chilled cast iron (United States)

    Carroll, Jason William

    Contact fatigue driven wear is a principal design concern for gear and camshaft engineering of power systems. To better understand how to engineer contact fatigue resistant surfaces, the effects of electroless nickel and hydrogenated diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings on the fatigue life at 108 cycles of SAE 52100 steel were studied using ultrasonic fatigue methods. The addition of DLC and electroless nickel coatings to SAE 52100 bearing steel had no effect on the fatigue life. Different inclusion types were found to affect the stress intensity value beyond just the inclusion size, as theorized by Murakami. The difference in stress intensity values necessary to propagate a crack for Ti (C,N) and alumina inclusions was due to the higher driving force for crack extension at the Ti (C,N) inclusions and was attributed to differences in the shape of the inclusion: rhombohedral for the Ti (C,N) versus spherical for the oxides. A correction factor was added to the Murakami equation to account for inclusion type. The wear properties of DLC coated SAE 52100 and chilled cast iron were studied using pin-on-disk tribometry and very high cycle ultrasonic tribometry. A wear model that includes sliding thermal effects as well as thermodynamics consistent with the wear mechanism for DLCs was developed based on empirical results from ultrasonic wear testing to 108 cycles. The model fit both ultrasonic and classic tribometer data for wear of DLCs. Finally, the wear properties of laser hardened steels - SAE 8620, 4140, and 52100 - were studied at high contact pressures and low numbers of cycles. A design of experiments was conducted to understand how the laser processing parameters of power, speed, and beam size, as well as carbon content of the steel, affected surface hardness. A hardness maximum was found at approximately 0.7 wt% carbon most likely resulting from increased amounts of retained austenite. The ratcheting contact fatigue model of Kapoor was found to be useful in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sukhotsky


    Full Text Available The paper describes development of the methodology for optimization of parameters for an additional operating force mechanism in a device for pneumo-centrifugal machining of glass balls. Specific feature in manufacturing glass balls for micro-optics in accordance with technological process for obtaining ball-shaped workpieces is grinding and polishing of spherical surface in a free state. In this case component billets of future balls are made in the form of cubes and the billets are given preliminary a form of ball with the help of rough grinding. An advanced method for obtaining ball-shaped work-pieces from brittle materials is a pneumocentrifugal machining. This method presupposes an application of two conic rings with abrasive working surfaces which are set coaxially with large diameters to each other and the billets are rolled along these rings. Rotation of the billets is conveyed by means of pressure medium.The present devices for pneumo-centrifugal machining are suitable for obtaining balls up to 6 mm. Machining of the work-pieces with full spherical surfaces and large diameter is non-productive due to impossibility to ensure a sufficient force on the billet in the working zone. For this reason the paper proposes a modified device where an additional force on the machined billet is created by upper working disc that is making a reciprocating motion along an axis of abrasive conic rings. The motion is realized with the help of a cylindrical camshaft mechanism in the form of a ring with a profile working end face and the purpose of present paper is to optimize parameters of the proposed device.The paper presents expressions for calculation of constitutive parameters of the additional operating force mechanism including parameters of loading element motion, main dimensions of the additional operating force mechanism and parameters of a profile element in the additional operating force mechanism.Investigation method is a mathematical

  1. Experimental and analytical investigation of finger-follower cam systems (United States)

    Hsu, Wensyang

    A predictive dynamic model to compute the motions of components in cam systems, along with the experimental work to verify the model are described. The major components in finger-follower cam systems include the cam, the follower, the hydraulic lash adjuster, and the valve spring, equipped sometimes with a helical valve spring cup damper. In order to fully describe the dynamics of such a system, a lumped/distributed parameter model for the finger-follower cam system with a moving follower pivot is proposed. The valve spring is modeled as a distributed parameter element, and the adjuster is modeled as a stiff spring with viscous damping. The coulomb friction combined with viscous damping between sliding surfaces are also considered. The model predicts toss between the adjuster and the follower at 2535 rpm, and experiment indicates toss starting at 2520 rpm. It is found by simulation that designing hydraulic lash adjuster to be as rigid as possible is essential to successful high speed operation of finger-follower valve trains because a 50 percent decrease in the compliance of the adjuster could increase the maximum camshaft operating speed 150 rpm. Total elimination of the hydraulic lash adjuster is not always feasible because hydraulic lash adjusters can eliminate the clearance between components and do not need to be mechanically, manually adjusted. In order to provide a more stable and precise description on the dynamic response of the adjuster, a two-mode dynamic model for the adjuster is proposed by considering the oil compressibility in the oil chamber, as well as the oil leakage through the annular gap. Furthermore, the effect due to the oil flow from the central orifice to the oil chamber is also studied analytically and experimentally. The inertia effects of the helical valve spring can be suppressed by a cup damper. Damping between the damper and spring wire is found to depend only weakly on relative sliding velocity. The current formula in computing

  2. Comparative study in LTC Combustion between a short HP EGR loop without cooler and a variable lift and duration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bression, Guillaume; Pacaud, Pierre; Soleri, Dominique; Cessou, Jerome [IFP (France); Azoulay, David [Renault Powertrain Div. (France); Lawrence, David [Mechadyne (United Kingdom); Doradoux, Laurent; Guerrassi, Noureddine [Delphi Diesel Systems (France)


    In order to reach future Diesel emission standards such as Euro 6 or Tier 2 Bin 5, NO{sub x} emissions need to be dramatically reduced. Advanced technologies and engine settings such as higher EGR rates, reduced compression ratio, EGR cooler and low-pressure EGR loop - depending on vehicle application - may help to reach this target whilst maintaining low CO{sub 2} emissions and fuel consumption. However, the resulting low combustion temperatures and the low air-fuel ratios lead to a significant increase in HC and CO emissions, especially during the start-up phase prior to catalyst light-off. Moreover, high levels of EGR make transient operation even more difficult. So HC-CO emissions and EGR transient operation represent two key issues that could limit the extension of this alternative combustion mode. Consequently, an in-depth investigation of a variable lift and duration (VLD) system was performed to overcome these problems on a 4-cylinder engine, which was also equipped with a dual HP-LP EGR loop. The VLD system tested in this paper produces a variable camshaft-operated exhaust valve re-opening, which is controlled by a hydraulic rotary actuator, ensuring quick and accurate regulation of the internal gas recirculation (IGR). By increasing gas temperature in the combustion chamber, this advanced technology allows us to reduce HC-CO emissions by 50% under 3 bar BMEP. Although efficient, this technology has to be compared with other solutions from a cost-to-value point of view. The aim of this paper is firstly to compare the double lift exhaust system with a short route high-performance EGR loop without cooler by quantifying their respective gains on steady state points of the NEDC cycle, then by evaluating their potential performances during transient conditions. With the short-route EGR, the potential in HC-CO emission reduction remains significant on a large scale of engine temperatures representative of engine warm up. However, the VLD system allows us to

  3. Pneumatic-Combustion Hybrid Engine: A Study of the Effect of the Valvetrain Sophistication on Pneumatic Modes Moteur hybride pneumatique: une étude de l’effet de la complexité de la distribution sur les modes pneumatiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brejaud P.


    Full Text Available Although internal combustion engines display high overall maximum global efficiencies, this potential cannot be fully exploited in automotive applications: in real conditions, the average engine load (and thus efficiency is quite low and the kinetic energy during a braking phase is lost. This work presents a hybrid pneumatic-combustion engine and the associated thermodynamic cycles, which is able to store and recover energy in the form of compressed air. The study focuses on the two major pneumatic modes: pneumatic pump mode and pneumatic motor mode. For each of them, three valvetrain technologies are considered: 4-stroke mode, 4-stroke mode with one camshaft disengaged, and 2-stroke fully variable. The concept can be adapted to SI or CI engines. In any case the valvetrain technology is the key to best fuel economy. A kinematic model of the charging valve’s actuator is introduced, and implemented in a quasi dimensional model of the pneumatic-combustion hybrid engine. Simulation results are presented for each pneumatic mode, for each valvetrain technology, in order to determine the best valve train configuration, and to show the impact of the kinematic valve actuator on the performance of the engine The tradeoffs between valvetrain sophistication and fuel economy will be presented for each case. Bien que le rendement total d’un moteur à combustion interne soit élevé, ce potentiel ne peut être pleinement exploité sur une automobile : dans les conditions réelles d’utilisation, la charge moteur moyenne (et donc le rendement est souvent faible. De plus, l’énergie cinétique en phase de freinage est totalement dissipée sous forme de chaleur. Cet article présente un concept de moteur hybride pneumatique, et les cycles thermodynamiques associés, capable de stocker de l’énergie (et de la réutiliser sous forme d’air comprimé. Le concept est adaptable au moteur à allumage commandé aussi bien qu’au moteur à allumage par

  4. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl


    has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar

  5. DLC涂层改善气门挺柱摩擦学性能的试验研究%Experimental Study on Effects of DLC Coating on Improvement of Tappet Tribology Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟军; 李周裕; 王媛慧


    为探求DLC涂层对气门挺柱摩擦学性能的影响,制备了三种不同表面处理的气门挺柱,搭建了配气机构试验台架,对比分析了不同顶面处理方法的气门挺柱在不同转速和缸盖温度下的摩擦功耗;测试了试验前后气门挺柱和凸轮的表面形态,研究了DLC涂层表面特性及其耐磨损特性。试验结果表明,DLC涂层能够减小气门挺柱表面粗糙度,含Si的DLC涂层表面粗糙度极小;气门挺柱与凸轮之间的摩擦力矩随着凸轮轴转速上升逐渐减小,随着缸盖温度上升逐渐增大;相对于传统碳氮共渗气门挺柱,DLC涂层能有效减小摩擦损失,含Si的DLC涂层能减小高达20%的摩擦损失;无涂层气门挺柱和不含Si的DLC涂层气门挺柱的耐磨性较差,含Si的DLC涂层具有极好的耐磨性。%In order to analyze the effects of DLC coating on tribology characteristics of valve tap-pet,tappets with three different kinds of surface treatment were prepared and valvetrain mechanism test bench was built.Then friction loss of valve tappets with different valve tappet top surface treat-ment was tested under different oil temperature.Surface profiles of valve tappets and cams were test-ed before and after the experiments to study the surface characteristic and anti-wear ability of DLC coating.The results show that DLC coating can reduce surface roughness of tappet and DLC coating with Si has extremely small roughness.Friction torque between tappet and cam decreases as the rota-tion speed of camshaft gets bigger and increases when the oil temperature is higher.DLC coating can effectively improve friction loss.Compared with traditional tappet with carbonitriding,DLC coating with Si can cut down friction loss by as large as 20%.Tappets with no coating and with coating with-out Si have bad anti-wear ability,while DLC coating with Si has prefect wear resistance ability.

  6. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung


    they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  7. Planetary Rotation Modulation of Various Measured Plasma Parameters in Saturns Magnetosphere: a Possible Mechanism (United States)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.; Carbary, J. F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mauk, B. E.; Paranicas, C. P.; Roelof, E. C.; Jones, G.; Krupp, N.; Lagg, A.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Dougherty, M. K.; Southwood, D. J.; Saur, J.; Zarka, P.


    The period of Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) modulation established by Voyagers 1 and 2 in 1980 and 1981 (10 hours, 39 minutes, 22.4 +/- 7s) has been adopted by the International Astronomical Union as the official rotation period of Saturn. Other quantities seen to exhibit modulation at about the same period include the magnetic field, energetic electron spectral slope, and energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission. However first the Ulysses spacecraft, and later Cassini, have measured a significantly different the SKR period than the Voyagers (approximately 10 hours, 45minutes). This change is problematic, because if the field is truly locked to Saturns rotation, this would imply a huge change in angular momentum over a relatively short period. Furthermore, no consensus model has been accepted to explain how the effects of the rotation are communicated from the planetary body out to distances as large as over 20 Rs (Saturn radii). In this paper, we explore the possibility that the observed SKR period is not Saturns intrinsic rotation period, but rather stems from friction between the ionosphere and Saturns zonal wind flows. We suggest that the SKR location reflects a high conductivity anomaly in Saturns ionosphere, whereby rigid rotation is imposed on that part of the magnetosphere that connects via the magnetic field and field-aligned currents with this high conductivity anomaly (this is similar to the hypothesis of the camshaft model for the magnetic perturbation suggested by Espinosa et al., 2003). In that work, Espinosa et al. suggest that the high conductivity region exists because of a high order magnetic anomaly, that affects ionospheric conductivity locally. We extend that model to include a feed-back loop with the magnetosphere. In this scenario, a magnetospheric disturbance initially triggered by interaction with the field-aligned currents results in additional energy deposition in the ionosphere. This further increases the ionospheric conductivity, but

  8. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl


    has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar