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Sample records for campylobacteriosis

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  5. Tracing the source of campylobacteriosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Wilson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in the developed world. It is thought to infect 2-3 million people a year in the US alone, at a cost to the economy in excess of US $4 billion. C. jejuni is a widespread zoonotic pathogen that is carried by animals farmed for meat and poultry. A connection with contaminated food is recognized, but C. jejuni is also commonly found in wild animals and water sources. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that genotypes pathogenic to humans bear greatest resemblance to non-livestock isolates. Moreover, seasonal variation in campylobacteriosis bears the hallmarks of water-borne disease, and certain outbreaks have been attributed to contamination of drinking water. As a result, the relative importance of these reservoirs to human disease is controversial. We use multilocus sequence typing to genotype 1,231 cases of C. jejuni isolated from patients in Lancashire, England. By modeling the DNA sequence evolution and zoonotic transmission of C. jejuni between host species and the environment, we assign human cases probabilistically to source populations. Our novel population genetics approach reveals that the vast majority (97% of sporadic disease can be attributed to animals farmed for meat and poultry. Chicken and cattle are the principal sources of C. jejuni pathogenic to humans, whereas wild animal and environmental sources are responsible for just 3% of disease. Our results imply that the primary transmission route is through the food chain, and suggest that incidence could be dramatically reduced by enhanced on-farm biosecurity or preventing food-borne transmission.

  6. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne; Rosenquist, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the contribution of different sources of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark using two different source-attribution approaches. In total, 794 non-human isolates and 406 isolates from human cases (domestic, travel related, and cases with unknown travel history) were collected...

  7. [Current parameters of the epidemiological process in campylobacteriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirik, D L; Shablovskaia, E A; Vasil'chenko, A A; Krolevetskaia, N M; Ginzburg, R M; Luchkina, T N; Maliarenko, V I; Rogovenko, V L; Kikot', V I; Priad'ko, L A; Pinchuk, I V; Polishchuk, I A

    1996-01-01

    Data on some parameters of the epidemic process of campylobacteriosis in the Ukraine are presented. Campylobacteriosis patients were found to constitute 1.9 +/- 0.095% of all examined patients with acute enteric infections (AEI). No statistically significant difference in the proportion of campylobacteriosis among child and adult AEI patients was established. The proportion of sick persons at the period of the spring-summer rise in morbidity was 71.5%. A definite relationship between the epizootic and epidemic processes in campylobacteriosis was noted. In the Ukraine the predominant infective agent was Campylobacter jejuni belonging mainly to serotype Lio and biotype 1. Quite frequently campylobacteriosis was found to be accompanied by mixed infections.

  8. Detection of high risk campylobacteriosis clusters at three geographic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Weisent

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and many other developed countries. Understanding the spatial distribution of this disease and identifying high-risk areas is vital to focus resources for prevention and control measures. In addition, determining the appropriate scale for geographical analysis of surveillance data is an area of concern to epidemiologists and public health officials. The purpose of this study was to (i compare standardized risk estimates for campylobacteriosis in Tennessee over three distinct geographical scales (census tract, zip code and county subdivision, and (ii identify and investigate high-risk spatial clustering of campylobacteriosis at the three geographical scales to determine if clustering is scale dependent. Significant high risk clusters (P <0.05 were detected at all three spatial scales. There were overlaps in regions of high-risk and clusters at all three geographic levels. At the census tract level, spatial analysis identified smaller clusters of finer resolution and detected more clusters than the other two levels. However, data aggregation at zip code or county subdivision yielded similar findings. The importance of this line of research is to create a framework whereby economically efficient disease control strategies become more attainable through improved geographical precision and risk detection. Accurate identification of disease clusters for campylobacteriosis can enable public health personnel to focus scarce resources towards prevention and control programmes on the most at-risk populations. Consistent results at multiple spatial levels highlight the robustness of the geospatial techniques utilized in this study. Furthermore, analyses at the zip code and county subdivision levels can be useful when address level information (finer resolution data are not available. These procedures may also be used to help identify regionally specific risk factors for

  9. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  10. Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, A; Niemann, J; Engberg, Jørgen H

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  11. Estimating healthcare costs of acute gastroenteritis and human campylobacteriosis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C; Mäusezahl, D; Bless, P J; Hatz, C; Schwenkglenks, M; Urbinello, D

    2017-03-01

    Rising numbers of campylobacteriosis case notifications in Switzerland resulted in an increased attention to acute gastroenteritis (AG) in general. Patients with a laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infection perceive their disease as severe and around 15% of these patients are hospitalized. This study aimed at estimating healthcare costs due to AG and campylobacteriosis in Switzerland. We used official health statistics, data from different studies and expert opinion for estimating individual treatment costs for patients with different illness severity and for extrapolating overall costs due to AG and campylobacteriosis. We estimated that total Swiss healthcare costs resulting from these diseases amount to €29-45 million annually. Data suggest that patients with AG consulting a physician without a stool diagnostic test account for €9·0-24·2 million, patients with a negative stool test result for Campylobacter spp. for €12·3 million, patients testing positive for Campylobacter spp. for €1·8 million and hospitalized campylobacteriosis patients for €6·5 million/year. Healthcare costs of campylobacteriosis are high and most likely increasing in Switzerland considering that campylobacteriosis case notifications steadily increased in the past decade. Costs and potential cost savings for the healthcare system should be considered when designing sectorial and cross-sectorial interventions to reduce the burden of human campylobacteriosis in Switzerland.

  12. Antimicrobial Use: A Risk Factor or a Protective Factor for Acquiring Campylobacteriosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koningstein, Maike; Simonsen, Jacob; Helms, Morten

    2011-01-01

    of campylobacteriosis conferred by human consumption of fluoroquinolones and macrolides. METHODS: We conducted a registry-based retrospective case-control study on 31 669 laboratory-confirmed cases of campylobacteriosis between 1999 and 2005 in Denmark. Data were obtained from several Danish databases: the National......Background. It is well acknowledged that the use of antimicrobial drugs in food animals leads to antimicrobial drug resistance in foodborne bacteria such as Campylobacter; however, the role of human antimicrobial usage is much less investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify the odds...... Registry of Enteric Pathogens, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Prescription Database, and the Integrated Database on Labor Market Research. Odds ratios (OR) for campylobacteriosis were calculated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of campylobacteriosis...

  13. Comparison of time series models for predicting campylobacteriosis risk in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sakkaf, A; Jones, G

    2014-05-01

    Predicting campylobacteriosis cases is a matter of considerable concern in New Zealand, after the number of the notified cases was the highest among the developed countries in 2006. Thus, there is a need to develop a model or a tool to predict accurately the number of campylobacteriosis cases as the Microbial Risk Assessment Model used to predict the number of campylobacteriosis cases failed to predict accurately the number of actual cases. We explore the appropriateness of classical time series modelling approaches for predicting campylobacteriosis. Finding the most appropriate time series model for New Zealand data has additional practical considerations given a possible structural change, that is, a specific and sudden change in response to the implemented interventions. A univariate methodological approach was used to predict monthly disease cases using New Zealand surveillance data of campylobacteriosis incidence from 1998 to 2009. The data from the years 1998 to 2008 were used to model the time series with the year 2009 held out of the data set for model validation. The best two models were then fitted to the full 1998-2009 data and used to predict for each month of 2010. The Holt-Winters (multiplicative) and ARIMA (additive) intervention models were considered the best models for predicting campylobacteriosis in New Zealand. It was noticed that the prediction by an additive ARIMA with intervention was slightly better than the prediction by a Holt-Winter multiplicative method for the annual total in year 2010, the former predicting only 23 cases less than the actual reported cases. It is confirmed that classical time series techniques such as ARIMA with intervention and Holt-Winters can provide a good prediction performance for campylobacteriosis risk in New Zealand. The results reported by this study are useful to the New Zealand Health and Safety Authority's efforts in addressing the problem of the campylobacteriosis epidemic. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The Role of Environmental Reservoirs in Human Campylobacteriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bentham

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is infection caused by the bacteria Campylobacter spp. and is considered a major public health concern. Campylobacter spp. have been identified as one of the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis. They are typically considered a foodborne pathogen and have been shown to colonise the intestinal mucosa of all food-producing animals. Much emphasis has been placed on controlling the foodborne pathway of exposure, particularly within the poultry industry, however, other environmental sources have been identified as important contributors to human infection. This paper aims to review the current literature on the sources of human exposure to Campylobacter spp. and will cover contaminated poultry, red meat, unpasteurised milk, unwashed fruit and vegetables, compost, wild bird faeces, sewage, surface water, ground water and drinking water. A comparison of current Campylobacter spp. identification methods from environmental samples is also presented. The review of literature suggests that there are multiple and diverse sources for Campylobacter infection. Many environmental sources result in direct human exposure but also in contamination of the food processing industry. This review provides useful information for risk assessment.

  15. Quantitative risk assessment of human campylobacteriosis associated with thermophilic Campylobacter species in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Nielsen, N. L.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2003-01-01

    no effect on the human Campylobacter incidence, which indicates that implementation of logistic slaughter will only have a minor influence on the risk. Finally, the simulations showed that people in the age of 18-29 years had the highest risk of developing campylobacteriosis. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B...... and the relationship between ingested dose and the probability of developing campylobacteriosis. Human exposure was estimated in two successive mathematical modules. Module I addresses changes in prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses throughout the processing steps of a slaughterhouse. Module 2...... covers the transfer of Campylobacter during food handling in private kitchens. The age and sex of consumers were included in this module to introduce variable hygiene levels during food preparation and variable sizes and compositions of meals. Finally, the outcome of the exposure assessment modules...

  16. Using Outbreak Data for Source Attribution of Human Salmonellosis and Campylobacteriosis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Vigre, Håkan; Makela, Pia

    2010-01-01

    % of campylobacteriosis cases were attributed to chicken. Results also revealed regional differences in the relative importance of specific sources. We assessed the method to be of limited value to attribute human campylobacteriosis due to the limited number of outbreaks. Nevertheless, the presented source attribution......Salmonella and Campylobacter are the most important bacterial causes of foodborne illness in Europe. To identify and prioritize food safety interventions, it is important to quantify the burden of human foodborne illness attributable to specific sources. Data from outbreak investigations...... are observed at the public health endpoint and can therefore be a direct measure of attribution at the point of exposure. An analysis or summary of outbreak investigations is useful for attributing illnesses to foods, but often the implicated foods in reported outbreaks are complex foods, containing several...

  17. Campylobacteriosis in New Zealand: results of a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhart-Phillips, J.; Walker, N.; Garrett, N; Bell, D; Sinclair, D; Rainger, W; Bates, M.

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess the contributions of major risk factors for campylobacteriosis in New Zealand. DESIGN: Case-control study. Home interviews were conducted over nine months using a standardised questionnaire to assess recent food consumption and other exposures. SETTING: Four centres in New Zealand with high notification rates of campylobacter infections--Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, and Christchurch. PARTICIPANTS: Case patients were 621 people notified between 1 June...

  18. Estimating the true incidence of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis in the European Union, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, A. H.; Ivarsson, S.; Lofdahl, M.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the true incidence of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis in the European Union (EU) in 2009. The estimate was based on disease risks of returning Swedish travellers, averaged over the years 2005-2009, and anchored to a Dutch population-based study on incidence and aetiology of gast...... and 11 800/100 000 population and was significantly correlated with the prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in laying hens....

  19. Non food-related risk factors of campylobacteriosis in Canada: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, André; Pintar, Katarina; Nesbitt, Andrea; Pollari, Frank

    2016-09-27

    Campylobacteriosis is a prominent bacterial gastrointestinal infection worldwide with several transmission pathways. Its non-foodborne routes have been less documented and quantified. The study aimed to quantitatively explore the role of potential risk factors not directly associated with food for sporadic cases of C. jejuni infection in Canada. This retrospective matched case-control study was built on an enhanced campylobacteriosis surveillance system and on a survey of healthy people and their behaviour with regards to potential risk factors for gastrointestinal infections that occurred in the same area in Canada. Eighty-five cases were individually matched by age and season to 170 controls. Through conditional logistic regression, risk factors were found only among water-related factors (drinking untreated water, using tap filter, drinking water from well and swimming in natural water), whereas drinking bottled water was protective. Among the 32 non-water related factors explored, 12 were surprisingly 'protective' factors without relevant explanation for that effect (for example gardening, attending a barbecue, eating food from a fast-food restaurant), suggesting that human infection by Campylobacter may be more frequently acquired at home than outside the home. This study confirms and quantifies the importance of the waterborne transmission of campylobacteriosis. People are encouraged to drink only treated water and to avoid the ingestion of natural water as much as possible while swimming or playing in water. Globally, general hygiene and proper food handling and cooking practices at home should continue to be encouraged.

  20. Impact of rurality, broiler operations, and community socioeconomic factors on the risk of campylobacteriosis in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappe Pasturel, Barbara; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E; Palmer, Amanda; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Hogan, Brenna; Jung, Carrianne; Joseph, Sam W; Wang, Min Qi; Ting Lee, Mei-Ling; Puett, Robin; Sapkota, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated the combined impact of community-level environmental and socioeconomic factors on the risk of campylobacteriosis. We obtained Campylobacter case data (2002-2010; n = 3694) from the Maryland Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network. We obtained community-level socioeconomic and environmental data from the 2000 US Census and the 2007 US Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code. We derived incidence rate ratios by Poisson regressions. We mapped a subset of zip code-level characteristics. In zip codes that were 100% rural, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of campylobacteriosis were 6 times (IRR = 6.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.19, 11.97) greater than those in urban zip codes. In zip codes with broiler chicken operations, incidence rates were 1.45 times greater than those in zip codes without broilers (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.34, 1.58). We also observed higher rates in zip codes whose populations were predominantly White and had high median incomes. The community and environment in which one lives may significantly influence the risk of campylobacteriosis.

  1. Occupational Animal Exposure Among Persons with Campylobacteriosis and Cryptosporidiosis - Nebraska, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chia-Ping; Stover, Derry T; Buss, Bryan F; Carlson, Anna V; Luckhaupt, Sara E

    2017-09-15

    Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2). This exposure route is of particular interest in Nebraska, where animal agriculture and associated industries are an important part of the state's economy. To estimate the percentage of disease that might be related to occupational animal exposure in Nebraska, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (NDHHS) and CDC reviewed deidentified investigation reports from 2005 to 2015 of cases of campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis among Nebraska residents aged ≥14 years. Case investigation notes were searched for evidence of occupational animal exposures, which were classified into discrete categories based on industry, animal/meat, and specific work activity/exposure. Occupational animal exposure was identified in 16.6% of 3,352 campylobacteriosis and 8.7% of 1,070 cryptosporidiosis cases, among which animal production (e.g., farming or ranching) was the most commonly mentioned industry type (68.2% and 78.5%, respectively), followed by employment in animal slaughter and processing facilities (16.3% and 5.4%, respectively). Among animal/meat occupational exposures, cattle/beef was most commonly mentioned, with exposure to feedlots (concentrated animal feeding operations in which animals are fed on stored feeds) reported in 29.9% of campylobacteriosis and 7.9% of cryptosporidiosis cases. Close contact with animals and manure in feedlots and other farm settings might place

  2. Extreme precipitation events and increased risk of campylobacteriosis in Maryland, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Jiang, Chengsheng; Romeo Upperman, Crystal; Murtugudde, Raghu; S Mitchell, Clifford; Blythe, David; Sapkota, Amy R; Sapkota, Amir

    2016-08-01

    Consumption of contaminated poultry, raw milk and water are significant risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Previous studies also have investigated the association between weather (temperature and precipitation) and increased risk of campylobacteriosis, but limited information exists regarding the impacts of extreme heat and precipitation events on campylobacteriosis risk, and how such risk may differentially impact coastal communities. We obtained Campylobacter case data 2002-2012; n=4804) from the Maryland Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). We identified extreme heat and extreme precipitation events during this time (2002-2012) using location and calendar day specific thresholds (95th percentile for extreme heat and 90th percentile for extreme precipitation) that were computed based on a 30-year baseline (1960-1989). We linked these datasets using GIS and used negative binomial generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic confounders to calculate the association between exposure to extreme events and risk of campylobacteriosis in Maryland. We observed that a one-day increase in exposure to extreme precipitation events was associated with a 3% increase in risk of campylobacteriosis in coastal areas of Maryland (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR): 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.05), but such an association was not observed in noncoastal areas. Furthermore, the risk associated with extreme precipitation events was considerably higher during La Niña periods (IRR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.13), while there was no evidence of elevated risk during El Niño or ENSO Neutral periods. Exposure to extreme heat events was not associated with an increased risk of campylobacteriosis, except during La Niña periods (IRR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.08). Extreme precipitation events could result in flooding within coastal areas that may bring water contaminated with bacterial pathogens (originating from sources such as septic systems

  3. Non food-related risk factors of campylobacteriosis in Canada: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ravel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacteriosis is a prominent bacterial gastrointestinal infection worldwide with several transmission pathways. Its non-foodborne routes have been less documented and quantified. The study aimed to quantitatively explore the role of potential risk factors not directly associated with food for sporadic cases of C. jejuni infection in Canada. Methods This retrospective matched case-control study was built on an enhanced campylobacteriosis surveillance system and on a survey of healthy people and their behaviour with regards to potential risk factors for gastrointestinal infections that occurred in the same area in Canada. Eighty-five cases were individually matched by age and season to 170 controls. Results Through conditional logistic regression, risk factors were found only among water-related factors (drinking untreated water, using tap filter, drinking water from well and swimming in natural water, whereas drinking bottled water was protective. Among the 32 non-water related factors explored, 12 were surprisingly ‘protective’ factors without relevant explanation for that effect (for example gardening, attending a barbecue, eating food from a fast-food restaurant, suggesting that human infection by Campylobacter may be more frequently acquired at home than outside the home. Conclusions This study confirms and quantifies the importance of the waterborne transmission of campylobacteriosis. People are encouraged to drink only treated water and to avoid the ingestion of natural water as much as possible while swimming or playing in water. Globally, general hygiene and proper food handling and cooking practices at home should continue to be encouraged.

  4. The recurrent campylobacteriosis epidemic over Christmas and New Year in European countries, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Philipp Justus; Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel

    2017-07-11

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported foodborne disease in Europe with a notification rate of 71 per 100,000 population in the European Union in 2014. Surveillance data show a clear seasonality whereby case numbers peak during summer months in entire Europe and at the turn of the year, especially in Germany and Switzerland. A detailed description of European surveillance data by country at the turn of the year was missing so far. The objectives of the presented work were to describe national surveillance data of The European Surveillance System for 14 countries during winter times and to generate hypotheses for the observed seasonality of campylobacteriosis cases. The analysis included 317,986 cases notified between calendar weeks 45 and 8 of winter seasons 2006/2007-2013/2014. Winter peaks in weekly case notifications and notification rates were observed for Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden while for Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Norway and the United Kingdom no unusual increase was observed. Generally, weekly notification rates peaked in calendar week 1 or 2 after a strong decline in the last week of December and reached values of a multiple of the observed notification rates in the weeks before or after the peak e.g. up to 6.5 notifications per 100,000 population per week in Luxembourg. Disease onset of cases notified during winter peaks occurred predominantly in calendar weeks 52 and 1 and point towards risk exposures around Christmas and New Year. The consumption of meat fondue or table top grilling poses such a risk and is popular in many countries with an observed winter peak. Additionally, increased travel activities over the festive season could foster campylobacteriosis transmission. Surveillance artefacts (e.g. reporting delays due to public holidays) should be excluded as causes for country-specific winter peaks before investigating risk exposures.

  5. Socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk: a comparison of global and local modeling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisent Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors play a complex role in determining the risk of campylobacteriosis. Understanding the spatial interplay between these factors and disease risk can guide disease control programs. Historically, Poisson and negative binomial models have been used to investigate determinants of geographic disparities in risk. Spatial regression models, which allow modeling of spatial effects, have been used to improve these modeling efforts. Geographically weighted regression (GWR takes this a step further by estimating local regression coefficients, thereby allowing estimations of associations that vary in space. These recent approaches increase our understanding of how geography influences the associations between determinants and disease. Therefore the objectives of this study were to: (i identify socioeconomic determinants of the geographic disparities of campylobacteriosis risk (ii investigate if regression coefficients for the associations between socioeconomic factors and campylobacteriosis risk demonstrate spatial variability and (iii compare the performance of four modeling approaches: negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR. Methods Negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR modeling techniques were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic factors and geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk. The best fitting models were identified and compared. Results Two competing four variable models (Models 1 & 2 were identified. Significant variables included race, unemployment rate, education attainment, urbanicity, and divorce rate. Local Poisson GWR had the best fit and showed evidence of spatially varying regression coefficients. Conclusions The international significance of this work is that it highlights the inadequacy of global regression strategies that estimate one parameter per independent variable, and therefore mask the true relationships between

  6. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    to the responsible sources, compare methods and results, and make recommendations on which approach to choose to answer specific risk management questions. The work is based on six manuscripts. In the first manuscript, concepts and terminology on source attribution are presented, and the remaining manuscripts...... investigating risk factors for human salmonellosis and 37 focusing on campylobacteriosis. We estimated that eating undercooked chicken, travelling abroad and eating raw eggs are the most important risk factors for salmonellosis, whereas travelling abroad, daily contact with a pet and eating undercooked chicken...

  7. Campylobacteriosis and other bacterial gastrointestinal diseases in Sofia, Bulgaria for the period 1987-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, K; Marina, M; Petrov, P; Kantardjiev, T

    2010-01-28

    Campylobacter is the most commonly reported enteric bacterial pathogen in humans. We still do not have any systematic data concerning campylobacteriosis in Bulgaria. For that reason, we present data of the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in the aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in Sofia, for the period from 1987 to 2008. The study included patients from 0 to over 65 years-old. A total of 51,607 faecal specimens were screened for Campylobacter. C. jejuni and C. coli were detected in 3.58% (1,847) of the strains, with the highest percentage in 1988 (7.5%) and the lowest in 2006 (0.3%). Campylobacteriosis occurred most frequently in the wet months of March, April, May and June, with 105, 102, 124 and 141 cases, respectively, and was rare in January with 25 cases. The most affected groups were children between 0 and 4 years of age (52%) and between five and 14 years of age (30%). Campylobacter infection occurred in 22% of all bacterial gastrointestinal diseases in the city of Sofia during the study period. Salmonella was the most frequently identified pathogen with 32%, followed by Shigella (30%), Campylobacter (22%) and diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (16%). The study shows that Campylobacter plays an important role as a bacterial cause of enterocolitis in Sofia, Bulgaria.

  8. Risk factors for campylobacteriosis of chicken, ruminant, and environmental origin: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini Gras, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413306046; Smid, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313996458; Wagenaar, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; de Boer, A.G.; Havelaar, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Friesema, I.H.M.; French, N.P.; Busani, L.; van Pelt, W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Campylobacteriosis contributes strongly to the disease burden of food-borne pathogens. Case-control studies are limited in attributing human infections to the different reservoirs because they can only trace back to the points of exposure, which may not point to the original reservoirs

  9. Risk Factors for Campylobacteriosis of Chicken, Ruminant, and Environmental Origin: A Combined Case-Control and Source Attribution Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, L.M.; Smid, J.H.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Havelaar, A.H.; Friesema, I.H.M.; French, N.P.; Busani, L.; Pelt, van W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Campylobacteriosis contributes strongly to the disease burden of food-borne pathogens. Case-control studies are limited in attributing human infections to the different reservoirs because they can only trace back to the points of exposure, which may not point to the original reservoirs

  10. Risk factors for campylobacteriosis of chicken, ruminant, and environmental origin: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapo Mughini Gras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Campylobacteriosis contributes strongly to the disease burden of food-borne pathogens. Case-control studies are limited in attributing human infections to the different reservoirs because they can only trace back to the points of exposure, which may not point to the original reservoirs because of cross-contamination. Human Campylobacter infections can be attributed to specific reservoirs by estimating the extent of subtype sharing between strains from humans and reservoirs using multilocus sequence typing (MLST. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated risk factors for human campylobacteriosis caused by Campylobacter strains attributed to different reservoirs. Sequence types (STs were determined for 696 C. jejuni and 41 C. coli strains from endemic human cases included in a case-control study. The asymmetric island model, a population genetics approach for modeling Campylobacter evolution and transmission, attributed these cases to four putative animal reservoirs (chicken, cattle, sheep, pig and to the environment (water, sand, wild birds considered as a proxy for other unidentified reservoirs. Most cases were attributed to chicken (66% and cattle (21%, identified as the main reservoirs in The Netherlands. Consuming chicken was a risk factor for campylobacteriosis caused by chicken-associated STs, whereas consuming beef and pork were protective. Risk factors for campylobacteriosis caused by ruminant-associated STs were contact with animals, barbecuing in non-urban areas, consumption of tripe, and never/seldom chicken consumption. Consuming game and swimming in a domestic swimming pool during springtime were risk factors for campylobacteriosis caused by environment-associated STs. Infections with chicken- and ruminant-associated STs were only partially explained by food-borne transmission; direct contact and environmental pathways were also important. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first case-control study in which risk

  11. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    of case-control studies collected and analysed studies of sporadic campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis published throughout the world in the last two decades. The objective of the study was to identify the most important risk factors for the two diseases. Data was extracted from 71 studies, 34...... in 2005 and 2006, provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Reporting of the causative vehicles of outbreaks was not harmonized between and within countries, and therefore we organized the implicated foods in mutually exclusive food categories based on the implicated simple foods (i.e. foods...... recommendations on how to choose one or more source attribution methods to address different risk management problems. For this purpose, a “source attribution tool-box” based on the experiences from this PhD was developed....

  12. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    , although they vary to some extent in order of importance. The forth approach applied for source attribution of human foodborne disease was an analysis of data from outbreak investigations. The method used data from investigations of Salmonella and Campylobacter outbreaks reported in European countries......, and analysis of data from outbreak investigations. All methods present advantages and limitations, and the usefulness of each depends on the public health questions being addressed. The overall aim of this thesis was to apply different approaches to attribute human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis...... present the source attribution approaches applied to Salmonella and Campylobacter. The methods were applied to different populations and time periods, and different models attributed illness in Denmark, in Europe or globally. Two microbial subtyping approaches were applied to attribute human salmonellosis...

  13. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    sources of the pathogen and estimate the relative contribution of each source to the burden of human disease. A variety of methods to attribute human illness to specific sources is available, including microbial subtyping, comparative exposure assessment, analysis of studies of sporadic infections......, and analysis of data from outbreak investigations. All methods present advantages and limitations, and the usefulness of each depends on the public health questions being addressed. The overall aim of this thesis was to apply different approaches to attribute human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis...... to the responsible sources, compare methods and results, and make recommendations on which approach to choose to answer specific risk management questions. The work is based on six manuscripts. In the first manuscript, concepts and terminology on source attribution are presented, and the remaining manuscripts...

  14. The association between campylobacteriosis, agriculture and drinking water: a case-case study in a region of British Columbia, Canada, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, E; Mak, S; Otterstatter, M; Taylor, M; Zubel, M; Takaro, T K; Kuo, M; Michel, P

    2014-10-01

    We studied the association between drinking water, agriculture and sporadic human campylobacteriosis in one region of British Columbia (BC), Canada. We compared 2992 cases of campylobacteriosis to 4816 cases of other reportable enteric diseases in 2005-2009 using multivariate regression. Cases were geocoded and assigned drinking water source, rural/urban environment and socioeconomic status (SES) according to the location of their residence using geographical information systems analysis methods. The odds of campylobacteriosis compared to enteric disease controls were higher for individuals serviced by private wells than municipal surface water systems (odds ratio 1·4, 95% confidence interval 1·1-1·8). In rural settings, the odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in November (P = 0·014). The odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in individuals aged ⩾15 years, especially in those with higher SES. In this region of BC, campylobacteriosis risk, compared to other enteric diseases, seems to be mediated by vulnerable drinking water sources and rural factors. Consideration should be given to further support well-water users and to further study the microbiological impact of agriculture on water.

  15. Effect of Antimicrobial Use in Agricultural Animals on Drug-resistant Foodborne Campylobacteriosis in Humans: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M A; Helke, Kristi L; Galloway, Ashley M; Poole, Ann Z; Salgado, Cassandra D; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2016-10-02

    Controversy continues concerning antimicrobial use in food animals and its relationship to drug-resistant infections in humans. We systematically reviewed published literature for evidence of a relationship between antimicrobial use in agricultural animals and drug-resistant foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans. Based on publications from the United States (U.S.), Canada and Denmark from 2010 to July 2014, 195 articles were retained for abstract review, 50 met study criteria for full article review with 36 retained for which data are presented. Two publications reported increase in macrolide resistance of Campylobacter coli isolated from feces of swine receiving macrolides in feed, and one of these described similar findings for tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. A study in growing turkeys demonstrated increased macrolide resistance associated with therapeutic dosing with Tylan® in drinking water. One publication linked tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone SA in raw cow's milk to a foodborne outbreak in humans. No studies that identified farm antimicrobial use also traced antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter from farm to fork. Recent literature confirms that on farm antibiotic selection pressure can increase colonization of animals with drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. but is inadequately detailed to establish a causal relationship between use of antimicrobials in agricultural animals and prevalence of drug-resistant foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans.

  16. MLST genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler products, dairy cattle and human campylobacteriosis cases in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonaite, Sigita; Tamuleviciene, Egle; Alter, Thomas; Kasnauskyte, Neringa; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-06-15

    Campylobacter (C.) jejuni is the leading cause of human campylobacteriosis worldwide. We performed a molecular epidemiological study to investigate the genetic relationship among C. jejuni strains isolated from human diarrhoeal patients, broiler products and dairy cattle in Lithuania. The C. jejuni isolates from human clinical cases, dairy cattle and broiler products were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Allele numbers for each housekeeping gene, sequence type (ST), and clonal complex (CC) were assigned by submitting the DNA sequences to the C. jejuni MLST database ( http://pubmlst.org/campylobacter ). Based on the obtained sequence data of the housekeeping genes a phylogenetic analysis of the strains was performed and a minimum spanning tree (MST) was calculated. Among the 262 C. jejuni strains (consisting of 43 strains isolated from dairy cattle, 102 strains isolated from broiler products and 117 clinical human C. jejuni strains), 82 different MLST sequence types and 22 clonal complexes were identified. Clonal complexes CC21 and CC353 predominated among the C. jejuni strains. On ST-level, five sequence types (ST-5, ST-21, ST-50, ST-464 and ST-6410) were dominating and these five STs accounted for 35.9% (n = 94) of our isolates. In addition, 51 (19.5%) C. jejuni strains representing 27 (32.9%) STs were reported for the first time in the PubMLST database ( http://pubmlst.org/campylobacter ). The highest Czekanowski index or proportional similarity index (PSI) was calculated for C. jejuni strains isolated from human campylobacteriosis cases and broiler products (PSI = 0.32) suggesting a strong link between broiler strains and human cases. The PSI of dairy cattle and human samples was lower (PSI = 0.11), suggesting a weaker link between bovine strains and human cases. The calculated Simpson's index of all C. jejuni isolates showed a high genetic diversity (D = 0.96). Our results suggest that broiler products are the most important source of

  17. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis using a meta-analysis of case-control studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    for investigated risk factors were collected and analysed. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between the studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios for identified risk factors were estimated. Results suggest that travelling abroad, eating undercooked chicken, environmental...... important sources of human disease is essential for prioritizing food safety interventions and setting public health goals. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic infections of campylobacteriosis have been published. These studies investigated a variety of potential risk factors for disease, often using...... different methodologies and settings. Systematic reviews (SRs) consist of a formal process for literature review focused on a specific research question, and include the identification of relevant literature, quality assessment of relevant studies, summarization or statistical analysis of data...

  18. Confirmation of a Campylobacteriosis Outbreak Associated with Chicken Liver Pâté Using PFGE and WGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, E; Löfdahl, M; Ågren, J; Hansson, I; Olsson Engvall, E

    2017-02-01

    In May 2012, an outbreak of campylobacteriosis occurred in southern Sweden at a wedding reception affecting 44 persons. A total of 17 cases were notified (13 were culture positive for Campylobacter spp.). Epidemiological investigation suspected chicken liver pâté as the source of infection. The liver pâté had been deliberately undercooked, lightly fried to keep the right texture and mixed with spices. Campylobacter isolates from six cases as well as three Campylobacter isolates from chicken flocks previously raised by the producer delivering the liver were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing. Indistinguishable PFGE profiles were identified among five human and one chicken C. jejuni isolates as well among the two C. coli isolates, one from a human case and one from a chicken. WGS supported the PFGE findings; the six C. jejuni isolates belonged to one cluster. All these six isolates were of MLST type ST 50 (ST-CC 21). This study highlights the importance of a combination of strict biosecurity at the flock-level as well as adequate cooking of chicken liver to prevent transmission of Campylobacter to humans. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Estimated community costs of an outbreak of campylobacteriosis resulting from contamination of a public water supply in Darfield, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, Ian; Bartholomew, Nadia; Brunton, Cheryl

    2014-03-28

    To estimate the economic costs to the community of an outbreak of campylobacteriosis in August 2012 resulting from contamination of a public water supply in Darfield, New Zealand. Probable incidence of waterborne disease was estimated. Reported cases were scrutinised to identify symptoms, duration, hospital admissions and those in the paid workforce. Extra public health and local authority costs were calculated. Estimated time off work was multiplied by the average wage to obtain a conservative estimate of lost production. Sensitivity analysis was used to estimate unreported cases and their associated costs. There were 138 cases of confirmed or probable campylobacter, of whom 46 sought a medical consultation. Taking into account the usual pyramid of non-notified cases, estimates of the population infected range between approximately 828 and 1987. The dominant societal cost is lost production from time off paid work. Forty-six per cent were in the paid workforce, indicating a total estimated economic cost of at least $714,527 but it could have been as high as $1.26 million, depending on estimates of unreported cases. The likely cause of the Darfield outbreak was faecal contamination of the water supply, which with a multi-barrier approach would have been entirely preventable. The results provide economic evidence to support upgrading of water supplies to provide safe water and prevent waterborne disease.

  20. [Application of restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction-flaA and resistotype to identify potential undiagnosed outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Boto, David; López-Portolés, José Antonio; Simón, Cristina; Echeita, María Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of campylobacteriosis are infrequent and usually involve a low number of patients, although it is estimated that many more remain undiagnosed. The most successful techniques for outbreak investigation in Campylobacter spp. (PFGE, MLST) have the drawback of being laborious and not available in many laboratories. During the year 2008, 352 isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli from 16 hospitals were received in our laboratory. All strains were genotyped by RFLP-PCR-flaA (flaA type) and phenotyped with their resistotype. It was established that the strains of the same species from the same hospital, isolated over a period of up to 11 days, with MIC values of±1 dilution with the same flaA type could belong to an outbreak. Strains that met these criteria would be later subtyped by KpnI-PFGE and MLST. A total of 23 out of 352 isolates, distributed in 10 groups, met the criteria for being associated with putative undiagnosed outbreaks. The similarity of the PFGE-profiles in 8 groups was greater than 95% among the isolates from each group. In 7 of the groups, the sequence types (MLST) were coincident. The use of 2 easy markers (resistotype and RFLP-PCR-flaA) may detect isolates probably belonging to an undiagnosed outbreak of campylobacteriosis. Accurate diagnosis requires other molecular markers and epidemiological data of each isolate. The study suggests that, as in other countries, the number of outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Spain is probably underestimated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Campylobacteriosis in urban versus rural areas: a case-case study integrated with molecular typing to validate risk factors and to attribute sources of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Simon; Fournier, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Frost, Eric; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and most clinical cases appear as isolated, sporadic infections for which the source is rarely apparent. From July 2005 to December 2007 we conducted a prospective case-case study of sporadic, domestically-acquired Campylobacter enteritis in rural versus urban areas and a prevalence study of Campylobacter in animal and environmental sources in the Eastern Townships, Quebec. Isolates were typed using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) to reinforce the case-case findings and to assign a source probability estimate for each human isolate. The risk of human campylobacteriosis was 1.89-fold higher in rural than urban areas. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis identified two independent risk factors associated with human Campylobacter infections acquired in rural area: occupational exposure to animals (OR = 10.6, 95% CI: 1.2-91, p = 0.032), and household water coming from a private well (OR = 8.3, 95% CI: 3.4-20.4, pwild bird) were typed using MLST. Among human isolates, the incidence rates of clonal complexes (CC) CC-21, CC-45, and CC-61 were higher in rural than urban areas. MLST-based source attribution analysis indicated that 64.5% of human C. jejuni isolates were attributable to chicken, followed by cattle (25.8%), water (7.4%), and wild birds (2.3%). Chicken was the attributable source for the majority of cases, independent of residential area, sex and age. The increased incidence in rural compared to urban areas was associated with occupational exposure to animals, particularly cattle among those aged 15-34 years, and with consumption of private well water. Both bovine and water exposure appeared to contribute to the seasonal variation in campylobacteriosis. These results provide a basis for developing public education and preventive programs targeting the risk factors identified.

  2. Campylobacteriosis in urban versus rural areas: a case-case study integrated with molecular typing to validate risk factors and to attribute sources of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lévesque

    Full Text Available Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and most clinical cases appear as isolated, sporadic infections for which the source is rarely apparent. From July 2005 to December 2007 we conducted a prospective case-case study of sporadic, domestically-acquired Campylobacter enteritis in rural versus urban areas and a prevalence study of Campylobacter in animal and environmental sources in the Eastern Townships, Quebec. Isolates were typed using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST to reinforce the case-case findings and to assign a source probability estimate for each human isolate. The risk of human campylobacteriosis was 1.89-fold higher in rural than urban areas. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis identified two independent risk factors associated with human Campylobacter infections acquired in rural area: occupational exposure to animals (OR = 10.6, 95% CI: 1.2-91, p = 0.032, and household water coming from a private well (OR = 8.3, 95% CI: 3.4-20.4, p<0.0001. A total of 851 C. jejuni isolates (178 human, 257 chicken, 87 bovine, 266 water, 63 wild bird were typed using MLST. Among human isolates, the incidence rates of clonal complexes (CC CC-21, CC-45, and CC-61 were higher in rural than urban areas. MLST-based source attribution analysis indicated that 64.5% of human C. jejuni isolates were attributable to chicken, followed by cattle (25.8%, water (7.4%, and wild birds (2.3%. Chicken was the attributable source for the majority of cases, independent of residential area, sex and age. The increased incidence in rural compared to urban areas was associated with occupational exposure to animals, particularly cattle among those aged 15-34 years, and with consumption of private well water. Both bovine and water exposure appeared to contribute to the seasonal variation in campylobacteriosis. These results provide a basis for developing public education and preventive programs targeting the

  3. Topology and patch-clamp analysis of the sodium channel in relationship to the anti-lipid a antibody in campylobacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Seigo; Nakatani, Yoshihiko; Taguchi, Kyoji; Fujita, Tetsuhiro; Tanabe, Shinya; Ustunomiya, Iku; Gu, Yihua; Cawthraw, Shaun A; Newell, Diane G; Pajaniappan, Mohanasundari; Thompson, Stuart A; Ariga, Toshio; Yu, Robert K

    2008-11-15

    An infecting strain VLA2/18 of Campylobacter jejuni was obtained from an individual with campylobacteriosis and used to prepare chicken sera by experimental infection to investigate the role of serum anti-ganglioside antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Both sera of the patient and chicken contained anti-ganglioside antibodies and anti-Lipid A (anti-Kdo2-Lipid A) antibodies directed against the lipid A portion of the bacterial lipooligosaccharide. The anti-Kdo2-Lipid A activities inhibited voltage-gated Na (Nav) channel of NSC-34 cells in culture. We hypothesized that anti-Kdo2-Lipid A antibody acts on the functional inhibition of Nav1.4. To test this possibility, a rabbit peptide antibody (anti-Nav1.4 pAb) against a 19-mer peptide (KELKDNHILNHVGLTDGPR) on the alpha subunit of Nav1.4 was produced. Anti-Nav1.4 pAb was cross-reactive to Kdo2-Lipid A. Anti-Kdo2-lipid A antibody activity in the chicken serum was tested for the Na(+) current inhibition in NSC-34 cells in combination with mu-Conotoxin and tetrodotoxin. Contrary to our expectations, the anti-Kdo2-Lipid A antibody activity was extended to Nav channels other than Nav1.4. By overlapping structural analysis, it was found that there might be multiple peptide epitopes containing certain dipeptides showing a structural similarity with v-Lipid A. Thus, our study suggests the possibility that there are multiple epitopic peptides on the extracellular domains of Nav1.1 to 1.9, and some of them may represent target sites for anti-Kdo2-Lipid A antibody, to induce neurophysiological changes in GBS by disrupting the normal function of the Nav channels.

  4. Polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis Reação em cadeia da polimerase para o diagnóstico de campilobacteriose genital bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.M. Groff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a common venereal disease of cattle; the prevalence of this disease can be underestimated mostly because of the nature of the etiological agent, the microaerobic Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the utilization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the diagnosis of genital campylobacteriosis in samples obtained from bull prepuce aspirate, cow cervical mucus, and abomasum contents of aborted fetuses, collected into enrichment medium. Five different DNA extraction protocols were tested: thermal extraction, lysis with proteinase K, lysis with guanidine isothiocyanate, lysis with DNAzol, and lysis with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. The specificity, sensitivity, and technical application of the PCR assay were also evaluated with clinical samples and compared to bacterial isolation by standard culture. DNA extraction by the CTAB protocol provided better results in PCR, and it was able to detect 63 colony-forming units per ml of C. fetus. Out of 277 clinical samples tested, 68 (24% were positive for Campylobacter fetus using PCR, while only 8 (2.8% of the samples were positive by bacterial isolation in solid medium, proving the superiority of the PCR technique when compared to the standard isolation method, and providing evidence for its usefulness as a better screening test in cattle for the diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis.Campilobacteriose genital bovina é uma doença venérea comum em bovinos. A prevalência desta doença pode ser subestimada na maioria das vezes pela natureza microaeróbica do agente etiológico, Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. O propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização da reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR no diagnóstico de campilobacteriose genital em amostras obtidas de aspirado prepucial de touros, muco cervical de vacas e conteúdo abomasal de fetos abortados, coletados em

  5. Broiler Contamination and Human campylobacteriosis in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic briler chicken carcasses and human disease, 1617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using flaA Short Variable Region) to 289 isol...

  6. Pediatric campylobacteriosis in northern Taiwan from 2003 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Chuen-Sheue

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the incidence of, and concern regarding, human Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections worldwide during the last decade. As the highest infectious disease control apparatus in Taiwan, we aimed to describe the character of Campylobacter isolates from infected children, as well as basic information about the patients, from December 2003 to February 2005. Methods A total of 894 fecal specimens were collected by several clinics and hospitals from children who had diarrhea, followed by plating onto selective media. Drug susceptibility test of the isolates from these specimens were conducted by disc diffusion method and their serotypes were also studied using commercial antisera made in Japan. Results The isolation rate of Campylobacter during these 15 months was 6.8% and was higher in winter (11.1% than in other seasons. C. jejuni was the most prevalent (95.1% species in northern Taiwan, comparable to other developed countries. Among the 61 Campylobacter isolates, most were resistant to tetracycline (93.4%, nalidixic acid (91.8%, ciprofloxacin (90.2%, and ampicillin (85.5%. Erythromycin-resistant isolates represented 3.3% of all isolates, suggesting that this drug may be the first choice for treatment. The serotypes of the 61 isolates were demonstrated and only 41.4% were typable. Conclusion In this study, the Taiwan CDC provided an epidemiological analysis of Campylobacter infection, including the isolation rate, age, seasonal distribution, antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns, and serotypes of the isolates from pediatric patients in northern Taiwan from 2003 to 2005.

  7. Human and animal Campylobacteriosis in Tanzania: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    absence of national surveillance programmes for Campylobacter infections, particularly in developing ... identify some challenges that need to be addressed by researchers in the country as far as studies on .... Table 1: Overall and species specific prevalence of Campylobacter in different studies on humans in Tanzania.

  8. Human and animal Campylobacteriosis in Tanzania: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organisms colonize different animal species without causing any symptoms of disease; and humans acquire infections through contact with or consumption of contaminated meat especially raw/undercooked poultry meat. The growing trend of antibiotic resistant Campylobacter isolates continues to pose significant ...

  9. The role of environmental reservoirs in human campylobacteriosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whiley, Harriet; van den Akker, Ben; Giglio, Steven; Bentham, Richard

    2013-01-01

    .... Much emphasis has been placed on controlling the foodborne pathway of exposure, particularly within the poultry industry, however, other environmental sources have been identified as important...

  10. New developments in quantitative risk assessment of campylobacteriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie; Nauta, Maarten

    . Alternative explanations include differences in virulence characteristics among the naturally occurring Campylobacter strains, or low disease risks associated with infection by low doses. Further research and modeling efforts are needed to understand the relative importance of these different factors.......-to-fork chain. At the farm, all available models suggest a very rapid spread of Campylobacter infection in commercial broiler flocks. After infection of the first birds, a within-flock prevalence > 95% may be reached within one week. This implies that high-level infection in flocks at slaughter may frequently...

  11. Modification of intestinal microbiota and its consequences for innate immune response in the pathogenesis of campylobacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanta, Wycliffe Omurwa; Heimesaat, Markus M; Bereswill, Stefan; Tareen, Abdul Malik; Lugert, Raimond; Groß, Uwe; Zautner, Andreas E

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis in the world, and thus one of the most important public health concerns. The initial stage in its pathogenesis after ingestion is to overcome colonization resistance that is maintained by the human intestinal microbiota. But how it overcomes colonization resistance is unknown. Recently developed humanized gnotobiotic mouse models have provided deeper insights into this initial stage and host's immune response. These studies have found that a fat-rich diet modifies the composition of the conventional intestinal microbiota by increasing the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria loads while reducing the Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes loads creating an imbalance that exposes the intestinal epithelial cells to adherence. Upon adherence, deoxycholic acid stimulates C. jejuni to synthesize Campylobacter invasion antigens, which invade the epithelial cells. In response, NF- κ B triggers the maturation of dendritic cells. Chemokines produced by the activated dendritic cells initiate the clearance of C. jejuni cells by inducing the actions of neutrophils, B-lymphocytes, and various subsets of T-cells. This immune response causes inflammation. This review focuses on the progress that has been made on understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota shift, establishment of C. jejuni infection, and consequent immune response.

  12. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    Foodborne pathogens are an important cause of human disease worldwide. In the last decades, several industrialized countries have made efforts to prevent and control foodborne zoonoses. To identify and prioritize options for control in the food chain, it is important to identify the most important...... present the source attribution approaches applied to Salmonella and Campylobacter. The methods were applied to different populations and time periods, and different models attributed illness in Denmark, in Europe or globally. Two microbial subtyping approaches were applied to attribute human salmonellosis...... in 2005 and 2006, provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Reporting of the causative vehicles of outbreaks was not harmonized between and within countries, and therefore we organized the implicated foods in mutually exclusive food categories based on the implicated simple foods (i.e. foods...

  13. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    transmission routes and 18 direct contact routes in the overall Danish population and in four risk groups. The risk groups (RGs) encompassed (1) people consuming raw cow milk or unpasteurized dairy products, (2) people consuming raw goat milk and unpasteurised goat and sheep products, (3) people having daily...

  14. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    sources of the pathogen and estimate the relative contribution of each source to the burden of human disease. A variety of methods to attribute human illness to specific sources is available, including microbial subtyping, comparative exposure assessment, analysis of studies of sporadic infections...... to the responsible sources, compare methods and results, and make recommendations on which approach to choose to answer specific risk management questions. The work is based on six manuscripts. In the first manuscript, concepts and terminology on source attribution are presented, and the remaining manuscripts...... to be the Salmonella serotypes with highest impact on the number of reported cases. The 3D model achieved more robust estimates of the proportion subtype-related factors that describe the ability of different Salmonella subtypes to cause disease and, consequently, of the proportion of disease attributed to each source...

  15. Campylobacteriosis and sequelae in the Netherlands - Estimating the disease burden and the costs-of-illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen MJJ; Havelaar AH; Wit GA de; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Each year, approximately 80,000 persons per year (range 30,000 - 160,000) are estimated to experience symptoms of acute gastro-enteritis as a consequence of infection with Campylobacter bacteria. On average 18,000 patients consult a general practitioner and 500 patients are hospitalised; for some 30

  16. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    investigated the role of non-food routes of transmission (e.g. direct contact with animals and environmental transmission), and results showed that routes other than foodborne should be considered when identifying and prioritizing control measures to prevent and reduce the human incidence. Finally......Foodborne pathogens are an important cause of human disease worldwide. In the last decades, several industrialized countries have made efforts to prevent and control foodborne zoonoses. To identify and prioritize options for control in the food chain, it is important to identify the most important....... In addition, the developed model can be applied to data with a lower discriminatory power (e.g. only serotyping information), which is the only data available in many countries, and thus can be used in several countries throughout the world. In the second approach, the original model as described by Hald et...

  17. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    in 2005 and 2006, provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Reporting of the causative vehicles of outbreaks was not harmonized between and within countries, and therefore we organized the implicated foods in mutually exclusive food categories based on the implicated simple foods (i.e. foods......Foodborne pathogens are an important cause of human disease worldwide. In the last decades, several industrialized countries have made efforts to prevent and control foodborne zoonoses. To identify and prioritize options for control in the food chain, it is important to identify the most important...... availability, in the coverage of surveillance systems, in the subtypes causing reported disease, and in the epidemiology of salmonellosis in each country. A comparative exposure assessment approach was applied to attribute human salmonellosis in Denmark. The model investigated exposure through 25 foodborne...

  18. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    Foodborne pathogens are an important cause of human disease worldwide. In the last decades, several industrialized countries have made efforts to prevent and control foodborne zoonoses. To identify and prioritize options for control in the food chain, it is important to identify the most important...... direct contact with farm animals, and (4) children visiting a petting zoo. Results suggest that individuals belonging to the risk groups were more exposed than the overall population, specifically (in presented order) individuals from RG1 with between 5 and 14 years of age, and other age categories...... investigated the role of non-food routes of transmission (e.g. direct contact with animals and environmental transmission), and results showed that routes other than foodborne should be considered when identifying and prioritizing control measures to prevent and reduce the human incidence. Finally...

  19. Campylobacter jejuni strain CG8421: a refined model for the study of Campylobacteriosis and evaluation of Campylobacter vaccines in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, David R; Baqar, Shahida; Carmolli, Marya P; Porter, Chad; Pierce, Kristen K; Sadigh, Katrin; Guerry, Patricia; Larsson, Catherine J; Rockabrand, David; Ventone, Cassandra H; Poly, Frederic; Lyon, Caroline E; Dakdouk, Sandra; Fingar, Ann; Gilliland, Theron; Daunais, Patrick; Jones, Erika; Rymarchyk, Stacia; Huston, Christopher; Darsley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2009-11-15

    A robust human challenge model for Campylobacter jejuni is an important tool for the evaluation of candidate vaccines. The previously established model conveys a potential risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome attributable to lipooligosaccharide ganglioside mimicry. This work establishes a new C. jejuni human challenge model that uses a strain (CG8421) without ganglioside mimicry and that applies Campylobacter-specific cellular immunity screening to achieve high attack rates at lower inoculum doses. Healthy Campylobacter-naive adults participated in an open-label challenge trial. Participants were dosed with C. jejuni CG8421 and followed as inpatients. Pattern of illness, bacterial shedding, and immunologic responses were determined. Following screening, 23 subjects received 1 X 10(6) or 1 X 10(5) colony-forming units of C. jejuni, with attack rates (percentage of patients who became ill) of 100% (1 X 10(6) colony-forming units) or 93% (1 X 10(5) colony-forming units). Every subject shed CG8421; the median time to diarrhea onset was 72.3 h (interquartile range, 53.9-99.9 h). Symptoms included abdominal cramps (74%), nausea (65%), and fever (39%). No major safety concerns occurred, including bacteremia, hypotension, or postinfectious sequelae. Unexpectedly, recrudescent infection occurred in 2 subjects (1 subject without Campylobacter-specific adaptive immune responses and 1 with azithromycin resistance acquired in vivo); both infections cleared after receipt of additional antibiotics. Cumulative Campylobacter-specific immune responses were as follows: serologic response occurred in 87% (immunoglobulin [Ig] A) and 48% (IgG) of subjects, in vitro interferon-gamma production occurred in 91% of subjects, and 96% of subjects had IgA antibody-secreting cells and fecal IgA detected. The C. jejuni CG8421 challenge model provides a safe and effective tool, without the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The model demonstrates high attack rates after lower doses of challenge inoculum, provides further understanding of immunologic responses, and permits future investigation of candidate Campylobacter vaccines.

  20. Campylobacteriosis and sequelae in the Netherlands - Estimating the disease burden and the costs-of-illness (Campylobacteriose en complicaties in Nederland - ziektelast en kosten)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.; Havelaar, A.H.; Wit, de G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Each year, approximately 80,000 persons per year (range 30,000 - 160,000) are estimated to experience symptoms of acute gastro-enteritis as a consequence of infection with Campylobacter bacteria. On average 18,000 patients consult a general practitioner and 500 patients are hospitalised; for some 30

  1. Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Connect With Us New & Noteworthy Dogs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... healthy. Diseases The most common diseases associated with dogs that can cause human illness are: Campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter ...

  2. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Bovine genital campylobacteriosis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of bovine genital campylobacteriosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation...... of bovine genital campylobacteriosis according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to bovine genital campylobacteriosis. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert...... of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9(1). The assessment here performed on compliance with the criteria as in section 3 of Annex IV referred to in point (c) of Article 9(1) is inconclusive. The animal species to be listed...

  3. Foodborne Illness-Causing Organisms in the U.S.: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campylobacteriosis Botulism Clostridium perfringens Perfringens food poisoning Cryptosporidium Intestinal cryptosporidiosis Cyclospora cayetanensis Cyclosporiasis E. coli (Escherichia coli) producing toxin E. coli O157:H7 E. coli infection (common cause of “travelers’ diarrhea”) Hemorrhagic colitis or ...

  4. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Wołkowicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-22

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  5. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  6. Prevalence and genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni from urban environmental sources in comparison with clinical isolates from children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramonaite, Sigita; Kudirkiene, Egle; Tamuleviciene, Egle

    2014-01-01

    of campylobacteriosis in children using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Campylobacter spp. were detected in 36.2 % of faecal samples of free-living urban birds and in 40.4 % of environmental water samples. A low prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in dogs and cats, with 7.9 and 9.1 %, respectively. Further...... identification of isolates revealed that environmental water and pet samples were mostly contaminated by other Campylobacter spp. than C. jejuni, whereas C. jejuni was the most prevalent species in faecal samples of free-living birds (35.4 %). This species was the dominant cause of campylobacteriosis in children....... jejuni isolates and a high number of novel alleles and STs were found in C. jejuni isolated from free-living urban birds and environmental water, there is probably only a limited link between urban environmental sources and campylobacteriosis in children, particularly in rather cold climatic conditions...

  7. Source attribution of human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosos using a systematic review of studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    . Identifying the most important sources of human disease is essential for prioritizing food safety interventions and setting public health goals. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic infections of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis have been published. These studies investigate a variety of potential...... or statistical analysis of data, and conclusions. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for human sporadic salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, we performed a SR of case-control studies and meta-analysis of the obtained results. From 1,295 identified references, 132 passed...... the relevance screening, 73 passed the quality assessment stage, and data was extracted from 72. Of these studies, 34 investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis and 37 focused on campylobacteriosis. Heterogeneity between the studies and possible sources of bias were assessed. Information on exposures...

  8. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  9. Litter treatment with Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) produced an inconsistent reduction in horizontal transmission of Campylobacter in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacteriosis is a significant health problem worldwide and poultry products are considered as one of the main vehicles of transmission. Alum treatment of poultry litter was reported to decrease Campylobacter colonization frequency and population in the ceca in broilers. Little is known about h...

  10. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolera...

  11. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators produces chickens more resistant to Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the second leading cause of bacterial-induced foodborne illnesses with an estimated economic burden of nearly $2 billion per year. Most human illness associated with campylobacteriosis is due to infection by C. jejuni and chickens are recognized as a reservoir, which could le...

  12. Preventing Campylobacter at the Source: Why Is It So Difficult?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; French, N.P.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is the most common recognized bacterial zoonosis in the European Union and the United States. The acute phase is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. The long-term sequelae (Guillain-Barre syndrome, reactive

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter foetus and Trichomonas foetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis are diseases caused by Trichomonas foetus and Campylobacter foetus respectively. These diseases pose economic losses due to infertility and abortion. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of C. foetus and T. foetus among southern African cattle.

  14. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26062576

  15. Gene expression profiling of innate immune response to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the bursa of broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a commensal microorganism in chickens, but caused significant health problems in humans. Reduction of C. jejuni colonization in the chicken gut will significantly decrease human campylobacteriosis. To study host response to C. jejuni infection in broilers, both ...

  16. Use of Fly Screens to Reduce Campylobacter spp. Introduction in Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    2007-01-01

     Fly screens that prevented influx of flies in 20 broiler houses during the summer of 2006 in Denmark caused a decrease in Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks from 51.4% in control houses to 15.4% in case houses. A proportional reduction in the incidence of chicken-borne campylobacteriosis can be ...

  17. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be

  18. Epidemiology of bacterial zoonoses in Nigeria | Adesiji | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper dicusses the epidemiology and epizootiology of bacterial zoonotic diseases in Nigeria. Six diseases are discussed including anthrax, brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, campylobacteriosis leptospirosis, salmonellosis and tetanus. All axcept anthrax are enzootic and endemic in the country, and have been ...

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use Associated with Laboratory-Confirmed Cases of Campylobacter Infection in Two Health Units in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E Deckert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: A population-based study was conducted over a two-year period in the Perth District (PD and Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph (WDG health units in Ontario to document antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use associated with clinical cases of laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis.

  20. Peripheral CD4+ T Cell Cytokine Responses Following Human Challenge and Re-Challenge with Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimlaid, Kelly A.; Lindow, Janet C.; Tribble, David R.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Maue, Alexander C.; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide; however, our understanding of the human immune response to C. jejuni infection is limited. A previous human challenge model has shown that C. jejuni elicits IFNγ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a response associated with protection from clinical disease following re-infection. In this study, we investigate T lymphocyte profiles associated with campylobacteriosis using specimens from a new human challenge model in which C. jejuni-naïve subjects were challenged and re-challenged with C. jejuni CG8421. Multiparameter flow cytometry was used to investigate T lymphocytes as a source of cytokines, including IFNγ, and to identify cytokine patterns associated with either campylobacteriosis or protection from disease. Unexpectedly, all but one subject evaluated re-experienced campylobacteriosis after re-challenge. We show that CD4+ T cells make IFNγ and other pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to infection; however, multifunctional cytokine response patterns were not found. Cytokine production from peripheral CD4+ T cells was not enhanced following re-challenge, which may suggest deletion or tolerance. Evaluation of alternative paradigms or models is needed to better understand the immune components of protection from campylobacteriosis. PMID:25397604

  1. Peripheral CD4+ T cell cytokine responses following human challenge and re-challenge with Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Fimlaid

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide; however, our understanding of the human immune response to C. jejuni infection is limited. A previous human challenge model has shown that C. jejuni elicits IFNγ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a response associated with protection from clinical disease following re-infection. In this study, we investigate T lymphocyte profiles associated with campylobacteriosis using specimens from a new human challenge model in which C. jejuni-naïve subjects were challenged and re-challenged with C. jejuni CG8421. Multiparameter flow cytometry was used to investigate T lymphocytes as a source of cytokines, including IFNγ, and to identify cytokine patterns associated with either campylobacteriosis or protection from disease. Unexpectedly, all but one subject evaluated re-experienced campylobacteriosis after re-challenge. We show that CD4+ T cells make IFNγ and other pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to infection; however, multifunctional cytokine response patterns were not found. Cytokine production from peripheral CD4+ T cells was not enhanced following re-challenge, which may suggest deletion or tolerance. Evaluation of alternative paradigms or models is needed to better understand the immune components of protection from campylobacteriosis.

  2. Consumption of raw vegetables and fruits: a risk factor for Campylobacter infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.; Jansen, H.A.P.M.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in fresh vegetables and fruits at retail level in the Netherlands, and to estimate its implications on the importance of vegetables and fruits as risk factor for campylobacteriosis. Thirteen of the 5640 vegetable and fruit

  3. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Jongert, E.

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with

  4. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered...

  5. Influence of food handlers' compliance with procedures of poultry carcasses contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Sura Barus, Sri Aika; Swart, Arno; Havelaar, Arie H.; Lipman, Len J.A.; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter remains the most commonly reported zoonotic agent worldwide. Reducing the concentration of Campylobacter on chicken meat is seen as the most efficient strategy to diminish the number of human campylobacteriosis cases. Analysis of risk factors related to characteristics of broiler

  6. Toxoplasma-safe meat: close to reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Jongert, E.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the centennial of the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii was celebrated. However, toxoplasmosis is still seen as a neglected and underreported disease, despite having a disease burden similar to that of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. Human vaccines are not available and current

  7. The efficacy of the natural plant extracts, thymol and carvacrol against campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the world and consumption of poultry products are a major cause of human infections. The ability to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter colonization in chickens would greatly reduce the risk of human campylobacteriosis. Unfortunately, ...

  8. Interim Guidance for the Sanitary Control and Surveillance of Field Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-15

    contract Campylobacteriosis are at risk of developing sepsis. In some cases, infection leads to Guillain - Barre syndrome which is a temporary paralysis...Microtox is a registered trademark of Strategic Diagnostics Inc., Newark, Delaware. Interim Guidance Pending Publication of TBMED 577 15 July

  9. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production Chain in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Makela, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading course of food borne bacterial infections worldwide. It is believed that a decline in the occurrence of campylobacteriosis can be achieved by reducing the number of the bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Phage therapy using Campylobacter specific phages...

  10. Increased risk for Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infection of pet origin in dog owners and evidence for genetic association between strains causing infection in humans and their pets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, L.M.; Smid, J.H.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Koene, M.G.J.; Havelaar, A.H.; Friesema, I.H.M.; French, N.P.; Flemming, C.; Galson, J.D.; Graziani, C.; Busani, L.; Pelt, van W.

    2013-01-01

    We compared Campylobacter jejuni/coli multilocus sequence types (STs) from pets (dogs/cats) and their owners and investigated risk factors for pet-associated human campylobacteriosis using a combined source-attribution and case-control analysis. In total, 132/687 pet stools were

  11. Immunity to Campylobacter: its role in risk assessment and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, A.H.; Pelt, van W.; Ang, C.W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Putten, van J.P.M.; Gross, U.; Newell, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired immunity is an important factor in the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in the developing world, apparently limiting symptomatic infection to children of less than two years. However, also in developed countries the highest incidence is observed in children under five years and the

  12. Campylobacter: animal reservoirs, human infections, and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap; Newell, D.G.; Kalupahana, R.S.; Mughini Gras, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  13. Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  14. Conventional and molecular methods in the diagnosis of community-acquired diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age from the north-eastern region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Fiedoruk

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni suggests that the number of campylobacteriosis cases in Poland may be underestimated; this pathogen should be investigated routinely in children with diarrhoea. Moreover, C. difficile might be considered a causative or contributing agent of diarrhoea in 14.8% of children aged >1 year.

  15. Influence of food handlers' compliance with procedures of poultry carcasses contamination : A case study concerning evisceration in broiler slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Sura Barus, Sri Aika; Swart, Arno; Havelaar, Arie H.; Lipman, Len J A; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter remains the most commonly reported zoonotic agent worldwide. Reducing the concentration of Campylobacter on chicken meat is seen as the most efficient strategy to diminish the number of human campylobacteriosis cases. Analysis of risk factors related to characteristics of broiler

  16. The Effects of Temperature and Innate Immunity on Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) Between Life Stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Gill, C.; Lowenberger, C.

    2014-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter j...

  17. Campylobacter epidemiology-sources and routes of transmission for human infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Diane G.; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Kalupahana, R.S.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the sources and routes of transmission of Campylobacter jejuni/coli is essential to the prevention and control of human campylobacteriosis. However, this has proved a significant challenge over the past 35 years because these organisms were so unlike other enteric bacteria,

  18. Quantitative microbiological data analysis of a Campylobacter vaccination trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Bahrndorff, Simon; Hald, Birthe

    . The objective of the present trial was to assess whether or not a vaccine candidate could give a 2 logs reduction of the numbers of Campylobacter in broilers. Sample size calculations indicated the use of 400 animals (200 vaccinated and 200 controls). The experiment was conducted in four different rotations......Campylobacter jejuni is considered the main pathogen causing human campylobacteriosis and poultry has been identified as one of the main risk factors. Strategies that aim to control Campylobacter in poultry such as vaccination strategies could reduce the incidence of human campylobacteriosis...... using 8 incubators per rotation with 10 chickens in each incubator. The vaccination treatment was randomly assigned at incubator level. Broilers were challenged with C. jejuni at day 31 and faecal/caecum samples were collected at slaughter at day 42 and processed in the laboratory. To illustrate...

  19. Climate variability, weather and enteric disease incidence in New Zealand: time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Ikeda, Takayoshi; French, Nigel; Baker, Michael G; Hales, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the influence of climate variability on enteric disease incidence may improve our ability to predict how climate change may affect these diseases. To examine the associations between regional climate variability and enteric disease incidence in New Zealand. Associations between monthly climate and enteric diseases (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis) were investigated using Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models. No climatic factors were significantly associated with campylobacteriosis and giardiasis, with similar predictive power for univariate and multivariate models. Cryptosporidiosis was positively associated with average temperature of the previous month (β =  0.130, SE =  0.060, p climate variables and national communicable disease incidence data can contribute to disease prediction models and early warning systems.

  20. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  1. Intestinal microbiota shifts towards elevated commensal Escherichia coli loads abrogate colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Maxie Haag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne enterocolitis in humans worldwide. The understanding of immunopathology underlying human campylobacteriosis is hampered by the fact that mice display strong colonization resistance against the pathogen due to their host specific gut microbiota composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since the microbiota composition changes significantly during intestinal inflammation we dissected factors contributing to colonization resistance against C. jejuni in murine ileitis, colitis and in infant mice. In contrast to healthy animals C. jejuni could stably colonize mice suffering from intestinal inflammation. Strikingly, in mice with Toxoplasma gondii-induced acute ileitis, C. jejuni disseminated to mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood. In infant mice C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis. Mice suffering from intestinal inflammation and C. jejuni susceptible infant mice displayed characteristical microbiota shifts dominated by increased numbers of commensal Escherichia coli. To further dissect the pivotal role of those distinct microbiota shifts in abrogating colonization resistance, we investigated C. jejuni infection in healthy adult mice in which the microbiota was artificially modified by feeding live commensal E. coli. Strikingly, in animals harboring supra-physiological intestinal E. coli loads, colonization resistance was significantly diminished and C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Murine colonization resistance against C. jejuni is abrogated by changes in the microbiota composition towards elevated E. coli loads during intestinal inflammation as well as in infant mice. Intestinal inflammation and microbiota shifts thus represent potential risk factors for C. jejuni infection. Corresponding interplays between C. jejuni and microbiota might

  2. House-level risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Berke Olaf; Reiersen Jarle; Martin Wayne; Guerin Michele T; McEwen Scott A; Bisaillon Jean-Robert; Lowman Ruff

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The concurrent rise in consumption of fresh chicken meat and human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's in Iceland led to a longitudinal study of the poultry industry to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Because horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be the most likely source of Campylobacter to broilers, we aimed to identify broiler house characteristics and management practices associated w...

  3. Human and chicken antibodies to gangliosides following infection by Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Seigo; Taguchi, Kyoji; Cawthraw, Shaun A; Shibata, Keiko; Ariga, Toshio; Newell, Diane G; Yu, Robert K

    2006-07-01

    Campylobacteriosis is frequently associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Poultry are frequently highly colonized with Campylobacter jejuni and are a major foodborne vehicle for campylobacteriosis. In this study, high titer anti-GM1 antibodies were found in the serum of a laboratory worker who developed campylobacteriosis. The microbiologically confirmed strain VLA2/18 (non-serotyped) was isolated from the worker and subsequently inoculated into chickens, resulting in high titers of serum antibodies to GM1. However, none of the immunized chickens in our study showed any noticeable neurological symptoms, such as paralysis or cramping. High titer anti-GM1 antibodies in chicken and human sera strongly inhibited spontaneous muscle action potential in an in vitro system of spinal cord and muscle cell co-culture. In addition, infection of chickens with C. jejuni strains 81116 (HS6) and 99/419 (HS21) or immunization with purified GM1, GM2, and GM3 resulted in elevation of serum anti-ganglioside antibodies with an inhibitory effect on spontaneous muscle action potential. Immunoabsorption studies demonstrated that this inhibitory activity is due to anti-ganglioside antibodies. On the other hand, anti-GM1 is the only specific human serum antibody to induce an inhibitory effect on neuromuscular junctions. Chicken anti-GM1 antibodies showed a strong inhibitory effect, but anti-GM2 and -GM3 had weaker activities. Taken together, our data suggest that campylobacteriosis in chickens may provide a strong link between infection and the development of anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated peripheral nerve dysfunctions.

  4. Lack of homologous protection against Campylobacter jejuni CG8421 in a human challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Lyon, Caroline E; Porter, Chad K; Maue, Alex C; Guerry, Patricia; Pierce, Kristen K; Carmolli, Marya P; Riddle, Mark S; Larsson, Catherine J; Hawk, Douglas; Dill, Elizabeth A; Fingar, A; Poly, Frederic; Fimlaid, Kelly A; Hoq, Fahmida; Tribble, David R

    2013-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of diarrhea and is associated with serious postinfectious sequelae. Although symptomatic and asymptomatic infections are recognized, protective immunity is not well understood. Previous data suggests that interferon γ (IFN-γ) may be associated with protection. To better define the clinical and immunologic development of protective immunity to C. jejuni, we assessed the ability of an initial infection to prevent clinical illness after a second experimental infection. Subjects with no clinical or immunologic evidence of prior infection with C. jejuni received an initial challenge with C. jejuni CG8421 with rechallenge 3 months later. The primary endpoint was campylobacteriosis, as defined by diarrhea and/or systemic signs. Close inpatient monitoring was performed. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), fecal IgA, IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), and IFN-γ production were evaluated. All subjects were treated with antibiotics and were clinically well at discharge. Fifteen subjects underwent a primary infection with C. jejuni CG8421; 14 (93.3%) experienced campylobacteriosis. Eight subjects received the second challenge, and all experienced campylobacteriosis with similar severity. Immune responses after primary infection included serum IgA, IgG, ASC, and IFN-γ production. Responses were less robust after secondary infection. In naive healthy adults, a single infection with CG8421 did not protect against campylobacteriosis. Although protection has been demonstrated with other strains and after continuous environmental exposure, our work highlights the importance of prior immunity, repeated exposures, and strain differences in protective immunity to C. jejuni. NCT01048112.

  5. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2014 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly re......, molluscs and products thereof’. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia....

  6. Use of fly screens to reduce Campylobacter spp. introduction in broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Fly screens that prevented influx of flies in 20 broiler houses during the summer of 2006 in Denmark caused a decrease in Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks from 51.4% in control houses to 15.4% in case houses. A proportional reduction in the incidence of chicken-borne campylobacteriosis can...... be expected by comprehensive intervention against flies in broiler production houses....

  7. Analysis of simultaneous space-time clusters of Campylobacter spp. in humans and in broiler flocks using a multiple dataset approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU and the epidemiology of sporadic campylobacteriosis, especially the routes of transmission, is to a great extent unclear. Poultry easily become colonised with Campylobacter spp., being symptom-less intestinal carriers. Earlier it was estimated that internationally between 50% and 80% of the cases could be attributed to chicken as a reservoir. In a Norwegian surveillance programme all broiler flocks under 50 days of age were tested for Campylobacter spp. The aim of the current study was to identify simultaneous local space-time clusters each year from 2002 to 2007 for human cases of campylobacteriosis and for broiler flocks testing positive for Campylobacter spp. using a multivariate spatial scan statistic method. A cluster occurring simultaneously in humans and broilers could indicate the presence of common factors associated with the dissemination of Campylobacter spp. for both humans and broilers. Results Local space-time clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. occurring simultaneously were identified in all investigated years. All clusters but one were identified from May to August. Some municipalities were included in clusters all years. Conclusions The simultaneous occurrence of clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. combined with the knowledge that poultry meat has a nation-wide distribution indicates that campylobacteriosis cases might also be caused by other risk factors than consumption and handling of poultry meat. Broiler farms that are positive could contaminate the environment with further spread to new broiler farms or to humans living in the area and local environmental factors, such as climate, might influence the spread of Campylobacter spp. in an area. Further studies to clarify the role of such factors are needed. PMID:20860801

  8. Lack of Homologous Protection Against Campylobacter jejuni CG8421 in a Human Challenge Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D.; Lyon, Caroline E.; Porter, Chad K.; Maue, Alex C.; Guerry, Patricia; Pierce, Kristen K.; Carmolli, Marya P.; Riddle, Mark S.; Larsson, Catherine J.; Hawk, Douglas; Dill, Elizabeth A.; Fingar, A.; Poly, Frederic; Fimlaid, Kelly A.; Hoq, Fahmida; Tribble, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of diarrhea and is associated with serious postinfectious sequelae. Although symptomatic and asymptomatic infections are recognized, protective immunity is not well understood. Previous data suggests that interferon γ (IFN-γ) may be associated with protection. To better define the clinical and immunologic development of protective immunity to C. jejuni, we assessed the ability of an initial infection to prevent clinical illness after a second experimental infection. Methods. Subjects with no clinical or immunologic evidence of prior infection with C. jejuni received an initial challenge with C. jejuni CG8421 with rechallenge 3 months later. The primary endpoint was campylobacteriosis, as defined by diarrhea and/or systemic signs. Close inpatient monitoring was performed. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), fecal IgA, IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), and IFN-γ production were evaluated. All subjects were treated with antibiotics and were clinically well at discharge. Results. Fifteen subjects underwent a primary infection with C. jejuni CG8421; 14 (93.3%) experienced campylobacteriosis. Eight subjects received the second challenge, and all experienced campylobacteriosis with similar severity. Immune responses after primary infection included serum IgA, IgG, ASC, and IFN-γ production. Responses were less robust after secondary infection. Conclusions. In naive healthy adults, a single infection with CG8421 did not protect against campylobacteriosis. Although protection has been demonstrated with other strains and after continuous environmental exposure, our work highlights the importance of prior immunity, repeated exposures, and strain differences in protective immunity to C. jejuni. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01048112 PMID:23840001

  9. Intestinal microbiota shifts towards elevated commensal Escherichia coli loads abrogate colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Fischer, André; Otto, Bettina; Plickert, Rita; Kühl, Anja A; Göbel, Ulf B; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M

    2012-01-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne enterocolitis in humans worldwide. The understanding of immunopathology underlying human campylobacteriosis is hampered by the fact that mice display strong colonization resistance against the pathogen due to their host specific gut microbiota composition. Since the microbiota composition changes significantly during intestinal inflammation we dissected factors contributing to colonization resistance against C. jejuni in murine ileitis, colitis and in infant mice. In contrast to healthy animals C. jejuni could stably colonize mice suffering from intestinal inflammation. Strikingly, in mice with Toxoplasma gondii-induced acute ileitis, C. jejuni disseminated to mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood. In infant mice C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis. Mice suffering from intestinal inflammation and C. jejuni susceptible infant mice displayed characteristical microbiota shifts dominated by increased numbers of commensal Escherichia coli. To further dissect the pivotal role of those distinct microbiota shifts in abrogating colonization resistance, we investigated C. jejuni infection in healthy adult mice in which the microbiota was artificially modified by feeding live commensal E. coli. Strikingly, in animals harboring supra-physiological intestinal E. coli loads, colonization resistance was significantly diminished and C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. Murine colonization resistance against C. jejuni is abrogated by changes in the microbiota composition towards elevated E. coli loads during intestinal inflammation as well as in infant mice. Intestinal inflammation and microbiota shifts thus represent potential risk factors for C. jejuni infection. Corresponding interplays between C. jejuni and microbiota might occur in human campylobacteriosis. Murine models introduced here mimick key features of

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use associated with laboratory-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection in two health units in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Deckert, Anne E; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Tamblyn, Susan E; Larry Morrell; Patrick Seliske; Jamieson, Frances B.; Rebecca Irwin; Dewey, Catherine E.; Patrick Boerlin; McEwen, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: A population-based study was conducted over a two-year period in the Perth District (PD) and Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph (WDG) health units in Ontario to document antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use associated with clinical cases of laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis.METHODS: Etest (bioMérieux SA, France) was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin (CIP), clindamycin, erythromycin (ER...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use associated with laboratory-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection in two health units in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Anne E; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Tamblyn, Susan E; Morrell, Larry; Seliske, Patrick; Jamieson, Frances B; Irwin, Rebecca; Dewey, Catherine E; Boerlin, Patrick; McEwen, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    A population-based study was conducted over a two-year period in the Perth District (PD) and Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph (WDG) health units in Ontario to document antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use associated with clinical cases of laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis. Etest (bioMérieux SA, France) was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin (CIP), clindamycin, erythromycin (ERY), gentamicin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Data regarding antimicrobial use were collected from 250 cases. Of the 250 cases, 165 (65.7%) reported staying home or being hospitalized due to campylobacteriosis. Fifty-four per cent of cases (135 of 249) reported taking antimicrobials to treat campylobacteriosis. In 115 cases (51.1%), fecal culture results were not used for treatment decisions because they were not available before the initiation of antimicrobial treatment and/or they were not available before the cessation of symptoms. Of the 250 cases, 124 (49.6%) had available Campylobacter isolates, of which 66 (53.2%) were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested. No resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin was found in these isolates. Six isolates (4.8%) were resistant to CIP. Two isolates (1.6%) were resistant to ERY; however, no isolates were resistant to both CIP and ERY. Prudent use practices should be promoted among physicians to reduce the use of antimicrobials for the treatment of gastroenteritis in general and campylobacteriosis in particular, as well as to minimize the future development of resistance to these antimicrobials in Campylobacter species.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni Induces Acute Enterocolitis in Gnotobiotic IL-10−/− Mice via Toll-Like-Receptor-2 and -4 Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Fischer, André; Otto, Bettina; Plickert, Rita; Kühl, Anja A.; Göbel, Ulf B.; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial enterocolitis worldwide. Investigation of immunopathology is hampered by a lack of suitable vertebrate models. We have recently shown that gnotobiotic mice as well as conventional IL-10(-/-) animals are susceptible to C. jejuni infection and develop intestinal immune responses. However, clinical symptoms of C. jejuni infection were rather subtle and did not reflect acute bloody diarrhea seen in human campylobacteriosis...

  13. Analysis of simultaneous space-time clusters of Campylobacter spp. in humans and in broiler flocks using a multiple dataset approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norström Madelaine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU and the epidemiology of sporadic campylobacteriosis, especially the routes of transmission, is to a great extent unclear. Poultry easily become colonised with Campylobacter spp., being symptom-less intestinal carriers. Earlier it was estimated that internationally between 50% and 80% of the cases could be attributed to chicken as a reservoir. In a Norwegian surveillance programme all broiler flocks under 50 days of age were tested for Campylobacter spp. The aim of the current study was to identify simultaneous local space-time clusters each year from 2002 to 2007 for human cases of campylobacteriosis and for broiler flocks testing positive for Campylobacter spp. using a multivariate spatial scan statistic method. A cluster occurring simultaneously in humans and broilers could indicate the presence of common factors associated with the dissemination of Campylobacter spp. for both humans and broilers. Results Local space-time clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. occurring simultaneously were identified in all investigated years. All clusters but one were identified from May to August. Some municipalities were included in clusters all years. Conclusions The simultaneous occurrence of clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. combined with the knowledge that poultry meat has a nation-wide distribution indicates that campylobacteriosis cases might also be caused by other risk factors than consumption and handling of poultry meat. Broiler farms that are positive could contaminate the environment with further spread to new broiler farms or to humans living in the area and local environmental factors, such as climate, might influence the spread of Campylobacter spp. in an area. Further studies to clarify the role of such factors are needed.

  14. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in rectal swab samples from Rousettus amplexicaudatus in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Yuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Katayama, Yukie; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Masangkay, Joseph S; Puentespina, Roberto; Eres, Eduardo; Cosico, Edison; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Ken; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Bats are the second diversity species of mammals and widely distributed in the world. They are thought to be reservoir and vectors of zoonotic pathogens. However, there is scarce report of the evidence of pathogenic bacteria kept in bats. The precise knowledge of the pathogenic bacteria in bat microbiota is important for zoonosis control. Thus, metagenomic analysis targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA of the rectal microbiota in Rousettus amplexicaudatus was performed using high throughput sequencing. The results revealed that 103 genera of bacteria including Camplyobacter were detected. Campylobacter was second predominant genus, and Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were identified in microbiome of R. amplexicaudatus. Campylobacteriosis is one of the serious bacterial diarrhea in human, and the most often implicated species as the causative agent of campylobacteriosis is C. jejuni. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of C. jejuni in 91 wild bats with PCR. As a result of PCR assay targeted on 16S-23S intergenic spacer, partial genome of C. jejuni was detected only in five R. amplexicaudatus. This is the first report that C. jejuni was detected in bat rectal swab samples. C. jejuni is the most common cause of campylobacteriosis in humans, transmitted through water and contact with livestock animals. This result indicated that R. amplexicaudatus may be a carrier of C. jejuni.

  15. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  16. Do contamination of and exposure to chicken meat and water drive the temporal dynamics of Campylobacter cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J M; Pollari, F; Pintar, K D M; Nesbitt, A; Butler, A J; Ravel, A

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacteriosis, the most frequent bacterial enteric disease, shows a clear yet unexplained seasonality. The study purpose was to explore the influence of seasonal fluctuation in the contamination of and in the behaviour exposures to two important sources of Campylobacter on the seasonality of campylobacteriosis. Time series analyses were applied to data collected through an integrated surveillance system in Canada in 2005-2010. Data included sporadic, domestically-acquired cases of Campylobacter jejuni infection, contamination of retail chicken meat and of surface water by C. jejuni, and exposure to each source through barbequing and swimming in natural waters. Seasonal patterns were evident for all variables with a peak in summer for human cases and for both exposures, in fall for chicken meat contamination, and in late fall for water contamination. Time series analyses showed that the observed campylobacteriosis summer peak could only be significantly linked to behaviour exposures rather than sources contamination (swimming rather than water contamination and barbequing rather than chicken meat contamination). The results indicate that the observed summer increase in human cases may be more the result of amplification through more frequent risky exposures rather than the result of an increase of the Campylobacter source contamination.

  17. Update on human Campylobacter jejuni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Tribble, David R

    2011-01-01

    The present review will update the reader to the clinical, epidemiological and immunologic advances in the field of human campylobacteriosis. New advances in human campylobacteriosis include an increased appreciation of the role of Campylobacter jejuni in postinfectious sequelae, a broadened understanding of Campylobacter-associated disease burden and the interplay between host immunity and bacterial factors. Antibiotic management has also become more complex: C. jejuni has undergone a rapid increase in resistance to the fluoroquinolone antibiotics and concurrently, postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome has been associated with a longer duration of untreated infection. In anticipation of new candidate C. jejuni vaccines, progress in understanding human immune responses to infection has been made via human experimental infections. These tightly controlled studies have also increased our understanding of the natural history of campylobacteriosis as well as observations of recrudescent infection following treatment with C. jejuni-sensitive antibiotics. As one of the most common agents of bacterial gastroenteritis and a major health burden for both developing world and industrialized nations, Campylobacter infections remain a high priority for research efforts to improve prevention and management. Priorities for the future include vaccine development, pathogen-specific immunity and identification of risk factors for postinfectious sequelae.

  18. Host resistance to primary and secondary Campylobacter jejuni infections in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucković, Darinka; Abram, Maja; Bubonja, Marina; Wraber, Branka; Dorić, Miljenko

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been known as a main causative agent of human enterocolitis for more than 30 years. This has prompted the research on defence mechanisms of the host involved. Although the humoral immune response to C. jejuni has been addressed in many studies, relatively little is known about the role of T lymphocytes in campylobacteriosis. The current study was based on in vivo T-cell subsets depletion to evaluate the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in disseminated C. jejuni infection in C57BL/6 mice. Depletion of either CD8+ or CD4+ cells did not change the overall infection kinetics of primary campylobacteriosis. To assess the role of T cells in acquired immunity that develops during primary infection in C57BL/6 mice, in vivo depletions were performed during reinfection. Depletion of CD4+ cells did not have any effect on secondary infection kinetics, whereas depletion of CD8+ cells resulted in secondary liver infection that failed to resolve during the observed period. This study showed that both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells contribute to protection of C57BL/6 mice against C. jejuni. However, the predominant role resides in the CD8+ cell subpopulation. The exact mechanisms by which CD8+ cells operate during the course of campylobacteriosis will be the subject of our further research.

  19. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry.

  20. Factors Associated with Sequelae of Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella Infections: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Oluwaseun B; Pearce, Madison; van Hecke, Oliver; Roberts, Nia; Collins, Dylan R J; Violato, Mara; McCarthy, Noel; Perera, Rafael; Fanshawe, Thomas R

    2017-02-01

    Despite the significant global burden of gastroenteritis and resulting sequelae, there is limited evidence on risk factors for sequelae development. We updated and extended previous systematic reviews by assessing the role of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and symptom severity in the development of sequelae following campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. We searched four databases, including PubMed, from 1 January 2011 to 29 April 2016. Observational studies reporting sequelae of reactive arthritis (ReA), Reiter's syndrome (RS), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following gastroenteritis were included. The primary outcome was incidence of sequelae of interest amongst cases of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. A narrative synthesis was conducted where heterogeneity was high. Of the 55 articles included, incidence of ReA (n=37), RS (n=5), IBS (n=12) and GBS (n=9) were reported following campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. A pooled summary for each sequela was not estimated due to high level of heterogeneity across studies (I2>90%). PPI usage and symptoms were sparsely reported. Three out of seven studies found a statistically significant association between antibiotics usage and development of ReA. Additional primary studies investigating risk modifying factors in sequelae of GI infections are required to enable targeted interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Campylobacter jejuni prevalence and hygienic quality of retail bovine ground meat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena, A-K; Sivonen, K; Hänninen, M-L

    2014-05-01

    Detection of common genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni among Finnish human and bovine isolates, suggested that bovines may be a source for zoonotic Camp. jejuni infection. In addition, a Finnish epidemiological study implied the tasting and eating raw or undercooked beef as risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. We therefore performed a study on the occurrence of Camp. jejuni in retail bovine ground meat in Helsinki by the use of both cultivation and PCR. During 2011 and 2012, 175 bovine ground meat samples were collected. None of the samples were Campylobacter positive by cultivation, and only one sample (0.6%) was Camp. jejuni positive by the use of PCR on template extracted directly from ground meat. According to our findings, Finnish bovine ground meat is an unlikely source for human campylobacteriosis. Additionally, the hygienic quality of bovine ground meat at retail level was screened and found to be good when monitored by aerobic micro-organisms, total thermotolerant coliforms and Eshericha coli. This study provides the first data on the occurrence of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in Finnish bovine ground meat. This knowledge is important as part of future Campylobacter risk assessment, management and monitoring programs, particularly when assessing the relative attribution of poultry, pork and bovine meat to the burden of human campylobacteriosis. According to our results, Finnish bovine ground meat at retail level is of good hygienic quality. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Faeco-prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in urban wild birds and pets in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vathsala

    2015-02-02

    Greater attention has been given to Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) prevalence in poultry and ruminants as they are regarded as the major contributing reservoirs of human campylobacteriosis. However, relatively little work has been done to assess the prevalence in urban wild birds and pets in New Zealand, a country with the highest campylobacteriosis notification rates. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the faeco-prevalence of C. jejuni in urban wild birds and pets and its temporal trend in the Manawatu region of New Zealand. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2008 to July 2009, where faecal samples were collected from 906 ducks, 835 starlings, 23 Canadian goose, 2 swans, 2 pied stilts, 498 dogs and 82 cats. The faeco-prevalence of C. jejuni was 20% in ducks, 18% in starlings, 9% in Canadian goose, 5% in dogs and 7% in cats. The faeco-prevalence of C. jejuni was relatively higher during warmer months of the year in ducks, starlings and dogs while starlings showed increased winter prevalence. No such trend could be assessed in Canadian goose, swans, pied stilts and cats as samples could not be collected for the entire study period from these species. This study estimated the faeco-prevalence of C. jejuni in different animal species where the prevalence was relatively high during warmer months in general. However, there was relative increase in winter prevalence in starlings. The urban wild bird species and pets may be considered potential risk factors for human campylobacteriosis in New Zealand, particularly in small children.

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children and environmental sources in urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Bernadeta; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Spica, Dorota; Klawe, Jacek J

    2017-04-04

    Campylobacteriosis is a dominant bacterial cause of foodborne infection and is considered the main public health problem in Europe and many other countries worldwide. In the study lasting from 2011 to 2013 we compared the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children, domestic animals, poultry meat and surface water in Northern Poland. During a 3-years study 1973 samples were analysed. The results proved the presence of Campylobacter spp. in 306 (15.5%) samples. The percentage of Campylobacter-positive samples differed among the sample types, from 0% (freshwater beaches) to 38.6% (poultry meat in 2011). Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in children isolates was 9.6%. It decreased from 13.2% in 2011 to 8.0% in 2013. It should be highlighted with a particular concern that Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 20.0% of fountains. All children and poultry meat isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. Two C. coli (3.7%) and four C. jejuni (3.3%) isolated from poultry meat were resistant to erythromycin. The highest percentage of C. jejuni isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin were found in samples from 80% dogs and 85% ponds. Among isolates resistant to two antimicrobials 74.7% C. jejuni and 59.2% C. coli isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin as well as to tetracycline. Only one cat C. coli isolate was resistant to both azithromycin and erythromycin. One C. jejuni isolate from a fountain was resistant to four antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, azithromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin). The study proved that surface water, poultry meat and pets constituted potential sources of Campylobacter to children. Fountains can be a direct source of children campylobacteriosis but can also pollute other environments with multidrug-resistant Campylobacter. The high resistance to some antimicrobials among the isolates may lead to increasing numbers of difficult-to-treat campylobacteriosis cases among children.

  4. Campylobacter: pathogenicity and significance in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzler, J P; Oosterom, J

    1991-01-01

    In the last 10 years Campylobacter jejuni has emerged as the most frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in man. Acute enterocolitis, the most common presentation of C. jejuni infection, can affect persons of all ages. C. jejuni has been found in virtually every country where investigations have been carried out. The frequent finding of dysenteric stools suggests that mucosal damage due to an invasive process analogous to that seen in shigellosis is important in the pathogenesis. Campylobacteriosis in man is mainly a foodborne infection in which foods of animal origin, particularly poultry, play an important role. Epidemiological investigations have demonstrated a significant correlation between the handling and consumption of poultry meat and the occurrence of Campylobacter enteritis. Barbecues appear to present special hazards for infection, because they permit easy transfer of bacteria from raw meats to hands and other foods and from these to the mouth. Milk is sometimes found to be contaminated and consumption of raw milk has caused several outbreaks of campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter can remain viable in fresh cheese for only a short period of time. The organism is also found in shellfish, such as clams. Campylobacter is probably very vulnerable to factors such as high temperatures and dry environments, and also to the presence of oxygen in atmospheric concentrations. Therefore, it is assumed that the organism does not persist in products like pelleted feed, meals, egg powder and spices, which are often contaminated by Salmonella. A number of preventive measures on different levels, taken simultaneously, are needed to reduce the incidence of campylobacteriosis in man.

  5. Determination of sensitivity to antibiotics of Campilobacter jejuni and Campilobacter coli isolated from human feces

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    Tambur Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the most important bacterial zoonosis is campylobacteriosis. Human disease is mostly caused by thermophilic Campylobacter spp: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni, Campylobacter coli (C. coli, Campylobacter lari (C. lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis (C. upsaliensis. Campylobacteriosis is a mild and self-healing disorder. In patients with more severe and prolonged forms, an antibiotic treatment is recommended. Recommended drugs are erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin, chloramphenicol and ampicillin. Lately, an increase of Campylobacter genus resistance to antibiotics mostly used in therapy is an annoying evidence. The rise coincided with the beginning of antibiotic use, especially quinolones, in veterinary medicine. The aim of the study was to isolate and identify thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from human feces and to determine their sensitivity to antibiotics and hemotherapeutics mostly used in campylobacteriosis treatment. Methods. Sensitivity to erythromycin, tetracyclin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin of 24 strains of Campylobacter spp. isolated from humans was investigated by E-test. Results. Seventeen C. jejuni and seven C. coli strains were investigated. Six (25% out of 24 C. jejuni and C. coli investigated strains were resistant to ampicillin and seven (29.2% were resistant to tetracycline. Twelve (50% C. jejuni and C. coli investigated strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin. C. jejuni was more resistant (52.9%. Four (23.5% C. jejuni strains were resistant to erythromycin and 11.7% to choramphenicol. None of C. coli strains were resistant to both chloramphenicol and erytromycin. Conclusons. Testing sensitivity to erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin demonstrated a rather high resistance frequency of C. jejuni and C. coli strains isolated from humans. C. jejuni strains were more resistant than those of C. coli.

  6. Use of a Web Forum and an Online Questionnaire in the Detection and Investigation of an Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart Chester, Tammy L.; Taylor, Marsha; Sandhu, Jat; Forsting, Sara; Ellis, Andrea; Stirling, Rob; Galanis, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    A campylobacteriosis outbreak investigation provides relevant examples of how two web-based technologies were used in an outbreak setting and potential reasons for their usefulness. A web forum aided in outbreak detection and provided contextual insights for hypothesis generation and questionnaire development. An online questionnaire achieved a high response rate and enabled rapid preliminary data analysis that allowed for a targeted environmental investigation. The usefulness of these tools may in part be attributed to the existence of an internet savvy, close-knit community. Given the right population, public health officials should consider web-based technologies, including web fora and online questionnaires as valuable tools in public health investigations. PMID:23569598

  7. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Broens, E.M.; Chomel, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal–oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population...... to estimate the burden of human disease attributable to pets and to identify risk behaviours facilitating transmission, and (3) education of those in charge of pets, animal caretakers, veterinarians and human medical healthcare practitioners on the potential zoonotic risks associated with exposure to pets...

  8. Genome sequences of two stress-tolerant Campylobacter jejuni poultry strains, 305 and DFVF1099

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a food-borne pathogen with a high prevalence in poultry meat, which in fresh unfrozen condition is the major source of campylobacteriosis. C. jejuni strains DFVF1099 and 305 are considered tolerant to several environmental stresses (T. Birk et al., J. Food Prot. 73......:258–265, 2010; S. L. On et al., Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 296:353–363, 2006). Here, we report the genome sequences of C. jejuni 305 and DFVF1099, a turkey and a chicken isolate, respectively. ©American Society for Microbiology. All rights reserved....

  9. Campylobacter jejuni : An emerging pathogen

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    Nathanon Trachoo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne diarrhea in many countries. However, in some countries, a number of cases were undetected because of the inappropriate detection method and ignorance. Although C. jejuni usually does not cause death in health adults, it can be deadly for immunocompromised persons (Pigrau, et al., 1997. Although thought to be very susceptible in several conditions, C. jejuni in fact is quite prevalent in nature. It can easily cause sporadic cases and outbreaks resulting in economic loss. This review covers three major parts: clinical aspects of Campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni reservoirs and transmission, and methods for detection.

  10. Infection with multidrug-resistant Campylobacter coli mimicking recurrence of carcinoid syndrome: a case report of a neuroendocrine tumor patient with repeated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagler, Heimo; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Raderer, Markus

    2016-08-12

    Campylobacteriosis caused by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Campylobacter (mainly C. jejuni and C. coli) is one of the most common gastrointestinal zoonotic infections with increased incidence in humans worldwide. The typical symptoms are severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea and sometimes fever. The clinical course of Campylobacter infection is mainly mild and after one week self-limiting, but can take several weeks in some rare cases. However, patients with neuroendocrine tumors in the gastrointestinal tract, a neoplasm of enterochromaffin/neuroendocrine cell origin, can develop severe diarrhea during progression of tumor growth caused by hormonal excess due to the tumor. Both diseases have very similar clinical symptoms and this case report elaborates the differences. So far it is known in the literature that the clinical symptoms of campylobacteriosis can mimic appendicitis or acute colitis of inflammatory bowel disease but a mimicking of recurrence of carcinoid syndrome in a patient with neuroendocrine tumor is not reported. A 72-year-old man with already diagnosed and treated metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the terminal ileum (G1 rated, Ki-67 index 1 %) was again suffering from increasing diarrhea, abdominal cramps and weight lost. These symptoms were similar to the initial symptoms due to the tumor which improved at the time after total resection of the primary in the terminal ileum and regular therapy with long-acting release depot octreotide intramuscularly. As progression/tachyphylaxis in symptomatic patients with carcinoid syndrome undergoing therapy, reassessment of disease and analysis of tumor markers was initiated, and the interval of intramuscular injections was shortened. Radiological findings and tumor marker levels disclosed no evidence of neuroendocrine tumor progression and the symptoms continued. After 4 weeks with symptoms the patient developed additionally fever. Due to impaired renal function and elevated signs of systemic

  11. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

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    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  12. Campylobacter in the environment: A major threat to public health

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    Hussein Hasan Abulreesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that Campylobacter remains a worldwide leading cause of gastrointestinal infections. Improperly prepared meat products, unpasteurized milk as well as non chlorinated drinking water were shown to be the main sources of campylobacteriosis. The Campylobacter survival mechanism in various environments facilitated the transmission of Campylobacter-associated infections; however the exact mode of transmission remains to be elucidated. This review aims to summarize recent insights on the incidence and survival of Campylobacter in the environment. Besides, methods of detection and risk assessment for public health safety are also addressed.

  13. Detection and species identification of Campylobacter in stool samples of children and animals from Vellore, south India

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    P Rajendran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis frequently isolated from animal, poultry and environmental samples. In this study, we investigated the zoonotic potential of Campylobacter spp. by comparing prevalence rates and species in 394 children with diarrhoea and 652 animals in Vellore using PCR-based tools. Eighteen children (4.5% had campylobacteriosis, a majority of whom had co-pathogens (15/18 and most were infected with Campylobacter jejuni (16/18. A few C. coli and mixed infections with both species were also seen. Among the animal samples, 16/25 chicken samples (64% were positive and all were found to be C. jejuni.

  14. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Aarieke E I; van Asselt, Esther D; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the decimal reduction times of bacteria present on chicken fillet in boiling water. The experiments were conducted with Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. Whole chicken breast fillets were inoculated with the pathogens, stored overnight...... cooking enlarged the heat resistance of the food borne pathogens. Additionally, a high challenge temperature or fast heating rate contributed to the level of heat resistance. The data were used to assess the probability of illness (campylobacteriosis) due to consumption of chicken fillet as a function...

  15. Community-level risk factors for notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008

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    Pardhan-Ali Aliya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric pathogens are an important cause of illness, however, little is known about their community-level risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural and physical environmental conditions in the Northwest Territories (NWT of Canada. The objective of this study was to undertake ecological (group-level analyses by combining two existing data sources to examine potential community-level risk factors for campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis, which are three notifiable (mandatory reporting to public health authorities at the time of diagnosis enteric infections. Methods The rate of campylobacteriosis was modeled using a Poisson distribution while rates of giardiasis and salmonellosis were modeled using a Negative Binomial distribution. Rate ratios (the ratio of the incidence of disease in the exposed group to the incidence of disease in the non-exposed group were estimated for infections by the three major pathogens with potential community-level risk factors. Results Significant (p≤0.05 associations varied by etiology. There was increased risk of infection with Salmonella for communities with higher proportions of ‘households in core need’ (unsuitable, inadequate, and/or unaffordable housing up to 42% after which the rate started to decrease with increasing core need. The risk of giardiasis was significantly higher both with increased ‘internal mobility’ (population moving between communities, and also where the community’s primary health facility was a health center rather than a full-service hospital. Communities with higher health expenditures had a significantly decreased risk of giardiasis. Results of modeling that focused on each of Giardia and Salmonella infections separately supported and expanded upon previous research outcomes that suggested health disparities are often associated with socioeconomic status, geographical and social mobility, as well as access to health care (e.g. facilities

  16. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    and November 2006, where houses were equipped with fly screens made of glass fibre mesh. The controls consisted of 70 broiler flocks reared in 25 matched houses on 13 farms without screens. Other bio-security and management routines were strictly as before the study. All broiler houses were ventilated through...... production to be 11% at day 35 in houses with fly screens and 42% in houses without screens. We conclude that implementation of fly screens in broiler houses is likely to enhance food safety and reduce the risk of food-borne campylobacteriosis. The significant role of flies as vectors for Campylobacter...

  17. Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods ISO 10272: 2006 in Curitiba - Parana State - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konell, K; Gelinsk, M A; Benetti, T M; Abrahão, W M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection.

  18. Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods ISO 10272: 2006 in Curitiba – Parana State – Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konell, K.; Gelinsk, M.A.; Benetti, T.M.; Abrahão, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection. PMID:25763066

  19. Characterization of the Campylobacter jejuni population in the barnacle geese reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena, A-K; Skarp-de Haan, C P A; Rossi, M; Hänninen, M-L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and have been isolated from a wide number of different hosts and environmental sources. Waterfowl is considered a natural reservoir for this zoonotic bacterium and may act as a potential infection source for human campylobacteriosis. In this study, faecal samples from 924 barnacle geese were tested for the presence of C. jejuni and C. coli. The resulting C. jejuni and C. coli populations were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), structure analysis by BAPS and phylogenetic analysis based on full genome sequences. The prevalences of C. jejuni in barnacle geese faeces were 11.5% and 23.1% in 2011 and 2012, respectively, and only 0.2% of the samples were positive for C. coli in both years. Furthermore, a possible adaption of the clonal complexes (CCs) ST-702 and ST-1034 to the barnacle geese reservoir was found, as these two CCs represented the majority of the typed isolates and were repeatedly isolated from different flocks at several time-points. Further core genome phylogenetic analysis using ClonalFrame revealed a formation of a distinct monophyletic lineage by these two CCs, suggesting a certain degree of clonality of the C. jejuni population adapted to barnacle geese. Therefore, although STs also commonly found in humans patients (e.g. ST-45) were among the barnacle geese C. jejuni isolates, this reservoir is probably an infrequent source for human campylobacteriosis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Utilizing a combination of molecular and spatial tools to assess the effect of a public health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, P; Marshall, J C; Spencer, S E F; Noble, A D; Shadbolt, T; Collins-Emerson, J M; Midwinter, A C; Carter, P E; Pirie, R; Wilson, D J; Campbell, D M; Stevenson, M A; French, N P

    2011-12-01

    Until recently New Zealand had one of the highest rates of human campylobacteriosis reported by industrialized countries. Since the introduction of a range of control measures in the poultry production chain a reduction in human cases of around 50% has been observed nationwide. To inform risk managers a combination of spatial, temporal and molecular tools - including minimum spanning trees, risk surfaces, rarefaction analysis and dynamic source attribution modelling - was used in this study to formally evaluate the reduction in disease risk that occurred after the implementation of control measures in the poultry industry. Utilizing data from a sentinel surveillance site in the Manawatu region of New Zealand, our analyses demonstrated a reduction in disease risk attributable to a reduction in the number of poultry-associated campylobacteriosis cases. Before the implementation of interventions poultry-associated cases were more prevalent in urban than rural areas, whereas for ruminant-associated cases the reverse was evident. In addition to the overall reduction in prevalence, this study also showed a stronger intervention effect in urban areas where poultry sources were more dominant. Overall a combination of molecular and spatial tools has provided evidence that the interventions aimed at reducing Campylobacter contamination of poultry were successful in reducing poultry-associated disease and this will inform the development of future control strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  2. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Lizard Faeces from Central Australia Using Quantitative PCR

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    Harriet Whiley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, Campylobacter is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness. It is predominately considered a foodborne pathogen, with human exposure via non-food transmission routes generally overlooked. Current literature has been exploring environmental reservoirs of campylobacteriosis including potential wildlife reservoirs. Given the close proximity between lizards and human habitats in Central Australia, this study examined the presence of Campylobacter jejuni from lizard faeces collected from this region. Of the 51 samples collected, 17 (33% (this included 14/46 (30% wild and 3/5 (60% captive lizard samples were positive for C. jejuni using quantitative PCR (qPCR. This was the first study to investigate the presence of C. jejuni in Australian lizards. This has public health implications regarding the risk of campylobacteriosis from handling of pet reptiles and through cross-contamination or contact with wild lizard faeces. Additionally this has implication for horizontal transmission via lizards of C. jejuni to food production farms. Further research is needed on this environmental reservoir and potential transmission routes to reduce the risk to public health.

  3. Mapping the carriage of flaA-restriction fragment length polymorphism Campylobacter genotypes on poultry carcasses through the processing chain and comparison to clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Blackall, Patrick J; Cobbold, Rowland N; Fegan, Narelle

    2015-06-01

    Poultry are considered a major source for campylobacteriosis in humans. A total of 1866 Campylobacter spp. isolates collected through the poultry processing chain were typed using flaA-restriction fragment length polymorphism to measure the impact of processing on the genotypes present. Temporally related human clinical isolates (n = 497) were also typed. Isolates were obtained from whole chicken carcass rinses of chickens collected before scalding, after scalding, before immersion chilling, after immersion chilling and after packaging as well as from individual caecal samples. A total of 32 genotypes comprising at least four isolates each were recognised. Simpson's Index of Diversity (D) was calculated for each sampling site within each flock, for each flock as a whole and for the clinical isolates. From caecal collection to after packaging samples the D value did not change in two flocks, decreased in one flock and increased in the fourth flock. Dominant genotypes occurred in each flock but their constitutive percentages changed through processing. There were 23 overlapping genotypes between clinical and chicken isolates. The diversity of Campylobacter is flock dependant and may alter through processing. This study confirms that poultry are a source of campylobacteriosis in the Australian population although other sources may contribute. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

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    Marine Meunier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens.

  5. Detection of Campylobacter in human faecal samples in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Aruna; Wilkinson, Jenny; Mahony, Timothy; Vanniasinkam, Thiru

    2014-01-01

    Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva) and Western Fiji (Lautoka) between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1%) of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.

  6. Epidemiological association of Campylobacter jejuni groups with pathogenicity-associated genetic markers

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    Zautner Andreas E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni, the most leading cause for bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, shows a high genetic diversity among its isolates. Recently, we demonstrated the existence of six C. jejuni-groups by combining MLST with six genetic markers. These groups were further characterized by the detection of cj1321-cj1326, fucP, cj0178, cj0755/cfrA, ceuE, pldA, cstII, and cstIII in order (I. to show further associations between these different genetic markers and MLST CCs. Moreover, different studies were able to associate several of these markers: a sialylated lipoologosaccharide (cstII/III+, the gamma-glytamyl-transpeptidase (ggt+, and the absence of a certain allele of the enterochelin-uptake-binding-protein (ceuE11168- with severe campylobacteriosis, bloody diarrhea and unpleasant outcome. Additionally more than half of human Campylobacter-isolates were assigned to a non-livestock clade associated with the absence of cj1321-cj1326. These isolates were considered as mere colonizers. From the combination of marker genes, the ratio of human isolates in a specific group, and clinical data (II. it should be demonstrated to which of the previous defined groups these Campylobacter-subpopulations, associated with higher virulence, correspond. Results Besides the marker gene pldA, all new estimated genetic markers show significant differences in their distribution among the various MLST-based groups. Especially the genes for cj1321-cj1326, fucP, cj0178, cj0755/cfrA are widely associated with each other and split the study population into two major and seven intermediate groups substantiating the previous group-definition, whereas cstII and cstIII indicate at least three groups following an independent distribution pattern. Conclusions Based on these data a group of C. jejuni-isolates characterized by the presence of ansB, dmsA, ggt, and the absence of cj1365c, cj1585c, cj1321-cj1326, fucP, cj0178, cj0755/cfrA, and cstII/III was

  7. Epidemiological association of Campylobacter jejuni groups with pathogenicity-associated genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zautner, Andreas E; Ohk, Carolin; Tareen, Abdul Malik; Lugert, Raimond; Gross, Uwe

    2012-08-08

    Campylobacter jejuni, the most leading cause for bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, shows a high genetic diversity among its isolates. Recently, we demonstrated the existence of six C. jejuni-groups by combining MLST with six genetic markers. These groups were further characterized by the detection of cj1321-cj1326, fucP, cj0178, cj0755/cfrA, ceuE, pldA, cstII, and cstIII in order (I.) to show further associations between these different genetic markers and MLST CCs. Moreover, different studies were able to associate several of these markers: a sialylated lipoologosaccharide (cstII/III(+)), the gamma-glytamyl-transpeptidase (ggt(+)), and the absence of a certain allele of the enterochelin-uptake-binding-protein (ceuE(11168)(-)) with severe campylobacteriosis, bloody diarrhea and unpleasant outcome. Additionally more than half of human Campylobacter-isolates were assigned to a non-livestock clade associated with the absence of cj1321-cj1326. These isolates were considered as mere colonizers.From the combination of marker genes, the ratio of human isolates in a specific group, and clinical data (II.) it should be demonstrated to which of the previous defined groups these Campylobacter-subpopulations, associated with higher virulence, correspond. Besides the marker gene pldA, all new estimated genetic markers show significant differences in their distribution among the various MLST-based groups. Especially the genes for cj1321-cj1326, fucP, cj0178, cj0755/cfrA are widely associated with each other and split the study population into two major and seven intermediate groups substantiating the previous group-definition, whereas cstII and cstIII indicate at least three groups following an independent distribution pattern. Based on these data a group of C. jejuni-isolates characterized by the presence of ansB, dmsA, ggt, and the absence of cj1365c, cj1585c, cj1321-cj1326, fucP, cj0178, cj0755/cfrA, and cstII/III was associated with a higher prevalence in human

  8. Bibliometric analysis of publications on Campylobacter: (2000-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F; AbuTaha, Adham S; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2016-11-29

    Campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. In order to better understand national and international research output on Campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on Campylobacter. This study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy makers to global burden of campylobacateriosis. Scopus database was used to retrieve publications with the following keywords (Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni, C. coli). The study period was set from 2000 to 2015. All types of journal documents, excluding errata, were considered. Bibliometric indicators such as annual growth of publications, country contribution, international collaboration, and citation analysis were presented. The quality of retrieved data was indirectly assessed by Hirsch index and impact factor of journals. A total of 5522 documents were retrieved with median (Q1-Q3) citations of 9 (2-23) and h-index of 113. Annual number of publications showed a fluctuating increase. The core leading journals were Applied and Environmental Microbiology journal and Journal of Food Protection with 246 (4.46%) publications for each. The USA (1309; 23.6%) was the most productive country while Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (150; 2.7%) was the most productive institution. Half of the top ten productive countries were European. France had the lowest percentage (33.5%) of articles with international collaboration while Netherlands (57.7%) had the highest percentage of articles with international collaboration. Approximately half (50.1%) of retrieved articles were published in journals under the subject area of "immunology/microbiology". Main themes in highly cited articles were molecular biology/genetics and public health burden of campylobacteriosis. There were 728 (13

  9. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  10. PROBIOTICS, PREBIOTICS AND SNYBIOTICS IN POULTRY MODE OF ACTION, LIMITATION, AND ACHIEVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata DANKOWIAKOWSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry industry have forced farmers to seek alternatives for the posing a risk factors of cross-resistance acquisition by harmful bacteria. A particular nuisance became salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis forcing to the elimination of whole poultry flocks as well as causing dangerous zoonotic diseases in humans. An excellent replacement for antibiotics have become the pro-, pre-and synbiotic substances which have a beneficial effect on the host organism through the development intensification of healthy intestinal microbial strains and the elimination of pathogenic strains. Such preparations may be administered both in the water spray as well as in feed. Excellent and promising method appears to be their injection directly into the egg air chamber in the 12th day of incubation. However, further studies are required to determine the appropriate doses as well as combinations of bioactive substances and to determine the optimal way for their delivery.

  11. Bacteriophage F336 Recognizes the Capsular Phosphoramidate Modification of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine C. Holst; van Alphen, Lieke B.; Harboe, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriophages infecting the food-borne human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni could potentially be exploited to reduce bacterial counts in poultry prior to slaughter. This bacterium colonizes the intestinal tract of poultry in high numbers, and contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the major...... source of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, we used phage F336 belonging to the Myoviridae family to select a C. jejuni NCTC11168 phage-resistant strain, called 11168R, with the aim of investigating the mechanisms of phage resistance. We found that phage F336 has reduced adsorption to 11168R, thus...... indicating that the receptor is altered. While proteinase K-treated C. jejuni cells did not affect adsorption, periodate treatment resulted in reduced adsorption, suggesting that the phage binds to a carbohydrate moiety. Using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...

  12. Insights into Campylobacter jejuni colonization and enteritis using a novel infant rabbit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuwei; Ren, Fangzhe; Song, Zhaojun; Li, Qiuchun; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Zhonglan; Bao, Guangyu; Wan, Ting; Lei, Tianyao; Wang, Nan; Jiao, Xin-an; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    A lack of relevant disease models for Campylobacter jejuni has long been an obstacle to research into this common enteric pathogen. Here we used an infant rabbit to study C. jejuni infection, which enables us to define several previously unknown but key features of the organism. C. jejuni is capable of systemic invasion in the rabbit, and developed a diarrhea symptom that mimicked that observed in many human campylobacteriosis. The large intestine was the most consistently colonized site and produced intestinal inflammation, where specific cytokines were induced. Genes preferentially expressed during C. jejuni infection were screened, and acs, cj1385, cj0259 seem to be responsible for C. jejuni invasion. Our results demonstrates that the infant rabbit can be used as an alternative experimental model for the study of diarrheagenic Campylobacter species and will be useful in exploring the pathogenesis of other related pathogens. PMID:27357336

  13. Foodborne Disease Prevention and Broiler Chickens with Reduced Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003–2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006–2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks. PMID:23628089

  14. Preventing Campylobacter at the source: why is it so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; French, Nigel P; Havelaar, Arie H

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is the most common recognized bacterial zoonosis in the European Union and the United States. The acute phase is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. The long-term sequelae (Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis, and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome) contribute considerably to the disease burden. Attribution studies identified poultry as the reservoir responsible for up to 80% of the human Campylobacter infections. In the European Union, an estimated 30% of the human infections are associated with consumption and preparation of poultry meat. Until now, interventions in the poultry meat production chain have not been effectively introduced except for targeted interventions in Iceland and New Zealand. Intervention measures (eg, biosecurity) have limited effect or are hampered by economic aspects or consumer acceptance. In the future, a multilevel approach should be followed, aiming at reducing the level of contamination of consumer products rather than complete absence of Campylobacter.

  15. Control of campylobacter in poultry industry from farm to poultry processing unit: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaraw, Pramila; Prajapati, A; Verma, Akhilesh K; Pathak, V; Singh, V P

    2017-03-04

    Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic bacterial threat in the poultry industry. Most of the human cases of campylobacteriosis recorded have revealed their poultry origins. Various control measures have been employed both at the farm and processing levels to combat with it. The antibiotic treatment, phage therapy, competitive exclusion, and vaccination have been adapted at the farm level to reduce colonization of Campylobacter in poultry gut. While prevention of intestinal spillage, scheduled slaughter, logistic slaughter, chemical decontamination of carcasses are recommended to reduce contamination during processing. The postharvest interventions such as heat treatment, freezing, irradiation of contaminated carcass can effectively reduce Campylobacter contamination. Thus, integrated approaches are required to tackle infection of Campylobacter in humans.

  16. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks......) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp....... positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during the summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among...

  17. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp....... The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results...

  18. Foodborne illness, Australia, circa 2000 and circa 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Martyn; Ford, Laura; Glass, Kathryn; Hall, Gillian

    2014-11-01

    Foodborne disease is a major public health problem worldwide. To examine changes in foodborne illness in Australia, we estimated the incidence, hospitalizations, and deaths attributed to contaminated food circa 2010 and recalculated estimates from circa 2000. Approximately 25% of gastroenteritis cases were caused by contaminated food; to account for uncertainty we used simulation techniques to estimate 90% credible intervals. We estimate that circa 2010, 4.1 million foodborne gastroenteritis cases occurred, and circa 2000, 4.3 million cases occurred. Circa 2010, contaminated food was estimated to be responsible for 30,840 gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations, 76 associated deaths, and 5,140 nongastrointestinal illnesses. Cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis increased from 2000 to 2010 and were the leading causes of gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations; Listeria monocytogenes and nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. infections were the leading causes of death. Although the overall incidence of foodborne illnesses declined over time in Australia, cases of foodborne gastroenteritis are still common.

  19. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from stool cultures in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia C; Valenzuela, Natalia S; Rodríguez, M Victoria L; León, Eugenia C; Fernández, Heríberto J

    2009-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common agent of enterocolitis in humans. Campylobacteriosis has been recognized as a zoonotic disease whose reservoir is the intestinal flora of poultry. The reposition of fluid and electrolytes is the recommended treatment, and antimicrobials are required only in severe and/or in prolonged disease. Given the emergence of resistance to drugs commonly used in the treatment of acute diarrhea, we studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from stool culture. The antimicrobials tested were: erythromycin, azithromycin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Of the 73 strains tested by E-test, 32.4% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 6.4% were resistant to ampicillin. Resistance to erythromycin and azithromycin was not detected. The surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni is important in the evaluation of empirically used antimicrobials in the treatment of bacterial enterocolitis.

  20. Preston and Park-Sanders protocols adapted for semi-quantitative isolation of thermotolerant Campylobacter from chicken rinse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Aalbaek, B.

    2003-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis has become the major cause of foodborne gastrointestinal diseases in several European countries. In order to implement effective control measures in the primary production, and as a tool in risk assessment studies, it is necessary to have sensitive and quantitative...... detection methods. Thus, semi-quantitative detection of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in 20 naturally contaminated chicken rinse samples was carried out using the two most common standard protocols: Preston and Park-Sanders, as proposed by Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL) and International...... Standard Organization (ISO), respectively. For both protocols, the chicken rinse samples were prepared in 500 ml buffered peptone water, as recommended in the ISO protocol no. 6887-2. The results indicated that the Preston protocol was superior to the Park-Sanders protocol in supporting growth...

  1. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Time-series analysis of Campylobacter incidence in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Schüpbach, G; Held, L

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacteriosis has been the most common food-associated notifiable infectious disease in Switzerland since 1995. Contact with and ingestion of raw or undercooked broilers are considered the dominant risk factors for infection. In this study, we investigated the temporal relationship between the disease incidence in humans and the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers in Switzerland from 2008 to 2012. We use a time-series approach to describe the pattern of the disease by incorporating seasonal effects and autocorrelation. The analysis shows that prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers, with a 2-week lag, has a significant impact on disease incidence in humans. Therefore Campylobacter cases in humans can be partly explained by contagion through broiler meat. We also found a strong autoregressive effect in human illness, and a significant increase of illness during Christmas and New Year's holidays. In a final analysis, we corrected for the sampling error of prevalence in broilers and the results gave similar conclusions.

  3. Microbial pathogens in raw pork, chicken, and beef: benefit estimates for control using irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, T.

    1985-12-01

    Various control procedures have been suggested for reducing foodborne infectious diseases. Receiving considerable attention is irradiation. This report estimates the medical and wage (or productivity) benefits associated with prevention of five human diseases transmitted by beef, pork, and chicken. (These diseases can also be transmitted by other vectors, such as eggs, milk, and pets. But these sources are not included in the analysis.) All of these foodborne infectious diseases - salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, trichinosis, tapeworm, and toxoplasmosis - could be significantly reduced by irradiating meat and poultry. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has just approved irradiation of pork to prevent trichinosis (50FR 29658-59) and is considering approval of irradiation of chicken to kill Salmonella. 22 references.

  4. A Gene-By-Gene Approach to Bacterial Population Genomics: Whole Genome MLST of Campylobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K. Sheppard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis remains a major human public health problem world-wide. Genetic analyses of Campylobacter isolates, and particularly molecular epidemiology, have been central to the study of this disease, particularly the characterization of Campylobacter genotypes isolated from human infection, farm animals, and retail food. These studies have demonstrated that Campylobacter populations are highly structured, with distinct genotypes associated with particular wild or domestic animal sources, and that chicken meat is the most likely source of most human infection in countries such as the UK. The availability of multiple whole genome sequences from Campylobacter isolates presents the prospect of identifying those genes or allelic variants responsible for host-association and increased human disease risk, but the diversity of Campylobacter genomes present challenges for such analyses. We present a gene-by-gene approach for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypes in diverse bacteria such as Campylobacter, implemented with the BIGSdb software on the pubMLST.org/campylobacter website.

  5. The effect of reducing numbers of Campylobacter in broiler intestines on human health risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Johannessen, Gro; Laureano Adame, Laura

    2016-01-01

    One option for Campylobacter control in broiler chickens is to reduce the concentration in the intestinal content of the birds prior to slaughter, for example by vaccination or phage therapy. It is however unsure how such a reduction in concentration can be translated into a reduction......, a previously published risk assessment model is used, that describes the dynamics of transfer and survival of Campylobacter during broiler processing at the slaughterhouse. Data from five European countries are used as inputs for the models. For both approaches the analyses show that a one to two log reduction...... in concentration in the intestinal content has a large impact on the risk of campylobacteriosis due to the consumption of chicken meat: a relative risk reduction between 44% and 95%. Therefore it seems promising to aim interventions at a reduction of the concentration of Campylobacter in the broiler intestines...

  6. Campilobacteriose genital bovina em rebanhos leiteiros com problemas reprodutivos da microrregião de Varginha - Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stynen A.P.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC in 157 cows from nine herds from the microregion of Varginha - Minas Gerais - Brazil was evaluated. Farmers use either artificial insemination and natural breeding after two insemination procedures or natural breeding. The diagnosis of BGC was performed by the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT using vaginal mucus. All studied herds showed C. fetus infected animals and, of 157 animals, 40 (25.5% were positive in DFAT: 7 (26.9% from herds with natural breeding and 33 (25.1% from herds with both artificial insemination and natural breeding after the second-to-third insemination. The high frequency of BGC found in this study shows that this disease is present among herds which have reproductive problems and the use of natural breeding after the second-to-third unsuccessful insemination could be a risk factor for the disease.

  7. The use of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy against Campylobacter in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, A.; Vigre, Håkan

    ’ exposure to Campylobacter.In this presentation we focus on the development of a computerized decision support system to aid management decisions on Campylobacter vaccination of commercial broilers. Broilers should be vaccinated against Campylobacter in the first 2 weeks of age. Therefore, the decision......Human campylobacteriosis represents an important economic and public health problem. Campylobacter originating from feces of infected chickens will contaminate chicken meat posing a risk to the consumer. Vaccination against Campylobacter in broilers is one probable measure to reduce consumers...... about vaccination needs to be made usually before Campylobacter is introduced in the flock. In fact, there is uncertainty regarding the introduction of Campylobacter into the flock that needs to be taken into account in the decision making process. Probabilistic Graphical Models (PGMs) integrate...

  8. Application of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins in the control of terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongping; Li, Xiaoyu; Jin, Liji; Zhen, Yuhong; Lu, Yanan; Li, Shuying; You, Jiansong; Wang, Linhui

    2011-01-01

    Oral administration of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) has attracted considerable attention as a means of controlling infectious diseases of bacterial and viral origin. Oral administration of IgY possesses many advantages compared with mammalian IgG including cost-effectiveness, convenience and high yield. This review presents an overview of the potential to use IgY immunotherapy for the prevention and treatment of terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases and speculates on the future of IgY technology. Included are a review of the potential application of IgY for the treatment of livestock diseases such as mastitis and diarrhea, poultry diseases such as Salmonella, Campylobacteriosis, infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease, as well as aquatic diseases like shrimp white spot syndrome virus, Yersina ruckeri and Edwardsiella tarda. Some potential obstacles to the adoption of IgY technology are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Campylobacter jejuni carbon starvation protein A (CstA) is involved in peptide utilization, motility and agglutination, and has a role in stimulation of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, J J; Vegge, C S; Frøkiær, H; Howlett, R M; Krogfelt, K A; Kelly, D J; Ingmer, H

    2013-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of severe gastroenteritis in the developed world. The major symptom of campylobacteriosis is inflammatory diarrhoea. The molecular mechanisms of this infection are poorly understood compared to those of less frequent disease-causing pathogens. In a previous study, we identified C. jejuni proteins that antibodies in human campylobacteriosis patients reacted with. One of the immunogenic proteins identified (Cj0917) displays homology to carbon starvation protein A (CstA) from Escherichia coli, where this protein is involved in the starvation response and peptide uptake. In contrast to many bacteria, C. jejuni relies on amino acids and organic acids for energy, but in vivo it is highly likely that peptides are also utilized, although their mechanisms of uptake are unknown. In this study, Biolog phenotype microarrays have been used to show that a ΔcstA mutant has a reduced ability to utilize a number of di- and tri-peptides as nitrogen sources. This phenotype was restored through genetic complementation, suggesting CstA is a peptide uptake system in C. jejuni. Furthermore, the ΔcstA mutant also displayed reduced motility and reduced agglutination compared to WT bacteria; these phenotypes were also restored through complementation. Murine dendritic cells exposed to UV-killed bacteria showed a reduced IL-12 production, but the same IL-10 response when encountering C. jejuni ΔcstA compared to the WT strain. The greater Th1 stimulation elicited by the WT as compared to ΔcstA mutant cells indicates an altered antigenic presentation on the surface, and thus an altered recognition of the mutant. Thus, we conclude that C. jejuni CstA is important not only for peptide utilization, but also it may influence host-pathogen interactions.

  10. Campylobacter jejuni induces colitis through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolun; Threadgill, Deborah; Jobin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the worldwide leading cause of bacterial-induced enteritis. The molecular and cellular events that lead to campylobacteriosis are poorly understood. We identify mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a signaling pathway that leads to C jejuni-induced intestinal inflammation. Germ-free (control) or conventionally derived Il10(-/-) mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of nuclear factor κB (Il10(-/-); NF-κB(EGFP) mice) were infected with C jejuni (10(9) colony-forming units/mouse) for 12 days; their responses were determined using histologic, semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence in situ hybridization, transmission electron microscopy, and tissue culture analyses. mTOR signaling was blocked by daily intraperitoneal injections of the pharmacologic inhibitor rapamycin (1.5 mg/kg). CD4(+) T cells were depleted by intraperitoneal injections of antibodies against CD4 (0.5 mg/mouse every 3 days). Bacterial survival in splenocytes was measured using a gentamycin killing assay. C jejuni induced intestinal inflammation, which correlated with activation of mTOR signaling and neutrophil infiltration. The inflamed intestines of these mice had increased levels of interleukin-1β, Cxcl2, interleukin-17a, and EGFP; C jejuni localized to colons and extraintestinal tissues of infected Il10(-/-); NF-κB(EGFP) mice compared with controls. Rapamycin, administered before or after introduction of C jejuni, blocked C jejuni-induced intestinal inflammation and bacterial accumulation. LC3II processing and killing of C jejuni were increased in splenocytes incubated with rapamycin compared with controls. mTOR signaling mediates C jejuni-induced colitis in Il10(-/-) mice, independently of T-cell activation. Factors involved in mTOR signaling might be therapeutic targets for campylobacteriosis. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Sun, Xin-Ting; Zeng, Zheng; Yu, Yan-Yan

    2011-05-01

    There has been a marked global increase in the incidence of human Campylobacter enteritis in recent years. This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients suffering from acute diarrhea. This was a retrospective review of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea presenting at Beijing University First Hospital, Beijing, China, in the summer and autumn (April to October) of 2005 to 2009. The data collected included the species of campylobacter identified, and the age, gender, clinical manifestations and results of laboratory test on stool samples collected from the patients. Campylobacter sensitivity tests to various antimicrobial agents were conducted on 80 specimens. Chi-square tests were applied using SPSS13.0 software and a two-sided P value of Campylobacter spp. isolated from the stool specimens of 142 patients with diarrhea represented 14.9% of all the cases examined. C. jejuni was identified in 127 patients (89.4%) and C. coli in 15 others (10.6%). The infection incidence was highest in the age range of 21 - 30 years which comprised 21.7% of the total cases examined. Most cases of diarrhea (46 patients) occurred in June. Watery diarrhea (97.2%), abdominal pain (72.5%) and fever (64.8%) were the most common manifestations of enteric campylobacteriosis. Only four patients (2.8%) had bloody diarrhea. The antimicrobial resistance rates were: cefoperazone (100%), levofloxacin (61.3%), gentamicin (12.5%), erythromycin (6.3%), and azithromycin (2.5%). Campylobacter was prevalent among adults with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China. The large number of those afflicted by the disease warrants the commission of a large multicenter study to determine the extent of enteric campylobacteriosis in this region.

  12. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J.; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  13. Association of Paid Sick Leave Laws With Foodborne Illness Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsuan, Charleen; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; DeBurgh, Kat; Jacobson, Dawn M

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies suggest an association between paid sick leave (PSL) and better population health, including fewer infectious and nosocomial gastrointestinal disease outbreaks. Yet few studies examine whether laws requiring employers to offer PSL demonstrate a similar association. This mixed-methods study examined whether laws requiring employers to provide PSL are associated with decreased foodborne illness rates, particularly laws that are more supportive of employees taking leave. The four earliest PSL laws were classified by whether they were more or less supportive of employees taking leave. Jurisdictions with PSL were matched to comparison jurisdictions by population size and density. Using difference-in-differences, monthly foodborne illness rates (2000-2014) in implementation and comparison jurisdictions before and after the laws were effective were compared, stratifying by how supportive the laws were of employees taking leave, and then by disease. The empirical analysis was conducted from 2015-2017. Foodborne illness rates declined after implementation of the PSL law in jurisdictions with laws more supportive of employees taking leave, but increased in jurisdictions with laws that are less supportive. In adjusted analyses, PSL laws that were more supportive of employees taking sick leave were associated with an adjusted 22% decrease in foodborne illness rates (p=0.005). These results are driven by campylobacteriosis. Although the results suggest an association between more supportive PSL laws and decreased foodborne illness rates, they should be interpreted cautiously because the trend is driven by campylobacteriosis, which has low person-to-person transmission. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni induces acute enterocolitis in gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mice via Toll-like-receptor-2 and -4 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Maxie Haag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial enterocolitis worldwide. Investigation of immunopathology is hampered by a lack of suitable vertebrate models. We have recently shown that gnotobiotic mice as well as conventional IL-10(-/- animals are susceptible to C. jejuni infection and develop intestinal immune responses. However, clinical symptoms of C. jejuni infection were rather subtle and did not reflect acute bloody diarrhea seen in human campylobacteriosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to overcome these limitations we generated gnotobiotic IL-10(-/- mice by quintuple antibiotic treatment starting right after weaning. The early treatment was essential to prevent these animals from chronic colitis. Following oral infection C. jejuni colonized the gastrointestinal tract at high levels and induced acute enterocolitis within 7 days as indicated by bloody diarrhea and pronounced histopathological changes of the colonic mucosa. Immunopathology was further characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells, regulatory T-cells, T- and B-lymphocytes as well as elevated TNF-α, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 concentrations in the inflamed colon. The induction of enterocolitis was specific for C. jejuni given that control animals infected with a commensal E. coli strain did not display any signs of disease. Most strikingly, intestinal immunopathology was ameliorated in mice lacking Toll-like-receptors-2 or -4 indicating that C. jejuni lipoproteins and lipooligosaccharide are essential for induction and progression of immunopathology. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Gnotobiotic IL-10(-/- mice develop acute enterocolitis following C. jejuni infection mimicking severe episodes of human campylobacteriosis and are thus well suited to further dissect mechanisms underlying Campylobacter infections in vivo.

  15. Detecting causal nonlinear exposure-response relations in epidemiological data.

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    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2006-08-19

    The possibility of hormesis in individual dose-response relations undermines traditional epidemiological criteria and tests for causal relations between exposure and response variables. Non-monotonic exposure-response relations in a large population may lack aggregate consistency, strength, biological gradient, and other hallmarks of traditional causal relations. For example, a u-shaped or n-shaped curve may exhibit zero correlation between dose and response. Thus, possible hormesis requires new ways to detect potentially causal exposure-response relations. This paper introduces information-theoretic criteria for identifying potential causality in epidemiological data that may contain nonmonotonic or threshold dose-response nonlinearities. Roughly, exposure variable X is a potential cause of response variable Y if and only if: (a) X is INFORMATIVE about Y (i.e., the mutual information between X and Y, I(X; Y), measured in bits, is positive. This provides the required generalization of statistical association measures for monotonic relations); (b) UNCONFOUNDED: X provides information about Y that cannot be removed by conditioning on other variables. (c) PREDICTIVE: Past values of X are informative about future values of Y, even after conditioning on past values of Y; (d) CAUSAL ORDERING: Y is conditionally independent of the parents of X, given X. These criteria yield practical algorithms for detecting potential causation in cohort, case-control, and time series data sets. We illustrate them by identifying potential causes of campylobacteriosis, a foodborne bacterial infectious diarrheal illness, in a recent case-control data set. In contrast to previous analyses, our information-theoretic approach identifies a hitherto unnoticed, highly statistically significant, hormetic (U-shaped) relation between recent fast food consumption and women's risk of campylobacteriosis. We also discuss the application of the new information-theoretic criteria in resolving ambiguities

  16. Destination specific risks of acquisition of notifiable food- and waterborne infections or sexually transmitted infections among Finnish international travellers, 1995-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöldi, Viktor; Sane, Jussi; Kantele, Anu; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Salmenlinna, Saara; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2017-10-10

    Overnight international travels made by Finns more than doubled during 1995-2015. To estimate risks and observe trends of travel-related notifiable sexually transmitted and food- and water-borne infections (STIs and FWIs) among travellers, we analysed national reports of gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis A, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis cases and related them to travel statistics. Cases notified as travel-related to the Finnish infectious diseases register were used as numerators and overnight stays of Statistics Finland surveys as denominator. We calculated overall risks (per 100,000 travellers) and assessed trends (using regression model) in various geographic regions. Of all travel-related cases during 1995-2015, 2304 were STIs and 70,929 FWIs. During 2012-2015, Asia-Oceania showed highest risk estimates for gonorrhoea (11.0; 95%CI, 9.5-13), syphilis (1.4; 0.93-2.1), salmonellosis (157; 151-164), and campylobacteriosis (135; 129-141), and Africa for hepatitis A (4.5; 2.5-7.9), and shigellosis (35; 28-43). When evaluating at country level, the highest risks of infections was found in Thailand, except for hepatitis A ranking Hungary the first. During 2000-2011, significantly decreasing trends occurred for most FWIs particularly in the European regions and for STIs in Russia-Baltics. Our findings can be used in targeting pre-travel advice, which should also cover those visiting Thailand or European hepatitis A risk areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni Induces Acute Enterocolitis in Gnotobiotic IL-10−/− Mice via Toll-Like-Receptor-2 and -4 Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Fischer, André; Otto, Bettina; Plickert, Rita; Kühl, Anja A.; Göbel, Ulf B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial enterocolitis worldwide. Investigation of immunopathology is hampered by a lack of suitable vertebrate models. We have recently shown that gnotobiotic mice as well as conventional IL-10−/− animals are susceptible to C. jejuni infection and develop intestinal immune responses. However, clinical symptoms of C. jejuni infection were rather subtle and did not reflect acute bloody diarrhea seen in human campylobacteriosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to overcome these limitations we generated gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice by quintuple antibiotic treatment starting right after weaning. The early treatment was essential to prevent these animals from chronic colitis. Following oral infection C. jejuni colonized the gastrointestinal tract at high levels and induced acute enterocolitis within 7 days as indicated by bloody diarrhea and pronounced histopathological changes of the colonic mucosa. Immunopathology was further characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells, regulatory T-cells, T- and B-lymphocytes as well as elevated TNF-α, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 concentrations in the inflamed colon. The induction of enterocolitis was specific for C. jejuni given that control animals infected with a commensal E. coli strain did not display any signs of disease. Most strikingly, intestinal immunopathology was ameliorated in mice lacking Toll-like-receptors-2 or -4 indicating that C. jejuni lipoproteins and lipooligosaccharide are essential for induction and progression of immunopathology. Conclusion/Significance Gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice develop acute enterocolitis following C. jejuni infection mimicking severe episodes of human campylobacteriosis and are thus well suited to further dissect mechanisms underlying Campylobacter infections in vivo. PMID:22808254

  18. The role of serine protease HtrA in acute ulcerative enterocolitis and extra-intestinal immune responses during Campylobacter jejuni infection of gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice

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    Markus M. Heimesaat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden. C. jejuni can cross the intestinal epithelial barrier as visualised in biopsies derived from human patients and animal models, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms and associated immunopathology are still not well understood. We have recently shown that the secreted serine protease HtrA plays a key role in C. jejuni cellular invasion and transmigration across polarised epithelial cells in vitro. In the present in vivo study we investigated the role of HtrA during C. jejuni infection of mice. We used the gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mouse model to study campylobacteriosis following peroral infection with the C. jejuni wild-type strain NCTC11168 and the isogenic, non-polar NCTC11168ΔhtrA deletion mutant. Six days post infection (p.i. with either strain mice harboured comparable intestinal C. jejuni loads, whereas ulcerative enterocolitis was less pronounced in mice infected with the ΔhtrA mutant strain. Moreover, ΔhtrA mutant infected mice displayed lower apoptotic cell numbers in the large intestinal mucosa, less colonic accumulation of neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes, lower large intestinal nitric oxide, IFN-γ and IL-6 as well as lower TNF-α and IL-6 serum concentrations as compared to wild-type strain infected mice at day 6 p.i. Notably, immunopathological responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract given that liver and kidneys exhibited mild histopathological changes six days p.i. with either C. jejuni strain. We also found that hepatic and renal nitric oxide levels or renal TNF-α concentrations were lower in the ΔhtrA mutant as compared to wild-type strain infected mice. In conclusion, we show here that the C. jejuni HtrA protein plays a pivotal role in inducing host cell apoptosis and immunopathology during murine campylobacteriosis in the gut in vivo.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni induces acute enterocolitis in gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mice via Toll-like-receptor-2 and -4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Fischer, André; Otto, Bettina; Plickert, Rita; Kühl, Anja A; Göbel, Ulf B; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial enterocolitis worldwide. Investigation of immunopathology is hampered by a lack of suitable vertebrate models. We have recently shown that gnotobiotic mice as well as conventional IL-10(-/-) animals are susceptible to C. jejuni infection and develop intestinal immune responses. However, clinical symptoms of C. jejuni infection were rather subtle and did not reflect acute bloody diarrhea seen in human campylobacteriosis. In order to overcome these limitations we generated gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-) mice by quintuple antibiotic treatment starting right after weaning. The early treatment was essential to prevent these animals from chronic colitis. Following oral infection C. jejuni colonized the gastrointestinal tract at high levels and induced acute enterocolitis within 7 days as indicated by bloody diarrhea and pronounced histopathological changes of the colonic mucosa. Immunopathology was further characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells, regulatory T-cells, T- and B-lymphocytes as well as elevated TNF-α, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 concentrations in the inflamed colon. The induction of enterocolitis was specific for C. jejuni given that control animals infected with a commensal E. coli strain did not display any signs of disease. Most strikingly, intestinal immunopathology was ameliorated in mice lacking Toll-like-receptors-2 or -4 indicating that C. jejuni lipoproteins and lipooligosaccharide are essential for induction and progression of immunopathology. Gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-) mice develop acute enterocolitis following C. jejuni infection mimicking severe episodes of human campylobacteriosis and are thus well suited to further dissect mechanisms underlying Campylobacter infections in vivo.

  20. The role of serine protease HtrA in acute ulcerative enterocolitis and extra-intestinal immune responses during Campylobacter jejuni infection of gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Alutis, Marie; Grundmann, Ursula; Fischer, André; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Böhm, Manja; Kühl, Anja A; Göbel, Ulf B; Backert, Steffen; Bereswill, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden. C. jejuni can cross the intestinal epithelial barrier as visualized in biopsies derived from human patients and animal models, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms and associated immunopathology are still not well understood. We have recently shown that the secreted serine protease HtrA (high temperature requirement A) plays a key role in C. jejuni cellular invasion and transmigration across polarized epithelial cells in vitro. In the present in vivo study we investigated the role of HtrA during C. jejuni infection of mice. We used the gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-) mouse model to study campylobacteriosis following peroral infection with the C. jejuni wild-type (WT) strain NCTC11168 and the isogenic, non-polar NCTC11168ΔhtrA deletion mutant. Six days post infection (p.i.) with either strain mice harbored comparable intestinal C. jejuni loads, whereas ulcerative enterocolitis was less pronounced in mice infected with the ΔhtrA mutant strain. Moreover, ΔhtrA mutant infected mice displayed lower apoptotic cell numbers in the large intestinal mucosa, less colonic accumulation of neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes, lower large intestinal nitric oxide, IFN-γ, and IL-6 as well as lower TNF-α and IL-6 serum concentrations as compared to WT strain infected mice at day 6 p.i. Notably, immunopathological responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract given that liver and kidneys exhibited mild histopathological changes 6 days p.i. with either C. jejuni strain. We also found that hepatic and renal nitric oxide levels or renal TNF-α concentrations were lower in the ΔhtrA mutant as compared to WT strain infected mice. In conclusion, we show here that the C. jejuni HtrA protein plays a pivotal role in inducing host cell apoptosis and immunopathology during murine campylobacteriosis in the gut in vivo.

  1. Domestic food preparation practices: a review of the reasons for poor home hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sakkaf, Ali

    2015-09-01

    New Zealand has a much higher rate of reported campylobacteriosis cases than the rest of the developed world. It has been suggested that New Zealanders have worse home hygiene practices during food preparation than the citizens of other developed countries. Thus, it is necessary to recognize and understand the reasons for consumer's poor practices in order to help develop a more effective message to improve New Zealanders' practices in the domestic environment. This could in turn lead to a reduction in the number of campylobacteriosis cases. The objective is to review cited literature on consumer practices which is related to food poisoning and to attempt to list the factors related to poor consumer practice. There are many internationally identifiable reasons for the poor practices of consumers. These reasons include psychological, demographic and socioeconomic variables; personal interest in new information; prior knowledge; cultural influence; educational background; perception of risk, control and liability; and attitude towards the addressed practices or hazards. The results have indicated that 'optimistic bias', the 'illusion of control', habits and lack of knowledge concerning food safety during domestic food preparation are prevalent among consumers. The research indicated the influence of demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income, work hours, race, location, culture), as they play a potential role in determining domestic food safety behaviour. It appears that all these factors are applicable for New Zealand consumers and should be addressed in any future education strategy aimed at improving New Zealanders' food handling practices. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Bacteriophages to combat foodborne infections caused by food contamination by bacteria of the Campylobacter genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Myga-Nowak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that each year more than 2 million people suffer from diarrheal diseases, resulting from the consumption of contaminated meat. Foodborne infections are most frequently caused by small Gram-negative rods Campylobacter. The hosts of these bacteria are mainly birds wherein they are part of the normal intestinal flora. During the commercial slaughter, there is a likelihood of contamination of carcasses by the bacteria found in the intestinal content. In Europe, up to 90% of poultry flocks can be a reservoir of the pathogen. According to the European Food Safety Authority report from 2015, the number of reported and confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis exceeds 200 thousands per year, and such trend remains at constant level for several years. The occurrence of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria forces the limitation of antibiotic use in the animal production. Therefore, the European Union allows only using stringent preventive and hygienic treatment on farms. Achieving Campylobacter free chickens using these methods is possible, but difficult to implement and expensive. Utilization of bacterial viruses – bacteriophages, can be a path to provide the hygienic conditions of poultry production and food processing. Formulations applied in the food protection should contain strictly lytic bacteriophages, be non-pyrogenic and retain long lasting biological activity. Currently, on the market there are available commercial bacteriophage preparations for agricultural use, but neither includes phages against Campylobacter. However, papers on the application of bacteriophages against Campylobacter in chickens and poultry products were published in the last few years. In accordance with the estimates, 2-logarithm reduction of Campylobacter in poultry carcases will contribute to the 30-fold reduction in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Research on bacteriophages against Campylobacter have cognitive and economic

  3. Partial Failure of Milk Pasteurization as a Risk for the Transmission of Campylobacter From Cattle to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anand M; Balasegaram, Sooria; Willis, Caroline; Wimalarathna, Helen M L; Maiden, Martin C; McCarthy, Noel D

    2015-09-15

    Cattle are the second most common source of human campylobacteriosis. However, routes to account for this scale of transmission have not been identified. In contrast to chicken, red meat is not heavily contaminated at point of sale. Although effective pasteurization prevents milk-borne infection, apparently sporadic infections may include undetected outbreaks from raw or perhaps incompletely pasteurized milk. A rise in Campylobacter gastroenteritis in an isolated population was investigated using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), an epidemiological study, and environmental investigations. A single strain was identified in 20 cases, clearly distinguishable from other local strains and a reference population by WGS. A case-case analysis showed association of infection with the outbreak strain and milk from a single dairy (odds ratio, 8; Fisher exact test P value = .023). Despite temperature records indicating effective pasteurization, mechanical faults likely to lead to incomplete pasteurization of part of the milk were identified by further testing and examination of internal components of dairy equipment. Here, milk distribution concentrated on a small area, including school-aged children with low background incidence of campylobacteriosis, facilitated outbreak identification. Low-level contamination of widely distributed milk would not produce as detectable an outbreak signal. Such hidden outbreaks may contribute to the substantial burden of apparently sporadic Campylobacter from cattle where transmission routes are not certain. The effective discrimination of outbreak isolates from a reference population using WGS shows that integrating these data and approaches into surveillance could support the detection as well as investigation of such outbreaks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. Climate variability, weather and enteric disease incidence in New Zealand: time series analysis.

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    Aparna Lal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluating the influence of climate variability on enteric disease incidence may improve our ability to predict how climate change may affect these diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between regional climate variability and enteric disease incidence in New Zealand. METHODS: Associations between monthly climate and enteric diseases (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis were investigated using Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA models. RESULTS: No climatic factors were significantly associated with campylobacteriosis and giardiasis, with similar predictive power for univariate and multivariate models. Cryptosporidiosis was positively associated with average temperature of the previous month (β =  0.130, SE =  0.060, p <0.01 and inversely related to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI two months previously (β =  -0.008, SE =  0.004, p <0.05. By contrast, salmonellosis was positively associated with temperature (β  = 0.110, SE = 0.020, p<0.001 of the current month and SOI of the current (β  = 0.005, SE = 0.002, p<0.050 and previous month (β  = 0.005, SE = 0.002, p<0.05. Forecasting accuracy of the multivariate models for cryptosporidiosis and salmonellosis were significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: Although spatial heterogeneity in the observed patterns could not be assessed, these results suggest that temporally lagged relationships between climate variables and national communicable disease incidence data can contribute to disease prediction models and early warning systems.

  5. Bactérias Termofílicas do Gênero Campylobacter em Suínos do Estado do Rio de Janeiro / Thermophilic bacteria of the genus Campylobacter Recovered from pigs in the State of Rio de Janeiro

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    Luis Adan Flores Andrade

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Campylobacter pertencente à família Campylobacteriaceae está representado por bactérias que habitam o trato intestinal em várias espécies de animais e está associado a doenças de origem alimentar em vários países. Diversos fatores de virulência associados às espécies desse gênero podem levar à campilobacteriose, que, embora seja autolimitada em alguns casos, pode ser o gatilho para a Síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB. As principais espécies responsáveis por tornar a campilobacteriose uma zoonose pertencem ao grupo termofílico, representado pelas espécies C. jejuni, C. coli e C. lari. O C. coli encontra-se presente na microbiota do sistema gastrintestinal de suínos, que possuem alta importância socioeconômica em relação ao consumo dessa carne; sendo assim, necessitam de estudos epidemiológicos em toda a cadeia de produção. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a presença de espécies termofílicas em suínos no estado do Rio de Janeiro; para isso foram coletadas 120 amostras, 100 oriundas de material fecal e 20 de carcaças. O C. coli foi isolado em 28 amostras de material fecal; entretanto, não foi obtido isolamento proveniente das carcaças. Embora o índice de colonização detectado neste estudo seja menor que em outros países, os suínos podem ser um veículo de transmissão da campilobacteriose para humanos, principalmente quando sua carne é proveniente de abatedouros não fiscalizados. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- The genus Campylobacter belongs to the family Campylobacteriaceae wich is represented by bacterias that inhabit the intestinal tract in various species of animals and is as-sociated with foodborne disease in many countries. Several virulence factors associated to bacteria of this genus can lead to campylobacteriosis, which although it is self-limited in some cases may be the trigger for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS. The main species

  6. Genome-Wide Identification of Host-Segregating Epidemiological Markers for Source Attribution in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thépault, Amandine; Méric, Guillaume; Rivoal, Katell; Pascoe, Ben; Mageiros, Leonardos; Touzain, Fabrice; Rose, Valérie; Béven, Véronique; Chemaly, Marianne; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2017-04-01

    Campylobacter is among the most common worldwide causes of bacterial gastroenteritis. This organism is part of the commensal microbiota of numerous host species, including livestock, and these animals constitute potential sources of human infection. Molecular typing approaches, especially multilocus sequence typing (MLST), have been used to attribute the source of human campylobacteriosis by quantifying the relative abundance of alleles at seven MLST loci among isolates from animal reservoirs and human infection, implicating chicken as a major infection source. The increasing availability of bacterial genomes provides data on allelic variation at loci across the genome, providing the potential to improve the discriminatory power of data for source attribution. Here we present a source attribution approach based on the identification of novel epidemiological markers among a reference pan-genome list of 1,810 genes identified by gene-by-gene comparison of 884 genomes of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from animal reservoirs, the environment, and clinical cases. Fifteen loci involved in metabolic activities, protein modification, signal transduction, and stress response or coding for hypothetical proteins were selected as host-segregating markers and used to attribute the source of 42 French and 281 United Kingdom clinical C. jejuni isolates. Consistent with previous studies of British campylobacteriosis, analyses performed using STRUCTURE software attributed 56.8% of British clinical cases to chicken, emphasizing the importance of this host reservoir as an infection source in the United Kingdom. However, among French clinical isolates, approximately equal proportions of isolates were attributed to chicken and ruminant reservoirs, suggesting possible differences in the relative importance of animal host reservoirs and indicating a benefit for further national-scale attribution modeling to account for differences in production, behavior, and food consumption

  7. Veiculação de Campylobacter spp. através de carne e miúdos de frangos comercializados no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil | Transmission of Campylobacter spp. through chicken meat and organs sold in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Martins Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O consumo da carne de frango é comum no Brasil por ser um alimento proteico de alto valor biológico e baixo custo, sendo acessível a toda população. Uma causa comum de infecções alimentares tem sido a ingestão de produtos avícolas contaminados, crus ou insuficientemente cozidos, fazendo da contaminação de cortes de frango fontes potenciais de Campylobacter spp. para o homem. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de Campylobacter e verificar a possível veiculação da campilobacteriose através de cortes e miúdos de frangos resfriados e comercializados para consumo em supermercados de grande porte no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para isso, foram coletadas 40 amostras resfriadas de frango, das quais 19 foram embaladas pela indústria e 21 manipuladas pelos supermercados, submetendo-as a três metodologias distintas denominadas: in natura, enriquecimento e incubação da água de lavagem. Os resultados obtidos revelaram a presença de espécies de Campylobacter zoonóticas resistentes a antimicrobianos em cortes de frango comercializados para consumo humano, indicando que pedaços e miúdos de frango crus ou insuficientemente cozidos são fontes potenciais de campilobacteriose para a população. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The consumption of chicken meat is common in Brazil because this protein-rich food is low cost, has high nutritional value, and is accessible to the entire population. A common cause of foodborne illness has been the ingestion of contaminated, raw, or undercooked poultry products, making contaminated chicken meat a potential source of Campylobacter spp. to humans. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of Campylobacter and assess the potential transmission of campylobacteriosis through refrigerated chicken meat and organs sold for consumption in large supermarkets in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this purpose, 40 samples of

  8. Isolation, identification and differentiation of Campylobacter spp. using multiplex PCR assay from goats in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbrissi, Atif; Sabeil, Y A; Khalifa, Khalda A; Enan, Khalid; Khair, Osama M; El Hussein, A M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize thermophilic Campylobacter species in faecal samples from goats in Khartoum State, Sudan, by application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease of global concern, and the organisms can be transmitted to human via food, water and through contact with farm animals and pets. There are five clinically related Campylobacter species: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni). Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter fetus. Conventional cultural methods to diagnose campylobacteriosis are tedious and time consuming. Wide ranges of genes have been reported to be used for PCR-based identification of Campylobacter spp. We used a multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously detect genes from the major five clinically significant Campylobacter spp. The genes selected were hipO (hippuricase) and 23S rRNA from glyA (serine hydroxymethyl transferase) from each of C. jejuni. C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis; and sapB2 (surface layer protein) from C. fetus subsp. fetus. The assay was used to identify Campylobacter isolates recovered from 336 cultured faecal samples from goats in three localities in Khartoum State. C. coli was the most predominant isolate (234; 69.6%), followed by C. jejuni (19; 5.7%), C. upsaliensis (13; 3.9%), C. fetus subsp. fetus (7; 2.1%) and C. lari (6; 1.8%). Twenty-nine goats showed mixed infection with Campylobacter spp., 21 of which harbored two Campylobacter spp., while eight animals were infected with three species. Ten out of twelve goats that displayed diarrhea harbored C. coli only. C. coli, C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis showed significant variation with localities. The prevalence of C. coli was significantly higher (87; 25.9%) in goats from Omdurman, whereas C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis were significantly higher (11; 3.3%, 9; 2.7%) in goats from Khartoum. The multiplex PCR assay was found to be rapid and easy to perform and

  9. The in vivo efficacy of two administration routes of a phage cocktail to reduce numbers of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

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    Carvalho Carla M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, an acute bacterial enteritis which is a major problem worldwide. Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are the most common Campylobacter species associated with this disease. These pathogens live in the intestinal tract of most avian species and under commercial conditions they spread rapidly to infect a high proportion of the flock, which makes their treatment and prevention very difficult. Bacteriophages (phages are naturally occurring predators of bacteria with high specificity and also the capacity to evolve to overcome bacterial resistance. Therefore phage therapy is a promising alternative to antibiotics in animal production. This study tested the efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of three phages for the control of poultry infected with C. coli and C. jejuni. Moreover, it evaluated the effectiveness of two routes of phage administration (by oral gavage and in feed in order to provide additional information regarding their future use in a poultry unit. Results The results indicate that experimental colonisation of chicks was successful and that the birds showed no signs of disease even at the highest dose of Campylobacter administered. The phage cocktail was able to reduce the titre of both C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces by approximately 2 log10 cfu/g when administered by oral gavage and in feed. This reduction persisted throughout the experimental period and neither pathogen regained their former numbers. The reduction in Campylobacter titre was achieved earlier (2 days post-phage administration when the phage cocktail was incorporated in the birds' feed. Campylobacter strains resistant to phage infection were recovered from phage-treated chickens at a frequency of 13%. These resistant phenotypes did not exhibit a reduced ability to colonize the chicken guts and did not revert to sensitive types. Conclusions Our findings provide

  10. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

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    Danuser Jürg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes of antibiotics recommended for treatment of human campylobacteriosis are also used in veterinary medicine, in view of food safety, the resistance status of Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat is of special interest. Methods Raw poultry meat samples were collected throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein at retail level and examined for Campylobacter spp. One strain from each Campylobacter-positive sample was selected for susceptibility testing with the disc diffusion and the E-test method. Risk factors associated with resistance to the tested antibiotics were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results In total, 91 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 415 raw poultry meat samples. Fifty-one strains (59% were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Nineteen strains (22% were resistant to a single, nine strains to two antibiotics, and eight strains showed at least three antibiotic resistances. Resistance was observed most frequently to ciprofloxacin (28.7%, tetracycline (12.6%, sulphonamide (11.8%, and ampicillin (10.3%. One multiple resistant strain exhibited resistance to five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These are the most important antibiotics for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. A significant risk factor associated with multiple resistance in Campylobacter was foreign meat production compared to Swiss meat production (odds ratio = 5.7. Conclusion Compared to the situation in other

  11. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid, sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni in cattle farm samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Ae-Ri; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Cho, Seongbeom

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The detection of this organism in cattle and their environment is important for the control of C. jejuni transmission and the prevention of campylobacteriosis. Here, we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of C. jejuni in naturally contaminated cattle farm samples, based on real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the hipO gene. The LAMP assay was specific (100% inclusivity and exclusivity for 84 C. jejuni and 41 non-C. jejuni strains, respectively), sensitive (detection limit of 100 fg/μl), and quantifiable (R(2) = 0.9133). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was then evaluated for its application to the naturally contaminated cattle farm samples. C. jejuni strains were isolated from 51 (20.7%) of 246 cattle farm samples, and the presence of the hipO gene was tested using the LAMP assay. Amplification of the hipO gene by LAMP within 30 min (mean ~10.8 min) in all C. jejuni isolates (n = 51) demonstrated its rapidity and accuracy. Next, template DNA was prepared from a total of 186 enrichment broth cultures of cattle farm samples either by boiling or using a commercial kit, and the sensitivity of detection of C. jejuni was compared between the LAMP and PCR assays. In DNA samples prepared by boiling, the higher sensitivity of the LAMP assay (84.4%) compared with the PCR assay (35.5%) indicates that it is less susceptible to the existence of inhibitors in sample material. In DNA samples prepared using a commercial kit, both the LAMP and PCR assays showed 100% sensitivity. We anticipate that the use of this rapid, sensitive, and simple LAMP assay, which is the first of its kind for the identification and screening of C. jejuni in cattle farm samples, may play an important role in the prevention of C. jejuni contamination in the food chain, thereby reducing the risk of human campylobacteriosis.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni infection of infant mice: acute enterocolitis is followed by asymptomatic intestinal and extra-intestinal immune responses.

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    Haag, L-M; Fischer, A; Otto, B; Grundmann, U; Kühl, A A; Göbel, U B; Bereswill, S; Heimesaat, M M

    2012-03-01

    Campylobacter (C.) jejuni is among the leading bacterial agents causing enterocolitis worldwide. Despite the high prevalence of C. jejuni infections and its significant medical and economical consequences, intestinal pathogenesis is poorly understood. This is mainly due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In the age of 3 months, adult mice display strong colonization resistance (CR) against C. jejuni. Previous studies underlined the substantial role of the murine intestinal microbiota in maintaining CR. Due to the fact that the host-specific gut flora establishes after weaning, we investigated CR against C. jejuni in 3-week-old mice and studied intestinal and extra-intestinal immunopathogenesis as well as age dependent differences of the murine colon microbiota. In infant animals infected orally immediately after weaning C. jejuni strain B2 could stably colonize the gastrointestinal tract for more than 100 days. Within six days following infection, infant mice developed acute enterocolitis as indicated by bloody diarrhea, colonic shortening, and increased apoptotic cell numbers in the colon mucosa. Similar to human campylobacteriosis clinical disease manifestations were self-limited and disappeared within two weeks. Interestingly, long-term C. jejuni infection was accompanied by distinct intestinal immune and inflammatory responses as indicated by increased numbers of T- and B-lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells, neutrophils, as well as apoptotic cells in the colon mucosa. Strikingly, C. jejuni infection also induced a pronounced influx of immune cells into extra-intestinal sites such as liver, lung, and kidney. Furthermore, C. jejuni susceptible weaned mice harbored a different microbiota as compared to resistant adult animals. These results support the essential role of the microflora composition in CR against C. jejuni and demonstrate that infant mouse models resemble C. jejuni mediated immunopathogenesis including the characteristic self-limited enterocolitis

  13. First case report of myopericarditis linked to Campylobacter coli enterocolitis.

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    Moffatt, Cameron R M; Moloi, Soniah B; Kennedy, Karina J

    2017-01-05

    Campylobacter spp. are a common cause of mostly self-limiting enterocolitis. Although rare, pericarditis and myopericarditis have been increasingly documented as complications following campylobacteriosis. Such cases have occurred predominantly in younger males, and involved a single causative species, namely Campylobacter jejuni. We report the first case of myopericarditis following Campylobacter coli enterocolitis, with illness occurring in an immunocompetent middle-aged female. A 51-yo female was admitted to a cardiology unit with a 3-days history of chest pain. The woman had no significant medical history or risk factors for cardiac disease, nor did she report any recent overseas travel. Four days prior to the commencement of chest pain the woman had reported onset of an acute gastrointestinal illness, passing 3-4 loose stools daily, a situation that persisted at the time of presentation. Physical examination showed the woman's vital signs to be essentially stable, although she was noted to be mildly tachycardic. Laboratory testing showed mildly elevated C-reactive protein and a raised troponin I in the absence of elevation of the serum creatinine kinase. Electrocardiography (ECG) demonstrated concave ST segment elevations, and PR elevation in aVR and depression in lead II. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed normal biventricular size and function with no significant valvular abnormalities. There were no left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities. No pericardial effusion was present but the pericardium appeared echodense. A diagnosis of myopericarditis was made on the basis of chest pain, typical ECG changes and troponin rise. The chest pain resolved and she was discharged from hospital after 2-days of observation, but with ongoing diarrhoea. Following discharge, a faecal sample taken during the admission, cultured Campylobacter spp. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (Bruker) confirmed the cultured isolate as C. coli

  14. Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Campylobacter Infections Associated with Reduced Growth in Peruvian Children

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    Lee, Gwenyth; Pan, William; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Tilley, Drake; Gregory, Michael; Oberhelman, Richard; Burga, Rosa; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Kosek, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Background Although diarrheal illnesses are recognized as both a cause and effect of undernutrition, evidence for the effect of specific enteropathogens on early childhood growth remains limited. We estimated the effects of undernutrition as a risk factor for campylobacteriosis, as well as associations between symptomatic and asymptomatic Campylobacter infections and growth. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from a prospective cohort of 442 children aged 0–72 months, the effect of nutritional status on the incidence of Campylobacter infection was estimated using uni- and multivariate Poisson models. Multivariate regression models were developed to evaluate the effect of Campylobacter infection on weight gain and linear growth. Overall, 8.3% of diarrheal episodes were associated with Campylobacter (crude incidence rate = 0.37 episodes/year) and 4.9% of quarterly asymptomatic samples were Campylobacter positive. In univariate models, the incidence of Campylobacter infection was marginally higher in stunted than non-stunted children (IRR 1.270, 95% CI (0.960, 1.681)(p = 0.095). When recent diarrheal burdens were included in the analysis, there was no difference in risk between stunted and unstunted children. Asymptomatic and symptomatic Campylobacter infections were associated with reduced weight gain over a three-month period (65.5 g (95% CI: −128.0, −3.0)(p = 0.040) and 43.9 g (95% CI:−87.6, −1.0)(p = 0.049) less weight gain, respectively). Symptomatic Campylobacter infections were only marginally associated with reduced linear growth over a nine month period (−0.059 cm per episode, 95% CI: −0.118, 0.001)(p = 0.054), however relatively severe episodes were associated with reduced linear growth (−0.169 cm/episode, 95% CI −0.310, −0.028)(p = 0.019). Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that Campylobacter is not as benign as commonly assumed, and that there is evidence to support expanding the indications for

  15. Impact of Campylobacter jejuni cj0268c knockout mutation on intestinal colonization, translocation, and induction of immunopathology in gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice.

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    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Campylobacter jejuni infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden, the underlying molecular mechanisms of induced intestinal immunopathology are still not well understood. We have recently generated a C. jejuni mutant strain NCTC11168::cj0268c, which has been shown to be involved in cellular adhesion and invasion. The immunopathological impact of this gene, however, has not been investigated in vivo so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice were generated by quintuple antibiotic treatment and perorally infected with C. jejuni mutant strain NCTC11168::cj0268c, its complemented version (NCTC11168::cj0268c-comp-cj0268c, or the parental strain NCTC11168. Kinetic analyses of fecal pathogen loads until day 6 post infection (p.i. revealed that knockout of cj0268c did not compromise intestinal C. jejuni colonization capacities. Whereas animals irrespective of the analysed C. jejuni strain developed similar clinical symptoms of campylobacteriosis (i.e. enteritis, mice infected with the NCTC11168::cj0268c mutant strain displayed significant longer small as well as large intestinal lengths indicative for less distinct C. jejuni induced pathology when compared to infected control groups at day 6 p.i. This was further supported by significantly lower apoptotic and T cell numbers in the colonic mucosa and lamina propria, which were paralleled by lower intestinal IFN-γ and IL-6 concentrations at day 6 following knockout mutant NCTC11168::cj0268c as compared to parental strain infection. Remarkably, less intestinal immunopathology was accompanied by lower IFN-γ secretion in ex vivo biopsies taken from mesenteric lymphnodes of NCTC11168::cj0268c infected mice versus controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We here for the first time show that the cj0268c gene is involved in mediating C. jejuni induced immunopathogenesis in vivo. Future studies will provide further

  16. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Responses of Campylobacter jejuni Suspended in an Artificial Freshwater Medium

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    Hana Trigui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of campylobacteriosis in the developed world. Although most cases are caused by consumption of contaminated meat, a significant proportion is linked to ingestion of contaminated water. The differences between C. jejuni strains originating from food products and those isolated from water are poorly understood. Working under the hypothesis that water-borne C. jejuni strains are better equipped at surviving the nutrient-poor aquatic environment than food-borne strains, the present study aims to characterize these differences using outbreak strains 81116 and 81-176. Strain 81116 caused a campylobacteriosis outbreak linked to consumption of water, while strain 81-176 was linked to consumption of raw milk. CFU counts and viability assays showed that 81116 survives better than 81-176 at 4°C in a defined freshwater medium (Fraquil. Moreover, 81116 was significantly more resistant to oxidative stress and bile salt than strain 81-176 in Fraquil. To better understand the genetic response of 81116 to water, a transcriptomic profiling study was undertaken using microarrays. Compared to rich broth, strain 81116 represses genes involved in amino acid uptake and metabolism, as well as genes involved in costly biosynthetic processes such as replication, translation, flagellum synthesis and virulence in response to Fraquil. In accordance with the observed increase in stress resistance in Fraquil, 81116 induces genes involved in resistance to oxidative stress and bile salt. Interestingly, genes responsible for cell wall synthesis were also induced upon Fraquil exposure. Finally, twelve unique genes were expressed in Fraquil; however, analysis of their distribution in animal and water isolates showed that they are not uniquely and ubiquitously present in water isolates, and thus, unlikely to play a major role in adaptation to water. Our results show that some C. jejuni strains are more resilient than others, thereby

  17. Microbiological food safety: a dilemma of developing societies.

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    Akhtar, Saeed; Sarker, Mahfuzur R; Hossain, Ashfaque

    2014-11-01

    Current food safety issues are deleteriously reshaping the life style of the population in the developing world. Socioeconomic status of the population in poorer economies is one of the major determinants to delineate the availability of safe food to the vulnerable population. Assessment of the prevalence of foodborne illness in developing world is the most neglected area to control disease. Botulism, Shigellosis, Campylobacteriosis, Escherichia coli infection, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Salmonellosis, Listeriosis and Cholerae are extensively prevalent and pose a major threat to human health in underdeveloped communities. The existing food safety status of many African, South Asian, Central, and South American developing countries is distressing therefore; it seems much timely to highlight the areas for the improvement to ensure the supply of safe food to the population in these regions. Extensive literature search at PubMed, Science Direct and Medline was carried out during the current year to catch on relevant data from 1976 to date, using selective terms like food safety, South East Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and foodborne illness etc. Efforts were made to restrict the search to low income countries of these regions with reference to specific foodborne pathogens. This report briefly discusses the present food safety situation in these developing countries and associated consequences as prime issues, suggesting foodborne illness to be the most distressing threat for human health and economic growth.

  18. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

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    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  19. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

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    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  20. Promising new vaccine candidates against Campylobacter in broilers.

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    Marine Meunier

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the European Union. Birds represent the main reservoir of the bacteria, and human campylobacteriosis mainly occurs after consuming and/or handling poultry meat. Reducing avian intestinal Campylobacter loads should impact the incidence of human diseases. At the primary production level, several measures have been identified to reach this goal, including vaccination of poultry. Despite many studies, however, no efficient vaccine is currently available. We have recently identified new vaccine candidates using the reverse vaccinology strategy. This study assessed the in vivo immune and protective potential of six newly-identified vaccine antigens. Among the candidates tested on Ross broiler chickens, four (YP_001000437.1, YP_001000562.1, YP_999817.1, and YP_999838.1 significantly reduced cecal Campylobacter loads by between 2 and 4.2 log10 CFU/g, with the concomitant development of a specific humoral immune response. In a second trial, cecal load reductions results were not statistically confirmed despite the induction of a strong immune response. These vaccine candidates need to be further investigated since they present promising features.

  1. Characterization of genetically matched isolates of Campylobacter jejuni reveals that mutations in genes involved in flagellar biosynthesis alter the organism's virulence potential.

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    Malik-Kale, Preeti; Raphael, Brian H; Parker, Craig T; Joens, Lynn A; Klena, John D; Quiñones, Beatriz; Keech, Amy M; Konkel, Michael E

    2007-05-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic evidence suggests that not all Campylobacter jejuni isolates are pathogenic for humans. We hypothesized that differences in gene content or gene expression alter the degree of pathogenicity of C. jejuni isolates. A C. jejuni isolate (Turkey) recovered from a turkey and a second C. jejuni isolate (CS) recovered from a chicken differed in their degrees of in vitro and in vivo virulence. The C. jejuni Turkey isolate invaded INT 407 human epithelial cells and secreted the Cia (Campylobacter invasion antigen) proteins, while the C. jejuni CS isolate was noninvasive for human epithelial cells and did not secrete the Cia proteins. Newborn piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni Turkey isolate developed more severe clinical signs of campylobacteriosis than piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni CS isolate. Additional work revealed that flagellin was not expressed in the C. jejuni CS isolate. Microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that all flagellar class II genes were significantly downregulated in the C. jejuni CS isolate compared to the C. jejuni Turkey isolate. Finally, nucleotide sequencing of the flgR gene revealed the presence of a single residue that was different in the FlgR proteins of the C. jejuni Turkey and CS isolates. Complementation of the C. jejuni CS isolate with a wild-type copy of the flgR gene restored the isolate's motility. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that critical differences in gene content or gene expression can alter the pathogenic potential of C. jejuni isolates.

  2. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

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    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of butyrate and Lactobacillus GG on a butyrate receptor and transporter during Campylobacter jejuni exposure.

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    Cresci, Gail A M; Mayor, Paul C; Thompson, Stuart A

    2017-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni frequently infects humans causing many gastrointestinal symptoms, fever, fatigue and several long-term debilitating diseases. Current treatment for campylobacteriosis includes rehydration and in some cases, antibiotic therapy. Probiotics are used to treat several gastrointestinal diseases. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid known to promote intestinal health. Interaction of butyrate with its respective receptor (HCAR2) and transporter (SLC5A8), both expressed in the intestine, is associated with water and electrolyte absorption as well as providing defense against colon cancer and inflammation. Alterations in gut microbiota influence the presence of HCAR2 and SLC5A8 in the intestine. We hypothesized that adherence and/or invasion of C. jejuni and alterations in HCAR2 and SLC5A8 expression would be minimized with butyrate or Lactobacillus GG (LGG) pretreatment of Caco-2 cells. We found that both C. jejuni adhesion but not invasion was reduced with butyrate pretreatment. While LGG pretreatment did not prevent C. jejuni adhesion, it did result in reduced invasion which was associated with altered cell supernate pH. Both butyrate and LGG protected HCAR2 and SLC5A8 protein expression following C. jejuni infection. These results suggest that the first stages of C. jejuni infection of Caco-2 cells may be minimized by LGG and butyrate pretreatment. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken in farms and at time of slaughter in central Italy.

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    Pergola, S; Franciosini, M P; Comitini, F; Ciani, M; De Luca, S; Bellucci, S; Menchetti, L; Casagrande Proietti, P

    2017-05-01

    Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were investigated along the broiler chicken production chain in central Italy. Campylobacter sp. isolated from cloacal swabs in farms (n = 116) and from the neck skin of chilled and eviscerated carcasses at slaughter (n = 24) were identified as C. coli (n = 99) and C. jejuni (n = 41) by multiplex PCR. Characterization by single amplified fragment length polymorphism (s-AFLP) revealed a specific genotype of Campylobacter for each farm. Minimal inhibitory concentration showed high prevalence of fluoroquinolones (70%), tetracycline (70%) and erythromycin (30%) resistance among C. coli isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolates showed lower prevalence of fluoroquinolone (39%) and tetracycline (10%) resistance, and all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. The S-AFLP types of the C. coli and C. jejuni isolates were associated with their antimicrobial resistance profiles (P Campylobacter isolates suggested that a specific genotype was harboured in each farm. A considerable number of C. coli isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Campylobacter coli was detected more frequently than C. jejuni in contrast to common findings for poultry. The high prevalence of 30% resistance to erythromycin in C. coli strains isolated from poultry is worrisome, as this is the first antibiotic of choice to treat human campylobacteriosis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis: toxin detection, antibody production, and clinical outcome.

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    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia; Klein, Bjarke M; Locht, Henning; Abuoun, Manal; Newell, Diane; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2011-09-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdtABC, characterized by PCR, revealed that all but one of the C. jejuni strains had the wild-type sequence. Sequencing of cdtABC from this strain showed two major deletions. From all of the strains, CDT titers were determined, and toxin neutralizing antibodies were documented using an in vitro assay. Three of the thirty clinical isolates, including the one with the mutant cdtABC coding genes, did not have a detectable CDT activity. Analyzing the relationship between CDT titer, serum neutralization of CDT, and the clinical outcome showed that campylobacteriosis caused by CDT-negative strains was clinically indistinguishable from that of patients infected with an isolate that produced high levels of CDT. These results suggest that CDT does not solely determine severity of infection and clinical outcome. © 2011 The Authors. APMIS © 2011 APMIS.

  6. Changes within the intestinal flora of broilers by colonisation with Campylobacter jejuni.

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    Sofka, Dmitri; Pfeifer, Agathe; Gleiss, Barbara; Paulsen, Peter; Hilbert, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    In most European countries human campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial zoonotic foodborne infection. Chicken meat is considered the main source of infection. Since most strategies assessed so far, in reducing Campylobacter colonization in chickens or in the reduction of human disease, have not been very effective, new knowledge regarding Campylobacter's interaction with the host is needed. In this study we analysed fecal and cecal samples of five chicken flocks of different Austrian farms for the occurrence of Cjejuni and C. coli, and analysed the intestinal microbiota by PCR-SSCP, cultural detection of lactic acid bacteria, Enterococci, Staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and total aerobic colony counts. Furthermore ten chicken samples of cecal content of a flock during colonization with Campylobacter spp. was analysed by high throughput sequencing. With all three methods used we could detect a change within the microbiota caused by Cjejuni. Enumeration of different bacteria was significantly lower in fecal samples positive for C. jejuni, pointing out that a higher water content and thus, a preliminary stage of diarrhea might appear during Campylobacter colonization. By PCR-SSCP analysis the microbiota composition differed between colonized and non-colonized chicken fecal samples. This could also be detected in community analysis by high throughput sequencing, but this difference was only a tendency and not statistically significant. It can be concluded that C. jejuni is interacting with the intestinal microflora in their respective hosts and hence, this has to be taken into account when providing new strategies to combat Campylobacter colonization and disease.

  7. Multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from dairy calves in Austria

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    Daniela eKlein-Jöbstl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human campylobacteriosis is primarily associated with poultry but also cattle. In this study, 55 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 382 dairy calves’ feces were differentiated by multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent sequence type (ST was ST883 (20.0%, followed by ST48 (14.5%, and ST50 (9.1%. In contrast to ST48 and ST50, ST883 has rarely been described in cattle previously. Furthermore, risk factor analysis was performed for the presence of the most prevalent STs in these calves. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the type of farm (organic versus conventional and calf housing (place, and individual versus group were identified as significantly (p<0.05 associated with the presence of ST883 in calves, and ST50 was associated with calf diarrhea. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 58.2% of the isolates. Most of the resistant isolates (81.3% were resistant to more than one antimicrobial. Most frequently, resistance to ciprofloxacin (49.1%, followed by nalidixic acid with (42.8%, and tetracycline (14.5% was observed. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that dairy calves may serve as a potential reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni and pose a risk for transmission, including antimicrobial resistant isolates to the environment and to humans.

  8. The role of probiotics in the inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni colonization and virulence attenuation.

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    Mohan, V

    2015-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenterocolitis worldwide, leading to diarrhea and other serious post-infectious complications. Probiotics form an attractive alternative intervention strategy for most of the enteric infections. However, the role of probiotics in C. jejuni infections requires detailed investigations in order to delineate the probiotic strains that are effective against C. jejuni. Although there are several biological mechanisms involved in the inhibition of pathogenic bacterial growth, the strains of probiotics and their mechanisms of actions through which they combat C. jejuni invasion have not been studied in greater detail. This mini review details the factors that are involved in the colonization and establishment of C. jejuni infection, with special reference to chickens, the natural host of C. jejuni, and the studies that have investigated the effect of different probiotic strains against C. jejuni colonization and growth. This review has collated the studies conducted using probiotics to inhibit C. jejuni colonization and growth to date to provide a collective knowledge about the role of probiotics as an alternative intervention strategy for campylobacteriosis.

  9. Source attribution of human Campylobacter isolates by MLST and fla-typing and association of genotypes with quinolone resistance.

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    Sonja Kittl

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant.

  10. A Prospective Follow-Up Study on Transmission of Campylobacter from Poultry to Abattoir Workers

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    Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  11. Comparative genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter: application in routine public health surveillance and epidemiological investigations.

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    Schleihauf, E; Mutschall, S; Billard, B; Taboada, E N; Haldane, D

    2017-01-01

    A subtyping methodology for Campylobacter, Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting (CGF40), has been described recently. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of CGF40 as a tool to enhance routine public health surveillance of campylobacteriosis. Isolates of Campylobacter from across the province were requested and sent for CGF40 subtyping. Epidemiological data from cases reported to public health officials in Nova Scotia, Canada, from January 2012 to March 2015 were linked with blinded CGF40 subtyping results. CGF40 was epidemiologically valid; subtyping discerned known epidemiologically related isolates and augmented case-finding. Predominant sources and locations of subtype detection from the national reference database showed some study subtypes were rare and even novel to the database, while others were more commonly identified over multiple years and with exposures locally and internationally. A case-case study design was applied to examine risk factors for the most common CGF40 subtypes detected. Differences in the epidemiology of different CGF40 subtypes were observed. Statistically significant associations were noted for specific subtypes with rural residence, local exposure, contact with a pet dog or cat, contact with chickens, and drinking unpasteurized milk. With prospective use, CGF40 could potentially identify unrecognized outbreaks and contribute to epidemiological investigations of case clusters.

  12. Molecular Subtyping and Source Attribution of Campylobacter Isolated from Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; Tate, Heather P; Abbott, Jason; Tran, Thu-Thuy; Kabera, Claudine; Crarey, Emily; Young, Shenia; McDermott, Patrick F; Sprague, Grisselle; Campbell, Mark; Adeyemo, Oyewole; Browne-Silva, Johnette; Myers, Michael; Thitaram, Sutawee; Zhao, Shaohua

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. commonly cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. Poultry meats have long been considered the predominant source of these infections, but few in-depth Campylobacter source attribution studies have been completed. We analyzed more than 1,300 Campylobacter isolates recovered from a number of animal and food sources, including dairy and beef cattle, pigs, poultry, and retail poultry meat, and compared them with Campylobacter isolates recovered from human clinical samples. Each isolate was subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI and queried against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PulseNet database to identify human isolates with indistinguishable patterns. Half (49.5%) of the PFGE patterns from poultry animal and retail meat isolates were indistinguishable from patterns of at least one human isolate. Among the isolates from beef and dairy cows, 56.6 and 65.0%, respectively, of their PFGE patterns were indistinguishable from those of human isolates. Only a small portion of the PFGE patterns of Campylobacter isolated from pigs (9.5%) were found to have PFGE patterns in common with human isolates. These data imply that cattle may be larger contributors to Campylobacter infections than previously recognized and help further our understanding of potential sources of human campylobacteriosis.

  13. Regulation of oxidative stress resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic foodborne pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Chul; Oh, Euna; Kim, Jinyong; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis. Due to the increasing rates of human campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is considered as a serious public health concern worldwide. C. jejuni is a microaerophilic, fastidious bacterium. C. jejuni must overcome a wide range of stress conditions during foodborne transmission to humans, such as food preservation and processing conditions, and even in infection of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. Particularly, this microaerophilic foodborne pathogen must survive in the atmospheric conditions prior to the initiation of infection. C. jejuni possesses unique regulatory mechanisms for oxidative stress resistance. Lacking OxyR and SoxRS that are highly conserved in other Gram-negative foodborne pathogens, C. jejuni modulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance mainly via the peroxide resistance regulator and Campylobacter oxidative stress regulator. Based on recent findings of ours and others, in this review, we described how C. jejuni regulates the expression of oxidative stress defense. PMID:26284041

  14. PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran

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    Saeid Hosseinzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv, is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34 and cows (n = 61 in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6% were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran.

  15. Genotypic characterisation and cluster analysis of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from domestic pets, human clinical cases and retail food

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    Acke Els

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic similarity of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from pets, compared to human clinical cases and retail food isolates collected in Ireland over 2001-2006 was investigated by cluster analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE fingerprinting profiles. Comparison of the PFGE profiles of 60 pet isolates and 109 human isolates revealed that seven (4.1% profiles were grouped in clusters including at least one human and one pet C. jejuni isolate. In total six (1.6% of 60 pet and 310 food profiles were in clusters with at least one food and one pet C. jejuni isolate. The detection of only a small number of genetically indistinguishable isolates by PFGE profile cluster analysis from pets and from humans with enteritis in this study suggests that pets are unlikely to be an important reservoir for human campylobacteriosis in Ireland. However, genetically indistinguishable isolates were detected and C. jejuni from pets may circulate and may contribute to clinical infections in humans. In addition, contaminated food fed to pets may be a potential source of Campylobacter infection in pets, which may subsequently pose a risk to humans.

  16. Factores de riesgo de casos esporádicos de gastroenteritis por Campylobacter en niños Risk factors for sporadic cases of Campylobacter infection in children

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    Marta Fajó-Pascual

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar factores de riesgo en casos esporádicos de gastroenteritis por Campylobacter en niños 2 veces (ORa:4,2; IC95%:1,2-14,7, pollo >3 veces (ORa:3,6; IC95%:1,1-11,1 y toma previa de antibióticos (ORa:4,7; IC95%:1,1-19,6 se asociaron independientemente con la enfermedad. Conclusiones Se identificó la carne de pollo como factor de riesgo de campilobacteriosis, bien por consumo o por manipulación inadecuada que podría ocasionar contaminación cruzada de otros alimentos «listos para comer», como los fiambres.Objectives: To identify risk factors for sporadic cases of Campylobacter infection in children aged 2 times (ORa:4.2, 95%CI:1.2-14.7, chicken >3 times (ORa:3.6, 95%CI:1.1-11.1 in the week before symptom onset, and previous antibiotic intake (ORa:4.7, 95%CI:1.1-19.6. Conclusions: Chicken meat was a risk factor for sporadic cases of campylobacteriosis in children, whether through consumption or through cross-contamination with other «ready-to-eat» foods such as cooked deli meat.

  17. Combined influence of multiple climatic factors on the incidence of bacterial foodborne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Su; Park, Ki Hwan; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2018-01-01

    Information regarding the relationship between the incidence of foodborne diseases (FBD) and climatic factors is useful in designing preventive strategies for FBD based on anticipated future climate change. To better predict the effect of climate change on foodborne pathogens, the present study investigated the combined influence of multiple climatic factors on bacterial FBD incidence in South Korea. During 2011-2015, the relationships between 8 climatic factors and the incidences of 13 bacterial FBD, were determined based on inpatient stays, on a monthly basis using the Pearson correlation analyses, multicollinearity tests, principal component analysis (PCA), and the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) modeling. Of the 8 climatic variables, the combination of temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, insolation, and cloudiness was significantly associated with salmonellosis (Psnowfall, wind speed, duration of sunshine, and cloudiness were not significant for these 3 FBD. Other FBD, including campylobacteriosis, were not significantly associated with any combination of climatic factors. These findings indicate that the relationships between multiple climatic factors and bacterial FBD incidence can be valuable for the development of prediction models for future patterns of diseases in response to changes in climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Short communication: Absence of campylobacter spp. In intensive rabbit farming in eastern Spain, preliminary results

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    C. Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonoses and among the most common causes of diarrhoeal illness in the European Union and the United States, and their incidence appears to be increasing. Campylobacter species are routinely found in poultry, swine, cattle, dairy cows and sheep. So far, there are few descriptions of Campylobacter isolation from rabbits. Rabbit meat is a common item in the Mediterranean diet. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in healthy rabbits reared in intensive farms in the Alto Palancia region, eastern Spain. Caecal contents from 70 healthy does reared on 7 different farms were collected. Bacteriological culture was performed in accordance with ISO 10272-1:2006. All samples tested negative for Campylobacter spp. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which comprehensive monitoring was specifically carried out in order to provide data on the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in large intensive rabbit farms in Spain. However, further microbiological studies throughout the Spanish territory are needed to determine the prevalence and risk of other foodborne pathogens in rabbits at farm level.

  19. Sequelae of foodborne illness caused by 5 pathogens, Australia, circa 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Laura; Kirk, Martyn; Glass, Kathryn; Hall, Gillian

    2014-11-01

    In Australia circa 2010, 4.1 million (90% credible interval [CrI] 2.3-6.4 million) episodes of foodborne gastroenteritis occurred, many of which might have resulted in sequelae. We estimated the number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths from Guillain-Barré syndrome, hemolytic uremic syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and reactive arthritis that were associated with contaminated food in Australia. Data from published studies, hospital records, and mortality reports were combined with multipliers to adjust for different transmission routes. We used Monte Carlo simulation to estimate median estimates and 90% CrIs. In Australia, circa 2010, we estimated that 35,840 (90% CrI 25,000-54,000) illnesses, 1,080 (90% CrI 700-1,600) hospitalizations, and 10 (90% CrI 5-14) deaths occurred from foodborne gastroenteritis-associated sequelae. Campylobacter spp. infection was responsible for 80% of incident cases. Reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis and other foodborne diseases would minimize the health effects of sequelae.

  20. Pathogen-specific risk of celiac disease following bacterial causes of foodborne illness: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Mark S; Murray, Joseph A; Cash, Brooks D; Pimentel, Mark; Porter, Chad K

    2013-11-01

    The US CDC recently estimated over 2 million foodborne illnesses annually are caused by 4 major enteropathogens: non-typhoid Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Shigella spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. While recent data suggest functional gastrointestinal disorders are associated with these infections, studies linking foodborne illness to celiac disease (CD) are limited. We utilized a US Department of Defense medical encounter database to evaluate the risk of CD following select foodborne infections. We identified subjects with acute gastroenteritis between 1998 and 2009 attributed to Salmonella (nontyphoidal) spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., or Y. enterocolitica and matched each with up to 4 unexposed subjects. Exposed and unexposed subjects were followed for incident CD diagnosis for their entire military record duration (or a minimum of 1 year). Relative risks were calculated using modified Poisson regression to determine the relationship between pathogen-attributable gastroenteritis and CD while controlling for covariates. A total of 1,753 pathogen-specific gastroenteritis cases (Campylobacter: 738; Salmonella: 624; Shigella: 376; Yersinia: 17) were identified and followed for a median of 3.8 years. The incidence (per 100,000 person-years) of CD was 0.05. We found a suggested risk of CD after Campylobacter, but not other foodborne infection etiologies. These data support a previous study demonstrating increased risk of CD following Campylobacteriosis and highlight the need for additional research into how infections might trigger CD in susceptible individuals.

  1. Prevalence of Virulence/Stress Genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Chicken Meat Sold in Qatari Retail Outlets.

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    Marawan Abu-Madi

    Full Text Available Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53% and Qatari (45.9% producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis.

  2. Prevalence of Virulence/Stress Genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Chicken Meat Sold in Qatari Retail Outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan; Behnke, Jerzy M; Sharma, Aarti; Bearden, Rebecca; Al-Banna, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB) was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53%) and Qatari (45.9%) producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali) were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis.

  3. Defining the metabolic requirements for the growth and colonization capacity of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreuter, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. This facultative intracellular pathogen is a member of the Epsilonproteobacteria and requires microaerobic atmosphere and nutrient rich media for efficient proliferation in vitro. Its catabolic capacity is highly restricted in contrast to Salmonella Typhimurium and other enteropathogenic bacteria because several common pathways for carbohydrate utilization are either missing or incomplete. Despite these metabolic limitations, C. jejuni efficiently colonizes various animal hosts as a commensal intestinal inhabitant. Moreover, C. jejuni is tremendously successful in competing with the human intestinal microbiota; an infectious dose of few hundreds bacteria is sufficient to overcome the colonization resistance of humans and can lead to campylobacteriosis. Besides the importance and clear clinical manifestation of this disease, the pathogenesis mechanisms of C. jejuni infections are still poorly understood. In recent years comparative genome sequence, transcriptome and metabolome analyses as well as mutagenesis studies combined with animal infection models have provided a new understanding of how the specific metabolic capacity of C. jejuni drives its persistence in the intestinal habitat of various hosts. Furthermore, new insights into the metabolic requirements that support the intracellular survival of C. jejuni were obtained. Because C. jejuni harbors distinct properties in establishing an infection in comparison to pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, it represents an excellent organism for elucidating new aspects of the dynamic interaction and metabolic cross talk between a bacterial pathogen, the microbiota and the host.

  4. Colonisation of a phage susceptible Campylobacter jejuni population in two phage positive broiler flocks.

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    Sophie Kittler

    Full Text Available The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails.

  5. Campylobacter infection in children in Malawi is common and is frequently associated with enteric virus co-infections.

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    Jenifer Mason

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. However, comparatively few studies have determined the epidemiological features of campylobacteriosis in resource-poor settings.A total of 1,941 faecal specimens collected from symptomatic (diarrhoeic children and 507 specimens from asymptomatic (non-diarrhoeic children hospitalised in Blantyre, Malawi, between 1997 and 2007, and previously tested for the presence of rotavirus and norovirus, was analysed for C. jejuni and C. coli using a real time PCR assay.Campylobacter species were detected in 415/1,941 (21% of diarrhoeic children, with C. jejuni accounting for 85% of all cases. The median age of children with Campylobacter infection was 11 months (range 0.1-55 months, and was significantly higher than that for children with rotavirus and norovirus (6 months and 7 months respectively; P<0.001. Co-infection with either rotavirus or norovirus was noted in 41% of all cases in the diarrhoeic group. In contrast, the detection rate of Campylobacter in the non-diarrhoeic group was 14%, with viral co-infection identified in 16% of children with Campylobacter. There was no association between Campylobacter detection rate and season over the 10 year period.Using molecular detection methodology in hospitalised Malawian children, we have demonstrated a high prevalence of Campylobacter infection, with frequent viral co-infection. The burden of Campylobacter infection in young African children may be greater than previously recognised.

  6. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter Isolated from Chicken in Côte d’Ivoire

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    Goualié Gblossi Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacters are major causes of gastroenteritis in human. The main risk factor of infection is consumption of contaminated or by cross-contaminated poultry meat. In Côte d’Ivoire, gastroenteritis is usually observed but no case of human campylobacteriosis has been formally reported to date. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from chickens ceaca in commercial slaughter in Abidjan. Between May and November 2009, one hundred and nineteen (119 chicken caeca samples were collected and analyzed by passive filtration method followed by molecular identification (PCR. From these 119 samples, 76 (63.8% were positive to Campylobacter tests. Among the positive colonies, 51.3% were C. jejuni and 48.7% were C. coli. Of the 39 C. jejuni isolates, 79.5%, 38.5%, 17.9%, 10.3%, and 7.7% were, respectively, resistant, to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Among the 37 isolates of C. coli, 78.4%, 43.2%, 13.5%, 8.1%, and 0% were resistant, respectively, to the same antibiotics. In conclusion, we reported in this study the presence of high Campylobacter contamination of the studied chickens. Molecular identification of the bacteria was performed and determination of high resistance to antimicrobials of the fluoroquinolone family was revealed.

  8. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Characterization of Campylobacter Jejuni and C. coli Isolated From Broilers Using flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbakht, Rahem; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Seifi, Saeed

    2015-05-01

    Thermophilic campylobacters, particularly Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the main agents of human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products is the most important source of foodborne gastroenteritis. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Campylobacter population is critical for understanding the epidemiology of this bacterium and developing effective control strategies against Campylobacter infections and other related disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from broiler fecal samples in Shiraz, southern Iran. Ninety Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broiler feces using enrichment process followed by cultivation method. The isolates were species typing on the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16SrRNA and multiplex PCR for determining two thermophilic species. To evaluate strain diversity of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was performed using DdeI restriction enzyme. All 90 Campylobacter isolates confirmed by m-PCR were successfully typed using flaA-PCR-RFLP. Eleven different types were defined according to flaA-typing method and the RFLP patterns were located at three separate clusters in RFLP image analysis dendrogram. Campylobacter jejuni isolates significantly showed more variety than C. coli isolates. A relatively low genetic diversity existed among C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from broilers in Shiraz, southern Iran. In our knowledge, this was the first report of genetic diversity among broiler originated human pathogen thermophilic campylobacters in Shiraz, southern Iran.

  10. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR Approach for Assessing Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Colonization in Broiler Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Katrin; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a major public health concern in developed countries, with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry recognized as the main source of human infection. Identification of Campylobacter-positive broiler herds before slaughter is essential for implementing measures to avoid carryover of pathogens via the slaughter process into the food chain. However, appropriate methods that have been validated for testing poultry flocks antemortem are lacking for Campylobacter. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) that allows simultaneous detection and quantification of C. jejuni and C. coli was adapted and optimized to be applied on boot socks. The adjusted qPCR serves as an easy, sensitive, and quantitative method for Campylobacter detection in poultry flocks antemortem by analysis of boot socks. An adequate correlation was found between qPCR and culture, as well as between boot socks and cecal samples, which are regarded as the "gold standard." Therefore, boot sock sampling followed by qPCR analysis provides a reliable and simple method for assessing Campylobacter load within a flock prior to slaughter. The approach allows categorization of broiler herds into negative, low, moderate, or high Campylobacter colonization. Based on the results of this new approach, risk assessment models, such as evaluating the possible effect of sorting flocks before slaughter, can be easily implemented. Similarly, targeted identification of highly colonized flocks for improvement of biosecurity measures at the farm level will become feasible, presenting an opportunity to increase food safety.

  11. Evaluation of PCR assays for the detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial scrapings and the identification of subspecies in South African field isolates

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    T. Schmidt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the high lability and slow growth of Campylobacter fetus subspecies, the laboratory diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis has always been difficult. This is especially true under South African conditions, where farms are far apart, laboratories are only present in major centres and there are high ambient temperatures. In order to overcome the shortcomings associated with traditional diagnostic methods, the implementation of a molecular assay was sought. This work describes how a previously published PCR assay (MG3F / MG4R primers was adapted, optimised and applied in the diagnostic laboratory to test preputial samples directly for the presence of Campylobacter fetus. Field evaluation of the assay revealed an analytical sensitivity and specificity of 85.7 % and 99 %, respectively. Subsequent genotyping and phenotyping of a diverse collection of South African field isolates revealed that South Africa has an unexpected and previously unreported high incidence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. These strains were not identified correctly by the subspecies-specific primer set evaluated. Until such time that cost-effective genotyping methods are available to diagnostic laboratories in South Africa, and other countries with these atypical Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis strains, the need for bacterial culture will persist. Identification to subspecies level of isolates at present remains dependent upon a single phenotypic criterion, namely tolerance to 1 % glycine.

  12. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis: toxin detection, antibody production, and clinical outcome

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    Boisen, Nadia [University of Virginia School of Medicine

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdtABC, characterized by PCR, revealed that all but one of the C. jejuni strains had the wild-type sequence. Sequencing of cdtABC from this strain showed two major deletions. From all of the strains, CDT titers were determined, and toxin neutralizing antibodies were documented using an in vitro assay. Three of the thirty clinical isolates, including the one with the mutant cdtABC coding genes, did not have a detectable CDT activity. Analyzing the relationship between CDT titer, serum neutralization of CDT, and the clinical outcome showed that campylobacteriosis caused by CDT-negative strains was clinically indistinguishable from that of patients infected with an isolate that produced high levels of CDT. These results suggest that CDT does not solely determine severity of infection and clinical outcome.

  13. ERIC-PCR Genotyping of Some Campylobacter jejuni Isolates of Chicken and Human Origin in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Heba A; El Hofy, Fatma I; Ammar, Ahmed M; Abd El Tawab, Ashraf A; Hefny, Ahmed A

    2015-12-01

    The public health importance of the genus Campylobacter is attributed to several species causing diarrhea in consumers. Poultry and their meat are considered the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, 287 samples from chicken (131 cloacal swabs, 39 chicken skin, 78 chicken meat, and 39 cecal parts) obtained from retail outlets as well as 246 stool swabs from gastroenteritis patients were examined. A representative number of the biochemically identified Campylobacter jejuni isolates were identified by real-time PCR, confirming the identification of the isolates as C. jejuni. Genotyping of the examined isolates (n = 31) by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) revealed a high discriminatory index of ERIC-PCR (D = 0.948), dividing C. jejuni isolates of chicken and human origins into 18 profiles and four clusters. The 18 profiles obtained indicated the heterogeneity of C. jejuni. Dendrogram analysis showed that four clusters were generated; all human isolates fell into clusters I and III. These observations further support the existence of a genetic relationship between human and poultry isolates examined in the present study. In conclusion, the results obtained support the speculation that poultry and poultry meat have an important role as sources of infection in the acquisition of Campylobacter infection in humans.

  14. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  15. Diseases Transmitted by Man's Best Friend: The Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jerry; Lorber, Bennett

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between dogs and humans is ancient and mutually beneficial. Dogs have served people well as companions, workmates, guides, and protectors. However, on occasion, dogs may injure humans through biting or may transmit pathogens resulting in a large number of problems ranging from a trivial rash to life-threatening bacteremia. Given that there are more than 80 million pet dogs in the United States, it is worth knowing the potential problems that can result from canine exposure. Annually, almost 5 million people in the United States suffer a dog bite. Dog bite wounds become infected up to 15% of the time. In those who have had a splenectomy, a dog bite may transmit the bacterium Capnocytophaga canimorsus, leading to life-threatening bacteremia. Other illnesses that humans can acquire from dog contact include ringworm, diarrheal disease (salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and intestinal parasites), leptospirosis, brucellosis, Q fever, visceral larva migrans, and echinococcosis. Evidence exists that the family dog may serve as a reservoir for uropathogenic Escherichia coli that can lead to urinary tract infections among human household contacts. In this article we discuss dog-related infectious diseases as well as measures to minimize dog-associated illness (e.g., do not disturb sleeping dogs; HIV-infected persons who wish to acquire a puppy should have the dog's stool checked for Cryptosporidium).

  16. Environmental change and enteric zoonoses in New Zealand: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Lill, Adrian W T; Mcintyre, Mary; Hales, Simon; Baker, Michael G; French, Nigel P

    2015-02-01

    To review the available evidence that examines the association between climatic and agricultural land use factors and the risks of enteric zoonoses in humans and consider information needs and possible pathways of intervention. The electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Embase and government websites were searched systematically for published literature that investigated the association of climatic and/or agricultural exposures with the incidence of the four most common enteric zoonotic diseases in New Zealand (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis). Results The 16 studies in the review demonstrated significant associations between climate, agricultural land use and enteric disease occurrence. The evidence suggests that enteric disease risk from environmental reservoirs is pathogen specific. In some rural regions, environmental pathogen load is considerable, with multiple opportunities for zoonotic transmission. Enteric disease occurrence in NZ is associated with climate variability and agricultural land use. However, these relationships interact with demographic factors to influence disease patterns. Improved understanding of how environmental and social factors interact can inform effective public health interventions under scenarios of projected environmental change. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Genome Comparison of Erythromycin Resistant Campylobacter from Turkeys Identifies Hosts and Pathways for Horizontal Spread of erm(B Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Florez-Cuadrado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens in the genus Campylobacter are the most common cause of food-borne bacterial gastro-enteritis. Campylobacteriosis, caused principally by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is transmitted to humans by food of animal origin, especially poultry. As for many pathogens, antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter is increasing at an alarming rate. Erythromycin prescription is the treatment of choice for clinical cases requiring antimicrobial therapy but this is compromised by mobility of the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B between strains. Here, we evaluate resistance to six antimicrobials in 170 Campylobacter isolates (133 C. coli and 37 C. jejuni from turkeys. Erythromycin resistant isolates (n = 85; 81 C. coli and 4 C. jejuni were screened for the presence of the erm(B gene, that has not previously been identified in isolates from turkeys. The genomes of two positive C. coli isolates were sequenced and in both isolates the erm(B gene clustered with resistance determinants against aminoglycosides plus tetracycline, including aad9, aadE, aph(2″-IIIa, aph(3′-IIIa, and tet(O genes. Comparative genomic analysis identified identical erm(B sequences among Campylobacter from turkeys, Streptococcus suis from pigs and Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium difficile from humans. This is consistent with multiple horizontal transfer events among different bacterial species colonizing turkeys. This example highlights the potential for dissemination of antimicrobial resistance across bacterial species boundaries which may compromise their effectiveness in antimicrobial therapy.

  18. Defining the metabolic requirements for the growth and colonization capacity of Campylobacter jejuni

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    Dirk eHofreuter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. This facultative intracellular pathogen is a member of the Epsilonproteobacteria and requires microaerobic atmosphere and nutrient rich media for efficient proliferation in vitro. Its catabolic capacity is highly restricted in contrast to Salmonella Typhimurium and other enteropathogenic bacteria because several common pathways for carbohydrate utilization are either missing or incomplete. Despite these metabolic limitations, C. jejuni efficiently colonizes various animal hosts as a commensal intestinal inhabitant. Moreover, C. jejuni is tremendously successful in competing with the human intestinal microbiota; an infectious dose of few hundreds bacteria is sufficient to overcome the colonization resistance of humans and can lead to campylobacteriosis. Besides the importance and clear clinical manifestation of this disease, the pathogenesis mechanisms of C. jejuni infections are still poorly understood. In recent years comparative genome sequence, transcriptome and metabolome analyses as well as mutagenesis studies combined with animal infection models have provided a new understanding of how the specific metabolic capacity of C. jejuni drives its persistence in the intestinal habitat of various hosts. Furthermore, new insights into the metabolic requirements that support the intracellular survival of C. jejuni were obtained. Because C. jejuni harbors distinct properties in establishing an infection in comparison to pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, it represents an excellent organism for elucidating new aspects of the dynamic interaction and metabolic cross talk between a bacterial pathogen, the microbiota and the host.

  19. Selective gelatinase inhibition reduces apoptosis and pro-inflammatory immune cell responses in Campylobacter jejuni-infected gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alutis, M E; Grundmann, U; Fischer, A; Kühl, A A; Bereswill, S; Heimesaat, M M

    2014-12-01

    Increased levels of the matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (also referred to gelatinase-A and -B, respectively) can be detected in intestinal inflammation. We have recently shown that selective gelatinase blockage by the synthetic compound RO28-2653 ameliorates acute murine ileitis and colitis. We here investigated whether RO28-2653 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in acute Campylobacter jejuni-induced enterocolitis of gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-) mice generated following antibiotic treatment. Mice were perorally infected with C. jejuni (day 0) and either treated with RO28-2653 (75 mg/kg body weight/day) or placebo from day 1 until day 6 post infection (p.i.) by gavage. Irrespective of the treatment, infected mice displayed comparable pathogen loads within the gastrointestinal tract. Following RO28-2653 administration, however, infected mice exhibited less severe symptoms such as bloody diarrhea as compared to placebo controls. Furthermore, less distinct apoptosis but higher numbers of proliferating cells could be detected in the colon of RO28-2653-treated as compared to placebo-treated mice at day 7 p.i. Remarkably, gelatinase blockage resulted in lower numbers of T- and B-lymphocytes as well as macrophages and monocytes in the colonic mucosa of C. jejuni-infected gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-) mice. Taken together, synthetic gelatinase inhibition exerts anti-inflammatory effects in experimental campylobacteriosis.

  20. Key role of Mfd in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Sahin, Orhan; Barton, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Qijing

    2008-06-06

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter readily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes a transcription-repair coupling factor involved in strand-specific DNA repair. Mutation of the mfd gene resulted in an approximately 100-fold reduction in the rate of spontaneous mutation to ciprofloxacin resistance, while overexpression of mfd elevated the mutation frequency. In addition, loss of mfd in C. jejuni significantly reduced the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter in culture media or chickens treated with fluoroquinolones. These findings indicate that Mfd is important for the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter, reveal a previously unrecognized function of Mfd in promoting mutation frequencies, and identify a potential molecular target for reducing the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

  1. Survey of extra-intestinal immune responses in asymptomatic long-term Campylobacter jejuni-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Haag, Lea-Maxie; Fischer, André; Otto, Bettina; Kühl, Anja A; Göbel, Ulf B; Bereswill, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is among the most frequently reported bacterial pathogens causing diarrhea in humans worldwide. We recently reported a murine infection model mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. Six days following oral C. jejuni infection immediately after weaning, infant mice developed acute enterocolitis resolving within 2 weeks. Thereafter, C. jejuni could still be isolated from the intestines of asymptomatic mice at low levels accompanied by distinct immune responses, both at intestinal and extra-intestinal locations. We here show that, at day 103 post infection (p.i.), long-term C. jejuni-infected mice exhibited higher numbers of T lymphocytes in liver, lung, kindneys, and cardiac muscle as compared to uninfected controls. In addition, B lymphocytes were slightly higher, but macrophage numbers were significantly lower in liver and lung of C. jejuni-infected versus naive mice. As compared to uninfected control animals, proliferating cells were significantly lower in liver, lung, kidneys, cardiac muscle, and spleen at day 103 p.i., whereas more apoptotic cells were abundant in the spleen with predominance in the red pulp. This study underlines that post-infectious, immunological sequelae at extra-intestinal locations are of importance even in asymptomatic long-term C. jejuni carriers and need to be further studied in order to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  2. Key role of Mfd in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter readily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes a transcription-repair coupling factor involved in strand-specific DNA repair. Mutation of the mfd gene resulted in an approximately 100-fold reduction in the rate of spontaneous mutation to ciprofloxacin resistance, while overexpression of mfd elevated the mutation frequency. In addition, loss of mfd in C. jejuni significantly reduced the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter in culture media or chickens treated with fluoroquinolones. These findings indicate that Mfd is important for the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter, reveal a previously unrecognized function of Mfd in promoting mutation frequencies, and identify a potential molecular target for reducing the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

  3. Survival with a helping hand: Campylobacter and microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eIndikova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulphur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain.

  4. Hospitalization records as a tool for evaluating performance of food- and water-borne disease surveillance systems: a Massachusetts case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan M Mor

    Full Text Available We outline a framework for evaluating food- and water-borne surveillance systems using hospitalization records, and demonstrate the approach using data on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis in persons aged ≥65 years in Massachusetts. For each infection, and for each reporting jurisdiction, we generated smoothed standardized morbidity ratios (SMR and surveillance to hospitalization ratios (SHR by comparing observed surveillance counts with expected values or the number of hospitalized cases, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of SHR and related this to the mean for the entire state. Through this approach municipalities that deviated from the typical experience were identified and suspected of under-reporting. Regression analysis revealed that SHR was a significant predictor of SMR, after adjusting for population age-structure. This confirms that the spatial "signal" depicted by surveillance is in part influenced by inconsistent testing and reporting practices since municipalities that reported fewer cases relative to the number of hospitalizations had a lower relative risk (as estimated by SMR. Periodic assessment of SHR has potential in assessing the performance of surveillance systems.

  5. Hospitalization records as a tool for evaluating performance of food- and water-borne disease surveillance systems: a Massachusetts case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Siobhan M; DeMaria, Alfred; Naumova, Elena N

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for evaluating food- and water-borne surveillance systems using hospitalization records, and demonstrate the approach using data on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis in persons aged ≥65 years in Massachusetts. For each infection, and for each reporting jurisdiction, we generated smoothed standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) and surveillance to hospitalization ratios (SHR) by comparing observed surveillance counts with expected values or the number of hospitalized cases, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of SHR and related this to the mean for the entire state. Through this approach municipalities that deviated from the typical experience were identified and suspected of under-reporting. Regression analysis revealed that SHR was a significant predictor of SMR, after adjusting for population age-structure. This confirms that the spatial "signal" depicted by surveillance is in part influenced by inconsistent testing and reporting practices since municipalities that reported fewer cases relative to the number of hospitalizations had a lower relative risk (as estimated by SMR). Periodic assessment of SHR has potential in assessing the performance of surveillance systems.

  6. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijlstra, Aize; Jongert, Erik

    2008-10-01

    One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with disappointing results of the currently available treatment options have led to a plea for more effective prevention. In this review we describe Toxoplasma as a hazard associated with the consumption of undercooked meat or meat products and provide an analysis of the various options to control the risk of human toxoplasmosis via this source. Monitoring and surveillance programs may be implemented for pre-harvest control of Toxoplasma infection of farm animals, with the reduction of environmental oocyst load as the most important milestone. Alternatively, Toxoplasma safe meat can be obtained through simple post-harvest decontamination procedures, whereby freezing the meat may currently be the best option, although new technologies using irradiation or high-pressure treatment may offer promising alternatives. Influence of culture, religion and food handling customs may predispose a certain type of meat as an important source of infection, indicating that prevention needs to be tailored according to social habits in different regions in the world. The rationale for more stringent control measures to prevent toxoplasmosis both from disease and economic points of view is emphasized.

  7. Nutrigenomics and its role in male puberty of cattle: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Chakraborty, Sandip; Mahima; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Rruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2014-02-01

    Nutrigenomics a novel era in genomics research is based on puzzling issue on how nutrition and genes re-interacts. Perusal of literature reveals that very few information are available in this field and especially when it is associated with puberty in cattle which is a multigenic trait of great economic importance. Thus it opens a new area of research interest. Various markers like-gonadotropin releasing hormone/GNRH (responsible for sexual differentiation and reproduction), interstitial growth regulating factor/IGF1 (having signal controlling reproduction function linked to somatic growth); circulating metabolic hormones viz., leptin apart from GnRH and IGF1 (having impact on testicular development in peripubertal bull) are proved to be associated with male puberty in cattle. Various minerals (copper, selenium, manganese, zinc, chromium, iron and molybdenum) and vitamins (Vit. A, D, E and C) are directly or indirectly linked to male puberty. But no research till today initiated how the nutrients effect on the transcriptome/proteome/metabolome level of marker genes associated with male puberty in cattle. Application of nanotechnology to make food safer for promotion of good health has created much excitement and nanoparticles has been developed against infectious diseases (e.g., Campylobacteriosis) affecting puberty along with certain nanocarriers that can facilitate the uptake of essential nutrients associated with puberty. Much of nutrigenomics research is however in infancy and hence the present mini-review will allow building the concept among researchers and scientists to initiate research in this interesting area.

  8. Inquiring into the Gaps of Campylobacter Surveillance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Maria; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos; Burriel, Angeliki R.; Ioannidis, Anastasios

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most common pathogen-related causes of diarrheal illnesses globally and has been recognized as a significant factor of human disease for more than three decades. Molecular typing techniques and their combinations have allowed for species identification among members of the Campylobacter genus with good resolution, but the same tools usually fail to proceed to subtyping of closely related species due to high sequence similarity. This problem is exacerbated by the demanding conditions for isolation and detection from the human, animal or water samples as well as due to the difficulties during laboratory maintenance and long-term storage of the isolates. In an effort to define the ideal typing tool, we underline the strengths and limitations of the typing methodologies currently used to map the broad epidemiologic profile of campylobacteriosis in public health and outbreak investigations. The application of both the old and the new molecular typing tools is discussed and an indirect comparison is presented among the preferred techniques used in current research methodology. PMID:29056694

  9. Effect of enhanced biosecurity and selected on-farm factors on Campylobacter colonization of chicken broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, M; Beauvais, W; Guitian, J

    2017-02-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial infection in the EU; poultry meat has been identified as the main source of infection. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced biosecurity and other factors such as welfare status, breed, the practice of partial depopulation and number of empty days between flocks may prevent Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization of poultry batches at high levels (>123 000 c.f.u./g in pooled caecal samples). We analysed data from 2314 poultry batches sampled at slaughter in the UK in 2011-2013. We employed random-effects logistic regression to account for clustering of batches within farms and adjust for confounding. We estimated population attributable fractions using adjusted risk ratios. Enhanced biosecurity reduced the odds of colonization at partial depopulation [odds ratio (OR) 0·25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·14-0·47] and, to a lesser extent, at final depopulation (OR 0·47, 95% CI 0·25-0·89). An effect of the type of breed was also found. Under our assumptions, approximately 1/3 of highly colonized batches would be avoided if they were all raised under enhanced biosecurity or without partial depopulation. The results of the study indicate that on-farm measures can play an important role in reducing colonization of broiler chickens with Campylobacter spp. and as a result human exposure.

  10. Antibiotic resistance profiles of Campylobacter species in the South Africa private health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobo, Christiana O; Bester, Linda Antionette; Baijnath, Sooraj; Somboro, Anou M; Peer, Abdool K C; Essack, Sabiha Y

    2016-11-24

    There is a dearth of surveillance data on clinical Campylobacter in South Africa, particularly in the private healthcare environment. We investigated the prevalence of resistance to first-line antibiotics used to treat campylobacterioses in clinical Campylobacter isolates from a private pathology laboratory. Identification of the Campylobacter specific genes were confirmed by PCR. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the broth micro-dilution method against macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin) and tetracycline. Seventy-two Campylobacter isolates were identified by PCR, with 54 (75%) being classified as C. jejuni and 18 (25%) as C. coli. Of these, 11 (20.4%) C. jejuni and six (33.3%) C. coli strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin and three (7.41%) C. jejuni and three (16.7%) C. coli strains were resistant to gatifloxacin. The number of C. jejuni strains resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin was 17 (31.5%) and 36 (50%) respectively, while the resistance of C. coli strains to erythromycin and azithromycin were seven (38.9%) and 14 (77.8%) respectively. Resistance to tetracycline was detected in 10 (55.6%) C. coli and 14 (25.9%) C. jejuni strains. In the light of these resistant profiles, the lack of a South African Campylobacter surveillance program is of concern. Relatively high prevalence of resistance in clinical isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracycline used in first line treatment is of great concern. The efficacy treating human campylobacteriosis should thus be revisited.

  11. Impaired Fitness and Transmission of Macrolide-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni in Its Natural Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Shen, Zhangqi; Seng, Virginia W.; Sahin, Orhan; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Liu, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans via the food chain and is prevalent in chickens, a natural reservoir for this pathogenic organism. Due to the importance of macrolide antibiotics in clinical therapy of human campylobacteriosis, development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand if macrolide resistance affects the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in its natural host. In this study we conducted pairwise competitions and comingling experiments in chickens using clonally related and isogenic C. jejuni strains, which are either susceptible or resistant to erythromycin (Ery). In every competition pair, Ery-resistant (Eryr) Campylobacter was consistently outcompeted by the Ery-susceptible (Erys) strain. In the comingling experiments, Eryr Campylobacter failed to transmit to chickens precolonized by Erys Campylobacter, while isogenic Erys Campylobacter was able to transmit to and establish dominance in chickens precolonized by Eryr Campylobacter. The fitness disadvantage was linked to the resistance-conferring mutations in the 23S rRNA. These findings clearly indicate that acquisition of macrolide resistance impairs the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in chickens, suggesting that the prevalence of macrolide-resistant C. jejuni will likely decrease in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. PMID:22183170

  12. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegge, Christina S; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska-Marzęta, Małgorzata; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni.

  13. Roles of lipooligosaccharide and capsular polysaccharide in antimicrobial resistance and natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byeonghwa; Muraoka, Wayne; Scupham, Alexandra; Zhang, Qijing

    2009-03-01

    This study is aimed to determine the role of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and lipooligosaccharide (LOS) in modulating antimicrobial resistance and natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni, an important food-borne human pathogen. A series of C. jejuni mutants, which are defective in either CPS or LOS or both, were constructed. The antimicrobial susceptibility, bacterial surface hydrophobicity, natural transformation frequency and DNA binding and uptake were measured and compared between the mutants and the wild-type strain. Truncation of LOS greatly reduced (8-fold) the intrinsic resistance of C. jejuni to erythromycin, a key antibiotic used for treating human campylobacteriosis, while the loss of CPS did not result in significant changes in the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Notably, mutation of LOS also significantly increased (>16-fold) the susceptibility to erythromycin in C. jejuni mutants carrying the A2074G mutation in 23S rRNA. The increased susceptibility to erythromycin in the LOS mutant was probably due to enhanced permeability to this antibiotic, because the LOS mutation rendered the surface of C. jejuni more hydrophobic. Loss of CPS and truncation of LOS increased the transformation frequency by 4- and 25-fold, respectively, and mutation of both CPS and LOS resulted in a 97-fold increase in the transformation frequency. Consistent with the increased transformation frequencies, the CPS and LOS mutants showed enhanced rates of DNA uptake. These results demonstrate that the surface polysaccharides in C. jejuni contribute to the resistance to erythromycin, a clinically important antibiotic, but restrict natural transformation.

  14. Epidemiology of toxic and infectious risks due to shellfish consumption; Epidemiologie des risques toxiques et infectieux lies a la consommation de coquillages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desenclos, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    For feeding purposes shellfish filter large amounts of water but also concentrate infectious agents and toxins that are resent in the marine environment either naturally or because of pollution. Most of shellfish-borne infectious diseases are linked to fecal contamination of the marine environment; they include: typhoid fever, salmonellosis, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, cholera, Norwalk or Norwalk-like gastroenteritis and hepatitis A. In warm climates, shellfish contains naturally occurring halopilic Vibrios and may cause severe sporadic infections (septicemias). Shellfish also causes outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) when they are contaminated by toxins produced when Dinophisis, a marine plankton, proliferates. Chemical compounds (heavy metals and organic toxins) that are dumped in the environment (soil, air, and water) also reach shellfish harvesting waters where they are concentrated. Since it is impossible to prevent completely the contamination of coastal waters by any of the agents cited above, the prevention of shellfish-borne diseases requires monitoring of the marine environment and shellfish flesh. This surveillance allows the classification o growing areas as suitable or not for harvesting and distribution of shellfish. However, indicators of fecal pollution are particularly not reliable for shellfish viral contamination. A better knowledge of marine biology, the limitation of coastal waters pollution, improved surveillance, the development of more sensitive indicators, the responsibleness of the industry and the information of the public on the health hazards associated with shellfish consumption are the key issues for the improvement of shellfish-borne disease prevention. (author) 106 refs.

  15. Prevalence of Selected Bacterial Infections Associated with the Use of Animal Waste in Louisiana

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    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. Health concerns could arise from exposure to pathogens and excess nitrogen associated with this form of pollution. The objective was to collect and analyze health data related to selected bacterial infections associated with the use of animal waste in Louisiana. An analysis of adverse health effects has been conducted based on the incidence/prevalence rates of campylobacteriosis, E. coli O157:H7 infection, salmonellosis and shigellosis. The number of reported cases increased during the summer months. Analysis of health data showed that reported disease cases of E. coli O157:H7 were highest among Caucasian infants in the 0-4 year old age category and in Caucasian children in the 5-9 year old age category. Fatalities resulting from salmonellosis are low and increases sharply with age. The number of reported cases of shigellosis was found to be higher in African American males and females than in Caucasians. The high rate of identification in the younger population may result from the prompt seeking of medical care, as well as the frequent ordering of stool examination when symptoms become evident among this group of the population. The association with increasing age and fatality due to salmonellosis could be attributed to declining health and weaker immune systems often found in the older population. It is concluded that both animal waste and non-point source pollution may have a significant impact on human health.

  16. Public health burden due to infections by verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Campylobacter spp. as estimated by cost of illness and different approaches to model disability-adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toljander, Jonas; Dovärn, Anna; Andersson, Yvonne; Ivarsson, Sofie; Lindqvist, Roland

    2012-05-01

    To estimate disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and cost of illness (COI) associated with the gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens Campylobacter and verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in Sweden and to investigate the impact of variability in health outcomes, data availability, and different assumptions about underreporting on DALY. Data from the Swedish notification system, public databases, and the literature were used to estimate COI and DALY. DALY was modelled using a deterministic and a stochastic approach, the latter describing variation in health outcomes between individuals. Effects of different assumptions about underreporting of gastroenteritis were evaluated in separate scenarios. COI and DALY were greater for Campylobacter than for VTEC. Years of life lost due to haemolytic uraemic syndrome and years lived with gastroenteritis constituted most of DALY for VTEC and Campylobacter, respectively. Productivity losses due to gastroenteritis constituted the main cost associated with both pathogens. Degree of underreporting had a greater impact on DALY for Campylobacter, due to higher estimated incidence of gastroenteritis associated with campylobacteriosis. Pathogen-specific health outcomes and data quality may influence the preferred modelling approach. There was a fair agreement between modelling approaches, but the stochastic model reflected the contribution of some rare health outcomes not captured in the deterministic model. Health outcomes excluded due to lack of data lead to an underestimation of the total burden associated with the pathogens. Increased knowledge, especially on the degree of underreporting and the contribution of the pathogens to sequelae, is needed to further improve public health burden estimates for these pathogens in Sweden.

  17. Global Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni Penner Serotypes: A Systematic Review.

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    Brian L Pike

    Full Text Available Penner serotyping has been the principal method for differentiating Campylobacter isolates since its inception. Campylobacter capsule polysaccharide (CPS, the principal serodeterminant on which Penner serotyping is based, is presently of interest as a vaccine component. To determine the required valency of an effective CPS-based vaccine, a comprehensive understanding of CPS distribution is needed. Because of the association between Penner serotype and CPS, we conducted a systematic review to estimate the frequency and distribution of Penner serotypes associated with cases of Campylobacteriosis. In total, more than 21,000 sporadic cases of C. jejuni cases were identified for inclusion. While regional variation exists, distribution estimates indicate that eight serotypes accounted for more than half of all sporadic diarrheal cases globally and three serotypes (HS4 complex, HS2, and HS1/44 were dominant inter-regionally as well as globally. Furthermore, a total of 17 different serotypes reached a representation of 2% or greater in at least one of the five regions sampled. While this review is an important first step in defining CPS distribution, these results make it clear that significant gaps remain in our knowledge. Eliminating these gaps will be critical to future vaccine development efforts.

  18. Searching to combine technologies for safer food attainment

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    Lucilla Imbroinise Azeredo Caruso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an infection frequently acquired through the consumption of animal origin products. Chicken can be considered the main responsible cause in the transmission chain of this disease. Ionizing radiation was used to verify the reduction of the microbiological load of Campylobacter jejuni present in chicken liver, which, in natura, can present contamination in up to 100% of the cases. The doses of irradiation used were: 0.20 kGy, 0.27 kGy, 0.30 kGy and 0.35 kGy. The samples of chicken liver were acquired in aviaries, local supermarkets and large chain supermarkets. The samples were analyzed for Campylobacter at FIOCRUZ. Irradiation was performed at COPPE/UFRJ, using a Gamma Cell Irradiator with a 60Co gamma source. Only the frozen sample acquired at the local supermarket did not contain the bacterium. Campylobacter sp. was present in all other samples, even when using procedures and technologies that aimed at the impediment of the presence of this bacterium in food and, consequently, at the protection of human health. On the whole, the results were satisfactory; nevertheless, it is known that the bacterial growth conditions required by this bacterium are uncommon when compared to other enteropathogenic bacteria.

  19. Source attribution of human Campylobacter isolates by MLST and fla-typing and association of genotypes with quinolone resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Sonja; Heckel, Gerald; Korczak, Bożena M; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST) and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant.

  20. Occurrence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes in some retail food products in Novi Sad.

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    Trajković-Pavlović, Ljiljana B; Popović, Milka B; Novaković, Budimka D; Gusman-Pasterko, Vera P; Jevtić, Marija R; Mirilov, Jelena M

    2007-12-01

    The official reporting system in the Province of Vojvodina (PV) indicates that cases of human salmonellosis were partly covered by complete epidemiological investigation including laboratory analysis of the suspected food. Intestinal campylobacteriosis and yersiniosis and four cases of septicemias caused by Listeria monocytogenes were not fully epidemiologically investigated. Actual country legislation on food safety does not include provisions for a routine control of the above mentioned pathogens except for Salmonella. In the PV, there are no other sources of data that contribute to risk assessment of the above food-borne diseases. A pilot investigation, performed in Novi Sad, indicated that 8.17% out of the total number of 257 retail food samples (90 of fresh meat and 167 of ready-to-eat food) had been contaminated with one of the tested bacteria Campylobacter or Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes. Yersinia enterocolitica was not detected in any of the tested samples. Fresh poultry meat and other fresh meats were the dominant sources of the detected pathogens compared to samples of ready-to-eat food (p 0.05). Salmonella was detected in 3.3% samples of fresh poultry meat. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 5.0% samples of fresh poultry and in 3.3% samples of other fresh meat, the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). One sample (0.6%) of ready to eat food was contaminated with Campylobacter and one (0.6%) with Salmonella.

  1. Genome Comparison of Erythromycin Resistant Campylobacter from Turkeys Identifies Hosts and Pathways for Horizontal Spread of erm(B) Genes.

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    Florez-Cuadrado, Diego; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Meric, Guillaume; Quesada, Alberto; Porrero, M C; Pascoe, Ben; Sáez-Llorente, Jose L; Orozco, Gema L; Domínguez, Lucas; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2017-01-01

    Pathogens in the genus Campylobacter are the most common cause of food-borne bacterial gastro-enteritis. Campylobacteriosis, caused principally by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is transmitted to humans by food of animal origin, especially poultry. As for many pathogens, antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter is increasing at an alarming rate. Erythromycin prescription is the treatment of choice for clinical cases requiring antimicrobial therapy but this is compromised by mobility of the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B) between strains. Here, we evaluate resistance to six antimicrobials in 170 Campylobacter isolates (133 C. coli and 37 C. jejuni) from turkeys. Erythromycin resistant isolates (n = 85; 81 C. coli and 4 C. jejuni) were screened for the presence of the erm(B) gene, that has not previously been identified in isolates from turkeys. The genomes of two positive C. coli isolates were sequenced and in both isolates the erm(B) gene clustered with resistance determinants against aminoglycosides plus tetracycline, including aad9, aadE, aph(2″)-IIIa, aph(3')-IIIa, and tet(O) genes. Comparative genomic analysis identified identical erm(B) sequences among Campylobacter from turkeys, Streptococcus suis from pigs and Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium difficile from humans. This is consistent with multiple horizontal transfer events among different bacterial species colonizing turkeys. This example highlights the potential for dissemination of antimicrobial resistance across bacterial species boundaries which may compromise their effectiveness in antimicrobial therapy.

  2. Application of MALDI-TOF MS Systems in the Rapid Identification of Campylobacter spp. of Public Health Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Wang, Yun F; Moura, Hercules; Miranda, Nancy; Simpson, Steven; Gowrishankar, Ramnath; Barr, John; Kerdahi, Khalil; Sulaiman, Irshad M

    2017-09-12

    Campylobacteriosis is an infectious gastrointestinal disease caused by Campylobacter spp.In most cases, it is either underdiagnosed or underreported due to poor diagnostics and limited databases. Several DNA-based molecular diagnostic techniques, including 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence typing, have been widely used in the species identification of Campylobacter. Nevertheless, these assays are time-consuming and require a high quality of bacterial DNA. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) MS is an emerging diagnostic technology that can provide the rapid identification of microorganisms by using their intact cells without extraction or purification. In this study, we analyzed 24 American Type Culture Collection reference isolates of 16 Campylobacter spp. and five unknown clinical bacterial isolates for rapid identification utilizing two commercially available MADI-TOF MS platforms, namely the bioMérieux VITEK(®) MS and Bruker Biotyper systems. In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to confirm the species-level identification of the unknown clinical isolates. Both MALDI-TOF MS systems identified the isolates of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. fetus. The results of this study suggest that the MALDI-TOF MS technique can be used in the identification of Campylobacter spp. of public health importance.

  3. Self-reported infections during international travel and notifiable infections among returning international travellers, Sweden, 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallensten, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We studied food and water-borne diseases (FWDs), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme among Swedish international travellers, in order to identify countries associated with a high number of infections. We used the national database for notifiable infections to estimate the number of FWDs (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, shigellosis, EHEC, Entamoeba histolytica, yersinosis, hepatitis A, paratyphoid fever, typhoid fever, hepatitis E, listeriosis, cholera), STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and acute hepatitis B), VBDs (dengue fever, malaria, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria) acquired abroad 2009–2013. We obtained number and duration of trips to each country from a database that monthly collects travel data from a randomly selected proportion of the Swedish population. We calculated number of infections per country 2009–2013 and incidence/million travel days for the five countries with the highest number of infections. Thailand had the highest number of FWDs (7,697, incidence 191/million travel days), STIs (1,388, incidence 34/million travel days) and VBDs (358, incidence 9/million travel days). France had the highest number of cases of diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (8, 0.4/million travel days). Swedish travellers contracted most infections in Thailand. Special focus should be placed on giving advice to travellers to this destination. PMID:28753671

  4. Self-reported infections during international travel and notifiable infections among returning international travellers, Sweden, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Viktor; Wallensten, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We studied food and water-borne diseases (FWDs), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme among Swedish international travellers, in order to identify countries associated with a high number of infections. We used the national database for notifiable infections to estimate the number of FWDs (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, shigellosis, EHEC, Entamoeba histolytica, yersinosis, hepatitis A, paratyphoid fever, typhoid fever, hepatitis E, listeriosis, cholera), STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and acute hepatitis B), VBDs (dengue fever, malaria, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria) acquired abroad 2009-2013. We obtained number and duration of trips to each country from a database that monthly collects travel data from a randomly selected proportion of the Swedish population. We calculated number of infections per country 2009-2013 and incidence/million travel days for the five countries with the highest number of infections. Thailand had the highest number of FWDs (7,697, incidence 191/million travel days), STIs (1,388, incidence 34/million travel days) and VBDs (358, incidence 9/million travel days). France had the highest number of cases of diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (8, 0.4/million travel days). Swedish travellers contracted most infections in Thailand. Special focus should be placed on giving advice to travellers to this destination.

  5. Occupational health characteristics of women on dairy farms in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Ginger D; Brasier, Kathryn J; Henning, George F; Radhakrishna, Rama B; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2010-01-01

    Women play a significant role in Pennsylvania production agriculture, thereby exposing themselves to occupational health risks. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess the incidence of health conditions with a possible zoonotic origin in this underserved population. A written survey was sent to a stratified, random sample of dairy farms in Pennsylvania (n = 3709) using a modified version of the Dillman method. In addition to demographic data, the survey was used to collect information on the occurrence of zoonotic diseases, gastrointestinal illnesses, respiratory problems, dermatoses, and women's reproductive health issues. Of the 624 respondents, 10.4% (n = 65) reported that they had contracted a disease from an animal. Interestingly, only 9 respondents indicated that they had suffered from foodborne illnesses in the past year including salmonellosis (n = 1), campylobacteriosis (n = 1), and gastroenteritis due to Escherichia coli (n = 1). A risk factor associated with difficulty breathing was the lack of use of a breathing mask, whereas ventilation in the free stall area appeared to offer a protective effect. Difficulty breathing was reported by 9.8% (n = 61) of the respondents. Risk factors associated with skin disorders included raising fruits and/or vegetables, raising swine, and not wearing gloves when milking. The findings of the study suggest that many of the illnesses and conditions could have been acquired by working with dairy animals and their environment. Based on the findings of this study, additional investigations on the causes and prevention of these illnesses are warranted.

  6. Could laboratory-based notification improve the control of foodborne illness in New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Greg; Whittaker, Robyn; Boyle, Kerry; Morris, Arthur J; Upton, Arlo; Calder, Lester

    2002-05-24

    To estimate the completeness and timeliness of notifications of seven potentially foodborne diseases in Auckland. The diseases audited were shigellosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, yersiniosis, listeriosis, hepatitis A and verocytotoxigenic (VTEC) E. coli infections. Hospital and community laboratory-confirmed cases for the calendar year 2000 were audited against those notified to the Auckland Regional Public Health Service. Cases were matched on disease, name, date of birth, gender and National Health Index number. There were 3182 laboratory-confirmed cases of the seven diseases identified of which 77% had been notified to the Auckland Regional Public Health Service. The proportion of laboratory-confirmed cases notified ranged from a 65% for hepatitis A to 100% for VTEC infection. The median delay between laboratory confirmation and practitioner notification was two days. Notification of all laboratory-confirmed cases would have resulted in an estimated 145 additional investigations in the year 2000. A change to laboratory-based notification could improve public health investigation and control of foodborne disease in New Zealand.

  7. Self-reported infections during international travel and notifiable infections among returning international travellers, Sweden, 2009-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Dahl

    Full Text Available We studied food and water-borne diseases (FWDs, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, vector-borne diseases (VBDs and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme among Swedish international travellers, in order to identify countries associated with a high number of infections. We used the national database for notifiable infections to estimate the number of FWDs (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, shigellosis, EHEC, Entamoeba histolytica, yersinosis, hepatitis A, paratyphoid fever, typhoid fever, hepatitis E, listeriosis, cholera, STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and acute hepatitis B, VBDs (dengue fever, malaria, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria acquired abroad 2009-2013. We obtained number and duration of trips to each country from a database that monthly collects travel data from a randomly selected proportion of the Swedish population. We calculated number of infections per country 2009-2013 and incidence/million travel days for the five countries with the highest number of infections. Thailand had the highest number of FWDs (7,697, incidence 191/million travel days, STIs (1,388, incidence 34/million travel days and VBDs (358, incidence 9/million travel days. France had the highest number of cases of diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (8, 0.4/million travel days. Swedish travellers contracted most infections in Thailand. Special focus should be placed on giving advice to travellers to this destination.

  8. Evaluation of the novel DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay for the rapid detection of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, Zaira; Rando-Segura, Ariadna; Gimferrer, Laura; Roig, Gloria; Pumarola, Tomas; Rodriguez-Garrido, Virginia

    2017-04-29

    Campylobacter spp. infection is one of the leading causes of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in humans worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay for human campylobacteriosis diagnosis. A total of 645 stool samples from 640 patients suspected of having gastrointestinal infection were included. A stool culture was simultaneously performed with the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay to detect the presence of Campylobacter spp. Taking the conventional culture to be the perfect gold standard, sensitivity and specificity rates of the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay were 100% and 97.7%, respectively; and 99.1% and 98.6%, respectively, when taking the culture to be the imperfect gold standard (Bayesian Model). This new assay might be a useful tool especially for the screening of negative results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. The isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni from domestic geese (Anser anser).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, F; Atabay, H I; Akan, M

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in free range domestic geese, and to characterize isolated strains using phenotyping criteria and SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins. Forty cloacal swabs from two different flocks of domestic geese were examined. All Camp. jejuni strains isolated from geese were biotyped using the Lior biotyping scheme. Twelve Camp. jejuni isolates were also tested for their susceptibility to 17 different antibacterial agents by a disc diffusion Fourteen of the isolates were also subjected to SDS-PAGE. All of the geese examined were found to harbour Camp. jejuni. Six geese carried more than one species of Campylobacter. All strains examined were susceptible to various antibiotics but resistant to penicillin G and cephalothin. Eleven strains (92%) were resistant to sodium cefuroxime, and eight (67%) were resistant to cloxacillin, ampicillin and colistin sulphate. Three strains (25%) were resistant to tetracycline, and one strain was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and kanamycin. Nine strains were subtyped as Camp. jejuni subsp. jejuni biotype II and the remaining ones as biotype I. There were 96% and 100% similarities between all the strains examined by SDS-PAGE. This study showed that Camp. jejuni were common in the intestinal tract of domestic geese. Geese should be considered as potential reservoirs for human and animal campylobacteriosis. The antibiotic resistance data from this study also showed that fluoroquinolone resistance, which appears to be a problem in poultry isolates in some countries, is not yet a problem in these geese.

  10. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni for Food Safety and Public Health

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    Omer Cakmak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are microorganisms that can be found in nature in the entire domestic and wild animal’s intestinal flora including the poultry and the sea animals. Campylobacter can better colonize in the poultry than the other animals. Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen among the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. whose growth temperature’s are different than the other Campylobacter spp. and can cause serious gastroenteritis in human beings which in some cases ended up with death. Human beings are generally infected with C. jejuni mainly because of the poultry meat and products and rarely because of the red meat which are contaminated during preparation and serving stages. Inadequate cooking, consumption of poorly chlorinated drinking water or unpasteurized milk are other infection sources of C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis especially affect children under 5 years of age and reported to be a zoonotic illness that cause acute gastroenteritis in human. In many countries, food sourced C. jejuni infections were reported to occur more frequently than Salmonella spp. infections. In order to avoid Campylobacter infections, it is very important to enforce food security programmes and HACCP like systems during growth, slaughterhouses and point of sales stages. Also adequate cooking of the products, hygiene of the kitchen and personnel are important. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 157-166

  11. Predicting changes in reported notifiable disease rates for New Zealand using a SIR modelling approach

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    McBride, Graham; Slaney, David; Tait, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The New Zealand health system has defined as 'notifiable' over 50 diseases. Of these campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported comprising 41% of all notifications in 2011 (presently about 150 illness cases per 100,000 population per annum). Furthermore, the incidence of this mild illness, which is potentially waterborne, is under-reported by at least an order-of-magnitude. Increased downstream pathogen loads and/or disease incidence have been found to be associated with increased rainfall, particularly in agricultural landscapes. Therefore, given the predominance of agricultural land uses in New Zealand, transmission and exposure to its agent (thermotolerant Campylobacter bacteria) may be affected by changing rainfall and temperature patterns associated with climate change. Reporting rates for other potentially water-borne zoonoses are also noticeable (for example, the reported rate for cryptosporidiosis for 2011 was 14 per 100,000 population). The distribution of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the environment may be influenced by climate change because it has often been implicated in drinking-water contamination, and heavy rainfall events have been found to be associated with increased pathogen loads in rivers and disease incidence. Given this background, which may also be applicable to other countries with agriculturally-dominated landscapes, a New Zealand study was initiated to develop a decision-support system for the projected effects of climate change on a selected suite of environmentally-transmitted pathogens, including Campylobacter and Cryptosporodium oocysts. Herein we report on the manner in which a linear SIR (Susceptible-Ill-Recovered) model previously developed for campylobacteriosis can be extended to cryptosporidiosis, applied to changes in pathogen contact rate and hence reported illness, and coupled to climate change projections associated with different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The resulting SIR model outputs provided projected

  12. Integration of Epidemiological Evidence in a Decision Support Model for the Control of Campylobacter in Poultry Production

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    Håkan Vigre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of human Campylobacteriosis is a priority in public health agendas all over the world. Poultry is considered a significant risk factor for human infections with Campylobacter and risk assessment models indicate that the successful implementation of Campylobacter control strategies in poultry will translate on a reduction of human Campylobacteriosis cases. Efficient control strategies implemented during primary production will reduce the risk of Campylobacter introduction in chicken houses and/or decrease Campylobacter concentration in infected chickens and their products. Consequently, poultry producers need to make difficult decisions under conditions of uncertainty regarding the implementation of Campylobacter control strategies. This manuscript presents the development of probabilistic graphical models to support decision making in order to control Campylobacter in poultry. The decision support systems are constructed as probabilistic graphical models (PGMs which integrate knowledge and use Bayesian methods to deal with uncertainty. This paper presents a specific model designed to integrate epidemiological knowledge from the United Kingdom (UK model in order to assist poultry managers in specific decisions related to vaccination of commercial broilers for the control of Campylobacter. Epidemiological considerations and other crucial aspects including challenges associated with the quantitative part of the models are discussed in this manuscript. The outcome of the PGMs will depend on the qualitative and quantitative data included in the models. Results from the UK model and sensitivity analyses indicated that the financial variables (cost/reward functions and the effectiveness of the control strategies considered in the UK model were driving the results. In fact, there were no or only small financial gains when using a hypothetical vaccine B (able to decrease Campylobacter numbers from two to six logs in 20% of the chickens with a

  13. Chicken Caecal Microbiome Modifications Induced by Campylobacter jejuni Colonization and by a Non-Antibiotic Feed Additive.

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    Alexandre Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic foodborne pathogen causing acute gastroenteritis in humans. Chickens are often colonized at very high numbers by C. jejuni, up to 10(9 CFU per gram of caecal content, with no detrimental effects on their health. Farm control strategies are being developed to lower the C. jejuni contamination of chicken food products in an effort to reduce human campylobacteriosis incidence. It is believed that intestinal microbiome composition may affect gut colonization by such undesirable bacteria but, although the chicken microbiome is being increasingly characterized, information is lacking on the factors affecting its modulation, especially by foodborne pathogens. This study monitored the effects of C. jejuni chicken caecal colonization on the chicken microbiome in healthy chickens. It also evaluated the capacity of a feed additive to affect caecal bacterial populations and to lower C. jejuni colonization. From day-0, chickens received or not a microencapsulated feed additive and were inoculated or not with C. jejuni at 14 days of age. Fresh caecal content was harvested at 35 days of age. The caecal microbiome was characterized by real time quantitative PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing. We observed that the feed additive lowered C. jejuni caecal count by 0.7 log (p<0.05. Alpha-diversity of the caecal microbiome was not affected by C. jejuni colonization or by the feed additive. C. jejuni colonization modified the caecal beta-diversity while the feed additive did not. We observed that C. jejuni colonization was associated with an increase of Bifidobacterium and affected Clostridia and Mollicutes relative abundances. The feed additive was associated with a lower Streptococcus relative abundance. The caecal microbiome remained relatively unchanged despite high C. jejuni colonization. The feed additive was efficient in lowering C. jejuni colonization while not disturbing the caecal microbiome.

  14. Consumer-reported handling of raw poultry products at home: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter cause an estimated combined total of 1.8 million foodborne infections each year in the United States. Most cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are associated with eating raw or undercooked poultry or with cross-contamination. Between 1998 and 2008, 20% of Salmonella and 16% of Campylobacter foodborne disease outbreaks were associated with food prepared inside the home. A nationally representative Web survey of U.S. adult grocery shoppers (n = 1,504) was conducted to estimate the percentage of consumers who follow recommended food safety practices when handling raw poultry at home. The survey results identified areas of low adherence to current recommended food safety practices: not washing raw poultry before cooking, proper refrigerator storage of raw poultry, use of a food thermometer to determine doneness, and proper thawing of raw poultry in cold water. Nearly 70% of consumers reported washing or rinsing raw poultry before cooking it, a potentially unsafe practice because "splashing" of contaminated water may lead to the transfer of pathogens to other foods and other kitchen surfaces. Only 17.5% of consumers reported correctly storing raw poultry in the refrigerator. Sixty-two percent of consumers own a food thermometer, and of these, 26% or fewer reported using one to check the internal temperature of smaller cuts of poultry and ground poultry. Only 11% of consumers who thaw raw poultry in cold water reported doing so correctly. The study results, coupled with other research findings, will inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  15. House-level risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 - 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Michele T; Martin, Wayne; Reiersen, Jarle; Berke, Olaf; McEwen, Scott A; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Lowman, Ruff

    2007-11-12

    The concurrent rise in consumption of fresh chicken meat and human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's in Iceland led to a longitudinal study of the poultry industry to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Because horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be the most likely source of Campylobacter to broilers, we aimed to identify broiler house characteristics and management practices associated with flock colonization. Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Logistic regression models with a farm random effect were used to analyse the association between flock Campylobacter status and house-level risk factors. A two-stage process was carried out. Variables were initially screened within major subsets: ventilation; roof and floor drainage; building quality, materials and repair; house structure; pest proofing; biosecurity; sanitation; and house size. Variables with p potential for vectors such as flies to gain access to the house, or, increased difficulty in accessing the vents for proper cleaning and disinfection. For newly constructed houses, horizontal ventilation systems could be considered. Boot dipping procedures should be examined on farms experiencing a high prevalence of Campylobacter. Although it remains unclear how geothermal water increases risk, further research is warranted to determine if it is a surrogate for environmental pressures or the microclimate of the farm and surrounding region.

  16. The Campylobacter jejuni CiaC virulence protein is secreted from the flagellum and delivered to the cytosol of host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eNeal-McKinney

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Acute C. jejuni-mediated disease (campylobacteriosis involves C. jejuni invasion of host epithelial cells using a set of virulence proteins known as the Campylobacter invasion antigens (Cia. The genes encoding the Cia proteins are up-regulated upon co-culture of C. jejuni with epithelial cells. One of the Cia proteins, CiaC, is required for maximal invasion of host cells by C. jejuni. Previous work has also revealed that CiaC is, in part, responsible for host cell cytoskeletal rearrangements that result in membrane ruffling. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that CiaC is delivered to the cytosol of host cells. To detect the delivery of CiaC into cultured epithelial cells, we used the adenylate cyclase domain (ACD of Bordetella pertussis CyaA as a reporter. In this study, we found that export and delivery of the C. jejuni Cia proteins into human INT 407 epithelial cells required a functional flagellar hook complex composed of FlgE, FlgK, and FlgL. Assays performed with bacterial culture supernatants supported the hypothesis that CiaC delivery requires bacteria-host cell contact. We also found that that CiaC was delivered to host cells by cell-associated (bound bacteria, as judged by experiments performed with inhibitors that specifically target the cell signaling pathways utilized by C. jejuni for cell invasion. Interestingly, the C. jejuni flgL mutant, which is incapable of exporting and delivering the Cia proteins, did not induce INT 407 cell membrane ruffles. Complementation of the flgL mutant with plasmid-encoded flgL restored the motility and membrane ruffling. These data support the hypothesis that the C. jejuni Cia proteins, which are exported from the flagellum, are delivered to the cytosol of host cells.

  17. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni DNA gyrase as the target of quinolones.

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    Changkwanyeun, Ruchirada; Usui, Masaru; Kongsoi, Siriporn; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Kim, Hyun; Suthienkul, Orasa; Changkaew, Kanjana; Nakajima, Chie; Tamura, Yutaka; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Quinolones have long been used as the first-line treatment for Campylobacter infections. However, an increased resistance to quinolones has raised public health concerns. The development of new quinolone-based antibiotics with high activity is critical for effective, as DNA gyrase, the target of quinolones, is an essential enzyme for bacterial growth in several mechanisms. The evaluation of antibiotic activity against Campylobacter jejuni largely relies on drug susceptibility tests, which require at least 2 days to produce results. Thus, an in vitro method for studying the activity of quinolones against the C. jejuni DNA gyrase is preferred. To identify potent quinolones, we investigated the interaction of C. jejuni DNA gyrase with a number of quinolones using recombinant subunits. The combination of purified subunits exhibited DNA supercoiling activity in an ATP dependent manner. Drug concentrations that inhibit DNA supercoiling by 50% (IC50s) of 10 different quinolones were estimated to range from 0.4 (sitafloxacin) to >100 μg/mL (nalidixic acid). Sitafloxacin showed the highest inhibitory activity, and the analysis of the quinolone structure-activity relationship demonstrated that a fluorine atom at R-6 might play the important role in the inhibitory activity against C. jejuni gyrase. Measured quinolone IC50s correlated well with minimum inhibitory concentrations (R = 0.9943). These suggest that the in vitro supercoiling inhibition assay on purified recombinant C. jejuni DNA gyrase is a useful and predictive technique to monitor the antibacterial potency of quinolones. And furthermore, these data suggested that sitafloxacin might be a good candidate for clinical trials on campylobacteriosis. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Campylobacter jejuni strains coresistant to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in patients with gastroenteritis in Croatia.

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    Carev, Merica; Kovačić, Ana; Novak, Anita; Tonkić, Marija; Jerončić, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains are rapidly emerging worldwide. Here, we aimed to determine the antibiotic-resistance patterns and genetic structure of C. jejuni from stool samples of symptomatic patients in Dalmatia, the largest Croatian county. In a population-based laboratory surveillance programme for campylobacteriosis in Dalmatia from May 2012 to May 2013, C. jejuni (n = 76) were collected from stool samples of all the patients hospitalized with gastroenteritis and matched positive outpatients (n = 77). Antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping of isolates were performed. Approximately 60% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, whereas 24% of isolates were resistant to tetracycline; of the latter, 89% were also coresistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin was infrequent (≤ 0.7%). Antibiotic-resistant strains were generally not associated with the need for hospitalization. However, the prevalence of coresistant strains increased sharply after 2010, and these coresistant strains were more prevalent in infections caused by clonal PFGE types, with distinct patterns of temporal occurrence and age distribution in infected patients. A high prevalence of coresistant TcR/CipR C. jejuni strains were detected in patients in Croatia. Strains were significantly associated with several clonal-type PFGE genotypes, shared common patterns of temporal occurrence, and showed distinct age distribution in infected patients, suggestive of newly identified strains. Since a high prevalence of coresistant TcR/CipR strains was also observed in other countries, further in-depth studies are essential to evaluate whether this phenomenon is linked to C. jejuni epidemiology in food animals and agricultural ecosystems.

  19. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

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    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interleukin-18 Mediates Immune Responses to Campylobacter jejuni Infection in Gnotobiotic Mice.

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    Bereswill, Stefan; Alutis, Marie E; Grundmann, Ursula; Fischer, André; Göbel, Ulf B; Heimesaat, Markus M

    2016-01-01

    Human Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively rising worldwide. Information about the molecular mechanisms underlying campylobacteriosis, however, are limited. In the present study we investigated whether cytokines such as IL-23, IL-22 and IL-18, which share pivotal functions in host immunity, were involved in mediating intestinal and systemic immunopathological responses upon C. jejuni infection. To assure stable infection, gnotobiotic (i.e. secondary abiotic) IL-23p19-/-, IL-22-/- and IL-18-/- mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Following peroral C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection, mice of all genotypes harbored comparably high pathogenic loads in their intestines. As compared to wildtype controls, however, IL-18-/- mice displayed less distinct C. jejuni induced sequelae as indicated by less pronounced large intestinal shrinkage and lower numbers of apoptotic cells in the colonic epithelial layer at day 8 postinfection (p.i.). Furthermore, lower colonic numbers of adaptive immune cells including regulatory T cells and B lymphocytes were accompanied by less distinct secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IFN-γ and lower IL-17A mRNA expression levels in colonic ex vivo biopsies of infected IL-18-/- as compared to wildtype mice. Upon C. jejuni infection, colonic IL-23p19 expression was up-regulated in IL-18-/- mice only, whereas IL-22 mRNA levels were lower in uninfected and infected IL-23p19-/- as well as infected IL-18-/- as compared to respective wildtype control mice. Remarkably, not only intestinal, but also systemic infection-induced immune responses were less pronounced in IL-18-/- mice as indicated by lower TNF, IFN-γ and IL-6 serum levels as compared to wildtype mice. We here show for the first time that IL-18 is essentially involved in mediating C. jejuni infection in the gnotobiotic mouse model. Future studies need to further unravel the underlying regulatory mechanisms orchestrating pathogen

  1. Superoxide dismutase SodB is a protective antigen against Campylobacter jejuni colonisation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintoan-Uta, Cosmin; Cassady-Cain, Robin L; Al-Haideri, Halah; Watson, Eleanor; Kelly, David J; Smith, David G E; Sparks, Nick H C; Kaiser, Pete; Stevens, Mark P

    2015-11-17

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in the developed world and consumption or handling of contaminated poultry meat is the principal source of infection. Strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers prior to slaughter are urgently required and are predicted to limit the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. Towards this aim, a purified recombinant subunit vaccine based on the superoxide dismutase (SodB) protein of C. jejuni M1 was developed and tested in White Leghorn birds. Birds were vaccinated on the day of hatch and 14 days later with SodB fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) or purified GST alone. Birds were challenged with C. jejuni M1 at 28 days of age and caecal Campylobacter counts determined at weekly intervals. Across three independent trials, the vaccine induced a statistically significant 1 log10 reduction in caecal Campylobacter numbers in vaccinated birds compared to age-matched GST-vaccinated controls. Significant induction of antigen-specific serum IgY was detected in all vaccinated birds, however the magnitude and timing of SodB-specific IgY did not correlate with lower numbers of C. jejuni. Antibodies from SodB-vaccinated chickens detected the protein in the periplasm and not membrane fractions or on the bacterial surface, suggesting that the protection observed may not be strictly antibody-mediated. SodB may be useful as a constituent of vaccines for control of C. jejuni infection in broiler birds, however modest protection was observed late relative to the life of broiler birds and further studies are required to potentiate the magnitude and timing of protection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of mutations in DNA gyrase genes on quinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changkwanyeun, Ruchirada; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kongsoi, Siriporn; Changkaew, Kanjana; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Kim, Hyun; Suthienkul, Orasa; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Amino acid substitutions providing quinolone resistance to Campyloabcter jejuni have been found in the quinolone resistance-determining region of protein DNA gyrase subunit A (GyrA), with the highest frequency at position 86 followed by position 90. In this study, wild-type and mutant recombinant DNA gyrase subunits were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-NTA agarose column chromatography. Soluble 97 kDa GyrA and 87 kDa DNA gyrase subunit B were shown to reconstitute ATP-dependent DNA supercoiling activity. A quinolone-inhibited supercoiling assay demonstrated the roles of Thr86Ile, Thr86Ala, Thr86Lys, Asp90Asn, and Asp90Tyr amino acid substitutions in reducing sensitivity to quinolones. The marked effect of Thr86Ile on all examined quinolones suggested the advantage of this substitution in concordance with recurring isolation of quinolone-resistant C. jejuni. An analysis of the structure-activity relationship showed the importance of the substituent at position 8 in quinolones to overcome the effect of Thr86Ile. Sitafloxacin (SIT), which has a fluorinate cyclopropyl ring at R-1 and a chloride substituent at R-8, a characteristic not found in other quinolones, showed the highest inhibitory activity against all mutant C. jejuni gyrases including ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants. The results suggest SIT as a promising drug for the treatment of campylobacteriosis caused by CIP-resistant C. jejuni. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor for the Detection of Campylobacter jejuni

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    Noor Azlina Masdor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an internationally important foodborne disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni. The bacterium is prevalent in chicken meat and it is estimated that as much as 90% of chicken meat on the market may be contaminated with the bacterium. The current gold standard for the detection of C. jejuni is the culturing method, which takes at least 48 h to confirm the presence of the bacterium. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate the development of a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR sensor platform for C. jejuni detection. Bacterial strains were cultivated in-house and used in the development of the sensor. SPR sensor chips were first functionalized with polyclonal antibodies raised against C. jejuni using covalent attachment. The gold chips were then applied for the direct detection of C. jejuni. The assay conditions were then optimized and the sensor used for C. jejuni detection, achieving a detection limit of 8 × 106 CFU·mL−1. The sensitivity of the assay was further enhanced to 4 × 104 CFU·mL−1 through the deployment of a sandwich assay format using the same polyclonal antibody. The LOD obtained in the sandwich assay was higher than that achieved using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA (106–107 CFU·mL−1. This indicate that the SPR-based sandwich sensor method has an excellent potential to replace ELISA tests for C. jejuni detection. Specificity studies performed with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, demonstrated the high specific of the sensor for C. jejuni.

  4. The Campylobacter jejuni CiaD effector protein activates MAP kinase signaling pathways and is required for the development of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Derrick R; Eucker, Tyson P; Bell, Julia A; Dybas, Leslie; Mansfield, Linda S; Konkel, Michael E

    2013-10-21

    Enteric pathogens utilize a distinct set of proteins to modulate host cell signaling events that promote host cell invasion, induction of the inflammatory response, and intracellular survival. Human infection with Campylobacter jejuni, the causative agent of campylobacteriosis, is characterized by diarrhea containing blood and leukocytes. The clinical presentation of acute disease, which is consistent with cellular invasion, requires the delivery of the Campylobacter invasion antigens (Cia) to the cytosol of host cells via a flagellar Type III Secretion System (T3SS). We identified a novel T3SS effector protein, which we termed CiaD that is exported from the C. jejuni flagellum and delivered to the cytosol of host cells. We show that the host cell kinases p38 and Erk 1/2 are activated by CiaD, resulting in the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from host cells. Additional experiments revealed that CiaD-mediated activation of p38 and Erk 1/2 are required for maximal invasion of host cells by C. jejuni. CiaD contributes to disease, as evidenced by infection of IL-10 knockout mice. Noteworthy is that CiaD contains a Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-docking site that is found within effector proteins produced by other enteric pathogens. These findings indicate that C. jejuni activates the MAP kinase signaling pathways Erk 1/2 and p38 to promote cellular invasion and the release of the IL-8 pro-inflammatory chemokine. The identification of a novel T3SS effector protein from C. jejuni significantly expands the knowledge of virulence proteins associated with C. jejuni pathogenesis and provides greater insight into the mechanism utilized by C. jejuni to invade host cells.

  5. Comparative Variation within the Genome of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 in Human and Murine Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, L. Brent; Taboada, Eduardo N.; Uwiera, Richard R. E.; Abbott, D. Wade; Inglis, G. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis incited by C. jejuni is a significant enteric disease of human beings. A person working with two reference strains of C. jejuni National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC) 11168 developed symptoms of severe enteritis including bloody diarrhea. The worker was determined to be infected by C. jejuni. In excess of 50 isolates were recovered from the worker’s stool. All of the recovered isolates and the two reference strains were indistinguishable from each other based on comparative genomic fingerprint subtyping. Whole genome sequence analysis indicated that the worker was infected with a C. jejuni NCTC 11168 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection; this strain (NCTC 11168-GSv) is the genome sequence reference. After passage through the human host, major genetic changes including indel mutations within twelve contingency loci conferring phase variations were detected in the genome of C. jejuni. Specific and robust single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) changes in the human host were also observed in two loci (Cj0144c, Cj1564). In mice inoculated with an isolate of C. jejuni NCTC 11168-GSv from the infected person, the isolate underwent further genetic variation. At nine loci, mutations specific to inoculated mice including five SNP changes were observed. The two predominant SNPs observed in the human host reverted in mice. Genetic variations occurring in the genome of C. jejuni in mice corresponded to increased densities of C. jejuni cells associated with cecal mucosa. In conclusion, C. jejuni NCTC 11168-GSv was found to be highly virulent in a human being inciting severe enteritis. Host-specific mutations in the person with enteritis occurred/were selected for in the genome of C. jejuni, and many were not maintained in mice. Information obtained in the current study provides new information on host-specific genetic adaptation by C. jejuni. PMID:24516617

  6. Comparative variation within the genome of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 in human and murine hosts.

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    Dallas K Thomas

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis incited by C. jejuni is a significant enteric disease of human beings. A person working with two reference strains of C. jejuni National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC 11168 developed symptoms of severe enteritis including bloody diarrhea. The worker was determined to be infected by C. jejuni. In excess of 50 isolates were recovered from the worker's stool. All of the recovered isolates and the two reference strains were indistinguishable from each other based on comparative genomic fingerprint subtyping. Whole genome sequence analysis indicated that the worker was infected with a C. jejuni NCTC 11168 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection; this strain (NCTC 11168-GSv is the genome sequence reference. After passage through the human host, major genetic changes including indel mutations within twelve contingency loci conferring phase variations were detected in the genome of C. jejuni. Specific and robust single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP changes in the human host were also observed in two loci (Cj0144c, Cj1564. In mice inoculated with an isolate of C. jejuni NCTC 11168-GSv from the infected person, the isolate underwent further genetic variation. At nine loci, mutations specific to inoculated mice including five SNP changes were observed. The two predominant SNPs observed in the human host reverted in mice. Genetic variations occurring in the genome of C. jejuni in mice corresponded to increased densities of C. jejuni cells associated with cecal mucosa. In conclusion, C. jejuni NCTC 11168-GSv was found to be highly virulent in a human being inciting severe enteritis. Host-specific mutations in the person with enteritis occurred/were selected for in the genome of C. jejuni, and many were not maintained in mice. Information obtained in the current study provides new information on host-specific genetic adaptation by C. jejuni.

  7. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat Sold in İstanbul

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    Serkan Kemal BÜYÜKÜNAL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are some of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. They are mainly considered as foodborne pathogens that are found in raw or undercooked poultry and serve as an important source of sporadic campylobacteriosis. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat. A total of 176 samples of chicken meat were analyzed using PCM and BAX® system. The samples analyzed included: 56 samples of whole chicken, 27 samples of chicken breast, 33 samples of chicken thigh, 25 samples of chicken drumstick and 35 samples of chicken wings. Samples of all the fresh chicken meat sold in İstanbul were randomly purchased from different major supermarkets in their original, individual packages. Laboratory analyses to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were performed in accordance with the ISO 10272-1, 2006 standard (qualitative analysis. API® Campy (BioMerieux, Marcy-l’Etoile, France was used for the confirmation of presumptive colonies. Campylobacter isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests by the disc diffusion method as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Zones of growth inhibition were evaluated according to the NCCLS standards. Using PCM, the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and C. lari was determined as 15.34, 8.52 and 1.7%, respectively. However, using BAX® system, the prevalence was determined as 15.90, 18.75 and 1.7% for C. coli, C. jejuni and C. lari, respectively. C. coli was resistant to nalidixic acid (78.57%, ofloxacin (14.29% norfloxacin (10.71% and ampicillin (10.71%. But the highest resistance was observed to nalidixic acid (90.91% for C. jejuni and (100% for C. lari. In conclusion, considering the public health, chicken meat is a common source for Campylobacter strains and antibiotics should be used carefully in veterinary medicine.

  8. Prevalence and seasonality of campylobacter infections in the Primorsko - Goranska County (Croatia during 2007

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    Brigita Tićac

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the prevalence of campylobacter infections in the Primorsko-Goranska County(Croatia and find out possible connection between the prevalence and environmental factors (the averagemonthly temperature and rainfall.Methods The data (number of stool samples examined, age and sex of the patients, monthly distributionof isolates and distribution of isolates according to the species from the Laboratory for Diagnostics ofEnteric Infections of the Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-Goranska County for theyear 2007 were analysed retrospectively. Meteorological data were obtained from the Croatian Meteorologicaland Hydrological Service and demographical data from the Republic of Croatia - CentralBureau of Statistics.Results During that year 7,105 stool samples were examined for Campylobacter spp. Campylobacterswere found in 561 samples (7.89% but first isolates were identified in 310 cases and among themCampylobacter jejuni was found in 279 (90% and C. coli in 31 (10% cases. The patients were mostlychildren under four years of age (with the incidence of 669.21 cases/100,000 and young adults (20 - 29years what resulted in the incidence of 116.24 cases/100,000. The highest numbers of Campylobacterspp. isolates were seen in July and August but the isolations were still frequent in September and October,which was in a positive correlation with the average monthly temperature (p=0.028, but there wasno correlation with the rainfall (p=0.61.Conclusions Our findings show bimodal age distribution of patients typical for developed countries.Seasonal variation is also noticed but it is not completely consistent with climate factors. Further investigationsof the incidence of campylobacteriosis and connection with the routes of transmission inhumans as well as the causes of seasonality are necessary.

  9. Wild griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus as a source of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Eastern Spain.

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    Clara Marin

    Full Text Available The existence of Campylobacter and Salmonella reservoirs in wildlife is a potential hazard to animal and human health; however, the prevalence of these species is largely unknown. Until now, only a few studies have evaluated the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures and based on a small number of birds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures (n = 97 during the normal ringing programme at the Cinctorres Observatory in Eastern Spain. In addition, the effect of ages of individuals (juveniles, subadult and adult on the presence were compared. Campylobacter was isolated from 1 of 97 (1.0% griffon vultures and identified as C. jejuni. Salmonella was isolated from 51 of 97 (52.6% griffon vultures. No significant differences were found between the ages of individuals for the presence of Salmonella. Serotyping revealed 6 different serovars among two Salmonella enterica subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 49, 96.1% and S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2, 3.9%. No more than one serovar was isolated per individual. The serovars isolated were S. Typhimurium (n = 42, 82.3%, S. Rissen (n = 4, 7.8%, S. Senftenberg (n = 3, 5.9% and S. 4,12:b[-] (n = 2, 3.9%. Our results imply that wild griffon vultures are a risk factor for Salmonella transmission, but do not seem to be a reservoir for Campylobacter. We therefore rule out vultures as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. Nevertheless, further studies should be undertaken in other countries to confirm these results.

  10. Risk of infectious gastroenteritis in young children living in Québec rural areas with intensive animal farming: results of a case-control study (2004-2007).

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    Levallois, P; Chevalier, P; Gingras, S; Déry, P; Payment, P; Michel, P; Rodriguez, M

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology of severe gastroenteritis in children living in Québec rural areas with intensive livestock activities. From September 2005 through June 2007, 165 cases of gastroenteritis in children aged from 6 months to 5 years, hospitalized or notified to the public health department were enrolled, and 326 eligible controls participated. The parents of cases and controls were asked questions about different gastroenteritis risk factors. The quality of the drinking water used by the participants was investigated for microbial indicators as well as for four zoonotic bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Yersinia spp) and two enteric parasites (Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia spp). From 134 stool specimen analysed, viruses were detected in 82 cases (61%), while 28 (21%) were found with at least one of the bacteria investigated, and five cases were infected by parasites. Campylobacteriosis was the main bacterial infection (n = 15), followed by Salmonella sp (n = 7) and E. coli O157:H7 (n = 5) among cases with bacterial gastroenteritis. No significant difference was found between cases and controls regarding the quality of water consumed; the frequency of faecal contamination of private wells was also similar between cases and controls. Considering the total cases (including those with a virus), no link was found between severe gastroenteritis and either being in contact with animals or living in a municipality with the highest animal density (4th quartile). However, when considering only cases with a bacterial or parasite infection (n = 32), there was a weak association with pig density that was not statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Contact with domestic, zoo or farm animals were the only environmental factor associated with the disease. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. ISOLASI Campylobacter DARI KARKAS AYAM MENGGUNAKAN METODE KONVENSIONAL DAN POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTIONS [Isolation of Campylobacter from Poultry Carcasses using Conventional and Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods

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    Surachmi Setiyaningsih2

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are two spesies of Campylobacter sp. frequently found as pathogenic bacteria causing human gastrointestinal infections. Contaminated chicken carcasses have been reported as the source of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, Campylobacter were isolated from chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets and supermarkets. In traditional markets, chicken carcasses are sold without proper packaging or in an open space and stored at room temperature (25-30°C for prolonged period allowing pathogenic bacteria to grow. While at supermarkets, chicken carcasses are openly displayed or enclosed in plastic wrappings and stored in a refrigerator (4-8°C. A total of 298 samples of chicken carcasses from traditional markets and supermarkets in the area of DKI Jakarta, West Java (Bogor and Sukabumi and Central Java (Kudus and Demak were collected. Isolation and identification using conventional and Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR methods were done to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli contamination in poultry. The results showed that chicken carcasses sold in the sampling area, both traditional markets and supermarkets, were contaminated with C. jejuni and C. coli. The contamination rate of Campylobacter sp. in chicken carcasses sold in supermarkets, were 14.1% by conventional methods and 29.5% by PCR. This was higher than those in traditional markets, i.e. 5.7 and 12.1%, respectively. It is also confirmed that the prevalence for contamination of C. jejuni was higher than C. coli in 298 samples, i.e. 16.1% and 3.7% by conventional method and 23.5% and 18.1% by PCR method respectively.

  12. [Epidemiology of toxic and infectious risk related to shellfish consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desenclos, J C

    1996-10-01

    For feeding purposes shellfish filter large amounts of water but also concentrate infectious agents and toxins that are present in the marine environment either naturally or because of pollution. Thus, the consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish is a substantial source of foodborne poisoning, mostly epidemic and sometimes sporadic. Most of shellfish-borne infectious diseases are linked to fecal contamination of the marine environment; they include: thyphoid fever, salmonellosis, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, cholera, Norwalk or Norwalk-like gastroenteritis and hepatitis A. In warm climates, shellfish contains naturally occurring halopilic Vibrios and may cause severe sporadic infections (septicemias) among very susceptible consumers (immunocompromised). Shellfish also causes outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) when they are contaminated by toxins produced when Dinophisis, a marine plancton, proliferates. Chemical compounds (heavy metals and organic toxins) that are dumped in the environment (soil, air, and water) also reach shellfish harvesting waters where they are cocentrated. Although acute or chronic effects of the chemical contamination of shellfish have not been clearly documented, the cadmium pollution of some shellfish harvesting waters raises a serious problem. Since it is impossible to prevent completely the contamination of coastal waters by any of the agents cited above, the prevention of shellfish-borne diseases requires monitoring of the marine environment and shellfish flesh (coliform count, Dinophysis toxins, heavy metals...). This surveillance allows the classification of growing areas as suitable or not for harvesting and distribution of shellfish. However, this surveillance is not always sensitive enough. Indicators of fecal pollution are particularly not reliable for shellfish viral contamination. A better knowledge of marine biology, the limitation of coastal waters pollution, improved

  13. The Campylobacter jejuni CiaD effector protein activates MAP kinase signaling pathways and is required for the development of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Enteric pathogens utilize a distinct set of proteins to modulate host cell signaling events that promote host cell invasion, induction of the inflammatory response, and intracellular survival. Human infection with Campylobacter jejuni, the causative agent of campylobacteriosis, is characterized by diarrhea containing blood and leukocytes. The clinical presentation of acute disease, which is consistent with cellular invasion, requires the delivery of the Campylobacter invasion antigens (Cia) to the cytosol of host cells via a flagellar Type III Secretion System (T3SS). We identified a novel T3SS effector protein, which we termed CiaD that is exported from the C. jejuni flagellum and delivered to the cytosol of host cells. Results We show that the host cell kinases p38 and Erk 1/2 are activated by CiaD, resulting in the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from host cells. Additional experiments revealed that CiaD-mediated activation of p38 and Erk 1/2 are required for maximal invasion of host cells by C. jejuni. CiaD contributes to disease, as evidenced by infection of IL-10 knockout mice. Noteworthy is that CiaD contains a Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-docking site that is found within effector proteins produced by other enteric pathogens. These findings indicate that C. jejuni activates the MAP kinase signaling pathways Erk 1/2 and p38 to promote cellular invasion and the release of the IL-8 pro-inflammatory chemokine. Conclusions The identification of a novel T3SS effector protein from C. jejuni significantly expands the knowledge of virulence proteins associated with C. jejuni pathogenesis and provides greater insight into the mechanism utilized by C. jejuni to invade host cells. PMID:24144181

  14. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

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    Hänninen Marja-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456 were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143 were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of

  15. A novel real-time PCR assay for quantitative detection of Campylobacter fetus based on ribosomal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Betancor, Laura; Marandino, Ana; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra; Paolicchi, Fernando; Piccirillo, Alessandra; Tomás, Gonzalo; Velilla, Alejandra; Calleros, Lucía

    2016-12-15

    Campylobacter fetus is a pathogen of major concern for animal and human health. The species shows a great intraspecific variation, with three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. fetus subsp. venerealis, and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Campylobacter fetus fetus affects a broad range of hosts and induces abortion in sheep and cows. Campylobacter fetus venerealis is restricted to cattle and causes the endemic disease bovine genital campylobacteriosis, which triggers reproductive problems and is responsible for major economic losses. Campylobacter fetus testudinum has been proposed recently based on genetically divergent strains isolated from reptiles and humans. Both C. fetus fetus and C. fetus testudinum are opportunistic pathogens for immune-compromised humans. Biochemical tests remain as the gold standard for identifying C. fetus but the fastidious growing requirements and the lack of reliability and reproducibility of some biochemical tests motivated the development of molecular diagnostic tools. These methods have been successfully tested on bovine isolates but fail to detect some genetically divergent strains isolated from other hosts. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly specific molecular assay to identify and quantify C. fetus strains. We developed a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay that targets a unique region of the 16S rRNA gene. This assay successfully detected all C. fetus strains, including those that were negative for the cstA gene-based assay used as a standard for molecular C. fetus identification. The assay showed high specificity and absence of cross-reactivity with other bacterial species. The analytical testing of the assay was determined using a standard curve. The assay demonstrated a wide dynamic range between 10 2 and 107 genome copies per reaction, and a good reproducibility with small intra- and inter-assay variability. The possibility to characterize samples in a rapid, sensitive and reproducible way makes this assay

  16. Efficacy of a typing scheme for Campylobacter based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cárdenas, Inés; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; de la Cruz, María-Luisa; Domínguez, Lucas; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Gómez-Barrero, Susana

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates an improved scheme for Campylobacter genotyping based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) elements. A total of 180 Campylobacter strains (Campylobacter jejuni n=93 and Campylobacter coli n=87), isolated from neck skin and caecal content of broilers, poultry meat and sewage water were analysed. Another 97 C. jejuni DNA samples from cases of human campylobacteriosis were assessed. Sixty-three genotypes were found in C. jejuni considering only true CRISPR, and 16 additional genotypes were identified when questionable CRISPR were also taken into account. Likewise in C. coli the number of genotypes increased from eight for only true CRISPR to 14 after including questionable CRISPR elements. The number of typeable C. jejuni and C. coli isolates was 115 (60.5%) and 17 (19.5%) respectively considering only true CRISPR. These percentages increased to 92.7% (n=176) and 39.1% (n=34) respectively when both true and questionable CRISPR were considered. 60.9% of the C. coli isolates were non-typeable by CRISPR due to the lack of any PCR amplifiable CRISPR loci, which raises questions about CRISPR analysis as an appropriate method for C. coli typing. However the assessment of true and questionable CRISPR has proved to be fairly useful for typing C. jejuni due to its high discriminatory power (Simpson's index=0.960) and typeability (92.7%) values. The results of the present work show that our genotyping method based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR elements may be used as a suitable complementary tool to existing C. jejuni genotyping methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia by Conventional Culture Method and Multiplex Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Mariam, Siala; Smaoui, Salma; Ghorbel, Asma; Hachicha, Salma; Benejat, Lucie; Messadi-Akrout, Feriel; Mégraud, Francis; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. The consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex PCR assay. Two hundred fifty fresh poultry samples were collected from a variety of supermarkets and slaughterhouses located in Sfax, Tunisia, including chicken (n =149) and turkey (n =101). The samples were analyzed using conventional microbiological examinations according to the 2006 International Organization for Standardization method (ISO 10272-1) for Campylobacter spp. Concurrently, a real-time PCR was used for identification of C. jejuni and C. coli . Of the 250 samples of poultry meat and poultry by-products, 25.6% (n = 64) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (26.8%) followed by turkey meat (23.7%). Among the different products, poultry breasts showed the highest contamination (36.6%) followed by poultry by-products (30%), poultry wings (28%) and poultry legs (26%) showed the lowest contamination, and no contamination was found on neck skin. Of the 64 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni (59.7%) was the most frequently isolated species and 10.9% of the isolates were identified as C. coli . All of the 64 Campylobacter isolates identified by the conventional culture methods were further confirmed by PCR. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter spp. contamination was in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The study concluded that high proportions of poultry meat and poultry by-products marketed in Tunisia are contaminated by Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, poultry meats must be properly cooked

  18. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives for Targeted Research and Policy Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborg, P; Broens, E M; Chomel, B B; Guenther, S; Pasmans, F; Wagenaar, J A; Weese, J S; Wieler, L H; Windahl, U; Vanrompay, D; Guardabassi, L

    2016-07-01

    The close contact between household pets and people offers favourable conditions for bacterial transmission. In this article, the aetiology, prevalence, transmission, impact on human health and preventative measures are summarized for selected bacterial zoonoses transmissible by household pets. Six zoonoses representing distinct transmission routes were selected arbitrarily based on the available information on incidence and severity of pet-associated disease caused by zoonotic bacteria: bite infections and cat scratch disease (physical injuries), psittacosis (inhalation), leptospirosis (contact with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal-oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population and on the incidence of human infections attributable to pets. In order to address these gaps in knowledge, and to minimize the risk of human infection, actions at several levels are recommended, including: (1) coordinated surveillance of zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in household pets, (2) studies to estimate the burden of human disease attributable to pets and to identify risk behaviours facilitating transmission, and (3) education of those in charge of pets, animal caretakers, veterinarians and human medical healthcare practitioners on the potential zoonotic risks associated with exposure to pets. Disease-specific recommendations include incentives to undertake research aimed at the development of new diagnostic tests, veterinary-specific antimicrobial products and vaccines, as well as initiatives to promote best practices in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and prudent antimicrobial usage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. "New" food-borne pathogens of public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, E T; Marth, E H

    1989-07-01

    Recent work by epidemiologists and microbiologists has uncovered several hitherto unrecognized food-borne bacterial pathogens of public health significance. One of these, Listeria monocytogenes, has attracted considerable attention because of two major cheese-related outbreaks of listeriosis that were characterized by cases of meningitis, abortion, and perinatal septicemia. Thus far, L. monocytogenes has been responsible for well over 300 reported cases of food-borne listeriosis, including about 100 deaths, and has cost the dairy industry alone more than 66 million dollars as a result of product recalls. The ability of L. monocytogenes to grow at refrigeration temperatures, coupled with appearance of the pathogen in raw and processed meats, as well as poultry, vegetables, and seafood, makes this bacterium a serious threat to susceptible consumers and to the entire food industry. Yersinia enterocolitica, another psychrotrophic food-borne pathogen of recent concern, was linked to several outbreaks of yersiniosis associated with consumption of both raw and pasteurized milk, as well as contaminated water. Food-borne infections involving Y. enterocolitica typically result in enterocolitis, which may be mistaken for acute appendicitis. Unfortunately, inadvertent removal of healthy appendixes from victims of food-borne yersiniosis is all too common. Although known for many years, Campylobacter jejuni has only recently been recognized as a food-borne pathogen and a leading cause of gastroenteritis in the United States. Notable outbreaks of campylobacteriosis linked to consumption of raw milk, cake icing, eggs, poultry, and beef have underscored the need for thorough cooking and proper handling of raw products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. An investigation into the causes of low calving percentage in communally grazed cattle in Jericho, North West Province

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    E. Mokantla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The communal grazing system is generally understood to have a low input, low output type of management. However, the actual inputs and outputs of the farmers are not well known and the farmers are often unaware of their problems. Although the causes of low calving percentage are well understood in commercial beef farming enterprises in South Africa, the same is not true for communal farming systems. The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive performance of beef cattle on a communal farming system in Jericho, NorthWest Province. Ten farmers from five villages with a total of 265 cows and 13 bulls were purposively selected. The selection criteria were that each farmer had to have a minimum of 10 breeding cows and a bull and be willing to participate in the study. This was followed by a 12-month longitudinal study with monthly herd visits where cows were examined rectally and bulls (n = 13 were subjected to a single breeding soundness evaluation. The calving percentage was found to be 37.7 %. This is lower than the recorded percentages for commercial beef cattle on extensive grazing. The factors playing a role in low calving percentage were ranked using field data. From this it appeared that failure of cows to become pregnant was the main cause of poor calving percentage as opposed of loss of calves through abortion or resorption. Sub-fertility of the bulls was found to be of great significance and it is proposed that this be included in extension messages and that bulls be fertility tested routinely. Poor body condition score of cows, mainly caused by poor management, was also considered to play a major role in reducing pregnancy rates. Infectious diseases like trichomonosis, campylobacteriosis and brucellosis played a much leser role than anticipated.

  2. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010-2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Emily; White, Richard; Mexia, Ricardo; Bruun, Tone; Kapperud, Georg; Lange, Heidi; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved. A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively). Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96), drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78), eating chicken (1.69), eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77), eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55), living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74), having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39), and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92). Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to protect and maintain the quality of water

  3. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth.

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    Christina S Vegge

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni.

  4. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010-2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily MacDonald

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved.A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS. Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated.A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively. Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96, drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78, eating chicken (1.69, eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77, eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55, living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74, having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39, and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92.Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to protect and maintain the quality of

  5. Effect of Feed Additives on Productivity and Campylobacter spp. Loads in Broilers Reared under Free Range Conditions

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    Muriel Guyard-Nicodème

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The poultry reservoir, especially broiler meat, is generally recognized as one of the most-important sources for human Campylobacteriosis. The measures to control Campylobacter targeted essentially the primary production level. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments against natural Campylobacter colonization in a French experimental farm of free-range broilers during the whole rearing period. Five commercial products and a combination of two of them were tested and all the products were added to feed or to water at the dose recommended by the suppliers. Campylobacter loads in caeca and on carcasses of broilers at the slaughter were determined by culture methods. Natural contamination of the flock occurred at the end of the indoor rearing period between day 35 and day 42. At day 42, the multispecies probiotic added to the feed reduced the contamination of 0.55 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 but was not significant (p > 0.05 at the end of rearing at day 78. However, another treatment, a combination of a cation exchange clay-based product in feed and an organic acid mixture (formic acid, sodium formate, lactic acid, propionic acid in water, led to a slight but significant reduction of 0.82 ± 0.25 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 compared to the control group at day 78. Testing this combination in field conditions in several flocks is needed to determine if it is biologically relevant and if it could be a valuable measure to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks.

  6. Genotyping of Campylobacter coli strains isolated in Brazil suggests possible contamination amongst environmental, human, animal and food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carolina N; Souza, Roberto A; Passaglia, Jaqueline; Duque, Sheila S; Medeiros, Marta I C; Falcão, Juliana P

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are two of the most common causative agents of food-borne gastroenteritis in numerous countries worldwide. In Brazil, campylobacteriosis is under diagnosed and under-reported, and few studies have molecularly characterized Campylobacter spp. in this country. The current study genotyped 63 C. coli strains isolated from humans (n512), animals (n521), food (n510) and the environment (n520) between 1995 and 2011 in Brazil. The strains were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing the short variable region (SVR) of the flaA gene ( flaA-SVR) and high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus to better understand C. coli genotypic diversity and compare the suitability of these three methods for genotyping this species. Additionally, the discrimination index (DI) of each of these methods was assessed. Some C. coli strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical origins presented ≥80 % genotypic similarity by PFGE and flaA-SVR sequencing. HRMA of the CRISPR locus revealed only four different melting profiles. In total, 22 different flaA-SVR alleles were detected. Of these, seven alleles, comprising gt1647–gt1653, were classified as novel. The most frequent genotypes were gt30 and gt1647. This distribution reveals the diversity of selected Brazilian isolates in comparison with the alleles described in the PubMLST database. The DIs for PFGE, flaA–SVR sequencing and CRISPR-HRMA were 0.986, 0.916 and 0.550, respectively. PFGE and flaA-SVR sequencing were suitable for subtyping C. coli strains, in contrast to CRISPR-HRMA. The high genomic similarity amongst some C. coli strains confirms the hypothesis that environmental and food sources potentially lead to human and animal contamination in Brazil.

  7. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in raw poultry meat, environmental and pigeon stools collected in open-air markets

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    Alberto Bellio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis for confirmed human cases in European Union during 2011. Poultry meat was very often implicated in Campylobacter infections in humans. In Italy commerce of raw poultry meat is common in open-air markets: these areas can be considered at high risk of bacterial contamination due to the high presence birds like pigeons. The aim of this study was to collect data about the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter of raw poultry meat commercialised in open-air markets, of work-surfaces in contact with poultry meat and of pigeon stools sampled in the market areas in Turin, Northern Italy. Between September 2011 and December 2012, 86 raw poultry meat samples, 86 environmental swabs and 108 animal samples were collected in 38 open-air markets. Analysis were carried out according to ISO10272-1:2006 standard. C.coli was detected in 2.3% (2/86 of raw poultry meat samples, whereas no swab (0/86 resulted positive. Of pigeon stool 28% (30/107 was positive for C.jejuni (83.3% C.jejuni subsp. jejuni and 16.7% C.jejuni subsp. doylei. C.jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from 1 dead pigeon. Our results showed lower rates of contamination than those reported at retail in Europe. Although samples were collected in areas at high risk of contamination, raw poultry meat and work surfaces reported a low level of presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter. The high percentage of C.jejuni isolated from pigeon stools showed the importance of a continuous application of preventive measures by the food business operators and the surveillance activity by the Competent Authority.

  8. Is allicin able to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers when added to drinking water?

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    Robyn, J; Rasschaert, G; Hermans, D; Pasmans, F; Heyndrickx, M

    2013-05-01

    Reducing Campylobacter shedding on the farm could result in a reduction of the number of human campylobacteriosis cases. In this study, we first investigated if allicin, allyl disulfide, and garlic oil extract were able to either prevent C. jejuni growth or kill C. jejuni in vitro. Allyl disulfide and garlic oil extract reduced C. jejuni numbers in vitro below a detectable level at a concentration of 50 mg/kg (no lower concentrations were tested), whereas allicin reduced C. jejuni numbers below a detectable level at a concentration as low as 7.5 mg/kg. In further experiments we screened for the anti-C. jejuni activity of allicin in a fermentation system closely mimicking the broiler cecal environment using cecal microbiota and mucus isolated from C. jejuni-free broilers. During these fermentation experiments, allicin reduced C. jejuni numbers below a detectable level after 24 h at a concentration of 50 mg/kg. In contrast, 25 mg/kg of allicin killed C. jejuni in the first 28 h of incubation, but anti-C. jejuni activity was lost after 48 h of incubation, probably due to the presence of mucin in the growth medium. This had been confirmed in fermentation experiments in the presence of broiler cecal mucus. Based on these results, we performed an in vivo experiment to assess the prevention or reduction of cecal C. jejuni colonization in broiler chickens when allicin was added to drinking water. We demonstrated that allicin in drinking water did not have a statistically significant effect on cecal C. jejuni colonization in broilers. It was assumed, based on in vitro experiments, that the activity of allicin was thwarted by the presence of mucin-containing mucus. Despite promising in vitro results, allicin was not capable of statistically influencing C. jejuni colonization in a broiler flock, although a trend toward lower cecal C. jejuni numbers in allicin-treated broilers was observed.

  9. [Evaluation of antigenic properties of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli proteins in a western-immunoblot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Waldemar, Rastawicki; Jagielski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial cause for acute diarrheal illnesses in developed countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenic properties of Campylobacterjejuni and Campylobacter coli proteins in western-blot assay. Whole-cell components of Campulobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electroforesis. Using this method we detected in all seven C. jejuni strains 21 peptides migrating between 180-29 kDa. All three Ccoli strains had a 17 bands migrating with the same molecular weight range. Proteins were transferred electrophoretically to nitrocellulose paper for immunoblotting experiments. The 74 kDa protein reacted strongly in all classes ofimmmunoglobulin with all tested human serum samples. We observed that this protein reacted also with human immunoglobulins for Salmonella and Yersinia sp. This cross-reaction observed for this protein could give false positive results in routine diagnosis of C. jejuni infections. The proteins with molecular weight of: 92, 62, 56, 52, 45-43, 29 kDa were most recognized in the 20 human serum samples. The other proteins of Cljejuni and C. coli, particularly in the 68-50 kDa and 45-31 kDa regions, were recognized occasionally and the response to these in reconvalescent sera was usually weak. The result of this study showed that the proteins with molecular weight: 92, 62, 56, 52, 45-43 and 29 kDa can be use in routine serological diagnostic of campylobacteriosis.

  10. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni multilocus sequence types isolated from chickens in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, K; Denis, E; Lachtara, B; Osek, J

    2017-03-01

    Poultry is recognized as the most important source of food-related transmission of Campylobacter jejuni to humans and campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported zoonotic bacterial disease in the European Union. It has been documented that C. jejuni is genetically diverse and analyses of bacterial isolates usually show a large strain variety. Therefore, molecular typing of strains represents an important tool to study the genetic diversity of isolates and to trace individual strains that cause human infections. The aim of the study was characterization of genetic population structure and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of C. jejuni isolated from Polish chickens. C. jejuni from chicken ceca and the corresponding carcasses (72 and 61 strains, respectively), originating from 128 flocks in Poland during February 2011 and May 2013, were used in the study. The isolates were tested for their population structure and genetic diversity using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme with connection to their antimicrobial resistance. The molecular analysis of 133 C. jejuni generated 39 different sequence types (ST); 3 of them were defined for the first time. Additionally, 16 STs were represented by single isolates. The most common STs observed were 6411 (16.5% isolates) and 257 (15.0% strains). The first mentioned ST was resistant to 3 different classes of antibiotics, i.e., quinolones, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides. Overall, 125 (94.4%) of C. jejuni isolates demonstrated antimicrobial resistance and the most frequent AMR profile observed was ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline (47.4% strains). Likewise, the clonal complexes CC 257 and CC 353 were defined as the predominant molecular groups covering altogether 37 C. jejuni strains. No associations between CCs and the origin of the samples as well as the place of isolation were found. This study highlights that the C. jejuni population from chickens in Poland was diverse and showed a weak clonal structure.

  11. Biosecurity-Based Interventions and Strategies To Reduce Campylobacter spp. on Poultry Farms▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, D. G.; Elvers, K. T.; Dopfer, D.; Hansson, I.; Jones, P.; James, S.; Gittins, J.; Stern, N. J.; Davies, R.; Connerton, I.; Pearson, D.; Salvat, G.; Allen, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    The prevention and control of Campylobacter colonization of poultry flocks are important public health strategies for the control of human campylobacteriosis. A critical review of the literature on interventions to control Campylobacter in poultry on farms was undertaken using a systematic approach. Although the focus of the review was on aspects appropriate to the United Kingdom poultry industry, the research reviewed was gathered from worldwide literature. Multiple electronic databases were employed to search the literature, in any language, from 1980 to September 2008. A primary set of 4,316 references was identified and scanned, using specific agreed-upon criteria, to select relevant references related to biosecurity-based interventions. The final library comprised 173 references. Identification of the sources of Campylobacter in poultry flocks was required to inform the development of targeted interventions to disrupt transmission routes. The approach used generally involved risk factor-based surveys related to culture-positive or -negative flocks, usually combined with a structured questionnaire. In addition, some studies, either in combination or independently, undertook intervention trials. Many of these studies were compromised by poor design, sampling, and statistical analysis. The evidence for each potential source and route of transmission on the poultry farm was reviewed critically, and the options for intervention were considered. The review concluded that, in most instances, biosecurity on conventional broiler farms can be enhanced and this should contribute to the reduction of flock colonization. However, complementary, non-biosecurity-based approaches will also be required in the future to maximize the reduction of Campylobacter-positive flocks at the farm level. PMID:21984249

  12. Impact of a Single Phage and a Phage Cocktail Application in Broilers on Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni and Development of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Samuel; Kittler, Sophie; Klein, Günter; Glünder, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is currently the most frequent foodborne zoonosis in many countries. One main source is poultry. The aim of this study was to enhance the knowledge about the potential of bacteriophages in reducing colonization of broilers with Campylobacter , as there are only a few in vivo studies published. Commercial broilers were inoculated with 104 CFU/bird of a Campylobacter jejuni field strain. Groups of 88 birds each were subsequently treated with a single phage or a four-phage cocktail (107 PFU/bird in CaCO3 buffered SM-Buffer). Control birds received the solvent only. Afterwards, subgroups of eleven birds each were examined for their loads with phages and Campylobacter on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after phage application. The susceptibility of the Campylobacter population to phage infection was determined using ten isolates per bird. In total 4180 re-isolates were examined. The study demonstrated that the deployed phages persisted over the whole investigation period. The Campylobacter load was permanently reduced by the phage-cocktail as well as by the single phage. The reduction was significant between one and four weeks after treatment and reached a maximum of log10 2.8 CFU/g cecal contents. Phage resistance rates of initially up to 43% in the single phage treated group and 24% in the cocktail treated group later stabilized at low levels. The occurrence of phage resistance influenced but did not override the Campylobacter reducing effect. Regarding the reduction potential, the cocktail treatment had only a small advantage over the singe phage treatment directly after phage administration. However, the cocktail moderated and delayed the emergence of phage resistance. PMID:24205254

  13. Proposal of sampling protocols to verify possible performance objectives for Campylobacter species control in Italian broiler batches

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    Gerardo Manfreda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis represents the most important food-borne illness in the EU. Broilers, as well as poultry meat, spread the majority of strains responsible for human cases. The main aims of this study were to suggest an approach for the definition of performance objectives (POs based on prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter species (spp. in broiler carcasses; moreover, sampling plans to determine the acceptability of broiler batches at the slaughterhouses in relation to such POs were formulated. The dataset used in this study was the one regarding Italy composed during the European Food Safety Authority baseline survey which was performed in the EU in 2008. A total of 393 carcasses obtained from 393 different batches collected from 48 Italian slaughterhouses were included in the analysis. Uncertainty in prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter spp. on carcasses was quantified assuming a beta and log normal distribution. Statistical analysis and distribution fitting were performed in ModelRisk v4.3 (Monte Carlo simulation with 10,000 iterations. By taking the 50th percentile of prevalence distribution as safety limit, sampling plans were subsequently calculated basing on the binomial approach. Final values of number of samples were equal to 4 or 5 to test with qualitative analysis. Considering a limit of quantification of 10 colony forming units/g, a higher number of samples (i.e. 10-13 would be necessary to test using enumeration. An increase of the sensibility of the analytical technique should be necessary to achieve realistic and useful sampling plans based on concentration data.

  14. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: relationship with management practices and livestock influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, S; Sánchez, S; Herrera-León, S; Porrero, C; Blanco, J; Dahbi, G; Blanco, J E; Mora, A; Mateo, R; Hanning, I; Vidal, D

    2013-05-03

    Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N=574) and carcasses (N=585) sampled from red deer (N=295), wild boar (N=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N=9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), being significantly higher in faeces from red deer (90 out of 264). A total of 58 isolates were serotyped. Serotypes O146:H- and O27:H30 were the most frequent in red deer and the majority of isolates from red deer and wild boar were from serotypes previously found in STEC strains associated with human infection, including the serotype O157:H7. The STEC prevalence in red deer faeces was significantly higher with the presence of livestock (p<0, 01) where high densities of red deer (p<0.001) were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and STEC in carcasses of large game animals. Furthermore, this study confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that cross contamination of STEC during carcass dressing occurred, implying the likelihood of these pathogens entering into the food chain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of oral application of Enterococcus faecium AL41 on TGF-β4 and IL-17 expression and immunocompetent cell distribution in chickens challenged with Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letnická, Alica; Karaffová, Viera; Levkut, Mikuláš; Revajová, Viera; Herich, Róbert

    2017-09-01

    Campylobacteriosis is mainly caused by infection with Campylobacter jejuni following consumption or handling of Campylobacter-contaminated poultry meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Enterococcus faecium AL41 on TGF-β4 and IL-17 expression and on immunocompetent cell distribution after C. jejuni infection in broiler chicken, as a second part of the previous study of Karaffová et al. (2017). Accordingly, day-old chicks were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 10 chicks each (n = 10): control (C), E. faecium AL41 (EFAL41), C. jejuni CCM6191 (CJ), and combined E. faecium AL41 + C. jejuni CCM6191 (EFAL41 + CJ). Samples from the caecum were collected on days 4 and 7 post Campylobacter infection (dpi), for the isolation of mRNA of TGF-β4, IL-17 and for immunohistochemistry. The relative mRNA expression of TGF-β4 was upregulated in the combined (EFAL41 + CJ) group compared to other groups during both samplings, but the expression of IL-17 was downregulated. Similarly, the highest density of CD3+ was detected in the combined group at 7 dpi, but the number of IgA+ cells was increased in both groups with EFAL41. It was concluded that the EFAL41 probiotic E. faecium strain can modulate the expression of selected cytokines (upregulation of TGF-β4 but downregulation of IL-17 relative expression), and activate IgA-producing cells in the caeca of chicks infected with C. jejuni CCM6191.

  16. Cytolethal Distending Toxin From Campylobacter jejuni Requires the Cytoskeleton for Toxic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Olvera, Estela T; Bustos-Martínez, Jaime A; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Verdugo-Rodríguez, Antonio; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea worldwide. The distending cytolethal toxin (CDT) of Campylobacter spp. interferes with normal cell cycle progression. This toxic effect is considered a result of DNase activity that produces chromosomal DNA damage. To perform this event, the toxin must be endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the cytoskeleton in the translocation of CDT to the nucleus. Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291 and seven isolates donated from Instituto de Biotecnologia were used in this study. The presence of CDT genes in C. jejuni strains was determined by PCR. To evaluate the effect of CDT, HeLa cells were treated with bacterial lysate, and the damage and morphological changes were analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and flow cytometry. To evaluate the role of the cytoskeleton, HeLa cells were treated with either latrunculin A or by nocodazole and analyzed by microscopy, flow cytometry, and immunoquantification (ELISA). The results obtained showed that the eight strains of C. jejuni, including the reference strain, had the ability to produce the toxin. Usage of latrunculin A and nocodazole, two cytoskeletal inhibitors, blocked the toxic effect in cells treated with the toxin. This phenomenon was evident in flow cytometry analysis and immunoquantification of Cdc2-phosphorylated. This work showed that the cytotoxic activity of the C. jejuni CDT is dependent on its endocytosis. The alteration in the microtubules and actin filaments caused a blockage transit of the toxin, preventing it from reaching the nucleus of the cell, as well as preventing DNA fragmentation and alteration of the cell cycle. The CDT toxin appears to be an important element for the pathogenesis of campylobacteriosis, since all clinical isolates showed the presence of cdtA, cdtB and cdtC genes.

  17. ACUTE ENTERIC INFECTIONS POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Sokolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is estimate the opportunities of local multi-prime PCR reagents kits in children enteric infections etiological diagnostics amongst the patients with diarrhoea vs traditional bacteriological methods. We used 4 kits of reagents that provide multiple pathogens simultaneous indication in one sample: 1 Rotavirus, Norovirus, Astrovirus; 2 Shigella spp./EIEC, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp.; 3 Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; 4 E. coli: EIEC (enteroinvasive, EPEC (enteropathogenic, ETEC (enterotoxigenic, EHEC (enterohaemorrhagic, EAgEC (enteroaggregative. It has been shown that the viral intestinal infections is increased by 14%, bacterial — in 2,5 times. PCR diagnostics identified in 62% of patients the viral gastroenteritis: Rotavirus (52%, Norovirus (9%, Astrovirus (1%. Detected bacterial pathogens PCR markers number proved up to 2.5 times high than according to bacteriological examination. The spectrum of bacterial agents increased due to E. coli and Y. enterocolitica. PCR diagnostics increased detection of Campylobacter up to 2 times. Detected E. coli DNA prevalence: EPEC — 66%, EAgEC, ETEC and EHEC were 31%, 9% and 4%, respectively. DNA Campylobacter spp. and E. coli constituted 2/3 of all findings: Campylobacter spp. (41%, E. coli (24%, Salmonella spp. (19%, Yersinia spp. (11%, Shigella spp./EIEC (5%. The positive results of bacteriological and serological methods duplicate the positive results of PCR diagnostics. In general, the positive results of PCR diagnosis of bacterial pathogens were detected in 46.35% of the examined patients. In 48.4% of patients identified PCR markers viral — bacterial infection, in 5.25% — of bacterial associations, in 11% of them were found the DNA 2–3 bacterial pathogens. The study was shown in children in St. Petersburg in 2012–2014 dominated rotavirus infection, campylobacteriosis and escherichiosis. The prevalence of viral-bacterial confections is more

  18. Foodborne disease in Australia: incidence, notifications and outbreaks. Annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, OzFoodNet continued to enhance surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia. The OzFoodNet network expanded to cover all Australian states and territories in 2002. The National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health together with OzFoodNet concluded a national survey of gastroenteritis, which found that there were 17.2 (95% C.I. 14.5-19.9) million cases of gastroenteritis each year in Australia. The credible range of gastroenteritis that may be due to food each year is between 4.0-6.9 million cases with a mid-point of 5.4 million. During 2002, there were 23,434 notifications of eight bacterial diseases that may have been foodborne, which was a 7.7 per cent increase over the mean of the previous four years. There were 14,716 cases of campylobacteriosis, 7,917 cases of salmonellosis, 505 cases of shigellosis, 99 cases of yersiniosis, 64 cases of typhoid, 62 cases of listeriosis, 58 cases of shiga toxin producing E. coli and 13 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. OzFoodNet sites reported 92 foodborne disease outbreaks affecting 1,819 persons, of whom 5.6 per cent (103/1,819) were hospitalised and two people died. There was a wide range of foods implicated in these outbreaks and the most common agent was Salmonella Typhimurium. Sites reported two outbreaks with potential for international spread involving contaminated tahini from Egypt resulting in an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infection and an outbreak of suspected norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. In addition, there were three outbreaks associated with animal petting zoos or poultry hatching programs and 318 outbreaks of suspected person-to-person transmission. Sites conducted 100 investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified, including three multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. OzFoodNet identified important risk factors for foodborne disease infection, including: Salmonella infections due to chicken and

  19. Novel murine infection models provide deep insights into the "ménage à trois" of Campylobacter jejuni, microbiota and host innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bereswill

    gnotobiotic and "humanized" mice represent excellent novel C. jejuni-infection and -inflammation models and provide deep insights into the immunological and molecular interplays between C. jejuni, microbiota and innate immunity in human campylobacteriosis.

  20. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in Swedish dogs and characterization of C. jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Mia; Rosendal, Thomas; Engvall, Eva O; Ohlson, Anna; Lindberg, Ann

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter species in Swedish dogs, to identify the species of the Campylobacter isolates and to genotype the C. jejuni isolates. Young and healthy dogs were targeted and the sampling was performed at 11 veterinary clinics throughout Sweden from October 2011 to October 2012. Faecal swab samples were collected and sent to the laboratory at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) for isolation of Campylobacter, speciation and genotyping. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 67 of the 180 sampled dogs which yields an overall prevalence of 37%. The most prevalent species of Campylobacter among the participating dogs was C. upsaliensis with 52 of the 67 identified isolates. A lower prevalence was observed for C. jejuni with seven identified isolates and one isolate was identified as C. helveticus. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out on the seven C. jejuni isolates and all sequence types that were found are also commonly found in humans. The dogs were divided into three age groups; 1) under 12 months, 2) 12 to 23 months and 3) 24 months and older. The highest prevalence was found in the two younger age groups. Dogs shedding C. jejuni were between 3-12 months of age while dogs shedding C. upsaliensis were found in all ages. The present investigation finds that Campylobacter spp. known to cause campylobacteriosis in humans are present in Swedish dogs. The results suggest an age predisposition where dogs under 2 years of age are more likely to shed Campylobacter spp. than older dogs. The most commonly isolated species was C. upsaliensis followed by C. jejuni, which was only detected in dogs up to 12 months of age. All C. jejuni isolates identified in the present study were of the same MLST types that have previously been described both in humans and in animals. The awareness of the Campylobacter risk of healthy young dogs may be an important way to reduce the transmission from dogs to infants

  1. A Study on Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli through Commercial Broiler Production Chains in Thailand: Antimicrobial Resistance, the Characterization of DNA Gyrase Subunit A Mutation, and Genetic Diversity by Flagellin A Gene Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomrongsuwannakij, Thotsapol; Blackall, Patrick J; Chansiripornchai, Niwat

    2017-06-01

    Contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human campylobacteriosis. During September 2014 and February 2015, breeder flocks, hatcheries, and broiler farms from two chicken production chains were investigated chronologically. Five commercial breeder flocks (Breeder Flocks 1-5), two hatcheries (Hatcheries A and B), and five broiler flocks (Broiler Flocks 1-5) were sampled in this study. Campylobacter colonization of both breeder and broiler flocks was determined from cloacal swabs and environmental samples (pan feeders, footwear, darkling beetles, flies, feed, and water). The eggs from the breeder flocks were followed to hatcheries. At the hatcheries, early embryonic deaths, egg trays, eggshells, hatchers, and water were investigated. Cloacal swabs were taken from broilers at Days 1, 14, and 28 (all broiler flocks), and either 35 (Broiler Flocks 1 and 2) or 43 (Broiler Flocks 3-5). Thirty-six Campylobacter jejuni and 94 Campylobacter coli isolates collected through two broiler production chains were tested by twofold agar dilution for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Most Campylobacter isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), defined as being resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes ( C. jejuni : 100%; C. coli : 98.9%), and exhibited high resistance to enrofloxacin ( C. jejuni : 100%; C. coli : 98.9%). The vast majority of C. coli were resistant to tetracycline (97.9%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (81.9%), and doxycycline (79.8%), but only 55.6%, 36.1%, and 50% of C. jejuni isolates revealed resistance to these antimicrobial agents, respectively. A selected subset of 24 C. jejuni and 24 C. coli were characterized for their mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region of the DNA gyrase subunit A gene by nucleotide sequence analysis. The Thr-86-Ile substitution (ACA-ATA in C. jejuni or ACT-ATT in C. coli ) was found in all isolates. Moreover, a total of 130 Campylobacter isolates were typed with the use of polymerase

  2. New Approaches on Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry Samples: The Use of Digital PCR and Real-time PCR against the ISO Standard Plate Count Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papić, Bojan; Pate, Mateja; Henigman, Urška; Zajc, Urška; Gruntar, Igor; Biasizzo, Majda; Ocepek, Matjaž; Kušar, Darja

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported bacterial food-borne illness in the European Union and contaminated broiler meat is considered the most important source of infection in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) for quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in 75 broiler neck-skin samples collected from a poultry slaughterhouse, and to compare them with the ISO 10272-2 standard plate count method. For qPCR standard curve, C. jejuni-negative neck-skin samples were spiked with C. jejuni suspension with a known number of bacterial cells. The observed CFU/g values by qPCR correlated greatly with the expected values and qPCR showed good performance with the reliable limit of detection (rLOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of three and 31 target copies per reaction, respectively. However, both rLOD (1219 CFU/g) and LOQ (12,523 CFU/g) were beyond the EFSA-proposed critical limit of 500-1,000 CFU/g of neck skin. Although C. jejuni cell counts were ≤1,000 CFU/g in only 7/75 samples by plate counting, they were ≤LOQ in 60/75 and ≤rLOD in 26/75 (≤1,000 CFU/g in 24/75) samples by qPCR. A strong and statistically significant correlation was observed between qPCR and dPCR. Both PCR-based methods correlated significantly with the plate count method; however, the correlation was moderate. Using the Bland-Altman analysis, an average agreement was noted between all three methods, although with a large standard deviation. A significant bias toward overestimation in dPCR was observed, probably due to the relatively high number of false positive calls. The linear dynamic range was comparable in both PCR-based methods; however, qPCR proved to be more suitable for routine use. In the future, the establishment of a reliable molecular quantification of C. jejuni in poultry samples showing a wide range of contamination levels down to the proposed critical limit is needed to enable time- and cost

  3. Co-administration of the Campylobacter jejuni N-glycan based vaccine with probiotics improves vaccine performance in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothaft, H; Perez-Muñoz, M E; Gouveia, G J; Duar, R M; Wanford, J J; Lango-Scholey, L; Panagos, C G; Srithayakumar, V; Plastow, G S; Coros, C; Bayliss, C D; Edison, A S; Walter, J; Szymanski, C M

    2017-09-22

    Source attribution studies report that consumption of contaminated poultry is the primary source for acquiring human campylobacteriosis. Oral administration of an engineered Escherichia coli strain expressing the Campylobacter jejuni N-glycan reduces bacterial colonization in specific-pathogen-free leghorn chickens, but only a fraction of birds respond to vaccination. Optimizing the vaccine for commercial broiler chickens has great potential to prevent pathogen entry into the food chain. Here, we tested the same vaccination approach in broilers and observed similar efficacy in pathogen load reduction, stimulation of host IgY response, lack of C. jejuni resistance development, uniformity in microbial gut composition, and bimodal response to treatment. Gut microbiota analysis of leghorn and broiler vaccine responders identified one member of the Clostridiales XIVa cluster, Anaerosporobacter mobilis, significantly more abundant in responder birds. In broilers, co-administration of the live vaccine with A. mobilis or Lactobacillus reuteri, a commonly used probiotic, resulted in increased vaccine efficacy, antibody response, and weight gain. To investigate whether the responder/non-responder effect was due to selection of a C. jejuni 'super colonizer mutant' with altered phase-variable genes, we analysed all polyG-containing loci of the input strain compared to non-responder colony isolates and found no evidence of phase state selection. However, untargeted NMR-based metabolomics identified a potential biomarker negatively correlated with C. jejuni colonization levels possibly linked to the increased microbial diversity in this subgroup. The comprehensive methods used to examine the vaccine response bimodality provide several opportunities to improve the C. jejuni vaccine and the efficacy of any vaccination strategy.ImportanceCampylobacter jejuni is a common cause of human diarrheal disease worldwide and listed by the World Health Organization as a high priority

  4. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  5. Antimicrobial resistance profiling and molecular subtyping of Campylobacter spp. from processed turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Julie S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is a major cause of human disease worldwide and poultry are identified as a significant source of this pathogen. Most disease in humans is associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry or cross-contamination with other foods. The primary drugs of choice for treatment of human campylobacteriosis include erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter isolates recovered from turkey carcasses at two processing plants in the Upper Midwest US. Further analysis of a subset of isolates was carried out to assess resistance and genotype profiles. Results Campylobacter isolates from plant A (n = 439; including 196 C. coli and 217 C. jejuni and plant B (n = 362, including 281 C. coli and 62 C. jejuni were tested for susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin using agar dilution. C. coli were more frequently resistant than C. jejuni in both plants, including resistance to ciprofloxacin (28% of C. jejuni and 63% of C. coli, plant B; and 11% of C. coli, plant A. Erythromycin resistance was low among C. jejuni (0% plant A and 0.3% plant B compared to C. coli (41%, plant A and 17%, plant B. One hundred resistant and susceptible isolates were selected for additional antimicrobial susceptibility testing, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the flaA gene (fla typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Fla-PFGE types obtained (n = 37 were associated with a specific plant with the exception of one type that was isolated from both plants. C. coli isolates (n = 65 were grouped into 20 types, while C. jejuni isolates (n = 35 were grouped into 17 types. Most isolates with identical fla-PFGE patterns shared identical or very similar antimicrobial resistance profiles. PFGE alone and composite analysis using fla-PFGE with resistance profiles separated C. jejuni and C. coli into distinct groups. Conclusion

  6. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Concentration in Household Pets and Petting Zoo Animals for Use in Exposure Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Katarina D M; Christidis, Tanya; Thomas, M Kate; Anderson, Maureen; Nesbitt, Andrea; Keithlin, Jessica; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Animal contact is a potential transmission route for campylobacteriosis, and both domestic household pet and petting zoo exposures have been identified as potential sources of exposure. Research has typically focussed on the prevalence, concentration, and transmission of zoonoses from farm animals to humans, yet there are gaps in our understanding of these factors among animals in contact with the public who don't live on or visit farms. This study aims to quantify, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter carriage in household pets and petting zoo animals. Four databases were accessed for the systematic review (PubMed, CAB direct, ProQuest, and Web of Science) for papers published in English from 1992-2012, and studies were included if they examined the animal population of interest, assessed prevalence or concentration with fecal, hair coat, oral, or urine exposure routes (although only articles that examined fecal routes were found), and if the research was based in Canada, USA, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Studies were reviewed for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis by two reviewers, compiled into a database, and relevant studies were used to create a weighted mean prevalence value. There were insufficient data to run a meta-analysis of concentration values, a noted study limitation. The mean prevalence of Campylobacter in petting zoo animals is 6.5% based on 7 studies, and in household pets the mean is 24.7% based on 34 studies. Our estimated concentration values were: 7.65x103cfu/g for petting zoo animals, and 2.9x105cfu/g for household pets. These results indicate that Campylobacter prevalence and concentration are lower in petting zoo animals compared with household pets and that both of these animal sources have a lower prevalence compared with farm animals that do not come into contact with the public. There is a lack of studies on Campylobacter in petting zoos and/or fair animals in

  7. Emergence of a Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance to Multiple Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Shen, Zhangqi; Wang, Yang; Deng, Fengru; Liu, Dejun; Naren, Gaowa; Dai, Lei; Su, Chih-Chia; Wang, Bing; Wang, Shaolin; Wu, Congming; Yu, Edward W; Zhang, Qijing; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-09-20

    Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. Although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of "super" efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. Here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named RE-CmeABC) of the predominant efflux pump CmeABC in Campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibiotic resistance threat in the United States. Compared to the previously characterized CmeABC transporters, RE-CmeABC is much more potent in conferring Campylobacter resistance to antibiotics, which was shown by increased MICs and reduced intracellular accumulation of antibiotics. Structural modeling suggests that sequence variations in the drug-binding pocket of CmeB possibly contribute to the enhanced efflux function. Additionally, RE-CmeABC expands the mutant selection window of ciprofloxacin, enhances the emergence of antibiotic-resistant mutants, and confers exceedingly high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones, an important class of antibiotics for clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. Furthermore, RE-CmeABC is horizontally transferable, shifts antibiotic MIC distribution among clinical isolates, and is increasingly prevalent in Campylobacter jejuni isolates, suggesting that it confers a fitness advantage under antimicrobial selection. These findings reveal a new mechanism for enhanced multidrug resistance and an effective strategy utilized by bacteria for adaptation to selection from multiple antibiotics. Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are ubiquitously present in bacterial organisms and protect bacteria from the antibacterial effects of antimicrobials and other toxic compounds by extruding them out of cells. Thus, these efflux transporters represent an important mechanism for antibiotic resistance. In this study, we discovered the emergence and increasing

  8. Cost of Illness for Five Major Foodborne Illnesses and Sequelae in Sweden.

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    Sundström, Kristian

    2018-01-08

    The main objective of this study was to derive cost estimates of five major foodborne illnesses (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), yersiniosis and shigellosis) in Sweden. These estimates provide a necessary contribution to perform future cost-benefit analyses aimed at reducing the burden of foodborne disease. A secondary aim was to obtain estimates of the true number of cases that occur in the community, thus providing necessary ground for calculating costs. The true number of cases for each foodborne illness was simulated by multiplying the reported number of cases by sequential multipliers, one for each potential source of information loss about a case. This assessment of the true number of cases was then used to estimate the number of cases of sequelae for each illness. An incidence-based analysis was then used to calculate direct medical and non-medical costs, as well as indirect costs. Data for estimating the true number of cases for each illness were primarily based on an expert panel, while the derivation of costs mainly utilized national registries, databases and published literature. The estimated number of cases was between 7- and 11-fold higher than the reported number of cases, indicating the importance of taking information loss into account when calculating costs. By far the most common pathogen of the five was campylobacter, with an estimated 101,719 (90% credibility interval [CI] 59,640-158,025) human cases occurring annually. For salmonella, 19,678 (90% CI 8394-40,456) cases were estimated to occur each year, while the other three pathogens were less common, with a yearly incidence of approximately 2500-5500 cases each. The total cost for the five pathogens (including sequelae) amounted to €142 million annually. Campylobacter was the most costly pathogen, representing 69% of the total costs. Salmonellosis and EHEC constituted 18 and 9% of these costs, respectively, while yersiniosis and shigellosis

  9. Adhesion, Biofilm Formation, and Genomic Features of Campylobacter jejuni Bf, an Atypical Strain Able to Grow under Aerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronnec, Vicky; Turoňová, Hana; Bouju, Agnès; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Rodrigues, Ramila; Demnerova, Katerina; Tresse, Odile; Haddad, Nabila; Zagorec, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in Europe. Human campylobacteriosis cases are frequently associated to the consumption of contaminated poultry meat. To survive under environmental conditions encountered along the food chain, i.e., from poultry digestive tract its natural reservoir to the consumer’s plate, this pathogen has developed adaptation mechanisms. Among those, biofilm lifestyle has been suggested as a strategy to survive in the food environment and under atmospheric conditions. Recently, the clinical isolate C. jejuni Bf has been shown to survive and grow under aerobic conditions, a property that may help this strain to better survive along the food chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesion capacity of C. jejuni Bf and its ability to develop a biofilm. C. jejuni Bf can adhere to abiotic surfaces and to human epithelial cells, and can develop biofilm under both microaerobiosis and aerobiosis. These two conditions have no influence on this strain, unlike results obtained with the reference strain C. jejuni 81-176, which harbors only planktonic cells under aerobic conditions. Compared to 81-176, the biofilm of C. jejuni Bf is more homogenous and cell motility at the bottom of biofilm was not modified whatever the atmosphere used. C. jejuni Bf whole genome sequence did not reveal any gene unique to this strain, suggesting that its unusual property does not result from acquisition of new genetic material. Nevertheless some genetic particularities seem to be shared only between Bf and few others strains. Among the main features of C. jejuni Bf genome we noticed (i) a complete type VI secretion system important in pathogenicity and environmental adaptation; (ii) a mutation in the oorD gene involved in oxygen metabolism; and (iii) the presence of an uncommon insertion of a 72 amino acid coding sequence upstream from dnaK, which is involved in stress resistance. Therefore, the atypical behavior of this strain under

  10. Genomic analysis of Campylobacter fetus subspecies: identification of candidate virulence determinants and diagnostic assay targets

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    Sanchez Daniel O

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, asymptomatic in bulls the disease is spread to female cattle causing extensive reproductive loss. The microbiological and molecular differentiation of C. fetus subsp. venerealis from C. fetus subsp. fetus is extremely difficult. This study describes the analysis of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain genome (~75–80% to identify elements exclusively found in C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains as potential diagnostic targets and the characterisation of subspecies virulence genes. Results Eighty Kb of genomic sequence (22 contigs was identified as unique to C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 and consisted of type IV secretory pathway components, putative plasmid genes and hypothetical proteins. Of the 9 PCR assays developed to target C. fetus subsp. venerealis type IV secretion system genes, 4 of these were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis and did not detect C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius. Two assays were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain, with a further single assay specific for the AZUL-94 strain and C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius (and not the remaining C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis strains tested. C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were found to share most common Campylobacter virulence factors such as SAP, chemotaxis, flagellar biosynthesis, 2-component systems and cytolethal distending toxin subunits (A, B, C. We did not however, identify in C. fetus the full complement of bacterial adherence candidates commonly found in other Campylobacter spp. Conclusion The comparison of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis genome sequence with the C. fetus subsp. fetus genome identified 80 kb of unique C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL94 sequence, with subsequent PCR confirmation demonstrating

  11. Characterisation by multilocus sequence and porA and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand.

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    Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and porA and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/porA 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/porA 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/porA 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.

  12. Pregnancy rates of beef cattle are not affected by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis real-time PCR-positive breeding sires in New Zealand.

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    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; Hughes, P; Anderson, P; Kelly, K; Walker, G

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis (C. fetus venerealis) is the causal agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease that is asymptomatic in bulls but responsible for reproductive wastage in female cattle. In New Zealand, a commercial real-time PCR assay was introduced in 2007 to identify the DNA of this pathogen in preputial scrapings; however, concerns were raised about the specificity of the test following anecdotal reports of a high number of test-positive bulls with no apparent relationship to reproductive performance. The objective of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between real-time PCR assay results from beef breeding bulls and pregnancy rates in beef herds using these bulls. Veterinarians from four veterinary practices selected beef cattle herds with relatively high and low pregnancy rates between December 2008 and February 2009. Preputial scrapings were collected from bulls used for mating in those herds. Samples were tested using the real-time PCR assay under consideration. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess the relationship between pregnancy rates in each mob (15-month-old heifers, 27-month-old heifers and mixed-age cows) and the percentage of real-time PCR-positive bulls in each mob. Sixty-four (28.8%) of 222 bulls tested positive, 130 (58.6%) tested negative, and 28 (12.6%) returned an inconclusive result to the real-time PCR assay. The percentage of bulls testing real-time PCR-positive in these mobs was not associated with pregnancy rates (p=0.757) after controlling for mob, average body condition score of cows, cow to bull ratio, length of the mating period, and farm. Real-time PCR assay results were not associated with pregnancy rates, suggesting that the specificity of the real-time PCR assay was too low to be used to reliably detect C. fetus venerealis. This study adds to a growing body of evidence indicating that C. fetus venerealis strains are either absent from, or present at

  13. Sensitivity of Direct Culture, Enrichment and PCR for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Broiler Flocks at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J D; Simpkin, E; Lee, R; Clifton-Hadley, F A; Vidal, A B

    2017-06-01

    Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp. and for C. jejuni and C. coli individually. The sample was considered positive if at least one method detected the target and this interpretation was taken to represent a 'proxy gold standard' for detection in the absence of a gold standard reference test. The sensitivity of each individual method to detect Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni and C. coli was then estimated relative to the proxy gold standard. Enrichment in adapted Exeter broth (deficient in polymyxin B) with a resuscitation step was 100% sensitive, whilst direct culture on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) was highly sensitive (97.9%). Enrichment methods using Preston broth and Bolton broth were significantly less sensitive. Enrichment in Exeter broth promoted the recovery of C. jejuni, whilst enrichment in Bolton broth favoured C. coli. A RT-PCR detection test could identify 80% of flocks that were co-colonised with both species. This study found that 76.3% (n = 127) of flocks were colonised with Campylobacter spp. The majority (95.9%) of Campylobacter-positive flocks were colonised with C. jejuni; however, approximately one-third of positive flocks were simultaneously colonised with both C. jejuni and C. coli. The findings highlight the impact of different detection methodologies on the accuracy of the estimated incidence of both C. jejuni and C. coli entering the abattoir within broiler flocks and the associated

  14. Validation according to ISO 16140:2003 of a commercial real-time PCR-based method for detecting Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencia, W; Nogarol, C; Bianchi, D M; Gallina, S; Zuccon, F; Adriano, D; Gramaglia, M; Decastelli, L

    2014-05-02

    Campylobacteriosis was the most frequently reported zoonosis in the European Union (EU) in 2010, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari as the most frequently reported species in foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Relatively sensitive to environmental factors, these species may be present in low numbers. In line with EU policy for food control and FBO detection and in view of the need to reduce response time, we validated an alternative molecular method according to ISO 16140:2003 which establishes the general principle and technical protocol for the validation of alternative methods in the microbiological analysis of food. We used a qualitative real-time PCR commercial kit for the detection of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in two food categories "fruit and vegetable-based products" and "dairy products". The validation protocol comprises two phases: the first is a method comparison study of the alternative method against the reference method, and the second is an interlaboratory study of each of the two methods. In the first step, ISO 16140:2003 validation examines the following parameters: limit of detection (LOD); relative accuracy, relative specificity and sensitivity; relative detection level (RDL); and inclusivity and exclusivity. Except for LOD, inclusivity and exclusivity, the other steps were performed against the reference method (ISO 10272:2006). The LOD of the real-time PCR method was set at 4CFU/25g or mL for both food categories. Relative accuracy (98.33%), specificity (96.77%), and sensitivity (100%) were recorded for the food category "fruit and vegetable-based products" and 93.3%, 88.24%, 100%, respectively, for "dairy products". The RDL according to Fisher's exact test was p=1 for both food categories, for each level, and each food/strain combination. The interlaboratory study results showed correct identification of all 24 blind samples with both methods by all the participating laboratories. The results show that this

  15. Detection and viability of Campylobacter species isolates from different species of poultry and humans in Sokoto State, Nigeria

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    I. O. Nwankwo

    2016-04-01

    . Campylobacteriosis is known to be associated with the cost of gastroenteritis management, antimicrobial resistance, food contamination, and complications such as a paralytic condition called Guillain-Barre syndrome.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter spp. isolated from conventional and antimicrobial-free swine production systems from different U.S. regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Daniel A; Bahnson, Peter B; Funk, Julie A; Thakur, Siddhartha; Morrow, William E Morgan; Wittum, Thomas; DeGraves, Fred; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a study to compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter isolated from 34 farm-slaughter pair cohorts of pigs raised in conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) production systems. Isolates originated from four different states of two geographic regions (region 1--Ohio and Michigan; region 2--Wisconsin and Iowa). A total of 838 fecal and 1173 carcass samples were examined. Campylobacter isolates were speciated using multiplex polymerase chain reaction targeting ceuE and hipO genes. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using agar dilution to a panel of six antimicrobials: chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 472 of 838 pigs (56.3%). Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly based on production system (conventional [58.9%] and ABF [53.7%], odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-2.6, p = 0.24) or geographic region (region 1 [54.1%] and region 2 [58.2%], OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.6-1.9, p = 0.92). At slaughter plant, Campylobacter prevalence varied based on processing stages (19.4% at pre-evisceration, 25.3% at postevisceration, and 3.2% at postchill). Resistance was common to tetracycline (64.5%), erythromycin (47.9%), and nalidixic acid (23.5%). Campylobacter isolates from conventional production systems were more likely to be erythromycin resistant than from ABF (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.2, p = 0.01). The proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter coli isolates were 3.7% and 1.2% from ABF and conventional production systems, respectively. Thirty-seven out of 1257 C. coli (2.9%) were resistant to both erythromycin and ciprofloxacin, drugs of choice for treatment of invasive human campylobacteriosis. The finding of ciprofloxacin resistance, particularly from ABF herds, has significant implications on the potential role of risk factors other than mere antimicrobial use for production

  17. [The role of certain Campylobacter types in the etiology of enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otasević, Marica; Lazarević-Jovanović, Branislava; Tasić-Dimov, Desanka; Dordević, Nebojsa; Miljković-Selimović, Biljana

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowadays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the demanding features of Campylobacter, as well as poorly equipped microbiological laboratories, campylobacteriosis is insufficiently studied in our country. This investigation aimed to determine the participation of some Campylobacter species in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in our population. The four-years continuous monitoring of Campylobacter presence was performed in the faeces of 12,605 patients with enterocolitis. The control group included 5,774 examinees of healthy children and youth. Faeces samples were cultivated on Skirrow's selective medium, and further incubated according to effective methodology for Campylobacter. Identification of strains was based on morphological, cultural and physiologic features of strains (oxidase test, catalase test, susceptibility to nalidixic acid, and hypurate hydrolysis). As a statistical method, for data processing, chi 2 test and Fisher's exact test were used. Campylobacter was proven in 3.86% of enterocolitis patients, and in 0.71% of healthy population. Out of 518 Campylobacter isolates, 86.48% belonged to enterocolitis outpatients, and 13.51% to inpatients. Predominant symptoms of the disease were diarrhea (81.83%), increased temperature (34.71%), vomiting (19.77%), and stomach pain (15.17%). The diseased were predominantly infants in the first year of life. Out of 300 Campylobacter isolates, 75% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni, 23% as Campylobacter coli (C. coli), and 2% as Campylobacter lari (C. lari). Species of Campylobacter genus

  18. Participation of some campylobacter species in the etiology of enterocolitis

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    Otašević Marica M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowdays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the demanding features of Campylobacter, as well as poorly equipped microbiological laboratories, campylobacteriosis is insufficiently studied in our country. This investigation aimed to determine the participation of some Campylobacter species in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in our population. Methods. The four-years continuous monitoring of Campylobacter presence was performed in the faeces of 12 605 patients with enterocolitis. The control group included 5 774 examinees of healthy children and youth. Faeces samples were cultivated on Skirrow's selective medium, and further incubated according to effective methodology for Campylobacter. Identification of strains was based on morphological, cultural and physiologic features of strains (oxidase test, catalase test, susceptibility to nalidixic acid, and hypurate hydrolysis. As a statistical method, for data processing, c2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used. Results. Campylobacter was proven in 3.86% of enterocolitis patients, and in 0.71% of healthy population. Out of 518 Campylobacter isolates, 86.48% belonged to enterocolitis outpatients, and 13,51% to inpatients. Predominant symptoms of the disease were diarrhea (81.83%, increased temperature (34.71%, vomiting (19.77%, and stomach pain (15.17%. The diseased were predominantly infants in the first year of life. Out of 300 Campylobacter isolates, 75% were identified as Campylobacer jejuni, 23% as Campylobacter coli (C. coli, and 2% as Campylobacter lari

  19. Absence of Nucleotide-Oligomerization-Domain-2 Is Associated with Less Distinct Disease in Campylobacter jejuni Infected Secondary Abiotic IL-10 Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Grundmann, Ursula; Alutis, Marie E; Fischer, André; Bereswill, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Human Campylobacter jejuni-infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Despite their high prevalence and socioeconomic impact the underlying mechanisms of pathogen-host-interactions are only incompletely understood. Given that the innate immune receptor nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 (Nod2) is involved in clearance of enteropathogens, we here evaluated its role in murine campylobacteriosis. To address this, we applied Nod2-deficient IL-10-/- (Nod2-/- IL-10-/-) mice and IL-10-/- counterparts both with a depleted intestinal microbiota to warrant pathogen-induced enterocolitis. At day 7 following peroral C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection, Nod2 mRNA was down-regulated in the colon of secondary abiotic IL-10-/- and wildtype mice. Nod2-deficiency did neither affect gastrointestinal colonization nor extra-intestinal and systemic translocation properties of C. jejuni. Colonic mucin-2 mRNA was, however, down-regulated upon C. jejuni-infection of both Nod2-/- IL-10-/- and IL-10-/- mice, whereas expression levels were lower in infected, but also naive Nod2-/- IL-10-/- mice as compared to respective IL-10-/- controls. Remarkably, C. jejuni-infected Nod2-/- IL-10-/- mice were less compromised than IL-10-/- counterparts and displayed less distinct apoptotic, but higher regenerative cell responses in colonic epithelia. Conversely, innate as well as adaptive immune cells such as macrophages and monocytes as well as T lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells, respectively, were even more abundant in large intestines of Nod2-/- IL-10-/- as compared to IL-10-/- mice at day 7 post-infection. Furthermore, IFN-γ concentrations were higher in ex vivo biopsies derived from intestinal compartments including colon and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in systemic tissue sites such as the spleen of C. jejuni infected Nod2-/- IL-10-/- as compared to IL10-/- counterparts. Whereas, at day 7 postinfection anti-inflammatory IL-22 mRNA levels were up-regulated, IL-18 mRNA was down

  20. Disease Burden of 32 Infectious Diseases in the Netherlands, 2007-2011.

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    Alies van Lier

    Full Text Available Infectious disease burden estimates provided by a composite health measure give a balanced view of the true impact of a disease on a population, allowing the relative impact of diseases that differ in severity and mortality to be monitored over time. This article presents the first national disease burden estimates for a comprehensive set of 32 infectious diseases in the Netherlands.The average annual disease burden was computed for the period 2007-2011 for selected infectious diseases in the Netherlands using the disability-adjusted life years (DALY measure. The pathogen- and incidence-based approach was adopted to quantify the burden due to both morbidity and premature mortality associated with all short and long-term consequences of infection. Natural history models, disease progression probabilities, disability weights, and other parameters were adapted from previous research. Annual incidence was obtained from statutory notification and other surveillance systems, which was corrected for under-ascertainment and under-reporting. The highest average annual disease burden was estimated for invasive pneumococcal disease (9444 DALYs/year; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 8911-9961 and influenza (8670 DALYs/year; 95% UI: 8468-8874, which represents 16% and 15% of the total burden of all 32 diseases, respectively. The remaining 30 diseases ranked by number of DALYs/year from high to low were: HIV infection, legionellosis, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, campylobacteriosis, pertussis, tuberculosis, hepatitis C infection, Q fever, norovirus infection, salmonellosis, gonorrhoea, invasive meningococcal disease, hepatitis B infection, invasive Haemophilus influenzae infection, shigellosis, listeriosis, giardiasis, hepatitis A infection, infection with STEC O157, measles, cryptosporidiosis, syphilis, rabies, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, tetanus, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis. The very low burden for the latter five diseases can be

  1. An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, H; Walsh, D; McDowell, D A; Bolton, D J

    2013-09-02

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial infection in developed countries and many cases are associated with poultry. This study investigated the immediate and storage effect of dipping inoculated poultry skin samples in trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5%, v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1200 ppm). Spray application was also tested using the higher concentrations in the laboratory. In a broiler processing plant the efficacy of using TSP (14%) and CA (5%) applied by immersion and spray was investigated using naturally contaminated carcasses and the effect of these treatments on the sensory attributes of a skin-on (drumstick) and skin-off (fillet) raw and cooked product was assessed using descriptive sensory analysis. In the laboratory, immersion in TSP (14%), LA (5%), CA (5%) and ASC (1200 ppm) significantly (P<0.05) reduced the Campylobacter counts and a 2.5 to 3 log10 cfu/cm(2) reduction was observed within the shelf-life (3-5 days) of poultry meat. Spraying was ineffective even after storage. In the broiler processing plant, immersion in TSP (14%) or CA (5%) achieved Campylobacter reductions of 2.49 and 1.44 log10 cfu/cm(2), respectively. There were no significant differences between the treatments for any of the attributes measured in either raw or cooked drumsticks. The 'colour' of raw chicken fillets treated with both TSP (14%, w/v) and CA (5%, w/v) was significantly (P≤0.05) lighter than that of control samples. The 'intensity of chicken odour' and the perception of 'salt' in cooked chicken fillets treated with CA (5%, w/v) were also significantly (P≤0.05) higher than that of either control or TSP (14%, w/v) treated samples. It was concluded that TSP (14%) or CA (5%) could be applied to significantly reduce Campylobacter contamination of broilers without adversely affecting the sensory quality of the product. © 2013.

  2. Comparative Study of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Children With Gastroenteritis in Bahonar Hospital, Karaj, Using PCR and RFLP

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    Arefeh Abdi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter species are responsible for the majority of cases of food-borne gastroenteritis. The sources of the disease outbreaks are often contaminated water or milk, and consumption of undercooked poultry product is the main cause of sporadic campylobacteriosis cases. Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter gastroenteritis in children and to differentiate the interfering species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods at the Bahonar hospital in Karaj, Iran. Patients and Methods: A total of 150 stool samples were collected from children under 10 years old during the summer of 2014. PCR was performed using genus- and species-specific primers and RFLP was done using AluI and TasI enzymes. Results: The results showed the amplification of 400 and 491 bp segments and Campylobacter contamination in 30 (20% samples; 5 out of 30 Campylobacter positive samples (16.66% were identified as C. jejuni, 20 (66.66% as C. coli, 3 (10% as C. jejuni and C. coli (mixed infection, and 2 (6.66% were identified as non-jejuni, non-coli Campylobacter using the PCR method. Following the evaluation of RFLP results, 7 positive samples (23.33% showed the electrophoretic pattern of C. jejuni, 21 (70% showed the electrophoretic pattern of C. coli, and 2 (6.6% showed both of the patterns and mixed contamination with jejuni and coli species. The results of digestion with TasI did not show any C. lari or C. upsaliensis patterns. Conclusions: The results of this study showed high percentage of Campylobacter contamination in the tested stool samples. The other surprising finding was the high rate of Campylobacter coli positive samples; the difference between the results of PCR using species-specific primers (hipo and asp and the RFLP method (electrophoretic patterns in some of the positive samples confirms the hypothesis of variations in nucleotide sequences of the

  3. Large Sequence Diversity within the Biosynthesis Locus and Common Biochemical Features of Campylobacter coli Lipooligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revez, Joana; Pascoe, Ben; Friedmann, Yasmin; Hitchings, Matthew D.; Stupak, Jacek; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Li, Jianjun; Rossi, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the importance of lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) in the pathogenicity of campylobacteriosis, little is known about the genetic and phenotypic diversity of LOS in Campylobacter coli. In this study, we investigated the distribution of LOS locus classes among a large collection of unrelated C. coli isolates sampled from several different host species. Furthermore, we paired C. coli genomic information and LOS chemical composition for the first time to investigate possible associations between LOS locus class sequence diversity and biochemical heterogeneity. After identifying three new LOS locus classes, only 85% of the 144 isolates tested were assigned to a class, suggesting higher genetic diversity than previously thought. This genetic diversity is at the basis of a completely unexplored LOS structural heterogeneity. Mass spectrometry analysis of the LOSs of nine isolates, representing four different LOS classes, identified two features distinguishing C. coli LOS from that of Campylobacter jejuni. 2-Amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose (GlcN)–GlcN disaccharides were present in the lipid A backbone, in contrast to the β-1′-6-linked 3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-d-glucopyranose (GlcN3N)–GlcN backbone observed in C. jejuni. Moreover, despite the fact that many of the genes putatively involved in 3-acylamino-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (Quip3NAcyl) were apparently absent from the genomes of various isolates, this rare sugar was found in the outer core of all C. coli isolates. Therefore, regardless of the high genetic diversity of the LOS biosynthesis locus in C. coli, we identified species-specific phenotypic features of C. coli LOS that might explain differences between C. jejuni and C. coli in terms of population dynamics and host adaptation. IMPORTANCE Despite the importance of C. coli to human health and its controversial role as a causative agent of Guillain-Barré syndrome, little is known about the genetic and phenotypic diversity of C. coli LOSs. Therefore, we paired C

  4. A systematic review characterizing on-farm sources of Campylobacter spp. for broiler chickens.

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    Agnes Agunos

    Full Text Available Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95 conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32, animals (n = 57, humans (n = 26, environment (n = 54, and water (n = 63. Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping

  5. Disease Burden of 32 Infectious Diseases in the Netherlands, 2007-2011

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    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Mangen, Marie-Josée J.; Wallinga, Jacco; de Melker, Hester E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infectious disease burden estimates provided by a composite health measure give a balanced view of the true impact of a disease on a population, allowing the relative impact of diseases that differ in severity and mortality to be monitored over time. This article presents the first national disease burden estimates for a comprehensive set of 32 infectious diseases in the Netherlands. Methods and Findings The average annual disease burden was computed for the period 2007–2011 for selected infectious diseases in the Netherlands using the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) measure. The pathogen- and incidence-based approach was adopted to quantify the burden due to both morbidity and premature mortality associated with all short and long-term consequences of infection. Natural history models, disease progression probabilities, disability weights, and other parameters were adapted from previous research. Annual incidence was obtained from statutory notification and other surveillance systems, which was corrected for under-ascertainment and under-reporting. The highest average annual disease burden was estimated for invasive pneumococcal disease (9444 DALYs/year; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 8911–9961) and influenza (8670 DALYs/year; 95% UI: 8468–8874), which represents 16% and 15% of the total burden of all 32 diseases, respectively. The remaining 30 diseases ranked by number of DALYs/year from high to low were: HIV infection, legionellosis, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, campylobacteriosis, pertussis, tuberculosis, hepatitis C infection, Q fever, norovirus infection, salmonellosis, gonorrhoea, invasive meningococcal disease, hepatitis B infection, invasive Haemophilus influenzae infection, shigellosis, listeriosis, giardiasis, hepatitis A infection, infection with STEC O157, measles, cryptosporidiosis, syphilis, rabies, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, tetanus, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis. The very low burden for the latter five

  6. House-level risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004

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    Berke Olaf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent rise in consumption of fresh chicken meat and human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's in Iceland led to a longitudinal study of the poultry industry to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Because horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be the most likely source of Campylobacter to broilers, we aimed to identify broiler house characteristics and management practices associated with flock colonization. Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Logistic regression models with a farm random effect were used to analyse the association between flock Campylobacter status and house-level risk factors. A two-stage process was carried out. Variables were initially screened within major subsets: ventilation; roof and floor drainage; building quality, materials and repair; house structure; pest proofing; biosecurity; sanitation; and house size. Variables with p ≤ 0.15 were then offered to a comprehensive model. Multivariable analyses were used in both the screening stage (i.e. within each subset and in the comprehensive model. Results 217 out of 792 flocks (27.4% tested positive. Four significant risk factors were identified. Campylobacter colonization was predicted to increase when the flock was raised in a house with vertical (OR = 2.7, or vertical and horizontal (OR = 3.2 ventilation shafts, when the producer's boots were cleaned and disinfected prior to entering the broiler house (OR = 2.2, and when the house was cleaned with geothermal water (OR = 3.3. Conclusion The increased risk associated with vertical ventilation shafts might be related to the height of the vents and the potential for vectors

  7. A farm-level study of risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004

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    Berke Olaf

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following increased rates of human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's, and their apparent association with increased consumption of fresh chicken meat, a longitudinal study was conducted in Iceland to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Our objective in this study was to identify risk factors for flock colonization acting at the broiler farm level. Methods Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Flock results were collapsed to the farm level, such that the number of positive flocks and the total number of flocks raised were summed for each farm. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data using automated and manual selection methods. Variables of interest included manure management, water source and treatment, other poultry/livestock on farm, and farm size and management. Results The 792 flocks raised during the summer seasons originated from 83 houses on 33 farms, and of these, 217 (27.4% tested positive. The median number of flocks per farm was 14, and the median number of positive flocks per farm was three. Three farms did not have any positive flocks. In general, factors associated with an increased risk of Campylobacter were increasing median flock size on the farm (p ≤ 0.001, spreading manure on the farm (p = 0.004 to 0.035, and increasing the number of broiler houses on the farm (p = 0.008 to 0.038. Protective factors included the use of official (municipal (p = 0.004 to 0.051 or official treated (p = 0.006 to 0.032 water compared to the use of non-official untreated water, storing manure on the farm (p = 0.025 to 0.029, and the presence of other domestic livestock on the farm (p = 0.004 to 0.028. Conclusion

  8. House-level risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Michele T; Martin, Wayne; Reiersen, Jarle; Berke, Olaf; McEwen, Scott A; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Lowman, Ruff

    2007-01-01

    Background The concurrent rise in consumption of fresh chicken meat and human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's in Iceland led to a longitudinal study of the poultry industry to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Because horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be the most likely source of Campylobacter to broilers, we aimed to identify broiler house characteristics and management practices associated with flock colonization. Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Logistic regression models with a farm random effect were used to analyse the association between flock Campylobacter status and house-level risk factors. A two-stage process was carried out. Variables were initially screened within major subsets: ventilation; roof and floor drainage; building quality, materials and repair; house structure; pest proofing; biosecurity; sanitation; and house size. Variables with p ≤ 0.15 were then offered to a comprehensive model. Multivariable analyses were used in both the screening stage (i.e. within each subset) and in the comprehensive model. Results 217 out of 792 flocks (27.4%) tested positive. Four significant risk factors were identified. Campylobacter colonization was predicted to increase when the flock was raised in a house with vertical (OR = 2.7), or vertical and horizontal (OR = 3.2) ventilation shafts, when the producer's boots were cleaned and disinfected prior to entering the broiler house (OR = 2.2), and when the house was cleaned with geothermal water (OR = 3.3). Conclusion The increased risk associated with vertical ventilation shafts might be related to the height of the vents and the potential for vectors such as flies to gain

  9. A farm-level study of risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Michele T; Martin, Wayne; Reiersen, Jarle; Berke, Olaf; McEwen, Scott A; Bisaillon, John-Robert; Lowman, Ruff

    2007-01-01

    Background Following increased rates of human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's, and their apparent association with increased consumption of fresh chicken meat, a longitudinal study was conducted in Iceland to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Our objective in this study was to identify risk factors for flock colonization acting at the broiler farm level. Methods Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Flock results were collapsed to the farm level, such that the number of positive flocks and the total number of flocks raised were summed for each farm. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data using automated and manual selection methods. Variables of interest included manure management, water source and treatment, other poultry/livestock on farm, and farm size and management. Results The 792 flocks raised during the summer seasons originated from 83 houses on 33 farms, and of these, 217 (27.4%) tested positive. The median number of flocks per farm was 14, and the median number of positive flocks per farm was three. Three farms did not have any positive flocks. In general, factors associated with an increased risk of Campylobacter were increasing median flock size on the farm (p ≤ 0.001), spreading manure on the farm (p = 0.004 to 0.035), and increasing the number of broiler houses on the farm (p = 0.008 to 0.038). Protective factors included the use of official (municipal) (p = 0.004 to 0.051) or official treated (p = 0.006 to 0.032) water compared to the use of non-official untreated water, storing manure on the farm (p = 0.025 to 0.029), and the presence of other domestic livestock on the farm (p = 0.004 to 0.028). Conclusion Limiting the average

  10. Disease Risk Assessments Involving Companion Animals: an Overview for 15 Selected Pathogens Taking a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, J M; Cito, F; Cunningham, A A; Rantsios, A T; Giovannini, A

    2016-07-01

    companion animals to become infected were identified for eight of the 14 diseases found in Europe or parts of it. RFAs for leptospirosis were most numerous (four studies). The host related risk factor 'age' was identified as significant for dogs in at least two RFAs for cystic echinococcosis and giardiasis. Among husbandry and healthcare related factors, 'eating (uncooked) offal', 'being free roaming' and 'poor deworming practice' were associated with risk for dogs in at least two RFAs for cystic echinococcosis, while 'having received recent veterinary treatment' was identified as a risk factor in at least two studies on infection with extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing bacteria, one in horses and the other in dogs and cats. Finally, although the environmental factors 'season' and 'hydrological density' were identified as significant risk factors for dogs in at least two RFAs for leptospirosis, the inconsistent case definitions used in those studies made comparison of study results problematic. RFAs considering the risk of people becoming infected from companion animals were identified for eight of the 14 diseases found in Europe or parts of it. RFAs for human campylobacteriosis were the most numerous (n = 6). Most studies made an assessment as to whether keeping a pet per se, or keeping a pet with supposed or known risk factors, was a risk factor for people relative to other risks. This allowed some studies to report the population attributable risk or population attributable fraction of the incidence of human disease due to companion animals (for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis and toxoplasmosis), which is a measure that is easy to perceive for laymen and policy makers. No RFAs were found that dealt with the risk to food animals from companion animals for any of the 15 pathogens investigated. Few risk method-based studies were identified that provided information on risk factors for companion animals and on their role as a source of these 15 selected diseases

  11. Absence of Nucleotide-Oligomerization-Domain-2 Is Associated with Less Distinct Disease in Campylobacter jejuni Infected Secondary Abiotic IL-10 Deficient Mice

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    Markus M. Heimesaat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human Campylobacter jejuni-infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Despite their high prevalence and socioeconomic impact the underlying mechanisms of pathogen-host-interactions are only incompletely understood. Given that the innate immune receptor nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 (Nod2 is involved in clearance of enteropathogens, we here evaluated its role in murine campylobacteriosis. To address this, we applied Nod2-deficient IL-10−/− (Nod2−/− IL-10−/− mice and IL-10−/− counterparts both with a depleted intestinal microbiota to warrant pathogen-induced enterocolitis. At day 7 following peroral C. jejuni strain 81–176 infection, Nod2 mRNA was down-regulated in the colon of secondary abiotic IL-10−/− and wildtype mice. Nod2-deficiency did neither affect gastrointestinal colonization nor extra-intestinal and systemic translocation properties of C. jejuni. Colonic mucin-2 mRNA was, however, down-regulated upon C. jejuni-infection of both Nod2−/− IL-10−/− and IL-10−/− mice, whereas expression levels were lower in infected, but also naive Nod2−/− IL-10−/− mice as compared to respective IL-10−/− controls. Remarkably, C. jejuni-infected Nod2−/− IL-10−/− mice were less compromised than IL-10−/− counterparts and displayed less distinct apoptotic, but higher regenerative cell responses in colonic epithelia. Conversely, innate as well as adaptive immune cells such as macrophages and monocytes as well as T lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells, respectively, were even more abundant in large intestines of Nod2−/− IL-10−/− as compared to IL-10−/− mice at day 7 post-infection. Furthermore, IFN-γ concentrations were higher in ex vivo biopsies derived from intestinal compartments including colon and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in systemic tissue sites such as the spleen of C. jejuni infected Nod2−/− IL-10−/− as compared to IL10−/− counterparts. Whereas, at day

  12. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

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    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus