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Sample records for campylobacter

  1. Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  2. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... reactive arthritis or Guillain-Barre syndrome. To prevent Campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  3. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the most common Campylobacter species associated with diarrhea . Common ways that a child can get the ... and Symptoms Illness caused by Campylobacter infections includes diarrhea, stomach pain, and fever. Blood may be present ...

  4. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Campylobacter Questions and Answers What is Campylobacter ? What harm can Campylobacter bacteria ... divisions/dfbmd/diseases/campylobacter/ [ Top of Page ] Campylobacter Questions and Answers Last Modified Aug 07, 2013 ').tablesorter({debug:false}). ...

  5. Campylobacter enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensh, R S; Brand, M H; Troncale, F J; McKinley, M J; Scholhamer, C F

    1981-06-01

    We report four patients with bloody diarrhea and colitis from Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni. Two patients had dogs with Campylobacter fetus in their stools. All patients responded rapidly and completely to erythromycin therapy. Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni is now a relatively common cause of enterocolitis, more common than salmonella or shigella. When the organism causes short-lived water diarrhea, a definitive diagnosis is not necessary. In a patient with bloody diarrhea and acute colitis, the clinician should pursue Campylobacter fetus as a potential offender, recognizing that acute colitis from Campylobacter fetus is clinically and and pathologically indistinguishable from any other acute colitis.

  6. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  7. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...

  8. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material......Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  9. Media for Campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite their recent elaboration and the many variations in antibiotic combinations designed to attain selectivity, highly selective liquid and solid culture media for Campylobacter jejuni have proved satisfactory provided they are incubated at about 42°C and in a microaerophilic atmosphere such as

  10. Enteric campylobacter: purging its secrets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crushell, Ellen; Harty, Sinead; Sharif, Farhana; Bourke, Billy

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacterial infections are the most common cause of bacterial enterocolitis in humans. Among children, especially in developing countries, Campylobacter infections can cause severe life-threatening diarrheal disease. Although usually associated with a benign outcome in the developed world, the burden of illness posed by Campylobacter infections is enormous, and serious neurologic sequelae also can occur. For a variety of reasons our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of Campylobacter infection has lagged far behind that of other enteric pathogens. However, recent completion of the genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni promises to open up the Campylobacter research field with the prospect of developing novel therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  11. Campylobacter Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    In several countries quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) have been performed for Campylobacter in chicken meat. The models constructed for this purpose provide a good example of the development of QMRA in general and illustrate the diversity of available methods. Despite...... the differences between the models, the most prominent conclusions of the QMRAs are similar. These conclusions for example relate to the large risk of highly contaminated meat products and the insignificance of contamination from Campylobacter positive flocks to negative flocks during slaughter and processing...

  12. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  13. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te

  14. Campylobacter enterocolitis in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K; Ertan, A; Janney, A; Cook, M E; Mather, F; Akdamar, K

    1983-07-01

    Campylobacter is being increasingly recognized as a common pathogen producing acute diarrheal illness. During 1981, all stool cultures at Charity Hospital were routinely screened for Campylobacter. Twenty-nine of 2,233 total cultures were positive. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the disease's clinical picture and epidemiologic features. Campylobacter-positive cultures comprised 1.3% of all stool specimens and 21.6% of all positive cultures. Age, sex, and race in the Campylobacter group did not differ significantly from a comparison group. The distribution of the rates of Campylobacter-positive cultures did not show temporal trends. The clinical symptoms were nonspecific and the disease was usually self-limited, with diarrhea lasting from seven to ten days in untreated patients. The disease may occasionally be confused with a nonspecific inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, it is important that stool cultures be routinely screened for Campylobacter so that appropriate therapy can be administered.

  15. Kip, consument en Campylobacter: infectieziektebestrijding met consumentenvoorlichting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Nauta, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Pluimveevlees is een belangrijke bron van Campylobacter en Campylobacter is een belangrijke verwekker van gastro-enteritis in Nederland. Maatregelen die gericht zijn op het terugbrengen van het aantal Campylobacter-bacteriën in pluimveevlees, bieden geen garantie op Campylobacter-vrij vlees.

  16. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for identification of Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamazaki-Matsune, Wataru; Taguchi, Masumi; Seto, Kazuko; Kawahara, Ryuji; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Kumeda, Yuko; Kitazato, Miyoshi; Nukina, Masafumi; Misawa, Naoaki; Tsukamoto, Teizo

    2007-01-01

    ...{at}iph.pref.osaka.jp Received 26 April 2007 Accepted 9 July 2007 A multiplex PCR assay has been developed for the identification of the six common Campylobacter taxa associated with human gastroenteritis...

  17. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  18. Vaccination of chickens against Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoete, de M.R.; Putten, J.P.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial entero-colitis in humans and is associated with the occurrence of life-threatening auto-immune based neurological disorders. Chickens, which are often heavily colonized with Campylobacter without signs of pathology, are

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice ...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter.......Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...

  20. PRESENCE OF RESISTANCE IN CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava Kocić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There are 18 species belonging to the genus of Campylobacter (rRNK group I, of which thermophilic ones are the following: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis. The aim of our research was to determine the sensitivity of Campylobacter species, isolated from human feces, to antibiotics being used in practice. The study involved 50 human strains of C. jejuni/coli isolated from feces in the Center for Microbiology in the Public Health Institute Nis. Sensitivity was tested by applying the disk diffusion method on seven antibiotics (erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, hloramphenicol, cephalexin and nalidixic acid. Our results showed low resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin and tetracycline (2%, which corresponds to the studies conducted in the world. Moreover, these findings indicate that erythromycin may be considered the drug of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea in this region. Resistance to fluoroquinolone and nalidixic acid was 44%, and C. coli showed higher resistance compared to C. jejuni, though statistical significance was not proved.

  1. Recent developments in Campylobacter pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereswill, Stefan; Kist, Manfred

    2003-10-01

    The Campylobacter species jejuni and coli are leading causes of enteritis and enterocolitis worldwide. Arthritis, Reiter syndrome, and Guillain-Barré syndrome represent post-infectious sequelae. Although the acute and chronic clinical manifestations highlight Campylobacter species as excellent models for the identification of mechanisms involved in pathogenesis, detailed investigations at the molecular level are complicated by the fastidious growth requirements of the bacteria and by the tremendous variability displayed by Campylobacter isolates. Thus, research activities in this field constitute a substantial challenge for scientists of many different disciplines. The genome information has greatly stimulated investigations at the molecular level and the resulting modern research trends lead to a better understanding of Campylobacter-associated diseases providing the basis for new developments in prevention and therapy. This review summarizes results from the most recent investigations in the field of Campylobacter pathogenesis. Topics include genome analysis, surface structures and post-infectious complications, adaptation, host cell interaction and cell toxicity. During its coevolution with human and other vertebrate hosts, Campylobacter species have developed specific survival strategies, which are required for host adaptation and establishment in the intestinal environment. The bacterial factors involved in these processes are the subject of intensive research activities. With a focus on molecular aspects of the most important human pathogen, C. jejuni, this review intends to summarize the recent trends and developments in Campylobacter research by highlighting selected publications in the field of microbial pathogenesis.

  2. New, extended biotyping scheme for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and "Campylobacter laridis".

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H.

    1984-01-01

    A biotyping scheme using improved media and methods for the detection of hippurate hydrolysis, rapid H2S production, and DNA hydrolysis was applied to 1,826 cultures of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and "Campylobacter laridis" isolates from human and nonhuman sources. Four biotypes were identified among C. jejuni: 57.3% of the isolates belonged to biotype I; 36.0%, to biotype II; 4.0%, to biotype III; and 2.7%, to biotype IV. C. coli organisms were differentiated into biotype I (67...

  3. Survival and resuscitation of ten strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveerach, P.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2003-01-01

    The culturability of 10 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was studied after the bacteria were exposed to acid conditions for various periods of time. Campylobacter cells could not survive 2 h under acid conditions (formic acid at pH 4). The 10 Campylobacter strains could not be

  4. Campylobacter jejuni: enterocolitis and myopericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzand, B S N; Ilhan, M; Heesen, W F; Meeder, J G

    2010-09-24

    Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is the commonest enteric infection in the developed world. There are only few reported cases in the medical literature of cardiac complications associated with C. jejuni enterocolitis, most of the patients in the reported literature were males and most of the cases followed a benign course. Severe left ventricular dysfunction complicated only two cases of C. jejuni myocarditis. We report here a young male with Campylobacter myopericarditis. We believe that this is the first reported case of Campylobacter associated myopericarditis in The Netherlands. The mechanism by which Campylobacter causes myo(peri)carditis remains uncertain, it may be caused by direct bacterial invasion of cardiac tissue, bacterial toxins, circulating immune complexes, or cytotoxic T-cells. Since the number of C. jejuni infection is increasing worldwide, cardiac complications, although rare, are a remarkable manifestation of this pathogen and should be always kept in mind. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  6. Campylobacter as a venereal disease in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Visser, I.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Pastoor, P.W.; Strampel, J.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of AI, venereal diseases caused by Tritrichomonas fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis haved been eradicated in The Netherlands. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus can cause sporadic abortion and early embryonic death. When natural breeding is practised, venereal

  7. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a

  8. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Oyofo, B A; Thornton, S A; Burr, D H; Trust, T J; Pavlovskis, O R; Guerry, P

    1992-01-01

    Development of a routine detection assay for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaA gene of C. coli VC167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by PCR. The primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of C. coli and 47 strains of C. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis, ...

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry are recognized as a main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, longitudinal studies investigating the persistence of Campylobacter on broilers and retail chciekn meat in Tanzania are rare. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. isolated ...

  10. CAMPYLOBACTER ENTERITIS AMONG CHILDREN IN DEMBIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    Dec 12, 2000 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven ... Campylobacter species can cause infection in all age groups but the ..... stereotype distribution of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated.

  11. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  12. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26062576

  13. Campylobacter bacteremia: A rare and under-reported event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.; Vliet, van A.H.M.; Belkum, van A.; Hays, J.P.; Endtz, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are

  14. Lipooligosaccharide of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houliston, R. Scott; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Li, Jianjun; St. Michael, Frank; Karwaski, Marie-France; Brochu, Denis; Jarrell, Harold C.; Parker, Craig T.; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Mandrell, Robert E.; Gilbert, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is well known for synthesizing ganglioside mimics within the glycan component of its lipooligosaccharide (LOS), which have been implicated in triggering Guillain-Barré syndrome. We now confirm that this pathogen is capable of synthesizing a much broader spectrum of host glycolipid/glycoprotein mimics within its LOS. P blood group and paragloboside (lacto-N-neotetraose) antigen mimicry is exhibited by RM1221, a strain isolated from a poultry source. RM1503, a gastroenteritis-associated strain, expresses lacto-N-biose and sialyl-Lewis c units, the latter known as the pancreatic tumor-associated antigen, DU-PAN-2 (or LSTa). C. jejuni GC149, a Guillain-Barré syndrome-associated strain, expresses an unusual sialic acid-containing hybrid oligosaccharide with similarity to both ganglio and Pk antigens and can, through phase variation of its LOS biosynthesis genes, display GT1a or GD3 ganglioside mimics. We show that the sialyltransferase CstII and the galactosyltransferase CgtD are involved in the synthesis of multiple mimic types, with LOS structural diversity achieved through evolving allelic substrate specificity. PMID:21257763

  15. CAMPYLOBACTER ENTERITIS IN ILORIN, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-09-09

    Sep 9, 2006 ... Objective: To determine the role of Campylobacter jejuni!coli as an agent of diarrhoea in the middle- belt of Nigeria. Design: A prospective case control study. Setting: University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), private hospitals and primary health centers all in Ilorin, Nigeria. Subjects: Three hundred and ...

  16. Inflammasome activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Lieneke I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341590797; de Zoete, Marcel R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483419X; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; Flavell, Richard A; van Putten, Jos P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069916527

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. In this study, we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse

  17. Virulence strategies of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, Lieke van

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease, causing approximately 400 million human cases of enterocolitis world wide each year. Many cases can be attributed to foreign travel, making it one of the most important causative agents of traveller's diarrhea.

  18. Experimental Campylobacter Jejuni Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Blaser MJI Black RE. Duncan DJ, Amer I. Campylobacter Clements ML, Robins-Brone R, Lim Y-L. Duration of jejuni -specific serum antibodies are elevated in...SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING •4UMBERS Experimental Campylobacter jejuni Infection 86PP6826 in Humans 61102A 30161102BS13 AB6. AUTHOR(S)DA328 Robert E. Black...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Contract Title: Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development ൔa• DISTRIBUTION

  19. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Norkrans, G.; Svedhem, A.

    1982-01-01

    An epidemiological study on Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was performed in an urban Swedish community. The study included 55 patients gathered during a six-month period. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) were infected outside Sweden. Campylobacter enterocolitis was rare among children within the country. Patients infected in Sweden had eaten chicken significantly more often than a corresponding control group. Seven out of nine chicken consuming campylobacter patients also had prepared t...

  20. Survey of chicken abattoir for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L.L. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled carcasses were collected in six chicken abattoirs. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was performed in Campylobacter spp.-positive isolates using the gene HIP, specific for hippuricase enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni and aspartokinase gene, specific to detect Campylobacter coli. The percentage of positive isolates of Campylobacter jejuni was 4.9% (14/288. Isolation was greater in feces samples (22%, 8/36. One sample was positive for the species C. coli. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to improve quality control for Campylobacter spp. in chicken abattoirs.O gênero Campylobacter tem grande destaque em saúde pública, principalmente por pertencerem a este gênero várias espécies que podem causar diarréia. Estas espécies podem ser encontradas em amostras de água, alimentos e no trato intestinal das aves. Este estudo investigou a presença de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves no Estado de São Paulo. As 288 amostras foram coletadas em seis estabelecimentos e incluíram: fezes; penas; água de escaldamento, de evisceração e de resfriamento; e água de enxaguadura de carcaça não eviscerada, eviscerada e resfriada. Após o isolamento microbiológico das amostras positivas de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR utilizando o gene HIP, da hipuricase, específico para Campylobacter jejuni e o gene da enzima aspartoquinase, específico para Campylobacter coli. A

  1. Campylobacter colitis: Rare cause of toxic megacolon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kwok, MBBS

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Toxic megacolon should be considered in a patient with Campylobacter colitis who becomes critically unwell. Despite treatment, toxic megacolon is associated with a significant risk of mortality.

  2. Substrate utilization by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, H.N.; Rollins, D.M.; Weiss, E.

    1986-10-01

    An attempt was made to elucidate in Campylobacter spp. some of the physiologic characteristics that are reflected in the kinetics of CO/sub 2/ formation from four /sup 14/C-labeled substrates. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were grown in a biphasic medium, and highly motile spiral cells were harvested at 12 h. The cells were incubated with 0.02 M glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, or formate, or with concentrations of these substrates ranging from 0.0032 to 0.125 M. All four substrates were metabolized very rapidly by both species. A feature of many of these reactions, particularly obvious with /sup 2/chemically bond-ketoglutarate, was an immediate burst of CO/sub 2/ production followed by CO/sub 2/ evolution at a more moderate rate. These diphasic kinetics of substrate utilization were not seen in comparable experiments with Escherichia coli grown and tested under identical conditions. With C. jejuni, CO/sub 2/ production from formate proceeded rapidly for the entire period of incubation. The rate of metabolism of glutamate, glutamine, and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate by both species was greatly enhanced by increased substrate concentration. The approach to the study of the metabolism of campylobacters here described may be useful in detecting subtle changes in the physiology of cells as they are maintained past their logarithmic growth phase.

  3. Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Hippurate Hydrolase of Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Marina; Gyles, Carlton; Chan, Voon Loong; Odumeru, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Eleven monoclonal antibodies raised against recombinant Campylobacter jejuni hippurate hydrolase were tested for binding to lysates from 19 C. jejuni strains, 12 other Campylobacter strains, and 21 non-Campylobacter strains. Several monoclonal antibodies bound to C. jejuni but not to other Campylobacter species and may be useful in a species-specific immunoassay.

  4. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Compuesto bactericida contra Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Gañan, M.; Carrascosa, Alfonso V.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Adolfo J.

    2008-01-01

    Compuesto bactericida contra Campylobacter jejuni. Uso de algunos compuestos fenólicos como agentes antibacterianos contra C jejuni. Además de sus usos para conservación de alimentos, suplemento alimenticio para animales y para la elaboración de una composición farmacéutica para el tratamiento de enfermedades causadas por C. jejuni, debido a su actividad frente a este microorganismos.

  6. Milk-borne campylobacter infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D A; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    The common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. C jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. Pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. In England and Wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk s...

  7. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  8. Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. namely, Campylobacter jejuni and coli cause acute diarrheal diseases in humans worldwide; although these species are known to occur in the intestinal tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Objective: Little is known about the presence of these bacteria in ...

  9. Integrated approach leads to less Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Hald, Birthe; Borck Høg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information.......Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information....

  10. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  11. Quantifying transmission of Campylobacter spp. among broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.J.; Bouma, A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Broek, van den E.W.F.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter species are frequently identified as a cause of human gastroenteritis, often from eating or mishandling contaminated poultry products. Quantitative knowledge of transmission of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is necessary, as this may help to determine the moment of introduction of

  12. Campylobacter jejuni strategies to evade hostile environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaezirad, M.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311482384

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of human bacterial foodborne disease in the western world. Each year hundreds of millions of cases of Campylobacter infection occur worldwide. After a few weeks, the infection may be followed by serious auto-immune diseases like the Guillain-Barre

  13. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-01-01

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and

  14. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly foc...

  15. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkrans, G.; Svedhem, A.

    1982-01-01

    An epidemiological study on Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was performed in an urban Swedish community. The study included 55 patients gathered during a six-month period. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) were infected outside Sweden. Campylobacter enterocolitis was rare among children within the country. Patients infected in Sweden had eaten chicken significantly more often than a corresponding control group. Seven out of nine chicken consuming campylobacter patients also had prepared the fresh chicken alone, and none of their family members became ill. Thus the preparation of food contaminated with Campylobacter seems to elevate the risk for contracting the disease. Sick household pets transmitted the campylobacter infection to two patients. Forty-six of the patients had a total of 85 close household members. Three definite secondary cases were found. There was no evidence of transmission of Campylobacter by food prepared by two cooks who were working while still being asymptomatic excreters. Clinical reinfection with Campylobacter was observed in one patient. No patients became long-term carriers of Campylobacter. PMID:7097000

  16. Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Abstract. Background: Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. namely, Campylobacter jejuni and coli cause acute diarrheal diseases in humans ... Objective: Little is known about the presence of these bacteria in various food animals as possible sources of infection to humans in .... The preventive measures for reducing bacterial ...

  17. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  18. Campylobacter-Associated Diseases in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Yaeger, Michael; Wu, Zuowei; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-02-08

    Campylobacter includes a group of genetically diverse species causing a range of diseases in animals and humans. The bacterium is frequently associated with two economically important and epidemiologically distinct reproductive diseases in ruminants: enzootic infectious infertility in cattle owing to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and abortions in sheep, goats, and cattle. Septic abortion, usually epizootic in sheep, has been historically associated with C. fetus subsp. fetus and to a lesser extent with Campylobacter jejuni. However, there has been a dramatic species shift in the etiology of Campylobacter abortions in recent years: C. jejuni has now replaced C. fetus subsp. fetus as the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States, which appears to be driven primarily by clonal expansion of a hypervirulent tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone. Here we provide a review on the recent advances in understanding the pathobiology of Campylobacter infections in animals, with an emphasis on the diseases in ruminants, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, genomics, and control measures.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370804465; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/080432565; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Duim, Birgitta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143855352

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species.

  20. Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Ana L.L.; Carvalho, Angela C.F.B.; Scarcelli, Eliana; Miyashiro, Simone; Vidal-Martins, Ana M.C.; Bürger, Karina P.

    2006-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled c...

  1. Survey of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in different taxa and ecological guilds of migratory birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fioretti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 169 faecal samples were collected from migrating birds, belonging to the Order of Passeriformes, in Campania region in order to isolate Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 of the 169 birds examined (23.1%. Among these 36 were identified as C. jejuni and the remaining strains were identified as Campylobacter coli. Given the high isolation rates wild birds could be considered natural reservoir of infection.

  2. Survey of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in different taxa and ecological guilds of migratory birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Sensale

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 169 faecal samples were collected from migrating birds, belonging to the Order of Passeriformes, in Campania region in order to isolate Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 of the 169 birds examined (23.1%. Among these 36 were identified as C. jejuni and the remaining strains were identified as Campylobacter coli. Given the high isolation rates wild birds could be considered natural reservoir of infection.

  3. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  4. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli EM CARCAÇAS DE FRANGO RESFRIADAS E CONGELADAS

    OpenAIRE

    Cisco, Isabel Cristina; Tedesco, Denise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Santos, Suelen Priscila; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Santos, Luciana Ruschel dos

    2017-01-01

    Resumo Espécies de Campylobacter spp. termotolerantes são agentes de surtos de campilobacteriose em humanos e os produtos de origem avícola são considerados uma importante fonte de infecção. Foram identificados Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em carcaças de frango resfriadas e congeladas coletadas em três abatedouros entre 2014 e 2015. A detecção de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada por microbiologia convencional e a identificação de C. jejuni e C. coli por multiplex-PCR. Dentre as a...

  6. Campylobacter jejuni : An emerging pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne diarrhea in many countries. However, in some countries, a number of cases were undetected because of the inappropriate detection method and ignorance. Although C. jejuni usually does not cause death in health adults, it can be deadly for immunocompromised persons (Pigrau, et al., 1997. Although thought to be very susceptible in several conditions, C. jejuni in fact is quite prevalent in nature. It can easily cause sporadic cases and outbreaks resulting in economic loss. This review covers three major parts: clinical aspects of Campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni reservoirs and transmission, and methods for detection.

  7. The role of radiology in Campylobacter enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Ponette, E.; Baert, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology); Lacquet, F.; Verbist, L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Microbiology); Rutgeerts, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    A series of 18 patients with diarrhoea and positive stool cultures for Campylobacter jejuni is presented. The most important radiological features were thickening of ileal mucosal folds, of interhaustral indentations and of the ileocaecal valve, lymphoid hyperplasia and microulcerations. Radiology, as well as endoscopy, are both non-specific in Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. The importance of radiology is to exclude more typical features of other causes of inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover, before the result of the stool culture is available, the radiological features should suggest the suspicion of an acute infectious enterocolitis by Campylobacter jejuni as possible diagnosis. (orig.).

  8. The role of radiology in Campylobacter enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaerel, P; Ponette, E; Lacquet, F; Verbist, L; Rutgeerts, P; Baert, A L

    1989-05-01

    A series of 18 patients with diarrhoea and positive stool cultures for Campylobacter jejuni is presented. The most important radiological features were thickening of ileal mucosal folds, of interhaustral indentations and of the ileocaecal valve, lymphoid hyperplasia and microulcerations. Radiology, as well as endoscopy, are both nonspecific in Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. The importance of radiology is to exclude more typical features of other causes of inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover, before the result of the stool culture is available, the radiological features should suggest the suspicion of an acute infectious enterocolitis by Campylobacter jejuni as possible diagnosis.

  9. Campylobacter ureolyticus: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bullman, Susan

    2011-03-01

    A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen.

  10. Molecular and Statistical Analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Carriage in Wildlife and Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the carriage of Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter among livestock and mammalian wildlife on Ontario farms, and (ii) investigate the potential sharing of Campylobacter subtypes between livestock and wildlife. Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms in 2010, we assessed associations, using mixed logistic regression models, between Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter carriage and the following explanatory variables: animal species (beef, dairy, swine, raccoon, other), farm type (swine, beef, dairy), type of sample (livestock or wildlife) and Campylobacter species (jejuni, coli, other). Models included a random effect to account for clustering by farm where samples were collected. Samples were subtyped using a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative fingerprinting assay. A total of 92 livestock and 107 wildlife faecal samples were collected, and 72% and 27% tested positive for Campylobacter, respectively. Pooled faecal samples from livestock were significantly more likely to test positive for Campylobacter than wildlife samples. Relative to dairy cattle, pig samples were at significantly increased odds of testing positive for Campylobacter. The odds of isolating Campylobacter jejuni from beef cattle samples were significantly greater compared to dairy cattle and raccoon samples. Fifty unique subtypes of Campylobacter were identified, and only one subtype was found in both wildlife and livestock samples. Livestock Campylobacter isolates were significantly more likely to exhibit antimicrobial resistance (AMR) compared to wildlife Campylobacter isolates. Campylobacter jejuni was more likely to exhibit AMR when compared to C. coli. However, C. jejuni isolates were only resistant to tetracycline, and C.  coli isolates exhibited multidrug resistance patterns. Based on differences in prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and resistant Campylobacter between

  11. [Campylobacter enterocolitis complaining of melena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, I; Yamaguchi, H; Hirai, M; Miki, M

    1991-06-01

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of 5 episodes of melena without abdominal pain or diarrhea. No abnormalities were noted through an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but a proctoscopy revealed a large amount of coagulated blood within the rectum immediately before his admission. A colonoscopy revealed spotty redness with dark-red coagulation in the region from the splenic flexure down to the rectum except oral colon beyond the transverse colon. A presumptive diagnosis of campylobacter enterocolitis was made by a microscopy performed on the stool specimen, then an oral administration of erythromycin was started. A colonoscopy done on the 5th hospital day proved improvement on the mucosal changes. The final diagnosis of campylobacter enterocolitis was made by the stool culture. The patient took a satisfactory course of hospitalization and was discharged on the 10th day. Bacteriological examination of stool specimen together with endoscopy has been confirmed to be useful for the diagnosis of melena cases without manifestation of infectious enterocolitis.

  12. Campylobacter upsaliensis isolated from a breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C; Lamothe, F

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter upsaliensis is a rare human pathogen recovered so far only from stools or blood from patients with enterocolitis or bacteremia. We report the isolation of C. upsaliensis from a breast abscess. PMID:1583149

  13. Campylobacter upsaliensis isolated from a breast abscess.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C; Lamothe, F

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter upsaliensis is a rare human pathogen recovered so far only from stools or blood from patients with enterocolitis or bacteremia. We report the isolation of C. upsaliensis from a breast abscess.

  14. Human Volunteer Studies with Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    AD-A271 892 1 April 1993 Reprint Human Volunteer Studies with Campylobacter jejuni Army Project Order 90PP0820 Robert E. Black, Daniel Perlman, Mary...the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development Approved for public release; distribution unlimited NTxxeISfl RFor...C. jejuni results in diarrhea cosa visualized on a microscopic study of rectal with fecal leukocytes and blood, similar to nat- biopsy specimens

  15. Presence of antibodies against campylobacter flagellar capping proteins versus campylobacter jejuni isolation in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human cases have been linked to consumption and/or handling of contaminated poultry products. Although Campylobacter jejuni is commonly regarded as a commensal in broiler cecal micro...

  16. Inaccuracy of routine susceptibility tests for detection of erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.T.; Claas, E.C.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both an increase in and regional differences in erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli have been reported. To determine the accuracy of routine tests for erythromycin resistance, 48 erythromycin-resistant isolates from various laboratories that

  17. Selective medium for growth of Campylobacter in containers incubated aerobically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Campylobacter are traditionally cultured in primary containers inside of secondary containers filled with microaerobic atmospheres. Recent findings indicated that media supplemented with optimal concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, and bicarbonate support Campylobacter growth ...

  18. Campylobacter bacteremia: a rare and under-reported event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, R.; van Baarlen, P.; van Vliet, A. H. M.; van Belkum, A.; Hays, J. P.; Endtz, H. P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with both host factors and bacterial factors being involved in the pathogenesis of bacteremia. In the host, age, gender and immune-compromising conditions may predispose for Campylobacter infections, whilst the most important bacterial determinants mentioned in the literature are cytotoxin production and flagellar motility. The role of sialylated lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) and serum resistance in bacteremia is inconclusive at this time, and the clinical significance of Campylobacter bacteremia is not yet fully understood. More emphasis on the detection of Campylobacter species from blood cultures in susceptible patients at risk for Campylobacter infections will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis and the relevance of Campylobacter bacteremia. PMID:24611124

  19. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The vector potential of flies (Diptera: Brachycera) for spread of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on 5 Danish broiler farms was evaluated in a longitudinal field study from April to November 2004. First, the prevalence of C. jejuni- and C. coli-positive flies was determined in 2...... houses was estimated by trapping of insects (n = 5,936) in ventilation vents. In total, 31 flies (28 of which were of the Muscidae family) caught in farm surroundings were Campylobacter spp.-positive (C. jejuni, n = 7; C. coli, n = 23; other Campylobacter spp., n = 1). Musca domestica (L) (house fly...... caesar (L) (green bottle fly) of the Calliphoridae family and 2 flies of unidentified species were also positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flies varied from 0.0 in April to a peak of 16.3% in July and decreasing to 2.0% in October on a farm with pig production. On 4 broiler farms...

  20. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  2. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  3. The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is known to occur in the intestinal systems of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause acute diarrhoeal diseases in humans worldwide, they mostly manifest themselves in an apparently healthy carrier state in ...

  4. The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Abstract. Background: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is known to occur in the intestinal systems of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause acute diarrhoeal diseases in humans worldwide, they mostly manifest themselves in an apparently healthy ...

  5. Use of Culture, PCR Analysis, and DNA Microarrays for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Chicken Feces

    OpenAIRE

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens; Bunkenborg, Henrik; Telleman, Pieter; Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2004-01-01

    A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp. detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter je...

  6. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. El-Zamkan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli. Results: Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6% samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli. Conclusion: Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard.

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zamkan, Mona A; Hameed, Karima G Abdel

    2016-10-01

    This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each) were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli. Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6%) samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli. Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard.

  9. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identifi cation and Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria R; Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Ivanov, Ivan N; Petrov, Peter K; Velev, Valeri R; Tomova, Ivelina I; Tiholova, Maida M; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causative agents of gastrointestinal infections in humans. The most frequently isolated strains of this bacterial genus are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. To date, genetic methods for bacterial identification have not been used in Bulgaria. We optimized the multiplex PSR assay to identify Campylobacter spp. and differentiate C. jejuni from C. coli in clinical isolates. We also compared this method with the routinely used biochemical methods. To identify Campylobacter spp. and discriminate C. coli from C. jejuni in clinical isolates using multiplex PCR assay. Between February 2014 and January 2015 we studied 93 stool samples taken from patients with diarrheal syndrome and identified 40 species of Campylobacter spp. in them. The clinical material was cultured in microaerophilic atmosphere, the isolated strains being biochemically diff erentiated (hydrolysis of sodium hippurate for C. jejuni, and hydrolysis of indoxyl acetate for C. coli). DNA was isolated from the strains using QiaAmp MiniKit (QIAGEN, Germany). Twenty strains were tested with multiplex PCR for the presence of these genes: cadF, characteristic for Campylobacter spp., hipO for C. jejuni and asp for C. coli. The biochemical tests identified 16 strains of C. jejuni, 3 strains of C. coli, and 1 strain of C. upsaliensis. After the multiplex PCR assay the capillary gel electrophoresis confirmed 16 strains of C. jejuni, 2 strains of C. coli and 2 strains of Campylobacter spp. - because of the presence of the gene cadF. C. jejuni has the gene hipO, and it is possible that this gene may not be expressed in the biochemical differentiation yielding a negative reaction as a result. In comparison, we can conclude that the genetic differentiation is a more accurate method than the biochemical tests. The multiplex PCR assay is a fast, accurate method for identifi cation of Campylobacter spp. which makes it quite necessary in the clinical diagnostic practice.

  10. Identification of Chicken Originated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, Hasan Basri; ÇETİNKAYA, Burhan; MUZ, Adile; ÖNGÖR, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate Campylobacter species from the intestines and livers of chicken and to identify Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by both conventional methods and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Four specific primers derived from the ceuE gene present in the genomes of C. coli and C. jejuni were used for PCR identification. In the examination of 150 intestine and liver samples by culture and PCR, 25 (16.6%) and 32 (21.3%) were identified as C. coli and C...

  11. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL), arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL) and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL). A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campyl...

  13. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon V. R. Epps

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions.

  14. Campylobacter enterocolitis in a neonatal nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, M A; Norrish, B; Lior, H; Heyes, B; Monteath, A; Montgomery, H

    1984-06-01

    During a five-day period, four neonates in a neonatal nursery developed Campylobacter entercolitis. Investigations suggested that cross-infection or common-source infection were unlikely and that the neonates acquired their infection during delivery from their respective mothers, three of whom were also found to harbour Campylobacter jejuni in their stools. This suggestion was confirmed with use of the Lior serotyping system in a blind fashion. Each neonate was infected with a different serotype, and each of the three culture-positive mothers had the same serotype as her neonate. Examination of multiple colonies from the stools of five individuals showed that each was likely to have been infected by only one serotype. The presenting clinical features in the four neonates provides further evidence that neonatal Campylobacter entercolitis typically manifests as a benign, self-limited, nonfebrile, diarrheal illness with bloody stools.

  15. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon V. R.; Harvey, Roger B.; Hume, Michael E.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Anderson, Robin C.; Nisbet, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions. PMID:24287853

  16. Use of culture, PCR analysis, and DNA microarrays for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from chicken feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    . detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. By PCR and capillary electrophoresis, 95% of the samples were positive...... for Campylobacter spp., whereas with DNA microarrays all samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. By application of DNA microarray analysis, the isolates in 4 samples (6%) could not be identified to the species level, whereas by PCR-capillary electrophoresis, the isolates in 12 samples (19%) remained......A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp...

  17. Campylobacter enteritis: early diagnosis with Gram's stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D D; Ault, M J; Ault, M A; Murata, G H

    1982-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has become one of the most important causes of infectious diarrhea in the United States. We examined the utility of Gram's stain of stool for the rapid presumptive diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis in a large, urban hospital and found that this test has a sensitivity of 43.5% and a specificity of 99.4%. We believe that Gram's stain of stool could be used to direct the early management of up to one half of patients infected with this pathogen.

  18. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Danish broilers at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wedderkopp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims : To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli isolates from Danish poultry at the farm level, as well as for the whole country. Methods and Results : Data and isolates were collected from a national surveillance of Campylobacter in poultry......-resistant variant. Conclusions : Overall, quinolone resistance among Campylobacter isolates from Danish broilers was 7.5% in 1998 and 1999; it was higher among Camp. coli than Camp. jejuni . Genetic diversity among resistant isolates was lower than among susceptible isolates, and certain clones existed in both...... a resistant and a susceptible variant. Some resistant clones appeared to persist on the farms and were repeatedly isolated from poultry flocks. Significance and Impact of the Study : The study is important for the understanding of persistence and dynamics of Campylobacter in broiler houses. It also highlights...

  19. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp....... The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results...

  20. Evaluation of 11 PCR assays for species-level identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jordan, Penelope J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity and specificity of 11 PCR assays described for the species identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using 111 type, reference, and field strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and Campylobacter lari. For six assays, an additional 21 type strains...... representing related Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species were also included. PCR tests were initially established in the laboratory by optimizing conditions with respect to five type and reference strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. One PCR test for C. coli failed to give appropriate...... gave amplicons in four of seven C. jejuni PCR tests only where purified DNA was used as the template; corresponding results were seen with one strain of C. coli in each of three assays for the latter species. Our findings indicate that a polyphasic strategy for PCR-based identification should be used...

  1. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    feeding on a diet of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stables were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P birds foraging further away from the farm or in the air. Age......, fat score, gender, and migration range were not found to be associated with Campylobacter spp. carriage. A correlation was found between the prevalence (%) of C. jejuni in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. jejuni in both manure on cattle farms (R-2 = 0.92) and poultry farms (R-2 = 0...... food of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin and foraging on the ground close to livestock were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. than those foraging further away or hunting in the air. These findings suggest that wild birds may play a role in sustaining the epidemiology of Campylobacter...

  2. Prevalence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat in Croatia and Multilocus Sequence Typing of a Small Subset of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Humski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in Croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86 %. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35 % of the samples, respectively. In 4.98 % of isolates thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were not determined. The multi locus sequence typing method was used to evaluate genetic diversity of eight Campylobacter jejuni and four Campylobacter coli isolates. To our knowledge, these results of genotyping provided the first data on the presence of sequence types (STs and clonal complexes (CCs of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates in Croatia. By applying the multilocus sequence typing, a new allele of tkt gene locus was discovered and marked tkt508. The C. jejuni ST 6182 and C. coli ST 6183 genotypes were described for the fi rst time, and all other identified genotypes were clustered in the previously described sequence types and clonal complexes. These findings provide useful information on the prevalence and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Croatia.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  4. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  5. Interaction of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli with lectins and blood group antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, K H; Skelton, S K; Feeley, J C

    1985-01-01

    Lectins and blood group antibodies were used to probe the surface structures of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Of the 29 strains tested, there were distinct reaction patterns. The lectin-reactive and blood group antibody-reactive sites on the bacterial surface were distinguishable from the heat-stable (lipopolysaccharide) antigenic determinants. The interactions were strain specific. The reactive sites were stable with respect to culture media and passage and may be useful as ad...

  6. Growth of non-Campylobacter, oxidase-positive bacteria on selective Campylobacter agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, L B; Chester, B

    1982-01-01

    A total of 67 oxidase-positive, gram-negative bacteria were tested for growth on selective Campylobacter agar (Blaser formulation, BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) at 42 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions. Although the growth of most of these bacteria was prevented, all strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes grew as well as Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

  7. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serotyping of Campylobacter jejuni/coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, J. D.; Dale, B.; Eldridge, J.; Jones, D. M.; Sutcliffe, E M

    1980-01-01

    Antisera were prepared from strains of Campylobacter jejuni/coli isolated from patients in six outbreaks of enteritis. Bactericidal antibodies, and agglutinating antibodies to heat-labile and heat-stable antigens, were demonstrated. These reactions were used to type a number of strains isolated from patients in each outbreak, and to distinguish 'epidemic' from 'non-epidemic' strains.

  9. Prevalence and molecular identification of Campylobacter species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and molecular identification of Campylobacter species isolates from poultry and humans were conducted using culture, biochemical reaction and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) techniques. A total of 798 (506 poultry and 292 human) samples were identified biochemically, out of which 312(39.1%) were ...

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter foetus and Trichomonas foetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis are diseases caused by Trichomonas foetus and Campylobacter foetus respectively. These diseases pose economic losses due to infertility and abortion. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of C. foetus and T. foetus among southern African cattle.

  11. Campylobacter enteritis among children in Dembia District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven villages found in the outskirts of Kolla Diba town were covered. The town is located 35 kilometres away from Gondar teaching hospital. Participants: Stool specimens were ...

  12. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G.; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2015-01-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence

  13. Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from raw milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Lovett, J; Francis, D W; Hunt, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from raw milk by a method that can routinely detect less than or equal to 1 organism per ml. This procedure was used in a survey of 195 separate farms and showed a 1.5% incidence of C. jejuni in milk from bulk tanks.

  14. Prevalence, haemolysis and antibiograms of Campylobacters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-24

    Jan 24, 2011 ... isolates were subsequently stored at -80°C in brain heart infusion ... These cells were thoroughly suspended in a drop of reagent 1. The loop was allowed to stay in this reagent for 3 min. Two drops of extraction reagent 2 was added to ... to Mast diagnostic Campylobacter kits consisting of urease, indoxyl.

  15. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Though Campylobacter enteritis is a self-limiting disease, antimicrobial agents are recommended for extraintestinal infections and for treating immunocompromised persons. Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin are drugs of choice. The rate of resistance to these drugs is increasing in both developed and developing ...

  16. Molecular characterization of thermophilic Campylobacter species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We identified two species of thermophilic Campylobacter in companion dogs in Jos. Majority of C. jejuni were isolated from mucoid faeces while mixed infections of the two species were more common among diarrhoeic dogs. Pet owners should observe strict hand hygiene especially after handling dogs or their faeces to ...

  17. Prevalence, haemolysis and antibiograms of Campylobacters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-24

    Jan 24, 2011 ... We investigated the prevalence, haemolytic activities and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of. Campylobacter species isolated from pigs in three farms in the Venda region, Limpopo province, South. Africa. During the period of investigation, which spanned over one year, 450 faeces samples from pigs.

  18. Prevalence, haemolysis and antibiograms of Campylobacters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the period of investigation, which spanned over one year, 450 faeces samples from pigs comprising 150 each from the three farms were collected and appropriately transported to the base laboratory at the Department of Microbiology, University of Venda for analysis. In total, the prevalence rate of Campylobacter ...

  19. Detection of Campylobacter concisus and Other Campylobacter Species in Colonic Biopsies from Adults with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Thomson, John M.; Hansen, Richard; Berry, Susan H.; El-Omar, Emad M.; Hold, Georgina L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The critical role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is well recognized, but an individual causative microorganism has not been singled out so far. Campylobacter concisus and other non-jejuni species of Campylobacter have been implicated as putative aetiological agents in inflammatory bowel disease in children, but such studies have not been addressed in adults. This study investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter species in colonic biopsy samples from adults with UC and healthy controls. Methods Adult patients who were undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were recruited for the study, which included 69 patients with histologically proven UC and 65 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from the biopsy samples and subjected to Campylobacter genus specific and Campylobacter concisus specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Results Detection of all Campylobacter DNA utilising genus specific primers was significantly higher in cases of UC, with a prevalence of 73.9% (51/69) compared to 23.1% (15/65) in controls (p = 0.0001). Nested PCR for C. concisus DNA was positive in 33.3% (23/69) of biopsy samples from subjects with UC, which was significantly higher than the prevalence rate of 10.8% (7/65) from controls (p = 0.0019). Sequencing of the remaining Campylobacter positive samples revealed that Campylobacter ureolyticus was positive in 21.7% (15/69) of samples from UC subjects as opposed to 3.1% (2/65) in controls (p = 0.0013). Mixed Campylobacter species were more common in UC patients, 20.3% (14/69) as compared to controls 4.6% (3/65) (p = 0.0084). Conclusion The higher prevalence of Campylobacter genus and more specifically C. concisus and C. ureolyticus in biopsy samples from adults with UC suggests these genera of bacteria may be involved in the chronic inflammation that is characteristically seen in UC. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of this association of C. concisus and C

  20. Detection of Campylobacter concisus and other Campylobacter species in colonic biopsies from adults with ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Mukhopadhya

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The critical role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC is well recognized, but an individual causative microorganism has not been singled out so far. Campylobacter concisus and other non-jejuni species of Campylobacter have been implicated as putative aetiological agents in inflammatory bowel disease in children, but such studies have not been addressed in adults. This study investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter species in colonic biopsy samples from adults with UC and healthy controls. METHODS: Adult patients who were undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were recruited for the study, which included 69 patients with histologically proven UC and 65 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from the biopsy samples and subjected to Campylobacter genus specific and Campylobacter concisus specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RESULTS: Detection of all Campylobacter DNA utilising genus specific primers was significantly higher in cases of UC, with a prevalence of 73.9% (51/69 compared to 23.1% (15/65 in controls (p = 0.0001. Nested PCR for C. concisus DNA was positive in 33.3% (23/69 of biopsy samples from subjects with UC, which was significantly higher than the prevalence rate of 10.8% (7/65 from controls (p = 0.0019. Sequencing of the remaining Campylobacter positive samples revealed that Campylobacter ureolyticus was positive in 21.7% (15/69 of samples from UC subjects as opposed to 3.1% (2/65 in controls (p = 0.0013. Mixed Campylobacter species were more common in UC patients, 20.3% (14/69 as compared to controls 4.6% (3/65 (p = 0.0084. CONCLUSION: The higher prevalence of Campylobacter genus and more specifically C. concisus and C. ureolyticus in biopsy samples from adults with UC suggests these genera of bacteria may be involved in the chronic inflammation that is characteristically seen in UC. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of this association of C. concisus

  1. Foodborne Disease Prevention and Broiler Chickens with Reduced Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003–2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006–2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks. PMID:23628089

  2. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks......) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp....... positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during the summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among...

  3. Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis presenting as inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quondamcarlo, C; Valentini, G; Ruggeri, M; Forlini, G; Fenderico, P; Rossi, Z

    2003-10-01

    We report a case of Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis presenting as inflammatory bowel disease in a 19-year old woman. After a useless course of corticosteroids, ceftazidime and metronidazole, she was successfully treated with erythromicin. Campylobacter species represent an important cause of gastroenteritis in children and adults. The rate of Campylobacter isolation is 5-6 per 100,000 persons. This rate, however, grossly understimates the actual number of Campylobacter infections. In most cases, Campylobacter enteritis is a self-limiting disease, rarely associated with severe complications. Our case demonstrates the difficulty in distinguishing inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis) at onset from atypical infectious colitis. Unfortunately, corticosteroids (necessary for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease) may exacerbate infectious etiologies. Campylobacter jejuni should be ruled out when assessing inflammatory bowel diseases at onset (as during flare-ups), especially if corticosteroids or immunosuppressive therapies are required.

  4. Participation of some campylobacter species in the etiology of enterocolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Otašević Marica M.; Lazarević-Jovanović Branislava; Tasić-Dimov Desanka; Đorđević Nebojša; Miljković-Selimović Biljana G.

    2004-01-01

    Background. In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowdays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the dema...

  5. Campylobacter in the environment: A major threat to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hasan Abulreesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that Campylobacter remains a worldwide leading cause of gastrointestinal infections. Improperly prepared meat products, unpasteurized milk as well as non chlorinated drinking water were shown to be the main sources of campylobacteriosis. The Campylobacter survival mechanism in various environments facilitated the transmission of Campylobacter-associated infections; however the exact mode of transmission remains to be elucidated. This review aims to summarize recent insights on the incidence and survival of Campylobacter in the environment. Besides, methods of detection and risk assessment for public health safety are also addressed.

  6. High-resolution genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; On, Stephen L.W.

    1999-01-01

    A method for high-resolution genomic fingerprinting of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, based on the determination of amplified fragment length polymorphism, is described. The potential of this method for molecular epidemiological studies of these species...... to available epidemiological data. We conclude that this amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting method may be a highly effective tool for molecular epidemiological studies of Campylobacter spp....

  7. The Prevalence of Antibiotic and Biocide Resistance Among Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni from Different Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mavri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance among foodborne bacteria are recognised as an important emerging public health problem. Reduced susceptibility to biocides also appears to be increasing. A potential concern is the possibility that the widespread use of biocides is responsible for the selection and maintenance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Here, we examine the prevalence of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate, cetylpyridinium chloride, trisodium phosphate and sodium dodecyl sulphate resistance among 27 isolates of Campylobacter coli and 15 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from food, animal, human and environmental water sources. These antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the broth microdilution method. In the 42 Campylobacter strains studied, different antibiotic resistance levels were seen. The resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin was observed in 14.3 % of Campylobacter strains. A higher rate of erythromycin resistance and multi-resistance was observed among isolated C. coli than among C. jejuni strains. Similar situations were seen for triclosan. Conversely, the level of benzalkonium chloride resistance was higher in C. jejuni than in C. coli. No correlation between biocide and antibiotic resistance was observed. This study does not provide evidence to confirm that tolerance to biocides is connected to antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli recovered from organic turkey farms in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Ahmed, Marwa F E; Hotzel, Helmut; Tomaso, Herbert; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Hartung, Joerg; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hafez, Hafez M

    2015-11-01

    The popularity of food produced from animals kept under an organic regimen has increased in recent years. In Germany, turkey meat consumption has increased. Despite several studies assessing the susceptibility of campylobacters to various antibiotics in poultry, no sufficient data exists regarding the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacters in organic-reared turkeys. This study provides information about antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolated from turkeys reared on organic farms in Germany. Ninety-six Campylobacter strains (41 C. jejuni and 55 C. coli) were isolated from different free-range turkey flocks. In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done using a broth microdilution test, and the presence of resistance genes to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline) was investigated. All Campylobacter isolates from organic turkeys (n = 96) were phenotypically sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol. In this study, the antibiotic susceptibilities of C. jejuni to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and naladixic acid were 56.0%, 51.3%, and 56.0%, respectively. In contrast, 44.0%, 73.0%, and 74.6% of C. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid, respectively. Replacement of the Thr-86→Ile in the gyrA gene, and the presence of the tet(O) gene were the mainly identified resistance mechanisms against fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, respectively.These results also reinforce the need to develop strategies and implement specific control procedures to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Rapid detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari in food, using multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A M; Lick, S; Bauer, J; Thärigen, D; Busch, U; Huber, I

    2010-02-01

    A multiplex real-time PCR assay based on four differently labeled TaqMan probes for detection and differentiation of the thermophilic Campylobacter species C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari was established and validated in food products. This assay combines two previously published PCR assays for C. jejuni and C. coli with a newly developed detection assay for C. lari and an internal amplification control system. The selectivity of the method was determined by analyzing 70 Campylobacter strains and 43 strains of other bacteria. The sensitivity was 50 fg of C. jejuni and C. lari DNA and 500 fg of C. coli DNA per PCR. It was possible to detect 1 to 10 CFU/25 g of food before preenrichment of all three species. More than 400 samples of various foods (poultry, seafood, and meat) were analyzed after 48 h of preenrichment parallel to the conventional diagnostic method of culture and biochemical identification. Using the established real-time PCR assay, 55.4% of the samples were recognized as positive for thermophilic Campylobacter species, whereas with the conventional method only 40.3% of the samples were positive. The real-time PCR assay also detected contaminations with two different Campylobacter species in 32.6% of the analyzed poultry samples, a finding of epidemiological interest. Compared with the original PCR method, which was established for the differentiation of bacterial isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli, this new method also detects and distinguishes C. lari, was validated as an analytical tool for food analysis, and provides reliable and extensive results within 2 days.

  10. Detection and isolation of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni from children with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Man, Si Ming; Day, Andrew S; Leach, Steven T; Lemberg, Daniel A; Dutt, Shoma; Stormon, Michael; Otley, Anthony; O'Loughlin, Edward V; Magoffin, Annabel; Ng, Patrick H Y; Mitchell, Hazel

    2009-02-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species other than Campylobacter jejuni and antibodies to Campylobacter concisus in children were investigated. A significantly greater presence of C. concisus and higher levels of antibodies to C. concisus were detected in children with Crohn's disease (CD) than in controls. Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni were isolated from intestinal biopsy specimens of children with CD.

  11. Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter Species Other than C. jejuni from Children with Crohn's Disease▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Man, Si Ming; Andrew S. Day; Steven T. Leach; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Dutt, Shoma; Stormon, Michael; Otley, Anthony; O'Loughlin, Edward V.; Magoffin, Annabel; Ng, Patrick H. Y.; Mitchell, Hazel

    2008-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species other than Campylobacter jejuni and antibodies to Campylobacter concisus in children were investigated. A significantly greater presence of C. concisus and higher levels of antibodies to C. concisus were detected in children with Crohn's disease (CD) than in controls. Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni were isolated from intestinal biopsy specimens of children with CD.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. A clinicopathologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, T; Lambert, J R; Newman, A; Luk, S C

    1980-11-01

    Sixteen patients with diarrhea due to Campylobacter jejuni seen within a one-year period at a general hospital were studied to review the clinical and pathological features of this illness. Campylobacter jejuni causes an acute diarrheal illness often associated with fever, delayed-onset hematochezia, and severe abdominal pain. Roentgenographically, one may see colonic and ileal ulceration. Sigmoidoscopically, the rectal appearance is similar to that from acute idiopathic ulcerative colitis, while rectal biopsy specimens show preservation of glandular architecture and a range of focal inflammatory changes. These changes are most severe in patients with a history of frank blood in stool, provided the specimens are taken within the first week of illness. No correlation between stool frequency, abdominal pain, or fever and the severity of proctitis in rectal biopsy specimens can be drawn, which suggests that the pathogenic determinants for thesse clinical manifestations may not be in the rectum, but higher in the colon or in the small intestine.

  13. Acute myocarditis secondary to Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, A J; Crilley, J G; Hall, J A

    2008-10-01

    Myocarditis is a rare condition that can mimic an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We present the case of a 24-year-old male with Noonan syndrome who presented with a diarrhoeal pro-dromal illness, acute onset chest pain, elevated cardiac biomarkers and an abnormal ECG with ST elevation in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. The patient had acute myocarditis secondary to Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. Infective myocarditis is most commonly due to a viral infection. Myocarditis is very rarely due to a bacterial infection with only isolated reports of myocarditis induced by Campylobacter jejuni infection. At follow-up he remains well. Myocarditis should be considered in all patients presenting with acute onset chest pain and elevated cardiac biomarkers.

  14. Combined Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Rapid Testing and Molecular Epidemiology in Conventional Broiler Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallegger, G; Muri-Klinger, S; Brugger, K; Lindhardt, C; John, L; Glatzl, M; Wagner, M; Stessl, B

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial zoonosis, most often transmitted by contaminated poultry meat. From an epidemiological and risk assessment perspective, further knowledge should be obtained on Campylobacter prevalence and genotype distribution in primary production. Consequently, 15 Austrian broiler flocks were surveyed in summer for their thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination status. Chicken droppings, dust and drinking water samples were collected from each flock at three separate sampling periods. Isolates were confirmed by PCR and subtyped. We also compared three alternative methods (culture-based enrichment in Bolton broth, culture-independent real-time PCR and a lateral-flow test) for their applicability in chicken droppings. Twelve flocks were found to be positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. during the entire sampling period. Seven flocks (46.6%) were contaminated with both, C. jejuni and C. coli, five flocks harboured solely one species. We observed to a majority flock-specific C. jejuni and C. coli genotypes, which dominated the respective flock. Flocks within a distance jejuni genotypes indicating a cross-contamination event via the environment or personnel vectors. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of C. jejuni revealed that the majority of isolates were assigned to globally distributed clonal complexes or had a strong link to the human interface (CC ST-446 and ST4373). The combination of techniques poses an advantage over risk assessment studies based on cultures alone, as, in the case of Campylobacter, occurrence of a high variety of genotypes might be present among a broiler flock. We suggest applying the lateral-flow test under field conditions to identify 'high-shedding' broiler flocks at the farm level. Consequently, poultry farmers and veterinarians could improve hygiene measurements and direct sanitation activities, especially during the thinning period. Ultimately, real-time PCR could be applied to quantify

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  17. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Campylobacter: pathogenicity and significance in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzler, J P; Oosterom, J

    1991-01-01

    In the last 10 years Campylobacter jejuni has emerged as the most frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in man. Acute enterocolitis, the most common presentation of C. jejuni infection, can affect persons of all ages. C. jejuni has been found in virtually every country where investigations have been carried out. The frequent finding of dysenteric stools suggests that mucosal damage due to an invasive process analogous to that seen in shigellosis is important in the pathogenesis. Campylobacteriosis in man is mainly a foodborne infection in which foods of animal origin, particularly poultry, play an important role. Epidemiological investigations have demonstrated a significant correlation between the handling and consumption of poultry meat and the occurrence of Campylobacter enteritis. Barbecues appear to present special hazards for infection, because they permit easy transfer of bacteria from raw meats to hands and other foods and from these to the mouth. Milk is sometimes found to be contaminated and consumption of raw milk has caused several outbreaks of campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter can remain viable in fresh cheese for only a short period of time. The organism is also found in shellfish, such as clams. Campylobacter is probably very vulnerable to factors such as high temperatures and dry environments, and also to the presence of oxygen in atmospheric concentrations. Therefore, it is assumed that the organism does not persist in products like pelleted feed, meals, egg powder and spices, which are often contaminated by Salmonella. A number of preventive measures on different levels, taken simultaneously, are needed to reduce the incidence of campylobacteriosis in man.

  19. Campylobacter hyoilei Alderton et al. 1995 and Campylobacter coli Veron and Chatelain 1973 are subjective synonyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, P.; VanDoorn, L.J.; AlRashid, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The taxonomic affiliation of Campylobacter hyoilei was reevaluated by examining a variety of phenotypic and genotypic criteria. Whole cell protein electrophoresis and a comparison of 66 phenotypic characters revealed that reference strains of C. hyoilei were indistinguishable from Campylobacter...... coli strains, These data were confirmed by a DNA-DNA hybridization level of 67% between the type strains of the two species. Several species-specific assays based on PCR amplification or probe hybridization further substantiated that C, coli strains and C, hyoilei strains are indistinguishable...

  20. Update on human Campylobacter jejuni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Tribble, David R

    2011-01-01

    The present review will update the reader to the clinical, epidemiological and immunologic advances in the field of human campylobacteriosis. New advances in human campylobacteriosis include an increased appreciation of the role of Campylobacter jejuni in postinfectious sequelae, a broadened understanding of Campylobacter-associated disease burden and the interplay between host immunity and bacterial factors. Antibiotic management has also become more complex: C. jejuni has undergone a rapid increase in resistance to the fluoroquinolone antibiotics and concurrently, postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome has been associated with a longer duration of untreated infection. In anticipation of new candidate C. jejuni vaccines, progress in understanding human immune responses to infection has been made via human experimental infections. These tightly controlled studies have also increased our understanding of the natural history of campylobacteriosis as well as observations of recrudescent infection following treatment with C. jejuni-sensitive antibiotics. As one of the most common agents of bacterial gastroenteritis and a major health burden for both developing world and industrialized nations, Campylobacter infections remain a high priority for research efforts to improve prevention and management. Priorities for the future include vaccine development, pathogen-specific immunity and identification of risk factors for postinfectious sequelae.

  1. Host-pathogen interactions in Campylobacter infections: the host perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Cawthraw, S.A.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Owen, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. This study was aimed at summarizing the current understanding of host mechanisms involved in the defense against Campylobacter by evaluating data available from three sources: (i) epidemiological observations, (ii)

  2. Preventing Campylobacter at the Source: Why Is It So Difficult?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; French, N.P.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is the most common recognized bacterial zoonosis in the European Union and the United States. The acute phase is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. The long-term sequelae (Guillain-Barre syndrome, reactive

  3. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Campylobacter infections occur worldwide. A recent study in Kampala, Uganda, found that 87% of broiler chickens had Campylobacter jejuni; these are potential source of human infection. Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with ...

  4. Campylobacter and Toll-like receptors : implications for vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative highly motile bacterium that colonizes the intestinal tract of humans, leading to inflammation of the intestinal mucosal layer. Campylobacter-induced enteritis causes (bloody) diarrhea, cramps, malaise and fever, which resolves within two weeks. In a small

  5. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  6. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  7. The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    CampyGen® gas generating kits (5% O2 and 10% CO2). (Oxoid, UK) at 42oC for 48 hours. The growth of thermophilic campylobacters was detected by their ..... P, Tytgat R, De Ley J. Revision of Campylobacter,. Helicobacter, and Wolinella taxonomy: Emendation of generic descriptions and proposal of Arcobacter gen. nov.

  8. Generation of Campylobacter jejuni genetic diversity in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Achterberg, R.P.; Putten, van J.P.M.; Schouls, L.M.; Duim, B.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology studies suggest that horizontal genetic exchange is a major cause of pathogen biodiversity. We tested this concept for the bacterial enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni by seeking direct in vivo evidence for the exchange of genetic material among Campylobacter strains. For

  9. Vaccination of poultry against Campylobacter in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen in the European Union (EU) since 2005. Reportedly, 212,064 humans have been confirmed ill in 2010 due to a Campylobacter infection in the EU. The major source of infection, among sporadic human cases is to be found in...

  10. Campylobacter: animal reservoirs, human infections, and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap; Newell, D.G.; Kalupahana, R.S.; Mughini Gras, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  11. Cellular response of Campylobacter jejuni to trisodium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Cohn, M. T.; Stabler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The highly alkaline compound trisodium phosphate (TSP) is used as an intervention to reduce the load of Campylobacter on poultry meat in U.S. poultry slaughter plants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular responses of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 when exposed to sublethal...

  12. Campylobacter pylori as possible factor in peptic ulcer recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, E. A.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the literature up to 1988 about the close association of Campylobacter pylori with chronic active gastritis, duodenitis and peptic ulcer disease. No firm data however demonstrate that Campylobacter pylori causes duodenal ulcer but long term eradication of this bacterium prevents

  13. Relationship between Presence of Anti-Campylobacter FliD Protein Antibodies and Campylobacter jejuni Isolation from Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Poultry products are regarded as a major source of this bacterium for human infection. Although this bacterium is a commensal in chicken cecal microbiome, Campylobacte...

  14. Risk factors for indigenous Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections in The Netherlands: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduyn, Y.; Brandhof, van den W.E.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.H.P.; Breukink, B.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Pelt, van W.

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study comprising 1315 Campylobacter jejuni cases, 121 Campylobacter coli cases and 3409 frequency-matched controls was conducted in The Netherlands in 2002-2003. Risk factors for both C. jejuni and C. coli enteritis were consumption of undercooked meat and barbecued meat, ownership of

  15. Computer-assisted analysis and epidemiological value of genotyping methods for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Duim, B.; Rigter, A.; Plas, J. van der; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    For epidemiological tracing of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli, reliable and highly discriminatory typing techniques are necessary. In this study the genotyping techniques of flagellin typing (flaA typing), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated ribotyping,

  16. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection. In this

  17. Higher resistance of Campylobacter coli compared to Campylobacter jejuni at chicken slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralbo, Alicia; Borge, Carmen; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Méric, Guillaume; Perea, Anselmo; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2015-04-01

    In order to compare the prevalence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni during the processing of broilers at slaughterhouse a total of 848 samples were analyzed during 2012 in southern Spain. Four hundred and seventy six samples were collected from cloaca, carcass surfaces and quartered carcasses. Moreover, 372 environmental swabs from equipment and scalding water were collected. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and gentamicin was determined for isolates from chicken meat. The general prevalence of Campylobacter was 68.8% (40.2% of C. coli and 28.5% of C. jejuni). The relative prevalence of C. coli increased from loading dock area (41.5%) to packing area (64.6%). In contrast, the relative prevalence of C. jejuni decreased from 58.5% to 35.4%. These differences between species from initial to final area were significant (p=0.02). The highest antimicrobial resistance for C. jejuni and C. coli was detected to tetracycline (100%) and ciprofloxacin (100%), respectively. Campylobacter coli showed an antimicrobial resistance significantly higher than C. jejuni to streptomycin (p=0.002) and erythromycin (p<0.0001). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection and quantification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using real-time multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, N; Kovač, M; Piskernik, S; Možina, S Smole; Jeršek, B

    2012-04-01

    We describe a real-time quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction (qmPCR) assay to identify and discriminate between isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Two novel sets of primers and hydrolysis probes were designed to amplify the unique DNA sequences within the hipO, ccoN and cadF genes that are specific to Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli. Using the designed optimized qmPCR assay conditions, the amplification efficiency is in range from 108 to 116%. These qmPCR assays are highly specific for Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli, as seen through testing of 40 Campylobacter strains and 17 non-Campylobacter strains. In chicken juice and tap water models spiked with known quantities of Camp. jejuni, qmPCR detected 10(2) -10(3) CFU ml(-1) within 4 h. The qmPCR assays developed in this study provide reliable and simultaneous detection and quantification of Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli, with good amplification reaction parameters. Following further validation, the qmPCR assay reported here has the potential to be applied to various sample types as an alternative and rapid methodology. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M.; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Boer, de Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; Pelt, Van Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water

  20. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    puppies and 42 healthy kittens, aged between 11 and 17 weeks, were sampled for fecal campylobacter shedding by culture of rectal swab specimens on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 32 mg/liter and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter and on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 8 mg/liter, teicoplanin...

  1. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    : The highest Campylobacter spp. prevalence was seen in 110 out of 178 thrushes (61.8 %), of which the majority were Common Blackbird (Turdus merula), and in 131 out of 616 sparrows (21.3 %), a guild made up of House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus). In general, birds...

  2. Exploring PFGE for Detecting Large Plasmids in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Various Retail Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya Marasini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in retail meat, particularly poultry, and is a leading cause of diarrhea in humans. Studies related to Campylobacter large plasmids are limited in the literature possibly due to difficulty in isolating them using available alkaline lysis methods. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of plasmids, particularly large ones, in Campylobacter spp. isolated from various Oklahoma retail meats, and to explore PFGE (Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis as a tool in facilitating the detection of these plasmids. One hundred and eighty nine strains (94 Campylobacter jejuni and 95 Campylobacter coli were screened for the presence of plasmids using both alkaline lysis and PFGE. Plasmids were detected in 119/189 (63% using both methods. Most of the plasmids detected by alkaline lysis were smaller than 90 kb and only three were larger than 90 kb. Plasmids over 70 kb in size were detected in 33 more strains by PFGE of which 11 strains contained larger than 90 kb plasmids. Plasmids were more prevalent in Campylobacter coli (73.5% than in Campylobacter jejuni (52%. BglII restriction analysis of plasmids isolated from 102 isolates revealed 42 different restriction patterns. In conclusion, PFGE was able to detect large plasmids up to 180 Kb in Campylobacter spp. which might have been missed if the alkaline lysis method was solely used. Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail meats harbor a diverse population of plasmids with variable sizes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use PFGE to detect large plasmids in Campylobacter.

  3. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Copyright

  4. Participation of some campylobacter species in the etiology of enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otašević Marica M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowdays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the demanding features of Campylobacter, as well as poorly equipped microbiological laboratories, campylobacteriosis is insufficiently studied in our country. This investigation aimed to determine the participation of some Campylobacter species in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in our population. Methods. The four-years continuous monitoring of Campylobacter presence was performed in the faeces of 12 605 patients with enterocolitis. The control group included 5 774 examinees of healthy children and youth. Faeces samples were cultivated on Skirrow's selective medium, and further incubated according to effective methodology for Campylobacter. Identification of strains was based on morphological, cultural and physiologic features of strains (oxidase test, catalase test, susceptibility to nalidixic acid, and hypurate hydrolysis. As a statistical method, for data processing, c2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used. Results. Campylobacter was proven in 3.86% of enterocolitis patients, and in 0.71% of healthy population. Out of 518 Campylobacter isolates, 86.48% belonged to enterocolitis outpatients, and 13,51% to inpatients. Predominant symptoms of the disease were diarrhea (81.83%, increased temperature (34.71%, vomiting (19.77%, and stomach pain (15.17%. The diseased were predominantly infants in the first year of life. Out of 300 Campylobacter isolates, 75% were identified as Campylobacer jejuni, 23% as Campylobacter coli (C. coli, and 2% as Campylobacter lari

  5. CAMPYLOBACTER LARI AND CAMPYLOBACTER UPSALIENSIS -NEW ENTITIES IN THE CAMPYLOBACTERIOSES ETIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Tasić

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The campylobacterioses are diseases occurring in people and animals and they are caused by the bacteria of the Campylobacter gender. The Campylobacter gender today comprises 15 species though the status of some of them has not been precisely defined yet. Most of them are isolated from the material of human origin; but with the exception of C. jejuni and C. coli, the other species are of less importance for human medicine. Beside C. jejuni and C. coli today there are other species of the Campylobacters acknowledged as the human pathogens in immune-compromised persons, homosexuals and in overall human population. The gender representative, C. fetus subsp. fetus, has been confirmed as the main cause of abortion in sheep and cows; it is rarely recognized in human pathology but once it is found it is usually in immunedeficient persons. Since 1984 in scientific literature in the world new entities in the campylobacterioses have been described. Campylobacter lari is a potentially pathogenic species that is rarely described. The pathogenic potential of this bacteria for people is for the first time confirmed in 1984 in the description of a case of fatal bacterioremia caused bu C. lari in some immune-compromised patients. C. lari is described as the cause of enteritis, gastroenteritis, appendicitis and purulent pleuritis. The gastroenteritis epidemic caused by C. lari was described in 1985; itemerged in an area inhabited by sea-gulls. C. upsaliensis is today confirmed as a Campylobacter species causing diarrhea and bacteremia in healthy and immune-compromised persons. This microorganism can be even more frequent cause of gastroenteritis than shown by official data.

  6. A decision support system for the control of Campylobacter in chickens at farm level using data from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, A. B.; Madsen, A. L.; Vigre, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The control of Campylobacter in poultry is considered a public health priority and some intervention strategies have been implemented in Denmark. Nonetheless, Campylobacter infection in poultry can still be considerable particularly during the summer when the most promising Campylobacter control ...

  7. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Fakhr

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL, arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL. A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (512–2,048 μg/mL, and arsenate (128–1,024 μg/mL, but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4–16 μg/mL. Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3, 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR. The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates.

  8. Climate variability and campylobacter infection: an international study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari Kovats, R.; Edwards, Sally J.; Charron, Dominique; Cowden, John; D'Souza, Rennie M.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Gauci, Charmaine; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Hajat, Shakoor; Hales, Simon; Hernández Pezzi, Gloria; Kriz, Bohumir; Kutsar, Kuulo; McKeown, Paul; Mellou, Kassiani; Menne, Bettina; O'Brien, Sarah; Pelt, Wilfrid; Schmid, Hans

    2005-03-01

    Campylobacter is among the most important agents of enteritis in developed countries. We have described the potential environmental determinants of the seasonal pattern of infection with campylobacter in Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Specifically, we investigated the role of climate variability on laboratory-confirmed cases of campylobacter infection from 15 populations. Regression analysis was used to quantify the associations between timing of seasonal peaks in infection in space and time. The short-term association between weekly weather and cases was also investigated using Poisson regression adapted for time series data. All countries in our study showed a distinct seasonality in campylobacter transmission, with many, but not all, populations showing a peak in spring. Countries with milder winters have peaks of infection earlier in the year. The timing of the peak of infection is weakly associated with high temperatures 3 months previously. Weekly variation in campylobacter infection in one region of the UK appeared to be little affected by short-term changes in weather patterns. The geographical variation in the timing of the seasonal peak suggests that climate may be a contributing factor to campylobacter transmission. The main driver of seasonality of campylobacter remains elusive and underscores the need to identify the major serotypes and routes of transmission for this disease.

  9. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  10. A Campylobacter coli foodborne outbreak in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronveaux, O; Quoilin, S; Van Loock, F; Lheureux, P; Struelens, M; Butzler, J P

    2000-01-01

    In May 1995, the Scientific Institute of Public Health was informed of an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a congregational school in the Brussels area. The field investigation identified 24 cases with mild to severe gastrointestinal and general symptoms of acute bacterial enterocolitis. Campylobacter coli was detected in the stools of 5 patients. A retrospective cohort study suggested that a mixed salad (containing ham and feta cheese) was the probable source of infection, but the route of contamination remained unknown. The rapid investigation of such episodes of collective foodborne infections is essential for the implementation of adequate control measures.

  11. Reversible expression of flagella in Campylobacter jejuni.

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, M. B.; Guerry, P; Lee, E C; Burans, J. P.; Walker, R I

    1985-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni 81116 and A3249 undergo a bidirectional transition between flagellated (Fla+) and aflagellated (Fla-) phenotypes. When measured in culture medium, the Fla+----Fla- transition occurred at a rate of 3.1 X 10(-3) to 5.9 X 10(-3) per cell per generation, and the Fla- to Fla+ transition occurred at a rate of 4.0 X 10(-7) to 8.0 X 10(-7) per cell per generation. However, passage through a rabbit intestine markedly favored the Fla+ phenotype.

  12. Prevalence of Campylobacter concisus in diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Permin, Henrik; On, Stephen L W

    2002-01-01

    The importance of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni/coli in diarrhoeal disease is largely unknown. We wished to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of C. concisus infection in patients with enteric disease in a tertiary hospital. Stool specimens were routinely tested...... for the presence of Campylobacter species, by use of the filter isolation method. The medical records of the C. concisus-positive patients were reviewed. Of 224 Campylobacter isolates obtained, 110 were identified as C. concisus. Concomitant infection occurred in only 27% of cases. By means of protein profiling we...

  13. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  14. Survey of thermotolerant Campylobacter in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fioretti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus in Southern Italy. To achieve this goal, 60 cloacal swabs were collected. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 52 out of 60 cloacal swabs tested. As proved by PCR, 100% of the strains were identified as C. coli (52/52, and 10 out of the 52 (19.2% positive samples were also positive to C. jejuni. The pheasant, can be considered, at least theoretically, as potential Campylobacter carriers.

  15. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR Approach for Assessing Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Colonization in Broiler Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Katrin; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a major public health concern in developed countries, with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry recognized as the main source of human infection. Identification of Campylobacter-positive broiler herds before slaughter is essential for implementing measures to avoid carryover of pathogens via the slaughter process into the food chain. However, appropriate methods that have been validated for testing poultry flocks antemortem are lacking for Campylobacter. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) that allows simultaneous detection and quantification of C. jejuni and C. coli was adapted and optimized to be applied on boot socks. The adjusted qPCR serves as an easy, sensitive, and quantitative method for Campylobacter detection in poultry flocks antemortem by analysis of boot socks. An adequate correlation was found between qPCR and culture, as well as between boot socks and cecal samples, which are regarded as the "gold standard." Therefore, boot sock sampling followed by qPCR analysis provides a reliable and simple method for assessing Campylobacter load within a flock prior to slaughter. The approach allows categorization of broiler herds into negative, low, moderate, or high Campylobacter colonization. Based on the results of this new approach, risk assessment models, such as evaluating the possible effect of sorting flocks before slaughter, can be easily implemented. Similarly, targeted identification of highly colonized flocks for improvement of biosecurity measures at the farm level will become feasible, presenting an opportunity to increase food safety.

  16. Oral Campylobacter species: Initiators of a subgroup of inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2015-08-21

    In recent years, a number of studies detected a significantly higher prevalence of Campylobacter species such as Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) in intestinal biopsies and fecal samples collected from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to controls. Most of these Campylobacter species are not of zoonotic origin but are human oral Campylobacter species. Bacterial species usually cause diseases in the location where they colonize. However, C. concisus and other oral Campylobacter species are associated with IBD occurring at the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that these Campylobacter species may have unique virulence factors that are expressed in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Occurrence and genotypes of Campylobacter species in broilers during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yin, Tiantian; Du, Xueqing; Yang, Wenbin; Huang, Jinlin; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-04-01

    Poultry are the main source of Campylobacter infection worldwide. To obtain information on Campylobacter-infected flocks and create a reference for preventing and controlling Campylobacter at farm level, Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broilers and the environments of nine chicken flocks in two farms during growth. The genetic relationship between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using multilocus sequence typing. Flocks were colonized as early as 3 weeks after introduction to the farm. The highest colonization rate was more than 90% and occurred 4-6 weeks after introduction to the farm. Quantitative data showed that the highest Campylobacter loads appeared at 1-2 weeks after initial colonization. Campylobacter loads in cloacal swabs in four flocks were significantly higher at 5 weeks than at 3 weeks (P Campylobacter jejuni and eight for Campylobacter coli isolates. The STs of the Campylobacter isolates recovered from farm 1 were more diversified than those from farm 2. The STs of environmental samples were highly consistent with those of the cloacal swab samples. The consistency between Campylobacter STs in the environmental and cloacal swab samples suggested that the environment might be one of the main sources of infection. Thus, our study highlights the prevalence and contamination load of Campylobacter in broilers during their rearing period and emphasizes the need for control and prevention measures for Campylobacter infection in broilers, which is also important for human health.

  18. Campylobacter coli infection in pet birds in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pace, Antonino; Romano, Violante; D'Orazio, Stefano; Varriale, Lorena; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2017-01-06

    Avian species are considered as the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, few data are available on the presence of this microorganism in pet birds. This study was therefore performed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pet birds bred in southern Italy. Faecal samples were collected from 88 cages housing different species of pet birds and examined by bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 13.6% of the cage samples were positive for Campylobacter coli. Other Campylobacter spp. were not found. The study shows that C. coli can be isolated from the cages of apparently healthy pet birds, which should therefore be considered as potential carriers of C. coli and a possible source of infection for humans and companion animals.

  19. Preventing Campylobacter at the source: why is it so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; French, Nigel P; Havelaar, Arie H

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is the most common recognized bacterial zoonosis in the European Union and the United States. The acute phase is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. The long-term sequelae (Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis, and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome) contribute considerably to the disease burden. Attribution studies identified poultry as the reservoir responsible for up to 80% of the human Campylobacter infections. In the European Union, an estimated 30% of the human infections are associated with consumption and preparation of poultry meat. Until now, interventions in the poultry meat production chain have not been effectively introduced except for targeted interventions in Iceland and New Zealand. Intervention measures (eg, biosecurity) have limited effect or are hampered by economic aspects or consumer acceptance. In the future, a multilevel approach should be followed, aiming at reducing the level of contamination of consumer products rather than complete absence of Campylobacter.

  20. Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in northern elephant seals, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Gulland, M D Frances; Atwill, E Rob; Lawrence, Judy; Jang, Spencer; Conrad, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. prevalence and antimicrobial drug sensitivity were determined in northern elephant seals that had not entered the water and seals that were stranded on the California coast...

  1. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Method for bacteriophage isolation against target Campylobacter strains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carvalho, C; Susano, M; Fernandes, E; Santos, S; Gannon, B; Nicolau, A; Gibbs, P; Teixeira, P; Azeredo, J

    2010-01-01

    .... This work focuses on the isolation of Campylobacter coli lytic bacteriophages (phages) against target C. coli strains. A method involving the enrichment of free-range chicken samples in a broth containing the target C...

  3. Florid computed tomographic appearance of acute Campylobacter enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Bui, A; Vrazas, J

    2000-05-01

    A 28-year-old male presented with severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea. Computed tomographic scan showed marked swelling of the distal ileum and entire colorectum. The patient recovered and Campylobacter jejuni was subsequently grown from his faeces.

  4. Methods for initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Brøndsted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity....

  5. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  6. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Hirchaud, Edouard; Parra, Alberto; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    .... Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens...

  7. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been

  8. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechtefeld, N W; Cambre, R C; Wang, W L

    1981-12-01

    Over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the Denver Zoo were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. The organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. Of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for Campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (P less than 0.001). Among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were represented; several of these serotypes are commonly associated with Campylobacter enteritis in human beings. Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from 8% of 75 wild pigeons trapped on the zoo premises during winter months and from 26% of 75 trapped during March and April (P less than 0.01).

  9. Real Time PCR to detect and differentiate Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, A; Chanter, J; Gale, S; Parr, J; Toszeghy, M; Line, K

    2013-09-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacter infection, caused by Campylobacter fetus venerealis, is of significant economic importance to the livestock industry. Unfortunately, the successful detection and discrimination of C. fetus venerealis from C. fetus fetus continue to be a limitation throughout the world. There are several publications warning of the problem with biotyping methods as well as with recent molecular based assays. In this study, assessed on 1071 isolates, we report on the successful development of two Real Time SYBR® Green PCR assays that will allow for the detection and discrimination of C. fetus fetus and C. fetus venerealis. The sensitivity reported here for the C. fetus (CampF4/R4) and the C. fetus venerealis (CampF7/R7) specific PCR assays are 100% and 98.7% respectively. The specificity for these same PCR assays are 99.6% and 99.8% respectively. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Evaluation of antigenic properties of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli proteins in a western-immunoblot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Waldemar, Rastawicki; Jagielski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial cause for acute diarrheal illnesses in developed countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenic properties of Campylobacterjejuni and Campylobacter coli proteins in western-blot assay. Whole-cell components of Campulobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electroforesis. Using this method we detected in all seven C. jejuni strains 21 peptides migrating between 180-29 kDa. All three Ccoli strains had a 17 bands migrating with the same molecular weight range. Proteins were transferred electrophoretically to nitrocellulose paper for immunoblotting experiments. The 74 kDa protein reacted strongly in all classes ofimmmunoglobulin with all tested human serum samples. We observed that this protein reacted also with human immunoglobulins for Salmonella and Yersinia sp. This cross-reaction observed for this protein could give false positive results in routine diagnosis of C. jejuni infections. The proteins with molecular weight of: 92, 62, 56, 52, 45-43, 29 kDa were most recognized in the 20 human serum samples. The other proteins of Cljejuni and C. coli, particularly in the 68-50 kDa and 45-31 kDa regions, were recognized occasionally and the response to these in reconvalescent sera was usually weak. The result of this study showed that the proteins with molecular weight: 92, 62, 56, 52, 45-43 and 29 kDa can be use in routine serological diagnostic of campylobacteriosis.

  11. Distribution and polymorphism of the flagellin genes from isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, R A; Guerry, P; Trust, T J

    1993-01-01

    The complex flagellar filaments of the LIO8 serogroup member Campylobacter coli VC167 are composed of two highly related subunit proteins encoded by the flaA and flaB genes which share 92% identity. Using oligonucleotide primers based on the known DNA sequence of both the flaA and flaB genes from C. coli VC167 in the polymerase chain reaction, we have shown conservation of both fla genes among isolates within the LIO8 heat-labile serogroup by digestion of the amplified product with PstI and EcoRI restriction endonucleases. Amplification and subsequent restriction analysis of the flaA flagellin gene from Campylobacter isolates belonging to 13 different LIO serogroups further identified 10 unique polymorphic groups. Within most of the serogroups examined, isolates appeared to contain flaA genes with conserved primary structures. Only in serogroups LIO11 and LIO29 did independent isolates possess flagellin genes with different primary structures. Furthermore, by employing primers specific for the flaB gene of C. coli VC167, all serogroups examined contained a second fla gene corresponding to flaB. In all serogroups except the LIO5 and LIO6 isolates which were identical to each other, the polymorphic pattern of this flaB gene was identical to that of the corresponding flaA gene. These data indicate that the presence of a second highly homologous flagellin gene is widespread throughout Campylobacter isolates and that in most instances, the primary structure of the two fla genes is conserved within isolates belonging to the same heat-labile LIO serogroup. This may represent the presence of clonal evolutionary groups in Campylobacter spp. Images PMID:8098328

  12. Clinical aspects of Campylobacter jejuni infections in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, M C

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an almost ubiquitous, microaerophilic, gram-negative rod. Outbreaks have been associated with drinking raw milk or contaminated water and eating poultry. Campylobacter jejuni accounts for 3.2% to 6.1% of cases of diarrheal illness in the general population of the United States, and infected patients frequently present with abdominal pain and fever. Less frequently, C jejuni is responsible for bacteremia, septic arthritis, septic abortion, and other extraintestinal infe...

  13. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Wołkowicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-22

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  14. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  15. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; hide

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  16. Campylobacter in chicken carcasses and slaughterhouses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejab, Saira Banu Mohamed; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Fries, Reinhard; Patchanee, Prapas

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Campylobacter contamination rate of chicken carcasses and the processing lines of modern processing plants in Malaysia. Three hundred sixty samples were collected from 24 flocks of broiler chickens at 12 modern poultry processing plants in 6 states of Malaysia. Fresh fecal droppings were collected from crates in the arrival area. Neck skin samples were taken from processed chicken carcasses at 3 different processing stages: before inside-outside washing, after inside-outside washing and post chilling. Swab samples from the scalding tank, chilling tank and conveyer belt before chilling were also collected to determine contamination with Campylobacter in the slaughter house environment prior to slaughter. Isolation for Campylobacter was performed following ISO 10272-1:2006(E). The overall of contamination rate with Campylobacter at the 12 plants was 61.0% (220/360). Eighty point six percent of the samples from before the inside-outside wishing step were contaminated with Campylobacter, as were 62.5% of the samples after the inside washing and 38.9% after the post-chilling step. This study shows extensive contamination of chicken carcasses and slaughtering houses in Malaysia with Campylobacter.

  17. Detection of Campylobacter in human faecal samples in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Aruna; Wilkinson, Jenny; Mahony, Timothy; Vanniasinkam, Thiru

    2014-01-01

    Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva) and Western Fiji (Lautoka) between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1%) of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.

  18. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni for Food Safety and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cakmak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are microorganisms that can be found in nature in the entire domestic and wild animal’s intestinal flora including the poultry and the sea animals. Campylobacter can better colonize in the poultry than the other animals. Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen among the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. whose growth temperature’s are different than the other Campylobacter spp. and can cause serious gastroenteritis in human beings which in some cases ended up with death. Human beings are generally infected with C. jejuni mainly because of the poultry meat and products and rarely because of the red meat which are contaminated during preparation and serving stages. Inadequate cooking, consumption of poorly chlorinated drinking water or unpasteurized milk are other infection sources of C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis especially affect children under 5 years of age and reported to be a zoonotic illness that cause acute gastroenteritis in human. In many countries, food sourced C. jejuni infections were reported to occur more frequently than Salmonella spp. infections. In order to avoid Campylobacter infections, it is very important to enforce food security programmes and HACCP like systems during growth, slaughterhouses and point of sales stages. Also adequate cooking of the products, hygiene of the kitchen and personnel are important. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 157-166

  19. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude...... of particles in the 0.5- to 2-mu m-diameter range and high proportions in the 2- to 5-mu m-diameter range. Campylobacter could also be detected by PCR in air samples collected at the hanging stage during the slaughter process but not at the other stages tested at the slaughterhouse. The exploitation...... that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions...

  20. Eugenol wash and chitosan based coating reduces Campylobacter jejuni counts on poultry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne illness globally in humans, is strongly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Unfortunately, current strategies to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry have had limited success. Our study investigated the efficacy of eugenol ...

  1. Evaluation of PCR for detection of Campylobacter in a national broiler surveillance programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Wedderkopp, A; Wainø, M

    2003-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a rapid and sensitive PCR method for detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken faeces.......To develop and evaluate a rapid and sensitive PCR method for detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken faeces....

  2. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485ET, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this species....

  3. Identification, purification, and characterization of major antigenic proteins of Campylobacter jejuni

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Z H Pei; R T Ellison, 3rd; M J Blaser

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from developing countries and volunteer studies indicates that immunity to Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli may be acquired, but the antigenic basis for this protection is poorly defined...

  4. Ability of lactate and pyruvate to stimulate aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with fumarate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are human, foodborne, and bacterial pathogens that are frequently isolated from live poultry and processed poultry products. These pathogens are classified as microaerophiles; therefore, Campylobacter cultures are generally grown in atmospheres with reduced oxygen levels and elev...

  5. A comparison of molecular technologies and genomotyping for tracing and strain characterization of Campylobacter isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, J. van der; Keijser, B.; Schuren, F.; Nocker, A.; Montijn, R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter species are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in developed countries. Campylobacter spp. are ubiquitous in nature and widespread in livestock. Infections occur sporadically, and are believed to occur through consumption of contaminated meat products and from

  6. Evaluation of different plate media for direct cultivation of Campylobacter species from live broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potturi-Venkata, L-P; Backert, S; Lastovica, A J; Vieira, S L; Norton, R A; Miller, R S; Pierce, S; Oyarzabal, O A

    2007-07-01

    Accurate identification and optimal culturing procedures for Campylobacter spp. from live broilers are needed for epidemiological studies. Because there is no standardized protocol, we designed and conducted studies to evaluate different selective media for the culturing and isolation of Campylobacter spp. from cecal and fecal samples obtained from battery-reared and commercial broilers. Five media selective for Campylobacter were evaluated: Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, Campy-Line, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. With contaminated broilers reared in battery cages, Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar revealed similar isolation rates (P > 0.05), whereas Campy-Line showed a lower efficacy (P media. Our data suggest that the choice of plate medium may influence the efficiency of isolating Campylobacter spp. from broiler chickens by direct plating from fecal or cecal samples.

  7. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  8. Effect of sponges and gas-charged incubators on recovery of Campylobacter from broiler rinses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are microaerophilic and capnophilic microorganisms. Methods to increase exposure of Campylobacter to appropriate microaerobic conditions could theoretically improve recovery of stressed cells. The porous nature of a sponge greatly increases the sample surface area exposed to mic...

  9. Beta-resorcylic acid reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading food borne illnesses globally, has been linked with high prevalence of this bacterium in retail chicken meat. Reduction of Campylobacter in poultry will greatly reduce the risk of this disease. Unfortunately, strategies employed to reduce Campylobacter in li...

  10. Campylobacter spp among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital in Kampala--Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshana, S E; Joloba, M; Kakooza, A; Kaddu-Mulindwa, D

    2009-09-01

    Campylobacter infections occur worldwide. A recent study in Kampala, Uganda, found that 87% of broiler chickens had Campylobacter jejuni; these are potential source of human infection. Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with acute diarrhea at Mulago hospital. A crossectional study from July to October 2005 was conducted involved 226 children with acute diarrhea. Serial sampling was done a total of 226 stool specimens were obtained and cultured on selective media. Identification was done using biochemical test and susceptibility using standard discs diffusion method. Campylobacter spp were isolated in 21 (9.3%) of 226 stool specimens analyzed. Campylobacter jejuni 17 (80.9%), Campylobacter lari 2 (9.5%), Campylobacter coli 1 (4.5%) and Campylobacter jejuni/coli 1(4.5%). All Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, and 20% had intermediate resistance to Ampicillin. Campylobacter spp are prevalent among children with acute diarrhea in Kampala- Uganda. A large multicenter study should be undertaken so that the extent of campylobacter infection in our setting can be established.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  12. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  13. Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 327, a strain isolated from a turkey slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis and has a high prevalence in poultry. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni 327 is a subspecies of the genus Campylobacter of the family Campylobacteraceae in the phylum Proteobacteria. The microaerophilic, spiral shaped, catal...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.; Sommer, H.M.; Nauta, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter

  15. Impact of technical and economic performance on costs of campylobacter spp. interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and human Campylobacter spp. infections can result in severe sequelae. Because broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter spp. infections, it is relevant to control Campylobacter spp.

  16. Detection of Campylobacter species and Arcobacter butzleri in stool samples by use of real-time multiplex PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. de Boer (Richard); A. Ott (Alewijn); P. Güren (Pinar); E. van Zanten; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); A.M.D. Kooistra-Smid

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of Campylobacter (or Campylobacter-like) species in stools from patients suspected of infectious gastroenteritis (n = 493) was investigated using real-time PCR for detection of Arcobacter butzleri (hsp60 gene), Campylobacter coli (ceuE gene), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA),

  17. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Bibliometric analysis of publications on Campylobacter: (2000-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F; AbuTaha, Adham S; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2016-11-29

    Campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. In order to better understand national and international research output on Campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on Campylobacter. This study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy makers to global burden of campylobacateriosis. Scopus database was used to retrieve publications with the following keywords (Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni, C. coli). The study period was set from 2000 to 2015. All types of journal documents, excluding errata, were considered. Bibliometric indicators such as annual growth of publications, country contribution, international collaboration, and citation analysis were presented. The quality of retrieved data was indirectly assessed by Hirsch index and impact factor of journals. A total of 5522 documents were retrieved with median (Q1-Q3) citations of 9 (2-23) and h-index of 113. Annual number of publications showed a fluctuating increase. The core leading journals were Applied and Environmental Microbiology journal and Journal of Food Protection with 246 (4.46%) publications for each. The USA (1309; 23.6%) was the most productive country while Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (150; 2.7%) was the most productive institution. Half of the top ten productive countries were European. France had the lowest percentage (33.5%) of articles with international collaboration while Netherlands (57.7%) had the highest percentage of articles with international collaboration. Approximately half (50.1%) of retrieved articles were published in journals under the subject area of "immunology/microbiology". Main themes in highly cited articles were molecular biology/genetics and public health burden of campylobacteriosis. There were 728 (13

  19. A molecular survey of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli virulence and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanalizadgan, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Bita; Kazemnejad Lili, Anoshirvan; Najar-Peerayeh, Shahin; Nikmanesh, Bahram

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of virulence-associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) analysis of Campylobacter spp. isolated from children with diarrhea in Iran. A total of 200 stool specimens were obtained from children under 5 years during July 2012 to July 2013. Detection of C. jejuni and C. coli was performed by standard biochemical and molecular methods. The presence of virulence-associated genes and genetic diversity of isolates was examined using PCR and ERIC-PCR analyses. A total of 12 (6%) Campylobacter spp. were isolated from patients including 10 (4.5%) C. jejuni and 2 (1.5%) C.coli. The flaA, cadF and ciaB genes were present in 100% of isolates, while no plasmid of virB11 gene was present in their genome. The prevalence of invasion-associated marker was 100% among C. coli and was not detected in C. jejuni isolates. The distribution of both pldA and the genes associated with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) was 58.3% in C. jejuni isolates. Seven distinct ERIC-PCR profiles were distinguished in three clusters using ERIC-PCR analysis. Genotyping analysis showed a relative correlation with geographic location of patients and virulence gene content of isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular survey of Campylobacter spp. in Iran concerning genotyping and virulence gene content of both C. jejuni and C. coli. ERIC-PCR revealed appropriate discriminatory power for clustering C. jejuni isolates with identical virulence gene content. However, more studies are needed to clearly understand the pathogenesis properties of specific genotypes.

  20. Evaluation of fecal calprotectin in Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter jejuni/coli gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-05-01

    Calprotectin (CP) is a calcium-binding cytosolic neutrophil protein and the concentration in feces reflects the migration of neutrophils into the gut lumen. Testing for fecal CP (f-CP) in patients with negative cultures for enteric pathogens is widely accepted as a useful screening tool for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from endoscopy for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with the assumption that a negative f-CP is compatible with a functional disorder. Campylobacter concisus has recently been reported to have a high incidence in the Danish population almost equal to Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and has been reported to cause prolonged watery diarrhea. However, isolation of C. concisus from feces requires the filter method in a hydrogen-enriched microaerobic atmosphere, which is not commonly used in the laboratory, and the diagnosis may consequently be missed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the f-CP levels, as a marker for the intestinal inflammation in C. jejuni/coli- and C. concisus-infected patients. The authors found a high concentration of f-CP (median 631: IQR 221-1274) among 140 patients with C. jejuni/coli infection, whereas the f-CP level among 99 C. concisus-infected patients was significantly lower (median 53: IQR 20-169). The data correlate to the severe inflammatory gastroenteritis seen in patients infected with C. jejuni/coli, whereas C. concisus-infected patients have a much lower intestinal inflammation which could be compared with viral gastroenteritis. Nevertheless, clinicians should be aware of C. concisus infection, especially in patients with prolonged mild diarrhea, in the differential diagnosis to IBD.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance and Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Poultry Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saadatmand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Campylobacter is a common type of bacteria in humans and poultry, which generally accounts for various diseases in humans, such as gastroenteritis. The poultry digestive system contains a high level of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli in the poultry liver packed for marketing and determine the antibiotic resistance of the isolates. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the spring of 2016 in the city of Hamadan, Iran. A total of 80 samples of packed chicken liver were collected from the stores supplying meat and poultry products in Hamadan. The enrichment of the liver samples was performed in brucella broth; subsequently, separation was carried out on Campylobacter selective agar. The presence of bacteria was confirmed by the implementation of chemical diagnostic tests and direct microscopic observation. Finally, the antibiotic resistance of the isolates was tested using disk diffusion method. Results: According to the results, Campylobacter had a prevalence rate of 90%, 73.61% and 26.39% of which were C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Out of the 12 antibiotic discs used in this study, the highest resistance (79% and sensitivity (99% rates were observed for cotrimoxazole (10 µg and gentamycin (10 µg, respectively. Conclusion: The packed poultry liver in Hamadan had a relatively high prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli. Therefore, the consumers should be careful about the cooking time and using this food. Accordingly, they can prevent the dissemination of this bacteria by cooking the liver at a temperature of above 70°C for 20 min and properly washing the devices before cooking this product. Additionally, the elderly, children, and those with immunodeficiency are recommended to avoid eating poultry liver.

  2. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  3. Molecular subtyping and erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A; Song, L; Liang, H; Gu, Y; Zhang, C; Liu, X; Zhang, J; Zhang, M

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the erythromycin resistance patterns and mechanism for Campylobacter isolates in China. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of erythromycin on 858 Chinese Campylobacter isolates were analysed. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to identify mutations in the 23S rRNA and the presence of the ermB gene in the 158 erythromycin resistance isolates (18·4%). About 83% (131/158) had A2075G mutation in their 23S rRNA; no A2074C/G mutants were found. The ermB gene was identified in 30 Campylobacter coli isolates (19%). Four types of multidrug-resistant gene islands (MDRGIs) were found. Fifty-three types were identified by multilocus sequence typing among the resistant isolates. All isolates of STs 6322 and 1145 had the ermB gene. The erythromycin resistance rate of Camp. coli (58·56%) was much higher than Campylobacter jejuni (0·67%). The insertion sites between cadF and CCO1582 and between nfsB and cinA on the chromosome might be hot spots for MDRGI transformation. Point mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA and the ermB gene accounted for 100% of the erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter in China. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Survival with a helping hand: Campylobacter and microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eIndikova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulphur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain.

  5. Advances in Campylobacter biology and implications for biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byeonghwa; Muraoka, Wayne T.; Zhang, Qijing

    2010-01-01

    Summary Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen of animal origin and a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. During the past decade, especially since the publication of the first C. jejuni genome sequence, major advances have been made in understanding the pathobiology and physiology of this organism. It is apparent that C. jejuni utilizes sophisticated mechanisms for effective colonization of the intestinal tracts in various animal species. Although Campylobacter is fragile in the environment and requires fastidious growth conditions, it exhibits great flexibility in the adaptation to various habitats including the gastrointestinal tract. This high adaptability is attributable to its genetically, metabolically and phenotypically diverse population structure and its ability to change in response to various challenges. Unlike other enteric pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Campylobacter is unable to utilize exogenous glucose and mainly depends on the catabolism of amino acids as a carbon source. Campylobacter proves highly mutable in response to antibiotic treatments and possesses eukaryote‐like dual protein glycosylation systems, which modify flagella and other surface proteins with specific sugar structures. In this review we will summarize the distinct biological traits of Campylobacter and discuss the potential biotechnological approaches that can be developed to control this enteric pathogen. PMID:21255325

  6. [Campylobacter and Salmonella acute gastroenteritis: epidemiology and health care utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala Farré, Maria Rosa; Osorio Sánchez, Dimelza; Arias Varela, Cesar; Simó Sanahuja, Maria; Recasens Recasens, Assumpta; Pérez Jové, Josefa

    2015-10-05

    In Catalonia the current surveillance systems do not allow to know the true incidence or the health care utilization of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. The aim of this study is to analyze these characteristics. Descriptive study of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections reported in 2002 and 2012 in Catalonia, Spain. We included cases isolated and reported by the laboratory to a regional Surveillance Unit. The estimated incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter AGE decreased by almost 50% and 20% respectively in 2012. Children between one and 4 years old were the most affected in both years. Significant differences in the clinical characteristics and disease duration were observed between Campylobacter and Salmonella. Visits to the Emergency Department and hospitalization rates were 63.7% and 15%, being more frequent among salmonellosis cases. The estimated incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections has decreased, however rates are still important, as well as it is the health care utilization in both diseases. Current surveillance systems need appropriateness improvements to reach a better control of these infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative characterization of the virulence gene clusters (lipooligosaccharide [LOS] and capsular polysaccharide [CPS]) for Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and related Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P; Lefébure, Tristan; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D; Stanhope, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and Campylobacter coli are leading causes of gastroenteritis, with virulence linked to cell surface carbohydrate diversity. Although the associated gene clusters are well studied for C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, C. coli has been largely neglected. Here we provide comparative analysis of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) gene clusters, using genome and cluster sequence data for 36 C. coli strains, 67 C. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains and ten additional Campylobacter species. Similar to C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, C. coli showed high LOS/CPS gene diversity, with each cluster delineated into eight gene content classes. This diversity was predominantly due to extensive gene gain/loss, with the lateral transfer of genes likely occurring both within and between species and also between the LOS and CPS. Additional mechanisms responsible for LOS/CPS diversity included phase-variable homopolymeric repeats, gene duplication/inactivation, and possibly host environment selection pressure. Analyses also showed that (i) strains of C. coli and Campylobacter upsaliensis possessed genes homologous to the sialic acid genes implicated in the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and (ii) C. coli LOS classes were differentiated between bovine and poultry hosts, potentially aiding post infection source tracking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapidly decreased serum IgG to Campylobacter pylori following elimination of Campylobacter in histological chronic biopsy Campylobacter-positive gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bohemen, C. G.; Langenberg, M. L.; Rauws, E. A.; Oudbier, J.; Weterings, E.; Zanen, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    The anaerobic bacterium Campylobacter pylori (Cp) is thought to be associated with chronic gastritis. This paper presents clinical data underpinning this view. Five patients with histological chronic gastritis as determined by diagnostic endoscopy, which was associated with Cp as determined by

  9. Comparative characterization of the virulence gene clusters (lipooligosacharide [LOS] and capsular polysaccharide [CPS]) for Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and related Campylobacter species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P.; Lefébure, Tristan; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and Campylobacter coli are leading causes of gastroenteritis, with virulence linked to cell surface carbohydrate diversity. Although the associated gene clusters are well studied for C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, C. coli has been largely neglected. Here we provide comparative analysis of the lipooligosacharide (LOS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) gene clusters, using genome and cluster sequence data for 36 C. coli strains, 67 C. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains and ten additional Campylobacter species. Similar to C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, C. coli showed high LOS/CPS gene diversity, with each cluster delineated into eight gene content classes. This diversity was predominantly due to extensive gene gain/loss, with the lateral transfer of genes likely occurring both within and between species and also between the LOS and CPS. Additional mechanisms responsible for LOS/CPS diversity included phase-variable homopolymeric repeats, gene duplication/inactivation, and possibly host environment selection pressure. Analyses also showed that (i) strains of C. coli and Campylobacter upsaliensis possessed genes homologous to the sialic acid genes implicated in the neurological disorder Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS), and (ii) C. coli LOS classes were differentiated between bovine and poultry hosts, potentially aiding post infection source tracking. PMID:23279811

  10. Neurologic symptoms and neuropathologic antibodies in poultry workers exposed to Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Lance B; Roess, Amira; Graham, Jay P; Baqar, Shahida; Vailes, Rocio; Sheikh, Kazim A; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2007-07-01

    To examine associations between occupational exposure to live poultry with Campylobacter exposure, Campylobacter-associated neurologic symptoms, and neuropathologic antibodies. Questionnaires, serum samples, and stool specimens were collected from 20 poultry workers and 40 community referents. Campylobacter exposure was evaluated by stool culture and serum antibodies; neurologic symptoms were assessed by questionnaire; and neuropathologic antibodies were measured by serum anti-glycolipid antibody concentrations. Poultry workers had significantly higher anti-Campylobacter immunoglobulin G titers compared with that of referents (P Campylobacter-associated neurologic symptoms; and male poultry workers had a higher point risk estimate for detectable neuropathologic anti-glycolipid immunoglobulin G titers (P = 0.07) compared with male referents. These data suggest that poultry workers are at elevated risk of Campylobacter exposure and may be at elevated risk for Campylobacter-associated neurologic sequelae.

  11. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007. Furthermore......, the number of registered human Campylobacter cases decreased by 12%; from 4379 cases in 2002 to 3865 cases in 2007. We believe that the observed decrease in the occurrence of Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat and the coincidental fall in the number of registered human cases is, in part, a result...

  12. Risk factors for Campylobacter colonization in Danish broiler flocks, 2010 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, M; Sørensen, L L; Steenberg, B

    2015-01-01

    was "Campylobacter flock status (positive/negative)," which was based on real-time PCR testing of fecal material from the floor of each broiler house that had been collected preslaughter using a pair of tube gauze "socks." This material was pooled into one sample. Of the 25 farms visited, 17 had delivered......The objectives of the two studies presented were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive farms and flocks and to acquire updated knowledge about risk factors for the introduction of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. In the first study, from September 2010 to September 2011...... Campylobacter-positive flocks during the study period, and eight farms had no Campylobacter-positive flocks. Moreover, the flock prevalence of Campylobacter was 17% (n = 418). Data obtained from the electronically distributed survey revealed that 63% (n = 71) of the farms were Campylobacter-positive. Further...

  13. A Gene-By-Gene Approach to Bacterial Population Genomics: Whole Genome MLST of Campylobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K. Sheppard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis remains a major human public health problem world-wide. Genetic analyses of Campylobacter isolates, and particularly molecular epidemiology, have been central to the study of this disease, particularly the characterization of Campylobacter genotypes isolated from human infection, farm animals, and retail food. These studies have demonstrated that Campylobacter populations are highly structured, with distinct genotypes associated with particular wild or domestic animal sources, and that chicken meat is the most likely source of most human infection in countries such as the UK. The availability of multiple whole genome sequences from Campylobacter isolates presents the prospect of identifying those genes or allelic variants responsible for host-association and increased human disease risk, but the diversity of Campylobacter genomes present challenges for such analyses. We present a gene-by-gene approach for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypes in diverse bacteria such as Campylobacter, implemented with the BIGSdb software on the pubMLST.org/campylobacter website.

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...... of organic broiler production provide a high prevalence of Campylobacter positive flocks. Antimicrobial resistance was scarce among Campylobacter isolates from all rearing systems. Significance and Impact of the Study: Organic broiler flocks constitute a strong potential for introduction of Campylobacter...

  15. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.

    2009-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been...... identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods: Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture...... and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143) were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results: No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal...

  16. A one-year study of campylobacter carriage by individual Danish broiler chickens as the basis for selection of Campylobacter spp. strains for a chicken infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Nielsen, E.M.; Knudsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    (.)5 %). Campylobacter isolates were typed using Penner heat-stable serotyping and flaA-typing methods. Data of campylobacter carriage by individual chickens and data generated by the use of different typing methods contributed to a better understanding of the dynamics of campylobacter infection within the broiler...... flocks. C. jejuni Penner heat-stable serotype HS2, flaA-type 1 was the most common type found in Danish broiler chickens....

  17. Multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from poultry, cattle and humans in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngulukun, S; Oboegbulem, S; Klein, G

    2016-08-01

    To determine the genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from Nigeria and to identify the association between multilocus sequence types and hosts (poultry, cattle and humans). Isolates were identified using multiplex PCR assays. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the genetic diversity of 36 Camp. jejuni and 24 Camp. coli strains isolated from poultry, cattle and humans. Of the 36 Camp. jejuni genotyped, 21 sequence types (ST) were found, 9 (43%) were new while of the 24 Camp. coli isolates genotyped, 22 STs were identified with 14 (64%) being new. The most prevalent sequence type was ST1932 followed by ST1036 and ST607 while the prevalent clonal complexes were CC-828, CC-460 and CC-353. Campylobacter isolates from Nigeria were found to be diverse with novel genotypes. There was overlap of CC-828, CC-460 and CC-353 between the poultry, cattle and human isolates. Genetic exchange was also detected in two of the Camp. coli isolates. This study highlights the genetic diversity of Campylobacter strains in Nigeria, demonstrating that Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli isolates are diverse and have both local and global strains. The predominant sequence types and clonal complexes found in this study differ from other countries; this exemplifies that different predominant Campylobacter populations exist between countries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov., a novel member of the Campylobacter lari group isolated from wild bird faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Alberto; Muñoz, Ivo; Iraola, Gregorio; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Collado, Luis

    2017-06-01

    During a study on the prevalence and diversity of campylobacteria in wild birds faecal samples from the city of Valdivia (southern Chile) 17 Gram-stain-negative, curved-rod-shaped isolates, were initially identified as Campylobacter lari by PCR-RFLP. Further identification by 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that they formed a distinct group in the genus Campylobacter. This unique position was confirmed by the results of analysis of rpoB, atpA and cpn60 gene sequences. The average nucleotide identity between the representative strain WBE38T and the type strain of the most closely related taxon C. larisubsp.concheus (LMG 11760) was 90.8 %. The oxidase and urease activity of the novel isolates enabled them to be phenotypically differentiated from species of the genus Campylobacter with validly published names. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic, genetic and genomic characterizations, the results of this study clearly indicate that these strains represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain WBE38T (=CECT 9147T=LMG 29815T).

  20. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  1. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banya Banowary

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR and high resolution melt (HRM curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  2. Trends of norfloxacin and erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli isolates recovered from international travelers, 1994 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieghe, Erika R; Jacobs, Jan A; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Koole, Olivier; Van Gompel, Alfons

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter sp. is a major cause of bacterial enterocolitis and travelers' diarrhea. Empiric treatment regimens include fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Over the period 1994 to 2006, 724 Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli isolates recovered from international travelers at the outpatient clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, were reviewed for their susceptibility to norfloxacin and erythromycin. Norfloxacin resistance increased significantly over time in isolates from travelers returning from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. For the years 2001 to 2006, norfloxacin resistance rates were 67 (70.5%) of 95 for Asia, 20 (60.6%) of 33 for Latin America, and 36 (30.6%) of 114 for Africa. The sharpest increase was noted for India, with no resistance in 1994, but 41 (78.8%) of 52 resistant isolates found during 2001 to 2006. Erythromycin resistance was demonstrated in 20 (2.7%) isolates, with a mean annual resistance of 3.1% +/- 2.8%; resistance increased over time, with up to 3(7.5%) of 40 and 3 (8.6%) of 35 resistant isolates in 2004 and 2006, respectively (p Campylobacter is the presumed cause. Continued monitoring of the incidence and the spread of resistant Campylobacter isolates is warranted.

  3. Evaluation of the novel DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay for the rapid detection of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, Zaira; Rando-Segura, Ariadna; Gimferrer, Laura; Roig, Gloria; Pumarola, Tomas; Rodriguez-Garrido, Virginia

    2017-04-29

    Campylobacter spp. infection is one of the leading causes of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in humans worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay for human campylobacteriosis diagnosis. A total of 645 stool samples from 640 patients suspected of having gastrointestinal infection were included. A stool culture was simultaneously performed with the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay to detect the presence of Campylobacter spp. Taking the conventional culture to be the perfect gold standard, sensitivity and specificity rates of the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay were 100% and 97.7%, respectively; and 99.1% and 98.6%, respectively, when taking the culture to be the imperfect gold standard (Bayesian Model). This new assay might be a useful tool especially for the screening of negative results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Leger, Judy St; Chapman, Mary H; Timmerman, Arjen J; Duim, Birgitta; Foster, Geoffrey; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (USA) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established taxa of the genus Campylobacter, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of these six isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and AtpA sequence analysis and by conventional phenotypic testing. The whole-genome sequences were determined for all isolates, and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other taxa of the genus Campylobacter and most closely related to Campylobactermucosalis. Although all isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, AtpA and ANI analyses indicated divergence between the otariid isolates from California and the phocid isolates from Scotland, which warrants subspecies status for each clade. The two subspecies could also be distinguished phenotypically on the basis of catalase activity. This study shows clearly that the isolates obtained from pinnipeds represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov. is proposed. Within this novel species, the Californian isolates represent a separate subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for both this novel species and subspecies is RM17260T (=LMG 29472T=CCUG 69570T). The Scottish isolates represent another subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is M302/10/6T (=LMG 29473T=CCUG 68650T).

  5. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  6. Genomic Insights into Campylobacter jejuni Virulence and Population Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuowei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a main food-borne pathogen in many parts of the world. Natural reservoirs include a wide variety of domestic and wild birds and mammals, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of the organism. Understanding the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of C. jejuni is vital to prevent and control Campylobacter-associated infections. The recent progress in sequencing techniques has allowed for a rapid increase in our knowledge of the molecular biology and the genetic structures of Campylobacter. Single-molecule realtime (SMRT sequencing, which goes beyond four-base sequencing, revealed the role of DNA methylation in modulating the biology and virulence of C. jejuni at the level of epigenetics. In this review, we will provide an up-to-date review on recent advances in understanding C. jejuni genomics, including structural features of genomes, genetic traits of virulence, population genetics, and epigenetics.

  7. Clinical Manifestations of Campylobacter concisus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. METHODS:: A study was performed during a two-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient...... with Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection. RESULTS:: Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two diarrheic stool samples from 1,867 children were cultured for pathogenic enteric bacteria during the study period, and 85 and 109 children with C. concisus and C. jejuni/coli, respectively, were identified. Comparison...... for more than two weeks and two-thirds of all children with C. concisus reported loose stools after six month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:: Campylobacter concisus infection in children seems to have a milder course of acute gastroenteritis compared with C. jejuni/coli infection, but is associated with more...

  8. Quantitative microbiological data analysis of a Campylobacter vaccination trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Bahrndorff, Simon; Hald, Birthe

    . The objective of the present trial was to assess whether or not a vaccine candidate could give a 2 logs reduction of the numbers of Campylobacter in broilers. Sample size calculations indicated the use of 400 animals (200 vaccinated and 200 controls). The experiment was conducted in four different rotations......Campylobacter jejuni is considered the main pathogen causing human campylobacteriosis and poultry has been identified as one of the main risk factors. Strategies that aim to control Campylobacter in poultry such as vaccination strategies could reduce the incidence of human campylobacteriosis...... using 8 incubators per rotation with 10 chickens in each incubator. The vaccination treatment was randomly assigned at incubator level. Broilers were challenged with C. jejuni at day 31 and faecal/caecum samples were collected at slaughter at day 42 and processed in the laboratory. To illustrate...

  9. Time-series analysis of Campylobacter incidence in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Schüpbach, G; Held, L

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacteriosis has been the most common food-associated notifiable infectious disease in Switzerland since 1995. Contact with and ingestion of raw or undercooked broilers are considered the dominant risk factors for infection. In this study, we investigated the temporal relationship between the disease incidence in humans and the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers in Switzerland from 2008 to 2012. We use a time-series approach to describe the pattern of the disease by incorporating seasonal effects and autocorrelation. The analysis shows that prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers, with a 2-week lag, has a significant impact on disease incidence in humans. Therefore Campylobacter cases in humans can be partly explained by contagion through broiler meat. We also found a strong autoregressive effect in human illness, and a significant increase of illness during Christmas and New Year's holidays. In a final analysis, we corrected for the sampling error of prevalence in broilers and the results gave similar conclusions.

  10. Molecular Tracking, through Processing, of Campylobacter Strains Colonizing Broiler Flocks▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvers, Karen T.; Morris, Victoria K.; Newell, Diane G.; Allen, Vivien M.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the poultry flocks produced in the United Kingdom are colonized with Campylobacter, and the intensive nature of poultry processing usually results in contaminated carcasses. In this study, a previously reported molecular oligonucleotide probe method was used to track a specific flock-colonizing strain(s) on broiler carcasses during processing in two United Kingdom commercial poultry processing plants. Five Campylobacter-positive flocks were sampled at four points along the processing line, postbleed, postpluck, prechill, and postchill, and two Campylobacter-negative flocks processed immediately after positive flocks were sampled prechill. flaA was sequenced from Campylobacter strains isolated from these flocks, and strain-specific probes were synthesized. Skin and cecal samples were plated onto selective agar to give individual colonies, which were transferred onto membranes. These were then hybridized with the strain- and genus-specific probes. For all the 5 positive flocks, there was a significant reduction in campylobacters postbleed compared to postpluck but no subsequent fall on sampling pre- and postchill, and the strain(s) predominating on the carcasses throughout processing came from the flock being processed. This indicates that strains from the abattoir environment were not a significant cause of carcass contamination in flocks with well-established campylobacter colonization. However, negative flocks that were preceded by positive flocks were contaminated by strains that did not generally originate from the predominating strains recovered from the ceca of the previous positive flocks. This suggests that the abattoir environment has a significant role in the contamination of carcasses from negative but not fully colonized flocks. PMID:21705532

  11. Mycotic aortic aneurysm. A complication of Campylobacter fetus septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolik, J R; Mildvan, D; Winter, J W; Puttlitz, D; Rubenstein, S; Lozman, H

    1983-03-01

    The first surviving case, to our knowledge, of a Campylobacter fetus mycotic aortic aneurysm is reported. Bacteremia and an ileofemoral thrombophlebitis preceded the development of the infected aneurysm, reconfirming the vascular tropism of this organism. The clinical similarity with infections caused by Salmonella choleraesuis is illustrated by this case. The full recovery of our patient attests to the efficacy of extralanatomic bypass combined with long-term antibiotic therapy in the treatment of aortic mycotic aneurysm. Because of frequent changes in nomenclature and insufficient emphasis on speciation of the various campylobacters, pathogenesis and optimal antimicrobial therapy for systemic C fetus infections have not yet been adequately defined.

  12. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  13. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt......ABC, characterized by PCR, revealed that all but one of the C. jejuni strains had the wild-type sequence. Sequencing of cdtABC from this strain showed two major deletions. From all of the strains, CDT titers were determined, and toxin neutralizing antibodies were documented using an in vitro assay. Three...

  14. [Acute pancreatitis - association with a Campylobacter coli-infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, C; Schneider, J; Teyssen, S; Huppertz, H-I

    2007-09-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with intermittent abdominal pain and 9 kg weight loss within 3 weeks. Gastroscopy showed no pathological findings, coloscopy showed a colitis limited to the left flexure. Histology revealed a sustained infectious enterocolitis. A culture of the patient's stool was positive for CAMPYLOBACTER COLI. Because of the recurrent abdominal discomfort and weight loss the patient was admitted to the hospital. Ultrasound and multislice spiral computed tomography showed an acute oedematous pancreatitis. No other causes for the pancreatitis were found, the only remaining possibility was a CAMPYLOBACTER COLI-associated pancreatitis. Under symptomatic therapy the patient recovered definitively. An administration of antibiotics was not necessary.

  15. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli From Various Animal Source Foods by Conventional Methods and PCR

    OpenAIRE

    KILIC ALTUN, Serap; KİREÇCİ, Ekrem; KUCUKKALEM, Ömer Faruk; SEYITOGLU, Şenay

    2014-01-01

      In   this   study,   300   samples   consisted   of   chicken   meats,   ground   beef,   and   gallbladder   of   cattle   and   sheep   were  collected   from   various   markets,   butchers   and   abattoirs   in   the   Eastern   Anatolia   region   in   Turkey.   The   samples   were  evaluated   for   the   presence   of   Campylobacter   jejuni   and   Campylobacter   coli.   Campylobacter   spp.   was   isolated   from   16  (5.3%)  of  the  samples  by  conventional  methods.  The ...

  16. Nutrient Acquisition and Metabolism by Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eStahl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is able to colonize numerous different hosts and compete against the gut microbiota. To do this, it must be able to efficiently acquire sufficient nutrients from its environment to support its survival and rapid growth in the intestine. However, despite almost 50 years of research, many aspects as to how C. jejuni accomplishes this feat remain poorly understood. C. jejuni lacks many of the common metabolic pathways necessary for the use of glucose, galactose, or other carbohydrates upon which most other microbes thrive. It does however make efficient use of citric acid cycle intermediates and various amino acids. C. jejuni readily uses the amino acids aspartate, glutamate, serine, and proline, with certain strains also possessing additional pathways allowing for the use of glutamine and asparagine. More recent work has revealed that some C. jejuni strains can metabolize the sugar L-fucose. This finding has upset years of dogma that C. jejuni is an asaccharolytic organism. C. jejuni also possesses diverse mechanisms for the acquisition of various transition metals that are required for metabolic activities. In particular, iron acquisition is critical for the formation of iron-sulphur complexes. C. jejuni is also unique in possessing both molybdate and tungsten cofactored proteins and thus has an unusual regulatory scheme for these metals. Together these various metabolic and acquisition pathways help C. jejuni to compete and thrive in wide variety of hosts and environments.

  17. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  18. Prevalence of Campylobacter Species in Adult Crohn's Disease and the Preferential Colonization Sites of Campylobacter Species in the Human Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Vikneswari; Riordan, Stephen M.; Grimm, Michael C.; Tran, Thi Anh Tuyet; Major, Joelene; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Mitchell, Hazel; Zhang, Li

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus was previously detected in paediatric CD and adult UC. Currently, the prevalence of C. concisus in adult CD and the preferential colonization sites of Campylobacter species in the human intestine are unknown. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter species in biopsies collected from multiple anatomic sites of adult patients with IBD and controls. Methods Three hundred and one biopsies collected from ileum, caecum, descending colon and rectum of 28 patients IBD (15 CD and 13 UC) and 33 controls were studied. Biopsies were used for DNA extraction and detection of Campylobacter species by PCR-sequencing and Campylobacter cultivation. Results A significantly higher prevalence of C. concisus in colonic biopsies of patients with CD (53%) was detected as compared with the controls (18%). Campylobacter genus-PCR positivity and C. concisus positivity in patients with UC were 85% and 77% respectively, being significantly higher than that in the controls (48% and 36%). C. concisus was more often detected in descending colonic and rectal biopsies from patients with IBD in comparison to the controls. C. concisus was isolated from patients with IBD. Conclusion The high intestinal prevalence of C. concisus in patients with IBD, particularly in the proximal large intestine, suggests that future studies are needed to investigate the possible involvement of C. concisus in a subgroup of human IBD. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the association between adult CD and C. concisus as well as the first study of the preferential colonization sites of C. concisus in the human intestine. PMID:21966525

  19. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  20. Impaired Fitness and Transmission of Macrolide-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni in Its Natural Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Shen, Zhangqi; Seng, Virginia W.; Sahin, Orhan; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Liu, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans via the food chain and is prevalent in chickens, a natural reservoir for this pathogenic organism. Due to the importance of macrolide antibiotics in clinical therapy of human campylobacteriosis, development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand if macrolide resistance affects the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in its natural host. In this study we conducted pairwise competitions and comingling experiments in chickens using clonally related and isogenic C. jejuni strains, which are either susceptible or resistant to erythromycin (Ery). In every competition pair, Ery-resistant (Eryr) Campylobacter was consistently outcompeted by the Ery-susceptible (Erys) strain. In the comingling experiments, Eryr Campylobacter failed to transmit to chickens precolonized by Erys Campylobacter, while isogenic Erys Campylobacter was able to transmit to and establish dominance in chickens precolonized by Eryr Campylobacter. The fitness disadvantage was linked to the resistance-conferring mutations in the 23S rRNA. These findings clearly indicate that acquisition of macrolide resistance impairs the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in chickens, suggesting that the prevalence of macrolide-resistant C. jejuni will likely decrease in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. PMID:22183170

  1. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial proce...

  2. Identification of possible virulence marker from Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, James W; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Siddiqui, Fariha; Korbrisate, Sunee; Bukhari, Habib; Tra, My Phan Vu; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Bryant, Juliet; Campbell, James I; Studholme, David J; Wren, Brendan W; Baker, Stephen; Titball, Richard W; Champion, Olivia L

    2014-06-01

    A novel protein translocation system, the type-6 secretion system (T6SS), may play a role in virulence of Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated 181 C. jejuni isolates from humans, chickens, and environmental sources in Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom for T6SS. The marker was most prevalent in human and chicken isolates from Vietnam.

  3. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in different gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Knochel, Susanne; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni in fresh chilled chicken meat is known to be a major risk factor for human gastrointestinal disease. In the present study, the survival under chilled conditions of different C. jejuni strains exposed to different gas mixtures usually used for gas packaging of food was examined...

  4. Cytotoxity of cell free filtrates of campylobacter jejuni isolated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture filtrates of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from clinical specimens in Lagos Nigeria were tested for toxic activity. Two out of five filtrates tested manifested cytopathic effect on BHK cells. The effects were mainly cytotoxic and cytotonic. Toxic activity of C. jejuni filtrates was much lower than toxic activity elicited by ...

  5. First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Stenram, U.; Andersen, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C. concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize...

  6. Salmonella og Campylobacter i økologisk svineproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2005-01-01

    De mere ekstensive systemer i økologisk svineproduktion formodes at have en positiv effekt på dyrenes robusthed f.eks. over for infektioner. Der er dog ingen dokumentation for, at økologiske svin har et lavere indhold af de almindelige zoonotiske bakterier som f.eks. Salmonella og Campylobacter end...

  7. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis adhesion to MDBK cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiapparrone, María L; Morán, Pedro E; Echevarría, Hilda M; Soto, Pedro; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Catena, María

    2014-01-01

    ..., adhesion, chemotaxis or tissue tropism 4 . Campylobacter fetus is highly adapted to mucosal surfaces. Bacterial adhesion is an important initial step in infection. Pathogens use surface-located adhesins to interact with specific host cell receptors. Although some bacterial structures involved in the adhesion process are still unknown, there is evidence that ...

  8. Molecular characterization and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloois, L.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) can cause disease in humans and animals. In humans, C. fetus can cause septicemia and intestinal illness. Contaminated food, like unpasteurized milk, is possibly a source of human C. fetus infections. This thesis focuses on the mammal-associated C. fetus

  9. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be

  10. Campylobacter jejuni in Duck Faeces around Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from 192 ducks feeding around 10 wells and 6 ponds in peri-urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2006 to March, 2007. The samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, followed by characterisation of positive samples. The overall ...

  11. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.; Hill, A.; Rosenquist, H.; Brynestad, S.; Fetsch, A.; Logt, van der P.; Fazil, A.; Christensen, B.; Katsma, W.E.A.; Borck, B.; Havelaar, A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial

  12. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.; Hill, A.; Rosenquist, H.; Brynestad, S.; Fetsch, A.; van der Logt, P.; Fazil, A.; Christensen, B.; Katsma, E.; Borck, B.; Havelaar, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial

  13. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, David; Avery, Brent P.; Parmley, E. Jane; Deckert, Anne; Carson, Carolee A.; Dutil, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    During 2005–2010, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance identified increased prevalence of ciprofloxacin (a fluororquinolone) resistance among Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken in British Columbia (4%–17%) and Saskatchewan (6%–11%), Canada. Fluoroquinolones are critically important to human medicine and are not labeled for use in poultry in Canada. PMID:23764141

  14. Role of Rodents in transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Kijlstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are generally regarded as the most important food-borne pathogens in the world. Reduction or elimination of these pathogens in the first part of the food chain (on the farm) is important to prevent disease among consumers of animal products. In organic farming,

  15. Genome sequence of a urease-positive Campylobacter lari strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter lari is frequently isolated from shore birds and can cause illness in humans. Here we report the draft whole genome sequence of an urease-positive strain of C. lari that was isolated in estuarial water on the coast of Delaware, USA....

  16. Campylobacter myocarditis; loose bowels and a baggy heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, I D; Fluck, D S; Joy, M D

    2001-01-01

    We report an unusual case of acute myocarditis associated with Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis leading to severe impairment of left ventricular systolic function. Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was used to confirm the presence of acute myocardial inflammation and its resolution.

  17. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168, w...

  18. Innate Immunity to Campylobacter jejuni in Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, Ruth; van den Berg, Bianca; van Rijs, Wouter; Tio-Gillen, Anne P.; Fokkink, Willem Jan R.; Bakker-Jonges, Liesbeth E.; Geleijns, Karin; Samsom, Janneke N.; van Doorn, Pieter A.; Laman, Jon D.; Jacobs, Bart C.

    ObjectiveGuillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a postinfectious neuropathy most frequently caused by Campylobacter jejuni. Lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS), expressed by C. jejuni induce antibodies that cross-react with self-glycolipids in peripheral nerves, causing neuropathy. Less than 1 in 1,000 persons

  19. Maatschappelijke acceptatie van maatregelen tegen Campylobacter in kippenvlees in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, M.J.; Sengers, H.H.W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt ingegaan op de acceptatie bij vleeskuikenhouders, pluimveeslachterijen en consumenten van elf mogelijk te nemen maatregelen waarmee de besmetting van kippenvlees met Campylobacter kan worden verminderd in Nederland. Uit het enquêteonderzoek blijkt dat bij vleeskuikenhouders en

  20. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    identified by a genus and taxon-specific PCR assay, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out. All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and Gram-negative. Unusually, however, they were straight rods lacking...

  1. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Bodil Hald, Anna

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish si...... situation is screening broiler houses with fly nets....

  2. Identification of Campylobacter pyloridis isolates by restriction endonuclease DNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, W.; Rauws, E. A.; Widjojokusumo, A.; Tytgat, G. N.; Zanen, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Campylobacter pyloridis isolates recovered from gastric biopsy specimens of 16 patients were examined by restriction endonuclease DNA analysis with HindIII. For 8 of these 16 patients two different isolates were compared to study the persistence of the colonizing strains and the stability of their

  3. Campylobacter pylori and its role in peptic ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Rauws, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    In almost all patients with genuine nondrug-induced duodenal or gastric ulcer there is evidence of gastric Campylobacter pylori colonization and concomitant inflammation. C. pylori is only demonstrable in the duodenal cap when there is "gastric mucus metaplasia." Suppression or eradication of C.

  4. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in duck faeces around drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from one hundred and ninety-two ducks feeding around ten wells and six ponds in peri urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2004 to March, 2005. In total, one hundred and ninety-two samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, ...

  5. Comparison of the BAX System with a multiplex PCR method for simultaneous detection and identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, Gerardo; De Cesare, Alessandra; Bondioli, Valentina; Franchini, Achille

    2003-11-01

    The Campylobacter detection is performed by conventional culture methods and the identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli is principally based on the hippurate hydrolysis test. The two major drawbacks of this biochemical test for species identification include the inconsistency of the results and the presence of atypical strains, which can lead to the misidentification of an isolate. As an alternative, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) protocols for the simultaneous detection and identification of different Campylobacter species have been developed. This study examined the performances of an experimental BAX System assay for the C. jejuni and C. coli identification in comparison to a multiplex PCR protocol recently published. The samples tested were represented by 106 environmental swabs collected on Teflon strips and tables, stainless steel saws, hooks and trays, ceramic floors and walls, as well as equipment surfaces, located in a swine (N=50) and a poultry (N=56) slaughterhouse. The highest Campylobacter detection rate was obtained after 48 h of enrichment by using both the PCR procedures. After 24 h, the BAX System provides a more rapid and accurate Campylobacter detection and identification assay than the multiplex PCR. Except for two samples, all the broths where Campylobacter cells were detected after 24 or 48 h of enrichment, with at least one of the PCR protocols, gave Campylobacter colonies using the culture method.

  6. Cell wall anchoring of the Campylobacter antigens to Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Kobierecka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type Campylobacter jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analysed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered

  7. Campylobacter Polysaccharide Capsules: Virulence and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerry, Patricia; Poly, Frédéric; Riddle, Mark; Maue, Alexander C.; Chen, Yu-Han; Monteiro, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barré Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS). These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types. PMID:22919599

  8. Campylobacter polysaccharide capsules: virulence and vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eGuerry

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barre Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS. These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types.

  9. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter.

  10. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    culture techniques since 1998. However, using conventional culture methods is time consuming and laborious, and therefore a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Campylobacter detection assay suitable for mass screening of cloacal swab samples from broilers was developed. By comparing the PCR detection...... with conventional culture methods, significantly more samples were found positive for Campylobacter with the PCR method. The PCR method is rapid, sensitive and suitable for mass screening for Campylobacter in poultry. Using this PCR method Campylobacter can be detected within 15 h. Notably, the method can......Campylobacter is the most common cause of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In order to comply with the demands of consumers for food free of bacterial pathogens, a mass screening program for Campylobacter in Danish broilers has been carried out based on conventional bacterial...

  11. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Campylobacter excretion patterns of 26 domestic pet dogs were described in a longitudinal study. The dogs entered the study between 3 and 8 months of age and were monitored until 2 years of age. They were tested monthly for Campylobacter carriage in stool samples that were cultured.......7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100......% carriers at 1 year of age, whereafter the carriage rate decreased to 67% at 24 months of age. The PFGE types showed that individual dogs were often colonized by unique strains of C. upsaliensis for several months, up to 21 months or longer. These C. upsaliensis strains were either clonal (or underwent...

  12. Identification, Purification and Characterization of Major Antigenic Proteins of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    ELISA-We next examined the potential application of antibodies to C. jejuni proteins for identification and diagnosis of Campylobacter and/or Helico...Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A~ cc it o:1...Purification, and Characterization of Major Antigenic Proteins of Campylobacter jejuni * (Received hor piub)lication. April 5, 1991) Zhiheng Pei*, Richard T

  13. Identification of Campylobacter jejuni Proteins Recognized by Maternal Antibodies of Chickens▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaf-Sweeney, Kari D.; Larson, Charles L.; Tang, Xiaoting; Konkel, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of food-borne gastroenteritis. Infection with C. jejuni is frequently acquired through the consumption of undercooked poultry or foods cross-contaminated with raw poultry. Given the importance of poultry as a reservoir for Campylobacter organisms, investigators have performed studies to understand the protective role of maternal antibodies in the ecology of Campylobacter colonization of poultry. In a previous study, chicks with mater...

  14. Lack of Evidence of Enterotoxin Involvement in Pathogenesis of Campylobacter Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    production in Campylobacter strains, we TABLE 5. C. jejuni ELISA determination for serum samples of patients with sporadic diarrhea in Thailand Mean OD t...p AD-A271 890 1 April 1993 Reprint Lack of Evidence of Enterotoxin Involvement in Pathogenesis of Campylobacter Diarrhea Army Project Order 90PP0820...Order: Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

  15. Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-26

    AD-A245 442 AD___1111111i1i11l 01 li[i ] i 1 I1 STUDIES OF THE OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEINS OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI FOR VACCINE DEVELOPMENT MIDTERM...the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter 90PP0820 Jejuni for Vaccine Development ____ ___ ___ ____ _ _ ___ ___ ___ ____ ___ ___61102A .1 6...Enteritis in Thailand. Although Campylobacter enteritis is usually an inflammatory process in developed countries, watery diarrhea is common in the

  16. Distribution of Flagella Secreted Protein and Integral Membrane Protein Among Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    secreted protein and integral membrane protein among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Thailand Piyarat Pootong 1·, Oralak Serichantalergs...Ladaporn Bodhidatta \\ Frederic Poly2, Patricia Guerry2 and Carl J Mason 1 Abstract Background: Campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative bacterium, is a...groups of integral membrane protein. The significance of these different FspA variants to virulence requires further study. Background Campylobacter

  17. The Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter spp. From Retail Poultry Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Kurinčič; Ingrid Berce; Tina Zorman; Sonja Smole Možina

    2005-01-01

    Macrolides and fluoroquinolones are regarded as drugs of choice for the treatment of human Campylobacter infections. The use of antimicrobials for this purpose as well as in food animal production has resulted in the resistance of Campylobacter spp. to selected antibiotics. Since poultry is one of the most important sources of human Campylobacter infections the use of antibiotics in animal production can shorten the effective therapeutic life of antibiotics for human use. During 2001–2003, ov...

  18. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänninen Marja-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456 were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143 were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of

  19. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.

  20. The pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms; external and internal sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, T; Whyte, P; Bolton, D J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the most sensitive molecular techniques in combination with culture-based methods to characterize broiler farms in terms of the timeline ('appearance' and 'pattern') of Campylobacter contamination prior to and post detection in the birds. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from three broiler farms (two flocks per farm). Real-time PCR was used to test for the presence of Campylobacter. Culture-based methods (enrichment and direct plating) were also applied and isolates were subject to a range of confirmatory tests before speciation (multiplex PCR). All flocks were colonized by Campylobacter before first thin and a similar pattern of Campylobacter contamination was observed; (day -1) a range of external and internal samples real-time PCR positive but culture negative; (day 0) chicks negative; (6-9 days pre-detection in the birds) internal samples (feeders, drinkers, barrier and/or bird weigh) culture positive and (post broiler infection) increasing concentrations of Campylobacter in internal samples but also on the tarmac apron and anteroom. It was concluded that; (i) vertical transmission did not occur; (ii) the environment was a potential source of Campylobacter; (iii) testing areas frequented by all birds (e.g. feeders and drinkers), may offer an opportunity for early Campylobacter detection and (iv) once the broilers are infected with Campylobacter, these bacteria are spread from the birds, through the anteroom to the areas surrounding the broiler house, highlighting the need for improved biosecurity. This study has established the pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms, identified an early detection opportunity, highlighted the need to better understand the role of viable but nonculturable Campylobacter in the ecology of Campylobacter on broiler farms and demonstrated the need for improved biosecurity to prevent the spread of Campylobacter from within the house to the surrounding environment.

  1. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Campylobacter species in foods of animal origin

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi; Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence and evaluation of antibiotic resistance pattern and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Campylobacter species isolated from foods of animal origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 samples (comprising 150 chicken meat, 50 chevon and 80 milk) were collected from retail meat markets, slaughter houses and dairy farms and analyzed for isolation of Campylobacter species. A total of 29 isolates comprising 23 Campylobacter jejuni and 6 Campy...

  2. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Patients with Diarrhea in Shunyi, Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens have been confirmed as the major cause of acute diarrhea among outpatients in China. In this study, 370 stool samples from the patients aged from 15 to 87 years old with diarrhea were collected over 12 months (from May 2016 to April 2017 in two hospitals in Shunyi, Beijing. Bacterial isolation was performed for the common enteric pathogens: Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus for 370 samples. The filtration method was used for the Campylobacter isolation in this study. The prevalence and molecular characterization of the Campylobacter were investigated. The isolation ratio for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic E. coli, and V. parahaemolyticus was 7.0% (26/370, 6.2% (23/370, 0.3% (1/370, 7.3% (27/370, and 10.3% (38/370, respectively. Based on the isolation result, Campylobacter positive cases presented in almost every month of the whole year and the isolation ratio was the highest among the tested pathogens during October to March. There was no significant difference between genders of Campylobacter positive cases. More Campylobacter positive cases presented dehydration compared with those who were positive for Salmonella. Twenty-six Campylobacter isolates were obtained in this study and 24 of these were Campylobacter jejuni. The antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that 83.3% (20/24 of the isolates exhibited resistance to three or more types of antibiotic. Twenty STs were identified for the 26 Campylobacter isolates and four novel STs were identified in this study. No clonal cluster was found among these isolates. This is the first study for Campylobacter isolated using the filtration method in China which indicated the Campylobacter infection might be seriously under-ascertained in the diarrheal patients in China.

  3. Aplicación de PCR-RFLP para subtipificar Campylobacter jejuni PCR-RFLP for Campylobacter jejuni subtyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giacoboni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diez cepas de Campylobacter jejuni aisladas de fetos porcinos abortados fueron identificadas por pruebas bioquímicas: 8 como C. jejuni biotipo II de Lior, y 2 como C. jejuni biotipo I. Para poder subtipificarlas se utilizó la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR para amplificar el gen flaA y al producto obtenido se lo digirió con la enzima de restricción DdeI (RFLP. Se pudieron obtener 6 subtipos a partir de C. jejuni biotipo II, mientras que los dos aislamientos de biotipo I correspondieron a un mismo subtipo. Aunque existe una amplia variedad de técnicas de biología molecular que son aplicadas con fines epidemiológicos para Campylobacter, PCR-RFLP, demostró ser una técnica simple y accesible, capaz de subtipificar a C. jejuni.Ten Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 8 identified as C. jejuni biotype II of Lior and 2 as C. jejuni biotipe I, were recovered from aborted pig fetuses. In order to discriminate among strains, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using DdeI of polymerase chain reaction (PCR products of flaA gen was used. C. jejuni biotype II strains could be diferenciated in 6 by PCR-RFLP, and one subtype was obtained from C. jejuni biotype I. Although there is great variability of molecular techniques applied to the Campylobacter epidemiological studies, PCR-RFLP demonstrated to be a simple and accessible technique to discriminate Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

  4. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and enteric Helicobacter in domestic and free living birds in North-Western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, P; Tomassone, L; Tramuta, C; Rodo, M; Giammarino, M; Vaschetti, G; Nebbia, P

    2010-09-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of some thermophilic Campylobacter (C. jejuni and C. coli) and enteric Helicobacter (H. pullorum and H. canadensis) in domestic and wild birds, a total of 278 bird caecal samples were analyzed over a 2 year period in North-Western Italy. Samples were collected from poultry raised in intensive farming at the slaughterhouse (n=102, group A) and in small scale rural farms (n=60, group B) as well as from wild birds (n=116, group C). PCR amplifications were carried out on DNA extracted from caecal samples. Molecular assays targeted the hipO gene for C. jejuni, the asp gene for C. coli and the 16S rRNA gene of H. pullorum/H. canadensis. To differentiate H. pullorum from H. canadensis, PCR products were subjected to an ApaLI digestion assay. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter and enteric Helicobacter was significantly different among groups (p<0.0001). Campylobacter infections were detected in all three bird groups (78.4% group A, 18.3% group B and 38.8% group C, respectively), Helicobacter infections were only detected in poultry, with H. pullorum infecting 68.6% of group A and 21.7% of group B birds. H. canadensis was detected in Guinea fowls (group A) and for the first time in pheasants (group B). Mixed infections by enteric Campylobacter and Helicobacter were shown in 53.9% of group A and in 5.0 % of group B. Our results show that both microorganisms commonly infect poultry, especially intensive farming animals. Only hooded crows among the wild bird group (group C), proved to be highly sensitive to Campylobacter infection.

  5. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece. Faecal specimens were collected from 181 dogs and 132 cats. Culture methods were applied to detect Campylobacter spp. and a multiplex PCR assay to identify the isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 3.8% in dogs and 12.1% in cats. The most frequently identified Campylobacter species in dogs was C. jejuni (57.1% followed by C. coli (42.9%. All feline isolates were identified as C. jejuni apart from one isolate that was characterised as Campylobacter-like organism. Gender, age, breed, life style, diarrhoea and type of diet of dogs and cats did not significantly correlate (P>0.05 with Campylobacter isolation. Possible predictors regarding Campylobacter presence in dogs and cats were assessed by binary logistic regression. A tendency towards higher risk for Campylobacter contamination was observed in dogs consuming a homemade diet and in outdoor cats. Disk diffusion method revealed that all Campylobacter isolates exhibited susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. Contrariwise, 66.7% of canine isolates were resistant concurrently to tetracycline and quinolones and 59.0%, 13.6% and 4.5% of feline isolates were resistant to quinolones, quinolones along with tetracycline and tetracycline alone, respectively

  6. A Prospective Follow-Up Study on Transmission of Campylobacter from Poultry to Abattoir Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  7. Climatic factors and prevalence of Campylobacter in commercial broiler flocks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, S; Charununtakorn, P; Muangnoicharoen, S; Hankla, L; Techawal, N; Chaveerach, P; Tuitemwong, P; Chokesajjawatee, N; Williams, N; Humphrey, T; Luangtongkum, T

    2017-04-01

    Campylobacter are bacteria associated with human foodborne disease worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are generally considered as a main source of these organisms. Compared to temperate zones, baseline information on Campylobacter in tropical regions is limited. Thus, the objectives of the present study were 1) to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in Thai broiler flocks and 2) to investigate the association between climatic factors (i.e., rainfall, ambient temperature, and relative humidity) and Campylobacter colonization status of broiler flocks in Thailand. A total of 442 commercial broiler flocks reared in the central and northeastern regions of Thailand during 2012 to 2014 were investigated. Campylobacter positive status was identified in 252 examined flocks (57.01%; 95% CI 52.39 to 61.63%). Prevalence of Campylobacter in the northeastern region (54.46%; 95% CI 44.76 to 63.83%) was slightly lower than that of the central region (57.77%; 95% CI 52.47 to 62.90%). More than 65% of Campylobacter positive flocks in the central and northeastern regions had within-flock prevalence higher than 75%. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) revealed that the increased rainfall and relative humidity were associated with the increase of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks (P ≤ 0.05), while no relationship between ambient temperature and Campylobacter colonization status was identified. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Variation in Campylobacter Multilocus Sequence Typing Subtypes from Chickens as Detected on Three Plating Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Ladely, S R; Meinersmann, R J; Line, J E; Oakley, B B; Cox, N A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli detected on three selective Campylobacter plating media to determine whether each medium selected for different subtypes. Fifty ceca and 50 carcasses (representing 50 flocks) were collected from the evisceration line in a commercial broiler processing plant. Campylobacter was cultured and isolated from cecal contents and carcass rinses on Campy-Cefex, Campy Line, and RF Campylobacter jejuni/coli agars. When a positive result was obtained with all three media, one colony of the most prevalent morphology on each medium was selected for further analysis by full genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. Sequence types were assigned according to PubMLST. A total of 49 samples were positive for Campylobacter on all three media. Forty samples contained only C. jejuni , three had only C. coli , and both species were detected in six samples. From 71% of samples, Campylobacter isolates of the same sequence type were recovered on all three media. From 81.6% of samples, isolates were all from the same clonal complex. From significantly fewer samples (26%, P Campylobacter jejuni/coli . From one sample, three sequence types were detected. In most cases, all three plating media allowed detection of the same type of Campylobacter from complex naturally contaminated chicken samples.

  9. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Genomic investigation into strain heterogeneity and pathogenic potential of the emerging gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullman, Susan; Lucid, Alan; Corcoran, Daniel; Sleator, Roy D; Lucey, Brigid

    2013-01-01

    .... ureolyticus isolates including the type strain. Comparative analysis, subtractive hybridisation and gene ontology searches against other Campylobacter species identifies the high degree of heterogenicity between C...

  11. Associations between Campylobacter levels on chicken skin, underlying muscle, caecum and packaged fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, I; Nyman, A; Lahti, E; Gustafsson, P; Olsson Engvall, E

    2015-06-01

    A study was performed with the aim to investigate associations between Campylobacter in chicken caecum, carcass skin, underlying breast muscle and packaged breast fillets. Samples were taken from 285 chickens from 57 flocks and analysed according to ISO 10272. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from caecal samples from 41 flocks. From birds of the same 41 flocks Campylobacter could be detected and quantified in 194 (68%) skin samples. Moreover, Campylobacter spp. were enumerated in 13 (5%) underlying muscle samples originating from 9 of the 41 flocks. The mean number of Campylobacter spp. in the 194 skin samples which could be counted was 2.3 log cfu/g and for the 13 underlying muscle samples 1.3 log cfu/g. Campylobacter could only be quantified in those breast muscle samples with a finding in corresponding skin sample. Five packaged chicken fillets were taken from each 25 of the 57 flocks and analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In qualitative analysis Campylobacter was detected in 79 (63%) fillets from 16 flocks and quantified in 24 (19%) samples from 11 flocks. The results showed a significant association (P Campylobacter on carcass skin (log cfu/g) and the proportion of Campylobacter positive breast muscle samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter persists in raw retail chicken after the fluoroquinolone ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Hanning, Irene; Wiggins, Keith C; Story, Robert P; Ricke, Steven C; Johnson, Michael G

    2009-10-01

    In 2005, the FDA withdrew approval for the use of fluoroquinolones in live poultry production. To assess any changes in countable numbers of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter before and after the fluoroquinolone withdrawal, retail whole raw chicken carcasses (RTCC) purchased in Northwest Arkansas from 2004 to 2006 were sampled for this purpose. Using a previously published direct-plating method developed in our laboratory, we quantified trends of Campylobacter and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter loads by direct plating whole chicken carcass rinses on Campylobacter agar (CA) or Campylobacter agar containing 8.6 mg/ml ciprofloxacin (CCA). Countable populations of Campylobacter were recovered from 74, 96, and 63% of carcasses sampled in 2004, 2005, and 2006 respectively. The percentages of carcasses with minimum detectable levels of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter were 20, 42 and 33%, sampled in 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Our 3 year analysis in one geographical area indicated a persistence of Campylobacter and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter on retail raw chicken carcasses despite the cessation of fluoroquinolone use in poultry production.

  13. Simulation model for Campylobacter cross-contamination during poultry processing at slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Y; Yamamoto, T; Kasuga, F; Tsutsui, T

    2011-09-01

    Broiler meat is regarded as the most common source of Campylobacter infection and risk management measures are required to reduce broiler meat contamination. Among the quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat, evaluation of the poultry processing stage is particularly important for predicting the contamination level of broiler meat and the effects of control measures. In this study, we built a simulation model for cross-contamination during poultry processing focusing on Campylobacter contamination at the individual carcass level. Using this model, we examined changes in the prevalence of contaminated carcasses and the number of Campylobacter per carcass after processing. As a result, it was found that the prevalence and number of Campylobacter after processing were largely influenced by the number of Campylobacter on the contaminated carcasses before processing. In the baseline model, where it was assumed that the mean number of Campylobacter on contaminated carcasses before processing was 4.7 log₁₀ cfu per carcass, the prevalence after processing was less than that before processing. Although the median value of Campylobacter on contaminated carcasses was reduced after processing, the distributions after processing became wider and the upper limit of the 95% credible interval of Campylobacter on contaminated carcasses remained elevated. The individual-based simulation model can trace individual level changes considering discrete interactions, while models tracing mean values cannot handle these interactions in detail. The individual-based approach is considered useful for modelling cross-contamination among individual carcasses during poultry processing. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Sialylation of Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides is associated with severe gastro-enteritis and reactive arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortensen, N.P.; Kuijf, M.L.; Ang, C.W.; Schiellerup, P.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Jacobs, B.F.; van Belkum, A.; Endtz, H.Ph.; Bergman, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    We used various genotyping methods to identify bacterial genetic markers for development of arthritic symptoms following Campylobacter enteritis. We genotyped a collection of population derived Campylobacter strains, with detailed information on clinical characteristics, including arthritic

  15. Explanatory variables associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses during processing in two slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Lipman, Len J.A.; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover,

  16. Explanatory Variables Associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli Concentrations on Broiler Chicken Carcasses during Processing in Two Slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Lipman, Len J.A.; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover,

  17. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  18. Evaluation of a PCR/DNA Probe Colorimetric Membrane Assay for Identification of Campylobacter spp. in Human Stool Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Evelyn; Glennon, Maura; Hanley, Shirley; Murray, Anne-Marie; Cormican, Martin; Smith, Terry; Maher, Majella

    2001-01-01

    DNA was extracted from 50 human stool specimens using the QIAamp DNA stool minikit. PCR amplification was followed by post-PCR hybridization to DNA probes specific for the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli in a colorimetric membrane assay. Thirty-two of 38 culture-positive specimens were PCR/DNA probe positive for C. jejuni. The assay is rapid and simple and can be applied to stool specimens for the detection of Campylobacter.

  19. First case report of myopericarditis linked to Campylobacter coli enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Cameron R M; Moloi, Soniah B; Kennedy, Karina J

    2017-01-05

    Campylobacter spp. are a common cause of mostly self-limiting enterocolitis. Although rare, pericarditis and myopericarditis have been increasingly documented as complications following campylobacteriosis. Such cases have occurred predominantly in younger males, and involved a single causative species, namely Campylobacter jejuni. We report the first case of myopericarditis following Campylobacter coli enterocolitis, with illness occurring in an immunocompetent middle-aged female. A 51-yo female was admitted to a cardiology unit with a 3-days history of chest pain. The woman had no significant medical history or risk factors for cardiac disease, nor did she report any recent overseas travel. Four days prior to the commencement of chest pain the woman had reported onset of an acute gastrointestinal illness, passing 3-4 loose stools daily, a situation that persisted at the time of presentation. Physical examination showed the woman's vital signs to be essentially stable, although she was noted to be mildly tachycardic. Laboratory testing showed mildly elevated C-reactive protein and a raised troponin I in the absence of elevation of the serum creatinine kinase. Electrocardiography (ECG) demonstrated concave ST segment elevations, and PR elevation in aVR and depression in lead II. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed normal biventricular size and function with no significant valvular abnormalities. There were no left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities. No pericardial effusion was present but the pericardium appeared echodense. A diagnosis of myopericarditis was made on the basis of chest pain, typical ECG changes and troponin rise. The chest pain resolved and she was discharged from hospital after 2-days of observation, but with ongoing diarrhoea. Following discharge, a faecal sample taken during the admission, cultured Campylobacter spp. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (Bruker) confirmed the cultured isolate as C. coli

  20. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  1. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken in farms and at time of slaughter in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, S; Franciosini, M P; Comitini, F; Ciani, M; De Luca, S; Bellucci, S; Menchetti, L; Casagrande Proietti, P

    2017-05-01

    Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were investigated along the broiler chicken production chain in central Italy. Campylobacter sp. isolated from cloacal swabs in farms (n = 116) and from the neck skin of chilled and eviscerated carcasses at slaughter (n = 24) were identified as C. coli (n = 99) and C. jejuni (n = 41) by multiplex PCR. Characterization by single amplified fragment length polymorphism (s-AFLP) revealed a specific genotype of Campylobacter for each farm. Minimal inhibitory concentration showed high prevalence of fluoroquinolones (70%), tetracycline (70%) and erythromycin (30%) resistance among C. coli isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolates showed lower prevalence of fluoroquinolone (39%) and tetracycline (10%) resistance, and all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. The S-AFLP types of the C. coli and C. jejuni isolates were associated with their antimicrobial resistance profiles (P Campylobacter isolates suggested that a specific genotype was harboured in each farm. A considerable number of C. coli isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Campylobacter coli was detected more frequently than C. jejuni in contrast to common findings for poultry. The high prevalence of 30% resistance to erythromycin in C. coli strains isolated from poultry is worrisome, as this is the first antibiotic of choice to treat human campylobacteriosis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S. A.; Van Bergen, Marcel A. P.; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Veldman, Kees T.; Kalupahana, Ruwani S.

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102) and wet markets (n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance. PMID:29186018

  3. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottawattage S. A. Kottawatta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102 and wet markets (n = 25. From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37 was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33 of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8 became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-11-29

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants ( n = 102) and wet markets ( n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter . Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets ( n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter -free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni . Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  5. Prevalence of virulence genes and cytolethal distending toxin production in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukder, Kaisar A.; Aslam, Mohammad; Islam, Zhahirul; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Dutta, Dilip K.; Hossain, Sabir; Nur-E-Kamal, Alam; Nair, Gopinath B.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Sack, David A.; Endtz, Hubert P.

    From 300 stool samples, 58 Campylobacter strains were isolated by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Of these, 40 strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 5 as Campylobacter coli. The presence of flaA (100%), cadF (100%), racR (100%), dnaJ (100%), pldA (100%), ciaB (95%),

  6. Prevalence of virulence genes and cytolethal distending toxin production in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Talukder (Kaisar); M. Aslam (Mohammad); Z. Islam (Zhahirul); I.J. Azmi (Ishrat); D.K. Dutta (Dilip); S. Hossain (S.); A. Nur-E-Kamal (Alam); G.B. Nair (Gopinath); A. Cravioto (Alejandro); D.A. Sack (David); H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractFrom 300 stool samples, 58 Campylobacter strains were isolated by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Of these, 40 strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 5 as Campylobacter coli. The presence of flaA (100%), cadF (100%), racR (100%), dnaJ (100%), pldA (100%),

  7. Chitosan supplementation reduces enteric colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens and down-regulates expression of colonization genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and poultry is considered as the most common source of human infections. Campylobacter is prevalent in most poultry flocks and a reduction of Campylobacter in poultry would greatly reduce the risk of campylo...

  8. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Amol D. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India); Shashidhar, Ravindranath [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.in [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kapadnis, Balu P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 {sup o}C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D{sub 10} values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: > Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. > Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. > No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. > First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  9. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Danish broiler production: a cross-sectional survey and a retrospective analysis of risk factors for occurrence in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Wedderkopp, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study...... days (OR = 5.0, 1.2 important biosecurity measure for production of campylobacter-free broilers....

  10. Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis causing peritonitis, ileitis and intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D J; Newstead, G L

    1994-01-01

    Patients with Campylobacter enterocolitis may come to laparotomy due to the severity of abdominal symptoms and signs, although only two patients with intestinal inflammation have been described and in neither was the histopathology documented. A case of a 52-year-old male who had a typical diarrhoeal illness of Campylobacter enterocolitis diagnosed on stool culture is reported. Despite appropriate treatment he developed signs and symptoms consistent with small intestinal obstruction. Laparotomy revealed peritonitis and thickened distal ileum with transmural inflammatory changes on histopathology. These changes were shown to have completely resolved at a second laparotomy, required for persistent obstruction due to adhesions. Recurrent adhesions culminated in a third laparotomy. The clinical, operative and histopathological findings may be confused with Crohn's disease.

  11. A Case of Acute Myocarditis From Campylobacter Jejuni Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kurdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor, Campylobacter Jejuni (C. Jejuni is the most common cause of infectious enterocolitis in the developed world, with an annual incidence as high as 1 in 1000 in the developed world and about 2.5 million cases per year in the United States with male gender predominance. Campylobacter-associated myocarditis (CAM is a very rare and potentially life-threatening complication of C. Jejuni enterocolitis (CEC. The majority of cases include a subtle history of abdominal pain and diarrhea that progressively worsens. Chest pain and shortness of breath follow in most cases of myocarditis. We present a case of CAM mimicking acute coronary syndrome (ACS and treated successfully with antibiotic and supportive care. We hope to increase awareness of this rare, but potentially fatal complication.

  12. Estimation of on-farm interventions to control Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Before making risk management decisions to control Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, it is useful to identify effective interventions. A given risk factor may seem to have a large effect, but in practice interventions related to this risk factor may have only limited effect due...... to a relative small proportion of the farms that can actually be intervened for the given risk factors. We present a novel tool for risk assessors to obtain such estimates of the effect of interventions before it is implemented at the farms. A statistical method was developed in order to estimate the flock...... individual interventions gave only a limited reduction in prevalence if the biosecurity was not accounted for. Furthermore, the effect of the interventions differed between countries, depending on current farm management practices and Campylobacter prevalence. The most effective interventions were “building...

  13. Comparison of the SimPlate™ Campylobacter CI-System with the cultural standard method for the detection of Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Manopas, Aranya Sira Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of the SimPlate™ Campylobacter CI-System as a rapid test for Campylobacter spp. detection was investigated in comparison with the ISO-MPN-method as stipulated in ISO 10272:1995(E). 116 turkey and chicken meat samples were used for both, preliminary and main experiments. With the ISO-MPN-method system 24 out of 116 meat samples were identified as Campylobacter positive whereas SimPlate™ detected only 6 Campylobacterpositive samples, partly reasoned by the high detection limit o...

  14. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Myocarditis related to Campylobacter jejuni infection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Christine H

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocarditis can develop as a complication of various infections and is most commonly linked to enterovirus infections. Myocarditis is rarely associated with bacterial infections; salmonellosis and shigellosis have been the most frequently reported bacterial cause. We report a case of myocarditis related to Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. Case Presentation A 30-year-old previously healthy man presented with a history of prolonged chest pain radiating to the jaw and the left arm. Five days prior to the onset of chest pain, he developed bloody diarrhea, fever and chills. Creatine kinase (CK and CK-MB were elevated to 289 U/L and 28.7 μg/L. Troponin I was 30.2 μg/L. The electrocardiogram (ECG showed T wave inversion in the lateral and inferior leads. The chest pain resolved within 24 hours of admission. The patient had a completely normal ECG stress test. The patient was initiated on ciprofloxacin 500 mg po bid when Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the stool. Diarrhea resolved within 48 hours of initiation of ciprofloxacin. The diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis and related myocarditis was made based on the clinical and laboratory results and the patient was discharged from the hospital in stable condition. Conclusion Myocarditis can be a rare but severe complication of infectious disease and should be considered as a diagnosis in patients presenting with chest pain and elevated cardiac enzymes in the absence of underlying coronary disease. It can lead to cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. There are only a few reported cases of myocarditis associated with Campylobacter infection.

  16. Raw milk - boiling protects against infection with Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2016-01-01

    It is known that raw milk can contain microorganisms that are harmful to health. In light of the increasing number of machines where raw milk is sold via raw milk vending systems, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) has assessed the risk for food infections with the Campylobacter bacterium resulting from the milk dispensed from these raw milk vending machines. The assessment also addresses the question of whether the more frequent occurrence of outbreaks of illness due to Campylob...

  17. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Persson, Søren; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2017-06-08

    The development of diagnostic metagenomics is driven by the need for universal, culture-independent methods for detection and characterization of pathogens to substitute the time-consuming, organism-specific, and often culture-based laboratory procedures for epidemiological source-tracing. Some of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU/g Campylobacter jejuni was sequenced and data analysis was done by the metagenomic tools Kraken and CLARK. More hits were obtained at higher spiking levels, however with no significant linear correlations (human samples p = 0.12, chicken samples p = 0.10). Therefore, no definite detection limit could be determined, but the lowest spiking levels found positive were 7.75 × 104 CFU/ml in human feces and 103 CFU/g in chicken feces. Eight human clinical fecal samples with estimated Campylobacter infection loads from 9.2 × 104-1.0 × 109 CFU/ml were analyzed using the same methods. It was possible to detect Campylobacter in all the clinical samples. Sensitivity in diagnostic metagenomics is improving and has reached a clinically relevant level. There are still challenges to overcome before real-time diagnostic metagenomics can replace quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or culture-based surveillance and diagnostics, but it is a promising new technology.

  18. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...... with a significant proportion of metronidazole-resistant isolates among C. jejuni from raw broiler and turkey meat. Metronidazole resistance occurred most frequently among turkey meat isolates (P metronidazole resistance....

  19. Promising new vaccine candidates against Campylobacter in broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the European Union. Birds represent the main reservoir of the bacteria, and human campylobacteriosis mainly occurs after consuming and/or handling poultry meat. Reducing avian intestinal Campylobacter loads should impact the incidence of human diseases. At the primary production level, several measures have been identified to reach this goal, including vaccination of poultry. Despite many studies, however, no efficient vaccine is currently available. We have recently identified new vaccine candidates using the reverse vaccinology strategy. This study assessed the in vivo immune and protective potential of six newly-identified vaccine antigens. Among the candidates tested on Ross broiler chickens, four (YP_001000437.1, YP_001000562.1, YP_999817.1, and YP_999838.1 significantly reduced cecal Campylobacter loads by between 2 and 4.2 log10 CFU/g, with the concomitant development of a specific humoral immune response. In a second trial, cecal load reductions results were not statistically confirmed despite the induction of a strong immune response. These vaccine candidates need to be further investigated since they present promising features.

  20. Sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni using nanoparticles enhanced QCM sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdor, Noor Azlina; Altintas, Zeynep; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-04-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor platform was used to develop an immunosensor for the detection of food pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies and commercially available mouse monoclonal antibodies against C. jejuni were investigated to construct direct, sandwich and gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) amplified sandwich assays. The performance of the QCM immunosensor developed using sandwich assay by utilising the rabbit polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and conjugated to AuNPs as the detection antibody gave the highest sensitivity. This sensor achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 colony forming unit (CFU)mL(-1) of C. jejuni in solution. The QCM sensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for Campylobacter detection with low cross reactivity for other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, (7%) Listeria monocytogenes (3%) and Escherichia coli (0%). The development of this biosensor would help in the sensitive detection of Campylobacter which can result in reducing pre-enrichment steps; hence, reducing assay time. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for C. jejuni. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Campylobacter bacteraemia: 16 years of experience in a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Khetam; Raz-Pasteur, Ayelet; Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Geffen, Yuval; Oren, Ilana; Paul, Mical; Kassis, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteraemia (CB) is rare and usually occurs in immune-compromised patients. In this study we examined the incidence and epidemiology of CB in one institution over 15.5 years. The medical records of all the consecutive patients with CB admitted to our hospital from 2000 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics, microbiologic and outcome data were collected. During the study period, 65 patients with CB were identified. The majority of the patients were middle aged and immune-compromised. Campylobacter jejuni was the most commonly identified species (33/47, 70%). The main underlying conditions were haematological malignancies (43%) and chronic liver disease (14%). Fifty-seven percent of the patients were receiving immunosuppressive therapy at the time of bacteraemia. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (85%), diarrhoea (40%), abdominal pain (40%), and nausea and vomiting (40%). Of the isolates tested, 97% were susceptible to macrolides, and only 35% were susceptible to quinolones. Susceptibility to quinolones decreased over the years. Most patients did not receive adequate empiric antibiotic treatment (81.5%) and about 20% never received directed therapy. Mortality and relapse rates were low (5% each). There was no association between adequate empirical or definitive antibiotic therapy and adverse outcomes. The main predisposing factor for Campylobacter bacteraemia in our cohort was immunosuppression. Prognosis was generally favourable regardless of appropriateness of antibiotic therapy.

  2. Campylobacter seroconversion rates in selected countries in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, P F M; Falkenhorst, G; Ang, C W; Strid, M A; De Valk, H; Sadkowska-Todys, M; Zota, L; Kuusi, M; Rota, M C; Simonsen, J B; Mølbak, K; Van Duynhoven, Y T H P; Van Pelt, W

    2013-10-01

    As a major foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter is frequently isolated from food sources of animal origin. In contrast, human Campylobacter illness is relatively rare, but has a considerable health burden due to acute enteric illness as well as severe sequelae. To study silent transmission, serum antibodies can be used as biomarkers to estimate seroconversion rates, as a proxy for infection pressure. This novel approach to serology shows that infections are much more common than disease, possibly because most infections remain asymptomatic. This study used antibody titres measured in serum samples collected from healthy subjects selected randomly in the general population from several countries in the European Union (EU). Estimates of seroconversion rates to Campylobacter were calculated for seven countries: Romania, Poland, Italy, France, Finland, Denmark and The Netherlands. Results indicate high infection pressures in all these countries, slightly increasing in Eastern EU countries. Of these countries, the differences in rates of notified illnesses are much greater, with low numbers in France and Poland, possibly indicating lower probability of detection due to differences in the notification systems, but in the latter case it cannot be excluded that more frequent exposure confers better protection due to acquired immunity.

  3. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens.

  4. Prevalenza di Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso in Italia

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    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italia, nel periodo 5 febbraio-15 dicembre 2008, in applicazione della Decisione 516/2007/CE, sono state eseguite le attività di campionamento e analisi previste dal relativo Piano di sorveglianza. Tra gli obiettivi, la rilevazione dell’entità di contaminazione da Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso allevato in Italia. Sono stati selezionati 48 mattatoi avicoli, distribuiti in undici regioni italiane, in cui sono stati prelevati intestini ciechi e carcasse di pollo da ingrasso appartenenti a 393 lotti di macellazione. In 284 lotti (72,3% è stato isolato Campylobacter spp.: il 52,1% è risultato contaminato da C. jejuni, il 55,6% da C. coli e l’1,1% da C. lari. Nel 13,0% di quelli positivi (37 lotti sono stati rilevati contemporaneamente C. jejuni e C. coli. Dall’esame degli intestini ciechi, Campylobacter spp. è risultato presente in 251 lotti di macellazione (63,9%, in particolare, C. jejuni nel 48,2%, C. coli nel 50,6% e C. lari nell’1,2%. Le carcasse appartenenti a 182 lotti (46,3% sono risultate contaminate da C. jejuni nel 40,7% e C. coli nel 57,7% dei lotti positivi, C. lari non è stato isolato. I livelli di contaminazione riscontrati nelle carcasse sono risultati compresi tra 10 e 1,6 × 107 UFC/g.

  5. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Campylobacter species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.

  6. Campylobacter colonization is not associated with proventricular dilatation disease in psittacines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulbow H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Holden Bulbow, Jing Wu, Debra Turner, Michael McEntire, Ian Tizard Schubot Exotic Bird Health Center, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Psittacine proventricular dilatation disease (PDD is a neurological disease caused by parrot bornaviruses. A competing theory suggests that intestinal colonization by Campylobacter species may also be a potential cause of PDD or that their presence may be required for disease development. This theory proposes that PDD results from the activities of antiganglioside antibodies on enteric neurons in a manner similar to the pathogenesis of Guillain–Barré syndrome in humans. We therefore cultured feces from domestic chickens as well as from multiple parrot species to determine whether Campylobacter spp. could be detected in the latter. We failed to detect Campylobacter in a flock of cockatiels known to be highly susceptible to experimental parrot bornavirus-induced PDD. Even in naturally infected psittacines suffering from clinical PDD, no Campylobacter species were detected. Conversely, Campylobacter was readily cultured from domestic poultry samples and confirmed by using matrix-associated laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy/real-time polymerase chain reaction. We conclude that not only are Campylobacter infections of psittacines uncommon, but also that infection by Campylobacter species is not related to the etiology of PDD. Keywords: bornavirus, campylobacter, proventricular dilatation disease, parrots, chickens

  7. Complete genome sequence of the hippuricase-positive Campylobacter avium type strain LMG 24591

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter avium is a hippurate-positive, thermotolerant campylobacter that has been isolated from poultry. Here we present the genome sequences of two C. avium strains isolated from broiler chickens: strains LMG 24591T (complete genome) and LMG 24592 (draft genome). The C. avium type strain geno...

  8. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Fels, van der H.J.; Thissen, J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages

  9. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095 bp.) harboring tet(O) was identified in...

  10. Beta-resorcylic acid, a phytophenolic compound, reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this s...

  11. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni YH001 from beef liver which contains a novel plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and is commonly found in poultry and meat products. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Campylobacter jejuni strain recently isolated from retail beef liver. The genome size was 1,712,361 bp, ...

  12. Common and specific epitopes of Campylobacter flagellin recognized by monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Nachamkin, I; Hart, A M

    1986-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies to Campylobacter jejuni recognized a flagellin epitope common to most Campylobacter species and an epitope restricted to C. jejuni and C. coli. These epitopes are distinct from the serotype-specific epitope recently detected on the flagellin and have not been described previously.

  13. Investigation of the presence and protective effects of maternal antibodies against Campylobacter jejuni in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthraw, S A; Newell, D G

    2010-03-01

    The role of maternal antibodies in the lag phase of Campylobacter positivity, widely observed in commercial broiler flocks, was investigated. The results indicate that 3-wk-old birds derived from a commercial flock are more susceptible to colonization with Campylobacter jejuni than 1-to-2-wk-old birds. This increasing susceptibility parallels the loss of maternally derived, circulating, anti-Campylobacter, immunoglobulin Y antibodies as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The role of these antibodies in resistance to colonization was further investigated using progeny from breeder flocks of known Campylobacter status. These results confirmed that maternal antibodies confer partial protection against Campylobacter colonization on young chickens (1-2 wk old). This protection was directed against challenge with both homologous and heterologous strains of C. jejuni and even against strains with a high colonization potential. However, evidence presented indicates that newly hatched chicks, with the highest levels of maternal antibodies, were as susceptible to Campylobacter challenge as 3-wk-old birds. This conundrum was investigated further, and an increase in resistance was detected from 1 to 3 days of age. The reasons for this are, as yet, unknown, but the observation validates the use of newly hatched chicks in models of Campylobacter colonization. Moreover, this high susceptibility in the first few days of life may explain the occasional early flock colonization observed, especially when environmental exposure to Campylobacter is high, for example, in free-range birds.

  14. Risk factors associated with Campylobacter jejuni infections in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Endtz (Hubert); L. de Haan (Lidewij); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); Y. Halabi; N.P.W.C.J. van den Braak (Nicole); B.I. Kesztyus; C.W. Ang (Wim); I. Gerstenbluth; E. Leyde; A. Ott (Alewijn); F.G. Rodgers; R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); D.L. Woodward; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); L.J. Price; H. West; P.C.R. Godschalk (Peggy)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA steady increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with a seasonal preponderance, almost exclusively related to Campylobacter jejuni, and a rise in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter enteritis have been reported from Curacao,

  15. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  16. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved.

  17. Clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Choi, Yukyung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Genus Campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. Human Campylobacter infections have caused more concern. Campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. The major zoonotic species are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, which mostly reside in the intestines of avian species and are transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated poultry products, thus causing human gastroenteritis and other diseases as sequelae. The other campylobacters, human oral species, include C. concisus, C. showae, C. gracilis, C. ureolyticus, C. curvus, and C. rectus. These species are isolated from the oral cavity, natural colonization site, but have potential clinical relevance in the periodontal region to varying extent. Two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are believed to be mainly associated with intestinal diseases, but recent studies suggested that oral Campylobacter species also play a significant role in intestinal diseases. This review offers an outline of the two Campylobacter groups (zoonotic and human oral), their virulence traits, and the associated illnesses including gastroenteritis.

  18. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  19. Effect of acidified feed on suscebtibility of broiler chickens to intestinal infection by Campylobacter and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Engel, B.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is associated with human Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. One way to control the presence of these bacteria in broiler flocks is to make chickens less susceptible for colonisation. Acidification of feed may be a tool to reduce the Campylobacter and Salmonella

  20. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early colon...

  1. Comparison of polycarbonate and cellulose acetate membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter concisus from stool samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde Nielsen, Hans; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove

    2013-01-01

    One thousand seven hundred ninety-one diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. We found a high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus with use of a polycarbonate filter (n = 114) compared to a cellulose acetate filter (n = 79) (P polycarbonate filter is superior...

  2. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp.: A comparison toclassic culturing and enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Rahaoui, H.; Leer, R.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    The major disadvantage of the current gold standard for detection of the food pathogen Campylobacter, i.e. culturing, is the lengthy procedure. In this study we assessed the use of real-time PCR for detection of Campylobacter. To this end, 926 poultry samples, taken from transport containers and

  3. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible. © 2016 The Authors. APMIS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Societies for Medical Microbiology and Pathology.

  4. Establishing a campylobacter-free pig population through a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    Fattening pigs are often infected with campylobacter. To eliminate campylobacter from the pig population, a top-down approach, involving the breeding and reproduction farms, seems appropriate. In order to investigate the effectiveness of a top-down approach, sows' faeces from the following farms

  5. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran.

  6. Evaluation of the rapid RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® test in a general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Camarasa, Cristina; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier Moises; Sampedro-Martínez, Antonio; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2014-02-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the new rapid immunochromatographic test RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® (r-biopharm AG, Darmstadt, Germany) for the qualitative detection of Campylobacter antigens in pathologic feces from primary and specialist care patients. Three hundred feces samples were studied from patients with diarrhea, 50.6% from adults and 49.4% from children, which were received by our microbiology laboratory for coproculture. Campylobacter culture results, with or without PCR data, served as reference values for the comparative evaluation of RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® findings. Campylobacter was detected in 12.3% of samples. The diagnostic accuracy values of the RidaQuick Campylobacter® versus culture were: sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 97%, and positive and negative predictive values of 77% and 98%, respectively. RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® is a rapid test for the diagnosis of enteritis due to Campylobacter and could be an option for the clinical diagnosis of one of the main causes of bacterial enteritis in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid and sensitive detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken products by using the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Quint, W G; Henkens, M H; Stegeman, H; Huf, F A; Niesters, H G

    1992-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after a short enrichment culture was used to detect Campylobacter spp. in chicken products. After the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Campylobacter jejuni was determined and compared with known sequences from other enterobacteria, a primer and probe combination was

  8. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  9. Effect of H2 on culture of Campylobacter jejuni within mixed populations of ruminal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness. Campylobacter readily colonize the gut of food animals as evidenced by prevalence rates often exceeding 80%. Physiologically, C. jejuni conserve energy via amino acid catabolism and anaerobic respiration. Hydrogen is rep...

  10. Campylobacter Infection and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Bangladesh: Clinical epidemiology and comparative microbial genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Islam (Zhahirul)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Campylobacter spp. are small motile, microaerophilic, S-shaped or spiral rods (0.2-0.5 μm wide by 0.5-5 μm long), gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter was first described in 1886 by Theodore Escherich (1) in the colon of children who had died of ‘cholera infantum’.

  11. The Effects of Polyphosphate Additives on Campylobacter Survival in Processed Chicken Exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are responsible for a large number of food-borne illness cases worldwide. Despite being sensitive to oxygen and nutritionally fastidious, Campylobacter spp. are able to survive in food processing environments and reach consumers in sufficient numbers to cause disease. To investi...

  12. Risk assessment of Campylobacter in the Netherlands via broiler meat and other routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta MJ; Jacobs-Reitsma WF; Evers EG; Pelt W van; Havelaar AH; MGB

    2005-01-01

    Each year numerous people get ill due to the Campylobacter bacterium. Research within the CARMA project aims to advise the Dutch government on dealing with this problem. This report first describes the possible sources of human exposure to campylobacter in the Netherlands. Next to poultry meat,

  13. Evaluation of the " testing and scheduling" strategy for control of Campylobacter in broilers in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.; Wal, van der F.J.; Putirulan, F.F.; Post, J.; Kassteele, van de J.; Bolder, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    “Testing and scheduling” has been proposed as a strategy for control of Campylobacter in broiler meat. By this strategy, flocks with high numbers of Campylobacter in fecal samples would be diverted away from fresh meat production at the entrance of the broiler meat processing plant. Risk assessment

  14. [The hemolytic-uremic syndrome in enterocolitis caused by Campylobacter jejuni].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezel, Z; Stejskal, J; Dostálková, D

    1993-11-01

    In the submitted case-history the authors describe the clinical course of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) during Campylobacter infection in a two-year-old boy. On the described case the authors wish to confirm that in the manifestation of HUS in childhood not only infections caused by the usual microbial agents can participate but also Campylobacter jejuni.

  15. The efficacy of the natural plant extracts, thymol and carvacrol against campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the world and consumption of poultry products are a major cause of human infections. The ability to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter colonization in chickens would greatly reduce the risk of human campylobacteriosis. Unfortunately, ...

  16. Passage of Campylobacter subtypes through 0.45 and 0.65 µm filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A 0.45 or 0.65 µm filter can be used as a means to separate Campylobacter from complex samples allowing detection on solid plating media. It is unclear what percentage of cells in a Campylobacter suspension pass through a filter and result in visible colonies. Purpose The objective o...

  17. Effect of bicarbonate concentration on aerobic growth of campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium. Fumarate-pyruvate broth medium was supplemented with 0.00 to 0.10% NaHCO3 and inoculated with Campylobacter coli 33559, Campyloba...

  18. A case of defibrillator-associated infective endocarditis due to Campylobacter fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sękowska, A; Fabiszak, T; Mikucka, A; Andrzejewska, M; Kruszyńska, E; Gospodarek, E; Klawe, J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. are Gram-negative, spiral motile bacteria. Infections caused by Campylobacter fetus are frequently of invasive character, but they are very rare. The described case of infection of a cardioverter defibrillator implantation site was effectively cured with antibiotics, but it required removal of the cardioverter defibrillator.

  19. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production Chain in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Makela, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading course of food borne bacterial infections worldwide. It is believed that a decline in the occurrence of campylobacteriosis can be achieved by reducing the number of the bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Phage therapy using Campylobacter specific phages...

  20. TIME OF ENTRY OF SALMONELLA AND CAMPYLOBACTER INTO THE TURKEY BROODER HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier we reported the prevalence of Campylobacter (> 90%) and Salmonella (33%) in turkeys at slaughter. Herein we describe studies to estimate the time of entry of Campylobacter and Salmonella into the brooder house, which is the first stage of commercial turkey production. In Trial 1, birds (10...

  1. Improved toluidine blue-DNA agar for detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H.; PATEL, A.

    1987-01-01

    Our improved toluidine blue-DNA agar was compared with methyl green DNase test agar for the detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters. The toluidine blue-DNA agar gave clear-cut positive and negative reactions with campylobacter strains belonging to several species.

  2. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter iguaniorum to unravel genetic regions associated with reptilian hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Zomer, Aldert L; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is most closely related to the species C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, and C. lanienae Reptiles, chelonians and lizards in particular, appear to be a primary reservoir of this Campylobacter species. Here we report the genome comparison of C. iguaniorum strain 1485E, isolated

  3. Comparative genomics of campylobacter iguaniorum to unravel genetic regions associated with reptilian hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Zomer, Aldert L.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is most closely related to the species C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, andC. lanienae. Reptiles, chelonians and lizards in particular, appear to be a primary reservoir of this Campylobacter species. Here we report the genome comparison of C. iguaniorumstrain 1485E, isolated

  4. Neonatal sepsis by Campylobacter jejuni : Genetically proven transmission from a household puppy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, TFW; Duim, B; Geelen, SPM; Rigter, A; Thomson-Carter, F; Fleer, A; Wagenaar, JA

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of neonatal Campylobacter jejuni sepsis in a 3-week-old infant who acquired the infection through transmission from a recently acquired household puppy. Genotyping of Campylobacter strains obtained from puppy and child resulted in highly homogenous findings. This represents the

  5. Retention of Campylobacter (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgard, H.; Kristensen, K.; Hald, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) may transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We assessed the retention lime of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni at five temperatures and three doses. Flies were inoculated individually at their proboscis with 1.6 x 10(7) CFU (colony forming units) of C. jej...

  6. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royden, A.; Wedley, A.; Merga, J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipter...

  7. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  8. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  9. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari in Fresh Chicken Meat and By-Products in Bangkok, Thailand, Using Modified Multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, S; Phusri, K; Buates, S

    2015-07-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari was developed and validated to assess the occurrence of these bacteria in fresh chicken meat and by-products in Bangkok, Thailand, by using a new combination of four previously published PCR primers for C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and a universal 16S rDNA gene as an internal control. The specificity was determined by using 13 strains of other bacteria. With pure culture DNA, the detection limit was 0.017 ng/PCR for C. jejuni and C. coli and was 0.016 ng/PCR for C. lari. It can detect 10 CFU of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in 2 g of chicken meat within a 16-h enrichment time. Our multiplex PCR assay was applied for identification of Campylobacter spp. in 122 supermarket samples and 108 fresh market samples. Of the 230 samples evaluated by multiplex PCR, 54.0, 3.3, and 10.7% of supermarket samples were positive for C. jejuni, C. coli, and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, and 56.5 and 33.3% of fresh market samples were positive for C. jejuni and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. No sample was positive for C. lari. Fresh market samples had significantly higher C. jejuni and C. coli contamination than those from supermarkets (relative risk: 1.3; P = 0.0001). Compared with the culture method (a gold standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of multiplex PCR were 97.7, 86.8, 96.1, 92.0, and 95.2%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between results from two methods (P = 0.55). Therefore, the established multiplex PCR was not only rapid and easy to perform but had a high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, even in samples containing mixed contamination. Our study indicated that fresh chicken meat and by-products from fresh markets were significantly less hygienic than those

  10. Adherence, enterotoxigenicity, invasiveness and serogroups in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains from adult humans with acute enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, G B; Cervantes, L E; Sjögren, E; Kaijser, B; Ruiz-Palacios, G M

    1990-02-01

    Two hundred Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains from the same number of adult Swedish patients with acute enterocolitis were tested regarding adherence to and invasiveness in HEp-2 cells and for enterotoxigenicity by the CHO-cell assay. The serogroup characteristics, heat-stable and heat-labile, for each strain were also investigated. Eighty-four percent of the strains were classified as C. jejuni and 16 percent as C. coli. All of the strains were adherent to HEp-2 cells, 39% were invasive and 31.5% enterotoxigenic. We found significantly more invasive strains in the non-enterotoxigenic group than in the enterotoxigenic one. There would seem to be no correlation between enterotoxigenicity or invasiveness and serogroup. The results of this study suggest the existence of multiple mechanisms for C. jejuni- and C. coli-induced diarrhoea and that the mechanisms may differ from one strain to another.

  11. [The role of certain Campylobacter types in the etiology of enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otasević, Marica; Lazarević-Jovanović, Branislava; Tasić-Dimov, Desanka; Dordević, Nebojsa; Miljković-Selimović, Biljana

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowadays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the demanding features of Campylobacter, as well as poorly equipped microbiological laboratories, campylobacteriosis is insufficiently studied in our country. This investigation aimed to determine the participation of some Campylobacter species in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in our population. The four-years continuous monitoring of Campylobacter presence was performed in the faeces of 12,605 patients with enterocolitis. The control group included 5,774 examinees of healthy children and youth. Faeces samples were cultivated on Skirrow's selective medium, and further incubated according to effective methodology for Campylobacter. Identification of strains was based on morphological, cultural and physiologic features of strains (oxidase test, catalase test, susceptibility to nalidixic acid, and hypurate hydrolysis). As a statistical method, for data processing, chi 2 test and Fisher's exact test were used. Campylobacter was proven in 3.86% of enterocolitis patients, and in 0.71% of healthy population. Out of 518 Campylobacter isolates, 86.48% belonged to enterocolitis outpatients, and 13.51% to inpatients. Predominant symptoms of the disease were diarrhea (81.83%), increased temperature (34.71%), vomiting (19.77%), and stomach pain (15.17%). The diseased were predominantly infants in the first year of life. Out of 300 Campylobacter isolates, 75% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni, 23% as Campylobacter coli (C. coli), and 2% as Campylobacter lari (C. lari). Species of Campylobacter genus

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylo-bacter spp. isolated from environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baserisalehi M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental samples were subjected to determine frequency of occurrence of pathogenic campylobacters in the environment. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was tested to evaluate the level of antibiotic sensitive campylobacters in the environment of investigation. In all, 70 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from water and domestic animal faeces samples using Kapadnis-Baseri device and antimicrobial susceptibility of them was determined by disc diffusion test and E- test. The results indicated that all the isolates of Campylobacter were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and resistant to cefotaxime, cephalexin and ampicillin. Lowest MIC values were observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin (2µg/mL and highest MIC values for ampicillin and chloramphinicol (256µg/mL. In general, pathogenic Campylobacter spp. were prevalent in large numbers in the environment, however, they were sensitive to ciprofloxacin.

  13. Biotyping of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry in and around Anand city, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Tayde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of different biotypes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the study area. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples comprising 90 chicken and 60 caecal content were collected from retail meat market and processed for isolation of Campylobacter spp. 52 Campylobacter isolates obtained from raw poultry meat (6 and caecal content (46 were subjected to biotyping using Lior's biotyping scheme. Results: Among the 52 Campylobacter isolates studied, 60.46 % isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni Biotype I and 39.53% were C. jejuni Biotype II, whereas 83.33 % were C. coli Biotype I and 16.66 % C. coli Biotype II. No other biotypes were identified. Conclusions: The present study revealed that C. jejuni Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II whereas in case of C. coli, Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II providing basis for further epidemiological study.

  14. Prevalence of Campylobacter Jejuni and Coli in Sheep Carcasses by Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 randomly sheep carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter analyzed using microbiological examinations. Results: Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 10.13% meat cultures samples examined. Among these 80% sample were C. jejuni and 20% sample were C. coli. Using PCR assays, the number of positive campylobacters increased to 11.48%. Of these positive samples, 82.35% were C. jejuni and 17.65% were C. coli. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p<0.05 were found in the meat samples taken in summer (47.05%. Conclusion: The PCR is a reliable and sensitive method which can be used as a diagnostic technique for the detection of campylobacter in lamb samples.

  15. Contamination of poultry environment with campylobacter Spp. and significance for colonisation of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydekaitiene, Viktorija Legaudaite; Malakauskas, Mindangas; Kudirkiene, Egle

    2016-01-01

    medium and selective enrichment into Exeter broth. Campylobacter isolates were identified to the species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from broilers and the environment was examined by PCR-based restriction fragment length...... to identify the sources of Campylobacter in poultry farm environment and their significance for broiler colonisation. For this purpose, Campylobacter spp. were isolated from broilers and their environment (litter, water of puddle, concentric zones, tap water) by both direct inoculation on mCCDA selective...... genotypes, which had not been transmitted to other broiler flocks reared in the same building. Studies have shown that Campylobacter can survive in poultry environment. They can be transferred from the environment into broiler houses by shoes, cloths and wildlife. Therefore, strict bio-security and hygiene...

  16. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    , the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive. In marinated poultry products, Campylobacter was detected at a prevalence of 21.1% and 9.5% in turkey......During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products...... and chicken products, respectively. In August, there was a peak with 28.9% positive Campylobacter samples. Campylobacter inoculation tests were carried out to test the detection limit of both methods. The PCR method used is faster than microbiological analyses. However, enrichment of the samples is necessary...

  17. Comprehensive Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter Genus Reveals Some Underlying Mechanisms for its Genomic Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yizhuang; Bu, Lijing; Guo, Min; Zhou, Chengran; Wang, Yongdong; Chen, Liyu; Liu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species.are phenotypically diverse in many aspects including host habitats and pathogenicities, which demands comprehensive characterization of the entire Campylobacter genus to study their underlying genetic diversification. Up to now, 34 Campylobacter strains have been sequenced and published in public databases, providing good opportunity to systemically analyze their genomic diversities. In this study, we first conducted genomic characterization, which includes genome-wide alignments, pan-genome analysis, and phylogenetic identification, to depict the genetic diversity of Campylobacter genus. Afterward, we improved the tetranucleotide usage pattern-based naïve Bayesian classifier to identify the abnormal composition fragments (ACFs, fragments with significantly different tetranucleotide frequency profiles from its genomic tetranucleotide frequency profiles) including horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) to explore the mechanisms for the genetic diversity of this organism. Finally, we analyzed the HGTs transferred via bacteriophage transductions. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use single nucleotide polymorphism information to construct liable microevolution phylogeny of 21 Campylobacter jejuni strains. Combined with the phylogeny of all the collected Campylobacter species based on genome-wide core gene information, comprehensive phylogenetic inference of all 34 Campylobacter organisms was determined. It was found that C. jejuni harbors a high fraction of ACFs possibly through intraspecies recombination, whereas other Campylobacter members possess numerous ACFs possibly via intragenus recombination. Furthermore, some Campylobacter strains have undergone significant ancient viral integration during their evolution process. The improved method is a powerful tool for bacterial genomic analysis. Moreover, the findings would provide useful information for future research on Campylobacter genus. PMID:23940551

  18. A fluoroquinolone resistance associated mutation in gyrA Affects DNA supercoiling in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Yang; Sahin, Orhan; Shen, Zhangqi; Guo, Baoqing; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of FQ-resistant (FQ(R)) Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand the impact of FQ(R) on the fitness of Campylobacter in its natural hosts as understanding fitness will help to determine and predict the persistence of FQ(R)Campylobacter. Previously it was shown that acquisition of resistance to FQ antimicrobials enhanced the in vivo fitness of FQ(R)Campylobacter. In this study, we confirmed the role of the Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA in modulating Campylobacter fitness by reverting the mutation to the wild-type (WT) allele, which resulted in the loss of the fitness advantage. Additionally, we determined if the resistance-conferring GyrA mutations alter the enzymatic function of the DNA gyrase. Recombinant WT gyrase and mutant gyrases with three different types of mutations (Thr-86-Ile, Thr-86-Lys, and Asp-90-Asn), which are associated with FQ(R) in Campylobacter, were generated in E. coli and compared for their supercoiling activities using an in vitro assay. The mutant gyrase with the Thr-86-Ile change showed a greatly reduced supercoiling activity compared with the WT gyrase, while other mutant gyrases did not show an altered supercoiling. Furthermore, we measured DNA supercoiling within Campylobacter cells using a reporter plasmid. Consistent with the results from the in vitro supercoiling assay, the FQ(R) mutant carrying the Thr-86-Ile change in GyrA showed much less DNA supercoiling than the WT strain and the mutant strains carrying other mutations. Together, these results indicate that the Thr-86-Ile mutation, which is predominant in clinical FQ(R)Campylobacter, modulates DNA supercoiling homeostasis in FQ(R)Campylobacter.

  19. A fluoroquinolone resistance associated mutation in gyrA affects DNA supercoiling in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eHan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ-resistant Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of FQ-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand the impact of FQ resistance on the fitness of Campylobacter in its natural hosts as understanding fitness will help to determine and predict the persistence of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. Previously it was shown that acquisition of resistance to FQ antimicrobials enhanced the in vivo fitness of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. In this study, we confirmed the role of the Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA in modulating Campylobacter fitness by reverting the mutation to the wild-type allele, which resulted in the loss of the fitness advantage. Additionally, we determined if the resistance-conferring GyrA mutations alter the enzymatic function of the DNA gyrase. Recombinant wild-type gyrase and mutant gyrases with three different types of mutations (Thr-86-Ile, Thr-86-Lys, and Asp-90-Asn, which are associated with FQ resistance in Campylobacter, were generated in E. coli and compared for their supercoiling activities using an in vitro assay. The mutant gyrase with the Thr-86-Ile change showed a greatly reduced supercoiling activity compared with the wild-type gyrase, while other mutant gyrases did not show an altered supercoiling. Furthermore, we measured DNA supercoiling within Campylobacter cells using a reporter plasmid. Consistent with the results from the in vitro supercoiling assay, the FQ-resistant mutant carrying the Thr-86-Ile change in GyrA showed much less DNA supercoiling than the wild-type strain and the mutant strains carrying other mutations. Together, these results indicate that the Thr-86-Ile mutation, which is predominant in clinical FQ-resistant Campylobacter, modulates DNA supercoiling homeostasis in FQ-resistant Campylobacter.

  20. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based colony blot immunoassay for detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Phipps-Todd, Beverley; McMahon, Tanis; Elmgren, Catherine L; Lutze-Wallace, Cheryl; Todd, Zoe A; Garcia, Manuel M

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., such as C. jejuni, are major human foodborne pathogens. Culture methods have been routinely used for the detection of this organism in various types of samples. An alternative, simple and rapid confirmation test(s) without further tedious biochemical tests would be useful. Meanwhile, Campylobacter-like colonies can be difficult to identify on agar plates overgrown with competitive bacteria, which can lead to false-negative results. This study was to develop a simple colony blot immunoassay using a new monoclonal antibody (Mab) produced in the present study for rapid screening, confirmation and quantification of campylobacters on culture agar plates. The procedure developed in this study was able to specifically detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., but not other non-thermotolerant Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter reference strains tested. This assay could detect 105 cells in a single dot. This assay showed 100% correlation with the culture method for the blotted membranes from 21 either chicken meat or vegetable samples experimentally inoculated with thermotolerant campylobacters. Among 101 natural samples of chicken meat (n=44), chicken feces (n=20) and vegetables (n=37), this assay also showed positive for 23 chicken meat and 14 fecal samples that were positive for thermotolerant campylobacters by culture method, and identified four additional suspects that were culture negative. Membranes stored at 4°C for at least 4years could also be used for this assay. The assay developed in this study can be used in quantitative study for immediate or archival usage, and for diagnostic test to preliminarily confirm the presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter on agar plates. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. relative to other enteric pathogens in grow-finish pigs with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrough, Eric; Terhorst, Samantha; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella spp., Lawsonia intracellularis, and Brachyspira spp. are pathogens commonly associated with diarrhea in growing and finishing pigs. Brachyspira spp. infection has recently reemerged as a significant concern due to an increase in the incidence of swine dysentery; however, the mechanisms underlying this increase in dysentery remain largely unknown. Pigs are also well-recognized as potential carriers of Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter coli, yet enteric disease in swine associated with infection by these bacteria is considered uncommon and diagnosis has historically been based upon exclusion of other causes. Accordingly, Campylobacter culture is often excluded in routine diagnostic testing of cases of porcine enterocolitis and the incidence of infection is therefore largely unknown. In this study, feces from 155 cases of clinical diarrhea in grow-finish pigs submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory were cultured for Campylobacter spp. in addition to other testing as indicated for routine diagnostic investigation. Campylobacter culture was positive from 82.6% (128/155) of samples with C. coli accounting for 75% of isolates and Campylobacter jejuni for the remaining 25%. In 14.8% (23/155) of cases a Campylobacter spp. was the sole infectious agent detected; however, there was no association with any particular Campylobacter spp. Interestingly, for those cases with a laboratory diagnosis of Brachyspira-associated disease, 100% (15/15) were also culture positive for Campylobacter spp. suggesting a possible interrelationship between these bacteria in the pig gut. No association was noted between Campylobacter culture results and infection with either Salmonella spp. or L. intracellularis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Campylobacter contamination in broiler carcasses and correlation with slaughterhouses operational hygiene inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ihab; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven; Dierick, Katelijne; Van Huffel, Xavier; Speybroeck, Niko; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates factors associated with Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses, using survey data collected from nine Belgian slaughterhouses in 2008 in accordance with a European Union baseline study. Campylobacter were detected in 51.9% (202/389) (95% confidence interval, 46.8%-56.9%) of broiler carcasses. Campylobacter concentration was slaughterhouses in prevalence and concentrations of Campylobacter in their sampled carcasses. Campylobacter prevalence (but not concentrations) was positively associated with increase in broilers age. Both Campylobacter prevalence and concentration were significantly higher in carcasses sampled during June and September (but not in July and August) than carcasses sampled in January. We also investigated the correlation (Spearman's rank correlation test) between the scores of official control inspections and Campylobacter prevalence for eight out of the nine slaughterhouses. The control inspections were routinely performed by the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain, and the concluded inspection scores were used as a general numerical indicator for the status of operational hygiene and quality of management in the slaughterhouses. Ranking of slaughterhouses based on their inspection scores was statistically correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.857) with their ranking based on prevalence of Campylobacter. In the present study we demonstrate how the outcomes from a routine baseline survey could be coupled with other readily available data from national control authorities in order to enable a better insight over Campylobacter contamination status in broiler slaughterhouses. Findings from this work call for subsequent in-depth investigations on technical and hygiene management factors that could impact Campylobacter contamination across broiler slaughterhouses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy against Campylobacter in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, A.; Vigre, Håkan

    ’ exposure to Campylobacter.In this presentation we focus on the development of a computerized decision support system to aid management decisions on Campylobacter vaccination of commercial broilers. Broilers should be vaccinated against Campylobacter in the first 2 weeks of age. Therefore, the decision......Human campylobacteriosis represents an important economic and public health problem. Campylobacter originating from feces of infected chickens will contaminate chicken meat posing a risk to the consumer. Vaccination against Campylobacter in broilers is one probable measure to reduce consumers...... about vaccination needs to be made usually before Campylobacter is introduced in the flock. In fact, there is uncertainty regarding the introduction of Campylobacter into the flock that needs to be taken into account in the decision making process. Probabilistic Graphical Models (PGMs) integrate...

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children and environmental sources in urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Bernadeta; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Spica, Dorota; Klawe, Jacek J

    2017-04-04

    Campylobacteriosis is a dominant bacterial cause of foodborne infection and is considered the main public health problem in Europe and many other countries worldwide. In the study lasting from 2011 to 2013 we compared the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children, domestic animals, poultry meat and surface water in Northern Poland. During a 3-years study 1973 samples were analysed. The results proved the presence of Campylobacter spp. in 306 (15.5%) samples. The percentage of Campylobacter-positive samples differed among the sample types, from 0% (freshwater beaches) to 38.6% (poultry meat in 2011). Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in children isolates was 9.6%. It decreased from 13.2% in 2011 to 8.0% in 2013. It should be highlighted with a particular concern that Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 20.0% of fountains. All children and poultry meat isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. Two C. coli (3.7%) and four C. jejuni (3.3%) isolated from poultry meat were resistant to erythromycin. The highest percentage of C. jejuni isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin were found in samples from 80% dogs and 85% ponds. Among isolates resistant to two antimicrobials 74.7% C. jejuni and 59.2% C. coli isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin as well as to tetracycline. Only one cat C. coli isolate was resistant to both azithromycin and erythromycin. One C. jejuni isolate from a fountain was resistant to four antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, azithromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin). The study proved that surface water, poultry meat and pets constituted potential sources of Campylobacter to children. Fountains can be a direct source of children campylobacteriosis but can also pollute other environments with multidrug-resistant Campylobacter. The high resistance to some antimicrobials among the isolates may lead to increasing numbers of difficult-to-treat campylobacteriosis cases among children.

  5. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Thissen, J; van Asselt, E D

    2012-09-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages of the broiler supply chain. Three different sampling points were considered: departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, and the end of the slaughterline. Strong associations were found between Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence at a particular sampling point and their prevalence at the preceding point of the chain. Statistical analyses showed that the country of origin of the broiler farm had a significant effect on the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter at slaughterhouse arrival. The feeding company delivering to the farm also showed a significant effect on the occurrence of both pathogens at departure from the broiler farm. The prevalence of Campylobacter decreased with an increasing number of birds per flock, whereas the prevalence of Salmonella increased with an increasing number of birds per flock. The number of flocks processed within a specific slaughterhouse was not associated with an increased or decreased prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. The results provide more insight into factors related to the occurrence of both pathogens and in understanding their epidemiology. The results can be supportive in decision making on measures to reduce the contamination of broiler products with Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  6. Occurrence and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. during the processing of Chilean broilers

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    Rivas Patricia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermotolerant Campylobacter is among the more prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause foodborne diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in chicken carcasses and processing plant stations (chilling water, scalding water, defeathering machinery, evisceration machine, and transport crates in two of the Chilean main slaughterhouses. In addition, the isolation rates of thermotolerant Campylobacter during evisceration and following chiller processing were compared. Results The overall slaughterhouse contamination with thermotolerant Campylobacter was 54%. Differences were evident when the results from each plant were compared (plant A and plant B was 72% and 36%, respectively. The sampling points with the greatest contamination rates in both plants were after evisceration (90% and 54%, for plants A and B respectively. The decrease of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination after chilling was significant (2 and 1.6 logs for plant A and B respectively P Conclusion Our findings indicate that chilling process has a limited effect in the final products Campylobacter contamination because poultry enter the slaughter processing with high counts of contamination. This may represent a health risk to consumers, if proper cooking practices are not employed. The levels and frequencies of Campylobacter found during the processing of Chilean poultry appear to be similar to those reported elsewhere in the world.

  7. Isolation of thermotolerant campylobacters and C. hyointestinalis from rectal swabs of healthy pigs

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    Mrenoski Slavco

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermotolerant campylobacters are the most common bacterial etiological agents of human infectious gastroenteritis worldwide. The most frequent isolated species among them are Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, and less frequent C. upsaliensis and C. lari. Also C. hyointestinalis, that not belong to the group of thermotolerant campylobacters, has been indicate as an agent of human infectious gastroenteritis. Natural reservoir of all named campylobacters is the intestinal tract of many mammals and birds, including domestic animals. In these animals, campylobacters are commonly present as commensals and their feces is considered as a prime source for environmental contamination. Unlike the human feces which is usually examined in the cases of diarrhea, thermotolerant campylobacters and C. hyointestinalis in the animal feces are generally present in a much lesser amount and the isolation very often could be unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to estimate the validity of applied procedure for isolation (and identification of thermotolerant campylobacters and C. hyointestinalis from pig rectal swabs, as a procedure for detection of healthy animal carriers.

  8. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 °C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 °C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat.

  9. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter Foodborne Illness in Raw Beef Offal Consumption in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiyeon; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Ki-Sun; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal in South Korea. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw beef offal (liver and tripe) was investigated by plating samples on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar with Preston enrichment broth. Data were collected about storage temperature and length of storage of raw beef offal, and probabilistic distributions for the data were determined, using @RISK software. Predictive models were developed to describe the fate of Campylobacter in raw beef offal, and the amount and frequency of consumption and dose-response model were surveyed. Subsequently, these data were used to estimate the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal. Of 80 beef offal samples, 1 (1.25%) was contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni . Predictive models were used for exposure assessment. An exponential distribution was selected to represent beef offal consumption by people who eat this occasionally, with a mean of 60.2 g and 3.6% monthly consumption frequency. Simulations using @RISK predicted that the probability of Campylobacter foodborne illness per person per month is 1.56 × 10-5 for home consumption and 1.74 × 10-5 for restaurant consumption in South Korea, which indicates the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness by intake of raw beef offal in South Korea.

  10. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royden, A; Wedley, A; Merga, J Y; Rushton, S; Hald, B; Humphrey, T; Williams, N J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0-0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates demonstrated that the flies were carrying broiler-associated sequence types, responsible for human enteric illness. Malaise traps were used to survey the dipteran species diversity on study farms and also revealed up to 612 flies present around broiler-house ventilation inlets over a 2-h period. Therefore, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest.

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and genotyping of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Abd El-Baky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis . Materials and Methods: A total of 125 stool samples were collected from children with gastroenteritis. The identification of isolates was performed with conventional methods as well as with molecular methods based on 16SrRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR and product analysis. Resistance pattern of the isolated strains was determined using agar dilution method. Results: Conventional methods including sodium hippurate hydrolysis revealed that 12 (9.6% samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Ten out of 12 Campylobacter spp. were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 2 as Campylobacter coli but PCR assay revealed that five samples only were positive for Campylobacter and all were C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials was performed and all isolates (five isolates of C. jejuni were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin but all were resistant to ceftriaxone. Conclusion: PCR assay method allows reliable detection of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species. Gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotic.

  12. Antibiotic Susceptibility, Genetic Diversity, and the Presence of Toxin Producing Genes in Campylobacter Isolates from Poultry

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    Jeeyeon Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken (n = 152 and duck (n = 154 samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses were identified by PCR. The isolated colonies were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to chloramphenicol, amikacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and enrofloxacin. The isolates were also used to analyze genetic diversity using the DiversiLabTM system and were tested for the presence of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt genes. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 45 poultry samples out of 306 poultry samples (14.7% and the average levels of Campylobacter contamination were 22.0 CFU/g and 366.1 CFU/g in chicken and duck samples, respectively. Moreover, more than 90% of the isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Genetic correlation analysis showed greater than 95% similarity between 84.4% of the isolates, and three cdt genes (cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were present in 71.1% of Campylobacter isolates. These results indicate that Campylobacter contamination should be decreased to prevent and treat Campylobacter foodborne illness.

  13. Colonisation of a phage susceptible Campylobacter jejuni population in two phage positive broiler flocks.

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    Sophie Kittler

    Full Text Available The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter Strains from Diarrheal Patients in Central and Suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Eampokalap, Bunchuay; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is increasingly recognized worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the Campylobacter strains associated with diarrheal patients in Thailand. In this study, we attempted to isolate Campylobacter strains from diarrheal patients in Thailand and to characterize the species using a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus-specific multiplex PCR assay. Campylobacter species were also confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and hipO gene detection. From 2,500 diarrheal stool specimens, 76 Campylobacter-like organisms were isolated and identified via conventional culture methods. Among these 76 organisms, 73 were identified as Campylobacter species (43 C. jejuni, 29 C. coli, and 1 C. fetus) via multiplex PCR, whereas 3 remained unidentified. Two Campylobacter-like organisms yielded 2 amplicons corresponding to cdt genes from C. jejuni and C. coli. Subsequently, C. jejuni and C. coli were reisolated from each sample. The third isolate was identified as C. hyointestinalis via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from a diarrheal patient in Thailand. These data indicate that C. jejuni (58%) and C. coli (40%) are prevalent among diarrheal patients in Thailand.

  15. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

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    A Rosyidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

  16. Risk factors associated with Campylobacter detected by PCR in humans and animals in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbjer, K; Boqvist, S; Sokerya, S; Chheng, K; San, S; Davun, H; Rautelin, H; Magnusson, U

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacter are worldwide-occurring zoonotic bacteria, with the species Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli commonly associated with diarrhoea in children in low-income countries. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli in human and livestock faecal samples was detected by PCR and zoonotic risk factors associated with human Campylobacter positivity were identified. In total 681 humans and 753 livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle) from 269 households were sampled. Children aged Campylobacter positive (19%) than adults (8%) and multilevel logistic models revealed that human C. jejuni positivity was associated with the following household practices: home-slaughtering [odds ratio (OR) 2·4, P = 0·01], allowing animals access to sleeping and food preparation areas (OR 2·8, P = 0·02), and eating undercooked meat (OR 6·6, P = 0·05), while frequent consumption of beef was protective (OR 0·9, P = 0·05). Associations were stronger for home-slaughtering (OR 4·9, P = 0·004) with C. jejuni infection in children only. Campylobacter was highly prevalent in pigs (72%) and chickens (56%) and risk factors associated with human Campylobacter positivity were identified throughout the meat production chain. The findings underline the importance of studying source attributions throughout the production chain and the need for upgraded understanding of Campylobacter epidemiology in low-income countries.

  17. Emergence of a plasmid-borne multidrug resistance gene cfr(C) in foodborne pathogen Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yizhi; Dai, Lei; Sahin, Orhan; Wu, Zuowei; Liu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-06-01

    To identify and characterize a novel cfr variant that recently emerged and confers multidrug resistance in Campylobacter , a major foodborne pathogen. WGS was initially used to identify the cfr (C) gene in Campylobacter isolates and its function was further verified by cloning into an antibiotic-susceptible Campylobacter jejuni strain. Distribution of cfr (C) in various Campylobacter isolates was determined by PCR analysis. Genotyping of cfr (C)-positive strains was done by PFGE and MLST. The cfr (C) gene is predicted to encode a protein that shares 55.1% and 54.9% identity with Cfr and Cfr(B), respectively. cfr (C) was located on a conjugative plasmid of ∼48 kb. Cloning of cfr (C) into C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and conjugative transfer of the cfr (C)-containing plasmid confirmed its role in conferring resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, pleuromutilins and oxazolidinones, and resulted in an 8-256-fold increase in their MICs in both C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli . The cfr (C) gene was detected in multiple C. coli (34 of 344; 10%) isolates derived from different cattle farms in different states, and molecular typing of the cfr (C)-positive C. coli isolates revealed its spread mainly via clonal expansion. These results identify cfr (C) as a new multidrug resistance mechanism in Campylobacter and suggest the potential transmission of this mechanism via the foodborne route, warranting enhanced efforts to monitor its spread in Campylobacter and other foodborne pathogens.

  18. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry.

  19. Identification of risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses during the slaughter process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-02

    Campylobacter carcass contamination was quantified across the slaughter line during processing of Campylobacter positive batches. These quantitative data were combined together with information describing slaughterhouse and batch related characteristics in order to identify risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The results revealed that Campylobacter counts are influenced by the contamination of incoming birds (both the initial external carcass contamination and the colonization level of caeca) and the duration of transport and holding time that can be linked with feed withdrawal period. In addition, technical aspects of the slaughter process such as a dump based unloading system, electrical stunning, lower scalding temperature, incorrect setting of plucking, vent cutter and evisceration machines were identified as risk factors associated with increased Campylobacter counts on processed carcasses. As such the study indicates possible improvements of the slaughter process that can result in better control of Campylobacter numbers under routine processing of Campylobacter positive batches without use of chemical or physical decontamination. Moreover, all investigated factors were existing variations of the routine processing practises and therefore proposed interventions are practically and economically achievable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic Evidence for the Emergence and Evolution of Pathogenicity and Niche Preferences in the Genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology. PMID:25193310

  1. Development of real-time PCR and hybridization methods for detection and identification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in pig faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Andersen, M. T.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To develop a real-time (rt) PCR for species differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter and to develop a method for assessing co-colonization of pigs by Campylobacter spp. Methods and Results: The specificity of a developed 5' nuclease rt-PCR for species-specific identification...... of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis and of a hipO gene nucleotide probe for detection of C. jejuni by colony-blot hybridization were determined by testing a total of 75 reference strains of Campylobacter spp. and related organisms. The rt-PCR method allowed...... species-specific detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally infected pig faecal samples after an enrichment step, whereas the hybridization approach enhanced the specific isolation of C. jejuni (present in minority to C. coli) from pigs. Conclusions: The rt-PCR was specific for Campylobacter jejuni, C...

  2. The in vivo efficacy of two administration routes of a phage cocktail to reduce numbers of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

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    Carvalho Carla M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, an acute bacterial enteritis which is a major problem worldwide. Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are the most common Campylobacter species associated with this disease. These pathogens live in the intestinal tract of most avian species and under commercial conditions they spread rapidly to infect a high proportion of the flock, which makes their treatment and prevention very difficult. Bacteriophages (phages are naturally occurring predators of bacteria with high specificity and also the capacity to evolve to overcome bacterial resistance. Therefore phage therapy is a promising alternative to antibiotics in animal production. This study tested the efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of three phages for the control of poultry infected with C. coli and C. jejuni. Moreover, it evaluated the effectiveness of two routes of phage administration (by oral gavage and in feed in order to provide additional information regarding their future use in a poultry unit. Results The results indicate that experimental colonisation of chicks was successful and that the birds showed no signs of disease even at the highest dose of Campylobacter administered. The phage cocktail was able to reduce the titre of both C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces by approximately 2 log10 cfu/g when administered by oral gavage and in feed. This reduction persisted throughout the experimental period and neither pathogen regained their former numbers. The reduction in Campylobacter titre was achieved earlier (2 days post-phage administration when the phage cocktail was incorporated in the birds' feed. Campylobacter strains resistant to phage infection were recovered from phage-treated chickens at a frequency of 13%. These resistant phenotypes did not exhibit a reduced ability to colonize the chicken guts and did not revert to sensitive types. Conclusions Our findings provide

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  4. Campylobacter infection as a trigger for Guillain-Barré syndrome in Egypt.

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    Thomas F Wierzba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies of Campylobacter infection triggering Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS are conducted in western nations were Campylobacter infection and immunity is relatively rare. In this study, we explored Campylobacter infections, Campylobacter serotypes, autoantibodies to gangliosides, and GBS in Egypt, a country where Campylobacter exposure is common. METHODS: GBS cases (n = 133 were compared to age- and hospital-matched patient controls (n = 374. A nerve conduction study was performed on cases and a clinical history, serum sample, and stool specimen obtained for all subjects. RESULTS: Most (63.3% cases were demyelinating type; median age four years. Cases were more likely than controls to have diarrhea (29.5% vs. 22.5%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa = 1.69, P = 0.03, to have higher geometric mean IgM anti-Campylobacter antibody titers (8.18 vs. 7.25 P<0.001, and to produce antiganglioside antibodies (e.g., anti-Gd1a, 35.3 vs. 11.5, ORa = 4.39, P<0.0001. Of 26 Penner:Lior Campylobacter serotypes isolated, only one (41:27, C. jejuni, P = 0.02 was associated with GBS. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike results from western nations, data suggested that GBS cases were primarily in the young and cases and many controls had a history of infection to a variety of Campylobacter serotypes. Still, the higher rates of diarrhea and greater antibody production against Campylobacter and gangliosides in GBS patients were consistent with findings from western countries.

  5. Longitudinal prevalence, faecal shedding and molecular characterisation of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-11-01

    Faecal excretion of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep in Australia was determined using a quantitative multiplex PCR (qPCR) targeting the Campylobacter spp. purine biosynthesis gene (PurA) and the S. enterica outer membrane protein (ompF). The mutiplex qPCR was specific and Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were each detected with a sensitivity of 5 organisms/µL faecal DNA extract. This multiplex qPCR was used to determine the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica in 3412 faecal samples collected from 1189 lambs on eight farms across South Australia (n = 2 farms), New South Wales (n = 1), Victoria (n = 2) and Western Australia (n = 3) at three sampling periods (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter). The overall prevalences of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were 13.3% and 5.0%, respectively, with the highest prevalence for Campylobacter spp. in South Australia and the highest prevalence for S. enterica in New South Wales. Campylobacter jejuni was the only Campylobacter sp. identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the 16S locus. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was the only serovar of S. enterica identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the ompF locus. Across all states, Campylobacter spp. had the highest median bacterial concentration in faeces at weaning and post-weaning (medians of 3.4 × 10(6) and 1.1 × 10(5), respectively), whereas S. enterica had the highest median bacterial concentration at pre-slaughter (1.8 × 10(5)/g faeces). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter in Organically and Conventionally Raised Layer Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Issmat I; Kehinde, Olugbenga; Kumar, Anand; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-01-01

    Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens. Here, we showed that the prevalence of Campylobacter on organic and conventional layer farms was statistically similar (p > 0.05). However, the average number of Campylobacter jejuni-positive organically grown hens was lower (p comparison to conventionally grown hens. Campylobacter isolated from both production systems carried antimicrobial resistance genes. The tet(O) and cmeB were the most frequently detected genes, while the occurrence of aph-3-1 and blaOXA-61 was significantly lower (p < 0.05). Farming practices appeared to have an effect on the antimicrobial resistance phenotype, because the isolates from organically grown hens on two farms (OF-2 and OF-3) exhibited significantly lower resistance (p < 0.05) to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tylosin. However, on one of the sampled organic farms (OF-1), a relatively high number of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter were isolated. We conclude that organic farming can potentially impact the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. Nevertheless, this impact should be regularly monitored to avoid potential relapses.

  8. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment for Campylobacter in petting zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Eric G; Berk, Petra A; Horneman, Mijke L; van Leusden, Frans M; de Jonge, Rob

    2014-09-01

    The significance of petting zoos for transmission of Campylobacter to humans and the effect of interventions were estimated. A stochastic QMRA model simulating a child or adult visiting a Dutch petting zoo was built. The model describes the transmission of Campylobacter in animal feces from the various animal species, fences, and the playground to ingestion by visitors through touching these so-called carriers and subsequently touching their lips. Extensive field and laboratory research was done to fulfill data needs. Fecal contamination on all carriers was measured by swabbing in 10 petting zoos, using Escherichia coli as an indicator. Carrier-hand and hand-lip touching frequencies were estimated by, in total, 13 days of observations of visitors by two observers at two petting zoos. The transmission from carrier to hand and from hand to lip by touching was measured using preapplied cow feces to which E. coli WG5 was added as an indicator. Via a Beta-Poisson dose-response function, the number of Campylobacter cases for the whole of the Netherlands (16 million population) in a year was estimated at 187 and 52 for children and adults, respectively, so 239 in total. This is significantly lower than previous QMRA results on chicken fillet and drinking water consumption. Scenarios of 90% reduction of the contamination (meant to mimic cleaning) of all fences and just goat fences reduces the number of cases by 82% and 75%, respectively. The model can easily be adapted for other fecally transmitted pathogens. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  11. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cristina Gonsalves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples. Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products.

  12. Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis after an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masahiro; Koga, Michiaki; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Hattori, Takamichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2008-05-30

    Twenty-eight patients suffered Campylobacter jejuni enteritis after eating raw chicken. Among them, only one patient developed Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis, who carried anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies. In contrast, none of the others did the autoantibodies. C. jejuni was cultured from all stool samples from five patients with enteritis alone. All the isolates had the same genotype, cst-II (Asn51), which are characteristic of strains isolated from Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis. These findings suggest that host susceptibility may play a role in inducing the production of anti-ganglioside antibodies and the development of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis.

  13. Mouse Models for Campylobacter jejuni Colonization and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Martin; Graef, Franziska A; Vallance, Bruce A

    2017-01-01

    Relevant animal models for Campylobacter jejuni infection have been difficult to establish due to C. jejuni's inability to cause disease in many common animal research models. Fortunately, recent work has proven successful in developing several new and relevant mouse models of C. jejuni infection, including the SIGIRR-deficient mouse strain that develops acute enterocolitis in response to C. jejuni. Here we describe how to properly infect mice with C. jejuni, as well as a number of accompanying histological techniques to aid in studying C. jejuni colonization and infection in mice.

  14. Quantitative Proteomics of Intracellular Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming.

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    Xiaoyun Liu

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the USA and Europe. An important virulence attribute of this bacterial pathogen is its ability to enter and survive within host cells. Here we show through a quantitative proteomic analysis that upon entry into host cells, C. jejuni undergoes a significant metabolic downshift. Furthermore, our results indicate that intracellular C. jejuni reprograms its respiration, favoring the respiration of fumarate. These results explain the poor ability of C. jejuni obtained from infected cells to grow under standard laboratory conditions and provide the bases for the development of novel anti microbial strategies that would target relevant metabolic pathways.

  15. Sacroiliitis and Septicemia Caused by Campylobacter rectus and Actinomyces odontolyticus

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    Pierre Harvey

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter rectus, formerly known as Wolinella recta, is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus, generally recognized as an agent responsible for severe periodontitis; only two cases of extra-oral infections have been reported. The first case of septicemia with C rectus and Actinomyces odontolyticus is described in a 37-year-old farmer who suffered from severe sacroiliitis. Also presented are a review of C rectus in human pathology, and a brief review of pyogenic sacroiliitis, a rather rare disease.

  16. Campylobacter infection in urban and rural populations in Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbald, C. J.; Sharp, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A review of campylobacter infection in Scotland over five years (1978-82), during which 7808 human isolates were recorded (mean annual isolation rate of 30 per 100000), revealed differences in the epidemiology of the disease between rural and urban populations which were not apparent in the national data. The incidence of infection in the two rural areas studied was greatest in the early months of the year, whereas that in the two urban areas showed a third-quarter predominance. In both urban...

  17. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain...... in the same areas in the summer months from 2007 to 2009. Range of influence between broiler farms were estimated at distances of 9·6 km and 13·5 km in different years. Identification of areas and time with greater risk indicates variable presence of risk factors with space and time. Implementation of safety...

  18. Susceptibility to Campylobacter infection is associated with the species composition of the human fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicksved, Johan; Ellström, Patrik; Engstrand, Lars; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-09-16

    The gut microbiota is essential for human health, but very little is known about how the composition of this ecosystem can influence and respond to bacterial infections. Here we address this by prospectively studying the gut microbiota composition before, during, and after natural Campylobacter infection in exposed poultry abattoir workers. The gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S amplicon sequencing of fecal samples from poultry abattoir workers during the peak season of Campylobacter infection in Sweden. The gut microbiota compositions were compared between individuals who became culture positive for Campylobacter and those who remained negative. Individuals who became Campylobacter positive had a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.007) and Escherichia (P = 0.002) species than those who remained culture negative. Furthermore, this group had a significantly higher abundance of Phascolarctobacterium (P = 0.017) and Streptococcus (P = 0.034) sequences than the Campylobacter-negative group, which had an overrepresentation of Clostridiales (P = 0.017), unclassified Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.008), and Anaerovorax (P = 0.015) sequences. Intraindividual comparisons of the fecal microbiota compositions yielded small differences over time in Campylobacter-negative participants, but significant long-term changes were found in the Campylobacter-positive group (P microbiota reduces resistance to Campylobacter colonization in humans and that Campylobacter infection can have long-term effects on the composition of the human fecal microbiota. Studies using mouse models have made important contributions to our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in resistance to bacterial enteropathogen colonization. The relative abundances of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides species have been pointed out as important determinants of susceptibility to Gram-negative pathogens in general and Campylobacter infection in particular. In this study, we assessed the

  19. Immune Response to Campylobacter jejuni in a Rural Community in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    AND SUBTITLE S FUNDING NUMBERS Immune Response to Campylobacter Jejuni in a Rural Community in Thailand 61102A 30161102BS13 AB 6. AUTHOR(S) DA 312588...Contract Title: Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development 12a. DISTRIBUTION. AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b... Antibodies to Campylobacter in Thailand 25i r *24G 11 2 .E _ 4 1 2-4 5-o to 2o 2 4 ൖ AGE GROUP (YEARS) AGE GROUP (tARES) 7 / S Figure 2. Age

  20. Campylobacter-associated enterocolitis in childhood. Report of a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, C M; L'Heureaux, P; Dehner, L P

    1982-07-01

    The full clinical range of Campylobacter fetus enterocolitis has become apparent only recently. This case study describes the clinical and pathologic findings in a chronically ill child who developed signs of inflammatory bowel disease. Following a negative bacteriologic culture, Crohn's disease was diagnosed by roentgenographic criteria. A trial of immunosuppressive therapy failed, and a repeat of microbiologic examination identified a heavy growth of Campylobacter fetus ss. jejuni. Various complications developed and the patient died with a coagulopathy and a widespread enterocolitis. The role of the Campylobacter in this clinical setting of inflammatory bowel disease is discussed in light of current understanding.

  1. Campylobacter in healthy slaughter pigs: a possible source of infection for man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticht-Groh, V

    1982-01-30

    Campylobacter were isolated from 103 of 173 (59 per cent) specimens of healthy slaughter pig faeces, washed intestines and water samples collected from a slaughterhouse and butcher's shop in West Germany. As most cases of human campylobacter enteritis are caused by Campylobacter jejuni, an attempt was made to find this organism among the isolates. Twenty-five out of the 103 strains (24 per cent) were identified as C jejuni. C jejuni was also isolated from salted water samples after overnight bowel storage in the butcher's shop, indicating that the customary salt preparation of the intestines did not eliminate all organisms present.

  2. Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colles, F. M.; Rodgers, J. D.; McCarthy, N. D.; Davies, R. H.; Maiden, M. C. J.; Clifton-Hadley, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645 C. jejuni and 106 C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. For C. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms for C. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% for C. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacter in broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical. PMID:26873321

  3. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated in the region of Niš, Serbia

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    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli represent one of the main causes of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. Although the disease is usually mild and self-limiting, severe chronic sequelae may occur, such as reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. Serotyping is used as an epidemiological marker, while post-infective polyneuropathies are associated with several O serotypes. Objective. Strains of C. jejuni and C. coli were serotyped based on heat stable (HS and heat labile (HL antigens, as well as biotypes to determine strain diversity. Methods. Campylobacter spp. was isolated using selective blood media with antibiotics. Differentiation to the species level was done by a combination of biotyping tests and by a PCR-based RFLP test. The isolates were characterised by Penner and Lior serotyping methods. Results. The serotypes showed diversity without predominant serotypes. 24 HS serotypes were detected among 29 C. jejuni strains, and seven serotypes among nine C. coli strains. HL serotyping method successfully typed 62.5% of strains. Among 16 C. jejuni strains 14 serotypes were detected, and three among four C. coli strains. A C. jejuni strain associated with a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome was typed as biotype II, O:19. Conclusion. The biotyping and serotyping results have indicated that C. jejuni and C. coli strains in the region of Niš, Serbia are diverse and could be probably of unrelated sources of origin or reservoirs. The strain associated with the Guillain-Barré syndrome patient was serotype O:19, one of the most common in this post-infective complication.

  4. Clinical manifestations of Campylobacter concisus infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-11-01

    There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. A study was performed during a 2-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus-positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient was defined as a child or teenager (Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection. Two thousand three hundred seventy-two diarrheic stool samples from 1867 children were cultured for pathogenic enteric bacteria during the study period, and 85 and 109 children with C. concisus and C. jejuni/coli, respectively, were identified. Comparison of the acute clinical manifestations in 44 C. concisus patients with those in 64 C. jejuni/coli patients showed a significantly lower prevalence of fever, chills and blood in stools in the former. However, half of C. concisus patients compared with one-fourth of C. jejuni/coli patients had prolonged diarrhea for more than 2 weeks and two-thirds of all children with C. concisus reported loose stools after 6-month follow-up. C. concisus infection in children seems to have a milder course of acute gastroenteritis compared with C. jejuni/coli infection but is associated with more prolonged diarrhea. Children with C. concisus have the same degree of late gastrointestinal complaints as children diagnosed with C. jejuni/coli infection.

  5. Inquiring into the Gaps of Campylobacter Surveillance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Maria; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos; Burriel, Angeliki R.; Ioannidis, Anastasios

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most common pathogen-related causes of diarrheal illnesses globally and has been recognized as a significant factor of human disease for more than three decades. Molecular typing techniques and their combinations have allowed for species identification among members of the Campylobacter genus with good resolution, but the same tools usually fail to proceed to subtyping of closely related species due to high sequence similarity. This problem is exacerbated by the demanding conditions for isolation and detection from the human, animal or water samples as well as due to the difficulties during laboratory maintenance and long-term storage of the isolates. In an effort to define the ideal typing tool, we underline the strengths and limitations of the typing methodologies currently used to map the broad epidemiologic profile of campylobacteriosis in public health and outbreak investigations. The application of both the old and the new molecular typing tools is discussed and an indirect comparison is presented among the preferred techniques used in current research methodology. PMID:29056694

  6. Global Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni Penner Serotypes: A Systematic Review.

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    Brian L Pike

    Full Text Available Penner serotyping has been the principal method for differentiating Campylobacter isolates since its inception. Campylobacter capsule polysaccharide (CPS, the principal serodeterminant on which Penner serotyping is based, is presently of interest as a vaccine component. To determine the required valency of an effective CPS-based vaccine, a comprehensive understanding of CPS distribution is needed. Because of the association between Penner serotype and CPS, we conducted a systematic review to estimate the frequency and distribution of Penner serotypes associated with cases of Campylobacteriosis. In total, more than 21,000 sporadic cases of C. jejuni cases were identified for inclusion. While regional variation exists, distribution estimates indicate that eight serotypes accounted for more than half of all sporadic diarrheal cases globally and three serotypes (HS4 complex, HS2, and HS1/44 were dominant inter-regionally as well as globally. Furthermore, a total of 17 different serotypes reached a representation of 2% or greater in at least one of the five regions sampled. While this review is an important first step in defining CPS distribution, these results make it clear that significant gaps remain in our knowledge. Eliminating these gaps will be critical to future vaccine development efforts.

  7. Detection and molecular analysis of Campylobacter ureolyticus in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziel, Monika; Corcoran, Gerard D; Sleator, Roy D; Lucey, Brigid

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed the presence of Campylobacter ureolyticus in a large proportion of diarrhoeal samples from patients in Ireland. This emerging gastrointestinal pathogen was the second most common Campylobacter species detected in patients presenting with gastroenteritis, surpassed only by C. jejuni. However, the source of C. ureolyticus infections in humans remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. ureolyticus in a range of domestic animals. Over a period of 6 months, 164 samples collected from various domestic animals were tested using molecular method based on detection of the C. ureolyticus specific hsp60 gene. These included canine faeces (n = 44), feline faeces (n = 31) and porcine faeces (n = 89). C. ureolyticus was detected in 32% (10/31) of feline faeces, 9% (4/44) of canine faeces and 18% (16/89) of porcine faeces. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of C. ureolyticus isolates showed that an isolate from a cat is genetically similar to a strain isolated from a patient presenting with gastroenteritis. This study reports the first detection and isolation of this organism in domestic animals in Ireland, with a potential source for human infection. Together with the previously reported detection of C. ureolyticus in bovine samples, it is likely that this emerging pathogen has a zoonotic potential.

  8. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge

    2017-01-01

    The development of diagnostic metagenomics is driven by the need for universal, culture-independent methods for detection and characterization of pathogens to substitute the time-consuming, organism-specific, and often culture-based laboratory procedures for epidemiological source-tracing. Some...... of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU....../g Campylobacter jejuni was sequenced and data analysis was done by the metagenomic tools Kraken and CLARK. More hits were obtained at higher spiking levels, however with no significant linear correlations (human samples p = 0.12, chicken samples p = 0.10). Therefore, no definite detection limit could...

  9. Association of Campylobacter jejuni infection with childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Veena; Chaudhry, Rama; Dua, Tarun; Dhawan, Benu; Sahu, Jitendra K; Mridula, B

    2009-06-01

    A prospective case-control study was conducted to determine the association between Campylobacter jejuni infection and childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome in the Indian population. We found evidence of recent Campylobacter jejuni infection in 27.7% of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, as compared with 2.3% in neurological controls (P = .003) and 2.3% in nonneurological controls (P = .003). Of the 15 patients with Campylobacter jejuni infection, 8 (53.3%) reported having had diarrhea within 12 weeks before the onset of the neurologic illness. Our results suggest association between recent Campylobacter jejuni infection and bulbar weakness (P = .043). No statistical difference was observed between the Campylobacter jejuni positive and negative groups with respect to age, other clinical features, albuminocytological dissociation, and residual paralysis at follow-up. It is concluded that subclinical Campylobacter jejuni infection is an important antecedent illness in childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome in the Indian population.

  10. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from free range domestic duck (Cairina moschata) in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Muhairwa, A P

    2010-02-01

    Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from free-ranging ducks was determined in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Ninety intestinal contents from ducks were screened for thermophilic Campylobacter using Skirrow's protocol. Of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 50 were tested for sensitivity to 12 antibiotics. Overall prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter was 80%. The prevalence of Campylobacter in adult ducks (91.3%) was significantly (p sodium, tetracycline and ampicillin respectively. Between 20-50% of isolates were resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin, cloxacillin and amoxicillin. Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin had lower C. jejuni resistance of 10% and 16% respectively. C. jejuni isolates from adult ducks showed significantly higher rates of resistance (p < 0.05) to most antibiotics than did duckling isolates. High prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in ducks could be of public health significance in Morogoro municipality. The observed multidrug resistance in this study poses a threat of transfer of antibiotic resistance to human pathogens because of the close contact between ducks and human.

  11. Campylobacter intestinal carriage among stray and pet dogs Disseminação de Campylobacter entre cães vadios e de estimação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Fernández

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural distribution of thermotolerant Campylobacter sp. in dogs (150 stray animals and 64 pets was studied. Campylobacters were more frequently isolated (pFoi estudada a distribuição natural de espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter em 159 cães vadios e em 64 cães de companhia em confinamento permanente. Espécies de Campylobacter foram isoladas mais freqüentemente (p<0,01 dos cães vadios (51,3% do que dos cães de companhia (21,9%. Todos os biotipos descritos por Lior para C. jejuni e C. coli foram encontrados entre as amostras isoladas dos cães vadios. Nas amostras isoladas dos cães mantidos em confmamento permanente somente foram encontrados os biotipos I e II de C. jejuni e o biotipo II do C. coli. Salienta-se a necessidade de realizar outros estudos para estabelecer a relação entre as condições de saneamento ambiental e a disseminação das espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter.

  12. Polymerase chain reaction detection of naturally occurring Campylobacter in commercial broiler chicken embryos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiett, K. L; Cox, N. A; Rothrock, M. J

    2013-01-01

    .... In this investigation, 2 trials were performed where tissues from 7-, 14/15-, and 19-d-old commercial broiler chicken embryos were tested for the presence of Campylobacter using both culturing methodology and PCR...

  13. High frequency genetic variation of purine biosynthesis genes is a mechanism of success in Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenotypic variation is prevalent among progeny of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, the leading agent of enterocolitis in the developed world. Heterogeneity bestows increased survival to bacterial populations because variable phenotypes ensure some cells will be protected against future s...

  14. Study of the infectivity of saline-stored Campylobacter jejuni for day-old chicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became noncultu......The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became......-campylobacter outer membrane protein serum antibodies in day-old chicks did not protect the chicks from campylobacter colonization....

  15. Oxidative and nitrosative stress defences of Helicobacter and Campylobacter species that counteract mammalian immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Annika; Stintzi, Alain; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-11-01

    Helicobacter and Campylobacter species are Gram-negative microaerophilic host-associated heterotrophic bacteria that invade the digestive tract of humans and animals. Campylobacter jejuni is the major worldwide cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans, while Helicobacter pylori is ubiquitous in over half of the world's population causing gastric and duodenal ulcers. The colonisation of the gastrointestinal system by Helicobacter and Campylobacter relies on numerous cellular defences to sense the host environment and respond to adverse conditions, including those imposed by the host immunity. An important antimicrobial tool of the mammalian innate immune system is the generation of harmful oxidative and nitrosative stresses to which pathogens are exposed during phagocytosis. This review summarises the regulators, detoxifying enzymes and subversion mechanisms of Helicobacter and Campylobacter that ultimately promote the successful infection of humans.

  16. Control of campylobacter in poultry industry from farm to poultry processing unit: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaraw, Pramila; Prajapati, A; Verma, Akhilesh K; Pathak, V; Singh, V P

    2017-03-04

    Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic bacterial threat in the poultry industry. Most of the human cases of campylobacteriosis recorded have revealed their poultry origins. Various control measures have been employed both at the farm and processing levels to combat with it. The antibiotic treatment, phage therapy, competitive exclusion, and vaccination have been adapted at the farm level to reduce colonization of Campylobacter in poultry gut. While prevention of intestinal spillage, scheduled slaughter, logistic slaughter, chemical decontamination of carcasses are recommended to reduce contamination during processing. The postharvest interventions such as heat treatment, freezing, irradiation of contaminated carcass can effectively reduce Campylobacter contamination. Thus, integrated approaches are required to tackle infection of Campylobacter in humans.

  17. Surveillance of Campylobacter ssp. in broiler flocks by PCR on boot sock samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Lund, Marianne; Hald, Birthe

    on sampling with one pair of boot sock was established. Samples were collected by the farmer app. 10 days before slaughter and send to laboratory for analysis. To detect Campylobacter ssp. in these fecal samples, a PCR based method was established and validated. The assay was developed as a genus specific...... multiplex PCR with primers targeting 16S rDNA in Campylobacter and primers targeting Yersinia ruckeri. DNA from the later was added to all samples and served as internal control during DNA purification and PCR. Sensitivity of the assay was 100-300 CFU/ml when negative samples were spiked with Campylobacter...... were app 70%. We found some variation in the predictability between farms and how close to slaughter sampling was done. With the combination of a sensitive PCR method and boot socks it is possible to detect Campylobacter in broilers, however due to the colonisation dynamics in the flock, the predictive...

  18. Comparative study using AFLP fingerprinting, PCR genotyping and phenotyping for differentiation of Campylobacter fetus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Newell, D.G.; Grogono-Thomas, R.; Duim, B.

    2001-01-01

    A collection of Campylobacter fetus strains, including both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis, were phenotypically identified to the subspecies level and genotypically typed by PCR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Phenotypic subspecies determination

  19. Cloning and alignment of WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Cong-cong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To clone the WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni, and analyse its relationship with WaaF genetic evolution. Methods Amplified WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei by PCR, and constructed pGEM-T-WaaF cloning plasmid. Downloaded five WaaF associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and one WaaF not associated with GBS, and then constructed phylogenetic tree. Results pGEM-T-WaaF cloning plasmid was constructed successfully. WaaF presented cluster phenomenon in Campylobacter jejuni associated with GBS. Conclusion WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei is the fragment of 807 bp, and has the nearest relationship with the genetic evolution of Lichang.

  20. Does age acquired immunity confer selective protection to common serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Iain D

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter infection is a major cause of bacterial gastrointestinal disease. Exposure to Campylobacter is known to produce an immune response in humans that can prevent future symptomatic infections. Further, studies of the general population have shown that seroprevalence to Campylobacter increases with age. Methods A large collection of serotyped Campylobacter isolates, obtained from human clinical faecal samples, were analysed by comparing the ratio of uncommon to common serotypes by different age groups, using χ2 tests. Results We have identified that older age groups, as well as having generally lower incidence, are significantly less likely to be infected by the more common serotypes. Conclusion These results are indicative of acquired immunity, however, further studies are needed to rule out the confounding effects of the variations in exposure pathways experienced by different age groups.

  1. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of campylobacter isolates from free-living, human-commensal american crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Allison M; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M; Townsend, Andrea K

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health.

  2. Presencia de Campylobacter spp en canales y ciegos de pollos de engorde en Lima, Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucas L., Juan; Vilca L., Miguel; Ramos D., Daphne

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Campylobacter spp en canales y ciegos de pollos de engorde comercializados en Lima Metropolitana a traves de tres centros de beneficio clandestino...

  3. Production of a Monoclonal Antibody Specific for the Major Outer Membrane Protein of Campylobacter jejuni and Characterization of the Epitope▿

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Hongliang; Pang, Ervinna; Du, Qingyun; Chang, Jason; Dong, Jin; Toh, Say Ling; Ng, Fook Kheong; Tan, Ai Ling; Kwang, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter species are important enteric pathogens causing disease in humans and animals. There is a lack of a good immunological test that can be used routinely to separate Campylobacter jejuni from other Campylobacter species. We produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. jejuni using recombinant MOMP as the antigen. One MAb, designated MAb5C4 and of the immunoglobulin G1 isotype, was found to be potentially specific for C. jejuni...

  4. Detection of Campylobacter in Stool and Determination of Significance by Culture, Enzyme Immunoassay, and PCR in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H.; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T.; Fox, James G.; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level. PMID:24452175

  5. Detection of Campylobacter in stool and determination of significance by culture, enzyme immunoassay, and PCR in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T; Fox, James G; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-04-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P PCR, Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level.

  6. Prevalence, Antigenic Specificity, and Bactericidal Activity of Poultry Anti-Campylobacter Maternal Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing; Meitzler, Jerrel C.; Harr, Brian S.; Morishita, Teresa Y.; Mohan, R

    2001-01-01

    Poultry are considered the major reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human food-borne diarrhea. To understand the ecology of C. jejuni and develop strategies to control C. jejuni infection in the animal reservoir, we initiated studies to examine the potential role of anti-Campylobacter maternal antibodies in protecting young broiler chickens from infection by C. jejuni. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the prevalence of anti-C. jejuni antibodies...

  7. Pentavalent Single-Domain Antibodies Reduce Campylobacter jejuni Motility and Colonization in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Riazi; Strong, Philippa C. R.; Russell Coleman; Wangxue Chen; Tomoko Hirama; Henk van Faassen; Matthew Henry; Logan, Susan M; Szymanski, Christine M.; Roger Mackenzie; Mehdi Arbabi Ghahroudi

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the world, with symptoms ranging from acute diarrhea to severe neurological disorders. Contaminated poultry meat is a major source of C. jejuni infection, and therefore, strategies to reduce this organism in poultry, are expected to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter-associated diseases. We have investigated whether oral administration of C. jejuni-specific single-domain antibodies would reduce bacterial colonizati...

  8. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J.; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  9. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter.

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter.

  11. A pre-enrichment step is essential for detection of Campylobacter sp. in turbid pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulreesh, H H; Paget, T A; Goulder, R

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to detect Campylobacter species from naturally contaminated turbid pond water by PCR. A total of 16 water samples were collected from a turbid village pond. Four methods of DNA extraction were applied to centrifuge pellets from eight 100 ml pond water samples prior to attempted detection of Campylobacter by PCR without an enrichment step. These methods were (1) Tris-HCl and sodium dodecyl sulfate followed by phenol:chloroform:isoamylalcohol extraction followed by treatment with DNA clean up kit, (2) proteinase K, (3) Chelex® 100, and (4) boiling. The other eight pond water samples (10 ml and 100 ml) were filtered and filters were incubated overnight in Preston enrichment broth. The centrifuge pellets obtained from enrichment cultures were treated by proteinase K for DNA extraction. Primers CF03 and CF04 for the flagellin genes (flaA and flaB) of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were used for amplifying the extracted DNA. The DNA extracted from eight-100 ml pond water samples that were not subject to selective enrichment was never amplified with primers CF03 and CF04, hence Campylobacter was not detected. In contrast, the DNA that was from samples that were subjected to a selective enrichment step in Preston broth prior to PCR assay always gave amplified bands of 340-380 bp, therefore the presence of Campylobacter was confirmed. Detection of campylobacters from naturally contaminated, turbid, environmental water may not be feasible by direct PCR assay because of low numbers and the presence of high concentration of humic matter and other PCR inhibitors. The enrichment of water samples in selective broth, however, facilitated PCR detection of Campylobacter probably by increasing cell number and by diluting PCR inhibitors.

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pig, Dairy and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac eKashoma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~ 30% of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5%, 35.4%, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5% and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9% of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (70% and 76%, gentamicin (1.8% and 12.6%, respectively, streptomycin (65.8% and 74.8%, erythromycin (41.4% and 48.7%, tetracycline (18.9% and 23.4%, and ciprofloxacin (14.4% and 7.2%. Resistance to nalidixic acid (39.6%, azithromycin (13.5%, and chloramphenicol (4.5% was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (38.7% was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli of which 7 were novel (6 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli. Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country.

  13. Non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter infections among HIV-positive patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, I.K.; Gradel, Kim Oren; Helms, M.

    2011-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter are common causes of diarrhoea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. To investigate if incidence has changed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we combined data from The Danish Surveillance...... population. Moreover our study suggests that there is an increased incidence of Campylobacter-related illness among homosexual men in the HIV-positive population....

  14. Multicenter Evaluation of Clinical Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Patrick, Mary; Gonzalez, Anthony; Akin, Joshua; Polage, Christopher R; Wymore, Kate; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Xavier, Karen; Sadlowski, Jennifer; Monahan, Jan; Hurd, Sharon; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Jerris, Robert; Watson, Renee; Santovenia, Monica; Mitchell, David; Harrison, Cassandra; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; DeMartino, Mary; Pentella, Michael; Razeq, Jafar; Leonard, Celere; Jung, Carrianne; Achong-Bowe, Ria; Evans, Yaaqobah; Jain, Damini; Juni, Billie; Leano, Fe; Robinson, Trisha; Smith, Kirk; Gittelman, Rachel M; Garrigan, Charles; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-05-01

    The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of Campylobacter in stool is increasing. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen CIDTs compared to culture and PCR for Campylobacter detection. Between July and October 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of Campylobacter selective media, four commercial stool antigen assays, and a commercial PCR assay. Illnesses from which specimens were positive by one or more culture media or at least one CIDT and PCR were designated "cases." A total of 95 specimens (3.4%) met the case definition. The stool antigen CIDTs ranged from 79.6% to 87.6% in sensitivity, 95.9 to 99.5% in specificity, and 41.3 to 84.3% in positive predictive value. Culture alone detected 80/89 (89.9% sensitivity) Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli-positive cases. Of the 209 noncases that were positive by at least one CIDT, only one (0.48%) was positive by all four stool antigen tests, and 73% were positive by just one stool antigen test. The questionable relevance of unconfirmed positive stool antigen CIDT results was supported by the finding that noncases were less likely than cases to have gastrointestinal symptoms. Thus, while the tests were convenient to use, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Campylobacter stool antigen tests were highly variable. Given the relatively low incidence of Campylobacter disease and the generally poor diagnostic test characteristics, this study calls into question the use of commercially available stool antigen CIDTs as standalone tests for direct detection of Campylobacter in stool. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Chicken anti-Campylobacter vaccine – comparison of various carriers and routes of immunization

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    Patrycja Anna Kobierecka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered GEM (Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein CjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that CjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous Campylobacter jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens.

  16. The galE Gene of Campylobacter jejuni Is Involved in Lipopolysaccharide Synthesis and Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Benjamin N.; Feng, Shi; Chen, Yuen-Yuen; Newell, Diane G.; Coloe, Peter J.; Korolik, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the main virulence factors of gram-negative bacteria. The LPS from Campylobacter spp. has endotoxic properties and has been shown to play a role in adhesion. We previously cloned a gene cluster (wla) which is involved in the synthesis of the Campylobacter jejuni 81116 LPS molecule. Sequence alignment of the first gene in this cluster indicated similarity with galE genes. These genes encode a UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, which catalyzes the interconversion of UDP...

  17. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of......-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry...

  18. Case-by-case risk assessment of broiler meat batches: An effective control strategy for Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nauta, Maarten; Korsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the Danish government decided to take new measures to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in Danish and imported retail meat. The legal basis for these new measures was article 14 in the EU food law, which states that food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe, among others...... broiler meat. Still this initiative has been successful in significantly reducing the occurrence of Campylobacter in fresh meat available on the Danish retail market....

  19. Dos casos de Enteritis con bacteriemia por Campylobacter jejuni Two cases of enteritis with bacteremia due to Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Borda

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter es un importante agente causante de enfermedad en el ser humano en nuestro medio. Los casos de bacteriemia ocurren principalmente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos y son debidos frecuentemente a C. fetus. Sin embargo la bacteriemia es un episodio que también se ha observado en pacientes con enteritis por C. jejuni. Referimos dos pacientes con enteritis grave y bacteriemia, ambos con enfermedades concomitantes compatibles con inmunodepresión: uno con síndrome nefrótico de larga data y otro con hepatopatía crónica con cirrosis. Destacamos que los dos casos presentaron hematemesis y uno de ellos, enterorragia. Sugerimos prestar atención a la coloración de Gram durante el subcultivo de los caldos con hemocultivos, en busca de formas características de esta especie, y en ese caso emplear medios de cultivo en microaerofilia a 37 y 42 °C.Campylobacter is an important agent of illness in human beings. Bacteremia occurs principally in the immunocompromissed host and is frequently due to C. fetus. Nevertheless bacteremia also has been observed in patients with enteritis due to C. jejuni. We refer two cases of patients with severe enteritis and bacteremia, both of them with immunosupressive concomitant diseases such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic cirrotic hepatopathy. Both patients presented hemathemesis.

  20. Fla-DGGE analysis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in cecal samples of broilers without cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdenski, Hristo; Heyndrickx, Marc; Herman, Lieve; Messens, Winy

    2008-02-05

    In a commercial broiler flock during rearing multiple genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni may be present as well as in gastrointestinal tracts of individual birds. The aim of this study was to optimize and apply a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis assay of the flagellin gene (fla-DGGE) for analysis of C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli in cecal samples of broilers without prior cultivation. One C. coli and 21 C. jejuni strains isolated from broiler flocks, of which 14 typed as unique by restriction fragment length polymorphism of flaA and two undefined strains, were clustered into 9 groups when applying fla-DGGE. Spiking of cecal samples revealed that fla-DGGE is able to detect at least 4.55-5.96logCFUCampylobacter/mlcecal material. The presence of 3 strains spiked in cecal material was demonstrated by fla-DGGE as the corresponding bands were visible on the DGGE gel. Naturally contaminated cecal samples were shown to contain different types of C. jejuni and C. coli. Fla-DGGE has some potential as a cultivation-independent fast primary subtyping method for C. jejuni and C. coli in cecal samples of broilers.

  1. Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Campylobacter Species among Diarrheic Children at Jimma, Ethiopia

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    Belay Tafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter is one of the leading bacterial causes of food-borne disease. The prevalence of Campylobacter species resistant to antimicrobial agents is increasing. This study is intended to determine prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Campylobacter species among under-five children with diarrhea. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 under-five children with diarrhea from July to October 2012 at Jimma town. Isolation and identification of Campylobacter species were performed using standard bacteriological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed following standard protocol. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for analysis. Results. From 227 under-five children, 16.7% were positive for Campylobacter spp.; isolates, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, accounted for 71.1%, 21.1%, and 7.9%, respectively. Higher rate of resistance was observed to ampicillin 76.3%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (68.4%, tetracycline (39.5%, chloramphenicol (31.6%, clindamycin (26.3%, and doxycycline (23.7%. Erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and nalidixic acid were effective for more than 80% of the isolates. Multiple drug resistance was observed among 78.9% of all the three spp. Conclusions. Isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. was high. C. lari was reported for the first time at this study area. Higher rate of resistance was observed to the commonly used drugs.

  2. Impact of human Campylobacter infections in Southeast Asia: The contribution of the poultry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premarathne, Jayasekara Mudiyanselage Krishanthi Jayarukshi Kumari; Satharasinghe, Dilan Amila; Huat, John Tang Yew; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-12-12

    Campylobacter is globally recognized as a major cause of foodborne infection in humans, whilst the development of antimicrobial resistance and the possibility of repelling therapy increase the threat to public health. Poultry is the most frequent source of Campylobacter infection in humans, and southeast Asia is a global leader in poultry production, consumption, and exports. Though three of the world's top 20 most populated countries are located in southeast Asia, the true burden of Campylobacter infection in the region has not been fully elucidated. Based on published data, Campylobacter has been reported in humans, animals, and food commodities in the region. To our knowledge, this study is the first to review the status of human Campylobacter infection in southeast Asia and to discuss future perspectives. Gaining insight into the true burden of the infection and prevalence levels of Campylobacter spp. in the southeast Asian region is essential to ensuring global and regional food safety through facilitating improvements in surveillance systems, food safety regulations, and mitigation strategies.

  3. Molecular Subtyping and Source Attribution of Campylobacter Isolated from Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; Tate, Heather P; Abbott, Jason; Tran, Thu-Thuy; Kabera, Claudine; Crarey, Emily; Young, Shenia; McDermott, Patrick F; Sprague, Grisselle; Campbell, Mark; Adeyemo, Oyewole; Browne-Silva, Johnette; Myers, Michael; Thitaram, Sutawee; Zhao, Shaohua

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. commonly cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. Poultry meats have long been considered the predominant source of these infections, but few in-depth Campylobacter source attribution studies have been completed. We analyzed more than 1,300 Campylobacter isolates recovered from a number of animal and food sources, including dairy and beef cattle, pigs, poultry, and retail poultry meat, and compared them with Campylobacter isolates recovered from human clinical samples. Each isolate was subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI and queried against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PulseNet database to identify human isolates with indistinguishable patterns. Half (49.5%) of the PFGE patterns from poultry animal and retail meat isolates were indistinguishable from patterns of at least one human isolate. Among the isolates from beef and dairy cows, 56.6 and 65.0%, respectively, of their PFGE patterns were indistinguishable from those of human isolates. Only a small portion of the PFGE patterns of Campylobacter isolated from pigs (9.5%) were found to have PFGE patterns in common with human isolates. These data imply that cattle may be larger contributors to Campylobacter infections than previously recognized and help further our understanding of potential sources of human campylobacteriosis.

  4. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A

    2016-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics.

  6. Molecular diagnosis of Arcobacter and Campylobacter in diarrhoeal samples among Portuguese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Júlio, Cláudia; Queiroz, João A; Domingues, Fernanda C; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter and Campylobacter spp. in 298 stool samples of patients with diarrhoea, collected from 22 Portuguese hospitals, between September and November 2012. Detection of Arcobacter and Campylobacter spp. was performed using molecular-based detection techniques, such as real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR, species-specific PCR, and sequencing of amplified PCR products. Overall, 1.3% of the samples were positive for Arcobacter butzleri and 0.3% for Arcobacter cryaerophilus. Campylobacter spp. were found in 31.9% of diarrhoeic faeces. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter concisus were the most prevalent species (13.7% and 8.0%, respectively). The prevalence of Arcobacter and Campylobacter spp. was significantly different between children and adults (39.7% versus 22.8%, P = 0.003). We underline the high prevalence of these pathogens in diarrhoeal samples among Portuguese patients, with particular relevance in the paediatric age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MLST Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Poultry in Grenada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Diana; Davis, Margaret; Baker, Katherine; Besser, Tom; Roopnarine, Rohini; Sharma, Ravindra

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether multilocus sequence types (MLST) of Campylobacter from poultry in 2 farms in Grenada, West Indies, differed by farm, antimicrobial resistance and farm antibiotic use. Farm A used fluoroquinolones in the water and Farm B used tetracyclines. The E-test was used to determine resistance of isolates to seven antibiotics. PCR of the IpxA gene confirmed species and MLST was used to characterize 38 isolates. All isolates were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Farm antibiotic use directly correlated with antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates. Almost 80% of the isolates from Farm A were fluoroquinolone resistant and 17.9% of the isolates from Farm B were fluoroquinolone resistant. All Campylobacter isolates from Farm A were tetracycline sensitive, whereas 35.7% of isolates from Farm B were tetracycline resistant. Six previously recognized sequence types (STs) and 2 novel STs were identified. Previously recognized STs were those overwhelmingly reported from poultry and humans globally. Isolates with the same ST did not always have the same antibiotic resistance profile. There was little ST overlap between the farms suggesting that within-farm transmission of Campylobacter genotypes may dominate. MLST typing was useful for tracking Campylobacter spp. among poultry units and can help elucidate Campylobacter host-species population structure and its relevance to human health. PMID:23555097

  8. Effect of refrigeration and frozen storage on the Campylobacter jejuni recovery from naturally contaminated broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike T. Maziero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common thermophilic Campylobacter associated with human enteritis in many countries. Broilers and their by-products are the main sources for human enteritis. Refrigeration and freezing are used to control bacterial growth in foods. The effect of these interventions on survival of Campylobacter jejuni is yet not quite understood. This study evaluated the effect of storage temperature on the survival of C. jejuni in chicken meat stored for seven days at 4ºC and for 28 days at -20ºC. The influence of selective enrichment on recovery of Campylobacter was also evaluated. Thirty fresh chicken meat samples were analyzed and 93.3% was contaminated with termotolerant Campylobacter spp. with average count of 3.08 Log10 CFU/g on direct plating. After refrigeration, 53.3% of the analyzed samples tested positive for Campylobacter and the average count was 1.19 Log10 CFU/g. After storage at -20ºC, 36.6% of the samples were positive with a verage count of 0.75 Log10 CFU/g. C. jejuni was detected after enrichment, respectively, in 50% of the fresh, 36.7% of the refrigerated and 33.3% of the frozen meat samples analyzed. No difference was detected for the recovery of C. jejuni from fresh, refrigerated or frozen samples after selective enrichment, showing that this microorganism can survive under the tested storage conditions.

  9. Enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni followed by acute motor axonal neuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Tatjana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Campylobacter species represent the main cause of bacterial diarrhea in developed countries and one of the most frequent causes of enterocolitis in developing ones. In some patients, Campylobacter jejuni infection of the gastrointestinal tract has been observed as an antecedent illness of acute motor axonal neuropathy, a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Case presentation We present a case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni, biotype II, heat stable serotype O:19. A 46-year-old Caucasian man developed acute motor neuropathy 10 days after mild intestinal infection. The proximal and distal muscle weakness of his upper and lower extremities was associated with serum antibodies to Campylobacter jejuni and antibodies to ganglioside GM1. The electromyographic signs of neuropathic muscle action potentials with almost normal nerve conduction velocities indicated axonal neuropathy. Our patient's clinical and electrophysiological features fulfilled criteria for the diagnosis of an acute motor axonal neuropathy, a subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Conclusion As this is the first case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni reported from the Balkan area, the present findings indicate the need for systematic studies and further clinical, epidemiological and microbiological investigations on the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and its heat stable serotypes in the etiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other post-infectious sequelae.

  10. Avoidance of antibiotic administration to Campylobacter enterocolitis mimicking severe salmonellosis by clinical and laboratory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ning; Chen, Chih-Jen; Tang, Kuo-Shu; Huang, Fu-Chen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the clinical and laboratory features of non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis in children and formulate a risk scoring system (with receiver-operating characteristic curve) to facilitate early decision making and avoid antibiotic overuse in C. jejuni enterocolitis. Between January 2008 and December 2011, children (age enterocolitis and NTS enterocolitis in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical features and laboratory data were collected for analysis and a risk calculation score is created for the identification of Campylobacter infections. A total of 309 cases of C. jejuni enterocolitis and 496 cases of NTS enterocolitis were enrolled. Compared with Salmonella group clinically, the Campylobacter group had older age (81.06 ± 50.65 vs. 32.70 ± 34.88 months, p Campylobacter group had higher level of white blood cell count (11 208 ± 4380 vs. 9095 ± 3598 cell/mm3, p Campylobacter enterocolitis. When three criteria were fulfilled, Campylobacter enterocolitis was highly suspected and antibiotic could be withheld even when C-reactive protein is high and before stool culture results are known. When four criteria were fulfilled, antibiotic usage was absolutely unnecessary. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni followed by acute motor axonal neuropathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljković-Selimović, Biljana; Lavrnić, Dragana; Morić, Olga; Ng, Lai-King; Price, Lawrence; Suturkova, Ljubica; Kocic, Branislava; Babić, Tatjana; Ristić, Ljiljana; Apostolski, Slobodan

    2010-03-31

    Campylobacter species represent the main cause of bacterial diarrhea in developed countries and one of the most frequent causes of enterocolitis in developing ones. In some patients, Campylobacter jejuni infection of the gastrointestinal tract has been observed as an antecedent illness of acute motor axonal neuropathy, a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. We present a case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni, biotype II, heat stable serotype O:19. A 46-year-old Caucasian man developed acute motor neuropathy 10 days after mild intestinal infection. The proximal and distal muscle weakness of his upper and lower extremities was associated with serum antibodies to Campylobacter jejuni and antibodies to ganglioside GM1. The electromyographic signs of neuropathic muscle action potentials with almost normal nerve conduction velocities indicated axonal neuropathy. Our patient's clinical and electrophysiological features fulfilled criteria for the diagnosis of an acute motor axonal neuropathy, a subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome. As this is the first case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni reported from the Balkan area, the present findings indicate the need for systematic studies and further clinical, epidemiological and microbiological investigations on the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and its heat stable serotypes in the etiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other post-infectious sequelae.

  12. Key role of Mfd in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Sahin, Orhan; Barton, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Qijing

    2008-06-06

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter readily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes a transcription-repair coupling factor involved in strand-specific DNA repair. Mutation of the mfd gene resulted in an approximately 100-fold reduction in the rate of spontaneous mutation to ciprofloxacin resistance, while overexpression of mfd elevated the mutation frequency. In addition, loss of mfd in C. jejuni significantly reduced the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter in culture media or chickens treated with fluoroquinolones. These findings indicate that Mfd is important for the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter, reveal a previously unrecognized function of Mfd in promoting mutation frequencies, and identify a potential molecular target for reducing the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

  13. Key role of Mfd in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter readily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes a transcription-repair coupling factor involved in strand-specific DNA repair. Mutation of the mfd gene resulted in an approximately 100-fold reduction in the rate of spontaneous mutation to ciprofloxacin resistance, while overexpression of mfd elevated the mutation frequency. In addition, loss of mfd in C. jejuni significantly reduced the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter in culture media or chickens treated with fluoroquinolones. These findings indicate that Mfd is important for the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter, reveal a previously unrecognized function of Mfd in promoting mutation frequencies, and identify a potential molecular target for reducing the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

  14. MLST Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Poultry in Grenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined whether multilocus sequence types (MLST of Campylobacter from poultry in 2 farms in Grenada, West Indies, differed by farm, antimicrobial resistance and farm antibiotic use. Farm A used fluoroquinolones in the water and Farm B used tetracyclines. The E-test was used to determine resistance of isolates to seven antibiotics. PCR of the IpxA gene confirmed species and MLST was used to characterize 38 isolates. All isolates were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Farm antibiotic use directly correlated with antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates. Almost 80% of the isolates from Farm A were fluoroquinolone resistant and 17.9% of the isolates from Farm B were fluoroquinolone resistant. All Campylobacter isolates from Farm A were tetracycline sensitive, whereas 35.7% of isolates from Farm B were tetracycline resistant. Six previously recognized sequence types (STs and 2 novel STs were identified. Previously recognized STs were those overwhelmingly reported from poultry and humans globally. Isolates with the same ST did not always have the same antibiotic resistance profile. There was little ST overlap between the farms suggesting that within-farm transmission of Campylobacter genotypes may dominate. MLST typing was useful for tracking Campylobacter spp. among poultry units and can help elucidate Campylobacter host-species population structure and its relevance to human health.

  15. Ganglioside GM1 mimicry in Campylobacter strains from sporadic infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachamkin, I; Ung, H; Moran, A P; Yoo, D; Prendergast, M M; Nicholson, M A; Sheikh, K; Ho, T; Asbury, A K; McKhann, G M; Griffin, J W

    1999-05-01

    To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 random enteritis-associated isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were analyzed. To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 enteritis-associated isolates, randomly collected in the United States, were analyzed using a cholera-toxin binding assay [corrected]. Overall, 26.2% of the isolates were positive for the GM1-like epitope. Of the 36 different O serotypes in the sample, 21 (58.3%) contained no strains positive for GM1, whereas in 6 serotypes (16.7%), >50% of isolates were positive for GM1. GBS-associated serotypes were more likely to contain strains positive for GM1 than were non-GBS-associated serotypes (37.8% vs. 15.1%, P=.0116). The results suggest that humans are frequently exposed to strains exhibiting GM1-like mimicry and, while certain serotypes may be more likely to possess GM1-like epitopes, the presence of GM1-like epitopes on Campylobacter strains does not itself trigger GBS.

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Campylobacter species in foods of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence and evaluation of antibiotic resistance pattern and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Campylobacter species isolated from foods of animal origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 samples (comprising 150 chicken meat, 50 chevon and 80 milk were collected from retail meat markets, slaughter houses and dairy farms and analyzed for isolation of Campylobacter species. A total of 29 isolates comprising 23 Campylobacter jejuni and 6 Campylobacter coli were recovered, characterized biochemically and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. These isolates were then tested for antibiotic resistance pattern through disc diffusion method, and MIC was assessed by MIC strips. The antibiotic resistance assessment was performed against 8 antibiotics viz. ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and norfloxacin. Results: The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat, chevon and milk samples were observed 17.33%, 6% and 0%, respectively. All the isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole but sensitive to erythromycin. All the isolates showed different resistance pattern for the rest of the antibiotics. MIC results revealed that all the isolates were within prescribed concentrations for sensitivity for the antibiotics tested. Conclusions: The foods of animal origin are source of Campylobacter infections to human beings. Thus, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains emphasizes the requirement of better surveillance and monitoring of the foods of animal origin and the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine require careful regulation.

  17. Campylobacter geochelonis sp. nov. isolated from the western Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni hermanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Alessandra; Niero, Giulia; Calleros, Lucía; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Iraola, Gregorio

    2016-09-01

    During a screening study to determine the presence of species of the genus Campylobacter in reptiles, three putative strains (RC7, RC11 and RC20T) were isolated from different individuals of the western Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni hermanni). Initially, these isolates were characterized as representing Campylobacterfetus subsp. fetus by multiplex PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Further whole- genome characterization revealed considerable differences compared to other Campylobacter species. A polyphasic study was then undertaken to determine the exact taxonomic position of the isolates. The three strains were characterized by conventional phenotypic tests and whole genome sequencing. We generated robust phylogenies that showed a distinct clade containing only these strains using the 16S rRNA and atpA genes and a set of 40 universal proteins. Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrates their designation as representing a novel species and this was further confirmed using whole- genome average nucleotide identity within the genus Campylobacter (~80 %). Compared to most Campylobacter species, these strains hydrolysed hippurate, and grew well at 25 °C but not at 42 °C. Phenotypic and genetic analyses demonstrate that the three Campylobacter strains isolated from the western Hermann's tortoise represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobactergeochelonis sp. nov. is proposed, with RC20T (=DSM 102159T=LMG 29375T) as the type strain.

  18. Campylobacter hepaticus sp. nov., isolated from chickens with spotty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Elshagmani, Eltaher; Gor, Mian Chee; Scott, Peter C; Moore, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Ten strains of an unknown Campylobacter species were isolated from the livers of chickens with spotty liver disease in Australia. The strains were Gram-stain-negative, microaerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive and urease-negative. Unlike most other species of the genus Campylobacter, most of the tested strains of this novel species hydrolysed hippurate and half of them could not reduce nitrate. All strains showed resistance, or intermediate resistance, to nalidixic acid and most of them were resistant to cephalothin. Examination of negatively stained cells under transmission electron microscopy revealed that they were S-shaped, with bipolar unsheathed flagella. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene and the heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) gene sequences indicated that the strains formed a robust clade that was clearly distinct from recognized Campylobacter species. Unusually, they had a DNA G+C content of 27.9 mol%, lower than any previously described Campylobacter species, and they showed less than 84 % average nucleotide identity to the nearest sequenced species. Taken together, these data indicate that the strains belong to a novel Campylobacter species, for which the name Campylobacter hepaticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HV10T (=NCTC 13823T=CIP 111092T).

  19. Influence of measurement and control of microaerobic gaseous atmospheres in methods for Campylobacter growth studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macé, Sabrina; Haddad, Nabila; Zagorec, Monique; Tresse, Odile

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in the world. For this reason, this pathogen is widely studied. As a microaerophilic and capnophilic microorganism, this foodborne pathogen requires an atmosphere with reduced oxygen (O2) and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations for its optimal growth in vitro. According to the procedure for Campylobacter spp. isolation and cultivation from food products and environmental samples, European and American standards recommend gas proportions of 5% O2 and 10% CO2, complemented with nitrogen (N2). However, in the literature, the reported proportion of O2 for microaerobic growth conditions of Campylobacter spp. can range from 2.5% to 15% and the reason for this variation is usually not explained. The use of different gas generating systems and media to detect and to grow Campylobacter from foodstuff and the lack of information about gas producing systems are the main sources of the loss of consistancy between data. In this review, the relevance, strengths and weaknesses of these methods and their impact on Campylobacter biology are discussed. In conclusion the minimum information concerning microaerobic gaseous atmospheres are suggested in order to better harmonize data obtained from research studies for a better understanding of Campylobacter features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermotolerant coliforms are not a good surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's rho coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques.