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Sample records for campylobacter spp isolated

  1. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

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    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  2. Biotyping of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry in and around Anand city, Gujarat, India

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    R. S. Tayde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of different biotypes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the study area. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples comprising 90 chicken and 60 caecal content were collected from retail meat market and processed for isolation of Campylobacter spp. 52 Campylobacter isolates obtained from raw poultry meat (6 and caecal content (46 were subjected to biotyping using Lior's biotyping scheme. Results: Among the 52 Campylobacter isolates studied, 60.46 % isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni Biotype I and 39.53% were C. jejuni Biotype II, whereas 83.33 % were C. coli Biotype I and 16.66 % C. coli Biotype II. No other biotypes were identified. Conclusions: The present study revealed that C. jejuni Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II whereas in case of C. coli, Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II providing basis for further epidemiological study.

  3. Prevalence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat in Croatia and Multilocus Sequence Typing of a Small Subset of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

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    Andrea Humski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in Croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86 %. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35 % of the samples, respectively. In 4.98 % of isolates thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were not determined. The multi locus sequence typing method was used to evaluate genetic diversity of eight Campylobacter jejuni and four Campylobacter coli isolates. To our knowledge, these results of genotyping provided the first data on the presence of sequence types (STs and clonal complexes (CCs of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates in Croatia. By applying the multilocus sequence typing, a new allele of tkt gene locus was discovered and marked tkt508. The C. jejuni ST 6182 and C. coli ST 6183 genotypes were described for the fi rst time, and all other identified genotypes were clustered in the previously described sequence types and clonal complexes. These findings provide useful information on the prevalence and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Croatia.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylo-bacter spp. isolated from environmental samples

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    Baserisalehi M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental samples were subjected to determine frequency of occurrence of pathogenic campylobacters in the environment. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was tested to evaluate the level of antibiotic sensitive campylobacters in the environment of investigation. In all, 70 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from water and domestic animal faeces samples using Kapadnis-Baseri device and antimicrobial susceptibility of them was determined by disc diffusion test and E- test. The results indicated that all the isolates of Campylobacter were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and resistant to cefotaxime, cephalexin and ampicillin. Lowest MIC values were observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin (2µg/mL and highest MIC values for ampicillin and chloramphinicol (256µg/mL. In general, pathogenic Campylobacter spp. were prevalent in large numbers in the environment, however, they were sensitive to ciprofloxacin.

  5. MLST Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Poultry in Grenada

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    Stone, Diana; Davis, Margaret; Baker, Katherine; Besser, Tom; Roopnarine, Rohini; Sharma, Ravindra

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether multilocus sequence types (MLST) of Campylobacter from poultry in 2 farms in Grenada, West Indies, differed by farm, antimicrobial resistance and farm antibiotic use. Farm A used fluoroquinolones in the water and Farm B used tetracyclines. The E-test was used to determine resistance of isolates to seven antibiotics. PCR of the IpxA gene confirmed species and MLST was used to characterize 38 isolates. All isolates were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Farm antibiotic use directly correlated with antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates. Almost 80% of the isolates from Farm A were fluoroquinolone resistant and 17.9% of the isolates from Farm B were fluoroquinolone resistant. All Campylobacter isolates from Farm A were tetracycline sensitive, whereas 35.7% of isolates from Farm B were tetracycline resistant. Six previously recognized sequence types (STs) and 2 novel STs were identified. Previously recognized STs were those overwhelmingly reported from poultry and humans globally. Isolates with the same ST did not always have the same antibiotic resistance profile. There was little ST overlap between the farms suggesting that within-farm transmission of Campylobacter genotypes may dominate. MLST typing was useful for tracking Campylobacter spp. among poultry units and can help elucidate Campylobacter host-species population structure and its relevance to human health. PMID:23555097

  6. MLST Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Poultry in Grenada

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    Diana Stone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined whether multilocus sequence types (MLST of Campylobacter from poultry in 2 farms in Grenada, West Indies, differed by farm, antimicrobial resistance and farm antibiotic use. Farm A used fluoroquinolones in the water and Farm B used tetracyclines. The E-test was used to determine resistance of isolates to seven antibiotics. PCR of the IpxA gene confirmed species and MLST was used to characterize 38 isolates. All isolates were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Farm antibiotic use directly correlated with antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates. Almost 80% of the isolates from Farm A were fluoroquinolone resistant and 17.9% of the isolates from Farm B were fluoroquinolone resistant. All Campylobacter isolates from Farm A were tetracycline sensitive, whereas 35.7% of isolates from Farm B were tetracycline resistant. Six previously recognized sequence types (STs and 2 novel STs were identified. Previously recognized STs were those overwhelmingly reported from poultry and humans globally. Isolates with the same ST did not always have the same antibiotic resistance profile. There was little ST overlap between the farms suggesting that within-farm transmission of Campylobacter genotypes may dominate. MLST typing was useful for tracking Campylobacter spp. among poultry units and can help elucidate Campylobacter host-species population structure and its relevance to human health.

  7. Prevalence and antibiotic resistant of Campylobacter spp. isolated from different stages of sheep slaughterhouse

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    A Shakerian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni/coli are frequent causes of diarrhea in humans worldwide originating in foods of animal origin mainly from meat. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in lamb at different stages of the slaughter line including: after-skinning, after evisceration and the end of slaughter process. A total of 150 lamb samples (50 samples per each stage were collected over a period of 16-month between January 2006 and May 2008, and were analyzed for the presence of Campylobacter spp. According to the results, Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 11.3% (17/150 of the carcasses from the three sampling stages. Among the isolates, 76.5% were identified as C. jejuni and 23.1% as C. coli. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 5%, 8% and 4% of carcasses during the stages of after-skinning, after-evisceration and the end of slaughter process, respectively. Antibiotics susceptibility of 17 isolates were determined for ten different antibiotics using the disk diffusion assay. Results revealed that 58/8% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 47/1% of the isolates to nalidixic acid, 41/2% to tetracycline, 29/4% to enrofloxacin, 23/5% to ampicillin, 5/9% to amoxicillin, and 5/9% top streptomycine. None of the isolates was resistant to erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicine. This study emphasizes the application of a preventive system such as HACCP (Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points for the control of Campylobacter contamination in slaughterhouse.

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

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    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  9. Occurrence and characterization of Campylobacter spp.isolates in dogs, cats and children

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    Cecilia G. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available To improve the understanding of implications of Campylobacterspp. infections in pets and children of different environments were analysed 160 faecal samples from children and 120 from pets (103 dogs and 17 cats. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 6.87% of the children and in 18.3% of the dogs and cats. From 33 stool samples positive for Campylobacter spp., 57.6% were identified as C. jejuni, and 33.4% were identified as C. coli. More than 50% of the isolates in pets were resistant to ceftiofur, sulphazotrim, norfloxacin and tetracycline. In humans, most of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, cefazolin, ceftiofur, erythromycin and norfloxacin. From 19 isolates of C. jejuni, 11 isolates from children and 5 from dogs contained two to four of the virulence genes flaA, pldA, cadF or ciaB.We found an association between the presence of virulence genes and diarrhoea. Furthermore, an association was observed between the presence of Campylobacter spp. and diarrhoea in dewormed pets with blood picture suggestive of bacterial infection, and the therapeutic use of antibiotics was associated with more positive detection of Campylobacterspp. in the faeces of pets. Our data indicate that virulent strains of Campylobacter spp. can be risk factor to diarrhoea in animals, and that high resistance to antimicrobial agents is common in pets.

  10. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

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    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  11. Species, biotype and serogroup of Campylobacter spp. isolated from children with diarrhoea over a ten-year period.

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    Figura, N; Guglielmetti, P; Zanchi, A; Signori, R; Rossolini, A; Lior, H; Russi, M; Musmanno, R A

    1997-10-01

    From 1981 to 1990, stool samples from 6403 gastroenteritis cases were examined for the presence of campylobacters as well as Salmonella, Shigella, Aeromonas species and Yersinia enterocolitica. The percentages of isolation were the following: campylobacters 10.8 (86.1% of isolates were C. jejuni and 13.9% were C. coli), Salmonella spp. 8.4, Aeromonas spp 1.4, Yersinia enterocolitica 0.3. Shigella spp. were isolated only occasionally. Predominant biotypes of campylobacters were C. jejuni I (69.5%), C. jejuni II (29.5%) and C. coli I (92.7%). The six most common LIO serogroups-36; 4; 1; 28.53; 11; 2-accounted for 50% ca. of typable strains. Campylobacters are the most common etiological agent of bacterial enteritis in children living in this area of Tuscany. The species and serogroup determination can be useful from an epidemiological point of view.

  12. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

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    Danuser Jürg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes of antibiotics recommended for treatment of human campylobacteriosis are also used in veterinary medicine, in view of food safety, the resistance status of Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat is of special interest. Methods Raw poultry meat samples were collected throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein at retail level and examined for Campylobacter spp. One strain from each Campylobacter-positive sample was selected for susceptibility testing with the disc diffusion and the E-test method. Risk factors associated with resistance to the tested antibiotics were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results In total, 91 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 415 raw poultry meat samples. Fifty-one strains (59% were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Nineteen strains (22% were resistant to a single, nine strains to two antibiotics, and eight strains showed at least three antibiotic resistances. Resistance was observed most frequently to ciprofloxacin (28.7%, tetracycline (12.6%, sulphonamide (11.8%, and ampicillin (10.3%. One multiple resistant strain exhibited resistance to five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These are the most important antibiotics for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. A significant risk factor associated with multiple resistance in Campylobacter was foreign meat production compared to Swiss meat production (odds ratio = 5.7. Conclusion Compared to the situation in other

  13. Comparison of prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from organic and conventional dairy herds in Wisconsin.

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    Sato, K; Bartlett, P C; Kaneene, J B; Downes, F P

    2004-03-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from bovine feces were compared between organic and conventional dairy herds. Thirty organic dairy herds, where antimicrobials are rarely used for calves and never used for cows, were compared with 30 neighboring conventional dairy farms, where antimicrobials were routinely used for animals for all ages. Fecal specimens from 10 cows and 10 calves on 120 farm visits yielded 332 Campylobacter isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in organic and conventional farms was 26.7 and 29.1%, and the prevalence was not statistically different between the two types of farms. Campylobacter prevalence was significantly higher in March than in September, higher in calves than in cows, and higher in smaller farms than in large farms. The rates of retained placenta, pneumonia, mastitis, and abortion were associated with the proportion of Campylobacter isolation from fecal samples. The gradient disk diffusion MIC method (Etest) was used for testing susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and none of isolates was resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was 45% (148 of 332 isolates). Tetracycline resistance was found more frequently in calves than in cows (P = 0.042), but no difference was observed between organic and conventional farms. When we used Campylobacter spp. as indicator bacteria, we saw no evidence that restriction of antimicrobial use on dairy farms was associated with prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks Resistência antimicrobiana em Campylobacter spp isoladas de frangos de corte

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    Suzete Lora Kuana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH agar (27 samples and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed a 62.5% resistance to at least one drug, especially to enrofloxacin (71%, neomycin (50%, lincomycin (50%, tetracycline (43%, penicillin (42%, ceftiofur (33% amoxicillin (27%, spiramycin (20%, ampicillin (18% and norfloxacin (14%, whereas a lower percentage of strains was resistant to erythromycin (10% and doxycycline (10%. All strains were sensitive to gentamicin and lincomycin-spectinomycin and 80% of them to colistin. These results indicate that it is necessary to reduce the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de 62 amostras de Campylobacter spp. em amostras isoladas de 22 lotes de frango de corte, pelo método de difusão em Agar. As amostras de Campylobacter spp foram isoladas de frangos com idade entre 3 e 5 semanas, isoladas a partir de swabs cloacais, fezes e descarga cecal obtidos nas granjas e de rinsagem de carcaças no abatedouro. Das 62 amostras avaliadas, 27 foram testadas em ágar MH e 35 no ágar MH com TTC. O perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana apresentou 62,5% de resistência para, no mínimo, uma droga, sobretudo para enrofloxacina (71%, neomicina (50%, lincomicina (50%, tetraciclina (43%, penicilina (42%, ceftiofur (33% amoxicilina (27%, espiramicina (20%, ampicilina (18% e norfloxacina (14%, enquanto uma percentagem menor foi observada frente eritromicina (10% e doxiciclina (10%. Todas as amostras foram

  15. Isolation, identification and differentiation of Campylobacter spp. using multiplex PCR assay from goats in Khartoum State, Sudan.

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    Elbrissi, Atif; Sabeil, Y A; Khalifa, Khalda A; Enan, Khalid; Khair, Osama M; El Hussein, A M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize thermophilic Campylobacter species in faecal samples from goats in Khartoum State, Sudan, by application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease of global concern, and the organisms can be transmitted to human via food, water and through contact with farm animals and pets. There are five clinically related Campylobacter species: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni). Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter fetus. Conventional cultural methods to diagnose campylobacteriosis are tedious and time consuming. Wide ranges of genes have been reported to be used for PCR-based identification of Campylobacter spp. We used a multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously detect genes from the major five clinically significant Campylobacter spp. The genes selected were hipO (hippuricase) and 23S rRNA from glyA (serine hydroxymethyl transferase) from each of C. jejuni. C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis; and sapB2 (surface layer protein) from C. fetus subsp. fetus. The assay was used to identify Campylobacter isolates recovered from 336 cultured faecal samples from goats in three localities in Khartoum State. C. coli was the most predominant isolate (234; 69.6%), followed by C. jejuni (19; 5.7%), C. upsaliensis (13; 3.9%), C. fetus subsp. fetus (7; 2.1%) and C. lari (6; 1.8%). Twenty-nine goats showed mixed infection with Campylobacter spp., 21 of which harbored two Campylobacter spp., while eight animals were infected with three species. Ten out of twelve goats that displayed diarrhea harbored C. coli only. C. coli, C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis showed significant variation with localities. The prevalence of C. coli was significantly higher (87; 25.9%) in goats from Omdurman, whereas C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis were significantly higher (11; 3.3%, 9; 2.7%) in goats from Khartoum. The multiplex PCR assay was found to be rapid and easy to perform and

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter, and Sutterella spp. in human fecal samples as estimated by a reevaluation of isolation methods for Campylobacters

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    Engberg, J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Harrington, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    for isolation of Campylobacter spp. Two charcoal-based selective media, modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and cefoperazone-amphotericin-teicoplanin (CAT) agar, were compared with Skirrow's blood-based medium and with a filter method (filter) applied to a yeast-enriched blood agar. A total...

  17. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Patients with Diarrhea in Shunyi, Beijing

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    Ying Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens have been confirmed as the major cause of acute diarrhea among outpatients in China. In this study, 370 stool samples from the patients aged from 15 to 87 years old with diarrhea were collected over 12 months (from May 2016 to April 2017 in two hospitals in Shunyi, Beijing. Bacterial isolation was performed for the common enteric pathogens: Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus for 370 samples. The filtration method was used for the Campylobacter isolation in this study. The prevalence and molecular characterization of the Campylobacter were investigated. The isolation ratio for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic E. coli, and V. parahaemolyticus was 7.0% (26/370, 6.2% (23/370, 0.3% (1/370, 7.3% (27/370, and 10.3% (38/370, respectively. Based on the isolation result, Campylobacter positive cases presented in almost every month of the whole year and the isolation ratio was the highest among the tested pathogens during October to March. There was no significant difference between genders of Campylobacter positive cases. More Campylobacter positive cases presented dehydration compared with those who were positive for Salmonella. Twenty-six Campylobacter isolates were obtained in this study and 24 of these were Campylobacter jejuni. The antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that 83.3% (20/24 of the isolates exhibited resistance to three or more types of antibiotic. Twenty STs were identified for the 26 Campylobacter isolates and four novel STs were identified in this study. No clonal cluster was found among these isolates. This is the first study for Campylobacter isolated using the filtration method in China which indicated the Campylobacter infection might be seriously under-ascertained in the diarrheal patients in China.

  18. Resistance to β-lactam and tetracycline in Campylobacter spp.isolated from broiler slaughterhouses in southern Brazil

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    Yuli M. Sierra-Arguello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out to screen and analyze the genetic characteristics of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from poultry sources. A total of 141 strains of Campylobacter isolated from samples of broilers of slaughterhouses in southern Brazil was identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Campylobacter isolates were evaluated for its antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of resistance genes. The strains were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility against two agents (ampicillin and tetracycline by disk diffusion method. PCR assay was used to confirm the specie and the presence of ampicillin (blaOXA-61, tetracycline tet(O, and the energy-dependent multi-drug efflux pump (cmeB genes. Campylobacter jejuni was the most ubiquitous; its presence was determined in 140 samples out of 141 (99.3%, whereas Campylobacter coli was found only in one of the contaminated samples (0.70%. The results obtained showed 65% and 35.5% of Campylobacter isolates resistant to β-lactams and tetracyclines, respectively. The cmeB gene responsible for multidrug resistance was detected in 26 isolates out 141 strains (18.5%. Moreover, 36 out of 141 Campylobacter strains (25.6% were found to be resistant to at least two different antimicrobia resistance markers (β-lactams and tetracyclines.

  19. [Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

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    Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen.

  20. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia by Conventional Culture Method and Multiplex Real-Time PCR.

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    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Mariam, Siala; Smaoui, Salma; Ghorbel, Asma; Hachicha, Salma; Benejat, Lucie; Messadi-Akrout, Feriel; Mégraud, Francis; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. The consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex PCR assay. Two hundred fifty fresh poultry samples were collected from a variety of supermarkets and slaughterhouses located in Sfax, Tunisia, including chicken (n =149) and turkey (n =101). The samples were analyzed using conventional microbiological examinations according to the 2006 International Organization for Standardization method (ISO 10272-1) for Campylobacter spp. Concurrently, a real-time PCR was used for identification of C. jejuni and C. coli . Of the 250 samples of poultry meat and poultry by-products, 25.6% (n = 64) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (26.8%) followed by turkey meat (23.7%). Among the different products, poultry breasts showed the highest contamination (36.6%) followed by poultry by-products (30%), poultry wings (28%) and poultry legs (26%) showed the lowest contamination, and no contamination was found on neck skin. Of the 64 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni (59.7%) was the most frequently isolated species and 10.9% of the isolates were identified as C. coli . All of the 64 Campylobacter isolates identified by the conventional culture methods were further confirmed by PCR. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter spp. contamination was in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The study concluded that high proportions of poultry meat and poultry by-products marketed in Tunisia are contaminated by Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, poultry meats must be properly cooked

  1. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Client-Owned Dogs and Cats, and Retail Raw Meat Pet Food in the Manawatu, New Zealand.

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    Bojanić, K; Midwinter, A C; Marshall, J C; Rogers, L E; Biggs, P J; Acke, E

    2017-09-01

    Campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. The disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on New Zealand pets are limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food products in New Zealand and to characterize Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety dogs and 110 cats examined at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for elective procedures, and fifty locally purchased retail raw meat pet diets were sampled. Two culture protocols combining Bolton broth enrichment and mCCDA and CAT agars in a microaerobic atmosphere at 42°C and 37°C with species identification using PCR were performed. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus was 36%, 13%, 23% and 1% in dogs and 16%, 5%, 5% and 7% in cats, respectively. One dog had Campylobacter lari confirmed, and three dogs and one cat had multiple Campylobacter spp. detected. Significantly more animals tested positive using CAT than mCCDA agar (P dogs, whereas attendance for dental treatment was a risk factor for cats. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 28%, C. jejuni 22%, C. lari 6% and Campylobacter coli 6% of food samples. Six isolates positive by Campylobacter genus PCR were identified as Arcobacter butzleri. Poultry meat was more likely to be positive than non-poultry meat (P = 0.006). Of the 13 C. jejuni pet isolates with full MLST profiles, eight were of different sequence types (ST) and all nine food isolates were of different STs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Genetic diversity of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. isolates from different stages of the poultry meat supply chain in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbrun, María V; Romero-Scharpen, Analía; Olivero, Carolina; Zimmermann, Jorge A; Rossler, Eugenia; Soto, Lorena P; Astesana, Diego M; Blajman, Jesica E; Berisvil, Ayelén; Frizzo, Laureano S; Signorini, Marcelo L

    The objective of this study was to investigate a clonal relationship among thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. isolates from different stages of the poultry meat supply chain in Argentina. A total of 128 thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. (89 C. jejuni and 39 C. coli) isolates from six poultry meat chains were examined. These isolates were from: a) hens from breeder flocks, b) chickens on the farm (at ages 1 wk and 5 wk), c) chicken carcasses in the slaughterhouse, and d) chicken carcasses in the retail market. Chickens sampled along each food chain were from the same batch. Campylobacter spp. isolates were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to compare different profiles according to the source. Clustering of C. jejuni isolates resulted in 17 profiles, with four predominant genotypes and many small profiles with just a few isolates or unique patterns, showing a very high degree of heterogeneity among the C. jejuni isolates. Some clusters included isolates from different stages within the same chain, which would indicate a spread of strains along the same poultry meat chain. Moreover, twenty-two strains of C. coli clustered in seven groups and the remaining 17 isolates exhibited unique profiles. Evidence for transmission of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. through the food chain and cross contamination in the slaughterhouses were obtained. This collective evidence should be considered as the scientific basis to implement risk management measures to protect the public health. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation of Campylobacter spp and Escherichia coli 0157: H7 from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the biosafety of a free range indigenous chicken value chain with reference to zoonotic bacteria, Campylobacter spp and Escherichia coli 0157: H7. Design: cross-sectional sampling of chickens and chicken meat carcasses at farm and market level. Setting: Makueni and Nairobi Counties. Subjects: ...

  4. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Copyright

  6. Multicenter Evaluation of Clinical Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Patrick, Mary; Gonzalez, Anthony; Akin, Joshua; Polage, Christopher R; Wymore, Kate; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Xavier, Karen; Sadlowski, Jennifer; Monahan, Jan; Hurd, Sharon; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Jerris, Robert; Watson, Renee; Santovenia, Monica; Mitchell, David; Harrison, Cassandra; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; DeMartino, Mary; Pentella, Michael; Razeq, Jafar; Leonard, Celere; Jung, Carrianne; Achong-Bowe, Ria; Evans, Yaaqobah; Jain, Damini; Juni, Billie; Leano, Fe; Robinson, Trisha; Smith, Kirk; Gittelman, Rachel M; Garrigan, Charles; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-05-01

    The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of Campylobacter in stool is increasing. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen CIDTs compared to culture and PCR for Campylobacter detection. Between July and October 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of Campylobacter selective media, four commercial stool antigen assays, and a commercial PCR assay. Illnesses from which specimens were positive by one or more culture media or at least one CIDT and PCR were designated "cases." A total of 95 specimens (3.4%) met the case definition. The stool antigen CIDTs ranged from 79.6% to 87.6% in sensitivity, 95.9 to 99.5% in specificity, and 41.3 to 84.3% in positive predictive value. Culture alone detected 80/89 (89.9% sensitivity) Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli-positive cases. Of the 209 noncases that were positive by at least one CIDT, only one (0.48%) was positive by all four stool antigen tests, and 73% were positive by just one stool antigen test. The questionable relevance of unconfirmed positive stool antigen CIDT results was supported by the finding that noncases were less likely than cases to have gastrointestinal symptoms. Thus, while the tests were convenient to use, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Campylobacter stool antigen tests were highly variable. Given the relatively low incidence of Campylobacter disease and the generally poor diagnostic test characteristics, this study calls into question the use of commercially available stool antigen CIDTs as standalone tests for direct detection of Campylobacter in stool. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Influence of enrichment and isolation media on the detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally contaminated chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repérant, E; Laisney, M J; Nagard, B; Quesne, S; Rouxel, S; Le Gall, F; Chemaly, M; Denis, M

    2016-09-01

    Investigating Campylobacter epidemiology requires adequate technique and media to ensure optimal culturing and accurate detection and isolation of Campylobacter strains. In the present study, we investigated the performances of three enrichment durations in Bolton broth (0, 24 and 48h) and compared four isolation media (mCCDA, Karmali, Butzler no. 2 and CampyFood agar (CFA)) for the detection of Campylobacter positive samples and the identification of Campylobacter species, from naturally contaminated broiler chicken samples (caeca, neck skin from carcasses, and skin from thighs). We compared our local results to those we obtained with samples from a European survey (caeca and neck skin) and a national survey (neck skin, thigh skin, and breast). Direct plating favored the detection of positive samples highly contaminated by Campylobacter (caeca and neck skin from carcasses) whatever the media. A longer enrichment reduced the rates of Campylobacter recovery except when using Butzler no. 2, more particularly for neck skin which background microflora was less important than in caeca. As a matter of fact, enrichment allowed a higher detection rate of positive samples with low Campylobacter contamination levels (breast, thigh skin), this detection being enhanced when using Butzler no. 2. When comparing the 3 other selective media, CFA was the 2nd most efficient media prior to mCCDA and Karmali. Interestingly, enrichment promoted the growth of Campylobacter coli but this promotion was least with Butzler no. 2 agar. Our study has confirmed the need to adapt the method to the types of samples for improving the detection of Campylobacter and that the method may affect the prevalence of the species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A simplified and cost-effective enrichment protocol for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat without microaerobic incubation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zhou, Ping

    2011-08-03

    Abstract Background To simplify the methodology for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat, we evaluated 108 samples (breasts and thighs) using an unpaired sample design. The enrichment broths were incubated under aerobic conditions (subsamples A) and for comparison under microaerobic conditions (subsamples M) as recommended by current reference protocols. Sensors were used to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the broth and the percentage of oxygen (O2) in the head space of the bags used for enrichment. Campylobacter isolates were identified with multiplex PCR assays and typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribosomal intergenic spacer analyses (RISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to study the bacterial communities of subsamples M and A after 48 h enrichment. Results The number of Campylobacter positive subsamples were similar for A and M when all samples were combined (P = 0.81) and when samples were analyzed by product (breast: P = 0.75; thigh: P = 1.00). Oxygen sensors showed that DO values in the broth were around 6 ppm and O2 values in the head space were 14-16% throughout incubation. PFGE demonstrated high genomic similarity of isolates in the majority of the samples in which isolates were obtained from subsamples A and M. RISA and DGGE results showed a large variability in the bacterial populations that could be attributed to sample-to-sample variations and not enrichment conditions (aerobic or microaerobic). These data also suggested that current sampling protocols are not optimized to determine the true number of Campylobacter positive samples in retail boiler meat. Conclusions Decreased DO in enrichment broths is naturally achieved. This simplified, cost-effective enrichment protocol with aerobic incubation could be incorporated into reference methods for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat.

  9. Campylobacter spp.: prevalencia y caracterización feno-genotípica de aislamientos de pacientes con diarrea y de sus mascotas en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Tamborini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la prevalencia de Campylobacter spp. en 327 pacientes con diarrea y en 36 animales (perros, gatos y pollos que convivían con pacientes en los que se detectó este patógeno; el estudio se llevó a cabo en Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Se aisló Campylobacter spp. en 50/327 pacientes y en 12/36 animales, Campylobacter jejuni fue la especie más frecuente. Se detectó resistencia a ciprofoxacina (65 % y a tetraciclina (32 % en una selección de 35 aislamientos de origen humano. En el análisis por electroforesis de campo pulsado de 13 aislamientos de C. jejuni se identificaron siete subtipos genéticos. Dos subtipos agruparon aislamientos de pacientes y de sus respectivos perros, y un tercer subtipo agrupó 1 aislamiento humano y 2 de pollos de ese paciente. Si bien las aves son reconocidas como el principal reservorio, es importante fortalecer la vigilancia de Campylobacter spp. en mascotas, las cuales pueden ser portadores asintomáticos del patógeno.The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofoxacin (65 % and tetracycline (32 % was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed feld gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient´s chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter spp. isolated from conventional and antimicrobial-free swine production systems from different U.S. regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Daniel A; Bahnson, Peter B; Funk, Julie A; Thakur, Siddhartha; Morrow, William E Morgan; Wittum, Thomas; DeGraves, Fred; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a study to compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter isolated from 34 farm-slaughter pair cohorts of pigs raised in conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) production systems. Isolates originated from four different states of two geographic regions (region 1--Ohio and Michigan; region 2--Wisconsin and Iowa). A total of 838 fecal and 1173 carcass samples were examined. Campylobacter isolates were speciated using multiplex polymerase chain reaction targeting ceuE and hipO genes. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using agar dilution to a panel of six antimicrobials: chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 472 of 838 pigs (56.3%). Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly based on production system (conventional [58.9%] and ABF [53.7%], odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-2.6, p = 0.24) or geographic region (region 1 [54.1%] and region 2 [58.2%], OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.6-1.9, p = 0.92). At slaughter plant, Campylobacter prevalence varied based on processing stages (19.4% at pre-evisceration, 25.3% at postevisceration, and 3.2% at postchill). Resistance was common to tetracycline (64.5%), erythromycin (47.9%), and nalidixic acid (23.5%). Campylobacter isolates from conventional production systems were more likely to be erythromycin resistant than from ABF (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.2, p = 0.01). The proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter coli isolates were 3.7% and 1.2% from ABF and conventional production systems, respectively. Thirty-seven out of 1257 C. coli (2.9%) were resistant to both erythromycin and ciprofloxacin, drugs of choice for treatment of invasive human campylobacteriosis. The finding of ciprofloxacin resistance, particularly from ABF herds, has significant implications on the potential role of risk factors other than mere antimicrobial use for production

  11. Molecular and Statistical Analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Carriage in Wildlife and Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the carriage of Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter among livestock and mammalian wildlife on Ontario farms, and (ii) investigate the potential sharing of Campylobacter subtypes between livestock and wildlife. Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms in 2010, we assessed associations, using mixed logistic regression models, between Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter carriage and the following explanatory variables: animal species (beef, dairy, swine, raccoon, other), farm type (swine, beef, dairy), type of sample (livestock or wildlife) and Campylobacter species (jejuni, coli, other). Models included a random effect to account for clustering by farm where samples were collected. Samples were subtyped using a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative fingerprinting assay. A total of 92 livestock and 107 wildlife faecal samples were collected, and 72% and 27% tested positive for Campylobacter, respectively. Pooled faecal samples from livestock were significantly more likely to test positive for Campylobacter than wildlife samples. Relative to dairy cattle, pig samples were at significantly increased odds of testing positive for Campylobacter. The odds of isolating Campylobacter jejuni from beef cattle samples were significantly greater compared to dairy cattle and raccoon samples. Fifty unique subtypes of Campylobacter were identified, and only one subtype was found in both wildlife and livestock samples. Livestock Campylobacter isolates were significantly more likely to exhibit antimicrobial resistance (AMR) compared to wildlife Campylobacter isolates. Campylobacter jejuni was more likely to exhibit AMR when compared to C. coli. However, C. jejuni isolates were only resistant to tetracycline, and C.  coli isolates exhibited multidrug resistance patterns. Based on differences in prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and resistant Campylobacter between

  12. Comparative Study of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Children With Gastroenteritis in Bahonar Hospital, Karaj, Using PCR and RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arefeh Abdi

    2016-05-01

    hipo primer binding site in some Iranian isolates of Campylobacters.

  13. Campylobacter spp among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital in Kampala--Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshana, S E; Joloba, M; Kakooza, A; Kaddu-Mulindwa, D

    2009-09-01

    Campylobacter infections occur worldwide. A recent study in Kampala, Uganda, found that 87% of broiler chickens had Campylobacter jejuni; these are potential source of human infection. Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with acute diarrhea at Mulago hospital. A crossectional study from July to October 2005 was conducted involved 226 children with acute diarrhea. Serial sampling was done a total of 226 stool specimens were obtained and cultured on selective media. Identification was done using biochemical test and susceptibility using standard discs diffusion method. Campylobacter spp were isolated in 21 (9.3%) of 226 stool specimens analyzed. Campylobacter jejuni 17 (80.9%), Campylobacter lari 2 (9.5%), Campylobacter coli 1 (4.5%) and Campylobacter jejuni/coli 1(4.5%). All Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, and 20% had intermediate resistance to Ampicillin. Campylobacter spp are prevalent among children with acute diarrhea in Kampala- Uganda. A large multicenter study should be undertaken so that the extent of campylobacter infection in our setting can be established.

  14. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identifi cation and Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria R; Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Ivanov, Ivan N; Petrov, Peter K; Velev, Valeri R; Tomova, Ivelina I; Tiholova, Maida M; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causative agents of gastrointestinal infections in humans. The most frequently isolated strains of this bacterial genus are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. To date, genetic methods for bacterial identification have not been used in Bulgaria. We optimized the multiplex PSR assay to identify Campylobacter spp. and differentiate C. jejuni from C. coli in clinical isolates. We also compared this method with the routinely used biochemical methods. To identify Campylobacter spp. and discriminate C. coli from C. jejuni in clinical isolates using multiplex PCR assay. Between February 2014 and January 2015 we studied 93 stool samples taken from patients with diarrheal syndrome and identified 40 species of Campylobacter spp. in them. The clinical material was cultured in microaerophilic atmosphere, the isolated strains being biochemically diff erentiated (hydrolysis of sodium hippurate for C. jejuni, and hydrolysis of indoxyl acetate for C. coli). DNA was isolated from the strains using QiaAmp MiniKit (QIAGEN, Germany). Twenty strains were tested with multiplex PCR for the presence of these genes: cadF, characteristic for Campylobacter spp., hipO for C. jejuni and asp for C. coli. The biochemical tests identified 16 strains of C. jejuni, 3 strains of C. coli, and 1 strain of C. upsaliensis. After the multiplex PCR assay the capillary gel electrophoresis confirmed 16 strains of C. jejuni, 2 strains of C. coli and 2 strains of Campylobacter spp. - because of the presence of the gene cadF. C. jejuni has the gene hipO, and it is possible that this gene may not be expressed in the biochemical differentiation yielding a negative reaction as a result. In comparison, we can conclude that the genetic differentiation is a more accurate method than the biochemical tests. The multiplex PCR assay is a fast, accurate method for identifi cation of Campylobacter spp. which makes it quite necessary in the clinical diagnostic practice.

  15. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. relative to other enteric pathogens in grow-finish pigs with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrough, Eric; Terhorst, Samantha; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella spp., Lawsonia intracellularis, and Brachyspira spp. are pathogens commonly associated with diarrhea in growing and finishing pigs. Brachyspira spp. infection has recently reemerged as a significant concern due to an increase in the incidence of swine dysentery; however, the mechanisms underlying this increase in dysentery remain largely unknown. Pigs are also well-recognized as potential carriers of Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter coli, yet enteric disease in swine associated with infection by these bacteria is considered uncommon and diagnosis has historically been based upon exclusion of other causes. Accordingly, Campylobacter culture is often excluded in routine diagnostic testing of cases of porcine enterocolitis and the incidence of infection is therefore largely unknown. In this study, feces from 155 cases of clinical diarrhea in grow-finish pigs submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory were cultured for Campylobacter spp. in addition to other testing as indicated for routine diagnostic investigation. Campylobacter culture was positive from 82.6% (128/155) of samples with C. coli accounting for 75% of isolates and Campylobacter jejuni for the remaining 25%. In 14.8% (23/155) of cases a Campylobacter spp. was the sole infectious agent detected; however, there was no association with any particular Campylobacter spp. Interestingly, for those cases with a laboratory diagnosis of Brachyspira-associated disease, 100% (15/15) were also culture positive for Campylobacter spp. suggesting a possible interrelationship between these bacteria in the pig gut. No association was noted between Campylobacter culture results and infection with either Salmonella spp. or L. intracellularis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Campylobacter excretion patterns of 26 domestic pet dogs were described in a longitudinal study. The dogs entered the study between 3 and 8 months of age and were monitored until 2 years of age. They were tested monthly for Campylobacter carriage in stool samples that were cultured.......7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100......% carriers at 1 year of age, whereafter the carriage rate decreased to 67% at 24 months of age. The PFGE types showed that individual dogs were often colonized by unique strains of C. upsaliensis for several months, up to 21 months or longer. These C. upsaliensis strains were either clonal (or underwent...

  18. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Comparative performance of isolation methods using Preston broth, Bolton broth and their modifications for the detection of Campylobacter spp. from naturally contaminated fresh and frozen raw poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, T; De Zutter, L; Houf, K; Botteldoorn, N; Baré, J; Van Damme, I

    2016-10-03

    The performance of different isolation methods was evaluated for the detection of Campylobacter from naturally contaminated raw poultry meat. Therefore, fresh and frozen poultry meat samples were analysed using the standard procedure (ISO 10272-1:2006), enrichment in Preston broth, and enrichment in modified Bolton broth (supplemented with (i) potassium clavulanate (C-BB), (ii) triclosan (T-BB), (iii) polymyxin B (P-BB)). The enrichment cultures were streaked onto both modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and RAPID'Campylobacter agar (RCA). Moreover, direct plating on mCCDA and RCA was performed to quantify Campylobacter. In total, 33 out of 59 fresh retail meat samples (55.9%) were Campylobacter positive. For both fresh and frozen poultry meat samples, enrichment in Bolton broth (ISO 10272-1:2006) resulted in a higher number of positive samples than enrichment in Preston broth. Supplementation of Bolton broth with potassium clavulanate (C-BB) and triclosan (T-BB) enhanced the Campylobacter recovery from fresh poultry meat compared to non-supplemented Bolton broth, although the use of C-BB was less applicable than T-BB for Campylobacter recovery from frozen samples. Additionally, the use of RCA resulted in a higher isolation rate compared to mCCDA. The present study demonstrates the impact of culture medium on the recovery of Campylobacter from fresh and frozen naturally contaminated poultry meat samples and can support laboratories in choosing the most appropriate culturing method to detect Campylobacter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Contamination of poultry environment with campylobacter Spp. and significance for colonisation of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydekaitiene, Viktorija Legaudaite; Malakauskas, Mindangas; Kudirkiene, Egle

    2016-01-01

    medium and selective enrichment into Exeter broth. Campylobacter isolates were identified to the species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from broilers and the environment was examined by PCR-based restriction fragment length...... to identify the sources of Campylobacter in poultry farm environment and their significance for broiler colonisation. For this purpose, Campylobacter spp. were isolated from broilers and their environment (litter, water of puddle, concentric zones, tap water) by both direct inoculation on mCCDA selective...... genotypes, which had not been transmitted to other broiler flocks reared in the same building. Studies have shown that Campylobacter can survive in poultry environment. They can be transferred from the environment into broiler houses by shoes, cloths and wildlife. Therefore, strict bio-security and hygiene...

  1. Development of real-time PCR and hybridization methods for detection and identification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in pig faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Andersen, M. T.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To develop a real-time (rt) PCR for species differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter and to develop a method for assessing co-colonization of pigs by Campylobacter spp. Methods and Results: The specificity of a developed 5' nuclease rt-PCR for species-specific identification...... of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis and of a hipO gene nucleotide probe for detection of C. jejuni by colony-blot hybridization were determined by testing a total of 75 reference strains of Campylobacter spp. and related organisms. The rt-PCR method allowed...... species-specific detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally infected pig faecal samples after an enrichment step, whereas the hybridization approach enhanced the specific isolation of C. jejuni (present in minority to C. coli) from pigs. Conclusions: The rt-PCR was specific for Campylobacter jejuni, C...

  2. Exploring PFGE for Detecting Large Plasmids in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Various Retail Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya Marasini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in retail meat, particularly poultry, and is a leading cause of diarrhea in humans. Studies related to Campylobacter large plasmids are limited in the literature possibly due to difficulty in isolating them using available alkaline lysis methods. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of plasmids, particularly large ones, in Campylobacter spp. isolated from various Oklahoma retail meats, and to explore PFGE (Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis as a tool in facilitating the detection of these plasmids. One hundred and eighty nine strains (94 Campylobacter jejuni and 95 Campylobacter coli were screened for the presence of plasmids using both alkaline lysis and PFGE. Plasmids were detected in 119/189 (63% using both methods. Most of the plasmids detected by alkaline lysis were smaller than 90 kb and only three were larger than 90 kb. Plasmids over 70 kb in size were detected in 33 more strains by PFGE of which 11 strains contained larger than 90 kb plasmids. Plasmids were more prevalent in Campylobacter coli (73.5% than in Campylobacter jejuni (52%. BglII restriction analysis of plasmids isolated from 102 isolates revealed 42 different restriction patterns. In conclusion, PFGE was able to detect large plasmids up to 180 Kb in Campylobacter spp. which might have been missed if the alkaline lysis method was solely used. Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail meats harbor a diverse population of plasmids with variable sizes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use PFGE to detect large plasmids in Campylobacter.

  3. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Commercial Turkey Flocks: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kumar, Anand; Sanad, Yasser M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Garabed, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Poultry are recognized as a main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, longitudinal studies investigating the persistence of Campylobacter on commercial meat turkeys are rare. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and persistence of genotypically related strains of Campylobacter spp. recovered from three commercial turkey farms in Ohio belonging to a single producer. Eight hundred ten samples were collected from birds aged 1 week to slaughter, consisting of 750 fecal droppings and 60 ceca at slaughter. Overall Campylobacter prevalence was 55.9%. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed 72.3% of all isolates as C. coli, 5.3% as C. jejuni, 10.6% as both, and 11.9% as other Campylobacter spp. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaA gene subtyping detected 70 types—62 for C. coli and 8 for C. jejuni isolates—with most (80%) of flaA-types constituting farm homogeneous groups. Multilocus sequence typing of 99 selected Campylobacter isolates resulted in 23 sequence types (STs), consisting of 8 STs for C. jejuni and 15 STs for C. coli isolates. Six novel STs—four for C. jejuni and two—for C. coli, were detected. In a subset of isolates (n=98) tested for antimicrobial resistance, the most common resistance was to tetracycline (95%), followed by azithromycin (43%), while 42% and 18% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to florfenicol. C. coli isolates displayed a higher proportion of resistance than C. jejuni to most antimicrobials. This study highlights the high prevalence, genotypic diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. in commercial turkey from farm to slaughter. PMID:25184688

  5. Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in northern elephant seals, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Gulland, M D Frances; Atwill, E Rob; Lawrence, Judy; Jang, Spencer; Conrad, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. prevalence and antimicrobial drug sensitivity were determined in northern elephant seals that had not entered the water and seals that were stranded on the California coast...

  6. Concentrations of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Campylobacter spp. in equine faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, E M; Downing, M; Bellamy, J; Gilpin, B J

    2015-03-01

    To determine the concentration of Campylobacter spp. as well as faecal indicator bacteria; faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces of healthy adult horses in a sample of properties in the Canterbury region of New Zealand. The faeces of healthy adult horses (n=59), including ponies, pleasure horses and Thoroughbreds, were collected from eight properties around Christchurch, New Zealand. The faeces were analysed for concentrations of Campylobacter spp and faecal indicator bacteria; faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci. The presence of other animals on the properties sampled as well as the age, feed and health of the horses at the time of sampling was recorded. Enterococci and faecal coliforms were isolated from all samples, and E. coli was isolated from 58/59 samples. Mean concentrations of faecal coliforms and E. coli did not differ between properties, but there was a significant difference in mean concentration of enterococci between properties. Campylobacter spp. were detected in two faecal samples with one isolate being determined by PCR analysis to be a thermotolerant Campylobacter species, the other C. jejuni. This is the first known report quantifying the concentration of Campylobacter spp. present in healthy adult horses in New Zealand. The presence of equine faecal material in water could elevate concentrations of faecal bacteria and therefore needs to be considered as a source of water contamination. The access of horses to waterways and coastal environments may also need to be restricted to prevent transmission of faecal indicator bacteria and potentially zoonotic agents.

  7. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A

    2016-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics.

  8. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Collo, Laura P; Karns, Jeffrey S; Biswas, Debabrata; Lombard, Jason E; Haley, Bradd J; Kristensen, R Camilla; Kopral, Christine A; Fossler, Charles P; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2017-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently isolated from dairy cows as commensal organisms. Sporadic Campylobacter infections in humans in the United States are generally attributed to poultry, but outbreaks are also commonly associated with dairy products, particularly unpasteurized or raw milk. Bulk tank milk samples and milk filters from US dairy operations were collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2014 study and analyzed using real-time PCR and traditional culture techniques for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species. The weighted prevalence of operations from which we detected Campylobacter spp. in either bulk tank milk or milk filters was 24.9%. We detected Campylobacter spp. in a higher percentage of operations with 100-499 cows (42.8%) and 500 or more cows (47.5%) than in operations with 30-99 cows (6.5%). Campylobacter spp. were also more frequently detected in operations in the west than the east (45.9 and 22.6%, respectively). We isolated Campylobacter spp. from approximately half of PCR-positive samples, representing 12.5% (weighted prevalence) of operations. The majority (91.8%) of isolates were C. jejuni, but C. lari and C. coli were also isolated. We detected resistance to tetracycline in 68.4% of C. jejuni isolates, and resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in 13.2% of C. jejuni isolates. Based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found that dairy-associated C. jejuni were genotypically diverse, although clonal strains were isolated from different geographic regions. These results suggest that bulk tank milk can be contaminated with pathogenic Campylobacter spp., and that the consumption of unpasteurized or raw milk presents a potential human health risk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-01-01

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and

  10. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  11. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Campylobacter infections occur worldwide. A recent study in Kampala, Uganda, found that 87% of broiler chickens had Campylobacter jejuni; these are potential source of human infection. Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with ...

  12. Quantifying transmission of Campylobacter spp. among broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.J.; Bouma, A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Broek, van den E.W.F.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter species are frequently identified as a cause of human gastroenteritis, often from eating or mishandling contaminated poultry products. Quantitative knowledge of transmission of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is necessary, as this may help to determine the moment of introduction of

  13. Impact of technical and economic performance on costs of campylobacter spp. interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and human Campylobacter spp. infections can result in severe sequelae. Because broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter spp. infections, it is relevant to control Campylobacter spp.

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from raw camel, beef, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Kazemeini, Hamid Reza

    2010-04-01

    Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causes of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in human beings which are transmitted mostly via food originating from animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail raw meats in Iran. From June 2008 to June 2009, a total of 722 raw meat samples from camel (n = 107), beef (n = 190), lamb (n = 225), and goat (n = 180) were purchased from randomly selected retail outlets in Isfahan and Yazd, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. In this study, 50 of the 722 meat samples (6.9%) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in lamb meat (12.0%), followed by goat meat (9.4%), beef meat (2.4%), and camel meat (0.9%). The most prevalent Campylobacter spp. isolated from the meat samples was Campylobacter jejuni (84.0%); the remaining isolates were Campylobacter coli (16.0%). Susceptibilities of 50 Campylobacter isolates were determined for 10 antimicrobial drugs using the disk-diffusion assay. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common finding (68.0%), followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (46.0%) and nalidixic acid (40.0%). All of the isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p meat samples taken in spring (20.0%) and summer (18.9%). To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from raw camel, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

  15. Short communication: Absence of campylobacter spp. In intensive rabbit farming in eastern Spain, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonoses and among the most common causes of diarrhoeal illness in the European Union and the United States, and their incidence appears to be increasing. Campylobacter species are routinely found in poultry, swine, cattle, dairy cows and sheep. So far, there are few descriptions of Campylobacter isolation from rabbits. Rabbit meat is a common item in the Mediterranean diet. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in healthy rabbits reared in intensive farms in the Alto Palancia region, eastern Spain. Caecal contents from 70 healthy does reared on 7 different farms were collected. Bacteriological culture was performed in accordance with ISO 10272-1:2006. All samples tested negative for Campylobacter spp. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which comprehensive monitoring was specifically carried out in order to provide data on the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in large intensive rabbit farms in Spain. However, further microbiological studies throughout the Spanish territory are needed to determine the prevalence and risk of other foodborne pathogens in rabbits at farm level.

  16. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Campylobacter species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.

  17. Campylobacter upsaliensis isolated from a breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C; Lamothe, F

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter upsaliensis is a rare human pathogen recovered so far only from stools or blood from patients with enterocolitis or bacteremia. We report the isolation of C. upsaliensis from a breast abscess. PMID:1583149

  18. Campylobacter upsaliensis isolated from a breast abscess.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C; Lamothe, F

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter upsaliensis is a rare human pathogen recovered so far only from stools or blood from patients with enterocolitis or bacteremia. We report the isolation of C. upsaliensis from a breast abscess.

  19. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran.

  20. Antibiotic Susceptibility, Genetic Diversity, and the Presence of Toxin Producing Genes in Campylobacter Isolates from Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyeon Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken (n = 152 and duck (n = 154 samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses were identified by PCR. The isolated colonies were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to chloramphenicol, amikacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and enrofloxacin. The isolates were also used to analyze genetic diversity using the DiversiLabTM system and were tested for the presence of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt genes. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 45 poultry samples out of 306 poultry samples (14.7% and the average levels of Campylobacter contamination were 22.0 CFU/g and 366.1 CFU/g in chicken and duck samples, respectively. Moreover, more than 90% of the isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Genetic correlation analysis showed greater than 95% similarity between 84.4% of the isolates, and three cdt genes (cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were present in 71.1% of Campylobacter isolates. These results indicate that Campylobacter contamination should be decreased to prevent and treat Campylobacter foodborne illness.

  1. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  2. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  3. Distribution and polymorphism of the flagellin genes from isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, R A; Guerry, P; Trust, T J

    1993-01-01

    The complex flagellar filaments of the LIO8 serogroup member Campylobacter coli VC167 are composed of two highly related subunit proteins encoded by the flaA and flaB genes which share 92% identity. Using oligonucleotide primers based on the known DNA sequence of both the flaA and flaB genes from C. coli VC167 in the polymerase chain reaction, we have shown conservation of both fla genes among isolates within the LIO8 heat-labile serogroup by digestion of the amplified product with PstI and EcoRI restriction endonucleases. Amplification and subsequent restriction analysis of the flaA flagellin gene from Campylobacter isolates belonging to 13 different LIO serogroups further identified 10 unique polymorphic groups. Within most of the serogroups examined, isolates appeared to contain flaA genes with conserved primary structures. Only in serogroups LIO11 and LIO29 did independent isolates possess flagellin genes with different primary structures. Furthermore, by employing primers specific for the flaB gene of C. coli VC167, all serogroups examined contained a second fla gene corresponding to flaB. In all serogroups except the LIO5 and LIO6 isolates which were identical to each other, the polymorphic pattern of this flaB gene was identical to that of the corresponding flaA gene. These data indicate that the presence of a second highly homologous flagellin gene is widespread throughout Campylobacter isolates and that in most instances, the primary structure of the two fla genes is conserved within isolates belonging to the same heat-labile LIO serogroup. This may represent the presence of clonal evolutionary groups in Campylobacter spp. Images PMID:8098328

  4. Prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Laxman; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Basnet, Hom Bahadur; Bhattarai, Rebanta Kumar; Dhakal, Santosh; Sharma, Bishwas

    2014-04-05

    Campylobacter is the primary cause of food borne gastroenteritis. Moreover, the emergence of multiple drug resistant campylobacters from poultry and pork has produced a potential threat to public health. Research addressing these issues is sparse in Nepal. So, this cross-sectional study aims at determining the prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of campylobacters from dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal. We collected 139 samples of dressed porcine carcass from 10 different pork shops located in Chitwan district and processed according to OIE Terrestrial Manual, 2008, chapter 2.8.10. Antibiogram of identified Campylobacter spp. was evaluated against nine commonly used antibiotics by using disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 38.84% (C. coli 76% and C. jejuni 24%). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence rate of male (32.4%) and female (41%) carcass. Ampicillin and erythromycin showed the highest resistance (92.59% each) followed by colistin (72.2%), tetracycline (61.1%), nalidixic acid and cotrimoxazole (44.4% each), ciprofloxacin (31.5%) and gentamicin (5.56%). Moreover, 77.8% of the isolates were resistant to more than two antimicrobials. Nalidixic acid and tetracycline showed significant difference (p prevalence rate and regular sanitization of slaughter slab equipments was significant (p prevalence rate was significantly associated (p antibiotic-resistant Campylobacters and slaughtering practices play significant role in contamination. It is necessary to train the butchers about hygienic slaughtering practice. The consumers as well as butchers should adopt safety measures to prevent themselves from antibiotic resistant campylobacters. The veterinary practitioners should adopt prudent use of antibiotics in pigs.

  5. Prevalence and quantification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Italian retail poultry meat: Analysis of influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Simone; Soncini, Gabriella; Ziino, Graziella; Panebianco, Antonio; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Colavita, Giampaolo; Alberghini, Leonardo; Giaccone, Valerio

    2017-04-01

    Retail poultry meat is a crucial vehicle for consumers' exposure to Campylobacters, but no official controls are currently applied in Italy. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Campylobacter contamination of a wide range of poultry meats marketed in Italy. N. 472 chicken and turkey meat samples (sectioned meats, offal, meat preparations and products) were taken from slaughterhouses, deboning plants and different retailers and submitted to detection/enumeration of Campylobacter spp. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and biomolecular techniques. Campylobacter spp. was detected in 34.1% of the samples, with general low counts. Higher values were observed in offal (especially liver) and sectioned meats, with significantly higher rates in skin-on samples (86.8% vs 32.7%). Minced meat preparations showed lower prevalence (22.4% vs 58.3%) and counts than whole pieces. Decreasing rates were observed among slaughterhouses (80%), deboning plants (49%), butcher's shops (37%) and large scale retailers (25%). Sectioned chicken meats were significantly more contaminated than turkey meats. Almost all the isolates were identified as C. jejuni or C. coli, with similar prevalences (18.4% and 20.5%, respectively); C. jejuni was predominant only in samples from slaughterhouses/deboning plants. For setting future control programs, meat typology should be considered the main critical factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  7. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of campylobacter isolates from free-living, human-commensal american crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Allison M; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M; Townsend, Andrea K

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health.

  8. Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Campylobacter Species among Diarrheic Children at Jimma, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay Tafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter is one of the leading bacterial causes of food-borne disease. The prevalence of Campylobacter species resistant to antimicrobial agents is increasing. This study is intended to determine prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Campylobacter species among under-five children with diarrhea. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 under-five children with diarrhea from July to October 2012 at Jimma town. Isolation and identification of Campylobacter species were performed using standard bacteriological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed following standard protocol. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for analysis. Results. From 227 under-five children, 16.7% were positive for Campylobacter spp.; isolates, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, accounted for 71.1%, 21.1%, and 7.9%, respectively. Higher rate of resistance was observed to ampicillin 76.3%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (68.4%, tetracycline (39.5%, chloramphenicol (31.6%, clindamycin (26.3%, and doxycycline (23.7%. Erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and nalidixic acid were effective for more than 80% of the isolates. Multiple drug resistance was observed among 78.9% of all the three spp. Conclusions. Isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. was high. C. lari was reported for the first time at this study area. Higher rate of resistance was observed to the commonly used drugs.

  9. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat Sold in İstanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kemal BÜYÜKÜNAL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are some of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. They are mainly considered as foodborne pathogens that are found in raw or undercooked poultry and serve as an important source of sporadic campylobacteriosis. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat. A total of 176 samples of chicken meat were analyzed using PCM and BAX® system. The samples analyzed included: 56 samples of whole chicken, 27 samples of chicken breast, 33 samples of chicken thigh, 25 samples of chicken drumstick and 35 samples of chicken wings. Samples of all the fresh chicken meat sold in İstanbul were randomly purchased from different major supermarkets in their original, individual packages. Laboratory analyses to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were performed in accordance with the ISO 10272-1, 2006 standard (qualitative analysis. API® Campy (BioMerieux, Marcy-l’Etoile, France was used for the confirmation of presumptive colonies. Campylobacter isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests by the disc diffusion method as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Zones of growth inhibition were evaluated according to the NCCLS standards. Using PCM, the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and C. lari was determined as 15.34, 8.52 and 1.7%, respectively. However, using BAX® system, the prevalence was determined as 15.90, 18.75 and 1.7% for C. coli, C. jejuni and C. lari, respectively. C. coli was resistant to nalidixic acid (78.57%, ofloxacin (14.29% norfloxacin (10.71% and ampicillin (10.71%. But the highest resistance was observed to nalidixic acid (90.91% for C. jejuni and (100% for C. lari. In conclusion, considering the public health, chicken meat is a common source for Campylobacter strains and antibiotics should be used carefully in veterinary medicine.

  11. Molecular Subtyping and Source Attribution of Campylobacter Isolated from Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; Tate, Heather P; Abbott, Jason; Tran, Thu-Thuy; Kabera, Claudine; Crarey, Emily; Young, Shenia; McDermott, Patrick F; Sprague, Grisselle; Campbell, Mark; Adeyemo, Oyewole; Browne-Silva, Johnette; Myers, Michael; Thitaram, Sutawee; Zhao, Shaohua

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. commonly cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. Poultry meats have long been considered the predominant source of these infections, but few in-depth Campylobacter source attribution studies have been completed. We analyzed more than 1,300 Campylobacter isolates recovered from a number of animal and food sources, including dairy and beef cattle, pigs, poultry, and retail poultry meat, and compared them with Campylobacter isolates recovered from human clinical samples. Each isolate was subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI and queried against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PulseNet database to identify human isolates with indistinguishable patterns. Half (49.5%) of the PFGE patterns from poultry animal and retail meat isolates were indistinguishable from patterns of at least one human isolate. Among the isolates from beef and dairy cows, 56.6 and 65.0%, respectively, of their PFGE patterns were indistinguishable from those of human isolates. Only a small portion of the PFGE patterns of Campylobacter isolated from pigs (9.5%) were found to have PFGE patterns in common with human isolates. These data imply that cattle may be larger contributors to Campylobacter infections than previously recognized and help further our understanding of potential sources of human campylobacteriosis.

  12. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G.; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2015-01-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence

  13. Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from raw milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Lovett, J; Francis, D W; Hunt, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from raw milk by a method that can routinely detect less than or equal to 1 organism per ml. This procedure was used in a survey of 195 separate farms and showed a 1.5% incidence of C. jejuni in milk from bulk tanks.

  14. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, David; Avery, Brent P.; Parmley, E. Jane; Deckert, Anne; Carson, Carolee A.; Dutil, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    During 2005–2010, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance identified increased prevalence of ciprofloxacin (a fluororquinolone) resistance among Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken in British Columbia (4%–17%) and Saskatchewan (6%–11%), Canada. Fluoroquinolones are critically important to human medicine and are not labeled for use in poultry in Canada. PMID:23764141

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and genotyping of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Abd El-Baky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis . Materials and Methods: A total of 125 stool samples were collected from children with gastroenteritis. The identification of isolates was performed with conventional methods as well as with molecular methods based on 16SrRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR and product analysis. Resistance pattern of the isolated strains was determined using agar dilution method. Results: Conventional methods including sodium hippurate hydrolysis revealed that 12 (9.6% samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Ten out of 12 Campylobacter spp. were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 2 as Campylobacter coli but PCR assay revealed that five samples only were positive for Campylobacter and all were C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials was performed and all isolates (five isolates of C. jejuni were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin but all were resistant to ceftriaxone. Conclusion: PCR assay method allows reliable detection of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species. Gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotic.

  17. Detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Nordentoft, Steen; Pedersen, Karl

    2004-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay for detecting thermophilic Campylobacter spp. directly in chicken feces has been developed. DNA was isolated from fecal material by using magnetic beads followed by PCR with a prealiquoted PCR mixture, which had been stored at -18degreesC. Campylobacter could be detected...... in less than 4 h, with a detection limit of 100 to 150 CFU/ml, in a fecal suspension. A bacterial internal control was added before DNA extraction to control both DNA isolation and the presence of PCR inhibitors in the samples. The assay was performed on 111 swab samples from a Danish surveillance program...... and compared to conventional culturing using selective enrichment. There was no statistically significant difference in performance between real-time PCR and culture by selective enrichment, and the diagnostic specificity was 0.96 with an agreement of 0.92. Therefore, the assay should be useful for screening...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370804465; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/080432565; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Duim, Birgitta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143855352

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species.

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children and environmental sources in urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Bernadeta; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Spica, Dorota; Klawe, Jacek J

    2017-04-04

    Campylobacteriosis is a dominant bacterial cause of foodborne infection and is considered the main public health problem in Europe and many other countries worldwide. In the study lasting from 2011 to 2013 we compared the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children, domestic animals, poultry meat and surface water in Northern Poland. During a 3-years study 1973 samples were analysed. The results proved the presence of Campylobacter spp. in 306 (15.5%) samples. The percentage of Campylobacter-positive samples differed among the sample types, from 0% (freshwater beaches) to 38.6% (poultry meat in 2011). Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in children isolates was 9.6%. It decreased from 13.2% in 2011 to 8.0% in 2013. It should be highlighted with a particular concern that Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 20.0% of fountains. All children and poultry meat isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. Two C. coli (3.7%) and four C. jejuni (3.3%) isolated from poultry meat were resistant to erythromycin. The highest percentage of C. jejuni isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin were found in samples from 80% dogs and 85% ponds. Among isolates resistant to two antimicrobials 74.7% C. jejuni and 59.2% C. coli isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin as well as to tetracycline. Only one cat C. coli isolate was resistant to both azithromycin and erythromycin. One C. jejuni isolate from a fountain was resistant to four antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, azithromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin). The study proved that surface water, poultry meat and pets constituted potential sources of Campylobacter to children. Fountains can be a direct source of children campylobacteriosis but can also pollute other environments with multidrug-resistant Campylobacter. The high resistance to some antimicrobials among the isolates may lead to increasing numbers of difficult-to-treat campylobacteriosis cases among children.

  20. Developing Alternatives to Antibiotics Use: Reduction of Campylobacter counts on chicken wingettes by a chitosan based coating or use of probiotic (Lactobacillus spp.) isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Campylobacter on poultry products remains one of the leading causes for foodborne illness. The reduction in the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture has increased the need for alternative forms of improving food safety. The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a bio-preservative/...

  1. Application of MALDI-TOF MS Systems in the Rapid Identification of Campylobacter spp. of Public Health Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Wang, Yun F; Moura, Hercules; Miranda, Nancy; Simpson, Steven; Gowrishankar, Ramnath; Barr, John; Kerdahi, Khalil; Sulaiman, Irshad M

    2017-09-12

    Campylobacteriosis is an infectious gastrointestinal disease caused by Campylobacter spp.In most cases, it is either underdiagnosed or underreported due to poor diagnostics and limited databases. Several DNA-based molecular diagnostic techniques, including 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence typing, have been widely used in the species identification of Campylobacter. Nevertheless, these assays are time-consuming and require a high quality of bacterial DNA. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) MS is an emerging diagnostic technology that can provide the rapid identification of microorganisms by using their intact cells without extraction or purification. In this study, we analyzed 24 American Type Culture Collection reference isolates of 16 Campylobacter spp. and five unknown clinical bacterial isolates for rapid identification utilizing two commercially available MADI-TOF MS platforms, namely the bioMérieux VITEK(®) MS and Bruker Biotyper systems. In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to confirm the species-level identification of the unknown clinical isolates. Both MALDI-TOF MS systems identified the isolates of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. fetus. The results of this study suggest that the MALDI-TOF MS technique can be used in the identification of Campylobacter spp. of public health importance.

  2. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli From Various Animal Source Foods by Conventional Methods and PCR

    OpenAIRE

    KILIC ALTUN, Serap; KİREÇCİ, Ekrem; KUCUKKALEM, Ömer Faruk; SEYITOGLU, Şenay

    2014-01-01

      In   this   study,   300   samples   consisted   of   chicken   meats,   ground   beef,   and   gallbladder   of   cattle   and   sheep   were  collected   from   various   markets,   butchers   and   abattoirs   in   the   Eastern   Anatolia   region   in   Turkey.   The   samples   were  evaluated   for   the   presence   of   Campylobacter   jejuni   and   Campylobacter   coli.   Campylobacter   spp.   was   isolated   from   16  (5.3%)  of  the  samples  by  conventional  methods.  The ...

  3. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of Campylobacter spp. contamination of turkey cecal contents and carcasses during and following the slaughtering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bily, Lise; Petton, Julie; Lalande, Françoise; Rouxel, Sandra; Denis, Martine; Chemaly, Marianne; Salvat, Gilles; Fravalo, Philippe

    2010-07-01

    The present study aimed to document quantitatively and qualitatively the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. of turkey samples during slaughtering. Four Campylobacter-positive turkey flocks were investigated at the slaughterhouse at three different stages: evisceration (cecal content), after carcass rinses but before chilling (neck skin), and after breast meat cut (meat). In each case, the studied flock was slaughtered first thing in the morning any given day of the week. The efficiency of cleaning and disinfecting operations was examined in the facility prior to processing the studied flock. For each flock, 90 samples were collected from cecal contents, neck skins, and meat pieces and checked quantitatively and qualitatively for Campylobacter. Identification of Campylobacter species was determined by PCR, and genetic patterns were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Campylobacter contamination levels of ceca range from 2 to more than 7 Log CFU/g, while those of neck skin range from 0.5 to 3.5 Log CFU/g and those of meat range from 0.1 to 1.9 Log CFU/g. These differences in Campylobacter counts were not associated with a modification of Campylobacter species ratio; however, in the Campylobacter jejuni population, four genetic groups identified from the ceca were not recovered during slaughtering operations and two other genetic groups were only detected after chilling at the cutting stage of the breast meat. The present study suggests that the slaughtering process did not affect Campylobacter species populations; however, it might have influenced the strain population. Finally, the Campylobacter populations found on breast meat were similar to those isolated from the digestive tract of the birds.

  4. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in skinless, boneless retail broiler meat from 2005 through 2011 in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Aretha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 755 skinless, boneless retail broiler meat samples (breast, tenderloins and thighs collected from food stores in Alabama, USA, from 2005 through 2011 was examined. Campylobacter spp. were isolated using enrichment and plate media. Isolates were identified with multiplex PCR assays and typed with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Data were analyzed by nominal variables (brand, plant, product, season, state and store that may affect the prevalence of these bacteria. Results The average prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in retail broiler meat for these years was 41%, with no statistical differences in the prevalence by year (P > 0.05. Seasons did not affect the prevalence of C. jejuni but statistically affected the prevalence of C. coli (P P P C. coli and C. jejuni had an average prevalence of 28% and 66%, respectively. The prevalence of C. coli varied by brand, plant, season, state, store and year, while the prevalence of C. jejuni varied by brand, product, state and store. Tenderloins had a lower prevalence of Campylobacter spp. than breasts and thighs (P P > 0.05 were observed in the prevalence of C. jejuni by season, the lowest prevalence of C. coli was recorded from October through March. A large diversity of PFGE profiles was found for C. jejuni, with some profiles from the same processing plants reappearing throughout the years. Conclusions The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. did not change during the seven years of the study; however, it did change when analyzed by brand, product and state. Seasons did not affect the prevalence of C. jejuni, but they did affect the prevalence of C. coli. Larger PFGE databases are needed to assess the temporal reoccurrence of PFGE profiles to help predict the risk associated with each profile.

  5. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Neumann, Norman F.; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with Ct value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  6. The Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter spp. From Retail Poultry Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Kurinčič; Ingrid Berce; Tina Zorman; Sonja Smole Možina

    2005-01-01

    Macrolides and fluoroquinolones are regarded as drugs of choice for the treatment of human Campylobacter infections. The use of antimicrobials for this purpose as well as in food animal production has resulted in the resistance of Campylobacter spp. to selected antibiotics. Since poultry is one of the most important sources of human Campylobacter infections the use of antibiotics in animal production can shorten the effective therapeutic life of antibiotics for human use. During 2001–2003, ov...

  7. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in Swedish dogs and characterization of C. jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Mia; Rosendal, Thomas; Engvall, Eva O; Ohlson, Anna; Lindberg, Ann

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter species in Swedish dogs, to identify the species of the Campylobacter isolates and to genotype the C. jejuni isolates. Young and healthy dogs were targeted and the sampling was performed at 11 veterinary clinics throughout Sweden from October 2011 to October 2012. Faecal swab samples were collected and sent to the laboratory at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) for isolation of Campylobacter, speciation and genotyping. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 67 of the 180 sampled dogs which yields an overall prevalence of 37%. The most prevalent species of Campylobacter among the participating dogs was C. upsaliensis with 52 of the 67 identified isolates. A lower prevalence was observed for C. jejuni with seven identified isolates and one isolate was identified as C. helveticus. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out on the seven C. jejuni isolates and all sequence types that were found are also commonly found in humans. The dogs were divided into three age groups; 1) under 12 months, 2) 12 to 23 months and 3) 24 months and older. The highest prevalence was found in the two younger age groups. Dogs shedding C. jejuni were between 3-12 months of age while dogs shedding C. upsaliensis were found in all ages. The present investigation finds that Campylobacter spp. known to cause campylobacteriosis in humans are present in Swedish dogs. The results suggest an age predisposition where dogs under 2 years of age are more likely to shed Campylobacter spp. than older dogs. The most commonly isolated species was C. upsaliensis followed by C. jejuni, which was only detected in dogs up to 12 months of age. All C. jejuni isolates identified in the present study were of the same MLST types that have previously been described both in humans and in animals. The awareness of the Campylobacter risk of healthy young dogs may be an important way to reduce the transmission from dogs to infants

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pig, Dairy and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac eKashoma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~ 30% of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5%, 35.4%, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5% and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9% of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (70% and 76%, gentamicin (1.8% and 12.6%, respectively, streptomycin (65.8% and 74.8%, erythromycin (41.4% and 48.7%, tetracycline (18.9% and 23.4%, and ciprofloxacin (14.4% and 7.2%. Resistance to nalidixic acid (39.6%, azithromycin (13.5%, and chloramphenicol (4.5% was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (38.7% was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli of which 7 were novel (6 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli. Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country.

  9. Rapid and sensitive detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken products by using the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Quint, W G; Henkens, M H; Stegeman, H; Huf, F A; Niesters, H G

    1992-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after a short enrichment culture was used to detect Campylobacter spp. in chicken products. After the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Campylobacter jejuni was determined and compared with known sequences from other enterobacteria, a primer and probe combination was

  10. The detection of hipO gene by real-time PCR in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. with very weak and negative reaction of hippurate hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Vildan; Cokal, Yavuz; Cetin, Cengiz; Sen, Aysin; Karagenc, Nedim

    2008-11-01

    A total of 190 Campylobacter spp. isolates, of which 34 gave the result of very weak activity, and 156 gave the negative activity in the test for hippurate hydrolysis were characterized. The genomic DNA was isolated from a fresh culture of each isolate and the real-time PCR, targeting the hipO gene, was used to confirm the species distribution of Campylobacter isolates. The hipO gene was detected in 17 isolates (11%) within the total of 156 negative isolates for hippurate hydrolysis. Out of 34 isolates with very weak activity, 19 isolates (56%) were also found to be positive for hipO gene and characterized as C. jejuni. The real-time PCR assay used in this study could be employed for more accurate diagnosis of Campylobacter infections at species level after the biochemical characterization based on hippuricase activity of the isolates. This could also provide important data for the epidemiology of infections associated with these zoonotic pathogens.

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry are recognized as a main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, longitudinal studies investigating the persistence of Campylobacter on broilers and retail chciekn meat in Tanzania are rare. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. isolated ...

  12. Longitudinal prevalence, faecal shedding and molecular characterisation of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-11-01

    Faecal excretion of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep in Australia was determined using a quantitative multiplex PCR (qPCR) targeting the Campylobacter spp. purine biosynthesis gene (PurA) and the S. enterica outer membrane protein (ompF). The mutiplex qPCR was specific and Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were each detected with a sensitivity of 5 organisms/µL faecal DNA extract. This multiplex qPCR was used to determine the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica in 3412 faecal samples collected from 1189 lambs on eight farms across South Australia (n = 2 farms), New South Wales (n = 1), Victoria (n = 2) and Western Australia (n = 3) at three sampling periods (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter). The overall prevalences of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were 13.3% and 5.0%, respectively, with the highest prevalence for Campylobacter spp. in South Australia and the highest prevalence for S. enterica in New South Wales. Campylobacter jejuni was the only Campylobacter sp. identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the 16S locus. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was the only serovar of S. enterica identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the ompF locus. Across all states, Campylobacter spp. had the highest median bacterial concentration in faeces at weaning and post-weaning (medians of 3.4 × 10(6) and 1.1 × 10(5), respectively), whereas S. enterica had the highest median bacterial concentration at pre-slaughter (1.8 × 10(5)/g faeces). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  14. Presencia de Campylobacter spp en canales y ciegos de pollos de engorde en Lima, Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucas L., Juan; Vilca L., Miguel; Ramos D., Daphne

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Campylobacter spp en canales y ciegos de pollos de engorde comercializados en Lima Metropolitana a traves de tres centros de beneficio clandestino...

  15. Survival and Virulence of Campylobacter spp. in the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan

    the epidemiology of recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases from vegetables. During transmission and infection, C. jejuni may encounter many different stresses but little is known about how this bacterium survives and interacts with the protozoa under these conditions. I have investigated the impacts......Campylobacter is the most common cause of food-borne illness in Europe, and this important zoonotic pathogen has been the focus of many research projects and scientific publications in recent years. However, we know less about the biology and pathogenicity of this pathogen than we know about many......: Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., in raw slurry, in the liquid fraction of separated slurry, and in the liquid fraction after ozonation to ground water using intact soil columns models. I observed that solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution of contaminants in liquid fraction...

  16. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of......-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry...

  17. Prevalence and sources of Campylobacter spp. contamination in free-range broiler production in the southern part of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeplas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A one year epidemiological study was carried out between February 2005 and February 2006 in the southern part of Belgium to assess the Campylobacter prevalence in free-range broiler production. Three successive broiler flocks from six Belgian farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. during the rearing period. Each flock was visited four times, before and after the outdoor rearing period. During each visit, samples were taken in the broiler house (litter, cecal droppings, water-lines, feed, anteroom as well as from the outer rearing environment (open-air range. The Campylobacter detection in all samples was carried out according to the ISO 10272 standard. Identification was based on colonial morphology, microscopic examination, and biochemical tests. PCR multiplex was used for genetic confirmation. Campylobacter jejuni was the main species isolated from all contaminated samples. Overall, mixed infections C. jejuni / Campylobacter coli represented 40.6%, while C. jejuni and C. coli represented 46.9% and 12.5% of chicken samples respectively. A 100% flock contamination was observed in the 6 farms during the summer-autumn period, whereas only 66.7% and 33.3% of the flocks became Campylobacter-positive in spring and winter respectively, at the end of the rearing period. Half of contaminated flocks were infected before chickens have access to the open-air range. Environmental samples, especially the open-air range soil, were found to be Campylobacter-positive before flock infection. The other potential sources of contamination were delivery tray, anteroom floor and water-lines. Other animal productions like cattle on the farm, no applied rodent control, no cleaning and disinfection of water-lines between flocks, no detergent used for cleaning and thinning were recorded as risk factors. In conclusion, the contact with the environment, particularly the access to an open-air range, appeared to be the major way of Campylobacter

  18. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from patients in the town of Niš

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In some clinical forms of human Campylobacter infections, such as prolonged diarrhea or associated with postinfections sequels, antibacterial treatment is necessary. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea, as well as from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfections sequels, to drugs used in the therapy of enterocolitis, and to nalidixic acid used in laboratory identification and differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Methods. We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 131 Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea (122 strains, diarrhea associated with rheumatic disorders (8 strains, and one strain isolated from a patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome following Campylobacter enterocolitis. Susceptibility testing to erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the agar dilution method. Results. In the strains we investigated, resistance to gentamicin and chloramphenicol was not recorded, whereas a low rate of strains resistant to erythromycin (2.4%, a higher prevalence of strains resistant to tetracycline (9.9%, and a high level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (29.8% and nalidixic acid (33.3% were registered. All strains resistant to nalidixic acid were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. In addition, there was no difference in the occurrence of resistance between strains isolated from patients with diarrhea as compared to those isolated from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfection disorders. Conclusion. The fact that the most of Campylobacter strains were sensitive to erythromycin and all to gentamicin, makes erythromycin an antibiotic of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea and gentamicin when parenteral therapy should be administered. Resistance to tetracycline and, especially, ciprofloxacin

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from patients in the town of Nis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljković-Selimović, Biljana; Babić, Tatjana; Kocić, Branislava; Ristić, Ljiljana

    2009-07-01

    In some clinical forms of human Campylobacter infections, such as prolonged diarrhea or associated with postinfections sequels, antibacterial treatment is necessary. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea, as well as from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfections sequels, to drugs used in the therapy of enterocolitis, and to nalidixic acid used in laboratory identification and differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 131 Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea (122 strains), diarrhea associated with rheumatic disorders (8 strains), and one strain isolated from a patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome following Campylobacter enterocolitis. Susceptibility testing to erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the agar dilution method. In the strains we investigated, resistance to gentamicin and chloramphenicol was not recorded, whereas a low rate of strains resistant to erythromycin (2.4%), a higher prevalence of strains resistant to tetracycline (9.9%), and a high level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (29.8%) and nalidixic acid (33.3%) were registered. All strains resistant to nalidixic acid were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. In addition, there was no difference in the occurrence of resistance between strains isolated from patients with diarrhea as compared to those isolated from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfection disorders. The fact that the most of Campylobacter strains were sensitive to erythromycin and all to gentamicin, makes erythromycin an antibiotic of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea and gentamicin when parenteral therapy should be administered. Resistance to tetracycline and, especially, ciprofloxacin, necessitates antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  1. Thermotolerant coliforms are not a good surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's rho coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques.

  2. Thermotolerant Coliforms Are Not a Good Surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Water ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D.; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's ρ coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques. PMID:19734335

  3. A comparison of molecular technologies and genomotyping for tracing and strain characterization of Campylobacter isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, J. van der; Keijser, B.; Schuren, F.; Nocker, A.; Montijn, R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter species are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in developed countries. Campylobacter spp. are ubiquitous in nature and widespread in livestock. Infections occur sporadically, and are believed to occur through consumption of contaminated meat products and from

  4. Evaluation of the novel DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay for the rapid detection of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, Zaira; Rando-Segura, Ariadna; Gimferrer, Laura; Roig, Gloria; Pumarola, Tomas; Rodriguez-Garrido, Virginia

    2017-04-29

    Campylobacter spp. infection is one of the leading causes of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in humans worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay for human campylobacteriosis diagnosis. A total of 645 stool samples from 640 patients suspected of having gastrointestinal infection were included. A stool culture was simultaneously performed with the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay to detect the presence of Campylobacter spp. Taking the conventional culture to be the perfect gold standard, sensitivity and specificity rates of the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay were 100% and 97.7%, respectively; and 99.1% and 98.6%, respectively, when taking the culture to be the imperfect gold standard (Bayesian Model). This new assay might be a useful tool especially for the screening of negative results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Aislamiento de especies termotolerantes de Campylobacter en dos poblaciones de pollos criados con y sin confinamiento Isolation of thermotolerant Campylobacter species from two populations of chickens bred in confinement and at liberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Tresierra-Ayala

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la frecuencia del aislamiento de Campylobacter spp. en pollos domésticos y pollos mantenidos en confinamiento permanente, en la ciudad de Iquitos (Perú. Campylobacter spp. fue aislado en 54,0% en el primer grupo y 35,0% en el segundo (pEstudou-se a freqüência de isolamento de Campylobacter spp. em frangos domésticos e frangos mantidos em confinamento permanente, na cidade de lquitos (Peru. Campylobacter spp. foi isolado em 54,0% no primeiro grupo e 35,0% no segundo (pThe isolation rates of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in free-ranging domestic chickens and confined chickens from Iquitos city, Peru, were determined. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 54,0% of the former group of chickens, being less frequent (35,0% in the latter (p<0,05. Of the classical thermotolerant species, C. jejuni and C. coli were the most frequent. However, the presence C. lari suggests that the chickens might be an important reservoir of this bacterium.

  6. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL), arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL) and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL). A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campyl...

  7. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter coli clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castillo, Ana; Torres-Sánchez, María José; Aznar-Martín, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide, and C. coli is responsible for 10% of the cases. A study was made of the antimicrobial susceptibility using the E-test(®), and the clonal relationship using PCR-RFLP, of the flaA gene, as well as PFGE techniques on 43 C. coli clinical isolates. Only 49% and 2% of the isolates were susceptible to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Imipenem and clindamyicn, with 100% and 84% of the strains, respectively, being susceptible, were the most active antimicrobials. The PCR-RFLP of flaA gene technique grouped fourteen isolates into six clusters, while the PFGE technique grouped eleven isolates into five clusters. Ciprofloxacin and erythromycin are not suitable for the treatment of C. coli infections. Clindamycin could be considered as a therapeutic alternative in cases of enteritis, while imipenem is the best alternative for extra-intestinal infections. Both PFGE and PCR-RFLP can be useful to detect clones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Method for bacteriophage isolation against target Campylobacter strains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carvalho, C; Susano, M; Fernandes, E; Santos, S; Gannon, B; Nicolau, A; Gibbs, P; Teixeira, P; Azeredo, J

    2010-01-01

    .... This work focuses on the isolation of Campylobacter coli lytic bacteriophages (phages) against target C. coli strains. A method involving the enrichment of free-range chicken samples in a broth containing the target C...

  9. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Moisés; Rivera, Isabel; Jara, Luis M; Ulloa-Stanojlovic, Francisco M; Shiva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents.

  10. Prevalence of putative virulence markers in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from hospitalized children, raw chicken, and raw beef in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian, Mohammad; Sanaei, Maryam; Bolfion, Mehdi; Dabiri, Hossein; Zali, Mohammad-Reza; Walther-Rasmussen, Jan

    2011-02-01

    The incidence of the virulence-associated genes cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, cadF, dnaJ, racR, and pldA has been investigated in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli collected from raw chicken and beef from retailers in Tehran, Iran, and from hospitalized children (age, ≤14 years) suffering from diarrhea. Campylobacter spp. were collectively identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were discriminated from other Campylobacter spp. by amplification of a specific conserved fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The distinction between C. jejuni and C. coli was subsequently made by molecular determination of the presence of the hipO gene in C. jejuni or the ask gene in C. coli. Fragments of the studied virulence-associated genes, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, cadF, racR, dnaJ, and pldA, were amplified by PCR and subjected to horizontal gel electrophoresis. A total of 71 isolates of C. jejuni and 24 isolates of C. coli from meat were analyzed, while the numbers of isolates from the hospitalized children were 28 and 9, respectively. The unequal distribution of C. jejuni and C. coli in the samples has also been reported in other studies. Statistical analyses by the use of the two-tailed Fisher's exact test of the occurrence of the virulence genes in the isolates of different origins showed that the occurrence of the dnaJ gene was consistently significantly higher in all C. jejuni isolates than in C. coli. The occurrence of the other virulence markers did not differ significantly between species in the majority of the isolates. The PCR results also showed that the occurrence of the virulence markers in the analyzed isolates was much lower than in other studies, which may be caused by a divergent genomic pool of our isolates in comparison with others.

  11. The effect of blast chilling on occurrence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica compared to Campylobacter spp. and numbers of hygienic indicators on pig carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbakken, Truls; Eckner, Karl; Røtterud, Ole-Johan

    2008-03-31

    In this study, the occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica on pig carcasses was compared to the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., and to the numbers of aerobic micro-organisms, coliform bacteria, thermotolerant coliform bacteria, and Escherichia coli before and after blast chilling. Y. enterocolitica O:3/biovar 4 was isolated from five (8.3%) of 60 carcasses before blast chilling, and also from five of them 1 h after blast chilling. Therefore this procedure does not seem to have a significant effect on the occurrence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica on pig carcasses. Y. enterocolitica O:9/biovar 2 was isolated from a pig source in Norway for the first time when this sero/biovariant was isolated from one of the carcasses before blast chilling. Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 34 (56.7%) of 60 carcass samples before blast chilling. After blast chilling Campylobacter spp. was isolated from only one (1.7%) of the 60 carcasses. There was a significant decrease of the numbers of coliform bacteria, thermotolerant coliform bacteria and E. coli after blast chilling. The number of aerobic micro-organisms did not decrease after this step. In contrast to the drastic decrease in the occurrence of campylobacter-positive carcasses and the significant decrease of the numbers of coliform bacteria, thermotolerant coliform bacteria and E. coli, blast chilling does not seem to have a significant effect on the occurrence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica on pig carcasses.

  12. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechtefeld, N W; Cambre, R C; Wang, W L

    1981-12-01

    Over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the Denver Zoo were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. The organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. Of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for Campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (P less than 0.001). Among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were represented; several of these serotypes are commonly associated with Campylobacter enteritis in human beings. Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from 8% of 75 wild pigeons trapped on the zoo premises during winter months and from 26% of 75 trapped during March and April (P less than 0.01).

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Nielsen, E. M.; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    The MICs of 16 antimicrobial agents were determined for 202 Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 123 Campylobacter coli isolates, and 6 Campylobacter lari isolates from humans and food animals in Denmark. The C.jejuni isolates originated from humans (75), broilers (95), cattle (29), and pigs (3); the C....... coil isolates originated from humans (7), broilers (17), and pigs (99); and the C. lari isolates originated from broilers (5) and cattle (1), All isolates were susceptible to apramycin, neomycin, and gentamicin, Only a few C.jejuni isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents, Resistance...... isolates were resistant to the other antimicrobial agents tested. Isolates were in most cases either coresistant to tylosin, spiramycin, and erythromycin or susceptible to all three antibiotics, More macrolide-resistant isolates were observed among C. coil isolates from swine (79%) than among C. coil...

  14. An improved culture method for selective isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyong Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently-available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin, to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with Ct value using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. In particular, rifampicin supplementation and an increased culture temperature (i.e., 42°C had a decisive effect on the selective enrichment of C. jejuni from wastewater. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater.

  15. Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Malin E.; Chriél, Mariann; Norström, Madelaine

    2012-01-01

    at the time of slaughter was defined as the dependent variable and farm was modelled as a random effect. The following factors were found to increase the probability for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp.: daily mean temperature above 6°C during the rearing period, private water supply...... the houses might constitute vehicles transporting the organism. Fly activity is temperature-driven and flies might be a part of the explanation of the increased risk for Campylobacter spp. related to increased temperature demonstrated in the study....

  16. Detection and isolation of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni from children with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Man, Si Ming; Day, Andrew S; Leach, Steven T; Lemberg, Daniel A; Dutt, Shoma; Stormon, Michael; Otley, Anthony; O'Loughlin, Edward V; Magoffin, Annabel; Ng, Patrick H Y; Mitchell, Hazel

    2009-02-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species other than Campylobacter jejuni and antibodies to Campylobacter concisus in children were investigated. A significantly greater presence of C. concisus and higher levels of antibodies to C. concisus were detected in children with Crohn's disease (CD) than in controls. Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni were isolated from intestinal biopsy specimens of children with CD.

  17. Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter Species Other than C. jejuni from Children with Crohn's Disease▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Man, Si Ming; Andrew S. Day; Steven T. Leach; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Dutt, Shoma; Stormon, Michael; Otley, Anthony; O'Loughlin, Edward V.; Magoffin, Annabel; Ng, Patrick H. Y.; Mitchell, Hazel

    2008-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species other than Campylobacter jejuni and antibodies to Campylobacter concisus in children were investigated. A significantly greater presence of C. concisus and higher levels of antibodies to C. concisus were detected in children with Crohn's disease (CD) than in controls. Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni were isolated from intestinal biopsy specimens of children with CD.

  18. Survey of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in different taxa and ecological guilds of migratory birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fioretti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 169 faecal samples were collected from migrating birds, belonging to the Order of Passeriformes, in Campania region in order to isolate Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 of the 169 birds examined (23.1%. Among these 36 were identified as C. jejuni and the remaining strains were identified as Campylobacter coli. Given the high isolation rates wild birds could be considered natural reservoir of infection.

  19. Survey of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in different taxa and ecological guilds of migratory birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Sensale

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 169 faecal samples were collected from migrating birds, belonging to the Order of Passeriformes, in Campania region in order to isolate Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 of the 169 birds examined (23.1%. Among these 36 were identified as C. jejuni and the remaining strains were identified as Campylobacter coli. Given the high isolation rates wild birds could be considered natural reservoir of infection.

  20. Isolation of a Campylobacter lanienae-like bacterium from laboratory chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, E E; Shen, Z; Ducore, R M; Parry, N M A; Kirega, A; Dewhirst, F E; Fox, J G

    2014-12-01

    Routine necropsies of 27 asymptomatic juvenile chinchillas revealed a high prevalence of gastric ulcers with microscopic lymphoplasmacytic gastroenteritis and typhlocolitis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using Campylobacter genus-specific partial 16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of Campylobacter spp. DNA in the faeces of 12 of 27 animals (44.4%). Species-specific partial 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing confirmed that these animals were colonized with Campylobacter lanienae, a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that was first identified on routine faecal screening of slaughterhouse employees and subsequently isolated from faeces of livestock. Campylobacter lanienae was isolated from the faeces of six PCR-positive animals and identified with species-specific PCR and full 16S rRNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates clustered with C. lanienae strain NCTC 13004. PCR analysis of DNA extracted from gastrointestinal tissues revealed the presence of C. lanienae DNA in the caecum and colon of these chinchillas. Gastrointestinal lesions were scored and compared between C. lanienae-positive and C. lanienae-negative animals. There was no correlation between colonization status and lesion severity in the stomach, liver, duodenum, or colon. Possible routes of C. lanienae infection in chinchillas could include waterborne transmission and faecal-oral transmission from wild mice and rats or livestock. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that C. lanienae colonizes the lower bowel of chinchillas in the absence of clinical disease. This is the first report of C. lanienae in any rodent species. Campylobacter lanienae isolates from different mammalian species demonstrate heterogeneity by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. Analysis using rpoB suggests that isolates and clones currently identified as C. lanienae may represent multiple species or subspecies. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Interaction of Campylobacter spp. and human probiotics in chicken intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganan, M; Martinez-Rodriguez, A J; Carrascosa, A V; Vesterlund, S; Salminen, S; Satokari, R

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease throughout the world. The principal risk of human contamination is handling and consumption of contaminated poultry meat. To colonize poultry, Campylobacter adheres to and persists in the mucus layer that covers the intestinal epithelium. Inhibiting adhesion to the mucus could prevent colonization of the intestine. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the protective effect of defined commercial human probiotic strains on the adhesion of Campylobacter spp. to chicken intestinal mucus, in a search for alternatives to antibiotics to control this food-borne pathogen. The probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and a starter culture strain Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis adhered well to chicken intestinal mucus and were able to reduce the binding of Campylobacter spp. when the mucus was colonized with the probiotic strain before contacting the pathogen. Human-intended probiotics could be useful as prophylactics in poultry feeding for controlling Campylobacter spp. colonization. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii recovered from Campylobacter selective medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh M Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii, a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, is known to cause multidrug resistant infections. This organism has primarily been isolated from clinical environments and its environmental reservoirs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we recovered seven isolates of A. baumannii growing under conditions selective for Campylobacter spp. (microaerophilic at 42 oC and in the presence of antibiotics from dairy cattle manure storage tank or surface water impacted by livestock effluents. Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that all of these isolates were less susceptible to at least two different clinically relevant antibiotics, compared to the type strain A. baumannii ATCC17978. Expression of resistance-nodulation-division efflux pumps, an important mechanism of intrinsic resistance in these organisms, was analyzed and adeB was found to be overexpressed in one and adeJ was overexpressed in three isolates. Comparison of these isolates using genomic DNA Macro-Restriction Fragment Pattern Analysis (MRFPA revealed relatively low relatedness among themselves or with some of the clinical isolates from previous studies. This study suggests that A. baumannii isolates are capable of growing under selective conditions for Campylobacter spp. and that this organism can be present in manure and water.

  3. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Danish broiler production: a cross-sectional survey and a retrospective analysis of risk factors for occurrence in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Wedderkopp, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study...... days (OR = 5.0, 1.2 important biosecurity measure for production of campylobacter-free broilers....

  4. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: relationship with management practices and livestock influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, S; Sánchez, S; Herrera-León, S; Porrero, C; Blanco, J; Dahbi, G; Blanco, J E; Mora, A; Mateo, R; Hanning, I; Vidal, D

    2013-05-03

    Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N=574) and carcasses (N=585) sampled from red deer (N=295), wild boar (N=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N=9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), being significantly higher in faeces from red deer (90 out of 264). A total of 58 isolates were serotyped. Serotypes O146:H- and O27:H30 were the most frequent in red deer and the majority of isolates from red deer and wild boar were from serotypes previously found in STEC strains associated with human infection, including the serotype O157:H7. The STEC prevalence in red deer faeces was significantly higher with the presence of livestock (p<0, 01) where high densities of red deer (p<0.001) were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and STEC in carcasses of large game animals. Furthermore, this study confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that cross contamination of STEC during carcass dressing occurred, implying the likelihood of these pathogens entering into the food chain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genotypes, Antibiotic Resistance, and ST-8 Genetic Clone in Campylobacter Isolates from Sheep and Goats in Grenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal swabs from 155 sheep and 252 goats from Grenada were evaluated to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance, and multilocus sequence types. Fifteen Campylobacter isolates were obtained (14 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli. The prevalence (3.7% did not differ significantly between sheep (4.5% and goats (3.2%. Among the seven antimicrobials tested, resistance was only detected for tetracycline (30.8% and metronidazole (38.5%. Campylobacter isolates showed no significant difference between sheep and goats for type of antimicrobial resistance or percent of resistant isolates. Twelve of the isolates were successfully genotyped consisting of four recognized clonal complexes and three novel sequence types. Importantly, one isolate from one goat was identified as the C. jejuni sequence type-8, a zoonotic and tetracycline-resistant clone reported to be a highly virulent clone associated with ovine abortion in the USA. Although most samples were from comingled sheep and goat production units, there were no shared sequence types between these two host species. None of the sequence types identified in this study have previously been reported in poultry in Grenada, suggesting sheep- and goat-specific Campylobacter clones in Grenada. This is the first report of genotyping of Campylobacter isolates from sheep and goats in the Eastern Caribbean.

  6. Identification of possible virulence marker from Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, James W; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Siddiqui, Fariha; Korbrisate, Sunee; Bukhari, Habib; Tra, My Phan Vu; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Bryant, Juliet; Campbell, James I; Studholme, David J; Wren, Brendan W; Baker, Stephen; Titball, Richard W; Champion, Olivia L

    2014-06-01

    A novel protein translocation system, the type-6 secretion system (T6SS), may play a role in virulence of Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated 181 C. jejuni isolates from humans, chickens, and environmental sources in Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom for T6SS. The marker was most prevalent in human and chicken isolates from Vietnam.

  7. Identification of Campylobacter pyloridis isolates by restriction endonuclease DNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, W.; Rauws, E. A.; Widjojokusumo, A.; Tytgat, G. N.; Zanen, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Campylobacter pyloridis isolates recovered from gastric biopsy specimens of 16 patients were examined by restriction endonuclease DNA analysis with HindIII. For 8 of these 16 patients two different isolates were compared to study the persistence of the colonizing strains and the stability of their

  8. Increased Incidence of Campylobacter spp. Infection and High Rates among Children, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Nissan, Israel; Agmon, Vered; Peretz, Chava

    2013-01-01

    During 1999–2010, the annual incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection in Israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. Children 26-fold higher than for the 30–<50 age group. PMID:24188185

  9. Seroepidemiological studies indicate frequent and repeated exposure to Campylobacter spp. during childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, C. W.; Teunis, P. F. M.; Herbrink, P.; Keijser, J.; van Duynhoven, Y. H. T. P.; Visser, C. E.; van Pelt, W.

    2011-01-01

    The annual number of episodes of clinical gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter spp. in The Netherlands is estimated to be 75 000, i.e. once per 200 person life-years. This number is based on extrapolation of culture results from population-based studies. The number of culture-confirmed cases of

  10. Use of Fly Screens to Reduce Campylobacter spp. Introduction in Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    2007-01-01

     Fly screens that prevented influx of flies in 20 broiler houses during the summer of 2006 in Denmark caused a decrease in Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks from 51.4% in control houses to 15.4% in case houses. A proportional reduction in the incidence of chicken-borne campylobacteriosis can be ...

  11. Dietary Administration of Olive Mill Wastewater Extract Reduces Campylobacter spp. Prevalence in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Food wastes are sources of compounds that can be used as natural additives in the food and feed industry. The olive oil industry produces two main wastes: aqueous waste (olive mill wastewater and solid waste (pomace or olive cake. These by-products are rich in phenols, which are antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds able to inhibit or delay the growth of several bacteria in vitro. The dietary effect of both olive mill wastewater polyphenolic extract (OMWPE and dehydrated olive cake (DOC on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens was investigated. A commercial basal diet was supplemented with either OMWPE- or DOC-enriched maize at two dosages (low: 16%; high: 33%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. shedding was evaluated at 21, 35, and 49 days of age. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed among groups only at 49 days of age. Both OMWPE groups showed a lower (p < 0.05 prevalence compared to the control group. The odds ratio evaluation showed that the higher dose of OMWPE reduced the possibility of shedding 11-fold compared to the control group (p < 0.001. These results highlight the potential use of olive by-products against Campylobacter spp. in poultry.

  12. Microscale electrodes integrated on COP for real sample Campylobacter spp. detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant-Miñana, M Carmen; Elizalde, J

    2015-08-15

    Campylobacter spp. are responsible for acute bacterial diseases in human worldwide. Nowadays campilobacteriosis is considered the most common foodborne illness in the European Union. In this paper the first electrochemical genosensor based on thin-film gold electrodes deposited onto Cyclo Olefin Polymer (COP) substrates was fabricated for the detection of Campylobacter spp in food matrices. The sensing element is characterized by several surface techniques and the sensitivity of the biosensor have been studied. A good linear relationship was obtained for the concentrations of PCR amplicon of Campylobacter spp. between 1 and 25 nM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 90 pM. Real samples have been validated with poultry meat samples and results were comparable with the PCR product samples. This is the last step for the fabrication of a Lab on a Chip (LOC), a biodevice integrating DNA sensor technology into microfluidic system, believed to perform an automated and complete assay, including sample preparation, PCR amplification, and electrochemical detection of Campylobacter spp. in raw poultry meat samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of thymol and diphenyliodonium chloride against Campylobacter spp. during pure and mixed culture in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial associated human foodborne illness in the United States, causing greater than 1.9 million illnesses at a cost of more than $1.2 billion annually. The aim of this study was to determine if the purported deaminase inhibitors diphenyliodonium chlorid...

  14. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. In free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, Christopher A; Cranfield, Michael R; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2010-07-01

    Health monitoring of wildlife populations can greatly benefit from rapid, local, noninvasive molecular assays for pathogen detection. Fecal samples collected from free-living Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) between August 2002 and February 2003 were tested for Campylobacter spp. DNA using a portable, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) instrument. A high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in both individually identified (22/26=85%) and nest-collected samples (68/114=59.6%), with no statistically significant differences among different gorilla sexes or age classes or between tourist-visited versus research gorilla groups. The PCR instrument was able to discriminate two distinct groups of Campylobacter spp. in positive gorilla samples based on the PCR product fluorescent-probe melting profiles. The rare type (6/90 positives, 7%, including three mixed cases) matched DNA sequences of Campylobacter jejuni and was significantly associated with abnormally soft stools. The more common type of positive gorilla samples (87/90 positives, 97%) were normally formed and contained a Campylobacter sp. with DNA matching no published sequences. We speculate that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. detected in gorilla fecal samples in this survey mostly reflects previously uncharacterized and nonpathogenic intestinal flora. The real-time PCR assay was more sensitive than bacterial culture with Campylobacter-specific media and commercially available, enzyme immunoassay tests for detecting Campylobacter spp. in human samples.

  15. Prevalence and genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni from urban environmental sources in comparison with clinical isolates from children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramonaite, Sigita; Kudirkiene, Egle; Tamuleviciene, Egle

    2014-01-01

    of campylobacteriosis in children using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Campylobacter spp. were detected in 36.2 % of faecal samples of free-living urban birds and in 40.4 % of environmental water samples. A low prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in dogs and cats, with 7.9 and 9.1 %, respectively. Further...... identification of isolates revealed that environmental water and pet samples were mostly contaminated by other Campylobacter spp. than C. jejuni, whereas C. jejuni was the most prevalent species in faecal samples of free-living birds (35.4 %). This species was the dominant cause of campylobacteriosis in children....... jejuni isolates and a high number of novel alleles and STs were found in C. jejuni isolated from free-living urban birds and environmental water, there is probably only a limited link between urban environmental sources and campylobacteriosis in children, particularly in rather cold climatic conditions...

  16. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés CABALLERO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Feral pigeons (Columbia livia live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuniof urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacterby filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coliand Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents.

  17. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. PMID:26153978

  18. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated in the region of Niš, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli represent one of the main causes of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. Although the disease is usually mild and self-limiting, severe chronic sequelae may occur, such as reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. Serotyping is used as an epidemiological marker, while post-infective polyneuropathies are associated with several O serotypes. Objective. Strains of C. jejuni and C. coli were serotyped based on heat stable (HS and heat labile (HL antigens, as well as biotypes to determine strain diversity. Methods. Campylobacter spp. was isolated using selective blood media with antibiotics. Differentiation to the species level was done by a combination of biotyping tests and by a PCR-based RFLP test. The isolates were characterised by Penner and Lior serotyping methods. Results. The serotypes showed diversity without predominant serotypes. 24 HS serotypes were detected among 29 C. jejuni strains, and seven serotypes among nine C. coli strains. HL serotyping method successfully typed 62.5% of strains. Among 16 C. jejuni strains 14 serotypes were detected, and three among four C. coli strains. A C. jejuni strain associated with a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome was typed as biotype II, O:19. Conclusion. The biotyping and serotyping results have indicated that C. jejuni and C. coli strains in the region of Niš, Serbia are diverse and could be probably of unrelated sources of origin or reservoirs. The strain associated with the Guillain-Barré syndrome patient was serotype O:19, one of the most common in this post-infective complication.

  19. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  20. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485ET, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this species....

  1. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  2. A one-year study of campylobacter carriage by individual Danish broiler chickens as the basis for selection of Campylobacter spp. strains for a chicken infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Nielsen, E.M.; Knudsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    (.)5 %). Campylobacter isolates were typed using Penner heat-stable serotyping and flaA-typing methods. Data of campylobacter carriage by individual chickens and data generated by the use of different typing methods contributed to a better understanding of the dynamics of campylobacter infection within the broiler...... flocks. C. jejuni Penner heat-stable serotype HS2, flaA-type 1 was the most common type found in Danish broiler chickens....

  3. Occurrence and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. during the processing of Chilean broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas Patricia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermotolerant Campylobacter is among the more prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause foodborne diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in chicken carcasses and processing plant stations (chilling water, scalding water, defeathering machinery, evisceration machine, and transport crates in two of the Chilean main slaughterhouses. In addition, the isolation rates of thermotolerant Campylobacter during evisceration and following chiller processing were compared. Results The overall slaughterhouse contamination with thermotolerant Campylobacter was 54%. Differences were evident when the results from each plant were compared (plant A and plant B was 72% and 36%, respectively. The sampling points with the greatest contamination rates in both plants were after evisceration (90% and 54%, for plants A and B respectively. The decrease of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination after chilling was significant (2 and 1.6 logs for plant A and B respectively P Conclusion Our findings indicate that chilling process has a limited effect in the final products Campylobacter contamination because poultry enter the slaughter processing with high counts of contamination. This may represent a health risk to consumers, if proper cooking practices are not employed. The levels and frequencies of Campylobacter found during the processing of Chilean poultry appear to be similar to those reported elsewhere in the world.

  4. Cytotoxity of cell free filtrates of campylobacter jejuni isolated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture filtrates of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from clinical specimens in Lagos Nigeria were tested for toxic activity. Two out of five filtrates tested manifested cytopathic effect on BHK cells. The effects were mainly cytotoxic and cytotonic. Toxic activity of C. jejuni filtrates was much lower than toxic activity elicited by ...

  5. Ability of lactate and pyruvate to stimulate aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with fumarate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are human, foodborne, and bacterial pathogens that are frequently isolated from live poultry and processed poultry products. These pathogens are classified as microaerophiles; therefore, Campylobacter cultures are generally grown in atmospheres with reduced oxygen levels and elev...

  6. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estrategias para disminuir la presencia de Campylobacter spp. en el pollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Gañán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. es considerado como el principal causante de enfermedades diarreicas bacterianas asociadas a alimentos en humanos. El consumo de pollo contaminado es la principal fuente de infección con esta bacteria. Debido a los altos niveles de contaminación del pollo con este patógeno, la erradicación de Campylobacter en la granja constituye una estrategia importante para la reducción de las infecciones en humanos. La inclusión en la dieta del pollo de microorganismos antagónicos, compuestos antimicrobianos y sustancias anti-adhesivas, parecen ser estrategias útiles para disminuir la colonización de Campylobacter. Sin embargo, los estudios disponibles en este campo son todavía escasos.

  8. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Fakhr

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL, arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL. A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (512–2,048 μg/mL, and arsenate (128–1,024 μg/mL, but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4–16 μg/mL. Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3, 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR. The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates.

  9. Comparison of the SimPlate™ Campylobacter CI-System with the cultural standard method for the detection of Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Manopas, Aranya Sira Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of the SimPlate™ Campylobacter CI-System as a rapid test for Campylobacter spp. detection was investigated in comparison with the ISO-MPN-method as stipulated in ISO 10272:1995(E). 116 turkey and chicken meat samples were used for both, preliminary and main experiments. With the ISO-MPN-method system 24 out of 116 meat samples were identified as Campylobacter positive whereas SimPlate™ detected only 6 Campylobacterpositive samples, partly reasoned by the high detection limit o...

  10. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    puppies and 42 healthy kittens, aged between 11 and 17 weeks, were sampled for fecal campylobacter shedding by culture of rectal swab specimens on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 32 mg/liter and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter and on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 8 mg/liter, teicoplanin...

  11. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO THE RAPID DETECTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. IN MEAT OF SLAUGHTER ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Bataeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern approach to quality assurance of food products based on the ISO 9000 standards indicates the need for the implementation of quality management systems in processing plants. According to the analysis of scientific publication databases (Science Direct and Web of Science, it is established that only 0.5–1.7% of publications are related to studying meat of slaughter animals (except for birds concerning the presence of Campylobacter. The priority method of investigation is PCR. Ready-to-use PCR test system was developed for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on the basis of selected gene-specific primers to bacteria of Campylobacter genus. Specificity of the test system is established for Gram-negative bacteria of Salmonella, Escherichia, and Proteus genera, and for oxidase-positive Aeromonas. Gene-specific primers for Campylobacter were selected and ready-to-use PCR test system was developed on their basis. It was found that the selected primers have 100% convergence to the genome of Campylobacter genus bacteria, the PCR efficiency is not less than 95%, and the detection limit is not more than 1× 104 CFU/g. When estimating the specificity of the primers, it was taken into account that the bacteria of Campylobacter genus may be incorporated in a consortium with intestine microbiome, mainly with Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. However, Bolton’s enrichment medium is selective and, during the cultivation process, suppresses the growth of Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria. It was found that the selected primers were 100% specific and did not give false positive reactions with this group of microorganisms. The developed test system was successfully validated in a cycle of qualitative tests in the FEPAS system and implemented into laboratory practice. It was proved that the developed test system may be used both in screening at the stages of Campylobacter enrichment and in identification of pure culture of the

  12. Use of culture, PCR analysis, and DNA microarrays for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from chicken feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    . detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. By PCR and capillary electrophoresis, 95% of the samples were positive...... for Campylobacter spp., whereas with DNA microarrays all samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. By application of DNA microarray analysis, the isolates in 4 samples (6%) could not be identified to the species level, whereas by PCR-capillary electrophoresis, the isolates in 12 samples (19%) remained......A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp...

  13. Use of fly screens to reduce Campylobacter spp. introduction in broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Fly screens that prevented influx of flies in 20 broiler houses during the summer of 2006 in Denmark caused a decrease in Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks from 51.4% in control houses to 15.4% in case houses. A proportional reduction in the incidence of chicken-borne campylobacteriosis can...... be expected by comprehensive intervention against flies in broiler production houses....

  14. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  15. Increasing antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter jejuni isolated from paediatric diarrhea cases in a tertiary care hospital of new delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Roumi; Uppal, Beena; Aggarwal, Prabhav; Chakravarti, Anita; Jha, Arun Kumar

    2013-02-01

    The resistance to the clinically important antimicrobial agents, particularly the fluoroquinolones and the macrolides, is increasing among the Campylobacter isolates. Only limited data is available regarding the changing antimicrobial resistance pattern in the Indian scenario. Three hundred fifty cases (ages ≤12years) of acute diarrhoea, who were admitted to a tertiary-care hospital, were investigated for Campylobacter spp. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of all the C. jejuni isolates were assessed by the disk diffusion method according to the CLSI guidelines. A total of 36 isolates of C. jejuni were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. A high degree of resistance to the fluoroquinolones (100% to Nalidixic acid and 86.66% to Ciprofloxacin) was detected in the Campylobacter isolates. The frequency of resistance against Tetracycline was 33.33% and that against Erythromycin was 22.2%. Fifteen (41.66%) isolates were multiresistant, being resistant to 3 or more antimicrobial agents. An increased resistance to the quinolones and the macrolides and multidrug resistance warrant a reconsideration of their use as the drugs of choice in patients with severe gastroenteritis when Campylobacter is the presumed cause.

  16. Campylobacter isolation from the feces of sheep with a history of reproductive disorders bred in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Rizzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are a significant cause of sheep abortion in most sheep-raising countries. The relationship between the presence of Campylobacter spp. in fecal samples and reproductive disorders was investigated in 274 sheep from 28 properties in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Biological samples from 16 aborted fetuses, one uterus, six placentas, five uterine secretion samples, five vaginal swabs, 17 semen samples, and three preputial swabs were also subjected to bacterial isolation. The bacteria were isolated from fecal samples of 14.9% (5/28 of the properties, affecting 3.65% (10/274 of the sheep, 3.5% (9/255 of females and 5.3% (1/19 of males. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species, present in 66.67% (7 of the positive samples, followed by Campylobacter coli, present in 22.22% (2, and one strain was identified as Campylobacter spp. The birth of “weak” lambs (p=0.06, OR=6.83 and CI=1.73 to 27.05 and neonatal death (p=0.087, OR=3.5 and CI=0.83 to 14.72 were associated with the fecal isolation of Campylobacter spp. Diarrhea was also associated with the bacteria (p=0.003, OR=9.83 and CI=2.19 to 44.18. The dissemination of Campylobacter spp. in Brazilian sheep is low and that, at present, the existing strains are not responsible for significant economic losses in sheep production, especially in adult animals.

  17. Comparison of polycarbonate and cellulose acetate membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter concisus from stool samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde Nielsen, Hans; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove

    2013-01-01

    One thousand seven hundred ninety-one diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. We found a high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus with use of a polycarbonate filter (n = 114) compared to a cellulose acetate filter (n = 79) (P polycarbonate filter is superior...

  18. Irrigation Water Sources and Time Intervals as Variables on the Presence of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on Romaine Lettuce Grown in Muck Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guévremont, Evelyne; Lamoureux, Lisyanne; Généreux, Mylène; Côté, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Irrigation water has been identified as a possible source of vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens. Risk management for pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in fields can be influenced by the source of the irrigation water and the time interval between last irrigation and harvest. Plots of romaine lettuce were irrigated with manure-contaminated water or aerated pond water 21, 7, or 3 days prior to harvesting, and water and muck soil samples were collected at each irrigation treatment. Lettuce samples were collected at the end of the trials. The samples were tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and L. monocytogenes. Campylobacter coli was isolated from 33% of hog manure samples (n = 9) and from 11% of the contaminated water samples (n = 27), but no lettuce samples were positive (n = 288). L. monocytogenes was not found in manure, and only one sample of manure-contaminated irrigation water (n = 27) and one lettuce sample (n = 288) were positive. No Campylobacter or L. monocytogenes was recovered from the soil samples (n = 288). Because of the low incidence of pathogens, it was not possible to link the contamination of either soil or lettuce with the type of irrigation water. Nevertheless, experimental field trials mimicking real conditions provide new insights into the survival of two significant foodborne pathogens on romaine lettuce.

  19. Survival of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations subjected to freezing, refrigeration, minor salt concentration, and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Habib, Ihab; De Zutter, Lieven; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-02-28

    The survival of Campylobacter spp. under defined conditions of freezing (-22 degrees C) was studied in naturally contaminated chicken skin and minced chicken meat. A decline of approximately one log(10) cfu/g was observed after 1 day of freezing. No further significant reduction was achieved by prolonged storage in the freezer, although a tendency for further gradual reduction of the numbers of Campylobacter spp. present was noted. Campylobacter spp. could still be detected qualitatively (per 0.1g) after 84 days. In a second part of this study, the survival of Campylobacter spp. in a typical minced meat preparation (minced meat supplemented with 1.5% salt (NaCl)) stored at refrigeration (4 degrees C) or frozen (-22 degrees C) was studied. No significant reduction of the pathogen was observed if the minced chicken meat was kept at 4 degrees C for 14 days, opposite to approximately one log(10) cfu/g reduction after 1 day when the minced meat preparation was stored in the freezer (-22 degrees C) for 14 days. The latter reduction is imputed to the effect of freezing as mentioned above and not due to the supplementation of NaCl to minced meat or the combination of NaCl and freezing, because similar reductions of Campylobacter spp. were noticed when minced meat (without addition of NaCl) was frozen. Finally, in a third part of the study, the survival of Campylobacter spp. subjected to a heat treatment, conform to consumer-based pan-frying, in inoculated (4.5+/-0.2 cfu/g) as well as naturally contaminated chicken burgers (2.1+/-0.1 cfu/g) was studied. The Campylobacter spp. numbers declined after 2 min (internal temperature reached circa 38 degrees C), where after 4 min (internal temperature reached circa 57.5 degrees C) they dropped below detectable levels (<10 cfu/g). (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni from domestic geese (Anser anser).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, F; Atabay, H I; Akan, M

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in free range domestic geese, and to characterize isolated strains using phenotyping criteria and SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins. Forty cloacal swabs from two different flocks of domestic geese were examined. All Camp. jejuni strains isolated from geese were biotyped using the Lior biotyping scheme. Twelve Camp. jejuni isolates were also tested for their susceptibility to 17 different antibacterial agents by a disc diffusion Fourteen of the isolates were also subjected to SDS-PAGE. All of the geese examined were found to harbour Camp. jejuni. Six geese carried more than one species of Campylobacter. All strains examined were susceptible to various antibiotics but resistant to penicillin G and cephalothin. Eleven strains (92%) were resistant to sodium cefuroxime, and eight (67%) were resistant to cloxacillin, ampicillin and colistin sulphate. Three strains (25%) were resistant to tetracycline, and one strain was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and kanamycin. Nine strains were subtyped as Camp. jejuni subsp. jejuni biotype II and the remaining ones as biotype I. There were 96% and 100% similarities between all the strains examined by SDS-PAGE. This study showed that Camp. jejuni were common in the intestinal tract of domestic geese. Geese should be considered as potential reservoirs for human and animal campylobacteriosis. The antibiotic resistance data from this study also showed that fluoroquinolone resistance, which appears to be a problem in poultry isolates in some countries, is not yet a problem in these geese.

  1. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp.: A comparison to classic culturing and enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, P; Rahaoui, H; Leer, R J; Montijn, R C; van der Vossen, J M B M

    2015-10-01

    The major disadvantage of the current gold standard for detection of the food pathogen Campylobacter, i.e. culturing, is the lengthy procedure. In this study we assessed the use of real-time PCR for detection of Campylobacter. To this end, 926 poultry samples, taken from transport containers and broiler caeca in The Netherlands in 2007, were subjected to three different real-time PCR detection methods: one targeting the Campylobacter jejuni hipO gene, one targeting the Campylobacter coli glyA gene, and one generically targeting Campylobacter spp. 16S rDNA sequence. The PCR results from the three different PCR protocols were compared to the work of Nauta et al. (2009) who analyzed the same set of samples collected from 62 broiler flocks by means of enrichment culturing. The results indicate that the generic 16S campylobacter PCR detection is equally reliable but much faster (4 h instead of ≥2 days) than detection by means of culturing. Moreover, PCR detection targeting the hipO and the glyA gene provide the possibility of C. jejuni and C. coli species discrimination. The generic Campylobacter spp. PCR analysis also confirmed the high incidence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry samples (∼90%) and the species specific PCR showed the simultaneous presence of C. jejuni and C. coli in ∼24% of the samples. Furthermore, the results from the three PCR analyses suggested the occurrence of alternative Campylobacter species in almost 10% of the samples. The campylobacter PCR detection methods reported here can replace traditional culturing because of being quicker and more reliable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  3. Cardamom, Cumin, and Dill Weed Essential Oils: Chemical Compositions, Antimicrobial Activities, and Mechanisms of Action against Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu-Ingok, Aysegul; Karbancioglu-Guler, Funda

    2017-07-15

    Natural antimicrobials as well as essential oils (EOs) have gained interest to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms and to control food borne diseases. Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causative agents of gastroenteritis. In this study, cardamom, cumin, and dill weed EOs were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods, along with the mechanisms of antimicrobial action. Chemical compositions of EOs were also tested by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that cardamom and dill weed EOs possess greater antimicrobial activity than cumin with larger inhibition zones and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations. The permeability of cell membrane and cell membrane integrity were evaluated by determining relative electric conductivity and release of cell constituents into supernatant at 260 nm, respectively. Moreover, effect of EOs on the cell membrane of Campylobacter spp. was also investigated by measuring extracellular ATP concentration. Increase of relative electric conductivity, extracellular ATP concentration, and cell constituents' release after treatment with EOs demonstrated that tested EOs affected the membrane integrity of Campylobacter spp. The results supported high efficiency of cardamom, cumin, and dill weed EOs to inhibit Campylobacter spp. by impairing the bacterial cell membrane.

  4. Prevalence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from pasture flock poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Irene; Biswas, Debabrata; Herrera, Paul; Roesler, Mary; Ricke, Steven C

    2010-09-01

    The growing interest in organic and natural foods warrants a greater need for information on the food safety of these products. In this study, samples were taken from 2 pasture flock farms (N = 178; feed, water, drag swabs, and insect traps), pasture flock retail carcasses (N = 48) and 1 pasture flock processing facility (N = 16) over a period of 8 mo. A total of 105 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from 53 (30%), 36 (75%), and 16 (100%) samples from the farms, retail carcasses, and processing facility, respectively. Of the 105 isolates collected, 65 were C. jejuni, 31 were C. coli, and 9 were other Campylobacter spp. Using PCR, the C. jejuni isolates were further analyzed for virulence genes involved in colonization and survival (flaA, flaC, cadF, dnaJ, racR, cbrR), invasion (virB11, ciaB, pldA), protection against harsh conditions (sodB, htrA, clpA), toxin production (cdtA, cdtB, cdtC), siderophore transport (ceuE), and ganglioside mimicry (wlaN). In addition, the short variable region of the flaA locus (flaA SVR) was sequenced to determine the genetic diversity of the C. jejuni isolates. The flaA SVR diversity indices increased along the farm to carcass continuum. PCR-based analysis indicated a low prevalence of 5 genes involved in colonization (dnaJ, ciaB, pldA, racR, virB11). The results of this survey indicate that the prevalence of Campylobacter on organic retail carcasses is similar to prevalence reports of Campylobacter on conventional retail carcasses. However, the genetic diversity of the flaA SVR genotypes increased along the farm to carcass continuum that contrasted with conventional poultry studies. Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illness with poultry and poultry products being leading sources of infection. Free-range and pasture flock chickens are becoming more popular; however, there is an inherent biosecurity risk that can increase the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in these flocks. This study aimed to determine sources

  5. Influence of process parameter on Campylobacter spp. counts on poultry meat in a slaughterhouse environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Y; Reich, F; Klein, G

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the most important food-borne pathogens in broilers. Exposure of the consumer can be influenced by the reduction of contaminated broiler meat at various steps along the production line. This study was performed at a poultry slaughterhouse in Germany. Steps within the slaughter process were defined by the slaughterhouse quality control for potential Campylobacter reduction. Their impact was tested for two process variations. The first process variation was the increase of the temperature of the scalding water from 53.0 to 53.9 °C. The second step was the application of an additional outside sprayer which was placed after plucking. The increase of the scalding water temperature was the most effective measure (>2 log reduction), but resulted in defects to the broiler skin. This would limit marketing of fresh broiler meat with skin. The additional water spray after plucking had no additional effect. In fact, numbers of Campylobacter were lower before introduction of the sprayer. In conclusion, modifications of the processing technology have to be evaluated carefully, but can have additional effects for Campylobacter reduction.

  6. [Cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in food--potentials and limitations of diagnostic tools in the context of official food control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messelhäusser, Ute; Thärigen, Diana; Fella, Christiane; Schreiner, Hermann; Busch, Ulrich; Höller, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. rank among the most important foodborne pathogens in Germany. Therefore a necessity for rapid and routinely useable detection methods exists also in the area of food microbiology. A reliable, cultura qualitative, but also quantitative detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. pose a challenge, at least concerning special food matrices, especially because in the context of official food control the cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is needed. This was the reason, why different cultural detection methods, beside the standard procedure of ISO 10272:2006, in combination with molecular and immunological screening methods were tested at the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (LGL) during the last years for the use in routine diagnostic using different food matrices of animal and plant origin. The results of the comparative studies showed clearly that no enrichment broth tested gave completely satisfactory results for an only culture-based detection the combination with a screening method is therefore recommended for a rapid and reliable detection. But in this case the user should take into account that the sensitivity of such molecular and immunological methods is normally so high that in some cases, depending on the food matrix and processing step, the isolation of the pathogen would not be possible in samples, which were positive in the screening methods.

  7. Multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from poultry, cattle and humans in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngulukun, S; Oboegbulem, S; Klein, G

    2016-08-01

    To determine the genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from Nigeria and to identify the association between multilocus sequence types and hosts (poultry, cattle and humans). Isolates were identified using multiplex PCR assays. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the genetic diversity of 36 Camp. jejuni and 24 Camp. coli strains isolated from poultry, cattle and humans. Of the 36 Camp. jejuni genotyped, 21 sequence types (ST) were found, 9 (43%) were new while of the 24 Camp. coli isolates genotyped, 22 STs were identified with 14 (64%) being new. The most prevalent sequence type was ST1932 followed by ST1036 and ST607 while the prevalent clonal complexes were CC-828, CC-460 and CC-353. Campylobacter isolates from Nigeria were found to be diverse with novel genotypes. There was overlap of CC-828, CC-460 and CC-353 between the poultry, cattle and human isolates. Genetic exchange was also detected in two of the Camp. coli isolates. This study highlights the genetic diversity of Campylobacter strains in Nigeria, demonstrating that Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli isolates are diverse and have both local and global strains. The predominant sequence types and clonal complexes found in this study differ from other countries; this exemplifies that different predominant Campylobacter populations exist between countries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. COLIFORMES FECAIS, ESTAFILOCOCOS COAGULASE POSITIVA (ECP, Salmonella SPP. E Campylobacter SPP. EM LINGÜIÇA FRESCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. L. CORTEZ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Lingüiça frescal faz parte dos alimentos expostos à contaminações e constitue um excelente meio para desenvolvimento e multiplicação de microrganismos. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a qualidade microbiológica de 106 amostras de lingüiça frescal de carne de frango, mista (carne bovina e suína e de carne suína, fabricadas artesanalmente e sob inspeção, no município de Jaboticabal – SP, Brasil. Determinou-se o número mais provável de coliformes fecais por grama (NMP/g do produto e a ocorrência de Escherichia coli, contagem de estafilococos coagulase-positiva (ECP, pesquisa de Salmonella spp. e Campylobacter spp.. Foram utilizados métodos microbiológicos convencionais a fim de detectar, isolar e identificar estas bactérias, comparando os resultados obtidos com os limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Das 106 amostras analisadas, 78 (73,6% demonstraram a presença de coliformes fecais, 41 (38,7% de Escherichia coli, 18 (17% de ECP e 8 (7,5% de Salmonella spp.. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para Campylobacter spp. Os testes da PCR multiplex rfb, stx1, stx2, eae O157, O113, O111 das amostras de E. coli foram negativos. Em decorrência dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que se faz necessária melhoria nas condições higiênico-sanitárias desse tipo de produto.

  9. Broiler health status has a major negative impact on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaudaite-Lydekaitiene, Viktorija; Serniene, Loreta; Vismantaite, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    analysed using the statistical package SPSS. Study revealed that 59.3% of the examined broiler flocks were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Statistical analysis revealed that broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter was abattoir- and farm-dependent. Among a number of risk factors (e.g. the number...... of broiler houses at the farm, the type of ventilation system, the presence of the anteroom and boot security, etc.) identified, two broiler health-associated characteristics: (i) broiler age and (ii) the average weight per bird at abattoir had the highest impact on the increased prevalence of Campylobacter...

  10. Evaluation of different plate media for direct cultivation of Campylobacter species from live broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potturi-Venkata, L-P; Backert, S; Lastovica, A J; Vieira, S L; Norton, R A; Miller, R S; Pierce, S; Oyarzabal, O A

    2007-07-01

    Accurate identification and optimal culturing procedures for Campylobacter spp. from live broilers are needed for epidemiological studies. Because there is no standardized protocol, we designed and conducted studies to evaluate different selective media for the culturing and isolation of Campylobacter spp. from cecal and fecal samples obtained from battery-reared and commercial broilers. Five media selective for Campylobacter were evaluated: Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, Campy-Line, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. With contaminated broilers reared in battery cages, Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar revealed similar isolation rates (P > 0.05), whereas Campy-Line showed a lower efficacy (P media. Our data suggest that the choice of plate medium may influence the efficiency of isolating Campylobacter spp. from broiler chickens by direct plating from fecal or cecal samples.

  11. Rapid detection and differentiation of important Campylobacter spp. in poultry samples by dot blot and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanot, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Cecchini, Francesca; Comi, Giuseppe; Manzano, Marisa

    2014-10-01

    The detection of Campylobacter, the most commonly reported cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the European Union, is very important for human health. The most commonly recognised risk factor for infection is the handling and/or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. The methods typically applied to evaluate the presence/absence of Campylobacter in food samples are direct plating and/or enrichment culture based on the Horizontal Method for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. (ISO 10272-1B: 2006) and PCR. Molecular methods also allow for the detection of cells that are viable but cannot be cultivated on agar media and that decrease the time required for species identification. The current study proposes the use of two molecular methods for species identification: dot blot and PCR. The dot blot method had a sensitivity of 25 ng for detection of DNA extracted from a pure culture using a digoxigenin-labelled probe for hybridisation; the target DNA was extracted from the enrichment broth at 24 h. PCR was performed using a pair of sensitive and specific primers for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli after 24 h of enrichment in Preston broth. The initial samples were contaminated by 5 × 10 C. jejuni cells/g and 1.5 × 10(2)C. coli cells/g, thus the number of cells present in the enrichment broth at 0 h was 1 or 3 cell/g, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends of norfloxacin and erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli isolates recovered from international travelers, 1994 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieghe, Erika R; Jacobs, Jan A; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Koole, Olivier; Van Gompel, Alfons

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter sp. is a major cause of bacterial enterocolitis and travelers' diarrhea. Empiric treatment regimens include fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Over the period 1994 to 2006, 724 Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli isolates recovered from international travelers at the outpatient clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, were reviewed for their susceptibility to norfloxacin and erythromycin. Norfloxacin resistance increased significantly over time in isolates from travelers returning from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. For the years 2001 to 2006, norfloxacin resistance rates were 67 (70.5%) of 95 for Asia, 20 (60.6%) of 33 for Latin America, and 36 (30.6%) of 114 for Africa. The sharpest increase was noted for India, with no resistance in 1994, but 41 (78.8%) of 52 resistant isolates found during 2001 to 2006. Erythromycin resistance was demonstrated in 20 (2.7%) isolates, with a mean annual resistance of 3.1% +/- 2.8%; resistance increased over time, with up to 3(7.5%) of 40 and 3 (8.6%) of 35 resistant isolates in 2004 and 2006, respectively (p Campylobacter is the presumed cause. Continued monitoring of the incidence and the spread of resistant Campylobacter isolates is warranted.

  13. Antimicrobial growth promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in poultry and swine, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, M. C.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers, swine, pork, and chicken meat and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter...

  14. Antimicrobial growth promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in poultry and swine, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary C; Wegener, Henrik C

    2003-04-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers, swine, pork, and chicken meat and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers.

  15. Antimicrobial Growth Promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in Poultry and Swine, Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Mary C.; Wegener, Henrik C.

    2003-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers before and after slaughter of swine and pork and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers.

  16. Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  17. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter and other diarrheal pathogens isolated from US military personnel deployed to Thailand in 2002-2004: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Carl J; Sornsakrin, Siriporn; Seidman, Jessica C; Srijan, Apichai; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Thongsen, Nucharee; Ellis, Michael W; Ngauy, Viseth; Swierczewski, Brett E; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter continues to be an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and a leading cause in Southeast Asia. Studies of US soldiers and marines deployed to Thailand for a 2 to 3 week field exercise provide a unique population in which to study traveler's diarrhea. A case-control study of 217 deployed military personnel was conducted from 2002 through 2004. Of these, 155 subjects who presented to a field medical unit with acute diarrhea were enrolled as cases. These subjects referred an additional 62 diarrhea-free colleagues who served as controls. Frequencies of isolation of Campylobacter spp. and other enteric pathogens were compared in cases and controls, and antibiotic resistance of isolates was described. Of the 155 subjects with diarrhea, Campylobacter spp. was the most commonly identified pathogen, found in 54 (35%) of the subjects, followed by non-typhoidal Salmonella species found in 36 (23%) subjects. Of the 57 separate C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from these individuals, 51 (89%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin by the disc diffusion method. Nearly one-third of the Campylobacter species were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to azithromycin remained low at 2% (n = 1). The significant morbidity and marked fluoroquinolone resistance associated with Campylobacter infections in Thailand are important considerations for clinicians providing counseling on appropriate antibacterial regimens for civilian and military travelers.

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella, Yersinia and Campylobacter spp. in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) and masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Iwata, T; Nakadai, A; Kato, T; Hayama, S; Taniguchi, T; Hayashidani, H

    2011-09-01

    To estimate the public and animal health risk that alien species pose, the prevalence of Salmonella, Yersinia, and Campylobacter spp. in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor, n=459) and masked palm civets (Paguma larvata, n=153), which are abundant alien species in Japan, was investigated in urban and suburban areas of Japan. Salmonella enterica was detected from 29 samples [26 raccoons, 5.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8-3.5%; three masked palm civets, 2.0%, 95% CI 4.2-0%]. Many of the isolates belonged to serovars that are commonly isolated from human gastroenteritis patients (e.g. S. Infantis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Thompson). The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that 26.9 % of the isolates from raccoons were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, whereas none of the isolates from masked palm civets were resistant. Yersinia sp. was detected from 193 samples (177 raccoons, 38.6%, 95% CI 43.0-34.1%; 16 masked palm civets, 10.5%, 95% CI 15.3-5.6%). All virulent Yersinia strains belonged to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which was isolated from seven (1.5%, 95% CI 2.6-0.4%) raccoons and six (3.9%, 95% CI 7.0-0.8%) masked palm civets. According to the detection of virulence factors, all the Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates belonged to the Far Eastern systemic pathogenicity type. Campylobacter spp. was detected from 17 samples (six raccoons, 1.3%, 95% CI 2.3-0.3%; 11 masked palm civets, 7.2%, 95% CI 11.3-3.1%). Among these, three isolates from raccoons were identified as C. jejuni. These results showed that these pathogens can be transmitted by human activities, other wild animals, and the environment to feral raccoons and masked palm civets, and vice versa. As these animals have omnivorous behaviour and a wide range of habitats, they can play an important role in the transmission of the enteric pathogens. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in turkey samples: evaluation of two automated enzyme immunoassays and conventional microbiological techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck, Birgitte; Stryhn, H.; Ersboll, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    , neckskin and environmental samples) were collected over a period of 4 months at a turkey slaughterhouse and meat-cutting plant in Denmark. Faecal and environmental samples were tested by the conventional culture method and by the two EIAs, whereas meat and neckskin samples were tested by the two EIAs only......Aims: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of two automated enzyme immunoassays (EIA), EiaFoss and Minividas, and a conventional microbiological culture technique for detecting thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in turkey samples. Methods and Results: A total of 286 samples (faecal, meat...

  20. Perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras Campylobacter spp isoladas de diferentes espécies animais em Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Pinheiro Toscano de Brito; Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles; Telma Maria Alves; Ana Paula Reinato Stynen; Andrey Pereira Lage

    2017-01-01

    padrão de sensibilidade de 45 amostras de Campylobacter spp, incluindo 16 amostras de C. jejuni, 8 de C. coli e 21 C. fetus, isoladas de diferentes espécies de animais do Brasil, foi determinado para doze antimicrobianos. Todas as amostras de Campylobacter spp foram sensíveis à gentamicina, sulfadiazina e sulfametoxazol. C. jejuni e C. coli foram também sensíveis ao cloranfenicol, enquanto todas as amostras de C. fetus foram sensíveis à canamicina. Cefoperazona mostrou o maior percentual de r...

  1. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  2. Campylobacter troglodytis sp. nov., isolated from feces of human-habituated wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Taranjit; Singh, Jatinder; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelková, Klára J; Taylor, Nancy S; Xu, Shilu; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Paster, Bruce J; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fox, James G

    2011-04-01

    The transmission of simian immunodeficiency and Ebola viruses to humans in recent years has heightened awareness of the public health significance of zoonotic diseases of primate origin, particularly from chimpanzees. In this study, we analyzed 71 fecal samples collected from 2 different wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations with different histories in relation to their proximity to humans. Campylobacter spp. were detected by culture in 19/56 (34%) group 1 (human habituated for research and tourism purposes at Mahale Mountains National Park) and 0/15 (0%) group 2 (not human habituated but propagated from an introduced population released from captivity over 30 years ago at Rubondo Island National Park) chimpanzees, respectively. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all isolates were virtually identical (at most a single base difference), and the chimpanzee isolates were most closely related to Campylobacter helveticus and Campylobacter upsaliensis (94.7% and 95.9% similarity, respectively). Whole-cell protein profiling, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of genomic DNA, hsp60 sequence analysis, and determination of the mol% G+C content revealed two subgroups among the chimpanzee isolates. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both subgroups represented distinct genomic species. In the absence of differential biochemical characteristics and morphology and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, we propose to classify all isolates into a single novel nomenspecies, Campylobacter troglodytis, with strain MIT 05-9149 as the type strain; strain MIT 05-9157 is suggested as the reference strain for the second C. troglodytis genomovar. Further studies are required to determine whether the organism is pathogenic to chimpanzees and whether this novel Campylobacter colonizes humans and causes enteric disease.

  3. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Leger, Judy St; Chapman, Mary H; Timmerman, Arjen J; Duim, Birgitta; Foster, Geoffrey; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (USA) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established taxa of the genus Campylobacter, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of these six isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and AtpA sequence analysis and by conventional phenotypic testing. The whole-genome sequences were determined for all isolates, and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other taxa of the genus Campylobacter and most closely related to Campylobactermucosalis. Although all isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, AtpA and ANI analyses indicated divergence between the otariid isolates from California and the phocid isolates from Scotland, which warrants subspecies status for each clade. The two subspecies could also be distinguished phenotypically on the basis of catalase activity. This study shows clearly that the isolates obtained from pinnipeds represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov. is proposed. Within this novel species, the Californian isolates represent a separate subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for both this novel species and subspecies is RM17260T (=LMG 29472T=CCUG 69570T). The Scottish isolates represent another subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is M302/10/6T (=LMG 29473T=CCUG 68650T).

  4. Antimicrobial resistance profiling and molecular subtyping of Campylobacter spp. from processed turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Julie S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is a major cause of human disease worldwide and poultry are identified as a significant source of this pathogen. Most disease in humans is associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry or cross-contamination with other foods. The primary drugs of choice for treatment of human campylobacteriosis include erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter isolates recovered from turkey carcasses at two processing plants in the Upper Midwest US. Further analysis of a subset of isolates was carried out to assess resistance and genotype profiles. Results Campylobacter isolates from plant A (n = 439; including 196 C. coli and 217 C. jejuni and plant B (n = 362, including 281 C. coli and 62 C. jejuni were tested for susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin using agar dilution. C. coli were more frequently resistant than C. jejuni in both plants, including resistance to ciprofloxacin (28% of C. jejuni and 63% of C. coli, plant B; and 11% of C. coli, plant A. Erythromycin resistance was low among C. jejuni (0% plant A and 0.3% plant B compared to C. coli (41%, plant A and 17%, plant B. One hundred resistant and susceptible isolates were selected for additional antimicrobial susceptibility testing, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the flaA gene (fla typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Fla-PFGE types obtained (n = 37 were associated with a specific plant with the exception of one type that was isolated from both plants. C. coli isolates (n = 65 were grouped into 20 types, while C. jejuni isolates (n = 35 were grouped into 17 types. Most isolates with identical fla-PFGE patterns shared identical or very similar antimicrobial resistance profiles. PFGE alone and composite analysis using fla-PFGE with resistance profiles separated C. jejuni and C. coli into distinct groups. Conclusion

  5. Distribution of Flagella Secreted Protein and Integral Membrane Protein Among Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    secreted protein and integral membrane protein among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Thailand Piyarat Pootong 1·, Oralak Serichantalergs...Ladaporn Bodhidatta \\ Frederic Poly2, Patricia Guerry2 and Carl J Mason 1 Abstract Background: Campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative bacterium, is a...groups of integral membrane protein. The significance of these different FspA variants to virulence requires further study. Background Campylobacter

  6. Intestinal colonization of broiler chickens by Campylobacter spp. in an experimental infection study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    was attributed to broiler chickens and a minor part to isolators, whereas infection trials did not affect the total variance. The results showed that pooled samples within isolators had lower c.f.u./g compared to the arithmetic mean of the individual samples. There was a significant correlation between faecal c...... infection trials, using four isolators during each infection trial to evaluate colonization of individual broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni over time. Individual and pooled faecal samples were obtained at days 4, 7 and 12 post-inoculation (p.i.) and caecal samples at day 12 p.i. There were large...

  7. Stormwater constructed wetlands: A source or a sink of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ze; Chandrasena, Gayani; Henry, Rebekah; Deletic, Ana; Kolotelo, Peter; McCarthy, David

    2017-12-21

    Stormwater constructed wetlands are not well characterised for their ability to remove pathogens which can pose public health risks during stormwater harvesting activities. This study investigated the behaviour of faecal indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) and reference pathogen Campylobacter spp. in stormwater constructed wetlands, using a case study system located in Melbourne, Australia. Grab sampling and event-based monitoring revealed influent concentrations of E. coli were typical of other urban stormwater studies, yet Campylobacter concentrations were orders of magnitude above those urban stormwater studies used to develop the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling, reached levels typical of raw domestic wastewater. The wetland consistently removed E. coli from stormwater (mean log removal 0.96, range 0.19-1.79), while Campylobacter spp. concentrations were often higher in outflow than inflow (mean log removal 0.05, range -0.9-1.25). These results indicate that E. coli is a poor indicator for this reference pathogen. The log reductions of both organisms also failed to meet the criteria specified for any end-use, as listed in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling, suggesting further treatment is required prior to harvesting. Finally, this study proposed that direct faecal deposition by waterfowl faeces was a microbial source to stormwater wetlands and that this was partly responsible for the varied microbial removal rates observed. Overall, this work validates the need for further characterisation of pathogens in raw urban stormwater, and the ability for water sensitive urban design features, such as wetlands, to remove both indicator and pathogenic microorganisms. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  9. A systematic review characterizing on-farm sources of Campylobacter spp. for broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Agunos

    Full Text Available Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95 conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32, animals (n = 57, humans (n = 26, environment (n = 54, and water (n = 63. Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping

  10. Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov., a novel member of the Campylobacter lari group isolated from wild bird faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Alberto; Muñoz, Ivo; Iraola, Gregorio; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Collado, Luis

    2017-06-01

    During a study on the prevalence and diversity of campylobacteria in wild birds faecal samples from the city of Valdivia (southern Chile) 17 Gram-stain-negative, curved-rod-shaped isolates, were initially identified as Campylobacter lari by PCR-RFLP. Further identification by 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that they formed a distinct group in the genus Campylobacter. This unique position was confirmed by the results of analysis of rpoB, atpA and cpn60 gene sequences. The average nucleotide identity between the representative strain WBE38T and the type strain of the most closely related taxon C. larisubsp.concheus (LMG 11760) was 90.8 %. The oxidase and urease activity of the novel isolates enabled them to be phenotypically differentiated from species of the genus Campylobacter with validly published names. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic, genetic and genomic characterizations, the results of this study clearly indicate that these strains represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain WBE38T (=CECT 9147T=LMG 29815T).

  11. Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from cloaca and cecum content of chicken broilers bred in intensive systems in the Western part of Romani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Cean

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp., belongs to the group of thermo-tolerant bacteria, and is the most frequent cause of gastrointestinal diseases in humans following consumption of poorly cooked chicken meat. The aim of our study was to test the common methodology for isolation of Campylobacter jejuni species from cloaca and cecum content of chicken broilers breed in intensive systems in Western part of Romania. The experiments were conducted during July –September 2013. As biological material we used chicken broilers from 6 intensive breeding facilities from the West part of Romania, from which cloaca swabs and cecum content were recovered as samples. Bacteria isolation was performed by inseminating Petri dish with Muller Hinton Agar media, after bacterial growth, they were subculture on Muller-Hinton Agar with Skirrow. The bacteria were tested by Gram staining and Oxidase test. Bacterial growth was detected from all samples when grown on Mueller-Hinton Agar, but when the bacteria was passed on Muller Hinton Agar with selective supplement (Skirrow 27 out of 36 samples remained positive (75,0%. With respect to the sample origin 13 (72.2% samples from cloaca swab and 14 (77.7% from cecum content grown on campylobacter selective media. All samples from Muller-Hinton supplemented with Skirrow tested negative for Gram staining and positive for oxidase test. We have successfully isolated Campylobacter spp., strains from farms and private producers in the western part of Romania.

  12. Prevalence of Putative Virulence Genes in Campylobacter and Arcobacter Species Isolated from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Hassena, Amal Ben; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C. jejuni and 8 C. coli. All the Campylobacter isolates were positive for the cadF gene. The plasmid gene virB11 was not detected in any strain. The invasion associated marker was not detected in C. jejuni. Lower detection rates were observed for flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC. The presence of nine putative Arcobacter virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, tlyA, irgA, hecA, and hecB) was checked in a set of 22 Arcobacter butzleri and 4 Arcobacter cryaerophilus isolates. The pldA and mviN genes were predominant (88.64%). Lower detection rates were observed for tlyA (84.76%), ciaB (84.61%), cadF and cj1349 (76.92%), IrgA and hecA (61.53%), and hecB (57.69%). The findings revealed that a majority of the Campylobacteraceae strains have these putative virulence genes that may lead to pathogenic effects in humans.

  13. Presence of antibodies against campylobacter flagellar capping proteins versus campylobacter jejuni isolation in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human cases have been linked to consumption and/or handling of contaminated poultry products. Although Campylobacter jejuni is commonly regarded as a commensal in broiler cecal micro...

  14. Factors associated to thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. contamination of broilers in three levels of the poultry chain for human consumption in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Zumbado Gutiérrez, Leana; Romero Zúñiga, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are bacteria known to cause foodborne diseases in both developed and developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and July 2015 to determine the national prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broilers for human consumption.  A simultaneous sampling design was used in three levels of the Costa Rican poultry production chain: 152 farm samples (CC), 104 plant samples (CA) and 96 retail store samples (PV). For this research, questionnaires were prepar...

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter Strains from Diarrheal Patients in Central and Suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Eampokalap, Bunchuay; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is increasingly recognized worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the Campylobacter strains associated with diarrheal patients in Thailand. In this study, we attempted to isolate Campylobacter strains from diarrheal patients in Thailand and to characterize the species using a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus-specific multiplex PCR assay. Campylobacter species were also confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and hipO gene detection. From 2,500 diarrheal stool specimens, 76 Campylobacter-like organisms were isolated and identified via conventional culture methods. Among these 76 organisms, 73 were identified as Campylobacter species (43 C. jejuni, 29 C. coli, and 1 C. fetus) via multiplex PCR, whereas 3 remained unidentified. Two Campylobacter-like organisms yielded 2 amplicons corresponding to cdt genes from C. jejuni and C. coli. Subsequently, C. jejuni and C. coli were reisolated from each sample. The third isolate was identified as C. hyointestinalis via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from a diarrheal patient in Thailand. These data indicate that C. jejuni (58%) and C. coli (40%) are prevalent among diarrheal patients in Thailand.

  16. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of flagellin genes of Campylobacter jejuni and/or C. coli isolates from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohran, Z S; Guerry, P; Lior, H; Murphy, J R; el-Gendy, A M; Mikhail, M M; Oyofo, B A

    1996-05-01

    The conservation of flagellin genes from thermophilic Campylobacter spp. strains isolated in Egypt was evaluated by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The flaA and flaB genes were amplified from 59 independent clinical isolates and digested with EcoRI and PstI, and the resulting patterns were compared with each other and with previously described RFLP groups. The results indicate that the isolates fell into 14 groups for flaA and 11 groups for flaB, 9 of which have been described, and that considerable genetic variability exists among isolates belonging to the same LIO serogroup. In most cases, the flaB gene displayed the same RFLP pattern as that of the flaA gene of the same strain, although some variability was observed. The data suggest that more variability of flagellin genes exists within the LIO serogroups common to Campylobacter field isolates from Egypt than has previously been reported for North American isolates.

  17. Prevalence of virulence genes and cytolethal distending toxin production in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukder, Kaisar A.; Aslam, Mohammad; Islam, Zhahirul; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Dutta, Dilip K.; Hossain, Sabir; Nur-E-Kamal, Alam; Nair, Gopinath B.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Sack, David A.; Endtz, Hubert P.

    From 300 stool samples, 58 Campylobacter strains were isolated by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Of these, 40 strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 5 as Campylobacter coli. The presence of flaA (100%), cadF (100%), racR (100%), dnaJ (100%), pldA (100%), ciaB (95%),

  18. Prevalence of virulence genes and cytolethal distending toxin production in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Talukder (Kaisar); M. Aslam (Mohammad); Z. Islam (Zhahirul); I.J. Azmi (Ishrat); D.K. Dutta (Dilip); S. Hossain (S.); A. Nur-E-Kamal (Alam); G.B. Nair (Gopinath); A. Cravioto (Alejandro); D.A. Sack (David); H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractFrom 300 stool samples, 58 Campylobacter strains were isolated by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Of these, 40 strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 5 as Campylobacter coli. The presence of flaA (100%), cadF (100%), racR (100%), dnaJ (100%), pldA (100%),

  19. The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Spencer, A.G.; Hald, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the role of beetles infesting broiler chicken rearing facilities as potential reservoirs for Salmonella enterica infections between successive broiler flocks. In addition, their role as potential reservoirs for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was also investigated. Fourteen broiler...... broiler flocks in all) as well as beetles collected during both rotations of production and in the empty period (after cleaning and disinfection) between these flocks were monitored for the presence of salmonella. Examinations for the presence of campylobacter in the same sample materials were also...... performed. Beetles sampled during production were positive for salmonella or campylobacter or both. Furthermore, in one house, the occurrence of Salmonella indiana in two consecutive broiler flocks coincided with the presence of S. indiana-contaminated beetles in the empty period between the flocks...

  20. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken in farms and at time of slaughter in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, S; Franciosini, M P; Comitini, F; Ciani, M; De Luca, S; Bellucci, S; Menchetti, L; Casagrande Proietti, P

    2017-05-01

    Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were investigated along the broiler chicken production chain in central Italy. Campylobacter sp. isolated from cloacal swabs in farms (n = 116) and from the neck skin of chilled and eviscerated carcasses at slaughter (n = 24) were identified as C. coli (n = 99) and C. jejuni (n = 41) by multiplex PCR. Characterization by single amplified fragment length polymorphism (s-AFLP) revealed a specific genotype of Campylobacter for each farm. Minimal inhibitory concentration showed high prevalence of fluoroquinolones (70%), tetracycline (70%) and erythromycin (30%) resistance among C. coli isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolates showed lower prevalence of fluoroquinolone (39%) and tetracycline (10%) resistance, and all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. The S-AFLP types of the C. coli and C. jejuni isolates were associated with their antimicrobial resistance profiles (P Campylobacter isolates suggested that a specific genotype was harboured in each farm. A considerable number of C. coli isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Campylobacter coli was detected more frequently than C. jejuni in contrast to common findings for poultry. The high prevalence of 30% resistance to erythromycin in C. coli strains isolated from poultry is worrisome, as this is the first antibiotic of choice to treat human campylobacteriosis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Detection of pathogenic Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in wastewater by PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Si; Pignata, C; Lorenzi, E; De Ceglia, M; Meucci, L; Bonetta, Sa; Gilli, G; Carraro, E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the occurrence of pathogenic Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli virulence genes and Salmonella spp. in different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using a method based on an enrichment step and PCR. This method was sensitive enough to detect low levels (∼2 CFU100 ml(-1) of raw sewage) of all the investigated pathogens. In the WWTP samples, E. coli O157:H7 DNA and the eae gene were never found, but 33 % of influents and effluents exhibited amplicons corresponding to Shiga-like toxin I. Twenty-five percent of the influent and 8 % of the effluent exhibited the presence of Shiga-like toxin II. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli DNA were identified in 50 and 25 % of the influents and in 8 and 25 % of the effluents, respectively. Salmonella spp. DNA was present in all the samples. Considering the results obtained, the method tested here offers a reliable and expeditious tool for evaluating the efficiency of the effluent treatment in order to mitigate contamination risk. Influent contamination by Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. provides indirect information about their circulation; moreover, their presence in effluents underlines the role of WWTPs in the contamination of the receiving surface waters, which affects public health directly or indirectly.

  2. Isolation of thermotolerant campylobacters and C. hyointestinalis from rectal swabs of healthy pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrenoski Slavco

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermotolerant campylobacters are the most common bacterial etiological agents of human infectious gastroenteritis worldwide. The most frequent isolated species among them are Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, and less frequent C. upsaliensis and C. lari. Also C. hyointestinalis, that not belong to the group of thermotolerant campylobacters, has been indicate as an agent of human infectious gastroenteritis. Natural reservoir of all named campylobacters is the intestinal tract of many mammals and birds, including domestic animals. In these animals, campylobacters are commonly present as commensals and their feces is considered as a prime source for environmental contamination. Unlike the human feces which is usually examined in the cases of diarrhea, thermotolerant campylobacters and C. hyointestinalis in the animal feces are generally present in a much lesser amount and the isolation very often could be unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to estimate the validity of applied procedure for isolation (and identification of thermotolerant campylobacters and C. hyointestinalis from pig rectal swabs, as a procedure for detection of healthy animal carriers.

  3. Temporal variation in the prevalence and species richness of Campylobacter spp. in a prairie watershed impacted by urban and agricultural mixed inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Boa, Tyler; Aryal, Bijaya; Yost, Christopher K

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a substantial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Human infection can result from ingestion of contaminated food or water from a variety of sources, including the consumption of fresh produce that is contaminated with the pathogen via the use of contaminated irrigation water. Using molecular methods, we investigated the occurrence of Campylobacter in the Qu'Appelle River watershed, an important source of irrigation water for vegetable producers in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Water samples were collected from 7 sampling sites from April to September 2009 (145 samples), and from 5 sampling sites from May to October 2013 (116 samples). Campylobacter was detected in 57% and 16% of the samples collected in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Campylobacter detection was highest in May and June for both sampling years. In 2009, the predominant species were Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter jejuni, with prevalences of 84% and 41%, respectively. Other Campylobacter spp. were detected less frequently. Only C. lari was detected in 2013. The results in 2009 demonstrate the species richness of Campylobacter in water sources within the watershed. The occurrence of Campylobacter in the study area also underscores the importance of monitoring irrigation water used to irrigate fresh produce from a public health prospective.

  4. Evaluation of real-time PCR assays and standard curve optimisation for enhanced accuracy in quantification of Campylobacter environmental water isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin-Théberge, Maxime; Taboada, Eduardo; Guy, Rebecca A

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacter is a major public health and economic burden in developed and developing countries. This study evaluated published real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for detection of Campylobacter to enable selection of the best assays for quantification of C. spp. and C. jejuni in environmental water samples. A total of 9 assays were compared: three for thermotolerant C. spp. targeting the 16S rRNA and six for C. jejuni targeting different genes. These assays were tested in the wet-lab for specificity and sensitivity against a collection of 60, genetically diverse, Campylobacter isolates from environmental water. All three qPCR assays targeting C. spp. were positive when tested against the 60 isolates, whereas, assays targeting C. jejuni differed among each other in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Three C. jejuni-specific assays that demonstrated good specificity and sensitivity when tested in the wet-lab showed concordant results with in silico-predicted results obtained against a set of 211 C. jejuni and C. coli genome sequences. Two of the assays targeting C. spp. and C. jejuni were selected to compare DNA concentration estimation, using spectrophotometry and digital PCR (dPCR), in order to calibrate standard curves (SC) for greater accuracy of qPCR-based quantification. Average differences of 0.56±0.12 and 0.51±0.11 log fold copies were observed between the spectrophotometry-based SC preparation and the dPCR preparation for C. spp. and C. jejuni, respectively, demonstrating an over-estimation of Campylobacter concentration when spectrophotometry was used to calibrate the DNA SCs. Our work showed differences in quantification of aquatic environmental isolates of Campylobacter between qPCR assays and method-specific bias in SC preparation. This study provided an objective analysis of qPCR assays targeting Campylobacter in the literature and provides a framework for evaluating novel assays. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Survey of chicken abattoir for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L.L. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled carcasses were collected in six chicken abattoirs. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was performed in Campylobacter spp.-positive isolates using the gene HIP, specific for hippuricase enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni and aspartokinase gene, specific to detect Campylobacter coli. The percentage of positive isolates of Campylobacter jejuni was 4.9% (14/288. Isolation was greater in feces samples (22%, 8/36. One sample was positive for the species C. coli. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to improve quality control for Campylobacter spp. in chicken abattoirs.O gênero Campylobacter tem grande destaque em saúde pública, principalmente por pertencerem a este gênero várias espécies que podem causar diarréia. Estas espécies podem ser encontradas em amostras de água, alimentos e no trato intestinal das aves. Este estudo investigou a presença de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves no Estado de São Paulo. As 288 amostras foram coletadas em seis estabelecimentos e incluíram: fezes; penas; água de escaldamento, de evisceração e de resfriamento; e água de enxaguadura de carcaça não eviscerada, eviscerada e resfriada. Após o isolamento microbiológico das amostras positivas de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR utilizando o gene HIP, da hipuricase, específico para Campylobacter jejuni e o gene da enzima aspartoquinase, específico para Campylobacter coli. A

  6. Quantification of Campylobacter spp. in pig feces by direct real-time PCR with an internal control of extraction and amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc-Maridor, Mily; Garénaux, Amélie; Beaudeau, François; Chidaine, Bérangère; Seegers, Henri; Denis, Martine; Belloc, Catherine

    2011-04-01

    The rapid and direct quantification of Campylobacter spp. in complex substrates like feces or environmental samples is crucial to facilitate epidemiological studies on Campylobacter in pig production systems. We developed a real-time PCR assay for detecting and quantifying Campylobacter spp. directly in pig feces with the use of an internal control. Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia ruckeri primers-probes sets were designed and checked for specificity with diverse Campylobacter, related organisms, and other bacterial pathogens before being used in field samples. The quantification of Campylobacter spp. by the real-time PCR then was realized on 531 fecal samples obtained from experimentally and naturally infected pigs; the numeration of Campylobacter on Karmali plate was done in parallel. Yersinia ruckeri, used as bacterial internal control, was added to the samples before DNA extraction to control DNA-extraction and PCR-amplification. The sensitivity of the PCR assay was 10 genome copies. The established Campylobacter real-time PCR assay showed a 7-log-wide linear dynamic range of quantification (R²=0.99) with a detection limit of 200 Colony Forming Units of Campylobacter per gram of feces. A high correlation was found between the results obtained by real-time PCR and those by culture at both qualitative and quantitative levels. Moreover, DNA extraction followed by real-time PCR reduced the time needed for analysis to a few hours (within a working day). In conclusion, the real-time PCR developed in this study provides new tools for further epidemiological surveys to investigate the carriage and excretion of Campylobacter by pigs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Consumer Exposure to Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Meat Products at Retail in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Jakabi, Miyoko; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2017-08-01

    Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37.5% (12/32). The counts of Salmonella spp. were low, ranging from < 0.3 to 9.3 × 10 most probable number per gram and the most frequent serovars were Salmonella Typhimurium (28.1%), Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (15.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (12.5%), Salmonella Derby, and Salmonella Brandenburg (9.4%). Campylobacter spp. was detected in 33 samples (6.0%), comprising chicken legs (82%) and ground beef (18%). All samples were negative for STEC. These results suggest that meat products when subjected to inadequate cooking and/or cross-contamination with other products ready for consumption can lead to occurrence of outbreaks, highlighting the risks associated with them.

  8. A total integrated Lab-on-a-chip-system for rapid detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken feaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Høgberg, Jonas; Agirregabiria, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a pre-validation of a portable LOC based system for real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from packed chicken at supermarkets, Chicken fecal sample at slaughters and chicken farms. The LOC system performs DNA purification and real-time PCR detection within 30...... minutes in a single total integrated chip with high sensitivity (0.7 – 7 pg DNA /μl)....

  9. Antimicrobial activities of isothiocyanates against Campylobacter jejuni isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eDufour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne human infection with Campylobacter jejuni is a medical concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Efficient eradication of C. jejuni reservoirs within live animals and processed foods is limited by the development of antimicrobial resistances and by practical problems related to the use of conventional antibiotics in food processes.We have investigated the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of two phytochemicals, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC and benzyl-isothiocyanate (BITC, against 24 C. jejuni isolates from chicken feces, human infections and contaminated foods, as well as two reference strains NCTC11168 and 81-176.Both AITC and BITC displayed a potent antibacterial activity against C. jejuni. BITC showed a higher overall antibacterial effect (MIC of 2.5 to 5 g mL-1 compared to AITC (MIC of 50 to 200 g mL-1. Interestingly, the 24 C. jejuni isolates could be classified in 3 groups according to their sensitivity levels to both compounds, suggesting that AITC and BITC shared identical activity mechanisms and consequently faced similar resistance processes in bacterial cells.The sensitivity levels of C. jejuni strains against isothiocyanates were neither correlated with the presence of a GGT (-Glutamyl Transpeptidase encoding gene in the genome nor with the origin of the biological sample. However the ggt mutant of C. jejuni 81-176 displayed a decreased survival rate compared to WT when exposed to ITC.

  10. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from free range domestic duck (Cairina moschata) in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Muhairwa, A P

    2010-02-01

    Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from free-ranging ducks was determined in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Ninety intestinal contents from ducks were screened for thermophilic Campylobacter using Skirrow's protocol. Of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 50 were tested for sensitivity to 12 antibiotics. Overall prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter was 80%. The prevalence of Campylobacter in adult ducks (91.3%) was significantly (p sodium, tetracycline and ampicillin respectively. Between 20-50% of isolates were resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin, cloxacillin and amoxicillin. Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin had lower C. jejuni resistance of 10% and 16% respectively. C. jejuni isolates from adult ducks showed significantly higher rates of resistance (p < 0.05) to most antibiotics than did duckling isolates. High prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in ducks could be of public health significance in Morogoro municipality. The observed multidrug resistance in this study poses a threat of transfer of antibiotic resistance to human pathogens because of the close contact between ducks and human.

  11. Whole-genome sequencing of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter coli isolated from U.S. retail meats reveals novel plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuansha; Mukherjee, Sampa; Hoffmann, Maria; Kotewicz, Michael L; Young, Shenia; Abbott, Jason; Luo, Yan; Davidson, Maureen K; Allard, Marc; McDermott, Patrick; Zhao, Shaohua

    2013-11-01

    Aminoglycoside resistance in Campylobacter has been routinely monitored in the United States in clinical isolates since 1996 and in retail meats since 2002. Gentamicin resistance first appeared in a single human isolate of Campylobacter coli in 2000 and in a single chicken meat isolate in 2007, after which it increased rapidly to account for 11.3% of human isolates and 12.5% of retail isolates in 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that gentamicin-resistant C. coli isolates from retail meat were clonal. We sequenced the genomes of two strains of this clone using a next-generation sequencing technique in order to investigate the genetic basis for the resistance. The gaps of one strain were closed using optical mapping and Sanger sequencing, and this is the first completed genome of C. coli. The two genomes are highly similar to each other. A self-transmissible plasmid carrying multiple antibiotic resistance genes was revealed within both genomes, carrying genes encoding resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, streptothricin, and tetracycline. Bioinformatics analysis and experimental results showed that gentamicin resistance was due to a phosphotransferase gene, aph(2")-Ig, not described previously. The phylogenetic relationship of this newly emerged clone to other Campylobacter spp. was determined by whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which showed that it clustered with the other poultry isolates and was separated from isolates from livestock.

  12. Farm level risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N M; Wales, A D; Ridley, A M; Davies, R H

    2016-10-01

    Data on husbandry practices, performance, disease and drug use were collected during a cross-sectional survey of 89 poultry meat farms in England and Wales to provide information on possible risk factors for the occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant bacteria. Faeces samples were used to classify farms as "affected" or "not affected" by FQ-resistant (FQr) Escherichia coli or Campylobacter spp. Risk factor analysis identified the use of FQ on the farms as having by far the strongest association, among the factors considered, with the occurrence of FQr bacteria. Resistant E. coli and/or Campylobacter spp. were found on 86% of the farms with a history of FQ use. However, a substantial proportion of farms with no history of FQ use also yielded FQr organisms, suggesting that resistant bacteria may transfer between farms. Further analysis suggested that for Campylobacter spp., on-farm hygiene, cleaning and disinfection between batches of birds and wildlife control were of most significance. By contrast, for E. coli biosecurity from external contamination was of particular importance, although the modelling indicated that other factors were likely to be involved. Detailed studies on a small number of sites showed that FQr E. coli can survive routine cleaning and disinfection. It appears difficult to avoid the occurrence of resistant bacteria when FQ are used on a farm, but the present findings provide evidence to support recommendations to reduce the substantial risk of the incidental acquisition of such resistance by farms where FQ are not used.

  13. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  14. Campylobacter geochelonis sp. nov. isolated from the western Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni hermanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Alessandra; Niero, Giulia; Calleros, Lucía; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Iraola, Gregorio

    2016-09-01

    During a screening study to determine the presence of species of the genus Campylobacter in reptiles, three putative strains (RC7, RC11 and RC20T) were isolated from different individuals of the western Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni hermanni). Initially, these isolates were characterized as representing Campylobacterfetus subsp. fetus by multiplex PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Further whole- genome characterization revealed considerable differences compared to other Campylobacter species. A polyphasic study was then undertaken to determine the exact taxonomic position of the isolates. The three strains were characterized by conventional phenotypic tests and whole genome sequencing. We generated robust phylogenies that showed a distinct clade containing only these strains using the 16S rRNA and atpA genes and a set of 40 universal proteins. Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrates their designation as representing a novel species and this was further confirmed using whole- genome average nucleotide identity within the genus Campylobacter (~80 %). Compared to most Campylobacter species, these strains hydrolysed hippurate, and grew well at 25 °C but not at 42 °C. Phenotypic and genetic analyses demonstrate that the three Campylobacter strains isolated from the western Hermann's tortoise represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobactergeochelonis sp. nov. is proposed, with RC20T (=DSM 102159T=LMG 29375T) as the type strain.

  15. Analysis of simultaneous space-time clusters of Campylobacter spp. in humans and in broiler flocks using a multiple dataset approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU and the epidemiology of sporadic campylobacteriosis, especially the routes of transmission, is to a great extent unclear. Poultry easily become colonised with Campylobacter spp., being symptom-less intestinal carriers. Earlier it was estimated that internationally between 50% and 80% of the cases could be attributed to chicken as a reservoir. In a Norwegian surveillance programme all broiler flocks under 50 days of age were tested for Campylobacter spp. The aim of the current study was to identify simultaneous local space-time clusters each year from 2002 to 2007 for human cases of campylobacteriosis and for broiler flocks testing positive for Campylobacter spp. using a multivariate spatial scan statistic method. A cluster occurring simultaneously in humans and broilers could indicate the presence of common factors associated with the dissemination of Campylobacter spp. for both humans and broilers. Results Local space-time clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. occurring simultaneously were identified in all investigated years. All clusters but one were identified from May to August. Some municipalities were included in clusters all years. Conclusions The simultaneous occurrence of clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. combined with the knowledge that poultry meat has a nation-wide distribution indicates that campylobacteriosis cases might also be caused by other risk factors than consumption and handling of poultry meat. Broiler farms that are positive could contaminate the environment with further spread to new broiler farms or to humans living in the area and local environmental factors, such as climate, might influence the spread of Campylobacter spp. in an area. Further studies to clarify the role of such factors are needed. PMID:20860801

  16. Analysis of simultaneous space-time clusters of Campylobacter spp. in humans and in broiler flocks using a multiple dataset approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norström Madelaine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU and the epidemiology of sporadic campylobacteriosis, especially the routes of transmission, is to a great extent unclear. Poultry easily become colonised with Campylobacter spp., being symptom-less intestinal carriers. Earlier it was estimated that internationally between 50% and 80% of the cases could be attributed to chicken as a reservoir. In a Norwegian surveillance programme all broiler flocks under 50 days of age were tested for Campylobacter spp. The aim of the current study was to identify simultaneous local space-time clusters each year from 2002 to 2007 for human cases of campylobacteriosis and for broiler flocks testing positive for Campylobacter spp. using a multivariate spatial scan statistic method. A cluster occurring simultaneously in humans and broilers could indicate the presence of common factors associated with the dissemination of Campylobacter spp. for both humans and broilers. Results Local space-time clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. occurring simultaneously were identified in all investigated years. All clusters but one were identified from May to August. Some municipalities were included in clusters all years. Conclusions The simultaneous occurrence of clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. combined with the knowledge that poultry meat has a nation-wide distribution indicates that campylobacteriosis cases might also be caused by other risk factors than consumption and handling of poultry meat. Broiler farms that are positive could contaminate the environment with further spread to new broiler farms or to humans living in the area and local environmental factors, such as climate, might influence the spread of Campylobacter spp. in an area. Further studies to clarify the role of such factors are needed.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance profiling and fla-typing of Irish thermophillic Campylobacter spp. of human and poultry origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, D; Quinn, T; Cotter, L; Whyte, P; Fanning, S

    2006-11-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between a random collection of Irish human and poultry Campylobacter isolates and to determine the frequency of antibiotic resistance. Sixty-six Campylobacter isolates (34 human and 32 poultry) were typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism of flagellin-A (flaA) PCR products (flaA-RFLP) and by sequencing of the short variable region of flaA (flaA-SVR). FlaA-RFLP identified 58 distinct profiles, while flaA-SVR identified 28 different alleles. The highest level of antibiotic resistance was found for ampicillin (48.5%) followed by nalidixic acid (42.2%) and ciprofloxacin (31.8%). In general, poultry isolates displayed a higher incidence of resistance to the antimicrobials tested than the human isolates. A high level of genetic diversity existed among the Campylobacter strains confirming the weak clonality of this species. There was no relationship between antimicrobial resistance and specific genotypes determined by flaA typing suggesting that resistance was due to pressures of antimicrobial therapy. This study emphasizes the need for increased surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility among Campylobacter isolates in Ireland and the implementation of more stringent control policies relating to the use of antimicrobials in the poultry industry.

  18. Intestinal carriage of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among cattle from South-western Norway and comparative genotyping of bovine and human isolates by amplified-fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardund T

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a survey conducted in 1999–2001, the carriage of thermotolerant Campylobacters in cattle was investigated, and the genetic diversity of C. jejuni within one herd was examined and compared with human isolates. C. jejuni, C. coli and other thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from intestinal contents from 26%, 3% and 2% of 804 cattle, respectively. The carriage rate was higher in calves (46% than in adults (29%. Twenty-nine C. jejuni isolates from one herd and 31 human isolates from the study area were genotyped with amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. Eighty-three % of the bovine isolates fell into three distinct clusters with 95–100% similarity, persistent in the herd for 5–10 months. Among human isolates, 58% showed >90% similarity with bovine isolates. The results show that cattle are a significant and stable reservoir for C. jejuni in the study area. Transmission between individuals within the herd may be sufficient to maintain a steady C. jejuni population independent of environmental influx. The results of this study have provided new information on C. jejuni and C. coli transmission, and also on the carriage in cattle, genotypes stability and similarity between bovine and human isolates.

  19. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter.

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. El-Zamkan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli. Results: Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6% samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli. Conclusion: Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard.

  1. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zamkan, Mona A; Hameed, Karima G Abdel

    2016-10-01

    This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each) were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli. Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6%) samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli. Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard.

  2. Genotyping of Campylobacter coli strains isolated in Brazil suggests possible contamination amongst environmental, human, animal and food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carolina N; Souza, Roberto A; Passaglia, Jaqueline; Duque, Sheila S; Medeiros, Marta I C; Falcão, Juliana P

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are two of the most common causative agents of food-borne gastroenteritis in numerous countries worldwide. In Brazil, campylobacteriosis is under diagnosed and under-reported, and few studies have molecularly characterized Campylobacter spp. in this country. The current study genotyped 63 C. coli strains isolated from humans (n512), animals (n521), food (n510) and the environment (n520) between 1995 and 2011 in Brazil. The strains were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing the short variable region (SVR) of the flaA gene ( flaA-SVR) and high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus to better understand C. coli genotypic diversity and compare the suitability of these three methods for genotyping this species. Additionally, the discrimination index (DI) of each of these methods was assessed. Some C. coli strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical origins presented ≥80 % genotypic similarity by PFGE and flaA-SVR sequencing. HRMA of the CRISPR locus revealed only four different melting profiles. In total, 22 different flaA-SVR alleles were detected. Of these, seven alleles, comprising gt1647–gt1653, were classified as novel. The most frequent genotypes were gt30 and gt1647. This distribution reveals the diversity of selected Brazilian isolates in comparison with the alleles described in the PubMLST database. The DIs for PFGE, flaA–SVR sequencing and CRISPR-HRMA were 0.986, 0.916 and 0.550, respectively. PFGE and flaA-SVR sequencing were suitable for subtyping C. coli strains, in contrast to CRISPR-HRMA. The high genomic similarity amongst some C. coli strains confirms the hypothesis that environmental and food sources potentially lead to human and animal contamination in Brazil.

  3. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

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    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  4. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  5. Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Campylobacter coli Isolates from the Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Johan F; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Valencia, María Fernanda; León, Maribel; Gómez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Fernando; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-03-17

    Campylobacter coli, along with Campylobacter jejuni, is a major agent of gastroenteritis and acute enterocolitis in humans. We report the whole-genome sequences of two multidrug-resistance C. coli strains, isolated from the Colombian poultry chain. The isolates contain a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes for aminoglycosides, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracycline. Copyright © 2016 Bernal et al.

  6. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    culture techniques since 1998. However, using conventional culture methods is time consuming and laborious, and therefore a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Campylobacter detection assay suitable for mass screening of cloacal swab samples from broilers was developed. By comparing the PCR detection...... with conventional culture methods, significantly more samples were found positive for Campylobacter with the PCR method. The PCR method is rapid, sensitive and suitable for mass screening for Campylobacter in poultry. Using this PCR method Campylobacter can be detected within 15 h. Notably, the method can......Campylobacter is the most common cause of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In order to comply with the demands of consumers for food free of bacterial pathogens, a mass screening program for Campylobacter in Danish broilers has been carried out based on conventional bacterial...

  7. Identification of unusual Campylobacter-like isolates from poultry products as Helicobacter pullorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, Stephen L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-six unclassified Campylobacter-like strains previously isolated from 15 chicken carcasses and caecal contents, together with two more strains isolated from chicken faeces on a different occasion, were identified as Helicobacter pullorum using various phenotypic identification methods. API...

  8. Primary Isolation Strain Determines Both Phage Type and Receptors Recognised by Campylobacter jejuni Bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine C. Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the Campylobacter ureolyticus Clinical Isolate RIGS 9880

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; On, Stephen L W

    2015-01-01

    The emerging pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus has been isolated from human and animal genital infections, human periodontal disease, domestic and food animals, and from cases of human gastroenteritis. We report the whole-genome sequence of the human clinical isolate RIGS 9880, which is the firs...

  10. Quantification of Campylobacter spp. in chicken rinse samples by using flotation prior to real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolffs, Petra; Norling, Börje; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    , real-time PCR has been combined with a novel discontinuous buoyant density gradient method, called flotation, in order to allow detection of only viable and VNC cells of thermotolerant campylobacters in chicken rinse samples. Studying the buoyant densities of different Campylobacter spp. showed......Real-time PCR is fast, sensitive, specific, and can deliver quantitative data; however, two disadvantages are that this technology is sensitive to inhibition by food and that it does not distinguish between DNA originating from viable, viable nonculturable (VNC), and dead cells. For this reason...... that densities changed at different time points during growth; however, all varied between 1.065 and 1.109 g/ml. These data were then used to develop a flotation assay. Results showed that after flotation and real-time PCR, cell concentrations as low as 8.6 X 10(2) CFU/ml could be detected without culture...

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...... of organic broiler production provide a high prevalence of Campylobacter positive flocks. Antimicrobial resistance was scarce among Campylobacter isolates from all rearing systems. Significance and Impact of the Study: Organic broiler flocks constitute a strong potential for introduction of Campylobacter...

  12. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Campylobacter hepaticus sp. nov., isolated from chickens with spotty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Elshagmani, Eltaher; Gor, Mian Chee; Scott, Peter C; Moore, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Ten strains of an unknown Campylobacter species were isolated from the livers of chickens with spotty liver disease in Australia. The strains were Gram-stain-negative, microaerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive and urease-negative. Unlike most other species of the genus Campylobacter, most of the tested strains of this novel species hydrolysed hippurate and half of them could not reduce nitrate. All strains showed resistance, or intermediate resistance, to nalidixic acid and most of them were resistant to cephalothin. Examination of negatively stained cells under transmission electron microscopy revealed that they were S-shaped, with bipolar unsheathed flagella. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene and the heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) gene sequences indicated that the strains formed a robust clade that was clearly distinct from recognized Campylobacter species. Unusually, they had a DNA G+C content of 27.9 mol%, lower than any previously described Campylobacter species, and they showed less than 84 % average nucleotide identity to the nearest sequenced species. Taken together, these data indicate that the strains belong to a novel Campylobacter species, for which the name Campylobacter hepaticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HV10T (=NCTC 13823T=CIP 111092T).

  14. Efficacy of Syringe Filtration for the Selective Isolation of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcass Rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Young-Ji; Sung, Kidon; Kim, Hyunsook; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the efficacy of syringe filtration for selective isolation of Campylobacter from chicken carcass rinse by combining syringe filtration with the conventional culture method. Whole chicken carcass rinses were incubated in Bolton enrichment broth, set aside or subjected to syringe filtration, and streaked on Campy-Cefex agar with or without cefoperazone antibiotic supplement. Compared with the conventional method without filtration, 0.65-μm-pore-size syringe filtration resulted in a significantly higher number of Campylobacter-positive samples (23.8 to 37.5% versus 70.0 to 72.5%; P Campylobacter (93.8% versus 6.3 to 26.3%), and a lower growth index (1 = growth of a few colonies; 2 = growth of colonies on about half of the plate; and 3 = growth on most of the plate) for competing microbiota (2.9 to 3.0 versus 1.2 to 1.4). When syringe filtration was applied, agar plates containing the antibiotic had significantly less contamination (6.3% versus 26.3%; P Campylobacter isolation rate was similar (P > 0.05). Syringe filtration combined with conventional enrichment improved the rate and selectivity of Campylobacter isolation from chicken carcasses.

  15. Characterization of cytolethal distending toxin of campylobacter species isolated from captive macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Zhou, You; Hinkley, Susanne; Stryker, Cynthia J; Plauche, Gail; Borda, Juan T; Sestak, Karol; Duhamel, Gerald E

    2005-02-01

    An association between certain Campylobacter species and enterocolitis in humans and nonhuman primates is well established, but the association between cytolethal distending toxin and disease is incompletely understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine Campylobacter species isolated from captive conventionally raised macaque monkeys for the presence of the cdtB gene and for cytolethal distending toxin activity. The identity of each isolate was confirmed on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic analyses. The presence of cytolethal distending toxin was confirmed on the basis of characteristic morphological changes in HeLa cells incubated with filter-sterilized whole-cell lysates of reference and monkey Campylobacter isolates and examinations by light microscopy, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry. Although cdtB gene sequences were found in both Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the production of cytolethal distending toxin correlated positively (P < 0.0001) only with C. jejuni. We concluded that cytolethal distending toxin activity is a characteristic of C. jejuni. Our C. jejuni cdtB gene-specific PCR assay might be of assistance for differentiating toxigenic C. jejuni from C. coli in clinical laboratories.

  16. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance profiling of Campylobacter isolated from cattle in Polish slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Denis, Edyta; Lynch, Orla; Osek, Jacek

    2013-05-01

    A total of 812 samples from bovine hides and the corresponding carcasses collected at the slaughterhouse level in the eastern part of Poland were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Recovered isolates were confirmed using species-specific PCR, characterized by the presence of 11 putative virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using a microbroth dilution method. Furthermore, the genotypic relatedness of the isolates was determined by PFGE profiling and virulence pattern cluster analysis. The prevalence of Campylobacter was 25.6% and 2.7% in bovine hide and carcass samples, respectively. The presence of virulence markers varied between C. jejuni and C. coli species however, the majority of strains possessed the cadF, flhA, flaA genes, irrespective of the bacterial species and origin. The lower number of the strains was positive for the invasive associated markers -virB11 and wlaN. Antibiotic profiling showed that campylobacters were most frequently resistant to quinolones and fluoroquinolones (nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, 38.3% of each, respectively) followed by streptomycin (24.3%) and tetracycline (20.9%). Resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin was demonstrated in 4.3% and 2.6% of strains, respectively. Comparisons of the PFGE and virulence marker profiles of the isolates reflected the high genetic diversity of Campylobacter tested. Moreover, a poor correlation between the PFGE type, pathogenic gene marker and antimicrobial resistance patterns was observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipooligosaccharide locus classes and putative virulence genes among chicken and human Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Nilsson, Anna; Rautelin, Hilpi; Olsson Engvall, Eva

    2016-11-21

    Campylobacter cause morbidity and considerable economic loss due to hospitalization and post infectious sequelae such as reactive arthritis, Guillain Barré- and Miller Fischer syndromes. Such sequelae have been linked to C. jejuni harboring sialic acid structures in their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) layer of the cell wall. Poultry is an important source of human Campylobacter infections but little is known about the prevalence of sialylated C. jejuni isolates and the extent of transmission of such isolates to humans. Genotypes of C. jejuni isolates from enteritis patients were compared with those of broiler chicken with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to study the patterns of LOS biosynthesis genes and other virulence associated genes and to what extent these occur among Campylobacter genotypes found both in humans and chickens. Chicken and human isolates generally had similar distributions of the putative virulence genes and LOS locus classes studied. However, there were significant differences regarding LOS locus class of PFGE types that were overlapping between chicken and human isolates and those that were distinct to each source. The study highlights the prevalence of virulence associated genes among Campylobacter isolates from humans and chickens and suggests possible patterns of transmission between the two species.

  18. Motility of Campylobacter concisus isolated from saliva, feces, and gut mucosal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovesen, Sandra; Kirk, Karina Frahm; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but the species is also found in healthy subjects. The heterogeneous genome of C. concisus increases the likelihood of varying virulence between strains. Flagella motility is a crucial virulence factor for the well-recognized Campylobacter jejuni; therefore, this study aimed to analyze the motility of C. concisus isolated from saliva, gut biopsies, and feces of patients with IBD, gastroenteritis, and healthy subjects. The motility zones of 63 isolates from 52 patients were measured after microaerobic growth in soft-agar plates for 72 hours. The motility of C. concisus was significantly lower than that of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus. The motility of C. concisus varied between isolates (4-22 mm), but there was no statistical significant difference between isolates from IBD patients and healthy subjects (p = 0.14). A tendency of a larger motility zones was observed for IBD gut mucosa isolates, although it did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.13), and no difference was found between oral or fecal isolates between groups. In conclusion, the varying motility of C. concisus could not be related to disease outcome or colonization sites. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Phenotypes and genotypes of campylobacter strains isolated after cleaning and disinfection in poultry slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrat, M B; Soumet, C; Maris, P; Sanders, P

    2008-04-30

    Campylobacter is responsible for human bacterial enteritis and poultry meat is recognised as a primary source of infection. In slaughterhouses, cleaning and disinfection procedures are performed daily, and it has been suggested that disinfectant molecules might select for antibiotic resistant strains if shared targets or combined resistance mechanisms were involved. The aim of the study was to investigate if cleaning and disinfection procedures in poultry slaughterhouses select for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli and to determine the genotypes of isolates collected after cleaning and disinfection. Nine sampling visits were made to four French slaughterhouses. Samples were collected from transport crates and equipment surfaces, before and after cleaning and disinfection. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the recovered C. jejuni and C. coli isolates to six antibiotics and two disinfectants were measured. The C. jejuni isolates collected from equipment surfaces after cleaning and disinfection were subjected to PCR-RFLP typing. Twenty-five C. jejuni isolates and 1 C. coli were recovered from equipment surfaces after cleaning and disinfection during five visits to three different slaughterhouses. Those isolates did not show an increased resistance to the tested antibiotics compared to isolates collected before cleaning and disinfection. Only one or two genotypes were recovered after cleaning and disinfection during single visits to each slaughterhouse. This observation suggests that such genotypes may be particularly adapted to survive cleaning and disinfection stress. Understanding the survival mechanisms of Campylobacter should facilitate the implementation of better-targeted strategies and reduce the public health burden associated with Campylobacter infection.

  20. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp.: A comparison toclassic culturing and enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Rahaoui, H.; Leer, R.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    The major disadvantage of the current gold standard for detection of the food pathogen Campylobacter, i.e. culturing, is the lengthy procedure. In this study we assessed the use of real-time PCR for detection of Campylobacter. To this end, 926 poultry samples, taken from transport containers and

  1. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  2. Biofiltration for stormwater harvesting: Comparison of Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli removal under normal and challenging operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, G. I.; Deletic, A.; McCarthy, D. T.

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of pathogen removal in stormwater biofilters (also known as stormwater bioretention systems or rain gardens) has predominately been determined using bacterial indicators, and the removal of reference pathogens in these systems has rarely been investigated. Furthermore, current understanding of indicator bacteria removal in these systems is largely built upon laboratory-scale work. This paper examines whether indicator organism removal from urban stormwater using biofilters in laboratory settings are representative of the removal of pathogens in field conditions, by studying the removal of Escherichia coli (a typical indicator microorganism) and Campylobacter spp. (a typical reference pathogen) from urban stormwater by two established field-scale biofilters. It was found that E. coli log reduction was higher than that of Campylobacter spp. in both biofilters, and that there was no correlation between E. coli and Campylobacter spp. log removal performance. This confirms that E. coli behaves significantly differently to this reference pathogen, reinforcing that single organisms should not be employed to understand faecal microorganism removal in urban stormwater treatment systems. The average reduction in E. coli from only one of the tested biofilters was able to meet the log reduction targets suggested in the current Australian stormwater harvesting guidelines for irrigating sports fields and golf courses. The difference in the performance of the two biofilters is likely a result of a number of design and operational factors; the most important being that the biofilter that did not meet the guidelines was tested using extremely high influent volumes and microbial concentrations, and long antecedent dry weather periods. As such, the E. coli removal performances identified in this study confirmed laboratory findings that inflow concentration and antecedent dry period impact overall microbial removal. In general, this paper emphasizes the need for the

  3. Perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras Campylobacter spp isoladas de diferentes espécies animais em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pinheiro Toscano de Brito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available padrão de sensibilidade de 45 amostras de Campylobacter spp, incluindo 16 amostras de C. jejuni, 8 de C. coli e 21 C. fetus, isoladas de diferentes espécies de animais do Brasil, foi determinado para doze antimicrobianos. Todas as amostras de Campylobacter spp foram sensíveis à gentamicina, sulfadiazina e sulfametoxazol. C. jejuni e C. coli foram também sensíveis ao cloranfenicol, enquanto todas as amostras de C. fetus foram sensíveis à canamicina. Cefoperazona mostrou o maior percentual de resistência entre C. jejuni (68,75%, seguido pelo ácido nalidíxico (31,25%, ampicilina (37,50%, tetraciclina (37,50%, eritromicina (12,50% e canamicina (6,25%. Similarmente, cefoperazona também exibiu o maior percentual de resistência entre as amostras de C. coli (75,00%, seguido pelo ácido nalidíxico (50,00%, tetraciclina (50,00%, eritromicina (37,50%, ampicilina (12,50% e canamicina (12,50%. Entre os isolados de C. fetus, ácido nalidíxico apresentou maior taxa de resistência (85,71%, seguido de cefoperazona (71,43%, tetraciclina (42,86%, ampicilina (19,05%, cloranfenicol (9,52% e eritromicina (4,76%. Assim, os nossos resultados mostraram que a maioria das amostras de Campylobacter spp isolados de animais foram sensíveis à gentamicina, cloranfenicol, canamicina e sulfonamidas. No entanto, uma proporção elevada das amostras apresentou susceptibilidade reduzida ao ácido nalidíxico, ampicilina, cefoperazona e tetraciclina. Além disso, C. coli e C. fetus mostraram uma alta porcentagem de amostras resistentes a múltiplas drogas.

  4. Phenotypic characterization of Nocardia spp. isolated from Iran soil microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Shadi Habibnia; Masoumeh Rasouli Nasab; Parvin Heidarieh; Mehdi Fatahi Bafghi; Mohammad Reza Pourmand; Seyyed Saeed Eshraghi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The present study was conducted to identify Nocardia spp. from Iran soil by various phenotypic tests. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 soil samples were collected of five different geographical regions in Iran. Nocardia isolation was performed by paraffin baiting technique. The colonies that were similar to be Nocardia spp. were stained with Gram, partially acid fast and acid-fast. Phenotypic tests were used for identification of Nocardia spp. Results: After analysis of phe...

  5. Comparison of Campylobacter populations isolated from a free-range broiler flock before and after slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colles, Frances M.; McCarthy, Noel D.; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the Campylobacter genotypes colonizing extensively reared broiler flocks and their survival through the slaughter process, despite the increasing demand for free-range and organic products by the consumer. Campylobacter isolates from a free-range boiler flock, sampled before and after slaughter, were genotyped by MLST (multilocus sequence typing) and sequence analysis of the flaA short variable region (SVR). The Campylobacter genotypes isolated before and after slaughter were diverse, with up to five sequence types (STs) (seven-locus allelic profiles resulting from MLST) identified per live bird, up to eight STs identified per carcass and 31 STs identified in all. The majority (72.0%) of isolates sampled from carcasses post-slaughter were indistinguishable from those isolated from the live flock before slaughter by ST and flaA SVR type, however, sampling ‘on-farm’ failed to capture all of the diversity seen post-slaughter. There were statistically significant increases in the genetic diversity of Campylobacter (p=0.005) and the proportion of C. coli (p=0.002), with some evidence for differential survival of genotypes contaminating the end product. C. coli genotypes isolated after slaughter were more similar to those from free-range and organic meat products sampled nationally, than from the live flock sampled previously. This study demonstrated the utility of MLST in detecting genetic diversity before and after the slaughter process. PMID:20071049

  6. Novel gentamicin resistance genes in Campylobacter isolated from humans and retail meats in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaohua; Mukherjee, Sampa; Chen, Yuansha; Li, Cong; Young, Shenia; Warren, Melissa; Abbott, Jason; Friedman, Sharon; Kabera, Claudine; Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2015-05-01

    To understand the molecular epidemiology of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter and investigate aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms. One-hundred-and-fifty-one gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter isolates from humans (n = 38 Campylobacter jejuni; n = 41, Campylobacter coli) and retail chickens (n = 72 C. coli), were screened for the presence of gentamicin resistance genes by PCR and subtyped using PFGE. A subset of the isolates (n = 41) was analysed using WGS. Nine variants of gentamicin resistance genes were identified: aph(2″)-Ib, Ic, Ig, If, If1, If3, Ih, aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-Ia and aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-If2. The aph(2″)-Ib, Ic, If1, If3, Ih and aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-If2 variants were identified for the first time in Campylobacter. Human isolates showed more diverse aminoglycoside resistance genes than did retail chicken isolates, in which only aph(2″)-Ic and -Ig were identified. The aph(2″)-Ig gene was only gene shared by C. coli isolates from human (n = 27) and retail chicken (n = 69). These isolates displayed the same resistance profile and similar PFGE patterns, suggesting that contaminated retail chicken was probably the source of human C. coli infections. Human isolates were genetically diverse and generally more resistant than the retail chicken isolates. The most frequent co-resistance was to tetracycline (78/79, 98.7%), followed by ciprofloxacin/nalidixic acid (46/79, 58.2%), erythromycin and azithromycin (36/79, 45.6%), telithromycin (32/79, 40.5%) and clindamycin (18/79, 22.8%). All human and retail meat isolates were susceptible to florfenicol. This study demonstrated that several new aminoglycoside resistance genes underlie the recent emergence of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter, and that, in addition to contaminated retail chicken, other sources have also contributed to gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter infections in humans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  7. Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from human, food, veterinary and environmental sources in Iceland using PFGE, MLST and fla‐SVR sequencing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magnússon, S.H; Guðmundsdóttir, S; Reynisson, E; Rúnarsson, Á.R; Harðardóttir, H; Gunnarson, E; Georgsson, F; Reiersen, J; Marteinsson, V.Th

    2011-01-01

    Aims:  Campylobacter jejuni isolates from various sources in Iceland were genotyped with the aim of assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, source distribution and campylobacter transmission routes to humans...

  8. Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colles, F. M.; Rodgers, J. D.; McCarthy, N. D.; Davies, R. H.; Maiden, M. C. J.; Clifton-Hadley, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645 C. jejuni and 106 C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. For C. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms for C. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% for C. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacter in broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical. PMID:26873321

  9. Helicobacter marmotae and novel Helicobacter and Campylobacter species isolated from the livers and intestines of prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisele, Maike; Shen, Zeli; Parry, Nicola; Mobley, Melissa; Taylor, Nancy S.; Buckley, Ellen; Abedin, Mohammad Z.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used to study the aetiology and prevention of gallstones because of the similarities of prairie dog and human bile gallstone composition. Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested a connection between infection with Helicobacter species and cholesterol cholelithiasis, cholecystis and gallbladder cancer. Ten of the 34 prairie dogs in this study had positive Helicobacter species identified by PCR using Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Ten of 34 prairie dogs had positive Campylobacter species identified in the intestine by PCR with Campylobacter genus-specific primers. Six Helicobacter sp. isolates and three Campylobacter sp. isolates were identified taxonomically by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The prairie dog helicobacters fell into three clusters adjacent to Helicobacter marmotae. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three strains in two adjacent clusters were included in the species H. marmotae. Three strains were only 97.1 % similar to the sequence of H. marmotae and can be considered a novel species with the provisional designation Helicobacter sp. Prairie Dog 3. The prairie dog campylobacters formed a single novel cluster and represent a novel Campylobacter sp. with the provisional designation Campylobacter sp. Prairie Dog. They branched with Campylobacter cuniculorum at 96.3 % similarity and had the greatest sequence similarity to Campylobacter helveticus at 97.1 % similarity. Whether H. marmotae or the novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp. identified in prairie dogs play a role in cholesterol gallstones or hepatobiliary disease requires further studies. PMID:21546560

  10. Survey of thermotolerant Campylobacter in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fioretti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus in Southern Italy. To achieve this goal, 60 cloacal swabs were collected. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 52 out of 60 cloacal swabs tested. As proved by PCR, 100% of the strains were identified as C. coli (52/52, and 10 out of the 52 (19.2% positive samples were also positive to C. jejuni. The pheasant, can be considered, at least theoretically, as potential Campylobacter carriers.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from raw poultry meat at retail level in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. R.; Saadbye, P.; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolated from raw poultry meat collected at retail shops in Denmark in the period 1996-2003 were tested for susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents. The food samples consisted of raw chicken meat and other raw poultry meat of domestic or imported origin. The highest leve...

  12. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance determinants among Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus isolated from Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The importance of Salmonella, Campylobacter, E.coli, and Enterococcus as carriers of antimicrobial resistance is well known, but limited work has been done to examine the relationship between this phenotypic characteristic and genotypic attributes among strains isolated in similar set...

  13. Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic methods for subtyping Campylobacter jejuni isolates from humans, poultry, and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Engberg, J.; Fussing, V.

    2000-01-01

    Six methods for subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni were compared and evaluated with a collection of 90 isolates from poultry, cattle, and sporadic human clinical cases as well as from a waterborne outbreak. The applied methods were Penner heat-stable serotyping; automated ribotyping (Ribo...

  14. Molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolates involved in a neonatal outbreak indicates nosocomial transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovo, J.; Mateo, E.; Munoz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that two neonates in a neonatal ward were infected with the same Campylobacter jejuni strain. Isolates from the mother and brother of the index patient were identical to each other but distinc...

  15. Methods for isolation, purification, and propagation of bacteriophages of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina; Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst

    2017-01-01

    Here, we describe the methods for isolation, purification, and propagation of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages from samples expected to contain high number of phages such as chicken feces. The overall steps are (1) liberation of phages from the sample material; (2) observation of plaque-formin...

  16. Methods for Isolation, Purification, and Propagation of Bacteriophages of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina; Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst

    2017-01-01

    Here, we describe the methods for isolation, purification, and propagation of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages from samples expected to contain high number of phages such as chicken feces. The overall steps are (1) liberation of phages from the sample material; (2) observation of plaque-formin...

  17. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  18. Characterization of Indian native isolates of Trichoderma spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Indian native isolates of Trichoderma spp. and assessment of their bio-control efficiency against plant pathogens. Prameela Devi, N Prabhakaran, Deeba Kamil, Pankaj Pandey, Jyoti Lekha Borah ...

  19. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...... specimens before slaughter is therefore vital to prevent disease transmission. By combining two techniques – immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this study developed a reliable and specific method for rapid detection of C. jejuni in chicken fecal samples. The specificity...... of the assay was assured by two selection steps: 1) Dynabeads®M-270 Amine microbeads (2.8 μm in diameter) coated with C. jejuni monoclonal antibodies were used as the primary selection to isolate bacteria from fecal samples. 2) A PCR assay amplifying the Hippuricase gene was performed as the specific selection...

  20. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from stool cultures in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia C; Valenzuela, Natalia S; Rodríguez, M Victoria L; León, Eugenia C; Fernández, Heríberto J

    2009-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common agent of enterocolitis in humans. Campylobacteriosis has been recognized as a zoonotic disease whose reservoir is the intestinal flora of poultry. The reposition of fluid and electrolytes is the recommended treatment, and antimicrobials are required only in severe and/or in prolonged disease. Given the emergence of resistance to drugs commonly used in the treatment of acute diarrhea, we studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from stool culture. The antimicrobials tested were: erythromycin, azithromycin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Of the 73 strains tested by E-test, 32.4% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 6.4% were resistant to ampicillin. Resistance to erythromycin and azithromycin was not detected. The surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni is important in the evaluation of empirically used antimicrobials in the treatment of bacterial enterocolitis.

  1. Development of microbiological field methodology for water and food-chain hygiene analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia spp. in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakalehto, Elias; Nyholm, Outi; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kagambega, Assèta; Rissanen, Kari; Heitto, Anneli; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2014-09-01

    Field-adaptable research methods for identifying Campylobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and other pathogenic and indicator bacteria were designed in Finland and tested in Burkina Faso. Several bacterial groups were also validated from artificially contaminated samples. Campylobacter strains were cultivated using an innovative gas generation system: The 'Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit' (PMEU) which provides microaerobic gas flow into the enrichment broth. This enhanced cultivation system produced rapid growth of several isolates of campylobacteria from water and chicken samples. The latter were obtained from local marketplace samples. No yersinias were found in the field studies, whereas they were readily recovered from the spiked samples, as well as Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli strains. The PMEU method turned out to be reliable for monitoring of water and food hygiene in remote locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece. Faecal specimens were collected from 181 dogs and 132 cats. Culture methods were applied to detect Campylobacter spp. and a multiplex PCR assay to identify the isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 3.8% in dogs and 12.1% in cats. The most frequently identified Campylobacter species in dogs was C. jejuni (57.1% followed by C. coli (42.9%. All feline isolates were identified as C. jejuni apart from one isolate that was characterised as Campylobacter-like organism. Gender, age, breed, life style, diarrhoea and type of diet of dogs and cats did not significantly correlate (P>0.05 with Campylobacter isolation. Possible predictors regarding Campylobacter presence in dogs and cats were assessed by binary logistic regression. A tendency towards higher risk for Campylobacter contamination was observed in dogs consuming a homemade diet and in outdoor cats. Disk diffusion method revealed that all Campylobacter isolates exhibited susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. Contrariwise, 66.7% of canine isolates were resistant concurrently to tetracycline and quinolones and 59.0%, 13.6% and 4.5% of feline isolates were resistant to quinolones, quinolones along with tetracycline and tetracycline alone, respectively

  3. Genetic Characterization of Campylobacter Jejuni and C. coli Isolated From Broilers Using flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbakht, Rahem; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Seifi, Saeed

    2015-05-01

    Thermophilic campylobacters, particularly Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the main agents of human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products is the most important source of foodborne gastroenteritis. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Campylobacter population is critical for understanding the epidemiology of this bacterium and developing effective control strategies against Campylobacter infections and other related disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from broiler fecal samples in Shiraz, southern Iran. Ninety Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broiler feces using enrichment process followed by cultivation method. The isolates were species typing on the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16SrRNA and multiplex PCR for determining two thermophilic species. To evaluate strain diversity of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was performed using DdeI restriction enzyme. All 90 Campylobacter isolates confirmed by m-PCR were successfully typed using flaA-PCR-RFLP. Eleven different types were defined according to flaA-typing method and the RFLP patterns were located at three separate clusters in RFLP image analysis dendrogram. Campylobacter jejuni isolates significantly showed more variety than C. coli isolates. A relatively low genetic diversity existed among C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from broilers in Shiraz, southern Iran. In our knowledge, this was the first report of genetic diversity among broiler originated human pathogen thermophilic campylobacters in Shiraz, southern Iran.

  4. Temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, with an underlying assumption that at minimum ambient temperatures, flies (Musca domestica) play a role in the epidemiology and seasonality of...

  5. ERIC-PCR Genotyping of Some Campylobacter jejuni Isolates of Chicken and Human Origin in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Heba A; El Hofy, Fatma I; Ammar, Ahmed M; Abd El Tawab, Ashraf A; Hefny, Ahmed A

    2015-12-01

    The public health importance of the genus Campylobacter is attributed to several species causing diarrhea in consumers. Poultry and their meat are considered the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, 287 samples from chicken (131 cloacal swabs, 39 chicken skin, 78 chicken meat, and 39 cecal parts) obtained from retail outlets as well as 246 stool swabs from gastroenteritis patients were examined. A representative number of the biochemically identified Campylobacter jejuni isolates were identified by real-time PCR, confirming the identification of the isolates as C. jejuni. Genotyping of the examined isolates (n = 31) by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) revealed a high discriminatory index of ERIC-PCR (D = 0.948), dividing C. jejuni isolates of chicken and human origins into 18 profiles and four clusters. The 18 profiles obtained indicated the heterogeneity of C. jejuni. Dendrogram analysis showed that four clusters were generated; all human isolates fell into clusters I and III. These observations further support the existence of a genetic relationship between human and poultry isolates examined in the present study. In conclusion, the results obtained support the speculation that poultry and poultry meat have an important role as sources of infection in the acquisition of Campylobacter infection in humans.

  6. Epidemiological relationships of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans and chickens in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Young; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Wei, Bai; Jang, Hyung-Kwan; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Hyeon; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kang, Min-Su

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-nine human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from a national university hospital during 2007-2010 and 38 chicken isolates of C. jejuni were collected from poultry farms during 2009-2010 in South Korea were used in this study. Campylobacter genomic species and virulence-associated genes were identified by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to compare their genetic relationships. All isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Of all isolates tested, over 94% contained seven virulence associated genes (flaA, cadF, racR, dnaJ, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC). All isolates were classified into 39 types by PFGE clustering with 90% similarity. Some chicken isolates were incorporated into some PFGE types of human isolates. MLST analysis for the 39 human isolates and 38 chicken isolates resulted in 14 and 23 sequence types (STs), respectively, of which 10 STs were new. STs overlapped in both chicken and human isolates included ST-21, ST-48, ST-50, ST-51, and ST-354, of which ST-21 was the predominant ST in both human and chicken isolates. Through combined analysis of PFGE types and STs, three chicken isolates were clonally related to the three human isolates associated with food poisoning (VII-ST-48, XXII-ST-354, and XXVIII-ST-51). They were derived from geographically same or distinct districts. Remarkably, clonal spread of food poisoning pathogens between animals and humans was confirmed by population genetic analysis. Consequently, contamination of campylobacters with quinolone resistance and potential virulence genes in poultry production and consumption may increase the risk of infections in humans.

  7. Prevalence and Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Retail Chicken in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Su, Yulan; Ma, Luyao; Ma, Lina; Li, Ping; Du, Xinjun; Gölz, Greta; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2017-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen worldwide; however, there is a lack of information on the prevalence and antibiotic-resistant profile of C. jejuni in the People's Republic of China. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of C. jejuni on the retail level in Tianjin, one of the five national central cities in China. A total of 227 samples of chicken wings, legs, and breasts were collected from supermarkets and wet markets; 42 of these samples were confirmed to be positive for Campylobacter contamination. The contamination rates of C. jejuni and other Campylobacter species were 13.7% (31 of 227 samples) and 5.7% (13 of 227 samples), respectively. A group of 31 C. jejuni isolates was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All (100%) the selected isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid; 77.4% were resistant to tetracycline, 67.7% to doxycycline, 35.5% to gentamicin, 25.8% to clindamycin and florfenicol, 19.4% to chloramphenicol, and 12.9% to erythromycin and azithromycin. A remarkably high proportion (41.9%) of multidrug-resistant isolates was identified. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted to study the population structure of the C. jejuni strains and their relationship to human isolates. The correlation between antimicrobial resistance traits and certain sequence types (STs) or clonal complexes was determined as well. A great genetic diversity of poultry isolates was identified, with 11 STs belonging to 6 clonal complexes and 11 singleton STs. The novel STs accounted for 40.9% (n = 9) of the 22 STs. ST-21, ST-353, ST-354, ST-443, ST-607, and ST-828 complexes had been previously identified from human isolates. This study revealed an extensive level of antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity in C. jejuni isolated from chicken products in Tianjin, highlighting the necessity of performing enforced interventions to reduce Campylobacter prevalence in China.

  8. Mapping the carriage of flaA-restriction fragment length polymorphism Campylobacter genotypes on poultry carcasses through the processing chain and comparison to clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Blackall, Patrick J; Cobbold, Rowland N; Fegan, Narelle

    2015-06-01

    Poultry are considered a major source for campylobacteriosis in humans. A total of 1866 Campylobacter spp. isolates collected through the poultry processing chain were typed using flaA-restriction fragment length polymorphism to measure the impact of processing on the genotypes present. Temporally related human clinical isolates (n = 497) were also typed. Isolates were obtained from whole chicken carcass rinses of chickens collected before scalding, after scalding, before immersion chilling, after immersion chilling and after packaging as well as from individual caecal samples. A total of 32 genotypes comprising at least four isolates each were recognised. Simpson's Index of Diversity (D) was calculated for each sampling site within each flock, for each flock as a whole and for the clinical isolates. From caecal collection to after packaging samples the D value did not change in two flocks, decreased in one flock and increased in the fourth flock. Dominant genotypes occurred in each flock but their constitutive percentages changed through processing. There were 23 overlapping genotypes between clinical and chicken isolates. The diversity of Campylobacter is flock dependant and may alter through processing. This study confirms that poultry are a source of campylobacteriosis in the Australian population although other sources may contribute. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus

  10. Comparison of Campylobacter fla-SVR genotypes isolated from humans and poultry in three European regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, T M; Fernández-Astorga, A; Alonso, R; Marteinsson, V T; Magnússon, S H; Kristoffersen, A B; Hofshagen, M

    2009-09-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter isolated from human infection and from poultry was assessed in strains originating in three different European regions in order to compare these two hosts and to investigate European regional differences. Randomly chosen isolates originated from Norway, Iceland and Basque Country in Spain were genotyped by sequencing of the short variable region (SVR) of flaA. A total of 293 strains were investigated, c. 100 per country with half originated from either host. The results indicate extensive diversity in both hosts and identified differences in the nature and distribution of genotypes between the countries. These differences could in part be related to geographical location, in that Campylobacter genotypes from Iceland and Norway were more similar to each other than either was to Basque Country. Differences between the countries exceeded the observed differences between human and poultry isolates within a country. Regional differences are extensive and should not be ignored when comparing genotyping data originating from different international studies.

  11. Multicenter evaluation of the BD max enteric bacterial panel PCR assay for rapid detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni and C. coli), and Shiga toxin 1 and 2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, S M; Buchan, B W; Doern, C; Fader, R; Ferraro, M J; Pillai, D R; Rychert, J; Doyle, L; Lainesse, A; Karchmer, T; Mortensen, J E

    2015-05-01

    Diarrhea due to enteric bacterial pathogens causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. However, bacterial pathogens may be infrequently identified. Currently, culture and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the primary methods used by clinical laboratories to detect enteric bacterial pathogens. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of the BD Max enteric bacterial panel (EBP) PCR assay in comparison to culture for the detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli and an EIA for Shiga toxins 1 and 2. A total of 4,242 preserved or unpreserved stool specimens, including 3,457 specimens collected prospectively and 785 frozen, retrospective samples, were evaluated. Compared to culture or EIA, the positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) values for the BD Max EBP assay for all specimens combined were as follows: 97.1% and 99.2% for Salmonella spp., 99.1% and 99.7% for Shigella spp., 97.2% and 98.4% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 97.4% and 99.3% for Shiga toxins, respectively. Discrepant results for prospective samples were resolved with alternate PCR assays and bidirectional sequencing of amplicons. Following discrepant analysis, PPA and NPA values were as follows: 97.3% and 99.8% for Salmonella spp., 99.2% and 100% for Shigella spp., 97.5% and 99.0% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 100% and 99.7% for Shiga toxins, respectively. No differences in detection were observed for samples preserved in Cary-Blair medium and unpreserved samples. In this large, multicenter study, the BD Max EBP assay showed superior sensitivity compared to conventional methods and excellent specificity for the detection of enteric bacterial pathogens in stool specimens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli contamination of broiler carcasses across the slaughter line in Danish slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    data confirm that less faecal contamination throughout processing, and/or less Campylobacter in the gut at the point of slaughter will lead to less Campylobacter contamination on the meat and thereby improve food safety. Exchange of information between slaughterhouses on best hygiene practices......) and after chilling (AC). Results showed distinct differences between slaughterhouses. For slaughterhouse I the contamination level was high AP and decreased AE while for slaughterhouse II the contamination level was low AP and increased AE. For slaughterhouse III the contamination level varied...... insignificantly across the processes. Results also showed differences in contamination levels of E. coli and Campylobacter between slaughterhouses. Mean counts of the two organisms increased or decreased concurrently from after plucking to after evisceration within slaughterhouses; however, after chilling counts...

  13. High Rates of Contamination of Poultry Meat Products with Drug-Resistant Campylobacter in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Patrick Wiloson N.; Tiam-Lee, Daphne C.; Paclibare, Phyllis Anne P.; Subejano, Ma. Socorro Edden; Cabero-Palma, Juvy Ann S.; Penuliar, Gil M.

    2017-05-24

    A total of 265 chicken parts were collected from 15 wet markets and 15 supermarkets in Metro Manila, Philippines. Campylobacter spp. was isolated on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar plates and identified through biochemical tests and PCR amplification of genus- and species-specific genes. Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined following the protocols of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Two hundred and seven (78.1%) Campylobacter spp. isolates were obtained. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were detected in 170 (64.2%) and 32 (12.1%) of the samples, respectively. Liver and skin samples showed the greatest levels of contamination. Most of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin (98.6%), erythromycin (98.6%), nalidixic acid (98.1%), tetracycline (94.2%), gentamicin (65.2%), and chloramphenicol (52.7%). The results indicated that poultry meat sold in markets in Metro Manila is contaminated with drug-resistant Campylobacter spp.

  14. Campylobacter coli infection in pet birds in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pace, Antonino; Romano, Violante; D'Orazio, Stefano; Varriale, Lorena; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2017-01-06

    Avian species are considered as the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, few data are available on the presence of this microorganism in pet birds. This study was therefore performed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pet birds bred in southern Italy. Faecal samples were collected from 88 cages housing different species of pet birds and examined by bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 13.6% of the cage samples were positive for Campylobacter coli. Other Campylobacter spp. were not found. The study shows that C. coli can be isolated from the cages of apparently healthy pet birds, which should therefore be considered as potential carriers of C. coli and a possible source of infection for humans and companion animals.

  15. Observational trial of safe food handling behavior during food preparation using the example of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzl, C; Mayerhofer, U; Steininger, M; Brüller, W; Hofstädter, D; Aldrian, U

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter infections are one of the most prominent worldwide food-related diseases. The primary cause of these infections is reported to be improper food handling, in particular cross-contamination during domestic preparation of raw chicken products. In the present study, food handling behaviors in Austria were surveyed and monitored, with special emphasis on Campylobacter cross-contamination. Forty participants (25 mothers or fathers with at least one child ≤10 years of age and 15 elderly persons ≥60 years of age) were observed during the preparation of a chicken salad (chicken slices plus lettuce, tomato, and cucumber) using a direct structured observational scoring system. The raw chicken carcasses and the vegetable part of the salad were analyzed for Campylobacter. A questionnaire concerning knowledge, attitudes, and interests related to food safety issues was filled out by the participants. Only 57% of formerly identified important hygiene measures were used by the participants. Deficits were found in effective hand washing after contact with raw chicken meat, but proper changing and cleaning of the cutting board was noted. Campylobacter was present in 80% of raw chicken carcasses, albeit the contamination rate was generally lower than the limit of quantification (10 CFU/g). In the vegetable part of the prepared product, no Campylobacter was found. This finding could be due to the rather low Campylobacter contamination rate in the raw materials and the participants' use of some important food handling behaviors to prevent cross-contamination. However, if the initial contamination had been higher, the monitored deficits in safe food handling could lead to quantifiable risks, as indicated in other published studies. The results of the observational trial and the questionnaire indicated knowledge gaps in the food safety sector, suggesting that further education of the population is needed to prevent the onset of foodborne diseases.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. PESQUISA DE CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. EM CARNES DE FRANGO COMERCIALIZADAS NA CIDADE DE CAMPO MOURÃO-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina de Oliveira GONÇALVES

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose causa um grande impacto na saúde pública em todo o mundo, sendo em muitos pa- íses a causa mais frequente de gastroenterite em humanos causada por alimentos. A principal fonte de Campylobacter são as aves, dessa forma, pode haver infecção pelo consumo de carne crua, mal cozida, contaminação cruzada no preparo dos alimentos ou por outros alimentos, como água e leite. O despreparo de muitos manipuladores de alimentos em relação a cuidados higiênicos é um dos fatores que favorece a contaminação dos alimentos, afetando principalmente ambientes como restaurantes, hospitais e indústrias de alimentos. Como o congelamento e a refrigeração têm o papel de conservar a carne em bom estado para o consumo, à detecção de bactérias viáveis nesta etapa é muito importante. Diante do exposto acima, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de Campylobacter spp. em frangos refrigerados comercializados na cidade de Campo Mourão-PR por meio do teste imunoenzimático pelo método ELFA (Enzime Linked Fluorescent Assay com o sistema automatizado VIDAS® campy. Dessa maneira, foi possível detectar uma contaminação de 79,16% em 24 frangos, confirmando a grande incidência de Campylobacter em carnes de aves destinadas ao consumo humano.

  18. Quantification of Campylobacter spp. in chicken rinse samples by using flotation prior to real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffs, Petra; Norling, Börje; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Griffiths, Mansel; Rådström, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Real-time PCR is fast, sensitive, specific, and can deliver quantitative data; however, two disadvantages are that this technology is sensitive to inhibition by food and that it does not distinguish between DNA originating from viable, viable nonculturable (VNC), and dead cells. For this reason, real-time PCR has been combined with a novel discontinuous buoyant density gradient method, called flotation, in order to allow detection of only viable and VNC cells of thermotolerant campylobacters in chicken rinse samples. Studying the buoyant densities of different Campylobacter spp. showed that densities changed at different time points during growth; however, all varied between 1.065 and 1.109 g/ml. These data were then used to develop a flotation assay. Results showed that after flotation and real-time PCR, cell concentrations as low as 8.6 x 10(2) CFU/ml could be detected without culture enrichment and amounts as low as 2.6 x 10(3) CFU/ml could be quantified. Furthermore, subjecting viable cells and dead cells to flotation showed that viable cells were recovered after flotation treatment but that dead cells and/or their DNA was not detected. Also, when samples containing VNC cells mixed with dead cells were treated with flotation after storage at 4 or 20 degrees C for 21 days, a similar percentage resembling the VNC cell fraction was detected using real-time PCR and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride-4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining (20% +/- 9% and 23% +/- 4%, respectively, at 4 degrees C; 11% +/- 4% and 10% +/- 2%, respectively, at 20 degrees C). This indicated that viable and VNC Campylobacter cells could be positively selected and quantified using the flotation method.

  19. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  20. Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, A B; Colles, F M; Rodgers, J D; McCarthy, N D; Davies, R H; Maiden, M C J; Clifton-Hadley, F A

    2016-04-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coliisolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645C. jejuniand 106C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuniisolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. ForC. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms forC. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% forC. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacterin broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical. Copyright © 2016 Vidal et al.

  1. Ocorrência de Campylobacter spp. em carne e miúdos de frango expostos ao consumo em Belém, Pará Occurence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat and giblets exposed to consumption in Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Freitas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study Campylobacter in chicken meat exposed to consumption in the city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil, 16 samples (four of liver, four of gizzard, two of heart, two of skin, one of neck, two of carcass and a mixture of neck skin and fragments of the abdominal cavity, collected in clandestine butcher shops, fair-free and supermarkets were submitted to isolation and identification according to the recommended methods. In high percentage, the foods exposed to consumption were contaminated by this agent, meaning a potential risk to the human health.

  2. Serotypes and typability of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Nielsen, Niels Ladefoged

    1999-01-01

    from chicken products covered a large selection of serotypes. In contrast, the majority of the isolates from other product groups (turkey, poussin, wild birds) were concentrated on 1-3 serotypes. Using the standard procedure for antigen preparation and serotyping, 25 of the 156 strains (16%) were...... to study the serotype distribution of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from different food products of poultry origin sampled from retail outlets in Denmark. A total of 156 isolates were serotyped, 85% of these were C. jejuni and 15% were C. coli. The most common C. jejuni serotypes were O:2 (30%), O:1......,44 (12%) and the O:4-complex (8%). O:46 was the most frequent serotype among C. coli isolates. These serotypes are also common among Danish clinical isolates and isolates from broiler chickens and cattle. Differences in serotype distribution were seen for different kinds of poultry products. Isolates...

  3. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  4. Polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA fingerprinting for epidemiological studies on Campylobacter spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Goossens, H; Niesters, H G; Van Belkum, A; Koeken, A; Endtz, H P; Stegeman, H; Quint, W G

    The applicability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated DNA typing, with primers complementary to dispersed repetitive DNA sequences and arbitrarily chosen DNA motifs, to study the epidemiology of campylobacter infection was evaluated. With a single PCR reaction and simple gel electrophoresis,

  5. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations. PMID:24556669

  6. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis. The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%, tetracycline (55.86% and nalidixic acid (55.17%. Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations.

  7. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Broiler Isolates by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, Guillermo; Correa-Fiz, Florencia; Ronco, Troels

    2017-01-01

    -nucleotide polymorphisms showed two main cluster grouping strains by species. Phenotypic resistances to quinolones (100%), tetracycline (81%), streptomycin (75%), erythromycin (56%), and gentamicin (13%) were found. All the isolates carried the C257T point mutation in the subunit A of the DNA gyrase gene (Thr86Ile......) conferring resistance to quinolones, while all the isolates showing resistance to tetracycline carried the tet(O) gene. The genes aph(3′)-III and aadE conferring resistance to aminoglycosides were identified in the two isolates (one C. jejuni and one C. coli) resistant to streptomycin and gentamicin....... The point mutation A2075G on the 23S rDNA conferring high resistance to macrolides was detected in three C. coli isolates. The CmeABC multidrug efflux pump was also detected, both in C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. All C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were positive for most of the 34 virulence...

  8. [Isolation of Candida spp. from ascites in cirrhotic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saludes, Paula; Araguás, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Dalmau, Blai; Font, Bernat

    2016-10-01

    The isolation of Candida spp. in ascites of cirrhotic patients is an uncommon situation in clinical practice. Factors that have been associated with increased susceptibility to primary fungal peritonitis are exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression, a typical situation of these patients. We report seven episodes of Candida spp. isolation in ascites of cirrhotic patients detected in our hospital during the past 15years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cristina Gonsalves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples. Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products.

  11. Relationship between Presence of Anti-Campylobacter FliD Protein Antibodies and Campylobacter jejuni Isolation from Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Poultry products are regarded as a major source of this bacterium for human infection. Although this bacterium is a commensal in chicken cecal microbiome, Campylobacte...

  12. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start of the dep...... this study emphasize the need to manage depopulation of broiler houses as quickly as possible and in one batch only....

  13. Biosecurity-Based Interventions and Strategies To Reduce Campylobacter spp. on Poultry Farms▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, D. G.; Elvers, K. T.; Dopfer, D.; Hansson, I.; Jones, P.; James, S.; Gittins, J.; Stern, N. J.; Davies, R.; Connerton, I.; Pearson, D.; Salvat, G.; Allen, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    The prevention and control of Campylobacter colonization of poultry flocks are important public health strategies for the control of human campylobacteriosis. A critical review of the literature on interventions to control Campylobacter in poultry on farms was undertaken using a systematic approach. Although the focus of the review was on aspects appropriate to the United Kingdom poultry industry, the research reviewed was gathered from worldwide literature. Multiple electronic databases were employed to search the literature, in any language, from 1980 to September 2008. A primary set of 4,316 references was identified and scanned, using specific agreed-upon criteria, to select relevant references related to biosecurity-based interventions. The final library comprised 173 references. Identification of the sources of Campylobacter in poultry flocks was required to inform the development of targeted interventions to disrupt transmission routes. The approach used generally involved risk factor-based surveys related to culture-positive or -negative flocks, usually combined with a structured questionnaire. In addition, some studies, either in combination or independently, undertook intervention trials. Many of these studies were compromised by poor design, sampling, and statistical analysis. The evidence for each potential source and route of transmission on the poultry farm was reviewed critically, and the options for intervention were considered. The review concluded that, in most instances, biosecurity on conventional broiler farms can be enhanced and this should contribute to the reduction of flock colonization. However, complementary, non-biosecurity-based approaches will also be required in the future to maximize the reduction of Campylobacter-positive flocks at the farm level. PMID:21984249

  14. Occurrence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick V. G. Komba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the carriage and antimicrobial resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in the gastrointestinal tracts of farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania Materials and Methods: Faecal samples were collected from farm (n=244 and laboratory (n=466 animals and were subjected to the Cape Town protocol for isolation of Campylobacter. Isolates were preliminarily identified based on potassium hydroxide string and hippurate hydrolysis tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed for confirmation of isolates. Antimicrobial resistance testing was done using disc diffusion method. Results: Of the laboratory animals 26.7% of guinea pigs (n=30 and 1.2% of rats (n=242 were colonized with Campylobacter. Four isolates from guinea pigs were Campylobacter jejuni and the other four were C. coli. From rats, two isolates were C. jejuni and one was C. coli. In farm animals thermophilic Campylobacter were detected from 31.6% of sheep (n=57 and 60% horses (n=5. Of the isolates 12 (57% were C. jejuni (10 from sheep and 2 from horses and the remaining were C. coli (8 from sheep and 1 from a horse. The isolates were frequently resistant to erythromycin, norfloxacin, colistin sulphate and nalidixic acid; whereas low levels of resistance were observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Conclusion: Our study reveals carriage of antimicrobial resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in the intestines of the study animals. This highlights possibilities in involvement of these animals in the epidemiology of Campylobacter infections. Thus, there is a need to consider these animal species when planning control measures for this zoonotic bacterium.

  15. Bayesian analysis of culture and PCR methods for detection of Campylobacter spp. in broiler caecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M E; Jones, E M; Lawes, J R; Vidal, A B; Clifton-Hadley, F A; Rodgers, J D; Powell, L F

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of a culture method and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detection of two Campylobacter species: C. jejuni and C. coli. Data were collected during a 3-year survey of UK broiler flocks, and consisted of parallel sampling of caeca from 436 batches of birds by both PCR and culture. Batches were stratified by season (summer/non-summer) and whether they were the first depopulation of the flock, resulting in four sub-populations. A Bayesian approach in the absence of a gold standard was adopted, and the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR and culture for each Campylobacter subtype was estimated, along with the true C. jejuni and C. coli prevalence in each sub-population. Results indicated that the sensitivity of the culture method was higher than that of PCR in detecting both species when the samples were derived from populations infected with at most one species of Campylobacter. However, from a mixed population, the sensitivity of culture for detecting both C. jejuni or C. coli is reduced while PCR is potentially able to detect both species, although the total probability of correctly identifying at least one species by PCR is similar to that of the culture method.

  16. Evaluation of cephamycins as supplements to selective agar for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Sung, Kidon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-04-16

    Although cefoperazone is the most commonly used antibiotic in Campylobacter-selective media, the distribution of cefoperazone-resistant bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing. Here we evaluated the potential of cephamycins for use as supplements to improve modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) by replacing cefoperazone with the same concentrations (32 mg/L) of cefotetan (modified charcoal-cefotetan-deoxycholate agar, mCCtDA) and cefoxitin (modified charcoal-cefoxitin-deoxycholate agar, mCCxDA). In chicken carcass rinse samples, the number of mCCDA plates detecting for Campylobacter (18/70, 26%) was significantly lower than that of mCCtDA (42/70, 60%) or mCCxDA plates (40/70, 57%). The number of mCCDA plates (70/70, 100%) that were contaminated with non-Campylobacter species was significantly higher than that of mCCtDA (20/70, 29%) or mCCxDA plates (21/70, 30%). The most common competing species identified using mCCDA was ESBL-producing E. coli, while Pseudomonas species frequently appeared on mCCtDA and mCCxDA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Characteristics and comparative performance of direct culture, direct PCR and enumeration methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp. in broiler caeca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J D; Lawes, J R; Vidal, A B; Ellis-Iversen, J; Ridley, A; Pleydell, E J; Powell, L F; Toszeghy, M; Stapleton, K; Clifton-Hadley, F A

    2012-10-12

    Detection and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chicken flocks are key components of research and surveillance studies aimed at reducing Campylobacter infections in people. Direct culture of caecal contents onto selective agar is the typical method used to confirm flock colonisation. Modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) is commonly used for this method, although alternative selective media have been used. Additionally, PCR methods to detect Campylobacter DNA from caecal contents may provide a rapid alternative. However comparative performance data for these methods is limited and therefore required to ensure optimal detection methods for this sample type. In this study, 306 broiler caeca were tested for Campylobacter using direct culture on mCCDA, Skirrows and Preston agars and two real-time PCR methods, one specific for mapA/ceuE regions and another for the flaA gene region. Additionally, the suitability of spread plating and spiral plating methods for enumeration of Campylobacter and the impact of sample storage were assessed. This study confirmed modified CCDA as an optimal media for detection of Campylobacter in broiler caeca. It was significantly more sensitive than Skirrows or Preston agars. This study also demonstrated that the mapA/ceuE PCR had excellent agreement with culture on mCCDA and is a genuine alternative method. Spread plating and spiral plating methods were suitable for enumeration although spiral plating appeared more sensitive for stored samples (72 h). A 1 log reduction in viable Campylobacters was observed in stored samples, therefore storage effects should be considered for quantitative studies with broiler caeca. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Antibiotic resistance analysis of Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkevich, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The isolates from foods were screened for sensitivity to clinically significant antibiotics to assess the actual situation related to the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in food. The goal of this work was to study the phenotypic characteristics of the antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the good quality foods, and evaluation of the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in this groups of microbial contaminants. 68 strains of Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterococcus spp. isolated from poultry and livestock meat, pasteurized dairy products, acquired in the retail in the Moscow region, were studied. The disk-diffusion method (DDM) analysis showed a rather high prevalence of bacteria that are resistant and forming resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics: in general 38% of Enterobacteriaceae strains and 40% of Enterococcus spp., isolated from meat products were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, and 21 and 33% - from dairy products, respectively; 26% of milk isolates and 54% of meat isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Considering that the tetracyclines is the most frequently used in animal husbandry and veterinary, the incidence and levels of tetracycline resistance were evaluated using tests with higher sensitivity to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), than the DDM. It was shown that among the Enterobacteriaceae strains 26% of isolates and 38% isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (MIC ranged from 8 to 120 mg/kg) and 17-40% - among Enterococcus spp. These data obtained on a small number of samples, however, correspond to the frequency of tetracycline resistant strains detected in animal products in the EU (10-50%). Two multidrug-resistant enterobacteria strains - Klebsiella pneumoniae (farmer cheese) and Escherichia coli (minced turkey) were found among the .46 strains (4.4%), and they were resistant to 8 antibiotics.

  19. The effect of different isolation protocols on detection and molecular characterization of Campylobacter from poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Wassenaar, T M; Gómez-Barrero, S; Porrero, M C; Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Domínguez, L

    2013-11-01

    We determined whether different methods to isolate Campylobacter (including the ISO standard 10272:2006-1) affected the genotypes detectable from poultry, at three points during slaughter: caecal content, neck skin and meat. Carcasses from 28 independent flocks were thus sampled (subset A). In addition, ten neck skin samples from four flocks, ten caecal samples from ten different flocks and ten unrelated meat samples obtained from local supermarkets were collected (subset B). Campylobacter was isolated using eight different protocols: with and without enrichment using Bolton broth, Preston broth or Campyfood broth (CFB), followed by culture on either modified Charcoal Cefoperazone Deoxycholate Agar (mCCDA) or Campyfood agar (CFA). All obtained isolates were genotyped for flaA-SVR, and over half of the isolates were also typed by MLST. The strain richness, as a measure of number of detected fla-genotypes, obtained from subset A neck skin and caecal samples was higher than that of meat samples. In half of the cases, within a flock, at least one identical fla-genotype was obtained at all three slaughter stages, suggestive of autologous contamination of carcasses. Enrichment reduced the observed richness of isolates, while CFA plates increased richness compared to mCCDA plates, irrespective of inclusion of an enrichment step. Because the isolation protocol used influences both the yield and the fla-genotype richness obtained from poultry, this variable should be taken into account when different studies are being compared. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample.

  1. Associations between Campylobacter levels on chicken skin, underlying muscle, caecum and packaged fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, I; Nyman, A; Lahti, E; Gustafsson, P; Olsson Engvall, E

    2015-06-01

    A study was performed with the aim to investigate associations between Campylobacter in chicken caecum, carcass skin, underlying breast muscle and packaged breast fillets. Samples were taken from 285 chickens from 57 flocks and analysed according to ISO 10272. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from caecal samples from 41 flocks. From birds of the same 41 flocks Campylobacter could be detected and quantified in 194 (68%) skin samples. Moreover, Campylobacter spp. were enumerated in 13 (5%) underlying muscle samples originating from 9 of the 41 flocks. The mean number of Campylobacter spp. in the 194 skin samples which could be counted was 2.3 log cfu/g and for the 13 underlying muscle samples 1.3 log cfu/g. Campylobacter could only be quantified in those breast muscle samples with a finding in corresponding skin sample. Five packaged chicken fillets were taken from each 25 of the 57 flocks and analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In qualitative analysis Campylobacter was detected in 79 (63%) fillets from 16 flocks and quantified in 24 (19%) samples from 11 flocks. The results showed a significant association (P Campylobacter on carcass skin (log cfu/g) and the proportion of Campylobacter positive breast muscle samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of seven virulence and toxin genes of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Danish turkeys by PCR and cytolethal distending toxin production of the isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Borck, Birgitte; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2004-01-01

    A total of 117 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Danish turkeys were tested for the presence of seven virulence and toxin genes by PCR. One hundred seventeen (100%) isolates were positive for flaA, cadF, and ceuE gene primers. One hundred three (88%) isolates were positive for cdt gene cluster P...... turkeys and calls for further investigation for the elimination of Campylobacter infection in industrial turkey production and in industrial food chains.......A total of 117 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Danish turkeys were tested for the presence of seven virulence and toxin genes by PCR. One hundred seventeen (100%) isolates were positive for flaA, cadF, and ceuE gene primers. One hundred three (88%) isolates were positive for cdt gene cluster PCR...

  3. Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalarathna, Helen M L; Richardson, Judith F; Lawson, Andy J; Elson, Richard; Meldrum, Richard; Little, Christine L; Maiden, Martin C J; McCarthy, Noel D; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2013-07-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is increasing among clinical Campylobacter cases and is common among isolates from other sources, specifically retail poultry - a major source of human infection. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from a UK-wide survey of Campylobacter in retail poultry in 2001 and 2004-5 was investigated. The occurrence of phenotypes resistant to tetracycline, quinolones (ciprofloxacin and naladixic acid), erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides was quantified. This was compared with a phylogeny for these isolates based upon Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance acquisition. Antimicrobial resistance was present in all lineage clusters, but statistical testing showed a non-random distribution. Erythromycin resistance was associated with Campylobacter coli. For all antimicrobials tested, resistant isolates were distributed among relatively distant lineages indicative of widespread acquisition. There was also evidence of clustering of resistance phenotypes within lineages; indicative of local expansion of resistant strains. These results are consistent with the widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among chicken associated Campylobacter isolates, either through mutation or horizontal gene transfer, and the expansion of these lineages as a proportion of the population. As Campylobacter are not known to multiply outside of the host and long-term carriage in humans is extremely infrequent in industrialized countries, the most likely location for the proliferation of resistant lineages is in farmed chickens.

  4. Evaluation of a PCR/DNA Probe Colorimetric Membrane Assay for Identification of Campylobacter spp. in Human Stool Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Evelyn; Glennon, Maura; Hanley, Shirley; Murray, Anne-Marie; Cormican, Martin; Smith, Terry; Maher, Majella

    2001-01-01

    DNA was extracted from 50 human stool specimens using the QIAamp DNA stool minikit. PCR amplification was followed by post-PCR hybridization to DNA probes specific for the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli in a colorimetric membrane assay. Thirty-two of 38 culture-positive specimens were PCR/DNA probe positive for C. jejuni. The assay is rapid and simple and can be applied to stool specimens for the detection of Campylobacter.

  5. ISOLASI Campylobacter DARI KARKAS AYAM MENGGUNAKAN METODE KONVENSIONAL DAN POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTIONS [Isolation of Campylobacter from Poultry Carcasses using Conventional and Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachmi Setiyaningsih2

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are two spesies of Campylobacter sp. frequently found as pathogenic bacteria causing human gastrointestinal infections. Contaminated chicken carcasses have been reported as the source of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, Campylobacter were isolated from chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets and supermarkets. In traditional markets, chicken carcasses are sold without proper packaging or in an open space and stored at room temperature (25-30°C for prolonged period allowing pathogenic bacteria to grow. While at supermarkets, chicken carcasses are openly displayed or enclosed in plastic wrappings and stored in a refrigerator (4-8°C. A total of 298 samples of chicken carcasses from traditional markets and supermarkets in the area of DKI Jakarta, West Java (Bogor and Sukabumi and Central Java (Kudus and Demak were collected. Isolation and identification using conventional and Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR methods were done to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli contamination in poultry. The results showed that chicken carcasses sold in the sampling area, both traditional markets and supermarkets, were contaminated with C. jejuni and C. coli. The contamination rate of Campylobacter sp. in chicken carcasses sold in supermarkets, were 14.1% by conventional methods and 29.5% by PCR. This was higher than those in traditional markets, i.e. 5.7 and 12.1%, respectively. It is also confirmed that the prevalence for contamination of C. jejuni was higher than C. coli in 298 samples, i.e. 16.1% and 3.7% by conventional method and 23.5% and 18.1% by PCR method respectively.

  6. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an altern...

  7. Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Its Association with Virulence Genes Related to Adherence, Invasion, and Cytotoxicity in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Animals, Meat, and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Gatica, María A; Riquelme, Víctor; Vergara, Constanza; Yañez, José Manuel; San Martín, Betty; Sáenz, Leonardo; Vidal, Maricel; Martínez, María Cristina; Araya, Pamela; Flores, Roberto; Duery, Oscar; Vidal, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to statistically analyze the association between antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance to erythromycine, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline and 11 virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in 528 isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni obtained from retail meat and fecal samples from food-producing animals and human patients. A high percentage of Campylobacter strains were resistant to antimicrobials, specifically ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. Moreover, we observed a wide distribution of virulence genes within the analyzed strains. C. jejuni strains were more susceptible to antimicrobials, and showed greater number of virulence genes than C. coli strains. Genes related to invasion capability, such as racR, ciaB, and pldA, were associated with antimicrobial-susceptible strains in both species. The genes cdtA and dnaJ, a citotoxin unit and an adherence-related gene, respectively, were associated with antimicrobial-resistant strains in both species. In conclusion, Campylobacter strains show a statistically significant association between antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of virulence genes.

  8. Identification and biotyping of Acinetobacter spp. isolated in Chilean hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, M; Gonzalez, G; Bello, H; Garcia, A; Mella, S; Pinto, M E; Martinez, M A; Zemelman, R

    1995-08-01

    Two hundred and eighty-one isolates of Acinetobacter spp. obtained from clinical specimens in hospitals from five Chilean cities were identified to species level and biotyped. Respiratory tract and wound secretions were the main sources of the isolates. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most frequent species (96.8%), followed by Acinetobacter genospecies 3 (2.8%). Twelve different biotypes of A. baumannii strains were found of which biotypes 9, 8 and 6 were the most frequent. Isolates of other biotypes were rare. These results differ from most other Latin American and European countries.

  9. Multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from dairy calves in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eKlein-Jöbstl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human campylobacteriosis is primarily associated with poultry but also cattle. In this study, 55 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 382 dairy calves’ feces were differentiated by multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent sequence type (ST was ST883 (20.0%, followed by ST48 (14.5%, and ST50 (9.1%. In contrast to ST48 and ST50, ST883 has rarely been described in cattle previously. Furthermore, risk factor analysis was performed for the presence of the most prevalent STs in these calves. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the type of farm (organic versus conventional and calf housing (place, and individual versus group were identified as significantly (p<0.05 associated with the presence of ST883 in calves, and ST50 was associated with calf diarrhea. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 58.2% of the isolates. Most of the resistant isolates (81.3% were resistant to more than one antimicrobial. Most frequently, resistance to ciprofloxacin (49.1%, followed by nalidixic acid with (42.8%, and tetracycline (14.5% was observed. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that dairy calves may serve as a potential reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni and pose a risk for transmission, including antimicrobial resistant isolates to the environment and to humans.

  10. Differential Distribution of Type II CRISPR-Cas Systems in Agricultural and Nonagricultural Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Correlates with Lack of Shared Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Bruce M.; Louwen, Rogier; van Baarlen, Peter; van Vliet, Arnoud H.M.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are sequence-specific adaptive defenses against phages and plasmids which are widespread in prokaryotes. Here we have studied whether phylogenetic relatedness or sharing of environmental niches affects the distribution and dissemination of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems, first in 132 bacterial genomes from 15 phylogenetic classes, ranging from Proteobacteria to Actinobacteria. There was clustering of distinct Type II CRISPR-Cas systems in phylogenetically distinct genera with varying G+C%, which share environmental niches. The distribution of CRISPR-Cas within a genus was studied using a large collection of genome sequences of the closely related Campylobacter species Campylobacter jejuni (N = 3,746) and Campylobacter coli (N = 486). The Cas gene cas9 and CRISPR-repeat are almost universally present in C. jejuni genomes (98.0% positive) but relatively rare in C. coli genomes (9.6% positive). Campylobacter jejuni and agricultural C. coli isolates share the C. jejuni CRISPR-Cas system, which is closely related to, but distinct from the C. coli CRISPR-Cas system found in C. coli isolates from nonagricultural sources. Analysis of the genomic position of CRISPR-Cas insertion suggests that the C. jejuni-type CRISPR-Cas has been transferred to agricultural C. coli. Conversely, the absence of the C. coli-type CRISPR-Cas in agricultural C. coli isolates may be due to these isolates not sharing the same environmental niche, and may be affected by farm hygiene and biosecurity practices in the agricultural sector. Finally, many CRISPR spacer alleles were linked with specific multilocus sequence types, suggesting that these can assist molecular epidemiology applications for C. jejuni and C. coli. PMID:26338188

  11. Differential Distribution of Type II CRISPR-Cas Systems in Agricultural and Nonagricultural Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Correlates with Lack of Shared Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Bruce M; Louwen, Rogier; van Baarlen, Peter; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2015-09-02

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are sequence-specific adaptive defenses against phages and plasmids which are widespread in prokaryotes. Here we have studied whether phylogenetic relatedness or sharing of environmental niches affects the distribution and dissemination of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems, first in 132 bacterial genomes from 15 phylogenetic classes, ranging from Proteobacteria to Actinobacteria. There was clustering of distinct Type II CRISPR-Cas systems in phylogenetically distinct genera with varying G+C%, which share environmental niches. The distribution of CRISPR-Cas within a genus was studied using a large collection of genome sequences of the closely related Campylobacter species Campylobacter jejuni (N = 3,746) and Campylobacter coli (N = 486). The Cas gene cas9 and CRISPR-repeat are almost universally present in C. jejuni genomes (98.0% positive) but relatively rare in C. coli genomes (9.6% positive). Campylobacter jejuni and agricultural C. coli isolates share the C. jejuni CRISPR-Cas system, which is closely related to, but distinct from the C. coli CRISPR-Cas system found in C. coli isolates from nonagricultural sources. Analysis of the genomic position of CRISPR-Cas insertion suggests that the C. jejuni-type CRISPR-Cas has been transferred to agricultural C. coli. Conversely, the absence of the C. coli-type CRISPR-Cas in agricultural C. coli isolates may be due to these isolates not sharing the same environmental niche, and may be affected by farm hygiene and biosecurity practices in the agricultural sector. Finally, many CRISPR spacer alleles were linked with specific multilocus sequence types, suggesting that these can assist molecular epidemiology applications for C. jejuni and C. coli. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. A cytolethal distending toxin gene-based multiplex PCR assay for detection of Campylobacter spp. in stool specimens and comparison with culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramaru, Sachi; Asakura, Masahiro; Inoue, Haruna; Nagita, Akira; Matsuhisa, Akio; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the applicability of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex PCR for the direct detection and identification of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus from stool specimens of patients with gastroenteritis in comparison to culture methods. A total of 711 stool specimens were examined for the isolation or detection of campylobacters by using Skirrow's selective agar culture plates, a filtration method and the multiplex PCR assay. Forty-one and 36 C. jejuni strains were isolated by culture and filtration methods, respectively. In addition, 2 and 3 C. coli strains were isolated by Skirrow and the filtration methods, respectively. However, when the multiplex PCR was employed, the cdtB genes of C. jejuni and C. coli were detected in 45 and 4 stool samples, respectively, and 9 C. jejuni PCR-positive samples by multiplex PCR were negative by culture method. Sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained from 8 stool specimens from which campylobacters were not isolated by culture method but the sequences exactly matched with that of the cdtB gene of C. jejuni strain 81-176. None of the remaining stool samples which were culture negative for campylobacters produced any amplicon. Stool samples were defined as Campylobacter-positive if detected by any method. The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR was 83%, which was higher than Skirrow (74%) and filtration method (66%). These data indicate that cdtB gene-based multiplex PCR is a rapid and more sensitive method to identify the most important species of Campylobacter for human diseases. (248).

  13. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  14. Multilocus sequence typing of Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from gastric niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Gohil, Kushal; Misra, Vatsala; Kakrani, Arjun L; Misra, Sri P; Patole, Milind; Shouche, Yogesh; Dharne, Mahesh

    The human stomach is colonized by diverse bacterial species. The presence of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria in urease-positive biopsies of individuals has been reported. Bacteria belonging to the Ochrobactrum genus have been documented in the human gastric niche. The co-occurrence of Ochrobactrum spp. with H. pylori was previously reported in an antral biopsy of a non-ulcer dyspeptic (NUD) subject from Northern India. There is no information on the genetic diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from the gastric niche in the stomach. We aimed to study the species distribution and diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. with and without H. pylori in urease-positive biopsies across three different geographical regions in India. Sixty-two Ochrobactrum isolates recovered from patients with an upper gastric disorder (n=218) were subjected to molecular identification and multilocus sequence typing. H. pylori DNA was found in the majority of biopsies, which had a variable degree of Ochrobactrum spp present. Interestingly, some of the urease-positive biopsies only had Ochrobactrum without any H. pylori DNA. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the Ochrobactrum isolates were distributed into the O. intermedium, O. anthropi and O. oryzae groups. This indicates there are multiple species in the gastric niche irrespective of the presence or absence of H. pylori. Antibiotyping based on colistin and polymyxin B could differentiate between O. intermedium and O. anthropi without revealing the resistance-driven diversity. Considering the prevalence of multiple Ochrobactrum spp. in the human gastric niche, it is important to evaluate the commensal and/or pathogenic nature of non-H. pylori bacteria with respect to their geographical distribution, lifestyle and nutrition needs. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from human, food, veterinary and environmental sources in Iceland using PFGE, MLST and fla-SVR sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnússon, S H; Guðmundsdóttir, S; Reynisson, E; Rúnarsson, A R; Harðardóttir, H; Gunnarson, E; Georgsson, F; Reiersen, J; Marteinsson, V Th

    2011-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates from various sources in Iceland were genotyped with the aim of assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, source distribution and campylobacter transmission routes to humans. A collection of 584 Campylobacter isolates were collected from clinical cases, food, animals and environment in Iceland in 1999-2002, during a period of national Campylobacter epidemic in Iceland. All isolates were characterized by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and selected subset of 52 isolates representing the diversity of the identified PFGE types was further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and fla-SVR sequencing to gain better insight into the population structure. The results show a substantial diversity within the Icelandic Campylobacter population. Majority of the human Campylobacter infections originated from domestic chicken and cattle isolates. MLST showed the isolates to be distributed among previously reported and common sequence type complexes in the MLST database. The genotyping of Campylobacter from various sources has not previously been reported from Iceland, and the results of the study gave a valuable insight into the population structure of Camp. jejuni in Iceland, source distribution and transmission routes to humans. The geographical isolation of Iceland in the north Atlantic provides new information on Campylobacter population dynamics on a global scale. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to Icelandic Government works.

  16. Campylobacter Troglodytis sp. nov., Isolated from Feces of Human-Habituated wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Taranjit; Singh, Jatinder; Huffman, Michael A.; Petrzelková, Klára J; Taylor, Nancy S.; Xu, Shilu; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Bruce J Paster; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fox, James G.

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of simian immunodeficiency and Ebola viruses to humans in recent years has heightened awareness of the public health significance of zoonotic diseases of primate origin, particularly from chimpanzees. In this study, we analyzed 71 fecal samples collected from 2 different wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations with different histories in relation to their proximity to humans. Campylobacter spp. were detected by culture in 19/56 (34%) group 1 (human habituated for resear...

  17. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-05-04

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter Isolated from Chicken in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goualié Gblossi Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacters are major causes of gastroenteritis in human. The main risk factor of infection is consumption of contaminated or by cross-contaminated poultry meat. In Côte d’Ivoire, gastroenteritis is usually observed but no case of human campylobacteriosis has been formally reported to date. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from chickens ceaca in commercial slaughter in Abidjan. Between May and November 2009, one hundred and nineteen (119 chicken caeca samples were collected and analyzed by passive filtration method followed by molecular identification (PCR. From these 119 samples, 76 (63.8% were positive to Campylobacter tests. Among the positive colonies, 51.3% were C. jejuni and 48.7% were C. coli. Of the 39 C. jejuni isolates, 79.5%, 38.5%, 17.9%, 10.3%, and 7.7% were, respectively, resistant, to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Among the 37 isolates of C. coli, 78.4%, 43.2%, 13.5%, 8.1%, and 0% were resistant, respectively, to the same antibiotics. In conclusion, we reported in this study the presence of high Campylobacter contamination of the studied chickens. Molecular identification of the bacteria was performed and determination of high resistance to antimicrobials of the fluoroquinolone family was revealed.

  19. Fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler slaughterhouses in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Arguello, Yuli M; Perdoncini, G; Morgan, R B; Salle, C T P; Moraes, H L S; Gomes, Marcos J P; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as a leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The over-use of antimicrobials in the human population and in animal husbandry has led to an increase in antimicrobial-resistant infections, particularly with fluoroquinolones and macrolides. The aim of the present study was to provide information of the current status of antimicrobial resistance patterns in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry sources. Fifty strains were recovered from broiler slaughterhouses in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, 2012. The strains were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility against three agents (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and erythromycin) by minimal inhibitory concentrations. The strains were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for detection of the Thr-86 mutation that confers resistance to ciprofloxacin. In addition, all the strains were tested for the presence of efflux systems (cmeB gene) conferring antimicrobial resistance. The minimum inhibitory concentrations results showed that 98% of isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and most isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (94%) and nalidixic acid (90%). A complete correlation was observed between the minimum inhibitory concentrations and PCR-RFLP assay. Finally, the cmeB gene that is responsible for multidrug resistance was detected in 16 isolates out the 50 strains (32%).

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter Jejuni and Coli in Sheep Carcasses by Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 randomly sheep carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter analyzed using microbiological examinations. Results: Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 10.13% meat cultures samples examined. Among these 80% sample were C. jejuni and 20% sample were C. coli. Using PCR assays, the number of positive campylobacters increased to 11.48%. Of these positive samples, 82.35% were C. jejuni and 17.65% were C. coli. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p<0.05 were found in the meat samples taken in summer (47.05%. Conclusion: The PCR is a reliable and sensitive method which can be used as a diagnostic technique for the detection of campylobacter in lamb samples.

  1. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 х104 CFU\\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 х104 CFU\\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9%) were Vibrio spp. Vibrio ...

  2. Characterisation by multilocus sequence and porA and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and porA and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/porA 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/porA 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/porA 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.

  3. Cluster Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni Genotypes Isolated from Small and Medium-Sized Mammalian Wildlife and Bovine Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S K; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms (eight beef, eight swine and nine dairy) in 2010, we assessed clustering of molecular subtypes of C. jejuni based on a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative genomic fingerprinting assay (CGF40) subtypes, using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis, and multiple correspondence analysis. Exact logistic regression was used to determine which genes differentiate wildlife and livestock subtypes in our study population. A total of 33 bovine livestock (17 beef and 16 dairy), 26 wildlife (20 raccoon (Procyon lotor), five skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and one mouse (Peromyscus spp.) C. jejuni isolates were subtyped using CGF40. Dendrogram analysis, based on UPGMA, showed distinct branches separating bovine livestock and mammalian wildlife isolates. Furthermore, two-dimensional multiple correspondence analysis was highly concordant with dendrogram analysis showing clear differentiation between livestock and wildlife CGF40 subtypes. Based on multilevel logistic regression models with a random intercept for farm of origin, we found that isolates in general, and raccoons more specifically, were significantly more likely to be part of the wildlife branch. Exact logistic regression conducted gene by gene revealed 15 genes that were predictive of whether an isolate was of wildlife or bovine livestock isolate origin. Both multiple correspondence analysis and exact logistic regression revealed that in most cases, the presence of a particular gene (13 of 15) was associated with an isolate being of livestock rather than wildlife origin. In conclusion, the evidence gained from dendrogram analysis, multiple correspondence analysis and exact logistic regression indicates that mammalian wildlife carry CGF40 subtypes of C. jejuni distinct from those carried by bovine livestock. Future studies focused on source attribution of C. jejuni in human infections will help determine whether wildlife

  4. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Abundance and antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio spp. isolated from microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, A. L.; Darr, K.; Dobbs, F. C.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing concern for `microplastics' (particles resistance profiles of Vibrio spp. found on them. We collected 22 microplastic pieces, paired seawater samples, and from them cultured 44 putative Vibrio spp. isolates, 18 of which were PCR-confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus and 3 as V. vulnificus. There were no PCR-confirmed V. cholerae isolates. We used the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test to examine the isolates' response to six antibiotics: chloramphenicol (30μg), gentamicin (10μg), ampicillin (10μg), streptomycin (10μg), tetracycline (30μg), and rifampin (5μg). Vibrio isolates were susceptible to three or more of the six antibiotics tested and all were susceptible to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. There were no apparent differences between the antibiotic susceptibilities of vibrios isolated from microplastics compared to those from the water column. In every instance tested, vibrios on microplastics were enriched by at least two orders of magnitude compared to those from paired seawater samples. This study demonstrates that microplastic particles serve as a habitat for Vibrio species, in particular V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus, confirming the conjecture of Zettler et al. (2013) that plastics may serve as a vector for these and other potentially pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Distribution of serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni and C-coli from Danish patients, poultry, cattle and swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Engberg, Jørgen; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    The number of human cases of enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli is increasing in Denmark and other European countries. No systematic typing has earlier been performed on Campylobacter isolates of Danish origin. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a serotype...... chickens, 47% for cattle and 46% for swine when sampled at the slaughterhouse. C. jejuni accounted for 83-91% of the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and cattle, whereas 95% of the isolates from swine was C. coli. In human patients with Campylobacter enteritis, 94% of the isolates were C......% of the C. jejuni isolates. These serotypes were also common in samples from broilers and cattle. In swine, C. coli O:30 and O:46 were most common. The serotype distribution of human clinical isolates showed large overlap with the serotype distribution of campylobacters in cattle and chickens...

  7. Combined Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Rapid Testing and Molecular Epidemiology in Conventional Broiler Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallegger, G; Muri-Klinger, S; Brugger, K; Lindhardt, C; John, L; Glatzl, M; Wagner, M; Stessl, B

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial zoonosis, most often transmitted by contaminated poultry meat. From an epidemiological and risk assessment perspective, further knowledge should be obtained on Campylobacter prevalence and genotype distribution in primary production. Consequently, 15 Austrian broiler flocks were surveyed in summer for their thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination status. Chicken droppings, dust and drinking water samples were collected from each flock at three separate sampling periods. Isolates were confirmed by PCR and subtyped. We also compared three alternative methods (culture-based enrichment in Bolton broth, culture-independent real-time PCR and a lateral-flow test) for their applicability in chicken droppings. Twelve flocks were found to be positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. during the entire sampling period. Seven flocks (46.6%) were contaminated with both, C. jejuni and C. coli, five flocks harboured solely one species. We observed to a majority flock-specific C. jejuni and C. coli genotypes, which dominated the respective flock. Flocks within a distance jejuni genotypes indicating a cross-contamination event via the environment or personnel vectors. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of C. jejuni revealed that the majority of isolates were assigned to globally distributed clonal complexes or had a strong link to the human interface (CC ST-446 and ST4373). The combination of techniques poses an advantage over risk assessment studies based on cultures alone, as, in the case of Campylobacter, occurrence of a high variety of genotypes might be present among a broiler flock. We suggest applying the lateral-flow test under field conditions to identify 'high-shedding' broiler flocks at the farm level. Consequently, poultry farmers and veterinarians could improve hygiene measurements and direct sanitation activities, especially during the thinning period. Ultimately, real-time PCR could be applied to quantify

  8. Comparison of epidemiologically linked Campylobacter jejuni isolated from human and poultry sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajhar, S A; Jennison, A V; Patel, B; Duffy, L L

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for most foodborne bacterial infections worldwide including Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of typing methods in the characterization of C. jejuni isolated from clinical diarrhoeal samples (n = 20) and chicken meat (n = 26) in order to identify the source of infection and rank isolates based on their relative risk to humans. Sequencing of the flaA short variable region demonstrated that 86% of clinical isolates had genotypes that were also found in chicken meat. A polymerase chain reaction binary typing system identified 27 different codes based on the presence or absence of genes that have been reported to be associated with various aspects of C. jejuni pathogenicity, indicating that not all isolates may be of equal risk to human health. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of the C. jejuni isolates was classified into six classes (A, B, C, E, F, H) with 10·4% remaining unclassified. The majority (72·7%) of clinical isolates possessed sialylated LOS classes. Sialylated LOS classes were also detected in chicken isolates (80·7%). Antimicrobial tests indicated a low level of resistance, with no phenotypic resistance found to most antibiotics tested. A combination of typing approaches was useful to assign isolates to a source of infection and assess their risk to humans.

  9. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  10. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banya Banowary

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR and high resolution melt (HRM curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter spp. isolated from meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Casquete, Rocio; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2017-02-21

    The prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter spp. from fifty samples of meat (chicken, turkey, beef and pork) were evaluated. Acinetobacter spp. was recovered from all samples and the clonal relatedness of 223 isolates identified to belong to the genus Acinetobacter was established by PFGE. A high genetic diversity was observed and 166 isolates from different samples, 141 representing different PFGE profiles, were further identified to the species level by rpoB gene sequencing. Thirteen distinct Acinetobacter species were identified among 156 isolates. The remaining ten isolates may represent three putatively novel species since rpoB sequence homologies with type strains of all available described Acinetobacter species, were 10% (23.2%, 23.2%, 14.3%, 12.5%, 12.5%, respectively). However, resistances to meropenem, imipenem and minocycline were only sporadically observed (8.3%, 1.2% and 1.2%, respectively). Overall, 51.2% of the strains were considered as multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 9.6% as extensively drug-resistant (XDR). The prevalence of MDR strains within the A. baumannii group (38.7%) was lower than the prevalence within the others species identified (54.1%). Therefore, food of animal origin may be a vehicle of spread Acinetobacter strains resistant to several antibiotics in the community and in the hospital setting environment. This may led to nosocomial and community-acquired infections in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of four protocols for the detection and isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter from different matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Gómez-Barrero, S; Porrero, M C; Alvarez, J; García, M; Comerón, M C; Wassenaar, T M; Domínguez, L

    2012-07-01

      To identify the optimal method for detection of thermophilic Campylobacter at various stages in the food chain, three culture-dependent (direct plating, Bolton and Preston enrichment) and one molecular method (qPCR) were compared for three matrices: poultry faeces (n = 38), neck skin (n = 38) and packed fresh meat (n = 38).   Direct plating was compared to enrichment with either Bolton broth (ISO 10272:2006-1) or Preston broth, followed by culture on two selective agars: modified charcoal cefoperazone desoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and Campyfood agar (CFA). Direct plating on CFA provided the highest number of positive samples for faeces and neck skin samples. Enrichment of meat samples in Preston followed by plating on mCCDA gave significantly higher number of positives than the recommended ISO method. Real-time qPCR yielded the highest number of positive samples.   Direct plating on CFA is optimal for Campylobacter isolation from highly contaminated samples such as faeces or neck skin. When enrichment is required for less-contaminated samples such as poultry meat, Preston broth is the best choice. The maximum of detectable cells predicted by qPCR is a sensitive and powerful evaluation tool.   The recommended ISO protocol had the least sensitivity, and application of this method could result in underreporting. We detected a high prevalence of Campylobacter on packed meat to be distributed, which suggests this is still a significant risk for consumers. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Isolation of a novel thermophilic Campylobacter from cases of spotty liver disease in laying hens and experimental reproduction of infection and microscopic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Tim R; Chanter, Jeremy I; Young, Stuart C L; Cawthraw, Shaun; Whatmore, Adrian M; Koylass, Mark S; Vidal, Ana B; Salguero, Francisco J; Irvine, Richard M

    2015-09-30

    The condition known as spotty liver disease or spotty liver syndrome can cause significant mortality in free range laying hen flocks. It has been described in Europe and Australia but the aetiology has not been established. There are similarities between spotty liver disease and avian vibrionic hepatitis, a condition which was reported in the 1950s. A Vibrio-like organism was suspected to be the cause of avian vibrionic hepatitis, although this organism was never fully characterised. We report the isolation of a novel Campylobacter from five separate outbreaks of spotty liver disease. The conditions required for culture, the growth characteristics, electron microscopical morphology and results of the phenotypic tests used in the identification of this novel Campylobacter sp. are described. The novel Campylobacter is slow growing and fastidious and does not grow on media routinely used for isolating Campylobacter sp. The morphology is typical for a Campylobacter sp. and phenotypic tests and a duplex real time PCR test differentiate the novel Campylobacter from other members of the genus. 16S rRNA analysis of 19 isolates showed an identical sequence which appears to represent a hitherto unknown sub lineage within the genus Campylobacter. Experimental intraperitoneal infection of four week old SPF chickens produced microscopic liver pathology indistinguishable from natural disease and the novel Campylobacter was recovered from the experimentally infected chicks. The isolates described appear to be a possible causal organism for spotty liver disease. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Complete genomic sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 strain RM1285 that was isolated from packaged chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry products serve as the main source of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) infections in humans. Cjj infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and are a prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). This study describes the genome of Cjj HS:19 strain RM1285 isol...

  15. The complete annotated genome sequences of three Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from naturally colonized, farm raised chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterially derived foodborne illness worldwide. Human illness is commonly associated with handling and consumption of contaminated poultry products. Three C. jejuni strains were isolated from cecal contents of three different naturally colonized, farm rais...

  16. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C-coli: Resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Taylor, D. E.

    2001-01-01

    resistance in Campylobacter and track resistance trends in human clinical isolates in relation to use of these agents in food animals. Susceptibility data suggest that erythromycin and other macrolides should remain the drugs of choice in most regions, with systematic surveillance and central measures...

  17. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni subsp jejuni from macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) in the subantarctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, T.; Bergstrom, S.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2000-01-01

    On Bird Island, South Georgia, albatrosses (n = 140), penguins (n = 100), and fur seals (n = 206) were sampled for Campylobacter jejuni. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni was recovered from three macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus). These isolates, the first reported for the subantarctic region, showed...

  18. Complete Genomic Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 Strain RM1285 Isolated from Packaged Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Craig; Huynh, S; Heikema, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPoultry products serve as the main source of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni infections in humans. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and are a prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome. This study describes the genome of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 strain RM1285, isolated from packaged chicken in California.

  19. Detection and species identification of Campylobacter in stool samples of children and animals from Vellore, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rajendran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis frequently isolated from animal, poultry and environmental samples. In this study, we investigated the zoonotic potential of Campylobacter spp. by comparing prevalence rates and species in 394 children with diarrhoea and 652 animals in Vellore using PCR-based tools. Eighteen children (4.5% had campylobacteriosis, a majority of whom had co-pathogens (15/18 and most were infected with Campylobacter jejuni (16/18. A few C. coli and mixed infections with both species were also seen. Among the animal samples, 16/25 chicken samples (64% were positive and all were found to be C. jejuni.

  20. Effect of photodynamic therapy on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabe, Michelle; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Costa, Anna Carolina Borges Pereira da; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Feist, Ilíria Salomão

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus spp. are opportunistic microorganisms known for their capacity to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on 20 Staphylococcus strains isolated from the human oral cavity, including S. aureus, S. schleiferi, S. epidermidis, S. capitis, S. haemolyticus, and S. lentus. A suspension of each Staphylococcus strain (10(6) cells/mL) was submitted to PDT using methylene blue and a low power laser. The isolated effects of methylene blue, laser treatment and ciprofloxacin were also evaluated. After the experimental treatments, 0.1 mL aliquots of the suspensions were seeded onto BHI agar for determination of the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p Staphylococcus isolates studied.

  1. Detection and viability of Campylobacter species isolates from different species of poultry and humans in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Nwankwo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence and viability of Campylobacter species isolates from different species of poultry and humans in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in the live birds markets, humans on admission and at outpatient clinics in the randomly selected hospitals in Sokoto State. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter species were performed using standard culture isolation techniques and biochemical characterization. A total of 798 (506 cloacal and 292 fecal swabs from poultry and humans, respectively, were collected and analyzed. The viability of 307 isolates stored in 15% glycerol and 85% tryptone broth at −20°C was determined after 7-13 months. Results: A total of 312 (39% were positive for Campylobacter species which comprises 119 (30%, 20 (30%, 3 (14%, 9 (56%, 1 (50%, and 160 (55% in chicken, guinea fowls, pigeons, ducks, turkey, and humans, respectively. The total of 38 (24%, 63 (39%, and 59 (37% humans and 29 (19%, 79 (52%, and 44 (29% poultry isolates were positive for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter Coli, and Campylobacter Lari, respectively. A total of 261 (85% of the stored isolates were still viable on re-isolation with the viability rates of 41 (95%, 67 (85%, and 17 (59% at 7, 9, and 13 months of storage, respectively. There was a negative correlation between months of storage and viability rates. However, there was no significant statistical association (p>0.05 between prevalence rate and species of poultry. Conclusion: Campylobacter species have been detected with varying degree of prevalence in both poultry and humans and their ability to survive freezing at −20°C (95% for up to 7 months has been revealed in the study. This is not only a concern to food and livestock industries but also a concern to the public health at large, especially, in view of the study area being considered one of the largest livestock producers in Nigeria

  2. Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 327, a strain isolated from a turkey slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis and has a high prevalence in poultry. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni 327 is a subspecies of the genus Campylobacter of the family Campylobacteraceae in the phylum Proteobacteria. The microaerophilic, spiral shaped, catal...

  3. Minimum inhibitory concentration distribution in environmental Legionella spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandalakis, Vassilios; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Goniotakis, Ioannis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-12-01

    In Greece standard tests are performed in the watering and cooling systems of hotels' units either as part of the surveillance scheme or following human infection. The purpose of this study was to establish the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of environmental Legionella isolates for six antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of Legionella infections, by MIC-test methodology. Water samples were collected from 2004 to 2011 from 124 hotels from the four prefectures of Crete (Greece). Sixty-eight (68) Legionella isolates, comprising L. pneumophila serogroups 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 15, L. anisa, L. rubrilucens, L. maceachernii, L. quinlivanii, L. oakridgensis, and L. taurinensis, were included in the study. MIC-tests were performed on buffered charcoal yeast extract with α-ketoglutarate, L-cysteine, and ferric pyrophosphate. The MICs were read after 2 days of incubation at 36 ± 1 °C at 2.5% CO2. A large distribution in MICs was recorded for each species and each antibiotic tested. Rifampicin proved to be the most potent antibiotic regardless of the Legionella spp.; tetracycline appeared to have the least activity on our environmental isolates. The MIC-test approach is an easy, although not so cost-effective, way to determine MICs in Legionella spp. These data should be kept in mind especially since these Legionella species may cause human disease.

  4. Detection of Helicobacter and Campylobacter spp. from the aquatic environment of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, C G; Matteo, M J; Loureiro, J D; Degrossi, J; Teves, S; Heredia, S Rodriguez; Alvarez, K; González, A Beltrán; Catalano, M; Boccio, J; Cremaschi, G; Solnick, J V; Zubillaga, M B

    2009-01-13

    The mechanism by which Helicobacter species are transmitted remains unclear. To examine the possible role of environmental transmission in marine mammals, we sought the presence of Helicobacter spp. and non-Helicobacter bacteria within the order Campylobacterales in water from the aquatic environment of marine mammals, and in fish otoliths regurgitated by dolphins. Water was collected from six pools, two inhabited by dolphins and four inhabited by seals. Regurgitated otoliths were collected from the bottom of dolphins' pools. Samples were evaluated by culture, PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Sequences from dolphins' water and from regurgitated otoliths clustered with 99.8-100% homology with sequences from gastric fluids, dental plaque and saliva from dolphins living in those pools, and with 99.5% homology with H. cetorum. Sequences from seals' water clustered with 99.5% homology with a sequence amplified from a Northern sea lion (AY203900). Control PCR on source water for the pools and from otoliths dissected from feeder fish were negative. The findings of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the aquatic environment suggests that contaminated water from regurgitated fish otoliths and perhaps other tissues may play a role in Helicobacter transmission among marine mammals.

  5. Validation of the ANSR® for Campylobacter Method for Detection of Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Carcass Rinse and Turkey Sponge Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Ryan; Alles, Susan; Le, Quynh-Nhi; Hosking, Edan; Biswas, Preetha; Zhang, Lei; Tolan, Jerry; Meister, Evan; Tovar, Eric; Pinkava, Lisa; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer; Chen, Yi; Odumeru, Joseph; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-11-01

    A performance validation of the ANSR® for Campylobacter method was conducted in selected matrixes. This assay used selective nicking enzyme amplification technology to amplify target genes. Samples were enriched for 20 to 24 h and then lysed. The assay was completed within 50 min using real-time detection in a combination incubator/fluorescence detector and software. When 50 distinct strains of Campylobacter jejuni, C. lari, or C. coli were tested for inclusivity, all 50 strains produced positive results. In exclusivity testing, 31 strains of related organisms, including seven nontarget Campylobacter strains and other common species, were evaluated. All 31 species generated negative ANSR assay results, including the nontarget Campylobacter strains. The ANSR for Campylobacter method was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference method using naturally contaminated chicken carcass rinse or turkey carcass sponge samples. ANSR method performance was not statistically different from the reference method using two different enrichment options. Equivalent results were observed at both time points (20 and 24 h) and in both atmospheres (microaerobic and aerobic) to reference methods. Method performance with chicken carcass rinse was confirmed in an independent laboratory study. Additionally, in robustness testing, small, deliberate changes to the assay parameters minimally affected ANSR method performance. Finally, accelerated stability results from three independently manufactured lots supported a shelf life of 6 months when stored at 4°C. The ANSR assay offered greater efficiency and flexibility when compared to the reference method with a 20-24 h single-step enrichment in a microaerobic or an aerobic atmosphere.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Isolated from Children with Diarrhea in Thailand and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Thongprachum, Aksara; Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Nishimura, Shuichi; Shimizu-Onda, Yuko; Trinh, Quang Duy; Khamrin, Pattara; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Kongsricharoern, Tipachan; Komine-Aizawa, Shihoko; Okitsu, Shoko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A total of 29 Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli strains were isolated from Thai and Japanese children with diarrhea using the Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method. The samples were evaluated for mutations in gyrA and 23S rRNA in order to assess resistance against fluoroquinolones and macrolides, respectively. Among the isolated strains, 9 (8 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli) were from Thai children, and the other 20 (C. jejuni) were isolated from Japanese children. High fluoroquinolone resistance rates were observed in Thai (66.7%) and Japanese (90%) children. Macrolide resistance was not observed in Japanese children but was observed at a considerable rate of 12.5% of C. jejuni isolated in the Thai cohort. The results indicate that continuous monitoring of resistance of Campylobacter strains to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is definitely necessary.

  7. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Holst Sørensen

    Full Text Available In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb, host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220 as well as receptors (CPS or flagella recognised by the isolated phages.

  8. Isolation and antibiotic resistance of Ureaplasma spp. isolated from urogenital specimen between 2002 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Del Gaudio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis are frequently isolated from urogenital samples. Ureaplasma spp is responsible for cervicovaginitis, salpingitis, urethritis, epididymitis, male and female infertility, spontaneous abortion, and during pregnancy, for the premature rupture of the membranes, because of chorionamnionitis. Our study aimed to establish the pattern of antimicrobial resistance among Ureaplasma spp isolated in the area of Andria,Apulia Region, from January 2002 to December 2007. 240/781 (30.7% of the urogenital samples examined were found Ureaplasma spp.-positive. 152/240 (63.3 % were >104 UFC/ml and 88/240 (36.7 % were <104 UFC/ml. With regard to the resistance rate, we observed significant increase in resistance to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin. While we did not observe resistance to doxycycline, strains resistant to tetracycline, josamycin, and pristinamycins, were isolated during last years of investigation. Our data may help improve the management of these infections above all in consideration of the differences among isolates in different geographic regions.

  9. Prevalence of Type VI Secretion System in Spanish Campylobacter jejuni Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Stabler, R A; Domínguez, L; Porrero, M C; Wren, B W; Dorrell, N; Gundogdu, O

    2015-11-01

    Infections from Campylobacter jejuni pose a serious public health problem and are now considered the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Sequencing of C. jejuni genomes has previously allowed a number of loci to be identified, which encode virulence factors that aid survival and pathogenicity. Recently, a Type VI secretion system (T6SS) consisting of 13 conserved genes was described in C. jejuni strains and recognised to promote pathogenicity and adaptation to the environment. In this study, we determined the presence of this T6SS in 63 Spanish C. jejuni isolates from the food chain and urban effluents using whole-genome sequencing. Our findings demonstrated that nine (14%) strains harboured the 13 ORFs found in prototype strain C. jejuni 108. Further studies will be necessary to determine the prevalence and importance of T6SS-positive C. jejuni strains. © 2014 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Concentration in Household Pets and Petting Zoo Animals for Use in Exposure Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Katarina D M; Christidis, Tanya; Thomas, M Kate; Anderson, Maureen; Nesbitt, Andrea; Keithlin, Jessica; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Canada and abroad. Within this literature, knowledge gaps were identified, and include: a lack of concentration data reported in the literature for Campylobacter spp. in animal feces, a distinction between ill and diarrheic pets in the reported studies, noted differences in shedding and concentrations for various subtypes of Campylobacter, and consistent reporting between studies.

  11. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni multilocus sequence types isolated from chickens in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, K; Denis, E; Lachtara, B; Osek, J

    2017-03-01

    Poultry is recognized as the most important source of food-related transmission of Campylobacter jejuni to humans and campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported zoonotic bacterial disease in the European Union. It has been documented that C. jejuni is genetically diverse and analyses of bacterial isolates usually show a large strain variety. Therefore, molecular typing of strains represents an important tool to study the genetic diversity of isolates and to trace individual strains that cause human infections. The aim of the study was characterization of genetic population structure and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of C. jejuni isolated from Polish chickens. C. jejuni from chicken ceca and the corresponding carcasses (72 and 61 strains, respectively), originating from 128 flocks in Poland during February 2011 and May 2013, were used in the study. The isolates were tested for their population structure and genetic diversity using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme with connection to their antimicrobial resistance. The molecular analysis of 133 C. jejuni generated 39 different sequence types (ST); 3 of them were defined for the first time. Additionally, 16 STs were represented by single isolates. The most common STs observed were 6411 (16.5% isolates) and 257 (15.0% strains). The first mentioned ST was resistant to 3 different classes of antibiotics, i.e., quinolones, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides. Overall, 125 (94.4%) of C. jejuni isolates demonstrated antimicrobial resistance and the most frequent AMR profile observed was ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline (47.4% strains). Likewise, the clonal complexes CC 257 and CC 353 were defined as the predominant molecular groups covering altogether 37 C. jejuni strains. No associations between CCs and the origin of the samples as well as the place of isolation were found. This study highlights that the C. jejuni population from chickens in Poland was diverse and showed a weak clonal structure.

  12. Harmonised monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates from food animals in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Many Member States of the European Union (EU) currently monitor antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic agents, including Salmonella and Campylobacter. According to Directive 2003/99/EC, Member States shall ensure that the monitoring provides comparable data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. The European Commission asked the European Food Safety Authority to prepare detailed specifications for harmonised schemes for monitoring antimicrobial resistance. The objective of these specifications is to lay down provisions for a monitoring and reporting scheme for Salmonella in fowl (Gallus gallus), turkeys and pigs, and for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in broiler chickens. The current specifications are considered to be a first step towards a gradual implementation of comprehensive antimicrobial resistance monitoring at the EU level. These specifications propose to test a common set of antimicrobial agents against available cut-off values and a specified concentration range to determine the susceptibility of Salmonella and Campylobacter. Using isolates collected through programmes in which the sampling frame covers all epidemiological units of the national production, the target number of Salmonella isolates to be included in the antimicrobial resistance monitoring per Member State per year is 170 for each study population (i.e., laying hens, broilers, turkeys and slaughter pigs). The target number of Campylobacter isolates to be included in the antimicrobial resistance monitoring per Member State per year is 170 for each study population (i.e., broilers). The results of the antimicrobial resistance monitoring are assessed and reported in the yearly national report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and antimicrobial resistance.

  13. Source attribution of human Campylobacter isolates by MLST and fla-typing and association of genotypes with quinolone resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kittl

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant.

  14. Source attribution of human Campylobacter isolates by MLST and fla-typing and association of genotypes with quinolone resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Sonja; Heckel, Gerald; Korczak, Bożena M; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST) and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant.

  15. Multiplex strategy for multilocus sequence typing, fla typing, and genetic determination of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates collected in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Bozena M; Zurfluh, Monika; Emler, Stefan; Kuhn-Oertli, Jacqueline; Kuhnert, Peter

    2009-07-01

    We present an optimized multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme with universal primer sets for amplifying and sequencing the seven target genes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Typing was expanded by sequence determination of the genes flaA and flaB using optimized primer sets. This approach is compatible with the MLST and flaA schemes used in the PubMLST database and results in an additional typing method using the flaB gene sequence. An identification module based on the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes was included, as well as the genetic determination of macrolide and quinolone resistances based on mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes. Experimental procedures were simplified by multiplex PCR of the 13 target genes. This comprehensive approach was evaluated with C. jejuni and C. coli isolates collected in Switzerland. MLST of 329 strains resulted in 72 sequence types (STs) among the 186 C. jejuni strains and 39 STs for the 143 C. coli isolates. Fourteen (19%) of the C. jejuni and 20 (51%) of the C. coli STs had not been found previously. In total, 35% of the C. coli strains collected in Switzerland contained mutations conferring antibiotic resistance only to quinolone, 15% contained mutations conferring resistance only to macrolides, and 6% contained mutations conferring resistance to both classes of antibiotics. In C. jejuni, these values were 31% and 0% for quinolone and macrolide resistance, respectively. The rpoB sequence allowed phylogenetic differentiation between C. coli and C. jejuni, which was not possible by 16S rRNA gene analysis. An online Integrated Database Network System (SmartGene, Zug, Switzerland)-based platform for MLST data analysis specific to Campylobacter was implemented. This Web-based platform allowed automated allele and ST designation, as well as epidemiological analysis of data, thus streamlining and facilitating the analysis workflow. Data networking facilitates the exchange of information between collaborating centers

  16. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of Clostridium spp. isolated from spoiled processed cheese products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycken, Lena; Borch, Elisabeth

    2006-08-01

    Of 42 spoiled cheese spread products, 35 were found to harbor Clostridium spp. Typical signs of spoilage were gas production and off-odor. The identity was determined for about half of the isolates (n = 124) by Analytab Products (API), Biolog, the RiboPrinter System, 16S rDNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid analysis, or some combination of these. The majority of isolates were identified as Clostridium sporogenes (in 33% of products), but Clostridium cochlearium (in 12% of products) and Clostridium tyrobutyricum (in 2% of products) were also retrieved. Similarity analysis of the riboprint patterns for 21 isolates resulted in the identification of 10 ribogroups. A high degree of relatedness was observed between isolates of C. sporogenes originating from products produced 3 years apart, indicating a common and, over time, persistent source of infection. The spoilage potential of 11 well-characterized isolates and two culture collection strains was analyzed by inoculating shrimp cheese spread with single cultures and then storing them at 37 degrees C. Tubes inoculated with C. tyrobutyricum did not show any visible signs of growth (e.g., coagulation, discoloration, gas formation) in the cheese spread. After 2 weeks of incubation, tubes inoculated with C. cochlearium or C. sporogenes showed gas-holes, syneresis with separation of coagulated casein and liquid, and a change in color of the cheese. The amount of CO2 produced by C. cochlearium strains was approximately one-third that produced by the majority of C. sporogenes strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study to isolate and identify C. cochlearium as a spoilage organism in cheese spread.

  18. Presence of microorganisms from isolated Megaselia spp. in foodservice establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Carla; Esteban, J Guillermo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    The transmission of harmful pathogens by arthropods is an increasing health concern. More concretely, flies are known to be able to transmit the infectious agent mechanically. The present work shows a case report occurred from foodservice establishments where were isolated and identified, at the first time, Megaselia spp. in the food preparation place. Furthermore, microorganisms were analyzed from these flies. It is based in entomological and microbiological analysis. Mesophilic aerobic flora and Enterobacteriaceae were found in all the samples, exceeding the limits established from food commodities on 41.7% (5/12) for mesophilic aerobic bacteria and 66.7% (8/12) for Enterobacteriaceae. Furthermore, 25% (3/12) of analyzed flies were found positive to Escherichia coli, data that can be linked with the microbiological food results. The most surprising results were the presence of S. aureus in 66.7% (8/12) of the analyzed flies. A binomial relationship among Megaselia spp. and bacteria is demonstrated being an important study to demonstrate that must be checked more hygienically measurement in foodservice. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Virulence and genomic feature of multidrug resistant Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in multidrug resistance and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens. The virulence of six multidrug resistant C. jejuni was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the multidrug resistance and virulence of a selected isolate (C. jejuni 1655. The comparative genomic analyses revealed a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in C. jejuni 1655 compared to reference C. jejuni genomes. The co-emergence of Thr-86-Ile mutation in gyrA gene, A2075G mutation in 23S rRNA gene, tetO, aphA and aadE genes and pTet plasmid in C. jejuni 1655 contributed its multidrug resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracycline and aminoglycosides. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in C. jejuni 1655. The co-existence of mobile gene elements (e.g. pTet and CRISPR-Cas system in C. jejuni 1655 may play an important role in the gene transfer and immune defense. The present study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of C. jejuni 1655, a strain recently isolated from a chicken displaying multidrug resistance and relatively high level of virulence.

  20. Genomic characterization of the Guillain-Barre syndrome-associated Campylobacter jejuni ICDCCJ07001 Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maojun; He, Lihua; Li, Qun; Sun, Honghe; Gu, Yixin; You, Yuanhai; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2010-11-29

    Campylobacter jejuni ICDCCJ07001 (HS:41, ST2993) was isolated from a Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patient during a 36-case GBS outbreak triggered by C. jejuni infections in north China in 2007. Sequence analysis revealed that the ICDCCJ07001 genome consisted of 1,664,840 base pairs (bp) and one tetracycline resistance plasmid of 44,084 bp. The GC content was 59.29% and 1,579 and 37 CDSs were identified on the chromosome and plasmid, respectively. The ICDCCJ07001 genome was compared to C. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains 81-176, 81116, NCTC11168, RM1221 and C. jejuni subsp. doylei 269.97. The length and organization of ICDCCJ07001 was similar to that of NCTC11168, 81-176 and 81-116 except that CMLP1 had a reverse orientation in strain ICDCCJ07001. Comparative genomic analyses were also carried out between GBS-associated C. jejuni strains. Thirteen common genes were present in four GBS-associated strains and 9 genes mapped to the LOS cluster and the ICDCCJ07001_pTet (44 kb) plasmid was mosaic in structure. Thirty-seven predicted CDS in ICDCCJ07001_pTet were homologous to genes present in three virulence-associated plasmids in Campylobacter: 81-176_pTet, pCC31 and 81-176_pVir. Comparative analysis of virulence loci and virulence-associated genes indicated that the LOS biosynthesis loci of ICDCCJ07001 belonged to type A, previously reported to be associated with cases of GBS. The polysaccharide capsular biosynthesis (CPS) loci and the flagella modification (FM) loci of ICDCCJ07001 were similar to corresponding sequences of strain 260.94 of similar serotype as strain ICDCCJ07001. Other virulence-associated genes including cadF, peb1, jlpA, cdt and ciaB were conserved between the C. jejuni strains examined.

  1. Genomic characterization of the Guillain-Barre syndrome-associated Campylobacter jejuni ICDCCJ07001 Isolate.

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    Maojun Zhang

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni ICDCCJ07001 (HS:41, ST2993 was isolated from a Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS patient during a 36-case GBS outbreak triggered by C. jejuni infections in north China in 2007. Sequence analysis revealed that the ICDCCJ07001 genome consisted of 1,664,840 base pairs (bp and one tetracycline resistance plasmid of 44,084 bp. The GC content was 59.29% and 1,579 and 37 CDSs were identified on the chromosome and plasmid, respectively. The ICDCCJ07001 genome was compared to C. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains 81-176, 81116, NCTC11168, RM1221 and C. jejuni subsp. doylei 269.97. The length and organization of ICDCCJ07001 was similar to that of NCTC11168, 81-176 and 81-116 except that CMLP1 had a reverse orientation in strain ICDCCJ07001. Comparative genomic analyses were also carried out between GBS-associated C. jejuni strains. Thirteen common genes were present in four GBS-associated strains and 9 genes mapped to the LOS cluster and the ICDCCJ07001_pTet (44 kb plasmid was mosaic in structure. Thirty-seven predicted CDS in ICDCCJ07001_pTet were homologous to genes present in three virulence-associated plasmids in Campylobacter: 81-176_pTet, pCC31 and 81-176_pVir. Comparative analysis of virulence loci and virulence-associated genes indicated that the LOS biosynthesis loci of ICDCCJ07001 belonged to type A, previously reported to be associated with cases of GBS. The polysaccharide capsular biosynthesis (CPS loci and the flagella modification (FM loci of ICDCCJ07001 were similar to corresponding sequences of strain 260.94 of similar serotype as strain ICDCCJ07001. Other virulence-associated genes including cadF, peb1, jlpA, cdt and ciaB were conserved between the C. jejuni strains examined.

  2. [Characteristic of Listeria spp. bacteria isolated from food products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majczyna, Danuta; Białasiewicz, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of occurrance of Listeria strains in different food products was determined. Biochemical characteristic of the isolated strains was achieved in accordance with procedure included in PNEN ISO 11290 standard, genus was determined byApiListeria (bioMéieux) test. Sensitivity to selected antibacterial medicines was investigated using disck method and Mueller-Hinton 2 Agar medium. From the 577 examinated food samples 126 strains of Listeria were isolated and among them: 34.1% L. monocytogenes, 36,5% L. welshimeri, 19.0% L. innocua, 3.17% L. grayi, 0.79% L. seeligeri, 0.79% L. seeligeri/welshinmeri and 5.56% L. ivelshimeri/innocua. L. monocytogenes strains most often were found in minced pork, culinary products and in frozen vegetables. On the base of ApiListeria (bioMéieux) test the isolated L. monocytogenes strains were qualified into 2 biochemical types. It was found that all L. monocytogenes were sensitive to sulphametaksazol/trimetoprim and ampicyllin, 25% of strains were moderatety sensitive to penicillin and only 2 L. monocytogenes strains were resistant to gentamicin. Presence of Listeria spp. microorganisms in food products may be an production hygiene indicator for critical control point and show the possibility of contamination with L. monocytogenes strains.

  3. Effect of photodynamic therapy on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp

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    Michelle Miyabe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus spp. are opportunistic microorganisms known for their capacity to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT on 20 Staphylococcus strains isolated from the human oral cavity, including S. aureus, S. schleiferi, S. epidermidis, S. capitis, S. haemolyticus, and S. lentus. A suspension of each Staphylococcus strain (10(6 cells/mL was submitted to PDT using methylene blue and a low power laser. The isolated effects of methylene blue, laser treatment and ciprofloxacin were also evaluated. After the experimental treatments, 0.1 mL aliquots of the suspensions were seeded onto BHI agar for determination of the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p < 0.05. The mean reduction in bacterial counts of the strains submitted to PDT ranged from 4.89 to 6.83 CFU (log10/mL, with the observation of a decreasing susceptibility to treatment of S. schleiferi, S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis, S. capitis, S. aureus, and S. lentus. The results showed that PDT was effective in reducing the number of viable cells of all clinical Staphylococcus isolates studied.

  4. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

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    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  5. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    , the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive. In marinated poultry products, Campylobacter was detected at a prevalence of 21.1% and 9.5% in turkey......During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products...... and chicken products, respectively. In August, there was a peak with 28.9% positive Campylobacter samples. Campylobacter inoculation tests were carried out to test the detection limit of both methods. The PCR method used is faster than microbiological analyses. However, enrichment of the samples is necessary...

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp isolated from surfaces in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Elizabeth; Kaneene, John B; May, Katherine J; Kruger, John M; Schall, William; Beal, Matthew W; Hauptman, Joe G; DeCamp, Charles E

    2012-06-15

    To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci and staphylococci collected from environmental surfaces at a veterinary teaching hospital (VTH). Longitudinal study. Samples collected from surfaces in 5 areas (emergency and critical care, soft tissue and internal medicine, and orthopedic wards; surgery preparation and recovery rooms; and surgery office and operating rooms) of a VTH. Selected surfaces were swabbed every 3 months during the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Isolates of enterococci and staphylococci were identified via biochemical tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated with a microbroth dilution technique. A subset of isolates was analyzed to assess clonality by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. 430 samples were collected, and isolates of enterococci (n = 75) and staphylococci (110) were identified. Surfaces significantly associated with isolation of Enterococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp included cages and a weight scale. Fourteen Enterococcus spp isolates and 17 Staphylococcus spp isolates were resistant to ≥ 5 antimicrobials. Samples collected from the scale throughout the study suggested an overall increase in antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecium over time. Clonality was detected for E faecium isolates collected from 2 different surfaces on the same day. Although not surprising, the apparent increase in antimicrobial resistance of E faecium was of concern because of the organism's ability to transmit antimicrobial resistance genes to other pathogens. Results reported here may aid in identification of critical control points to help prevent the spread of pathogens in VTHs.

  7. Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in isolates of Klebsiella spp and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the occurrence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) enzymes in isolates of Klebsiella spp and E.coli from various health institutions in Lagos. Methods: From December 2000 to October 2001, 356 isolates of Klebsiella spp (200) and Escherichia coli (156) were investigated for ESBL ...

  8. Veiculação de Campylobacter spp. através de carne e miúdos de frangos comercializados no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil | Transmission of Campylobacter spp. through chicken meat and organs sold in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Thais Martins Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O consumo da carne de frango é comum no Brasil por ser um alimento proteico de alto valor biológico e baixo custo, sendo acessível a toda população. Uma causa comum de infecções alimentares tem sido a ingestão de produtos avícolas contaminados, crus ou insuficientemente cozidos, fazendo da contaminação de cortes de frango fontes potenciais de Campylobacter spp. para o homem. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de Campylobacter e verificar a possível veiculação da campilobacteriose através de cortes e miúdos de frangos resfriados e comercializados para consumo em supermercados de grande porte no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para isso, foram coletadas 40 amostras resfriadas de frango, das quais 19 foram embaladas pela indústria e 21 manipuladas pelos supermercados, submetendo-as a três metodologias distintas denominadas: in natura, enriquecimento e incubação da água de lavagem. Os resultados obtidos revelaram a presença de espécies de Campylobacter zoonóticas resistentes a antimicrobianos em cortes de frango comercializados para consumo humano, indicando que pedaços e miúdos de frango crus ou insuficientemente cozidos são fontes potenciais de campilobacteriose para a população. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The consumption of chicken meat is common in Brazil because this protein-rich food is low cost, has high nutritional value, and is accessible to the entire population. A common cause of foodborne illness has been the ingestion of contaminated, raw, or undercooked poultry products, making contaminated chicken meat a potential source of Campylobacter spp. to humans. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of Campylobacter and assess the potential transmission of campylobacteriosis through refrigerated chicken meat and organs sold for consumption in large supermarkets in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this purpose, 40 samples of

  9. Variability in tolerance to UV-B radiation among Beauveria spp. isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Éverton K. K.; Rangel, Drauzio E. N.; Moraes, Âurea M. L.; Bittencourt, Vânia R. E. P.; Roberts, Donald W.

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation, particularly the UV-B component, negatively affects survival of entomopathogenic fungi in the field. In an effort to identify Beauveria spp. isolates with promise for use in biological control settings with high insolation, we examined 53 Beauveria bassiana isolates, 7 isolates of 4 other Beauveria spp. and Engyodontium albus (=Beauveria alba). The origins of these fungi varied widely as to host/substrate and country, but approximately 30% of these isolates were B. bassiana f...

  10. Phenotypic characterization of Nocardia spp. isolated from Iran soil microflora

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    Shadi Habibnia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Due to great number of Nocardia spp., high similarities among biochemical characteristics of species and the variability of some these characters, a wide range of biochemical tests should be used to identify Nocardia spp. to gain more accurate results.

  11. [Multilocus sequence typing analysis of 47 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from poultry in Hubei province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Han, Mei; Zhou, Kang; Luo, Qingping; Shao, Huabin; Zhang, Tengfei

    2016-01-04

    To study the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry in Hubei province, we used multilocus sequence typing method to classify 47 local C. jejuni strains. Genomic DNA of each isolated strain was extract, seven housekeeping genes including aspA, g1nA, g1tA, glyA, pgm, tkt and uncA were amplified by PCR and sequenced, and then the sequences of genes were analyzed using MLST database. There were a total of 38 sequence types and 10 clonal complexes, and ST353 and ST464 complexes were the largest amount of the population of C. jejuni analyzed, of which 2 new allelic profile and 25 new sequence types were found. Phylogenetic tree shows that sequence types from different types of poultry and different regions were different. Forty-seven C. jejuni strains isolated from poultry in Hubei were analyzed using MLST and showed abundant genetic diversity, it will provide scientific data to the epidemiological investigation of C. jejuni in Hubei, China.

  12. Genotypic characterisation and cluster analysis of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from domestic pets, human clinical cases and retail food

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    Acke Els

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic similarity of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from pets, compared to human clinical cases and retail food isolates collected in Ireland over 2001-2006 was investigated by cluster analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE fingerprinting profiles. Comparison of the PFGE profiles of 60 pet isolates and 109 human isolates revealed that seven (4.1% profiles were grouped in clusters including at least one human and one pet C. jejuni isolate. In total six (1.6% of 60 pet and 310 food profiles were in clusters with at least one food and one pet C. jejuni isolate. The detection of only a small number of genetically indistinguishable isolates by PFGE profile cluster analysis from pets and from humans with enteritis in this study suggests that pets are unlikely to be an important reservoir for human campylobacteriosis in Ireland. However, genetically indistinguishable isolates were detected and C. jejuni from pets may circulate and may contribute to clinical infections in humans. In addition, contaminated food fed to pets may be a potential source of Campylobacter infection in pets, which may subsequently pose a risk to humans.

  13. Resistance to Antibiotics in Strains of Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Pigs

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    M. Kolář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.

  14. PROBIOTIC POTENCY OF LACTOBACILLUS SPP. ISOLATED FROM SUMBAWA MARE MILK

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    I Nengah Sujaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was deigned to elucidate the potency of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from sumbawa mare milk to be developed as a probiotic. Sixteen lacobacilli were screened based on their resitancy to a model of gastric juice at pH 2, 3, and 4, then followed by their resistncy to small intestional fluid model containing deoxycholic. Three lactobacilli i.e. Lactobacillus sp. SKA13, Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were found to be resistentent to gastric juice at pH 3 and 4. However, there were no lactobacilli resisted to pH 2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were able to reach the colon even after being expossed to a model of intestinal fluid containing 0,4 mM deoxycholate and pancreatine. Therefore, these isolates have a potency to be developed as probiotic lactobacilli. Nevertherless, these lactobcailli could probably transform cholic acid into secondary bile acids, which were not expected to be found in the probiotic, and this capability is not appropriate for probiotic. This character is worthly to be studied since it has never been reported in lactobacilli.

  15. Prevalence and pathogen load of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157/O145 serogroup in sheep faeces collected at sale yards and in abattoir effluent in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R; Abraham, S; Gardner, G E; Ryan, U; Jacobson, C

    2017-05-01

    Develop a multiplex quantitative PCR assay to investigate the prevalence and shedding of Escherichia coli O157/O145, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in sheep at sale yards and abattoirs. A qPCR for E. coli O157/O145 was developed, validated and multiplexed with an existing qPCR for Campylobacter and Salmonella enterica. The absolute numbers of E. coli O157/O145, Campylobacter and Salmonella in control samples was determined using droplet digital PCR. These were then used as the controls in the multiplex qPCR on a total of 474 sheep faecal samples collected from two saleyards over a 4-month period (April-July 2014) and 96 effluent samples from an abattoir. The mutiplex qPCR was specific with a sensitivity of 5 organisms/μL faecal DNA extract for Campylobacter, S. enterica and E. coli O157/O145. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter, S. enterica and E. coli O157/O145 in faecal samples was 5.7%, 3.6% and 8.4% and in effluent samples was 18.8%, 6.3% and 5.2%, respectively. The pathogen loads of Campylobacter, S. enterica and E. coli O157/O145 in faecal and effluent samples was also determined via mutiplex qPCR. The overall prevalences of Campylobacter, S. enterica and E. coli O157/O145 were generally low (<6%), but point prevalences ranged considerably in healthy sheep (up to 26% for E. coli O157/O145). Further work to determine risk factors for shedding of bacterial organisms in meat sheep in the pre-slaughter period (on-farm, sale yards and lairage at abattoirs) could further reduce the risk of contamination of meat products. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Campylobacter spp. en granjas de pollos de engorde: diversidad genética, resistencia antimicrobiana y factores de virulencia

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero Portillo, Juan Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    La campilobacteriosis es la zoonosis de transmisión alimentaria más comúnmente reportada en la Unión Europea (UE) desde 2005. La principal fuente de infección es el consumo o manipulación de carne de pollo contaminada con Campylobacter (principalmente C. jejuni y C. coli). La alta prevalencia de Campylobacter en pollos de engorde en granja supone un elevado riesgo de contaminación del producto final y por ende el riesgo de infección para el consumidor. Es por ello que para la UE es prioritari...

  17. No Clear Differences between Organic or Conventional Pig Farms in the Genetic Diversity or Virulence of Campylobacter coli Isolates

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    Martine Denis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of pig farm management on the genetic diversity and on the virulence of Campylobacter coli, we characterized isolates from 19 organic pig farms (62 isolates and from 24 conventional pig farms (58 isolates. The 120 C. coli isolates were typed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST and the presence of nine virulence genes was screened using real-time PCR. The capacity of adhesion and invasion of 61 isolates (32 from organic and 29 from conventional farms were then tested on human intestinal Caco-2 cells. A total of 59 PFGE types and of 50 sequence types (STs were identified. Twelve PFGE types and nine STs, accounting for 34 and 41.6% of the isolates, respectively, were common between the two production systems with ST854 dominating (18.3% of the isolates. Twenty-nine PFGE types and 25 STs were only found in isolates from organic farms, and 18 PFGE types and 16 STs from conventional farms. No significant differences were found in diversity despite the differences in rearing systems, except at the locus level for the glnA, gltA, and uncA genes. All isolates, regardless of their origin, carried the ceuE, iam, ciaB, and flaA genes and more than 95% of the isolates carried the cadF and cdtABC genes. No significant differences were found in pathogenicity between the two farming systems. The pathogenicity of the C. coli isolates was low compared to C. jejuni control strains tested. The plasmid gene virb11 was detected in only 13 isolates from organic farms; these isolates showed greater invasion capacity than those without this gene. Our study indicates that pig farm management does not significantly affect the diversity and the virulence of Campylobacter coli isolated from pigs. The common genotypes between conventional and organic farms may indicate that some genotypes are adapted to pigs.

  18. Ocorrência e suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter spp. em cães, gatos, crianças e sua importância zoonótica

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Cecília Gomes

    2011-01-01

    As espécies de Campylobacter são os agentes etiológicos mais incriminados nos casos de gastroenterite humana. A principal forma de infecção dos humanos é o consumo de alimentos de origem animal e água contaminada, porém, estudos são necessários para o melhor entendimento da epidemiologia e dos fatores risco para a infecção de humanos e animais por estes microrganismos. Foram coletadas e analisadas para a presença de Campylobacter spp., amostras de fezes de 160 crianças de at...

  19. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Campylobacter species in foods of animal origin

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    Pallavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence and evaluation of antibiotic resistance pattern and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Campylobacter species isolated from foods of animal origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 samples (comprising 150 chicken meat, 50 chevon and 80 milk were collected from retail meat markets, slaughter houses and dairy farms and analyzed for isolation of Campylobacter species. A total of 29 isolates comprising 23 Campylobacter jejuni and 6 Campylobacter coli were recovered, characterized biochemically and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. These isolates were then tested for antibiotic resistance pattern through disc diffusion method, and MIC was assessed by MIC strips. The antibiotic resistance assessment was performed against 8 antibiotics viz. ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and norfloxacin. Results: The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat, chevon and milk samples were observed 17.33%, 6% and 0%, respectively. All the isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole but sensitive to erythromycin. All the isolates showed different resistance pattern for the rest of the antibiotics. MIC results revealed that all the isolates were within prescribed concentrations for sensitivity for the antibiotics tested. Conclusions: The foods of animal origin are source of Campylobacter infections to human beings. Thus, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains emphasizes the requirement of better surveillance and monitoring of the foods of animal origin and the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine require careful regulation.

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

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    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  1. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt......ABC, characterized by PCR, revealed that all but one of the C. jejuni strains had the wild-type sequence. Sequencing of cdtABC from this strain showed two major deletions. From all of the strains, CDT titers were determined, and toxin neutralizing antibodies were documented using an in vitro assay. Three...

  2. Strategies for the inclusion of an internal amplification control in conventional and real time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    To illustrate important issues in optimization of a PCR assay with an internal control four different primer combinations for conventional PCR, two non-competitive and two competitive set-ups for real time PCR were used for detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken faecal samples....... In the conventional PCR assays the internal control was genomic DNA from Yersinia ruckeri, which is not found in chicken faeces. This internal control was also used in one of the set LIPS in real time PCR. In the three other set-ups different DNA fragments of 109 bp length prepared from two oligos of each 66 bp...... against faecal inhibitors to ensure that the internal control and the target PCR had the same sensitivity towards inhibitors....

  3. Immunoreactivity of glycoproteins isolated from human peripheral nerve and Campylobacter jejuni (O:19

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    Katerina Brezovska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antibodies to ganglioside GM1 are associated with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS in patients with serologic evidence of a preceding infection with Campylobacter jejuni. Molecular mimicry between C. jejuni Lipopolysaccharide (LPS and ganglioside GM1 has been proven to be the immunopathogenic mechanism of the disease in the axonal variant of GBS. GM1-positive sera cross-react with several Gal-GalNAc-bearing glycoproteins from the human peripheral nerve and C. jejuni (O:19. This study aimed to examine the immunoreactivity of the digested cross-reactive glycoproteins isolated from the human peripheral nerve and C. jejuni (O:19 with Peanut Agglutinin (PNA as a marker for the Gal-GalNAc determinant, and with sera from patients with GBS. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the cross-reactive glycoproteins from peripheral nerve and C. jejuni (O:19 were enzymatically digested with trypsin and the obtained peptides were incubated with PNA and GBS sera. Results: Western blot analysis of the separated peptides revealed several bands showing positive reactivity to PNA and to sera from patients with GBS, present in both digests from peripheral nerve and C. jejuni (O:19. Conclusions: These data indicate the possible molecular mimicry between the cross-reactive glycoproteins present in C. jejuni and human peripheral nerve and its potential role in the development of GBS following infection with C. jejuni (O:19.

  4. House-level risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 - 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Michele T; Martin, Wayne; Reiersen, Jarle; Berke, Olaf; McEwen, Scott A; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Lowman, Ruff

    2007-11-12

    The concurrent rise in consumption of fresh chicken meat and human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's in Iceland led to a longitudinal study of the poultry industry to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Because horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be the most likely source of Campylobacter to broilers, we aimed to identify broiler house characteristics and management practices associated with flock colonization. Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Logistic regression models with a farm random effect were used to analyse the association between flock Campylobacter status and house-level risk factors. A two-stage process was carried out. Variables were initially screened within major subsets: ventilation; roof and floor drainage; building quality, materials and repair; house structure; pest proofing; biosecurity; sanitation; and house size. Variables with p potential for vectors such as flies to gain access to the house, or, increased difficulty in accessing the vents for proper cleaning and disinfection. For newly constructed houses, horizontal ventilation systems could be considered. Boot dipping procedures should be examined on farms experiencing a high prevalence of Campylobacter. Although it remains unclear how geothermal water increases risk, further research is warranted to determine if it is a surrogate for environmental pressures or the microclimate of the farm and surrounding region.

  5. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food other than meat in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Mąka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives. Antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria can result in therapy failure, increased hospitalization, and increased risk of death. In Poland, [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. is a major bacterial agent of food poisoning. The majority of studies on antimicrobial resistance in [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates from food have focused on meat products as the source of this pathogen. In comparison, this study examines the antimicrobial susceptibility of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolated from retail food products other than meat in Poland. Materials and Methods. A collection of 122 [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates were isolated in Poland in 2008–2012 from foods other than meat: confectionery products, eggs, fruits, vegetables, spices and others. The resistance of these isolates to 19 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. Results. [i]Salmonella[/i] Enteritidis was the most frequently identified serotype (84.4% of all tested isolates. In total, 42.6% of the [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates were resistant to antibiotics. The highest frequencies of resistance were observed in isolates from 2009 (60.0% and 2012 (59.5%. Antibiotic resistance was most prevalent among [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolated from egg-containing food samples (68.0%. Resistance to nalidixic acid was most common and was observed in 35.2% of all tested isolates. The isolates were less frequently resistant to sulphonamides (6.6%, ampicillin (4.9%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (2.5% and to streptomycin, cefoxitin, gentamicin and tetracycline (1.6%. Only one isolate showed resistance to chloramphenicol. Four isolates displayed multiresistance. Conclusions. Although, the level of resistance and multiresistance of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates from non-meat foods was lower than in those from meat products, the presence of these resistant bacteria poses a real threat to the health of consumers.

  7. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry.

  8. Brucella papionis sp. nov., isolated from baboons (Papio spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatmore, Adrian M; Davison, Nicholas; Cloeckaert, Axel; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Zygmunt, Michel S; Brew, Simon D; Perrett, Lorraine L; Koylass, Mark S; Vergnaud, Gilles; Quance, Christine; Scholz, Holger C; Dick, Edward J; Hubbard, Gene; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E

    2014-12-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming coccoid bacteria (strains F8/08-60(T) and F8/08-61) isolated from clinical specimens obtained from baboons (Papio spp.) that had delivered stillborn offspring were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, both strains, which possessed identical sequences, were assigned to the genus Brucella. This placement was confirmed by extended multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), where both strains possessed identical sequences, and whole-genome sequencing of a representative isolate. All of the above analyses suggested that the two strains represent a novel lineage within the genus Brucella. The strains also possessed a unique profile when subjected to the phenotyping approach classically used to separate species of the genus Brucella, reacting only with Brucella A monospecific antiserum, being sensitive to the dyes thionin and fuchsin, being lysed by bacteriophage Wb, Bk2 and Fi phage at routine test dilution (RTD) but only partially sensitive to bacteriophage Tb, and with no requirement for CO2 and no production of H2S but strong urease activity. Biochemical profiling revealed a pattern of enzyme activity and metabolic capabilities distinct from existing species of the genus Brucella. Molecular analysis of the omp2 locus genes showed that both strains had a novel combination of two highly similar omp2b gene copies. The two strains shared a unique fingerprint profile of the multiple-copy Brucella-specific element IS711. Like MLSA, a multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that the isolates clustered together very closely, but represent a distinct group within the genus Brucella. Isolates F8/08-60(T) and F8/08-61 could be distinguished clearly from all known species of the genus Brucella and their biovars by both phenotypic and molecular properties. Therefore, by applying the species concept for the genus Brucella suggested by the ICSP

  9. Antibiograms of Staphylococcus spp. isolates from chicken carcass in Recife, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, M.F.L.; Mota, R.A.; Leão, A.E.D.S.; Figueiredo, M.L.; Fonte, M.M.; Vieira, R.F.C.

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility of the Staphylococcus spp. isolated from chicken carcass from the city of Recife, Pernambuco, was determined. Out of 90 strains of Staphylococcus spp., 51 were classified as Staphylococcus aureus and 39 as Staphylococcus negative coagulase. Samples were submitted to the disc diffusion technique for the antibiotic susceptibility test. Among the 17 antibiotics tested, the most efficient was vancomycin. Twenty (22.2%), 11 (12.2%) and 10 (11.1%) of the Staphylococcus spp...

  10. Evaluation of PCR for detection of Campylobacter in a national broiler surveillance programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Wedderkopp, A.; Wainø, M.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To develop and evaluate a rapid and sensitive PCR method for detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken faeces. Methods and Results: DNA was isolated from faecal swabs using magnetic beads followed by PCR using a prealiquoted PCR mixture, which had been stored in the freezer...

  11. Enterotoxigenicity and frequency of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis in human and animal stool isolates from different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, G B; Johny, M; Khalil, K; Mazhar, K; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Kaijser, B

    1990-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli strains were collected during three different years from adult patients with enterocolitis in Sweden (n = 372) from 49 patients in Kuwait, and Campylobacter strains from hens from Mexico, Pakistan and Sweden (n = 107) and Swedish pigs (n = 47). C. jejuni was the predominant species in human and hen isolates, and C. coli in pigs C. coli was significantly more common in human isolates from Sweden, and more common in hen isolates from Pakistan, than in hens from Sweden and Mexico. C. laridis was only isolated from pigs (17%) and was in no case enterotoxigenic. Both in human and hen isolates, C. jejuni strains were more enterotoxigenic than C. coli strains. C. jejuni strains from Swedish hens were less enterotoxigenic than those from Pakistan and Mexico (P less than 0.001), and strains from pigs were less enterotoxigenic than those from hens (P less than 0.001). We conclude that C. jejuni are more often enterotoxigenic and possibly more virulent than c. coli and C. laridis. The relative frequency of C. jejuni and C. coli in humans and animals differs from one country to another.

  12. Cross-reactive epitopes present in campylobacter jejuni serotypes isolated from enteritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanova, A; Poceva-Panovska, A; Brezovska, K; Trajkovska-Dokic, E; Dimovski, A; Apostolski, S; Suturkova, Lj

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) infection frequently triggers autoimmune-mediated neuropathies, especially the Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). The molecular mimicry between the core oligosaccharides of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and the human gangliosides presumably results in the production of anti-neural cross-reactive antibodies which are likely to be a contributory factor in the induction and pathogenesis of GBS. The aim of our study was to determine the presence of cross-reactive epitopes in C. jejuni LPSs isolated from enteritis patients and to determine their antigen reactivity. For that purpose we collected stool specimens from 21 patients with enteritis and without neurological symptoms. Seven different serotypes of C. jejuni (0:27; 0:6/0:7; 0:38; 0:3; 0:1/0:44; 0:19; 0:37) were detected using the Penner system. Unexpectedly, one serotype from this group was detected as 0:19, a serotype rarely isolated from enteritis patient and in close association with GBS. Binding studies using cholera toxin-B subunit and peanut agglutinin, showed the presence of ganglioside-like epitopes in C. jejuni strains 0:37, 0:19 and 0:27. Reactivity with sera from patient with GBS, with confirmed previous exposure to C. jejuni and with high a titre of anti-ganglioside antibodies, showed that the same three LPSs from C. jejuni serotypes 0:37, 0:19 and 0:27 bear cross-reactive epitopes in their LPSs structures. Our results confirm the results from previous studies that LPSs from certain C. jejuni serotypes bear cross-reactive ganglioside-like epitopes which might be involved in the induction of GBS after C. jejuni infection.

  13. House-level risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berke Olaf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent rise in consumption of fresh chicken meat and human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's in Iceland led to a longitudinal study of the poultry industry to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Because horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be the most likely source of Campylobacter to broilers, we aimed to identify broiler house characteristics and management practices associated with flock colonization. Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Logistic regression models with a farm random effect were used to analyse the association between flock Campylobacter status and house-level risk factors. A two-stage process was carried out. Variables were initially screened within major subsets: ventilation; roof and floor drainage; building quality, materials and repair; house structure; pest proofing; biosecurity; sanitation; and house size. Variables with p ≤ 0.15 were then offered to a comprehensive model. Multivariable analyses were used in both the screening stage (i.e. within each subset and in the comprehensive model. Results 217 out of 792 flocks (27.4% tested positive. Four significant risk factors were identified. Campylobacter colonization was predicted to increase when the flock was raised in a house with vertical (OR = 2.7, or vertical and horizontal (OR = 3.2 ventilation shafts, when the producer's boots were cleaned and disinfected prior to entering the broiler house (OR = 2.2, and when the house was cleaned with geothermal water (OR = 3.3. Conclusion The increased risk associated with vertical ventilation shafts might be related to the height of the vents and the potential for vectors

  14. House-level risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Michele T; Martin, Wayne; Reiersen, Jarle; Berke, Olaf; McEwen, Scott A; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Lowman, Ruff

    2007-01-01

    Background The concurrent rise in consumption of fresh chicken meat and human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's in Iceland led to a longitudinal study of the poultry industry to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Because horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be the most likely source of Campylobacter to broilers, we aimed to identify broiler house characteristics and management practices associated with flock colonization. Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Logistic regression models with a farm random effect were used to analyse the association between flock Campylobacter status and house-level risk factors. A two-stage process was carried out. Variables were initially screened within major subsets: ventilation; roof and floor drainage; building quality, materials and repair; house structure; pest proofing; biosecurity; sanitation; and house size. Variables with p ≤ 0.15 were then offered to a comprehensive model. Multivariable analyses were used in both the screening stage (i.e. within each subset) and in the comprehensive model. Results 217 out of 792 flocks (27.4%) tested positive. Four significant risk factors were identified. Campylobacter colonization was predicted to increase when the flock was raised in a house with vertical (OR = 2.7), or vertical and horizontal (OR = 3.2) ventilation shafts, when the producer's boots were cleaned and disinfected prior to entering the broiler house (OR = 2.2), and when the house was cleaned with geothermal water (OR = 3.3). Conclusion The increased risk associated with vertical ventilation shafts might be related to the height of the vents and the potential for vectors such as flies to gain

  15. Evaluation of PCR for detection of Campylobacter in a national broiler surveillance programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Wedderkopp, A; Wainø, M

    2003-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a rapid and sensitive PCR method for detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken faeces.......To develop and evaluate a rapid and sensitive PCR method for detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken faeces....

  16. A molecular survey of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli virulence and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanalizadgan, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Bita; Kazemnejad Lili, Anoshirvan; Najar-Peerayeh, Shahin; Nikmanesh, Bahram

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of virulence-associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) analysis of Campylobacter spp. isolated from children with diarrhea in Iran. A total of 200 stool specimens were obtained from children under 5 years during July 2012 to July 2013. Detection of C. jejuni and C. coli was performed by standard biochemical and molecular methods. The presence of virulence-associated genes and genetic diversity of isolates was examined using PCR and ERIC-PCR analyses. A total of 12 (6%) Campylobacter spp. were isolated from patients including 10 (4.5%) C. jejuni and 2 (1.5%) C.coli. The flaA, cadF and ciaB genes were present in 100% of isolates, while no plasmid of virB11 gene was present in their genome. The prevalence of invasion-associated marker was 100% among C. coli and was not detected in C. jejuni isolates. The distribution of both pldA and the genes associated with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) was 58.3% in C. jejuni isolates. Seven distinct ERIC-PCR profiles were distinguished in three clusters using ERIC-PCR analysis. Genotyping analysis showed a relative correlation with geographic location of patients and virulence gene content of isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular survey of Campylobacter spp. in Iran concerning genotyping and virulence gene content of both C. jejuni and C. coli. ERIC-PCR revealed appropriate discriminatory power for clustering C. jejuni isolates with identical virulence gene content. However, more studies are needed to clearly understand the pathogenesis properties of specific genotypes.

  17. High-Level Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Circulating in Humans and Animals in Incheon, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Lee, M Y; Kim, S J; Jeon, S-E; Cha, I; Hong, S; Chung, G T; Huh, M-J; Kang, Y-H; Yoo, C-K; Kim, J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causative pathogens of outbreaks or sporadic cases of diarrhoeal diseases worldwide. In this study, we compared the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of C. jejuni isolates of human and food-producing animal origins in Korea and examined the genetic relatedness between these two groups of isolates. Regardless of isolation source, all C. jejuni isolates harboured four virulence genes, cadF, cdtB, ciaB and racR, whereas the wlaN and virB11 genes were more frequently observed in human isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the majority of C. jejuni isolates displayed high-level resistance to fluoroquinolone (95.2%) or tetracycline (76.2%) antibiotics, and 12.4% of isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (more than three classes of antibiotics tested). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of all Campylobacter isolates revealed 51 different SmaI-PFGE patterns and six major clusters containing both human and animal isolates. These results indicate that genetically diverse strains of C. jejuni with antimicrobial drug-resistance and virulence properties have prevailed in Incheon. Nevertheless, some particular populations continue to circulate within the community, providing the evidence for an epidemiological link of C. jejuni infections between humans and food-producing animals. Therefore, the continued monitoring and surveillance of C. jejuni isolates of human and food-producing animal origins are required for public health and food safety. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

  19. Effect of Feed Additives on Productivity and Campylobacter spp. Loads in Broilers Reared under Free Range Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Guyard-Nicodème

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The poultry reservoir, especially broiler meat, is generally recognized as one of the most-important sources for human Campylobacteriosis. The measures to control Campylobacter targeted essentially the primary production level. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments against natural Campylobacter colonization in a French experimental farm of free-range broilers during the whole rearing period. Five commercial products and a combination of two of them were tested and all the products were added to feed or to water at the dose recommended by the suppliers. Campylobacter loads in caeca and on carcasses of broilers at the slaughter were determined by culture methods. Natural contamination of the flock occurred at the end of the indoor rearing period between day 35 and day 42. At day 42, the multispecies probiotic added to the feed reduced the contamination of 0.55 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 but was not significant (p > 0.05 at the end of rearing at day 78. However, another treatment, a combination of a cation exchange clay-based product in feed and an organic acid mixture (formic acid, sodium formate, lactic acid, propionic acid in water, led to a slight but significant reduction of 0.82 ± 0.25 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 compared to the control group at day 78. Testing this combination in field conditions in several flocks is needed to determine if it is biologically relevant and if it could be a valuable measure to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks.

  20. Distribution of flagella secreted protein and integral membrane protein among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pootong Piyarat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative bacterium, is a frequent cause of gastrointestinal food-borne illness in humans throughout the world. There are several reports that the virulence of C. jejuni might be modulated by non-flagellar proteins that are secreted through the filament. Recently, FspA (Flagella secreted proteins have been described. Two alleles of fspA (fspA1 and fspA2 based on sequence analysis were previously reported and only the fspA2 allele was found in Thai isolates. The aim of this study is to analyze the deduced amino acid sequences fspA and the adjacent putative integral membrane protein from 103 Thai C. jejuni isolates. Results A total of 103 representative C. jejuni isolates were amplified by PCR for the fspA gene and the adjacent integral membrane protein gene. Two PCR product sizes were amplified using the same primers, an approximately 1600-bp PCR product from 19 strains that contained fspA and integral membrane protein genes and an approximately 800-bp PCR product from 84 strains that contained only the fspA gene. DNA sequencing was performed on the amplified products. The deduced amino acid sequences of both genes were analyzed separately using CLC Free Workbench 4 software. The analysis revealed three groups of FspA. Only FspA group 1 sequences (19/103 (corresponding to fspA1 consisting of 5 subgroups were associated with the adjacent gene encoding the integral membrane protein. FspA group 2 was the largest group (67/103 consisting of 9 subgroups. FspA group 2p (17/103 consisting of 7 subgroups was found to contain stop codons at a position before the terminal 142 position. Conclusions This study reveals greater heterogeneity of FspA (group 1, 2 and 2p among Thai C. jejuni isolates than previously reported. Furthermore, the subgroups of FspA groups 1 were associated with groups of integral membrane protein. The significance of these different FspA variants to virulence requires further study.

  1. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Campylobacter species in Ireland and the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lucey, B

    2012-02-03

    Measurements were made of the susceptibility to six commonly prescribed antibiotics, including erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, of 130 isolates of Campylobacterjejuni and 15 isolates of Campylobacter coli cultured from human and poultry sources during 2000. The results were compared with the results from a collection of strains isolated between 1996 and 1998. The levels of resistance to erythromycin remained low, 2 per cent and 4.4 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline had increased to 31 per cent and 24.4 per cent from 13.9 per cent and 18.8 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. However, the resistance to ciprofloxacin of the strains isolated during 2000 had increased to 30 per cent, whereas between 1996 and 1998 there had been no resistance to this agent among human isolates, and only 3.1 per cent resistance among poultry isolates. The molecular basis for this resistance has been shown to be the result of a single amino acid substitution, Thr-86-Ile, in the gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase in Cjejuni. A subset of 59 isolates was tested by molecular methods and all of the 25 phenotypically resistant isolates possessed this substitution. None of the human isolates had been treated with ciprofloxacin before their laboratory isolation.

  2. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos Quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans and from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.Eight quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans with diarrheal disease were compared with 23 isolates from chicken and from laying hens. Samples were cultured on selective agar in microaerophilia, identified by conventional tests, and conserved in 17% glycerol at -70 °C. Clones were determined by RAPD-PCR employing the 1254 primer (Stern NJ. Five patterns were obtained. Patterns I, II, and V were found in both poultry and human isolates. Pattern I was obtained from poultry in a domestic henhouse. Pattern III was only obtained from humans whereas pattern IV was only obtained from poultry. A 95.3% of clones were found in both, humans and poultry. According to these

  3. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food other than meat in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Mąka

    2015-09-01

    Although, the level of resistance and multiresistance of Salmonella spp. isolates from non-meat foods was lower than in those from meat products, the presence of these resistant bacteria poses a real threat to the health of consumers.

  4. [Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistance Mutations in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Isolates from Human and Meat Sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Akira; Murakami, Koichi; Etoh, Yoshiki; Sera, Nobuyuki; Horikawa, Kazumi

    2015-03-01

    Recently, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants in Campylobacter species isolated from meat and human subjects in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Between 2011 and 2013, 55 and 64 isolates were collected from meat (chicken meat and beef liver) and humans, respectively, in this prefecture. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were conducted using the agar dilution method in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, using the following 11 antimicrobial agents : cephalexin, cefoxitin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, minocycline, ampicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin and erythromycin. The susceptibility rates of the isolates to three quinolones (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) were 43.7%, 41.2%, 40.3%, respectively. All the isolates were multidrug resistant. Whereas 46.9%-51.6% of the human isolates were resistant to one or more of the quinolones, only 32.7%-34.5% of the meat isolates were resistant to one or more of the drugs. DNA sequencing showed that of the 50 quinolone resistant isolates 44 had position 86 isoleucine (Ile) substituted for threonine (Thr) in the GyrA protein (Thr86Ile). This amino acid substitution resulted from ACA to ATA and ACT to ATT mutations of codon 86 in C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Furthermore, two of the four C. jejuni isolates lacking the Thr86Ile mutation had combined Ser22Gly-Asn203Ser substitutions, while the remaining two isolates had combined Ser22Gly-Asn203Ser-Ala 206Val substitutions. These four isolates also had cmeABC sequences that differed from the quinolone sensitive C. jejuni ATCC33560(T) strain. In conclusion, C. jejuni and C. coli have relatively high quinolone resistance, and are resistant to other antibiotics. The new combination of amino acid

  5. Preston and Park-Sanders protocols adapted for semi-quantitative isolation of thermotolerant Campylobacter from chicken rinse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Aalbaek, B.

    2003-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis has become the major cause of foodborne gastrointestinal diseases in several European countries. In order to implement effective control measures in the primary production, and as a tool in risk assessment studies, it is necessary to have sensitive and quantitative...... detection methods. Thus, semi-quantitative detection of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in 20 naturally contaminated chicken rinse samples was carried out using the two most common standard protocols: Preston and Park-Sanders, as proposed by Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL) and International...... Standard Organization (ISO), respectively. For both protocols, the chicken rinse samples were prepared in 500 ml buffered peptone water, as recommended in the ISO protocol no. 6887-2. The results indicated that the Preston protocol was superior to the Park-Sanders protocol in supporting growth...

  6. Effect of incubation temperature on the detection of thermophilic campylobacter species from freshwater beaches, nearby wastewater effluents, and bird fecal droppings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Izhar U H; Hill, Stephen; Nowak, Eva; Edge, Thomas A

    2013-12-01

    This large-scale study compared incubation temperatures (37°C versus 42°C) to study the detection of thermophilic Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, in various surface water samples and bird fecal droppings around Hamilton Harbor, Lake Ontario. The putative culture isolates obtained from incubation temperatures of 37 and 42°C were confirmed by Campylobacter genus- and species-specific triplex PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. A total of 759 water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples were tested. Positive amplification reactions for the genus Campylobacter were found for 454 (60%) samples incubated at 37°C, compared to 258 (34%) samples incubated at 42°C. C. jejuni (16%) and C. lari (12%) were detected significantly more frequently at the 42°C incubation temperature than at 37°C (8% and 5%, respectively). In contrast, significantly higher rates of C. coli (14%) and other Campylobacter spp. (36%) were detected at the 37°C incubation temperature than at 42°C (8% and 7%, respectively). These results were consistent across surface water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples. At times, Campylobacter spp. were recovered and detected at 37°C (3% for C. jejuni, 10% for C. coli, and 3% for C. lari) when the same samples incubated at 42°C were negative. A significantly higher rate of other Campylobacter spp. was detected only at 37°C (32%) than only at 42°C (3%). These results indicate that incubation temperature can significantly influence the culturability and detection of thermophilic and other fastidious Campylobacter spp. and that a comprehensive characterization of the Campylobacter spp. in surface water, wastewaters, or bird fecal droppings will require incubation at both 37 and 42°C.

  7. Use of Culture, PCR Analysis, and DNA Microarrays for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Chicken Feces

    OpenAIRE

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens; Bunkenborg, Henrik; Telleman, Pieter; Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2004-01-01

    A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp. detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter je...

  8. Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Layer Farms in Northern Jordan Using Microbroth Dilution and Disc Diffusion Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, Mohammad Q; Alaboudi, Akram R; Osaili, Tareq M; Obaidat, Mohammad M

    2016-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen of significant public health importance. This pathogen is associated with human infection and has been isolated from mammals and birds. Ninety-two cloacal C. jejuni isolates were identified from 35 layer farms in Northern Jordan. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc diffusion techniques with variable suggested breakpoints. Using MIC and EUCAST cut-off values, the study revealed a significantly high resistance level (100%) among the layers' isolates against ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. A relatively high resistance (41%) toward gentamicin and amoxicillin and low resistance to nalidixic acid (21%), erythromycin (14%), and florfenicol (6.5%) were also found. This high level of resistance may indicate abuses in the handling of antibiotics, which may require stricter control in the local layer industry. A good agreement between the 2 techniques used was demonstrated and the disc diffusion technique could be used as a rapid screening test for antimicrobial susceptibility of C. jejuni to many antibiotics using specific Campylobacter breakpoints. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Identification of Campylobacter species isolates with phenotypic methods and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljković-Selimović, Biljana; Babić, Tatjana; Kocić, Branislava; Matkić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli) are the most common bacterial causes of enterocolitis in humans. However, identification of the species level is not always possible using standard biochemical tests. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify these microorganisms by both phenotyping and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. A total of 153 species of thermophilic campylobacters were examined with standard biochemical tests and PCR technique to prove hipO genes of C. jejuni and asp genes of C. coli. Standard biochemical tests enabled the speciation of 121 strains of C. jejuni, while application of PCR detected 126 C. jejuni strains. PCR technique allowed not only identification of hippurate-positive C. jejuni, but also hipurat-negative strains of C. jejuni which otherwise would be detected as C. coli if only biochemical tests were applied.

  10. Identification of campylobacter species isolates with phenotypic methods and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli (C. coli are the most common bacterial causes of enterocolitis in humans. However, identification of the species level is not always possible using standard biochemical tests. Objective. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify these microorganisms by both phenotyping and polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Methods. A total of 153 species of thermophilic campylobacters were examined with standard biochemical tests and PCR technique to prove hipO genes of C. jejuni and asp genes of C. coli. Results Standard biochemical tests enabled the speciation of 121 strains of C. jejuni, while application of PCR detected 126 C. jejuni strains. Conclusion. PCR technique allowed not only identification of hippurate-positive C. jejuni, but also hipuratnegative strains of C. jejuni which otherwise would be detected as C. coli if only biochemical tests were applied.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a novel catalase-negative, urease-positive Campylobacter from cattle faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, S.L.W.

    1997-01-01

    characteristics typical for Campylobacter species. However, they were unusual in that they produced urease and copious H2S in triple sugar iron (TSI) medium, but did not produce catalase. They did not grow aerobically. None of the strains grew on modified cefoperazone charcoal deoxycholate agar (m......CCDA). Macrorestriction profiles of chromosomal DNA were prepared for 15 strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Twelve of 15 profiles were identical and all appeared to be closely related. These catalase-negative, urease-positive campylobacters (CNUPC) represent a group not previously reported...

  12. THERMOTOLERANT Campylobacter SPECIES ISOLATED FROM PSITTACIFORMES IN THE PERUVIAN AMAZON REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro TRESIERRA-AYALA

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinada a freqüência de isolamento de campylobacters termotolerantes em Psittaciformes silvestres capturados na região amazônica do Peru. Campylobacters foram isolados em 10/142 (7.0% dos animais estudados, sendo C. jejuni subsp. jejuni biovar I (6/10 o mais freqüente, seguido de C. coli biovar II (2/10, C. lari não foi isolado. Os resultados sugerem que estas aves podem ser importantes reservatórios destas bactérias.

  13. Influence of different protein sources in the broiler diet on the presence of Campylobacter spp. in excreta and caecal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C F; Abd El-Wahab, A; Ahmed, M F E; Hankel, J; Taube, V; Kamphues, J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine possible effects of a different protein supply on the presence of Campylobacter in excreta and caecal content of broiler chickens. Therefore, 220 one-day-old chickens were fed five different diets in the experimental period (day 8 onwards). In the control group (CON; n = 3 boxes), a soya bean-based industrially produced complete diet containing 5-10% whole wheat and coccidiostats was fed, whereas in the remaining groups, four own-made complete diets with four protein sources and combinations (4 × 2 boxes; soya bean meal-based diet = SBM; rapeseed meal-containing diet = RSM; haemoglobin meal-containing diet = HGP; algae-containing diet = ALG) were offered. During the 6-week trial period, data concerning performance parameters, excreta and litter characteristics and microbiological analysis of excreta and caecal content at dissection were collected. The qualitative bacteriological investigation was based on the EN ISO 10272-1:2006, taken from the official collection of analysis methods in accordance with § 64 LFBG. For quantitative bacteriological tests, a 10-fold dilution series was made followed by culture-based quantification methods on approved selective media in duplicate. Comparing the results of the final dissection (day 44/45), nearly all samples of animals receiving the own-made complete diet were Campylobacter positive in the caecal content, whereas only seven of fifteen samples were positive in the CON group. With regard to the CFU in the caecal content, the counts of Campylobacter were significantly lower for animals fed the commercial diet (2.47 ± 3.06 vs. 7.36 ± 0.66 log10  CFU/g). When only the positive animals were evaluated, significant differences were also found between the CON group and the total of the other groups (5.30 ± 2.08 vs. 7.54 ± 1.70 log10  CFU/g). Although significant differences were seen in the results, no final recommendation can be given how to create a diet to

  14. Heterogeneity in the Infection Biology of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in Three Infection Models Reveals an Invasive and Virulent Phenotype in a ST21 Isolate from Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Chaloner, Gemma; Gibbs, Kirsty; Humphrey, Tom; Williams, Nicola; Wigley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Although Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in the world and the importance of poultry as a source of infection is well understood we know relatively little about its infection biology in the broiler chicken. Much of what we know about the biology of Campylobacter jejuni is based on infection of inbred or SPF laboratory lines of chickens with a small number of isolates used in most laboratory studies. Recently we have shown that both the host response and microbial ecology of C. jejuni in the broiler chicken varies with both the host-type and significantly between C. jejuni isolates. Here we describe heterogeneity in infection within a panel of C. jejuni isolates in two broiler chicken breeds, human intestinal epithelial cells and the Galleria insect model of virulence. All C. jejuni isolates colonised the chicken caeca, though colonisation of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract varied between isolates. Extra-intestinal spread to the liver varied between isolates and bird breed but a poultry isolate 13126 (sequence type 21) showed the greatest levels of extra-intestinal spread to the liver in both broiler breeds with over 70% of birds of the fast growing breed and 50% of the slower growing breed having C. jejuni in their livers. Crucially 13126 is significantly more invasive than other isolates in human intestinal epithelial cells and gave the highest mortality in the Galleria infection model. Taken together our findings suggest that not only is there considerable heterogeneity in the infection biology of C. jejuni in avian, mammalian and alternative models, but that some isolates have an invasive and virulent phenotype. Isolates with an invasive phenotype would pose a significant risk and increased difficulty in control in chicken production and coupled with the virulent phenotype seen in 13126 could be an increased risk to public health.

  15. Heterogeneity in the Infection Biology of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in Three Infection Models Reveals an Invasive and Virulent Phenotype in a ST21 Isolate from Poultry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Humphrey

    Full Text Available Although Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in the world and the importance of poultry as a source of infection is well understood we know relatively little about its infection biology in the broiler chicken. Much of what we know about the biology of Campylobacter jejuni is based on infection of inbred or SPF laboratory lines of chickens with a small number of isolates used in most laboratory studies. Recently we have shown that both the host response and microbial ecology of C. jejuni in the broiler chicken varies with both the host-type and significantly between C. jejuni isolates. Here we describe heterogeneity in infection within a panel of C. jejuni isolates in two broiler chicken breeds, human intestinal epithelial cells and the Galleria insect model of virulence. All C. jejuni isolates colonised the chicken caeca, though colonisation of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract varied between isolates. Extra-intestinal spread to the liver varied between isolates and bird breed but a poultry isolate 13126 (sequence type 21 showed the greatest levels of extra-intestinal spread to the liver in both broiler breeds with over 70% of birds of the fast growing breed and 50% of the slower growing breed having C. jejuni in their livers. Crucially 13126 is significantly more invasive than other isolates in human intestinal epithelial cells and gave the highest mortality in the Galleria infection model. Taken together our findings suggest that not only is there considerable heterogeneity in the infection biology of C. jejuni in avian, mammalian and alternative models, but that some isolates have an invasive and virulent phenotype. Isolates with an invasive phenotype would pose a significant risk and increased difficulty in control in chicken production and coupled with the virulent phenotype seen in 13126 could be an increased risk to public health.

  16. MLST genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler products, dairy cattle and human campylobacteriosis cases in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonaite, Sigita; Tamuleviciene, Egle; Alter, Thomas; Kasnauskyte, Neringa; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-06-15

    Campylobacter (C.) jejuni is the leading cause of human campylobacteriosis worldwide. We performed a molecular epidemiological study to investigate the genetic relationship among C. jejuni strains isolated from human diarrhoeal patients, broiler products and dairy cattle in Lithuania. The C. jejuni isolates from human clinical cases, dairy cattle and broiler products were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Allele numbers for each housekeeping gene, sequence type (ST), and clonal complex (CC) were assigned by submitting the DNA sequences to the C. jejuni MLST database ( http://pubmlst.org/campylobacter ). Based on the obtained sequence data of the housekeeping genes a phylogenetic analysis of the strains was performed and a minimum spanning tree (MST) was calculated. Among the 262 C. jejuni strains (consisting of 43 strains isolated from dairy cattle, 102 strains isolated from broiler products and 117 clinical human C. jejuni strains), 82 different MLST sequence types and 22 clonal complexes were identified. Clonal complexes CC21 and CC353 predominated among the C. jejuni strains. On ST-level, five sequence types (ST-5, ST-21, ST-50, ST-464 and ST-6410) were dominating and these five STs accounted for 35.9% (n = 94) of our isolates. In addition, 51 (19.5%) C. jejuni strains representing 27 (32.9%) STs were reported for the first time in the PubMLST database ( http://pubmlst.org/campylobacter ). The highest Czekanowski index or proportional similarity index (PSI) was calculated for C. jejuni strains isolated from human campylobacteriosis cases and broiler products (PSI = 0.32) suggesting a strong link between broiler strains and human cases. The PSI of dairy cattle and human samples was lower (PSI = 0.11), suggesting a weaker link between bovine strains and human cases. The calculated Simpson's index of all C. jejuni isolates showed a high genetic diversity (D = 0.96). Our results suggest that broiler products are the most important source of

  17. Foodborne Disease Prevention and Broiler Chickens with Reduced Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003–2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006–2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks. PMID:23628089

  18. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks......) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp....... positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during the summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among...

  19. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a

  20. Production of a monoclonal antibody specific for the major outer membrane protein of Campylobacter jejuni and characterization of the epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongliang; Pang, Ervinna; Du, Qingyun; Chang, Jason; Dong, Jin; Toh, Say Ling; Ng, Fook Kheong; Tan, Ai Ling; Kwang, Jimmy

    2008-02-01

    Campylobacter species are important enteric pathogens causing disease in humans and animals. There is a lack of a good immunological test that can be used routinely to separate Campylobacter jejuni from other Campylobacter species. We produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. jejuni using recombinant MOMP as the antigen. One MAb, designated MAb5C4 and of the immunoglobulin G1 isotype, was found to be potentially specific for C. jejuni. Dot blots demonstrated that MAb5C4 reacted with all 29 isolates of C. jejuni tested but did not react with 2 C. jejuni isolates, 26 other Campylobacter spp. isolates, and 19 non-Campylobacter isolates. Western blotting showed that MAb5C4 bound to a single protein band approximately 43 kDa in size, corresponding to the expected size of C. jejuni MOMP. The detection limit of MAb5C4 in a dot blot assay was determined to be about 5 x 10(3) bacteria. The epitope on the MOMP was mapped to a region six amino acids in length with the sequence 216GGQFNP221, which is 97% conserved among C. jejuni strains but divergent in other Campylobacter spp.; a GenBank search indicated that 95% of C. jejuni isolates will be able to be detected from non-Campylobacter spp. based on the highly specific and conserved region of the GGQFNP polypeptide. The epitope is predicted to be located in a region that is exposed to the periplasm. MAb5C4 is a potentially specific and sensitive MAb that can be used for the specific detection and identification of C. jejuni.

  1. Higher Caspase-like activity in symptomatic isolates of Blastocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Dhurga D; Kumar, Suresh G

    2014-05-12

    Biochemical evidence of a caspase-like execution pathway has been demonstrated in a variety of protozoan parasites, including Blastocystis spp. The distinct differences in the phenotypic characterization reported previously have prompted us to compare the rate of apoptosis in Blastocystis spp. isolated from individuals who were symptomatic and asymptomatic. In the current study, we analysed the caspase activation involved in PCD mediated by a cytotoxic drug, (metronidazole) in both symptomatic & asymptomatic isolates. Apoptosis was induced in Blastocystis spp. by treating cultures of symptomatic and asymptomatic isolates of 3 sub-types namely 1, 3 and 5 with two different concentrations, 0.1 and 0.0001 mg/ml of metronidazole (with and without pre-treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk). The experiment was repeated to assess the number of apoptotic cells in all the isolates of both conditions. Symptomatic isolates of subtype 3 (without pre-treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk) showed high fluorescence intensity for active caspase-like proteases [0.0001 mg/ml, 88% (p Blastocystis spp of different isolates especially as it was shown that apoptosis was sub-typed related. These findings can be exploited for the development of diagnostic markers and novel therapeutic drugs to enhance the effectiveness of the diagnosis and treatment of the patients infected with Blastocystis spp.

  2. Influence of measurement and control of microaerobic gaseous atmospheres in methods for Campylobacter growth studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macé, Sabrina; Haddad, Nabila; Zagorec, Monique; Tresse, Odile

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in the world. For this reason, this pathogen is widely studied. As a microaerophilic and capnophilic microorganism, this foodborne pathogen requires an atmosphere with reduced oxygen (O2) and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations for its optimal growth in vitro. According to the procedure for Campylobacter spp. isolation and cultivation from food products and environmental samples, European and American standards recommend gas proportions of 5% O2 and 10% CO2, complemented with nitrogen (N2). However, in the literature, the reported proportion of O2 for microaerobic growth conditions of Campylobacter spp. can range from 2.5% to 15% and the reason for this variation is usually not explained. The use of different gas generating systems and media to detect and to grow Campylobacter from foodstuff and the lack of information about gas producing systems are the main sources of the loss of consistancy between data. In this review, the relevance, strengths and weaknesses of these methods and their impact on Campylobacter biology are discussed. In conclusion the minimum information concerning microaerobic gaseous atmospheres are suggested in order to better harmonize data obtained from research studies for a better understanding of Campylobacter features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Frequency, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in Iran. Listeria spp. were detected in 21/207 bovine mastitic milk samples from dairy farms in Iran, comprising L. monocytogenes (n=17), L. innocua (n=3) and L. ivanovii (n=1). L. monocytogenes isolates were grouped into serogroups '4b, 4d, 4e', '1/2a, 3a', '1/2b, 3b, 7' and '1/2c, 3c'; all harboured inlA, inlC and inlJ virulence genes. Listeria spp. were most frequently resistant to penicillin G (14/21 isolates, 66.7%) and tetracyclines (11/21 isolates, 52.4%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and Determination of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Nontyphoid Salmonella spp isolated from chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Hoorieh Fallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonellosis is one of the most common food borne diseases in industrial and developing countries. In recent years, an increase in antimicrobial drug resistance, among non-typhoid Salmonella spp has been observed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to isolate and determine antibiotic resistance pattern in non-typhoid Salmonella spp. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done on 100 samples of chickens collected from 196 retail markets and was examined for the presence of Salmonella using standard bacteriological procedures and stereotyping kit. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion methods according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (CLSI. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS software version 18. Result: Forty- four percent of samples were contaminated with Salmonella infection and 56% didn’t have any contamination. The stereotyping results showed that 34 of 44 isolates of Salmonella belonged to Salmonella infantis (79.5 %, one strain (2.3% of group C and 8 strain (18.2% of group D. However, all these strains were sensitive to Cefotaxime and Ciprofloxacin, and 100% were resistant to Nalidixic acid, Tetracyclin and Sterptomycin. The most common resistance pattern (34.1% was towards six antibiotics, and 6.8% of strains were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Conclusion: High levels of resistance to antibiotics that are used commonly for human and poultry can be a warning for our community health and this information must be used to form important strategies for improvement of infection control.

  5. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Candida spp. and Klebsiella spp. Isolated from the Denture Plaque of COPD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowska, D; Piskorska, K; Gołaś, M; Sikora, M; Swoboda-Kopeć, E; Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E

    2017-01-01

    Yeast-like fungi and gram-negative bacilli are the most frequent potential pathogens of the respiratory tract isolated from the denture plaque of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Dominant species among yeast-like fungi are Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Significant frequency is also exhibited by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca. The purpose of this study was to analyze genetic diversity of the strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and Klebsiella spp. present in patients in stable phases of COPD. The analysis was conducted by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method on clinical strains isolated from patients with COPD and control patients in overall good health. Forty one strains of Candida albicans, 12 of Candida tropicalis, as well as 9 strains of K. pneumoniae and 7 of K. oxytoca were scrutinized. The dominant species in clinical material from COPD patients was Candida albicans with a substantial degree of variations of genetic profiles. On the basis of affinity analysis, 19 genetic types were identified within this strain. An analysis of the banding patterns among C. tropicalis strains indicated the existence of 6 genetic types. A considerable diversity of genetic profiles among Klebsiella spp. also was established. The genotype diversity of Klebsiella spp. strains may indicate the endogenic character of the majority of infections, regardless of the therapy applied for the underlying condition.

  6. Novel Endophytic Trichoderma spp. Isolated from Healthy Coffea arabica Roots are Capable of Controlling Coffee Tracheomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Temesgen Belayneh Mulaw; Irina S. Druzhinina; Christian P. Kubicek; Lea Atanasova

    2013-01-01

    One of the biggest threats to coffee growers in East Africa are emerging vascular wilt diseases (tracheomycosis) caused by Fusarium spp. Many Trichoderma species are known to be natural antagonists of these pathogens and are widely used in biological control of fungal plant diseases. More recently, several Trichoderma spp., which exhibited high antifungal activity have been isolated as endophytes. Consequently, we have investigated the presence and the antagonistic activity of endophytic Tric...

  7. Isolation of Salmonella spp. in captive Psittaciformes from zoos and a commercial establishment of Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Lopes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study showed a low prevalence of Salmonella spp. in captive psittacines from zoos and a commercial establishment of Fortaleza. None of the isolated serotypes (S. Lexington, S. Saintpaul and S. Newport have yet been reported in Amazona aestiva, Ara chloroptera or Melopsittacus undulatus. However, the fact that most birds presented negative for Salmonella spp. may not imply the absence of this pathogen in these birds, since the intermittent excretion is a well-known characteristic of this microorganism.

  8. The susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from dogs with otitis to topical ear cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, S I; Paterson, S

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the in vitro efficacy of commercially available topical otic preparations ("ear cleaners") against Pseudomonas spp. isolated from canine ear infections. Between January and May 2011, 50 isolates that were morphologically and phenotypically confirmed as Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 48 dogs that had been identified with clinical signs of otitis externa and media at a referral dermatology clinic in the north west of the UK. The in vitro efficacy of eight different topical preparations against these isolates was investigated using an in-agar inhibition test. Of the eight preparations tested, three showed consistently good in vitro activity against Pseudomonas spp., while a further three were consistently ineffective. For the remaining two -preparations, in vitro efficacy was variable and inconsistent. Topical treatment with ear cleaners is considered to be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of canine otitis that involves multi-antimicrobial-resistant organisms such as Pseudomonas spp. Where treatment with antimicrobials is not an option, the use of these preparations, as a sole form of therapy, may be effective in some cases. As a comparison with other similar studies looking at the activity of ear cleaners against bacterial isolates from otitis, this study uses isolates from 50 ears from 48 dogs providing a significant number of isolates for analysis. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Isolation and characterization of Arcobacter spp. from fresh seafood and the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laishram, Martina; Rathlavath, Srinu; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Kumar, Sanath; Nayak, Binaya Bhusan

    2016-09-02

    Arcobacter is an emerging pathogen associated with foods of animal origin. Members of the genus Arcobacter are increasingly being isolated from fish, shellfish and the aquatic environment. In the present study, we analyzed fish, shellfish and water samples for the presence of Arcobacter spp. by conventional isolation as well as by direct PCR on the enrichment broth. Of 100 samples comprising of 42 finfish, 34 shellfish and 24 water samples analyzed, Arcobacter spp. was isolated from 8 (19%) finfish, 5 (14.7%) shellfish and 5 (20.8%) water samples. Arcobacter DNA was detected in 24 (24%) samples by direct PCR on the enrichment broth. Based on m-PCR specific to different Arcobacter spp. and 16S rRNA sequence analyses, majority (19) of the isolates were identified as Arcobacter butzleri, while two isolates were Arcobacter mytili. All Arcobacter butzleri isolates harbored putative virulence genes cadF, ciaB, mviN, pldA, tlyA and cj1349. The two isolates of A. mytili harbored mviN and cj1349 genes only. The study highlights emerging problem of the contamination of aquatic environment and fresh seafood with potentially pathogenic Arcobacter spp. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royden, A; Wedley, A; Merga, J Y; Rushton, S; Hald, B; Humphrey, T; Williams, N J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0-0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates demonstrated that the flies were carrying broiler-associated sequence types, responsible for human enteric illness. Malaise traps were used to survey the dipteran species diversity on study farms and also revealed up to 612 flies present around broiler-house ventilation inlets over a 2-h period. Therefore, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest.

  11. PCR detection of seven virulence and toxin genes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from Danish pigs and cattle and cytolethal distending toxin production of the isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Nielsen, E.M.; Scheutz, F.

    2003-01-01

    among 40 C. jejuni and C. coli isolates was detected by polymerase chain reaction. The CDT production of the isolates was determined on Vero, colon 205 and chicken embryo cells. The cadF, flaA, ceuE and cdtB genes were detected from 100% of the isolates. The cdtA and cdtC genes were found in 95.0 and 90.......0% of the isolates, respectively. The cdt gene cluster was detected in 82.5% isolates. Only 7.5% of the isolates were positive for virB11. Ninety-five per cent of the isolates produced CDT in Vero and colon 205 cell assays, and 90% of the isolates produced CDT in chicken embryo cell assays. Conclusions: High...

  12. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... did not form any branch with other Azotobacter spp. in the data base. Key words: ... cluster and the iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co). Dinitrogenase reductase, also referred to as the Fe protein or component 2, is a 60- kDa dimer of the product of the nifH gene, which contains a single [4Fe-4S] cluster.

  13. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Lívia Castelani; Heloisa Solda de Azevedo; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Stap...

  14. Characterization of genetically matched isolates of Campylobacter jejuni reveals that mutations in genes involved in flagellar biosynthesis alter the organism's virulence potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik-Kale, Preeti; Raphael, Brian H; Parker, Craig T; Joens, Lynn A; Klena, John D; Quiñones, Beatriz; Keech, Amy M; Konkel, Michael E

    2007-05-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic evidence suggests that not all Campylobacter jejuni isolates are pathogenic for humans. We hypothesized that differences in gene content or gene expression alter the degree of pathogenicity of C. jejuni isolates. A C. jejuni isolate (Turkey) recovered from a turkey and a second C. jejuni isolate (CS) recovered from a chicken differed in their degrees of in vitro and in vivo virulence. The C. jejuni Turkey isolate invaded INT 407 human epithelial cells and secreted the Cia (Campylobacter invasion antigen) proteins, while the C. jejuni CS isolate was noninvasive for human epithelial cells and did not secrete the Cia proteins. Newborn piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni Turkey isolate developed more severe clinical signs of campylobacteriosis than piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni CS isolate. Additional work revealed that flagellin was not expressed in the C. jejuni CS isolate. Microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that all flagellar class II genes were significantly downregulated in the C. jejuni CS isolate compared to the C. jejuni Turkey isolate. Finally, nucleotide sequencing of the flgR gene revealed the presence of a single residue that was different in the FlgR proteins of the C. jejuni Turkey and CS isolates. Complementation of the C. jejuni CS isolate with a wild-type copy of the flgR gene restored the isolate's motility. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that critical differences in gene content or gene expression can alter the pathogenic potential of C. jejuni isolates.

  15. Characterization of antibiotic resistance in Listeria spp. isolated from slaughterhouse environments, pork and human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Paixão, Renata; Gobbi, Débora D S; Raimundo, Daniele C; Ferreira, Thais P; Moreno, Andrea M; Hofer, Ernesto; Reis, Cristhiane M F; Matté, Glavur R; Matté, Maria H

    2014-04-15

    Listeria species are susceptible to most antibiotics. However, over the last decade, increasing reports of multidrug-resistant Listeria spp. from various sources have prompted public health concerns. The objective of this study was to characterize the antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria spp. and the genetic mechanisms that confer resistance. Forty-six Listeria spp. isolates were studied, and their minimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were determined by microdilution using Sensititre standard susceptibility MIC plates. The isolates were screened for the presence of gyrA, parC, lde, lsa(A), lnu(A), and mprF by PCR, and the amplified genes were sequenced. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and carbapenems. Resistance to clindamycin, daptomycin, and oxacillin was found among L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, and all species possessed at least intermediate resistance to fluoroquinolones. GyrA, parC, and mprF were detected in all isolates; however, mutations were found only in gyrA sequences. A high daptomycin MIC, as reported previously, was observed, suggesting an intrinsic resistance of Listeria spp. to daptomycin. These results are consistent with reports of emerging resistance in Listeria spp. and emphasize the need for further genotypic characterization of antibiotic resistance in this genus.

  16. Occurrence of Enterococcus spp. isolated from the milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lačanin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus spp. is the most controversial group of lactic acid bacteria that have been for years ascribed with beneficial or detrimental role in food and feed. The aim of our study was to monitor the occurrence of Enterococcus spp. as the indicator of the contamination from collected samples of raw cow's milk, goat's colostrum and whey (n = 186. Cultures of enterococci were cultivated and purified and identified by the genus-specific and species-specific PCR method (n = 230. Among suspected isolates in total 222 isolates (96.5% were identified as Enterococcus spp. The results were the same in all samples separately, more than 90% each of them were positive to Enterococcus spp. The results of counting the number of cultivated colonies showed that the largest number of enterococci is found in the samples of whey taken after the process of electrodialysis and the smallest in the native whey sample. From collected whey samples, 64 samples (90% were PCR positive for enterococci species. Afterwards within the identification of several selected isolates that were identified, as Enterococcus spp. by the species-specific PCR method the most frequently presented in all of isolates was Enterococccus faecalis. Apparently the presence of enterococci was detected in all samples, but in amounts that aren't hazardous for human health. Although enterococci are oportunistic pathogens, it seems that they occur frequently in foods (especially fermented in large numbers.

  17. The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is known to occur in the intestinal systems of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause acute diarrhoeal diseases in humans worldwide, they mostly manifest themselves in an apparently healthy carrier state in ...

  18. The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Abstract. Background: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is known to occur in the intestinal systems of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause acute diarrhoeal diseases in humans worldwide, they mostly manifest themselves in an apparently healthy ...

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in calves with and without diarrhea in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Alispahic, M; Sofka, D; Iwersen, M; Drillich, M; Hilbert, F

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter in feces of calves with and without diarrhea on dairy farms and to survey farm characteristics and management practices to define risk factors for the presence of Campylobacter. Fifty dairy farms were chosen based on the presence of calf diarrhea, and 50 farms in which calves were free from diarrhea served as a standard of comparison. In total, fecal samples were taken from 382 calves. Farm data and management practices were surveyed using a questionnaire on farm. Campylobacter were isolated from fecal samples and colonies were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Campylobacter spp., mainly Campylobacter jejuni (93% of isolated species), were detected on 33% of the farms and in 14.9% of the calves. Detection of Campylobacter did not differ between farms or between calves with and without diarrhea, although we found a tendency for calves suffering from diarrhea to shed Campylobacter more often. Calves may act as a reservoir of Campylobacter and may therefore lead to infections of other animals and humans. To define control strategies to reduce Campylobacter in calves, we identified on-farm risk factors. The presence of poultry on the farm, the time of cow-calf separation following birth, the use of an individual bucket for each calf, the feeding of waste milk, and the duration of individual housing were variables significantly associated with the appearance or absence of Campylobacter. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Isolation of Blastocystis spp. from human hosts and in vitro determination of different morphological forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatyalı, Erdoğan; Ozçelik, Semra

    2011-01-01

    Blastocystis is a highly common parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of many different organisms. Morphology and the appropriate classification of Blastocystis spp. has only recently been resolved with molecular biological studies. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis spp. among humans and to isolate the parasite from clinical specimens. Blastocystis spp. was detected in 0.48% of the stool samples and the positive samples were cultivated in Locke-Egg Serum (LES). During passages inoculums were investigated by direct microscopy and stained with trichrome and iron hematoxylene. Vacuolar and granular forms were the most common in cultures and also the amoeboid form was observed. LES medium may be a suitable selection for studies aiming to determine the frequency of Blastocystis spp. and for the diagnosis in routine laboratories.

  1. Eight-year Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterococcus Spp. Isolated in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1446 strains of Enterococcus spp. were collected from urine 640 (44.3%), sputum 315 (21.8%), secretions and pus 265 (18.3%) during the past 8 years. The rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were 57.4%∼75.9% and 69.0%∼93.8% during the past 8 years, respectively. No Enterococcus spp. was resistant to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. had increased in recent 8 years. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  2. Isolation, Identification and Antibacterial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. Associated with the Mobile Phones of University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Yasushi; Lee, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Masahiro; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    From May 2014 to February 2015, 319 university students (male, n=173; female n=146) of 18 to 24 years of age who carried mobile phones or computer tablets were selected as subjects. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 101 of 319 samples (31.7%). In the present study, 11 strains of S. aureus were isolated and identified, not all of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Overall, 14 species were identified, with 11 strains (10.9%) of S. xylosus being isolated at the highest frequency. Following this were eight strains (7.9%) of S. cohnii and seven strains (6.9%) each of S. capitis and S. haemolyticus. Staphylococcus spp. isolation was performed with bacterial samples obtained from the mobile phones of 22 specific subjects (males, n=12; females, n=10). Staphylococcus spp. isolation was performed on days -1, 7 and 30 of the experiment. Staphylococcus spp. were positively detected one or more times in 12 subjects (54.5%). In one subject (8.3%), all three tests were positive. Furthermore, two tests were positive in three (25.0%). In the eight remaining subjects (66.7%) Staphylococcus spp. were detected only once. For the three abovementioned tests, we investigated the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the strains derived from the mobile phone and from the fingers of three subjects in whom the same bacterial species were isolated twice. From the cases with similarities between strains derived from the fingers and the mobile phones and cases, with consistency in the strains derived from the mobile phone at different times, commonality was observed in the strains derived from the fingers and mobile phones along with chronological uniformity in the strains derived from the mobile phones. A total of 101 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated from mobile phones. According to drug susceptibility tests, 99 strains (98.0%) were found to have some degree of resistance to drugs (excluding one strain each of S. aureus and S. haemolyticus

  3. CAMPYLOBACTER ENTERITIS AMONG CHILDREN IN DEMBIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    Dec 12, 2000 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven ... Campylobacter species can cause infection in all age groups but the ..... stereotype distribution of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated.

  4. Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli EM CARCAÇAS DE FRANGO RESFRIADAS E CONGELADAS

    OpenAIRE

    Cisco, Isabel Cristina; Tedesco, Denise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Santos, Suelen Priscila; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Santos, Luciana Ruschel dos

    2017-01-01

    Resumo Espécies de Campylobacter spp. termotolerantes são agentes de surtos de campilobacteriose em humanos e os produtos de origem avícola são considerados uma importante fonte de infecção. Foram identificados Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em carcaças de frango resfriadas e congeladas coletadas em três abatedouros entre 2014 e 2015. A detecção de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada por microbiologia convencional e a identificação de C. jejuni e C. coli por multiplex-PCR. Dentre as a...

  5. Variability in tolerance to UV-B radiation among Beauveria spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Everton K K; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Moraes, Aurea M L; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P; Roberts, Donald W

    2007-11-01

    Solar radiation, particularly the UV-B component, negatively affects survival of entomopathogenic fungi in the field. In an effort to identify Beauveria spp. isolates with promise for use in biological control settings with high insolation, we examined 53 Beauveria bassiana isolates, 7 isolates of 4 other Beauveria spp. and Engyodontium albus (=Beauveria alba). The origins of these fungi varied widely as to host/substrate and country, but approximately 30% of these isolates were B. bassiana from ticks in Brazil. A preliminary trial with three B. bassiana isolates (Bb 19, CG 310 and CG 481) at several UV-B dosages indicated that 2h of weighted UV-B irradiance at 978mWm(-2) (providing a total dose of 7.04kJm(-2)) allowed separation of isolates into low, medium or high UV-B tolerance. This dose, therefore, was selected as a single dose to compare UV-B tolerances of all 60 Beauveria spp. isolates. There was high variability in tolerance to UV-B radiation among the B. bassiana isolates, ranging from virtually zero tolerance (e.g., Bb 03) to almost 80% tolerance (e.g., CG 228). In addition, surviving B. bassiana conidia demonstrated delayed germination; and this is likely to reduce virulence. Conidia of the other species were markedly more sensitive to UV-B, with E. albus (UFPE 3138) being the least UV-B tolerant. Among B. bassiana isolates originating from 0 degrees to 22 degrees latitudes, those from lower latitudes demonstrated statistically significant greater UV-B tolerances than those isolates from higher latitudes. Isolates from above 22 degrees , however, were unaffected by latitude of origin. A similar analysis based on host type did not indicate a correlation between original host and UV-B tolerance. The identification in this study of several B. bassiana isolates with relatively high UV-B tolerance will guide the selection of isolates for future arthropod microbial control experiments.

  6. Isolation and genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. from Acanthamoeba meningitis/ meningoencephalitis (AME) patients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Himanshu Sekhar; Satpathy, Gita; Tripathi, Manjari

    2016-08-09

    Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living ubiquitous protozoans capable of causing Acanthamoeba meningitis/meningoencephalitis (AME) of the central nervous system in humans. Acanthamoeba spp. are divided into 20 different genotypes (T1-T20) on the basis of variation in nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA gene. The objective of this study was to identify the genotypes of Acanthamoeba spp. in patients of Acanthamoeba meningitis/meningoencephalitis (AME) using 18S rRNA gene-based PCR assay. The present study provides information regarding the involvement of the most prevalent and predominant genotype of Acanthamoeba spp. in Acanthamoeba meningitis/meningoencephalitis infections in India. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected from 149 clinically suspected Acanthamoeba meningitis/meningoencephalitis (AME) patients reporting to the outpatient department/causality services of the Neurosciences Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India during the past five years. Samples were inoculated onto 2 % non-nutrient agar plates overlaid with E. coli and incubated at 30 °C for 14 days. Among 149 suspected patients, ten were found culture-positive for Acanthamoeba spp. out of which six isolates were established in axenic culture for molecular analysis. DNA was isolated and a PCR assay was performed for amplification of the Diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) (~280 bp) region of the 18S rRNA gene from axenic culture of six Acanthamoeba spp. isolates. Rns genotyping was performed on the basis of the variation in nucleotide sequences of DF3 region of the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, all of the six Acanthamoeba spp. isolates were found to belong to genotype T4. The sequence homology search for these six isolates in the NCBI databank showed homology with the available strains of Acanthamoeba spp. The newly generated sequences are available in the GenBank database under accession numbers KT004416-KT004421. In the present study, genotype T4 was found as the most prevalent and

  7. Genetic characterization of trh positive Vibrio spp. isolated from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette eBauer Ellingsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and/or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH genes are carried by most virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovars. In Norway, trh+ V. parahaemolyticus constitute 4.4% and 4.5 % of the total number of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis and water, respectively. The trh gene is located in a region close to the gene cluster for urease production (ure. This region was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus strain TH3996 and it was found that a nickel transport operon (nik was located between the first gene (ureR and the rest of the ure cluster genes. The organization of the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster in the Norwegian trh+ isolates was unknown. In this study, we explore the gene organization within the trh-ureR-nik-ure cluster for these isolates. PCR analyses revealed that the genes within the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster of Norwegian trh+ isolates were organized in a similar fashion as reported previously for TH33996. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship among these trh+ isolates was investigated using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST. Analysis by MLST or ureR-trh sequences generated two different phylogenetic trees for the same strains analyzed, suggesting that ureR-trh genes have been acquired at different times in Norwegian V. parahaemolyticus isolates. MLST results revealed that some pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Norway appear to be highly genetically related.

  8. Genetic characterization of trh positive Vibrio spp. isolated from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Anette B; Olsen, Jaran S; Granum, Per E; Rørvik, Liv M; González-Escalona, Narjol

    2013-01-01

    The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and/or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) genes are carried by most virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovars. In Norway, trh+ V. parahaemolyticus constitute 4.4 and 4.5% of the total number of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and water, respectively. The trh gene is located in a region close to the gene cluster for urease production (ure). This region was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus strain TH3996 and it was found that a nickel transport operon (nik) was located between the first gene (ureR) and the rest of the ure cluster genes. The organization of the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster in the Norwegian trh+ isolates was unknown. In this study, we explore the gene organization within the trh-ureR-nik-ure cluster for these isolates. PCR analyses revealed that the genes within the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster of Norwegian trh+ isolates were organized in a similar fashion as reported previously for TH33996. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship among these trh+ isolates was investigated using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Analysis by MLST or ureR-trh sequences generated two different phylogenetic trees for the same strains analyzed, suggesting that ureR-trh genes have been acquired at different times in Norwegian V. parahaemolyticus isolates. MLST results revealed that some pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Norway appear to be highly genetically related.

  9. Invasion of HEp-2 cells by Shigella spp. isolated from acute pediatric diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidi, Sajjad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: infection is an important global health problem in developing countries where hygiene is poor and hence shigellosis is a main cause of diarrhoea-associated mortality and morbidity, particularly in children under the age of five. The bacterial entry into colon and rectal epithelial cells has been named ‘bacterium-directed phagocytosis’. This term highlights that the bacteria actively stimulate their own uptake into non-professional phagocytes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the invasion of HEp-2 cells by spp. isolated from acute pediatric diarrhea in Tehran, Iran.Methods: Three-hundred and ten non-duplicative diarrheal stool samples were collected from the children admitted to Children’s Medical Center in Tehran, Iran. Samples were cultured and suspected colonies were identified by routine microbiological and biochemical tests. The invasion of the two isolated spp. to HEp-2 cells was studied.Results: Of 310 stool samples, 16 (5.2% spp. were isolated, including seven (43.7% and nine (56.3% . Four (44.4% and seven (42.8% showed invasive phenotype to HEp-2.Conclusion: and are reported as the most prevalent spp. in nature which infect humans. Invasion of various cell lines gives the chance of survival to spp. This ability causes more virulent infections in the host. Despite costly and time consuming cell culture techniques, the current method described in this paper is reliable for detecting invasive behavior of spp. Results have also shown that not all the spp. are able to invade intestinal epithelial cells.

  10. Evaluation of PCR assays for the detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial scrapings and the identification of subspecies in South African field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schmidt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the high lability and slow growth of Campylobacter fetus subspecies, the laboratory diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis has always been difficult. This is especially true under South African conditions, where farms are far apart, laboratories are only present in major centres and there are high ambient temperatures. In order to overcome the shortcomings associated with traditional diagnostic methods, the implementation of a molecular assay was sought. This work describes how a previously published PCR assay (MG3F / MG4R primers was adapted, optimised and applied in the diagnostic laboratory to test preputial samples directly for the presence of Campylobacter fetus. Field evaluation of the assay revealed an analytical sensitivity and specificity of 85.7 % and 99 %, respectively. Subsequent genotyping and phenotyping of a diverse collection of South African field isolates revealed that South Africa has an unexpected and previously unreported high incidence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. These strains were not identified correctly by the subspecies-specific primer set evaluated. Until such time that cost-effective genotyping methods are available to diagnostic laboratories in South Africa, and other countries with these atypical Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis strains, the need for bacterial culture will persist. Identification to subspecies level of isolates at present remains dependent upon a single phenotypic criterion, namely tolerance to 1 % glycine.

  11. Lantibiotics biosynthesis genes and bacteriocinogenic activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from raw milk and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Moraes, Paula Mendonça; Silva, Abelardo; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2012-05-01

    Lactobacillus species are usually used as starters for the production of fermented products, and some strains are capable of producing antimicrobial substances, such as bacteriocins. Because these characteristics are highly desirable, research are continually being performed for novel Lactobacillus strains with bacteriocinogenic potential for use by food industries. The aim of this study was to characterise the bacteriocinogenic potential and activity of Lactobacillus isolates. From a lactic acid bacteria culture collection obtained from raw milk and cheese, 27 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA as Lactobacillus spp. and selected for the detection of lantibiotics biosynthesis genes, bacteriocin production, antimicrobial spectra, and ideal incubation conditions for bacteriocin production. Based on the obtained results, 21 isolates presented at least one of the three lantibiotics biosynthesis genes (lanB, lanC or lamM), and 23 isolates also produced antimicrobial substances with sensitivity to at least one proteinase, indicating their bacteriocinogenic activity. In general, the isolates had broad inhibitory activity, mainly against Listeria spp. and Staphylococcus spp. strains, and the best antimicrobial performance of the isolates occurred when they were cultivated at 25 °C for 24 or 48 h or at 35 °C for 12 h. The present study identified the bacteriocinogenic potential of Lactobacillus isolates obtained from raw milk and cheese, suggesting their potential use as biopreservatives in foods.

  12. Distribution of Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Poultry at a Slaughterhouse and Supermarkets in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Chiaki; Kishimoto, Michiru; Ezaki, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Fifty strains of Campylobacter jejuni/coli were detected in 108 specimens of chicken meat and organs sampled at six supermarkets and one poultry slaughterhouse (large scale) between April and October 2013 (isolation rates: 84.8% from the slaughterhouse, 29.3% from the supermarkets). 46/50 strains were successfully recovered and subjected to the E-test to examine their susceptibility to three fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents authorized for use in poultry in Japan: enrofloxacin (ERFX), ofloxacin (OFLX), and norfloxacin (NLFX). 29 isolates (63%) were resistant to all three agents and 2 isolates (4.3%) were resistant to two agents (ERFX and OFLX). The resistance rates of strains isolated fom the supermarkets and slaughterhouse were 61.9% and 72.0%, respectively. Because the chickens processed at the slaughterhouse were raised without the use of fluoroquinolone, the results did not suggest a positive relationship between the use of these agents and the distribution of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin [EM]) was also tested in 42 strains, and one strain (2.4%), C. coli from a retailer sample, showed resistance. Previous studies have detected high rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, suggesting an expanding distribution of resistant bacteria. The detection of EM-resistant bacteria downstream in the food distribution chain (i.e., closer to consumers) is a concern for human health.

  13. Phenotypic and Genotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Cattle, Sheep, and Free-Range Poultry Faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oporto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of 13 antimicrobial agents were determined by broth microdilution for 72 Campylobacter jejuni strains from livestock. Twenty-three (31.9% isolates were fully susceptible; all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole, and meropenem, and all but one to kanamycin. Resistance to quinolones was highest (52.8%, reaching similar values among poultry, dairy cattle, and sheep, but lower in beef cattle. Resistance to tetracyclines (48.6% was mainly associated to dairy cattle and β-lactams (26.4% to poultry. Multidrug resistance was mainly detected in dairy cattle (28.6% and poultry (21.0%, whereas beef cattle had the highest percentage of fully susceptible isolates. Two real-time PCR assays to detect point mutations associated to quinolone (C257T in the gyrA gene and macrolide (A2075G in the 23S rRNA genes resistance were developed and validated on these strains. The analysis of a further set of 88 isolates by real-time PCR confirmed the absence of macrolide resistance and demonstrated the reproducibility and processability of the assay.

  14. Acid stress response and protein induction in Campylobacter jejuni isolates with different acid tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Wik, Monica Takamiya; Lametsch, René

    2012-01-01

    (Cj0706), molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein (MogA), and bacterioferritin (Dps). Strain and acid type dependent differences in the level of response were observed. For strain NCTC 11168, the induced proteins and the regulator fur were analysed at the transcriptomic level using qRT-PCR....... In this transcriptomic analysis, only up-regulation of trxB and p19 was observed. CONCLUSIONS: A defined medium that supports the growth of a range of Campylobacter strains and suitable for proteomic analysis was developed. Mainly proteins normally involved in iron control and oxidative stress defence were induced...

  15. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    .... From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins...

  16. Antibiotic of resistence profile of Salmonella spp. serotypes isolated from retail beef in Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Nayarit-Ballesteros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. Materials and methods. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp. The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. Results. We isolated a total of 19 strains of Lomita (6, Derby (4, Senftenberg (2, Javiana and Cannsttat (1 and undeter- mined (5 serotypes. The strains showed a high resistance rate to ampicillin (18/19, carbenicillin (16/19, tetracyclin (13/19, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13/19. Multidrug resistance was observed in 14 isolates. Conclusions. Several Salmonella spp. serotypes of public health significance are circulating in ground beef sold in the major Mexican city. Some of these strains are multi-drug resistance.

  17. Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. namely, Campylobacter jejuni and coli cause acute diarrheal diseases in humans worldwide; although these species are known to occur in the intestinal tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Objective: Little is known about the presence of these bacteria in ...

  18. Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Abstract. Background: Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. namely, Campylobacter jejuni and coli cause acute diarrheal diseases in humans ... Objective: Little is known about the presence of these bacteria in various food animals as possible sources of infection to humans in .... The preventive measures for reducing bacterial ...

  19. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... reactive arthritis or Guillain-Barre syndrome. To prevent Campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  20. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the most common Campylobacter species associated with diarrhea . Common ways that a child can get the ... and Symptoms Illness caused by Campylobacter infections includes diarrhea, stomach pain, and fever. Blood may be present ...

  1. Antimicrobial resistance among Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group isolated from Danish agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Baloda, S.; Boye, Mette

    2001-01-01

    From four Danish pig farms, bacteria of Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil and susceptibility towards selected antimicrobials was tested. From each farm, soil samples representing soil just before and after spread of animal waste and undisturbed agricultural soil...

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. isolated from commercial laying hens and free-living wild mallards

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Desiree Seger; Pringle, Märit

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to tylosin, valnemulin, tiamulin, doxycycline, lincomycin and ampicillin was investigated by broth dilution in 48 Brachyspira spp. isolates from commercial laying hens (n=30) and free-living wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (n=18). Presumed pathogens (B. alvinipulli, B. intermedia, B. pilosicoli), commensals (B. murdochii, B. innocens, ?B. pulli?), and isolates of undetermined species affiliation were included. The laying hens had no...

  3. Comparison of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting for differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Chokboonmongkol, Chomporn; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Alter, Thomas; Pornaem, Sarinya; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa

    2012-11-01

    We compared rapid fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) for subtyping Campylobacter jejuni isolates to the widely used multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Representative C. jejuni isolates (n = 16) from broilers were analyzed using MLST and rep-PCR. Both techniques demonstrated an equal discriminatory power of 0.8917, and 9 subgroups were identified. Clonal identification of all 16 isolates was identical for both techniques. The rep-PCR as described in this study may be used as a rapid and cost-effective alternative for subtyping of C. jejuni isolates, or as an effective screening tool in large epidemiological studies.

  4. Preparative isolation of oligomeric procyanidins from Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumdick, S; Petereit, F; Luftmann, H; Hensel, A

    2009-04-01

    The oligomeric procyanidins (OPC) from Hawthorn leaves and flowers (Crataegi folium cum flore) are considered to be in part responsible for the cardiotonic clinical activity of the herbal material. Effective methods for rapid isolation of these heterogenous oligomeric clusters with defined molecular weight as reference compounds are not published until now. Therefore the water soluble fraction of an acetone/water (7 + 3) extract of Hawthorn leaves and flowers was fractionated by a combination of MPLC on RP-18 material and preparative HPLC using a diol stationary phase. This procedure resulted in the effective isolation of procyanidins with a distinct degree of polymerization (DP) from dimers DP2 up to tridecamers DP13. Exact mass measurements with negative ESI-TOF/MS were employed to confirm the respective structures of the isolated procyanidins.

  5. Biochemical identification and numerical taxonomy of Aeromonas spp. isolated from environmental and clinical samples in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñana-Galbis, D; Farfán, M; Lorén, J G; Fusté, M C

    2002-01-01

    To study the phenotypic characteristics of Aeromonas spp. from environmental and clinical samples in Spain and to cluster these strains by numerical taxonomy. A collection of 202 Aeromonas strains isolated from bivalve molluscs, water and clinical samples was tested for 64 phenotypic properties; 91% of these isolates were identified at species level. Aeromonas caviae was predominant in bivalve molluscs and Aerom. bestiarum in freshwater samples. Cluster analyses revealed eight different phena: three containing more than one DNA-DNA hybridization group but including strains that belong to the same phenospecies complex (Aerom. hydrophila, Aerom. sobria and Aerom. caviae), Aerom. encheleia, Aerom. trota and three containing unidentified Aeromonas strains isolated from bivalve molluscs. Aeromonas spp. are widely distributed in environmental and clinical sources. A selection of 16 of the phenotypical tests chosen allowed the identification of most isolates (91%), although some strains remain unidentified, mainly isolates from bivalve molluscs, suggesting the presence of new Aeromonas species. Numerical taxonomy was not in total concordance with the identification of the studied strains. Numerical taxonomy of Aeromonas strains isolated from different sources revealed the presence of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas spp., especially in bivalve molluscs, and phena with unidentified strains that suggest new Aeromonas species.

  6. Biopathologic Characterization of Three Mixed Poultry Eimeria spp. Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Mansoori

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coccidiosis of domestic fowl, caused by species of the Genus Eimeria, is responsi­ble for important economic losses in poultry production. Because different species and/or strains can vary in pathogenicity and other biological parameters, their precise characteriza­tion is important for epizootiological studies.Methods: Fifty samples from litter, whole intestinal tract and feces were collected from poul­try houses located in different provinces of Iran. One hundred twenty male day-old broi­ler chicks were challenged with three selected isolates. Data on weight gain, Food Conversion Ratio (FCR, food intake, lesion scoring and shedding of oocysts per gram of feces were rec­orded and analyzed by the Duncan's test.Results: In all treatments, the challenged groups had statistically significant lower weight gain than that of unchallenged control group. Isolate three caused the lowest weight gain and food intake and the worst lesion score as well as FCR. Despite originating from close geographi­cal regions for isolates 1 and 2, the difference in biopathologic factors may be either due to different proportion of identified species or the different pathogenicity of the species present in the isolates.Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of considering various species of Eimeria in designing the preventive, control and treatment strategies to prevent coccidiosis in different regions of Iran. Further characterization of each isolate would be the next step to provide a basis for coccidiosis research with well-characterized local isolates.

  7. Zoonotic pathogens isolated from wild animals and environmental samples at two California wildlife hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siembieda, Jennifer L; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Ziccardi, Michael H; Anderson, Nancy; Chouicha, Nadira; Sandrock, Christian E; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-03-15

    To determine types and estimate prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens shed by wild animals admitted to either of 2 wildlife hospitals and to characterize distribution of these pathogens and of aerobic bacteria in a hospital environment. Cross-sectional study. Fecal samples from 338 animals in 2 wildlife hospitals and environmental samples from 1 wildlife hospital. Fecal samples were collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. Environmental samples were collected from air and surfaces. Samples were tested for zoonotic pathogens via culture techniques and biochemical analyses. Prevalence of pathogen shedding was compared among species groups, ages, sexes, and seasons. Bacterial counts were determined for environmental samples. Campylobacter spp, Vibrio spp, Salmonella spp, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp (alone or in combination) were detected in 105 of 338 (31%) fecal samples. Campylobacter spp were isolated only from birds. Juvenile passerines were more likely to shed Campylobacter spp than were adults; prevalence increased among juvenile passerines during summer. Non-O1 serotypes of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from birds; during an oil-spill response, 9 of 10 seabirds screened were shedding this pathogen, which was also detected in environmental samples. Salmonella spp and Giardia spp were isolated from birds and mammals; Cryptosporidium spp were isolated from mammals only. Floors of animal rooms had higher bacterial counts than did floors with only human traffic. Potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens were identified in samples from several species admitted to wildlife hospitals, indicating potential for transmission if prevention is not practiced.

  8. Eukaryotic Cell Invasion does not correlate to flaA SVR Sequence Type based on a Library of Genetically Diverse Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Originally Recovered from A Variety of Sources in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are considered to be a leading bacterial etiologic agent of acute food-borne gastroenteritis among human populations. Epithelial cell invasion is hypothesized to be necessary for human infection and cell invasion assays have been utilized to demonstrate that distinc...

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic properties of cattle-associated Campylobacter and their implications to public health in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser M Sanad

    Full Text Available Since cattle are a major source of food and the cattle industry engages people from farms to processing plants and meat markets, it is conceivable that beef-products contaminated with Campylobacter spp. would pose a significant public health concern. To better understand the epidemiology of cattle-associated Campylobacter spp. in the USA, we characterized the prevalence, genotypic and phenotypic properties of these pathogens. Campylobacter were detected in 181 (19.2% out of 944 fecal samples. Specifically, 71 C. jejuni, 132 C. coli, and 10 other Campylobacter spp. were identified. The prevalence of Campylobacter varied regionally and was significantly (P<0.05 higher in fecal samples collected from the South (32.8% as compared to those from the North (14.8%, Midwest (15.83%, and East (12%. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE analysis showed that C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were genotypically diverse and certain genotypes were shared across two or more of the geographic locations. In addition, 13 new C. jejuni and two C. coli sequence types (STs were detected by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST. C. jejuni associated with clinically human health important sequence type, ST-61 which was not previously reported in the USA, was identified in the present study. Most frequently observed clonal complexes (CC were CC ST-21, CC ST-42, and CC ST-61, which are also common in humans. Further, the cattle associated C. jejuni strains showed varying invasion and intracellular survival capacity; however, C. coli strains showed a lower invasion and intracellular survival potential compared to C. jejuni strains. Furthermore, many cattle associated Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to several antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of cattle as a potential reservoir for clinically important Campylobacter.

  10. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in the turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, M D; Altermann, E; Olson, J; Miller, W G; Chandrashekhar, K; Kathariou, S

    2016-07-01

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antimicrobials kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095nt) harboring tet(O) was identified in C. jejuni strain 11601MD, which was isolated from the jejunum of a turkey produced conventionally in North Carolina. Analysis of the p11601MD sequence revealed the presence of a high-GC content cassette with four genes that included tet(O) and a putative aminoglycoside transferase gene (aphA-3) highly similar to kanamycin resistance determinants. Several genes putatively involved in conjugative transfer were also identified on the plasmid. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of potentially self-mobilizing plasmids harboring antibiotic resistance determinants in Campylobacter spp. from turkeys and other sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genotypes of pathogenic Leptospira spp isolated from rodents in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Grune Loffler

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world and significant efforts have been made to determine and classify pathogenic Leptospira strains. This zoonosis is maintained in nature through chronic renal infections of carrier animals, with rodents and other small mammals serving as the most important reservoirs. Additionally, domestic animals, such as livestock and dogs, are significant sources of human infection. In this study, a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA was applied to genotype 22 pathogenic Leptospira strains isolated from urban and periurban rodent populations from different regions of Argentina. Three MLVA profiles were identified in strains belonging to the species Leptospira interrogans (serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola; one profile was observed in serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and two MLVA profiles were observed in isolates of serovars Canicola and Portlandvere. All strains belonging to Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis exhibited the same MLVA profile. Four different genotypes were isolated from urban populations of rodents, including both mice and rats and two differen