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Sample records for campylobacter infections

  1. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  2. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection occurs in the small intestine from a bacteria called Campylobacter jejuni . It is a type of food poisoning. ... Campylobacter enteritis is a common cause of intestinal infection . ... of traveler's diarrhea or food poisoning . People most often ...

  3. Comparison of Characteristics of Patients Infected by Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Bessède, Emilie; Lehours, Philippe; Labadi, Leila; BAKIRI, Sarah; Mégraud, Francis

    2014-01-01

    A large database of Campylobacter isolates precisely identified at the species level was used to compare patients' characteristics. In a multivariate analysis, Campylobacter coli was found more often in older patients and in patients having traveled abroad and less often in summertime than Campylobacter jejuni. Campylobacter fetus infection occurred in much older patients and in hospitalized patients with a systemic disease.

  4. Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded an

  5. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon V. R. Epps

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions.

  6. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna K; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J; Jones, Trevor R; Wigley, Paul; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cross, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs' ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public's preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%-52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%-98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections. PMID:27314748

  7. Campylobacter: animal reservoirs, human infections, and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap; Newell, D.G.; Kalupahana, R.S.; Mughini Gras, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded anima

  8. Thermophilic campylobacters in surface waters around Lancaster, UK: negative correlation with Campylobacter infections in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Betaieb, M; Telford, D R

    1990-11-01

    The incidence of campylobacter enteritis in Lancaster City Health Authority is three times the UK average for similar sizes of population and has marked seasonal peaks in May and June. Environmental monitoring of surface waters around Lancaster showed that thermophilic campylobacters were absent from drinking water from the fells and from the clean upper reaches of the River Conder but were present in the main rivers entering Morecambe Bay, the lower reaches of the River Conder, the Lancaster canal, and seawater from the Lune estuary and Morecambe Bay. All the surface waters tested showed the same seasonality, namely, higher numbers in the winter months and low numbers or none in May, June and July. The absence of thermophilic campylobacters in the summer months may be due to high sunshine levels because experiments on the effects of light showed that campylobacters in sewage effluent and seawater were eliminated within 60 and 30 min of daylight respectively but survived for 24 h in darkness. As the concentrations of campylobacters in surface waters were at their lowest precisely at the time of peak infections in the community it is unlikely that surface waters form Lancaster's reservoir of campylobacter infection for the community. PMID:2276990

  9. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong;

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  10. Clinical Manifestations of Campylobacter concisus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove;

    2013-01-01

    with Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection. RESULTS:: Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two diarrheic stool samples from 1,867 children were cultured for pathogenic enteric bacteria during the study period, and 85 and 109 children with C. concisus and C. jejuni/coli, respectively, were identified. Comparison......BACKGROUND:: There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. METHODS:: A study was performed during a two-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient...... for more than two weeks and two-thirds of all children with C. concisus reported loose stools after six month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:: Campylobacter concisus infection in children seems to have a milder course of acute gastroenteritis compared with C. jejuni/coli infection, but is associated with more...

  11. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection. In this

  12. First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Stenram, U.; Andersen, L.P.;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C. concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize and...

  13. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  14. The effect of presence of infected neighbouring farms for the Campylobacter infection status in Danish broiler farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Sharmin; Sandberg, Marianne; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz;

    2012-01-01

    Neighbourhood risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broilers were evaluated. Campylobacter infection status of a flock was identified by PCR analysis of cloacal swab samples collected as a part of national surveillance program. Included into the study were, in total, 10,876 broiler f...

  15. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early...... colonization or to reduce the Campylobacter colonization level may be a viable intervention strategy in the future; however, no commercial Campylobacter vaccine is currently available. This case considers the rationale for such a strategy, the forms it could take and the challenges it would involve....

  16. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early colon...

  17. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved. Isol

  18. Campylobacter infection in children in Malawi is common and is frequently associated with enteric virus co-infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer Mason

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. However, comparatively few studies have determined the epidemiological features of campylobacteriosis in resource-poor settings. METHODS: A total of 1,941 faecal specimens collected from symptomatic (diarrhoeic children and 507 specimens from asymptomatic (non-diarrhoeic children hospitalised in Blantyre, Malawi, between 1997 and 2007, and previously tested for the presence of rotavirus and norovirus, was analysed for C. jejuni and C. coli using a real time PCR assay. RESULTS: Campylobacter species were detected in 415/1,941 (21% of diarrhoeic children, with C. jejuni accounting for 85% of all cases. The median age of children with Campylobacter infection was 11 months (range 0.1-55 months, and was significantly higher than that for children with rotavirus and norovirus (6 months and 7 months respectively; P<0.001. Co-infection with either rotavirus or norovirus was noted in 41% of all cases in the diarrhoeic group. In contrast, the detection rate of Campylobacter in the non-diarrhoeic group was 14%, with viral co-infection identified in 16% of children with Campylobacter. There was no association between Campylobacter detection rate and season over the 10 year period. DISCUSSION: Using molecular detection methodology in hospitalised Malawian children, we have demonstrated a high prevalence of Campylobacter infection, with frequent viral co-infection. The burden of Campylobacter infection in young African children may be greater than previously recognised.

  19. First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rune Aabenhus; Unne Stenram; Leif Percival Andersen; Henrik Permin; Asa Ljungh

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time.METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize and produce infection in immunocompetent BALB/cA mice.The majority of the BALB/cA mice were treated with cyclophosphamide prior to C. concisus inoculation to suppress immune functions. Inoculation of C. concisus was performed by the gastric route.RESULTS: C concisus was isolated from the liver, ileum and jejunum of cyclophosphamide-treated mice in the first experiment. No C concisus strains were isolated in the two subsequent experiments. Mice infected with C concisus showed a significant loss of body weight from day two through to day five of infection but this decreased at the end of the first week. Histopathological examination did not consistently find signs of inflammation in the gut, but occasionally microabscesses were found in the liver of infected animals.CONCLUSION: Transient colonization with C. concisua was observed in mice with loss of body weight. Future studies should concentrate on the first few days after inoculation and in other strains of mice.

  20. Campylobacter infection as a trigger for Guillain-Barre syndrome in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Wierzba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies of Campylobacter infection triggering Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS are conducted in western nations were Campylobacter infection and immunity is relatively rare. In this study, we explored Campylobacter infections, Campylobacter serotypes, autoantibodies to gangliosides, and GBS in Egypt, a country where Campylobacter exposure is common. METHODS: GBS cases (n = 133 were compared to age- and hospital-matched patient controls (n = 374. A nerve conduction study was performed on cases and a clinical history, serum sample, and stool specimen obtained for all subjects. RESULTS: Most (63.3% cases were demyelinating type; median age four years. Cases were more likely than controls to have diarrhea (29.5% vs. 22.5%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa = 1.69, P = 0.03, to have higher geometric mean IgM anti-Campylobacter antibody titers (8.18 vs. 7.25 P<0.001, and to produce antiganglioside antibodies (e.g., anti-Gd1a, 35.3 vs. 11.5, ORa = 4.39, P<0.0001. Of 26 Penner:Lior Campylobacter serotypes isolated, only one (41:27, C. jejuni, P = 0.02 was associated with GBS. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike results from western nations, data suggested that GBS cases were primarily in the young and cases and many controls had a history of infection to a variety of Campylobacter serotypes. Still, the higher rates of diarrhea and greater antibody production against Campylobacter and gangliosides in GBS patients were consistent with findings from western countries.

  1. Study of the infectivity of saline-stored Campylobacter jejuni for day-old chicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter;

    2001-01-01

    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became noncultu......The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became......-campylobacter outer membrane protein serum antibodies in day-old chicks did not protect the chicks from campylobacter colonization....

  2. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  3. Gastric metaplasia and Campylobacter pylori infection of duodenum in patients with chronic renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Shousha, S; Keen, C; Parkins, R A

    1989-01-01

    Duodenal biopsy specimens from 80 patients with chronic renal failure, who were undergoing haemodialysis, were examined by light microscopy for evidence of inflammation, gastric metaplasia, and Campylobacter pylori infection. Chronic duodenitis was present in 47 (59%) of patients, of whom only seven (9%) showed evidence of active inflammation. Gastric metaplasia was present in 50 (62.5%) of patients, yet Campylobacter pylori was identified in only two patients (2.5%). It is suggested that the...

  4. The influence of age on Campylobacter jejuni infection in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zifeng; Pielsticker, Colin; Gerzova, Lenka; Rychlik, Ivan; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2016-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni)-host-interaction may be affected by the maturation stage of the chicken's immune system and the developing gut microbiota composition. We compared these parameters between birds C. jejuni-inoculated at day one, 10, 22 and 31 post hatch. The highest C. jejuni-colonization rate and numbers of colony forming units (CFU) were detected in caecal content of day-one-inoculated birds while the lowest was detected in 22-days-old birds. The low bacterial colonization of 22-days-old chickens correlated with the most prominent immune reactions in this age group in comparison to other age groups. Age and C. jejuni-inoculation had a significant effect on lymphocyte numbers and cytokine expression levels in caecum as well as on gut flora composition. Overall, the immune response to C. jejuni is significantly influenced by the age of the infected chickens leading to differences in C. jejuni-colonization pattern between age goups. PMID:27131855

  5. Campylobacter jejuni motility is required for infection of the flagellotropic bacteriophage F341

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldvinsson, Signe Berg; Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard;

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a specific modification of the capsular polysaccharide as receptor for phages that infect Campylobacter jejuni. Using acapsular kpsM mutants of C. jejuni strains NCTC11168 and NCTC12658, we found that bacteriophage F341 infects C. jejuni independently of the capsule...

  6. Epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter , causing human infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, is mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products.Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Campylobacter isolates were serotyped, using a modificati

  7. Poultry meat – as a source of Campylobacter spp., infection in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Drinceanu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Current studies indicate that Campylobacter spp. is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in humans in both developed countries and worldwide. This explains the ever-increasing interest of the researchers in the eradication of digestive disorders caused by Campylobacter spp. and also to identify the risk factors involved in prevention of human infections. Because birds are considered a major source of Campylobacter jejuni contamination in humans the purpose of this paper is to summarize the literature in regards to the incidence of campylobacter related infections in humans, identify the risk factors but mostly to describe the implications of poultry meat contamination during preparation for the consumer. Herein we refer to the applicable strategies in poultry farms as the introduction of competition between microbial populations in the gut, the use of new management practices in raising chickens and better hygiene to reduce the rate of gastrointestinal colonization with Campylobacter spp. in broilers and hens.

  8. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen;

    2013-01-01

    . positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during the summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among...

  9. Relapsing Campylobacter jejuni Systemic Infections in a Child with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ariganello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is a primary immunodeficiency of the humoral compartment, due to a mutation in the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK gene, characterized by a severe defect of circulating B cells and serum immunoglobulins. Recurrent infections are the main clinical manifestations; although they are especially due to encapsulated bacteria, a specific association with Campylobacter species has been reported. Here, we report the case of a boy with XLA who presented with relapsing Campylobacter jejuni systemic infections. His clinical history supports the hypothesis of the persistence of C. jejuni in his intestinal tract. Indeed, as previously reported, XLA patients may become chronic intestinal carriers of Campylobacter, even in absence of symptoms, with an increased risk of relapsing bacteraemia. The humoral defect is considered to be crucial for this phenomenon, as well as the difficulties to eradicate the pathogen with an appropriate antibiotic therapy; drug resistance is raising in Campylobacter species, and the appropriate duration of treatment has not been established. C. jejuni should always be suspected in XLA patients with signs and symptoms of systemic infection, and treatment should be based on antibiogram to assure the eradication of the pathogen.

  10. Tubo-ovarian abscess with endometrial cyst probably infected by Campylobacter fetus: Two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Sachiko; Matsumura, Noriomi; Ohtake, Noriko; Kita, Masato; Konishi, Ikuo

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus often causes systemic infection in immunocompromised or older patients, and prenatal infection, but Campylobacter has rarely been reported as a cause of adnexitis in healthy young women. Here we report two cases of endometriotic cysts infected by C. fetus for the first time. In case 1, a 28-year-old woman with a left adnexal cyst was hospitalized for left tubo-ovarian abscess and underwent left salpingo-oophorectomy. In case 2, a 22-year-old woman with a right adnexal cyst was hospitalized for a bilateral tubo-ovarian abscess and underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy and left salpingectomy. In both cases, C. fetus was detected on culture, and histopathology indicated a purulent endometriotic cyst. The present findings suggest that endometriotic cyst can be a focus of C. fetus infection. PMID:27080623

  11. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...

  12. Most Campylobacter subtypes from sporadic infections can be found in retail poultry products and food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.; Fussing, V.; Engberg, J.;

    2006-01-01

    originating from outside the country. The study shows that most C. jejuni subtypes found in poultry food samples, broiler chickens, and cattle were represented in the domestically acquired cases, indicating that C. jejuni from these reservoirs are likely sources of human infections in Denmark.......The subtypes of Campylobacter isolates from human infections in two Danish counties were compared to isolates from retail food samples and faecal samples from chickens, pigs and cattle. During a 1-year period, 1285 Campylobacter isolates from these sources were typed by two methods: 'Penner' heat......-stable serotyping and automated ribotyping (RiboPrinting). C. jejuni was the dominating species, but C. coli was more prevalent among food and chicken isolates (16%) compared to human isolates (4%). In total, 356 different combined sero-ribotypes (subtypes) were found. A large subtype overlap was seen between human...

  13. Effects of a Campylobacter jejuni infection on the development of the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, C. H.; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Finster, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a Campylobacter jejuni colonization on the development of the microflora of the cecum and the ileum of broiler chickens was studied using molecular methods. The infection did affect the development and complexity of the microbial Communities of the ceca, but we found no permanent...... effect of a C. jejuni infection on the ileal microflora of the broilers. In addition, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles generated from cecal and ileal contents revealed several DGGE bands that were present in the control chickens, but not in the chickens colonized with C. jejuni...

  14. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G

    2015-05-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters.

  15. Microfluidics meets metabolomics to reveal the impact of Campylobacter jejuni infection on biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Mercier, Kelly A; McRitchie, Susan; Cavallo, Tammy B; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Stewart, Delisha; Sumner, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    Microfluidic devices that are currently being used in pharmaceutical research also have a significant potential for utilization in investigating exposure to infectious agents. We have established a microfluidic device cultured with Caco-2 cells, and utilized metabolomics to investigate the biochemical responses to the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. In the microfluidic devices, Caco-2 cells polarize at day 5, are uniform, have defined brush borders and tight junctions, and form a mucus layer. Metabolomics analysis of cell culture media collected from both Caco-2 cell culture systems demonstrated a more metabolic homogenous biochemical profile in the media collected from microfluidic devices, compared with media collected from transwells. GeneGo pathway mapping indicated that aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis was perturbed by fluid flow, suggesting that fluid dynamics and shear stress impacts the cells translational quality control. Both microfluidic device and transwell culturing systems were used to investigate the impact of Campylobacter jejuni infection on biochemical processes. Caco-2 cells cultured in either system were infected at day 5 with C. jejuni 81-176 for 48 h. Metabolomics analysis clearly differentiated C. jejuni 81-176 infected and non-infected medias collected from the microfluidic devices, and demonstrated that C. jejuni 81-176 infection in microfluidic devices impacts branched-chain amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. In contrast, no distinction was seen in the biochemical profiles of infected versus non-infected media collected from cells cultured in transwells. Microfluidic culturing conditions demonstrated a more metabolically homogenous cell population, and present the opportunity for studying host-pathogen interactions for extended periods of time. PMID:27231016

  16. Campylobacter bacteremia: A rare and under-reported event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.; Vliet, van A.H.M.; Belkum, van A.; Hays, J.P.; Endtz, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are asso

  17. Role of Campylobacter jejuni Infection in the Pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan Kumar Nyati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge on Campylobacter jejuni infections in humans has progressively increased over the past few decades. Infection with C. jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, sometimes surpassing other infections due to Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli. Most infections are acquired due to consumption of raw or undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, and contaminated water. After developing the diagnostic methods to detect C. jejuni, the possibility to identify the association of its infection with new diseases has been increased. After the successful isolation of C. jejuni, reports have been published citing the occurrence of GBS following C. jejuni infection. Thus, C. jejuni is now considered as a major triggering agent of GBS. Molecular mimicry between sialylated lipooligosaccharide structures on the cell envelope of these bacteria and ganglioside epitopes on the human nerves that generates cross-reactive immune response results in autoimmune-driven nerve damage. Though C. jejuni is associated with several pathologic forms of GBS, axonal subtypes following C. jejuni infection may be more severe. Ample amount of existing data covers a large spectrum of GBS; however, the studies on C. jejuni-associated GBS are still inconclusive. Therefore, this review provides an update on the C. jejuni infections engaged in the pathogenesis of GBS.

  18. Multilocus sequence types of Finnish bovine Campylobacter jejuni isolates and their attribution to human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corander Jukka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to the sporadic nature of infection, sources often remain unknown. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has been successfully applied to population genetics of Campylobacter jejuni and mathematical modelling can be applied to the sequence data. Here, we analysed the population structure of a total of 250 Finnish C. jejuni isolates from bovines, poultry meat and humans collected in 2003 using a combination of Bayesian clustering (BAPS software and phylogenetic analysis. Results In the first phase we analysed sequence types (STs of 102 Finnish bovine C. jejuni isolates by MLST and found a high diversity totalling 50 STs of which nearly half were novel. In the second phase we included MLST data from domestic human isolates as well as poultry C. jejuni isolates from the same time period. Between the human and bovine isolates we found an overlap of 72.2%, while 69% of the human isolates were overlapping with the chicken isolates. In the BAPS analysis 44.3% of the human isolates were found in bovine-associated BAPS clusters and 45.4% of the human isolates were found in the poultry-associated BAPS cluster. BAPS reflected the phylogeny of our data very well. Conclusions These findings suggest that bovines and poultry were equally important as reservoirs for human C. jejuni infections in Finland in 2003. Our results differ from those obtained in other countries where poultry has been identified as the most important source for human infections. The low prevalence of C. jejuni in poultry flocks in Finland could explain the lower attribution of human infection to poultry. Of the human isolates 10.3% were found in clusters not associated with any host which warrants further investigation, with particular focus on waterborne transmission routes and companion animals.

  19. Interleukin-18 Mediates Immune Responses to Campylobacter jejuni Infection in Gnotobiotic Mice.

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    Stefan Bereswill

    Full Text Available Human Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively rising worldwide. Information about the molecular mechanisms underlying campylobacteriosis, however, are limited. In the present study we investigated whether cytokines such as IL-23, IL-22 and IL-18, which share pivotal functions in host immunity, were involved in mediating intestinal and systemic immunopathological responses upon C. jejuni infection.To assure stable infection, gnotobiotic (i.e. secondary abiotic IL-23p19-/-, IL-22-/- and IL-18-/- mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Following peroral C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection, mice of all genotypes harbored comparably high pathogenic loads in their intestines. As compared to wildtype controls, however, IL-18-/- mice displayed less distinct C. jejuni induced sequelae as indicated by less pronounced large intestinal shrinkage and lower numbers of apoptotic cells in the colonic epithelial layer at day 8 postinfection (p.i.. Furthermore, lower colonic numbers of adaptive immune cells including regulatory T cells and B lymphocytes were accompanied by less distinct secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IFN-γ and lower IL-17A mRNA expression levels in colonic ex vivo biopsies of infected IL-18-/- as compared to wildtype mice. Upon C. jejuni infection, colonic IL-23p19 expression was up-regulated in IL-18-/- mice only, whereas IL-22 mRNA levels were lower in uninfected and infected IL-23p19-/- as well as infected IL-18-/- as compared to respective wildtype control mice. Remarkably, not only intestinal, but also systemic infection-induced immune responses were less pronounced in IL-18-/- mice as indicated by lower TNF, IFN-γ and IL-6 serum levels as compared to wildtype mice.We here show for the first time that IL-18 is essentially involved in mediating C. jejuni infection in the gnotobiotic mouse model. Future studies need to further unravel the underlying regulatory mechanisms orchestrating

  20. The natural antimicrobial carvacrol inhibits Campylobacter jejuni motility and infection of epithelial cells.

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    Lieke B van Alphen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural compounds with anti-microbial properties are attractive reagents to reduce the use of conventional antibiotics. Carvacrol, the main constituent of oregano oil, inhibits the growth of a variety of bacterial foodborne pathogens. As concentrations of carvacrol may vary in vivo or when used in animal feed, we here investigated the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of the compound on major virulence traits of the principal bacterial foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Motility assays revealed that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol inhibited the motility of C. jejuni without affecting bacterial growth. Immunoblotting and electron microscopy showed that carvacrol-treated C. jejuni still expressed flagella. The loss of motility was not caused by reduced intracellular ATP levels. In vitro infection assays demonstrated that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol also abolished C. jejuni invasion of human epithelial cells. Bacterial uptake of invasive Escherichia coli was not blocked by carvacrol. Exposure of C. jejuni to carvacrol prior to infection also inhibited cellular infection, indicating that the inhibition of invasion was likely caused by an effect on the bacteria rather than inhibition of epithelial cell function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Bacterial motility and invasion of eukaryotic cells are considered key steps in C. jejuni infection. Our results indicate that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol effectively block these virulence traits by interfering with flagella function without disturbing intracellular ATP levels. These results broaden the spectrum of anti-microbial activity of carvacrol and support the potential of the compound for use in novel infection prevention strategies.

  1. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the underclothes or diapers of young children and infants with diarrhea. Children should always wash their hands before eating. If a child that attends child care has diarrhea, you should tell the caregivers right away. Preventing Gastroenteritis Wash your hands. Don’t share utensils. Wash ...

  2. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010-2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study.

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    Emily MacDonald

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved.A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS. Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated.A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively. Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96, drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78, eating chicken (1.69, eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77, eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55, living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74, having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39, and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92.Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to protect and maintain the quality of

  3. Campylobacter jejuni colonization in wild birds: results from an infection experiment.

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    Jonas Waldenström

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in most parts of the world. The bacterium has a broad host range and has been isolated from many animals and environments. To investigate shedding patterns and putative effects on an avian host, we developed a colonization model in which a wild bird species, the European Robin Erithacus rubecula, was inoculated orally with C. jejuni from either a human patient or from another wild bird species, the Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. These two isolates were genetically distinct from each other and provoked very different host responses. The Song Thrush isolate colonized all challenged birds and colonization lasted 6.8 days on average. Birds infected with this isolate also showed a transient but significant decrease in body mass. The human isolate did not colonize the birds and could be detected only in the feces of the birds shortly after inoculation. European Robins infected with the wild bird isolate generated a specific antibody response to C. jejuni membrane proteins from the avian isolate, which also was cross-reactive to membrane proteins of the human isolate. In contrast, European Robins infected with the human isolate did not mount a significant response to bacterial membrane proteins from either of the two isolates. The difference in colonization ability could indicate host adaptations.

  4. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

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    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  5. Campylobacter Infection and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Bangladesh: Clinical epidemiology and comparative microbial genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Islam (Zhahirul)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Campylobacter spp. are small motile, microaerophilic, S-shaped or spiral rods (0.2-0.5 μm wide by 0.5-5 μm long), gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter was first described in 1886 by Theodore Escherich (1) in the colon of children who had died of ‘cholera infantum’. The

  6. Anti-infective bovine colostrum oligosaccharides: Campylobacter jejuni as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan A; Mariño, Karina; Naughton, Julie; Kavanaugh, Devon; Clyne, Marguerite; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M

    2012-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of acute bacterial infectious diarrhea in humans. Unlike in humans, C. jejuni is a commensal within the avian host. Heavily colonized chickens often fail to display intestinal disease, and no cellular attachment or invasion has been demonstrated in-vivo. Recently, researchers have shown that the reason for the attenuation of C. jejuni virulence may be attributed to the presence of chicken intestinal mucus and more specifically chicken mucin. Since mucins are heavily glycosylated molecules this observation would suggest that glycan-based compounds may act as anti-infectives against C. jejuni. Considering this, we have investigated naturally sourced foods for potential anti-infective glycans. Bovine colostrum rich in neutral and acidic oligosaccharides has been identified as a potential source of anti-infective glycans. In this study, we tested oligosaccharides isolated and purified from the colostrum of Holstein Friesian cows for anti-infective activity against a highly invasive strain of C. jejuni. During our initial studies we structurally defined 37 bovine colostrum oligosaccharides (BCO) by HILIC-HPLC coupled with exoglycosidase digests and off-line mass spectroscopy, and demonstrated the ability of C. jejuni to bind to some of these structures, in-vitro. We also examined the effect of BCO on C. jejuni adhesion to, invasion of and translocation of HT-29 cells. BCO dramatically reduced the cellular invasion and translocation of C. jejuni, in a concentration dependent manner. Periodate treatment of the BCO prior to inhibition studies resulted in a loss of the anti-infective activity of the glycans suggesting a direct oligosaccharide-bacterial interaction. This was confirmed when the BCO completely prevented C. jejuni binding to chicken intestinal mucin, in-vitro. This study builds a strong case for the inclusion of oligosaccharides sourced from cow's milk in functional foods. However, it is only through further

  7. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to ...

  8. Non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter infections among HIV-positive patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, I.K.; Gradel, Kim Oren; Helms, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter are common causes of diarrhoea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. To investigate if incidence has changed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we combined data from The Danish Surveillance Re...... population. Moreover our study suggests that there is an increased incidence of Campylobacter-related illness among homosexual men in the HIV-positive population....

  9. Ganglioside GM1 mimicry in Campylobacter strains from sporadic infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachamkin, I; Ung, H; Moran, A P; Yoo, D; Prendergast, M M; Nicholson, M A; Sheikh, K; Ho, T; Asbury, A K; McKhann, G M; Griffin, J W

    1999-05-01

    To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 random enteritis-associated isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were analyzed. To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 enteritis-associated isolates, randomly collected in the United States, were analyzed using a cholera-toxin binding assay [corrected]. Overall, 26.2% of the isolates were positive for the GM1-like epitope. Of the 36 different O serotypes in the sample, 21 (58.3%) contained no strains positive for GM1, whereas in 6 serotypes (16.7%), >50% of isolates were positive for GM1. GBS-associated serotypes were more likely to contain strains positive for GM1 than were non-GBS-associated serotypes (37.8% vs. 15.1%, P=.0116). The results suggest that humans are frequently exposed to strains exhibiting GM1-like mimicry and, while certain serotypes may be more likely to possess GM1-like epitopes, the presence of GM1-like epitopes on Campylobacter strains does not itself trigger GBS.

  10. Phase variable expression of capsular polysaccharide modifications allows Campylobacter jejuni to avoid bacteriophage infection in chickens

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    Martine Camilla Holst Sørensen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are estimated to be the most abundant entities on earth and can be found in every niche where their bacterial hosts reside. The initial interaction between phages and Campylobacter jejuni, a common coloniser of poultry intestines and a major source of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, is not well understood. Recently, we isolated and characterised a phage F336 resistant variant of C. jejuni NCTC11168 called 11168R. Comparisons of 11168R with the wildtype lead to the identification of a novel phage receptor, the phase variable O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN moiety of the C. jejuni capsular polysaccharide (CPS. In this study we demonstrate that the 11168R strain has gained cross-resistance to four other phages in our collection (F198, F287, F303 and F326. The reduced plaquing efficiencies suggested that MeOPN is recognized as a receptor by several phages infecting C. jejuni. To further explore the role of CPS modifications in C. jejuni phage recognition and infectivity, we tested the ability of F198, F287, F303, F326 and F336 to infect different CPS variants of NCTC11168, including defined CPS mutants. These strains were characterised by high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. We found that in addition to MeOPN, the phase variable 3-O-Me and 6-O-Me groups of the NCTC11168 CPS structure may influence the plaquing efficiencies of the phages. Furthermore, co-infection of chickens with both C. jejuni NCTC11168 and phage F336 resulted in selection of resistant C. jejuni bacteria, which either lack MeOPN or gain 6-O-Me groups on their surface, demonstrating that resistance can be acquired in vivo. In summary, we have shown that phase variable CPS structures modulate phage infectivity in C. jejuni and suggest that the constant phage predation in the avian gut selects for changes in these structures leading to a continuing phage-host co-evolution.

  11. Experimental infection of weaned piglets with Campylobacter coli--excretion and translocation in a pig colonisation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratz, Katharina; Bücker, Roland; Gölz, Greta; Zakrzewski, Silke S; Janczyk, Pawel; Nöckler, Karsten; Alter, Thomas

    2013-02-22

    Campylobacter (C.) is one of the most common food-borne pathogen causing bacterial enteric infections in humans. Consumption of meat and meat products that have been contaminated with Campylobacter are the major source of infection. Pigs are a natural reservoir of Campylobacter spp. with C. coli as the dominant species. Even though some studies focussed on transmission of C. coli in pig herds and the excretion in faeces, little is known about the colonisation and excretion dynamics of C. coli in a complex gut microbiota present in weaned piglets and the translocation to different tissues. Therefore, an experimental trial was conducted to evaluate the colonisation and translocation ability of the porcine strain C. coli 5981 in weaned pigs. Thus, ten 35 days old piglets were intragastrically inoculated with strain C. coli 5981 (7 × 10(7)CFU/animal) encoding resistances against erythromycin and neomycin. Faecal samples were taken and C. coli levels were enumerated over 28 days. All piglets were naturally colonised with C. coli before experimental inoculation, and excretion levels ranged from 10(4) to 10(7)CFU/g faeces. However, no strain showed resistances against the additional antimicrobials used. Excretion of C. coli 5981 was seen for all piglets seven days after inoculation and highest counts were detectable ten days after inoculation with 10(6)CFU/g faeces. Post-mortem, translocation and subsequent invasion of luminal C. coli was observed for gut tissues of the small intestine and for the gut associated lymphatic tissues, such as jejunal mesenteric lymph nodes and tonsils as well as for spleen and gall bladder. In conclusion, this pig colonisation trial offers the opportunity to study C. coli colonisation in weaned piglets using the porcine strain C. coli 5981 without the need for gnotobiotic or specific pathogen-free animals.

  12. Non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter infections among HIV-positive patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, Gesche; Larsen, Inge Kristine; Gradel, Kim Oren;

    2011-01-01

    Registry for Enteric Pathogens and The Danish National Hospital Registry. We found that the incidences of NTS- and Campylobacter-related illness among HIV-positive patients in Denmark have declined since the introduction of HAART, although the incidences remained higher compared to the background...

  13. Duration of the vector period of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni estimated by experimental infection series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Hald, Birthe

    The house fly Musca domestica may act as a vector and transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We determined the duration of the vector period for C. jejuni at various temperatures and inoculation doses. For the temperature experiment, laboratory reared house flies (n = 375) were inoculated with...

  14. Consumption of raw vegetables and fruits: a risk factor for Campylobacter infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.; Jansen, H.A.P.M.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in fresh vegetables and fruits at retail level in the Netherlands, and to estimate its implications on the importance of vegetables and fruits as risk factor for campylobacteriosis. Thirteen of the 5640 vegetable and fruit sa

  15. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Denehy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness.Methods: A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises.Results: All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate, and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6. No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination.Discussion: Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  16. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  17. Campylobacter fetus infection presenting with bacteremia and cellulitis in a 72-year-old man with an implanted pacemaker: a case report

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    Ledina Dragan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Campylobacter is an important causative agent of intestinal infections in humans. Bacteremia is detected in less than 1% of patients, mainly in immunocompromised patients and in extreme age groups. Cellulitis is a relatively common manifestation of Campylobacter infection, but concomitant bacteremia is a rare event. Infections of the pacemaker area are caused primarily by staphylococci, followed by fungi, streptococci and Gram-negative rods. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of pacemaker pocket infection and bacteremia caused by Campylobacter fetus. Case presentation A 72-year-old Croatian Caucasian man with myelodysplasia, impaired fasting glucose levels and a recently implanted permanent pacemaker was admitted to hospital after six days of fever, development of red swelling of the pacemaker pocket area and worsening of his general condition. No antibiotic therapy was introduced in the outpatient setting. He denied any recent gastrointestinal disturbances. With the exception of an elevated leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein and blood glucose levels, other laboratory findings were normal. Treatment with vancomycin plus netilmicin was introduced, and a surgical incision with drainage of the pacemaker pocket was performed. The entire pacemaker system was removed and a new one re-implanted after 14 days of antibiotic therapy. Transesophageal echocardiography showed no pathological findings. Three subsequent blood cultures obtained on admission as well as swab culture of the incised pacemaker area revealed Campylobacter fetus; stool and pacemaker lead cultures were negative. According to the microbiological results, antibiotic therapy was changed to ciprofloxacin plus netilmicin. A clinical examination and the results of a laboratory analysis performed after two weeks of therapy were within normal limits. Conclusion Myelodysplasia, impaired fasting glucose levels

  18. A case of myopericarditis associated to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the southern hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Fica; Daniela Seelmann; Lorena Porte; Daniela Eugenin; Ricardo Gallardo

    2012-01-01

    Myopericarditis is an infrequent complication of acute diarrheal illness due to Campylobacter jejuni, and it has been mainly reported in developed nations. The first case detected in Chile - an upper-middle income country -, that is coincidental with the increasing importance of acute gastroenteritis associated to this pathogen, is described. Recognition of this agent in stools requires special laboratory techniques not widely available, and it was suspected when a young patient presented wit...

  19. Towards the production of reliable quantitative microbiological data for risk assessment: Direct quantification of Campylobacter in naturally infected chicken fecal samples using selective culture and real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam

    2015-01-01

    and for the evaluation of control strategies implemented in poultry production. The aim of this study was to compare estimates of the numbers of Campylobacter spp. in naturally infected chicken fecal samples obtained using direct quantification by selective culture and by real-time PCR. Absolute quantification...... of Campylobacter by real-time PCR was performed using standard curves designed for two different DNA extraction methods: Easy-DNA™ Kit from Invitrogen (Easy-DNA) and NucliSENS® MiniMAG® from bioMérieux (MiniMAG). Results indicated that the estimation of the numbers of Campylobacter present in chicken fecal samples...... was partly dependent on the methodologies used. In general, the numbers of Campylobacter obtained by real-time PCR when extracting DNA using the MiniMAG method were in most cases higher than the numbers of Campylobacter obtained by selective culture and by real-time PCR when using the Easy-DNA method...

  20. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Norkrans, G.; Svedhem, A

    1982-01-01

    An epidemiological study on Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was performed in an urban Swedish community. The study included 55 patients gathered during a six-month period. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) were infected outside Sweden. Campylobacter enterocolitis was rare among children within the country. Patients infected in Sweden had eaten chicken significantly more often than a corresponding control group. Seven out of nine chicken consuming campylobacter patients also had prepared t...

  1. A case of myopericarditis associated to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the southern hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myopericarditis is an infrequent complication of acute diarrheal illness due to Campylobacter jejuni, and it has been mainly reported in developed nations. The first case detected in Chile - an upper-middle income country -, that is coincidental with the increasing importance of acute gastroenteritis associated to this pathogen, is described. Recognition of this agent in stools requires special laboratory techniques not widely available, and it was suspected when a young patient presented with acute diarrhea, fever, and chest pain combined with electrocardiogram (EKG abnormalities and elevated myocardial enzymes. C. jejuni myopericarditis can easily be suspected but its detection requires dedicated laboratory techniques.

  2. Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Major Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Fecal Specimens: Intestinal Inflammation and Bacterial Load Are Correlated in Campylobacter Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlwend, Nadia; Tiermann, Sacha; Risch, Lorenz; Risch, Martin; Bodmer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A total of 1,056 native or Cary-Blair-preserved stool specimens were simultaneously tested by conventional stool culturing and by enteric bacterial panel (EBP) multiplex real-time PCR for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella spp., and shigellosis disease-causing agents (Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli [EIEC]). Overall, 143 (13.5%) specimens tested positive by PCR for the targets named above; 3 coinfections and 109 (10.4%) Campylobacter spp., 17 (1.6%) Salmonella spp., and 20 (1.9%) Shigella spp./EIEC infections were detected. The respective positive stool culture rates were 75 (7.1%), 14 (1.3%), and 7 (0.7%). The median threshold cycle (CT) values of culture-positive specimens were significantly lower than those of culture-negative ones (CT values, 24.3 versus 28.7; P Campylobacter infections, the respective median fecal calprotectin concentrations in PCR-negative/culture-negative (n = 40), PCR-positive/culture-negative (n = 14), and PCR-positive/culture-positive (n = 15) specimens were 134 mg/kg (interquartile range [IQR], 30 to 1,374 mg/kg), 1,913 mg/kg (IQR, 165 to 3,813 mg/kg), and 5,327 mg/kg (IQR, 1,836 to 18,213 mg/kg). Significant differences were observed among the three groups (P Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp./EIEC using the BD Max EBP assay will result in timely diagnosis and improved sensitivity. The determination of inflammatory markers, such as calprotectin, in fecal specimens may aid in the interpretation of PCR results, particularly for enteric pathogens associated with mucosal damage and colonic inflammation. PMID:27307458

  3. Campylobacter bacteriophages and bacteriophage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerton, P L; Timms, A R; Connerton, I F

    2011-08-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease with occasionally very serious outcomes. Much of this disease burden is thought to arise from consumption of contaminated poultry products. More than 80% of poultry in the UK harbour Campylobacter as a part of their intestinal flora. To address this unacceptably high prevalence, various interventions have been suggested and evaluated. Among these is the novel approach of using Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages, which are natural predators of the pathogen. To optimize their use as therapeutic agents, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the bacteriophages that infect Campylobacter, and how they can affect their host bacteria. This review will focus on many aspects of Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages including: their first isolation in the 1960s, their use in bacteriophage typing schemes, their isolation from the different biological sources and genomic characterization. As well as their use as therapeutic agents to reduce Campylobacter in poultry their future potential, including their use in bio-sanitization of food, will be explored. The evolutionary consequences of naturally occurring bacteriophage infection that have come to light through investigations of bacteriophages in the poultry ecosystem will also be discussed.

  4. Campylobacter-Acanthamoeba interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana; Seddon, Alan M; Karlyshev, Andrey V

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen recognized as the major cause of human bacterial enteritis. Undercooked poultry products and contaminated water are considered as the most important sources of infection. Some studies suggest transmission and survival of this bacterial pathogen may be assisted by the free-living protozoa Acanthamoeba. The latter is known to play the role of a host for various pathogenic bacteria, protecting them from harsh environmental conditions. Importantly, there is a similarity between the mechanisms of bacterial survival within amoebae and macrophages, making the former a convenient tool for the investigation of the survival of pathogenic bacteria in the environment. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between Campylobacter and Acanthamoeba are not well understood. Whilst some studies suggest the ability of C. jejuni to survive within the protozoa, the other reports support an extracellular mode of survival only. In this review, we focus on the studies investigating the interaction between Campylobacter and Acanthamoeba, address some reasons for the contradictory results, and discuss possible implications of these results for epidemiology. Additionally, as the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown, we also suggest possible factors that may be involved in this process. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-protozoa interaction will assist in a better understanding of Campylobacter lifestyle and in the development of novel antibacterial drugs.

  5. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a modifi

  6. Using sequence data to identify alternative routes and risk of infection: a case-study of campylobacter in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessell Paul R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic typing data are a potentially powerful resource for determining how infection is acquired. In this paper MLST typing was used to distinguish the routes and risks of infection of humans with Campylobacter jejuni from poultry and ruminant sources Methods C. jejuni samples from animal and environmental sources and from reported human cases confirmed between June 2005 and September 2006 were typed using MLST. The STRUCTURE software was used to assign the specific sequence types of the sporadic human cases to a particular source. We then used mixed case-case logistic regression analysis to compare the risk factors for being infected with C. jejuni from different sources. Results A total of 1,599 (46.3% cases were assigned to poultry, 1,070 (31.0% to ruminant and 67 (1.9% to wild bird sources; the remaining 715 (20.7% did not have a source that could be assigned with a probability of greater than 0.95. Compared to ruminant sources, cases attributed to poultry sources were typically among adults (odds ratio (OR = 1.497, 95% confidence intervals (CIs = 1.211, 1.852, not among males (OR = 0.834, 95% CIs = 0.712, 0.977, in areas with population density of greater than 500 people/km2 (OR = 1.213, 95% CIs = 1.030, 1.431, reported in the winter (OR = 1.272, 95% CIs = 1.067, 1.517 and had undertaken recent overseas travel (OR = 1.618, 95% CIs = 1.056, 2.481. The poultry assigned strains had a similar epidemiology to the unassigned strains, with the exception of a significantly higher likelihood of reporting overseas travel in unassigned strains. Conclusions Rather than estimate relative risks for acquiring infection, our analyses show that individuals acquire C. jejuni infection from different sources have different associated risk factors. By enhancing our ability to identify at-risk groups and the times at which these groups are likely to be at risk, this work allows public health messages to be targeted more effectively. The

  7. Effect of fermented feed on the susceptibility for campylobacter jejuni infection in broilers with and without concurrent infection with Salmonella enteriditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Engel, B.; Knapen, van F.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Urlings, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fermented liquid feed (FLF) protects broiler chickens against colonisation with Salmonella. While Campylobacter causes more disease cases in humans than Salmonella, the effect of FLF on Campylobacter was assessed. The fermented liquid feed is a moistened feed with a high number of lactobacilli, a hi

  8. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  9. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkrans, G; Svedhem, A

    1982-08-01

    An epidemiological study on Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was performed in an urban Swedish community. The study included 55 patients gathered during a six-month period. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) were infected outside Sweden. Campylobacter enterocolitis was rare among children within the country. Patients infected in Sweden had eaten chicken significantly more often than a corresponding control group. Seven out of nine chicken consuming campylobacter patients also had prepared the fresh chicken alone, and none of their family members became ill. Thus the preparation of food contaminated with Campylobacter seems to elevate the risk for contracting the disease. Sick household pets transmitted the campylobacter infection to two patients. Forty-six of the patients had a total of 85 close household members. Three definite secondary cases were found. There was no evidence of transmission of Campylobacter by food prepared by two cooks who were working while still being asymptomatic excreters. Clinical reinfection with Campylobacter was observed in one patient. No patients became long-term carriers of Campylobacter. PMID:7097000

  10. Reduction of thermotolerant Campylobacter species on broiler carcasses following physical decontamination at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the incidences of human Campylobacter infections, a number of countries are investigating methods for reducing human exposure to Campylobacter from broiler meat. In addition to implementing biosecurity measures at the farm, Campylobacter may be controlled by reducing Campylobacter counts...... through physical decontamination of the meat. The current study was conducted to compare the Campylobacter-reducing ability of three physical decontamination techniques, forced air chilling, crust freezing, and steam-ultrasound, performed in the plant with naturally contaminated broiler chickens...

  11. Short-chain fatty acids and L-lactate as feed additives to control Campylobacter jejuni infections in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, Kim; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Ducatelle, Richard; Pasmans, Frank

    2008-08-01

    The usefulness of butyrate, acetate, propionate and l-lactate for the control of Campylobacter jejuni infections in broilers was assessed. For this purpose, the effect of these acids on the growth of C. jejuni in broth and intestinal mucous was determined, as well as their influence on the invasiveness of C. jejuni in intestinal epithelial cells. From these in vitro obtained results, one acid was retained for use as a feed additive in an in vivo trial. Butyrate was the most successful of the short-chain fatty acids, with 12.5 mM being bactericidal for C. jejuni at pH 6.0. Propionate and acetate had a bacteriostatic effect at 50 mM. None of the short-chain fatty acids had a bactericidal effect at pH 7.5 at a maximum concentration of 50 mM. Mucous increased the minimum bactericidal concentration of butyrate, but not the bacteriostatic concentrations of propionate or acetate. When C. jejuni was incubated in growth subinhibitory concentrations of butyrate, acetate or propionate or 25 mM L-lactate, no alteration in the invasive capabilities of C. jejuni in Caco-2 cells was observed. The addition of butyrate-coated micro-beads to the feed was unsuccessful to reduce C. jejuni caecal colonization in a seeder model using 2-week-old broilers. In conclusion, despite the marked bactericidal effect of butyrate towards C. jejuni in vitro, butyrate-coated micro-beads do not protect broilers from caecal colonization with C. jejuni in the applied test conditions. This might be partially ascribed to the protective effect of mucous and the rapid absorption of butyrate by the enterocytes. PMID:18622853

  12. Quinolone resistant campylobacter infections in Denmark: risk factors and clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; Neimann, J.; Nielsen, E. M.;

    2004-01-01

    origin) was associated with a decreased risk. Typing data showed an association between strains from retail food products and broiler chickens and quinolone-sensitive domestically acquired C. jejuni infections. An association between treatment with a fluoroquinolone before stool-specimen collection and...

  13. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Sandberg, M; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz;

    2012-01-01

    logistic regression model with a random effect of farm was performed. The analysis revealed that flocks had a higher risk of acquiring positive infection status during summer time: odds ratio = 12.59 (95% CI: 6.79–23.36) and when more than one person entered the broiler house: odds ratio = 2.03 (95% CI: 1...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by...... acquired resistance genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  15. Integrated approach leads to less Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Hald, Birthe; Borck Høg, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information....

  16. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey. PMID:25055637

  17. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  18. Inflammasome activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Lieneke I; de Zoete, Marcel R; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; Flavell, Richard A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. In this study, we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse macr

  19. Immunogenicety and immunoprotection of recombinant PEB1 in Campylobacter-jejuni-infected mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Feng Du; Zhen-Jiang Li; Xian-Ying Tang; Jun-Qiong Huang; Wan-Bang Sun

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To construct a prokaryotic expression vector carrying Carnpylobacter jejuni peb1A gene and express it in Escherichia coli. Immunoreactivity and antigenicity of rPEB1 were evaluated. The ability of rPEB1 to induce antibody responses and protective efficacy was identified. METHODS: peb1A gene was amplified by PCR, target gene and prokaryotic expression plasmid pET28a (+) was digested with BamHI and XhoI, respectively. DNA was ligated with T4 DNA ligase to construct recombinant plasmid pET28a(+)-peb1A. The rPEB1 was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and identified by SDS-PAGE. BALB/c mice were immunized with rPEB1. ELISA was used to detect the specific antibody titer and MTT method was used to measure the stimulation index of spleen lymphocyte transformation. RESULTS: The recombinant plasmid pET28a (+)-peb1A was correctly constructed. The expression output of PEB1 protein in pET28a (+)-peb1A system was approximately 33% of total proteins in E.coli The specific IgG antibody was detected in serum of BALB/c mice immunized with rPEB1 protein. Effective immunological protection with a lower sicknessincidence and mortality was seen in the mice suffering from massive C. jejuni infection. CONCLUSION: rPEB1 protein is a valuable candidate for C. jejuni subunit vaccine.

  20. Campylobacter Enteritis among Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pourmand

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter enteritis is a common form of acute gastroenteritis. Among children, especially in developing countries, Campylobacter infections can cause sever life-threatening diarrheal disease. The incidence of Campylobacter infection among children is age related with a higher incidence among younger children in the developing world whereas in industrialized countries the incidence is highest in older children. In a study of American children, Campylobacter was isolated in 4.8% of diarrheal stools in aged 1-4 years. In 1985 the prevalence of Campylobacter diarrheal was 4.4%, whereas in current report 6% of stool samples from children aged<5 years with diarrhea grew Campylobacter jejuni. There were no significant differences between age groups of patients. All thirteen isolated strains of Campylobacter were resistance to Bactrim, Colistin and Polymyxin B and were sensitive to Neomycin, Erythromycin, Gentamicin and Nalidixic acid. The incidence of human campylobacteriosis is increasing worldwide. Thus, public health awareness about the problem is necessary, with a view towards setting up national surveillance programs.

  1. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for thermophilic Campylobacter infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic humans in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komba, E. V. G.; Mdegela, R. H.; Msoffe, P. L. M.;

    2015-01-01

    testing employed the disc diffusion method. A small proportion of the test isolates was also subjected to agar dilution method. Risk factors for human illness were determined in an unmatched case-control study. Thermophilic Campylobacter were isolated from 11.4% of the screened individuals (n = 1195). The...... sulphate and lowest for ciprofloxacin (22.1%). The rates of resistance for other antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, amoxycillin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol) ranged from 44.1% to 89%. Comparison between disc diffusion and agar...... dilution methods indicated a good correlation, and the tests were in agreement to each other (κ ≥ 0.75). Human illness was found to be associated with young age and consumption of chicken meat and pre-prepared salad. Our data indicate the presence of antibiotic-resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in...

  2. Campylobacter jejuni infection increases anxiety-like behavior in the holeboard: possible anatomical substrates for viscerosensory modulation of exploratory behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Goehler, Lisa E.; Park, Su Mi; Opitz, Noel; Lyte, Mark; Gaykema, Ronald P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of certain bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract influences behavior and brain function. For example, challenge with live Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), a common food-born pathogen, reduces exploration of open arms of the plus maze, consistent with anxiety-like behavior, and activates brain regions associated with autonomic function, likely via a vagal pathway. As yet, however, little is known regarding the interface of immune sensory signals with brain substrates that mediat...

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  4. Presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Wild Small Mammals on Organic Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Meerburg, B.G.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kijlstra, A.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in rodents and insectivores (n = 282) was investigated on organic farms. Infections were encountered in house mice (8 of 83 Campylobacter positive and 1 of 83 Salmonella sp. strain Livingstone positive) and brown rats (1 of 8 Campylobacter positive) but not in other species. No shared Campylobacter genotypes were found between rodent and pig manure isolates. Effective on-farm rodent management is recommended.

  5. Tracing isolates from domestic human Campylobacter jejuni infections to chicken slaughter batches and swimming water using whole-genome multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanen, Sara; Kivistö, Rauni; Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Zhang, Ji; Kärkkäinen, Ulla-Maija; Tuuminen, Tamara; Uksila, Jaakko; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis and chicken is considered a major reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, we investigated temporally related Finnish human (n=95), chicken (n=83) and swimming water (n=20) C. jejuni isolates collected during the seasonal peak in 2012 using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and whole-genome MLST (wgMLST). Our objective was to trace domestic human C. jejuni infections to C. jejuni isolates from chicken slaughter batches and swimming water. At MLST level, 79% of the sequence types (STs) of the human isolates overlapped with chicken STs suggesting chicken as an important reservoir. Four STs, the ST-45, ST-230, ST-267 and ST-677, covered 75% of the human and 64% of the chicken isolates. In addition, 50% of the swimming water isolates comprised ST-45, ST-230 and ST-677. Further wgMLST analysis of the isolates within STs, accounting their temporal relationship, revealed that 22 of the human isolates (24%) were traceable back to C. jejuni positive chicken slaughter batches. None of the human isolates were traced back to swimming water, which was rather sporadically sampled. The highly discriminatory wgMLST, together with the patient background information and temporal relationship data with possible sources, offers a new, accurate approach to trace back the origin of domestic campylobacteriosis. Our results suggest that potentially a substantial proportion of campylobacteriosis cases during the seasonal peak most probably are due to other sources than chicken meat consumption. These findings warrant further wgMLST-based studies to reassess the role of other reservoirs in the Campylobacter epidemiology both in Finland and elsewhere.

  6. Campylobacter MLST Subtypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Broiler Cecal Isolates: A Two Year Study from 142 Commercial Flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are recognized as important agents of human foodborne gastroenteritis. To monitor trends in food safety and public health, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter derived from poultry products and infected patients has become common practice in both r...

  7. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    Living in a household with a dog or cat has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for acquiring campylobacteriosis, in particular, with reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis infection. In a cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark between August and December 1996, 72 healthy...... for Campylobacter spp., with a species distribution of 76% C. jejuni, 5% C. coli, and 19% C. upsaliensis, Of the kittens examined, two (5%) excreted campylobacters; both strains were C. upsaliensis, None of the chicken samples examined were found to be positive for C. upsaliensis. We concluded that young puppies...

  8. Eleutherine americana: a candidate for the control of Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirak, T; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected Thai medicinal plants (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, and Eleutherine americana Merr.) against Campylobacter spp. was investigated. Sixty-five Campylobacter, including 39 isolates from humans and 26 isolates from chicken samples, were tested. Reference Campylobacter spp. that are commonly encountered in gastroenteritis were included. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated good antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. Inhibition zones ranged from 10 to 37 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Campylobacter isolates from humans and chicken samples ranged from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL and 62.50 to 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 31.25 to 1,000 μg/mL for isolates from humans and 125 to 1,000 μg/mL from chicken isolates. The bactericidal activity of the ethanolic extracts of E. americana against important Campylobacter spp., including Campylobacter coli MUMT 18630, Campylobacter fetus ATCC 27374, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 81176, Campylobacter lari ATCC 43675, and Campylobacter upsaliensis DMST 19055, were assessed at MIC, 2 MIC, and 4 MIC by counting viable cells after various time intervals. At 4 MIC, the level of the tested isolates decreased by 2 to 5 log-fold within 8 h. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated antibacterial activity against all Campylobacter spp. from both human and chicken isolates. Further investigation of this plant species may provide an alternative medicine for Campylobacter infection and an effective food additive to prevent the infection. PMID:21406364

  9. Comparison of genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on chicken retail meat and at slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    Kittl, Sonja; Korczak, Bozena M.; Niederer, Lilian; Baumgartner, Andreas; Buettner, Sabina; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antibiotic resistance patterns of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from retail chicken meat showed high overlap with isolates collected at slaughterhouses, indicating little selection along the production chain. They also showed significant common sequence types with human clinical isolates, revealing chicken meat as a likely source for human infection.

  10. Comparison of genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on chicken retail meat and at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Sonja; Korczak, Bożena M; Niederer, Lilian; Baumgartner, Andreas; Buettner, Sabina; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antibiotic resistance patterns of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from retail chicken meat showed high overlap with isolates collected at slaughterhouses, indicating little selection along the production chain. They also showed significant common sequence types with human clinical isolates, revealing chicken meat as a likely source for human infection. PMID:23584778

  11. Campylobacter spp. Zoonotic micro organism

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanović Snežana

    2008-01-01

    There are two species of Campylobacter but, for human and animal health the most important are Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and for animal species also Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter laridis. Different temperatures, drying, pH of the environment, disinfectants, spices and probiotics and antibiotics influence the growth and multiplication of this micro organism in the animal as well as in the animal products. Campylobacter is present everywhere in the nature: in water, soil...

  12. Guillain-Barré syndrome and Campylobacter jejuni infection%GBS与空肠弯曲菌感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铮; 范文辉

    2005-01-01

    吉兰-巴雷综合征(Guillain-Barré syndrome,GBS)表现为一种由前驱细菌或病毒感染所触发的自限性自身免疫疾病,其中空肠弯曲菌(Campylobacter jejuni,CJ)是最常见的前驱感染病原,研究提示血清型O(Penner)O:1,O:2,O:4,O:10,O:19,O:23,O:36,O:41等CJ菌株的脂多糖(lipopolysaccharide,LPS)在分子结构上与人类神经节苷脂表位之间具有分子模拟现象,从而导致机体对二者的交叉反应产生抗-神经节苷脂自身抗体可能是GBS的发病机理.抗-神经节苷脂抗体在不同类型的GBS患者中具有一定的特异性,这个特点在急性周围神经病中可用于临床诊断和估计预后.

  13. Effect of Feed Form and Whole Grain Feeding on Gastrointestinal Weight and the Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in Broilers Orally Infected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Marta Isabel; Sánchez, Jaime; Millán, Carlos; Casabuena, Óscar; Vesseur, Peter; Martín, Ángel; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Medel, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Two independent trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of feed form, whole wheat (WW) and oat hulls (OH) addition on gastrointestinal (GIT) weight and Campylobacter jejuni colonization in orally infected birds. In Trial 1, there were six treatments factorially arranged with two feed forms (mash vs pellets), and three levels of WW from 1-21/22-42d: 0/0, 7.5/15%, 15/30%. Broilers were allocated in cages (3 birds/cage, 12 cages/treatment). In Trial 2, there were three treatments: a mash diet, a mash diet including WW (7.5% from 1–21 and 15% from 22-42d), and a third treatment including also 5%OH. Broilers were allocated in floor pens (1 pen with 30 birds/treatment). At 14d, all broilers in Trial 1 or 3 broilers/pen in Trial 2 were orally challenged with 1.5 x 105 cfu of C. jejuni ST-45 /. In Trial 1, birds fed pelleted diets consumed 13.5% more feed, gained 31% more weight, and presented 12.9% better feed conversion for the whole trial (PGIT and gizzard and increased the relative weight of proventriculus (PGIT derived of FF and WW inclusion, no clear reductions in C. jejuni populations in the ceca were observed. However, WW and OH inclusion to mash diets significantly reduced cecal C. jejuni colonization at 42 days. PMID:27500730

  14. Chitosan supplementation reduces enteric colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens and down-regulates expression of colonization genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and poultry is considered as the most common source of human infections. Campylobacter is prevalent in most poultry flocks and a reduction of Campylobacter in poultry would greatly reduce the risk of campylo...

  15. The use of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy against Campylobacter in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, A.; Vigre, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis represents an important economic and public health problem. Campylobacter originating from feces of infected chickens will contaminate chicken meat posing a risk to the consumer. Vaccination against Campylobacter in broilers is one probable measure to reduce consumers’ exposure to Campylobacter.In this presentation we focus on the development of a computerized decision support system to aid management decisions on Campylobacter vaccination of commercial broilers. Broi...

  16. Campylobacter jejuni--an emerging foodborne pathogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Altekruse, S. F.; Stern, N. J.; Fields, P. I.; Swerdlow, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of foodborne infection in the United States. Adding to the human and economic costs are chronic sequelae associated with C. jejuni infection--Guillian-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis. In addition, an increasing proportion of human infections caused by C. jejuni are resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobacteriosis....

  17. Campylobacter-From Gate to Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is an important bacterial foodborne pathogen. While the severity of most cases of human campylobacteriosis cases is usually slight, the prevalence of human infection, the potential for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and the gravity of long-term sequelae such as Guillain-Bar...

  18. Multiple factors interact to produce responses resembling spectrum of human disease in Campylobacter jejuni infected C57BL/6 IL-10-/- mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf John E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni infection produces a spectrum of clinical presentations in humans – including asymptomatic carriage, watery diarrhea, and bloody diarrhea – and has been epidemiologically associated with subsequent autoimmune neuropathies. This microorganism is genetically variable and possesses genetic mechanisms that may contribute to variability in nature. However, relationships between genetic variation in the pathogen and variation in disease manifestation in the host are not understood. We took a comparative experimental approach to explore differences among different C. jejuni strains and studied the effect of diet on disease manifestation in an interleukin-10 deficient mouse model. Results In the comparative study, C57BL/6 interleukin-10-/- mice were infected with seven genetically distinct C. jejuni strains. Four strains colonized the mice and caused disease; one colonized with no disease; two did not colonize. A DNA:DNA microarray comparison of the strain that colonized mice without disease to C. jejuni 11168 that caused disease revealed that putative virulence determinants, including loci encoding surface structures known to be involved in C. jejuni pathogenesis, differed from or were absent in the strain that did not cause disease. In the experimental study, the five colonizing strains were passaged four times in mice. For three strains, serial passage produced increased incidence and degree of pathology and decreased time to develop pathology; disease shifted from watery to bloody diarrhea. Mice kept on an ~6% fat diet or switched from an ~12% fat diet to an ~6% fat diet just before infection with a non-adapted strain also exhibited increased incidence and severity of disease and decreased time to develop disease, although the effects of diet were only statistically significant in one experiment. Conclusion C. jejuni strain genetic background and adaptation of the strain to the host by serial passage

  19. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  20. HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者感染空肠弯曲菌的临床分析%Infections of Campylobacter Jejuni among Patients with HIV/AIDS-related Chronic Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华文浩; 王慧珠; 赵辉; 李敏; 张燕; 田敬华; 王玉光

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Campylobacter jejuni infection status of HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea in Beijing, Henan, and Xinjiang.Methods Micro - aerobic cultivation of stool specimens were carried out in 253 cases of HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea in Beijing, Henan, and Xinjiang.The colonies were identified according to morphology, Gram staining, and results frombiochemical reactions.Results Two strains of Campylobacter jejuni were identified from the 253 cases of HIV/AIDS - related chronic diarrhea ( infection rate: 0.8% ).Conclusion It is important that monitoring for Campylobacter jejuni be carried out in high risk patients for prevention and control of the infection of the bacteria.%目的 了解北京、河南、新疆三地HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者空肠弯曲菌的感染状况.方法 对北京、河南、新疆三地253例HIV/AIDS慢性腹泻患者的粪便标本进行微需氧培养,根据菌落的形态、菌体的革兰染色及生化反应进行鉴定.结果 从253例HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者的粪便中共检出2株空肠弯曲菌,感染率为0.8%.结论 加强空肠弯曲菌的监测是预防和控制空肠弯曲菌病的重要手段.

  1. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  2. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.;

    2011-01-01

    , and other advantages can be a high possibility of automation and detection of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. The strength of rapid methods lies in their ability to screen large numbers of samples, identify the negative ones, allowing resources to be focused on confirming and culturing of presumptive...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  3. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni for Food Safety and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cakmak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are microorganisms that can be found in nature in the entire domestic and wild animal’s intestinal flora including the poultry and the sea animals. Campylobacter can better colonize in the poultry than the other animals. Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen among the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. whose growth temperature’s are different than the other Campylobacter spp. and can cause serious gastroenteritis in human beings which in some cases ended up with death. Human beings are generally infected with C. jejuni mainly because of the poultry meat and products and rarely because of the red meat which are contaminated during preparation and serving stages. Inadequate cooking, consumption of poorly chlorinated drinking water or unpasteurized milk are other infection sources of C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis especially affect children under 5 years of age and reported to be a zoonotic illness that cause acute gastroenteritis in human. In many countries, food sourced C. jejuni infections were reported to occur more frequently than Salmonella spp. infections. In order to avoid Campylobacter infections, it is very important to enforce food security programmes and HACCP like systems during growth, slaughterhouses and point of sales stages. Also adequate cooking of the products, hygiene of the kitchen and personnel are important. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 157-166

  4. Participation of some campylobacter species in the etiology of enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otašević Marica M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowdays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the demanding features of Campylobacter, as well as poorly equipped microbiological laboratories, campylobacteriosis is insufficiently studied in our country. This investigation aimed to determine the participation of some Campylobacter species in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in our population. Methods. The four-years continuous monitoring of Campylobacter presence was performed in the faeces of 12 605 patients with enterocolitis. The control group included 5 774 examinees of healthy children and youth. Faeces samples were cultivated on Skirrow's selective medium, and further incubated according to effective methodology for Campylobacter. Identification of strains was based on morphological, cultural and physiologic features of strains (oxidase test, catalase test, susceptibility to nalidixic acid, and hypurate hydrolysis. As a statistical method, for data processing, c2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used. Results. Campylobacter was proven in 3.86% of enterocolitis patients, and in 0.71% of healthy population. Out of 518 Campylobacter isolates, 86.48% belonged to enterocolitis outpatients, and 13,51% to inpatients. Predominant symptoms of the disease were diarrhea (81.83%, increased temperature (34.71%, vomiting (19.77%, and stomach pain (15.17%. The diseased were predominantly infants in the first year of life. Out of 300 Campylobacter isolates, 75% were identified as Campylobacer jejuni, 23% as Campylobacter coli (C. coli, and 2% as Campylobacter lari

  5. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C-coli: Resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Taylor, D. E.;

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections has increased markedly in many parts of the world in the last decade as has the number of quinolone-resistant and, to a lesser extent, macrolide-resistant Campylobacter strains causing infections. We review macrolide and quinolone...... maintained, but fluoroquinolones may now be of limited use in the empiric treatment of Campylobacter infections in many regions....

  6. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in mineral bottled water according to difference in mineral content: Application of the Weibull model

    OpenAIRE

    Guillou, Sandrine; Leguérinel, Ivan; Garrec, N.; Renard, M. A.; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Federighi, Michel

    2008-01-01

    International audience The aim of the study was to examine the hypothesis proposed by Evans et al. [2003. Hazards of healthy living: bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9(10), 1219–1225] that mineral bottled water accidentally contaminated by Campylobacter jejuni would represent a risk factor for Campylobacter infection. Culturability of C. jejuni cells inoculated in low- and high-mineral bottled water during storage at 4 1C i...

  7. Increased risk for Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infection of pet origin in dog owners and evidence for genetic association between strains causing infection in humans and their pets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, L.M.; Smid, J.H.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Koene, M.G.J.; Havelaar, A.H.; Friesema, I.H.M.; French, N.P.; Flemming, C.; Galson, J.D.; Graziani, C.; Busani, L.; Pelt, van W.

    2013-01-01

    We compared Campylobacter jejuni/coli multilocus sequence types (STs) from pets (dogs/cats) and their owners and investigated risk factors for pet-associated human campylobacteriosis using a combined source-attribution and case-control analysis. In total, 132/687 pet stools were Campylobacter-positi

  8. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  9. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to consumption of contaminated surface water. In this thesis the prevalence of Campylobacter in sewage purification plants was investigated in order to obtain more information on the survival of this pathogen in aquatic envi...

  11. Media for Campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite their recent elaboration and the many variations in antibiotic combinations designed to attain selectivity, highly selective liquid and solid culture media for Campylobacter jejuni have proved satisfactory provided they are incubated at about 42°C and in a microaerophilic atmosphere such as

  12. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  13. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a blood test to look for antibodies to bacteria called campylobacter. ... An abnormal (positive) result means that antibodies against ... with the bacteria. Tests are often repeated during the course of ...

  14. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te laten treden tegen Campylobacter", zegt Wagenaar die werkt bij het CVI en hoogleraar is aan de Universiteit Utrecht. "Geen van de vaccins die onderzoekers tot nu hebben uitgeprobeerd werken"

  15. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Danish broiler production: a cross-sectional survey and a retrospective analysis of risk factors for occurrence in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Wedderkopp, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study of...

  16. Integration of Epidemiological Evidence in a Decision Support Model for the Control of Campylobacter in Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, Anders L.; Vigre, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    in poultry will translate on a reduction of human Campylobacteriosis cases. Efficient control strategies implemented during primary production will reduce the risk of Campylobacter introduction in chicken houses and/or decrease Campylobacter concentration in infected chickens and their products. Consequently...... in already infected chickens, and translate to an attractive cost-reward balance will be preferred by poultry producers.......The control of human Campylobacteriosis is a priority in public health agendas all over the world. Poultry is considered a significant risk factor for human infections with Campylobacter and risk assessment models indicate that the successful implementation of Campylobacter control strategies...

  17. Effect of Feed Form and Whole Grain Feeding on Gastrointestinal Weight and the Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in Broilers Orally Infected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Marta Isabel; Sánchez, Jaime; Millán, Carlos; Casabuena, Óscar; Vesseur, Peter; Martín, Ángel; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Medel, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Two independent trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of feed form, whole wheat (WW) and oat hulls (OH) addition on gastrointestinal (GIT) weight and Campylobacter jejuni colonization in orally infected birds. In Trial 1, there were six treatments factorially arranged with two feed forms (mash vs pellets), and three levels of WW from 1-21/22-42d: 0/0, 7.5/15%, 15/30%. Broilers were allocated in cages (3 birds/cage, 12 cages/treatment). In Trial 2, there were three treatments: a mash diet, a mash diet including WW (7.5% from 1–21 and 15% from 22-42d), and a third treatment including also 5%OH. Broilers were allocated in floor pens (1 pen with 30 birds/treatment). At 14d, all broilers in Trial 1 or 3 broilers/pen in Trial 2 were orally challenged with 1.5 x 105 cfu of C. jejuni ST-45 /. In Trial 1, birds fed pelleted diets consumed 13.5% more feed, gained 31% more weight, and presented 12.9% better feed conversion for the whole trial (P<0.05). Pelleting decreased the relative weight of GIT and gizzard and increased the relative weight of proventriculus (P<0.05). Mash diets decreased pH in the gizzard (P<0.05). Inclusion of WW decreased the relative weight of proventriculus, increased gizzard weight, and reduced pH in the gizzard (P<0.05). At 21d of age, mash tended to reduce C. jejuni compared to pellets (7.85 vs 8.27 log10cfu/g; P = 0.091) and WW inclusion at 7.5/15% reduced C. jejuni colonization when compared to lower and higher inclusion (P<0.05). In Trial 2, birds fed T3 (WW+OH) showed 1.38 log10cfu/g less than birds fed Control diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, despite of the clear morphological changes in the GIT derived of FF and WW inclusion, no clear reductions in C. jejuni populations in the ceca were observed. However, WW and OH inclusion to mash diets significantly reduced cecal C. jejuni colonization at 42 days. PMID:27500730

  18. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl;

    2008-01-01

    houses was estimated by trapping of insects (n = 5,936) in ventilation vents. In total, 31 flies (28 of which were of the Muscidae family) caught in farm surroundings were Campylobacter spp.-positive (C. jejuni, n = 7; C. coli, n = 23; other Campylobacter spp., n = 1). Musca domestica (L) (house fly...... caesar (L) (green bottle fly) of the Calliphoridae family and 2 flies of unidentified species were also positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flies varied from 0.0 in April to a peak of 16.3% in July and decreasing to 2.0% in October on a farm with pig production. On 4 broiler farms.......0078) and with the outdoor temperature (P houses constitutes a considerable risk for infection of broilers with C. jejuni and C. coli....

  19. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed.

  20. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed. PMID:27317896

  1. Neonatal sepsis by campylobacter jejuni: a genetically proven transmission from a household puppy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, T.F.W.; Duim, B.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Rigter, A.; Thomson Carter, F.; Fleer, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of neonatal Campylobacter jejuni sepsis in a 3-week-old infant who acquired the infection through transmission from a recently acquired household puppy. Genotyping of Campylobacter strains obtained from puppy and child resulted in highly homogeneous findings. This represents the fir

  2. Survival of Campylobacter spp. in Darkling Beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and Their Larvae in Australia▿

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Jillian M.; De Jong, Amanda J.; Blackall, P. J.; Miflin, Jeanette K.

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is the most frequently reported notifiable food-borne disease in humans in Australia. Our studies investigated the persistence of Campylobacter spp. in or on darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae. Our results in analyses with chickens confirm that, unless very short turnaround times are used (

  3. Establishing a campylobacter-free pig population through a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    Fattening pigs are often infected with campylobacter. To eliminate campylobacter from the pig population, a top-down approach, involving the breeding and reproduction farms, seems appropriate. In order to investigate the effectiveness of a top-down approach, sows' faeces from the following farms wer

  4. Neonatal sepsis by Campylobacter jejuni : Genetically proven transmission from a household puppy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, TFW; Duim, B; Geelen, SPM; Rigter, A; Thomson-Carter, F; Fleer, A; Wagenaar, JA

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of neonatal Campylobacter jejuni sepsis in a 3-week-old infant who acquired the infection through transmission from a recently acquired household puppy. Genotyping of Campylobacter strains obtained from puppy and child resulted in highly homogenous findings. This represents the firs

  5. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter gracilis ATCC 33236T

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human oral pathogen Campylobacter gracilis has been isolated from periodontal and endodontal infections, and also from non-oral head, neck or lung infections. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the human periodontal isolate ATCC 33236T (=FDC 1084), which is the first closed genome...

  6. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  7. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis of the incidence of Campylobacter cases and patients with general diarrhea in a Danish county, 1995–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen Jacob; Jepsen Martin; Ethelberg Steen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Campylobacter infections are the main cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Denmark. While primarily foodborne, Campylobacter infections are also to some degree acquired through other sources which may include contact with animals or the environment, locally contaminated drinking water and more. We analyzed Campylobacter cases for clustering in space and time for the large Danish island of Funen in the period 1995–2003, under the assumption that infections caused by 'environmental' f...

  8. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  9. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  10. Effects of fluoroquinolone treatment and group housing of pigs on the selection and spread of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Masaru; Sakemi, Yoko; Uchida, Ikuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-06-01

    There are concerns that the use of fluoroquinolones (FQs) and group housing of food animals may contribute to the development of bacterial FQ resistance. Here, we studied the effects of administering FQ to pigs on the selection of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. Fifteen pigs were randomly allocated to either a group treated with FQs (enrofloxacin or norfloxacin), or an untreated control group. The number of FQ-resistant Campylobacter in feces was determined using appropriate selective agar containing enrofloxacin. FQ-resistant Campylobacter from samples of both groups were observed on days 3 and 4. These bacteria persisted for up to 21 days after treatment was discontinued. To evaluate the effect of group housing on the transmission of FQ-resistant Campylobacter, five pigs infected with FQ-sensitive Campylobacter pigs and one pig infected with FQ-resistant Campylobacter were housed together. On day 3, FQ-resistant Campylobacter were isolated from all six pigs. Moreover, FQ-resistant Campylobacter were isolated from environmental samples from the pen. These results indicate that the treatment of pigs with FQs selects for and spreads FQ-resistant Campylobacter among the pen. Therefore, responsible and prudent use of FQs at pig farms is required to prevent the emergence and transmission of FQ-resistant Campylobacter.

  11. Pathological study of SPF chickens experimentally infected with Campylobacter jejun%人工感染空肠弯曲菌SPF雏鸡的病理学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珍芹; 周志勇; 刘忠贵

    2007-01-01

    空肠弯曲菌(campylobacter jejuni)是近十几年来被认识的世界范围广泛流行的人兽共患病原菌,它不仅能引起鸡的肠炎和肝炎,而且引起人类急性肠炎和食物中毒,英美流行病学研究已证实弯曲菌病作为食源性传染病的重要意义,因此本菌在公共卫生学上具有重要意义,

  12. Vaccination of poultry against Campylobacter in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2013-01-01

    in the food chain, from farm-to-fork, where poultry meat is considered to be one of the major vehicles of Campylobacter infections in humans, accounting for 50–80% of reported cases. One way to reduce this economic loss to society is perhaps the introduction of a new Campylobacter vaccine, which could...... be administered to one-day old chicks. This would effectively reduce the outbreak of illness among the general population, enhancing general well-being, and increase the efficiency of the employed labor force. In the present paper, we assess the potential economic benefits of a mandatory vaccination program...... at the EU27 level. In this study, benefits are mainly assumed to comprise lower risk of illness due to Campylobacter infections, and hence increased labor productivity. In the modeled analysis presented in this paper, the possible price of the vaccine is estimated when it is assumed that: (i) the number...

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella, E. coli, and Campylobacter in pigs from swine producing states in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Foodborne illness is a global public health problem and foodborne infections with Salmonella and Campylobacter continue to be problematic in the Unites States. Although gastroenteritis associated with foodborne infections often resolves without treatment, the development of antimicrob...

  14. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection.

  15. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Amol D. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India); Shashidhar, Ravindranath [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.in [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kapadnis, Balu P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 {sup o}C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D{sub 10} values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: > Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. > Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. > No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. > First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  16. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 oC in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 105 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 oC up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: → Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. → Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. → No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. → First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  18. Improved Biotyping Schemes for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (20 strains) and Campylobacter coli (12 strains) were assigned to four biovars for each species based on phenotypic tests that were easy to perform and interpret. The resulting biotyping schemes offer a greater degree of distinction among C. jejuni and C. coli strains than any of the other biotyping schemes previously described for these organisms.

  19. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis.

  20. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.;

    2002-01-01

    identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn......Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...

  1. Phage therapy reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Mueller, M.A.; Wassenaar, T.M.; Carlton, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phage therapy in the control of Campylobacter jejuni colonization in young broilers, either as a preventive or a therapeutic measure, was tested. A prevention group was infected with C. jejuni at day 4 of a 10-day phage treatment. A therapeutic group was phage treated for 6 days, start

  2. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to consumption of contamina

  3. Prevalence of Campylobacter concisus in diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Permin, Henrik; On, Stephen L W;

    2002-01-01

    The importance of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni/coli in diarrhoeal disease is largely unknown. We wished to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of C. concisus infection in patients with enteric disease in a tertiary hospital. Stool specimens were routinely tested for t...

  4. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  5. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens;

    2008-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhoea in humans and is considered a commensal of the gastroenteric tract of the avian host. However, little is known about the interaction between C. jejuni and the avian host including the cytokine responses and the expression....... jejuni strains are capable of invading the CEICs and stimulate these cells in a pro-inflammatory manner and during this interaction the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes ciaB, dnaJ and racR is increased. Furthermore, incubation of bacteria with conditioned cell- and bacteria......-free media from another co-cultivation experiment also increased the expression of the virulence-associated genes in the C. jejuni chicken isolate, indicating that the expression of bacterial genes is regulated by component(s) secreted upon co-cultivation of bacteria and CEICs. Conclusion We show that under...

  6. Intracloacal inoculation, an effective screening method for determining the efficacy of probiotic bacterial isolates against Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is common in poultry, and human infections are often associated with consumption of contaminated poultry products. One strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is by using oral probiotics. Unfortunately, oral probiot...

  7. In vitro selection of enteric microflora for potential use as a probiotic culture against Campylobacter in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is one of the most commonly reported bacterial causes of human foodborne illness and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products as significant sources of human Campylobacter infection. In an effort to reduce colonization of enteric pathogens in poultry, scientists...

  8. Does age acquired immunity confer selective protection to common serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Iain D

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter infection is a major cause of bacterial gastrointestinal disease. Exposure to Campylobacter is known to produce an immune response in humans that can prevent future symptomatic infections. Further, studies of the general population have shown that seroprevalence to Campylobacter increases with age. Methods A large collection of serotyped Campylobacter isolates, obtained from human clinical faecal samples, were analysed by comparing the ratio of uncommon to common serotypes by different age groups, using χ2 tests. Results We have identified that older age groups, as well as having generally lower incidence, are significantly less likely to be infected by the more common serotypes. Conclusion These results are indicative of acquired immunity, however, further studies are needed to rule out the confounding effects of the variations in exposure pathways experienced by different age groups.

  9. Analytical Utility of Campylobacter Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to address the analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies in preparation for an upcoming United States Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) baseline study to enumerate Campylobacter...

  10. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. PMID:26658311

  11. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts.

  12. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry.

  13. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry. PMID:26898102

  14. The abundant free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, increases the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in milk and orange juice

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Jenny; Griekspoor Berglund, Petra; Olsen, Björn; Ellström, Patrik; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of human bacterial diarrhea in most parts of the world. Most C. jejuni infections are acquired from contaminated poultry, milk, and water. Due to health care costs and human suffering, it is important to identify all possible sources of infection. Unpasteurized milk has been associated with several outbreaks of C. jejuni infection. Campylobacter has been identified on fresh fruit, and other gastrointestinal pathogens such as Salmonella, E. co...

  15. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...... of the assay was assured by two selection steps: 1) Dynabeads®M-270 Amine microbeads (2.8 μm in diameter) coated with C. jejuni monoclonal antibodies were used as the primary selection to isolate bacteria from fecal samples. 2) A PCR assay amplifying the Hippuricase gene was performed as the specific selection...

  16. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Dang D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhoea in humans and is considered a commensal of the gastroenteric tract of the avian host. However, little is known about the interaction between C. jejuni and the avian host including the cytokine responses and the expression of the bacterial genes. We have investigated the invasiveness of primary chicken embryo intestinal cells (CEICs by C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origins and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes during co-cultivation. Results C. jejuni strains are capable of invading the CEICs and stimulate these cells in a pro-inflammatory manner and during this interaction the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes ciaB, dnaJ and racR is increased. Furthermore, incubation of bacteria with conditioned cell- and bacteria-free media from another co-cultivation experiment also increased the expression of the virulence-associated genes in the C. jejuni chicken isolate, indicating that the expression of bacterial genes is regulated by component(s secreted upon co-cultivation of bacteria and CEICs. Conclusion We show that under in vitro culture condition C. jejuni strains of both human and chicken origins can invade avian host cells with a pro-inflammatory response and that the virulence-associated genes of C. jejuni may play a role in this process.

  17. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta;

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of......-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry...

  18. New, extended biotyping scheme for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and "Campylobacter laridis".

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H

    1984-01-01

    A biotyping scheme using improved media and methods for the detection of hippurate hydrolysis, rapid H2S production, and DNA hydrolysis was applied to 1,826 cultures of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and "Campylobacter laridis" isolates from human and nonhuman sources. Four biotypes were identified among C. jejuni: 57.3% of the isolates belonged to biotype I; 36.0%, to biotype II; 4.0%, to biotype III; and 2.7%, to biotype IV. C. coli organisms were differentiated into biotype I (67...

  19. Survival and resuscitation of ten strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveerach, P.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2003-01-01

    The culturability of 10 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was studied after the bacteria were exposed to acid conditions for various periods of time. Campylobacter cells could not survive 2 h under acid conditions (formic acid at pH 4). The 10 Campylobacter strains could not be

  20. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 °C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 °C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat.

  1. Effect of bacteriophage application on Campylobacter jejuni loads in commercial broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Sophie; Fischer, Samuel; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Glünder, Gerhard; Klein, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent food-borne human enteritis. The major source for infection with Campylobacter spp. is broiler meat. Risk assessments consider the reduction of Campylobacter in primary production to be most beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a bacteriophage application under commercial conditions which had proved to be effective in previous noncommercial studies under controlled experimental conditions. A phage cocktail for Campylobacter reduction was tested on three commercial broiler farms each with a control and an experimental group. Colonization of Campylobacter was confirmed prior to phage application in fecal samples. Subsequently, a phage cocktail was applied via drinking water in the experimental group (log10 5.8 to 7.5 PFU/bird). One day after phage application, Campylobacter counts of one experimental group were reduced under the detection limit (log10 3.2 CFU/g cecal content compared to the control was still detected (P=0.0011). No significant reduction was observed in the experimental groups of the other trials. However, a significant drop in cecal Campylobacter counts occurred in a phage-contaminated control. These results suggest that maximum reduction of Campylobacter at the slaughterhouse might be achieved by phage application 1 to 4 days prior to slaughter.

  2. Genomic evidence for the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences in the genus Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-09-04

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology.

  3. Molecular subtyping methods for campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause worldwide of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. The continued development of more effective and informative typing methods is necessary to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and population dynamics of this important pathogen. Comparative genome ind...

  4. Use of phages to control Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janež, Nika; Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    The use of phages to control pathogenic bacteria has been investigated since they were first discovered in the beginning of the 1900s. Over the last century we have slowly gained an in-depth understanding of phage biology including which phage properties are desirable when considering phage as biocontrol agents and which phage characteristics to potentially avoid. Campylobacter infections are amongst the most frequently encountered foodborne bacterial infections around the world. Handling and consumption of raw or undercooked poultry products have been determined to be the main route of transmission. The ability to use phages to target these bacteria has been studied for more than a decade and although we have made progress towards deciphering how best to use phages to control Campylobacter associated with poultry production, there is still much work to be done. This review outlines methods to improve the isolation of these elusive phages, as well as methods to identify desirable characteristics needed for a successful outcome. It also highlights the body of research undertaken so far and what criteria to consider when doing in-vivo studies, especially because some in-vitro studies have not been found to translate into to phage efficacy in-vivo.

  5. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  6. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J.; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  7. Campylobacter pylori, the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis, is not a true Campylobacter sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Romaniuk, P J; Zoltowska, B; Trust, T J; Lane, D J; Olsen, G.J.; Pace, N R; Stahl, D A

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of partial 16S rRNA sequences from representative Campylobacter species indicates that the Campylobacter species form a previously undescribed basic eubacterial group, which is related to the other major groups only by very deep branching. This analysis was extended to include the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis, Campylobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pyloridis). The distance between C. pylori and the other Campylobacter species is sufficient to exclude the p...

  8. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli on broiler carcasses after chilling in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Perdoncini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli have been associated with gastrointestinal disorders in human beings, due mainly to the consumption of chicken meat. Despite control measures for reducing contamination by these bacteria, the detection of Campylobacter in carcasses after chilling remains high. A total of 105 carcasses were assessed by the horizontal detection method in five federally inspected slaughterhouses in southern Brazil in 2012 and in the first three months of 2013. Campylobacterwas isolated in 37.1% of the carcasses, of which 97.5% contained C. jejuni and 2.5% were infected by C. coli. The rate of positive carcasses across the slaughterhouses ranged from 0 to 71.4%. Determining the occurrence of Campylobacter among flocks is crucial for estimating the microbial load at specific points along the slaughtering process and for minimizing the risk of contamination of end products by Campylobacter.

  9. Molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolates involved in a neonatal outbreak indicates nosocomial transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovo, J.; Mateo, E.; Munoz, A.;

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that two neonates in a neonatal ward were infected with the same Campylobacter jejuni strain. Isolates from the mother and brother of the index patient were identical to each other but distinc...... from the neonatal type. Genotyping results therefore suggested that the neonatal C. jejuni infection was nosocomial in origin.......Genotypic typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that two neonates in a neonatal ward were infected with the same Campylobacter jejuni strain. Isolates from the mother and brother of the index patient were identical to each other but distinct...

  10. Cell wall anchoring of the Campylobacter antigens to Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Kobierecka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type Campylobacter jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analysed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered

  11. The Effects of Temperature and Innate Immunity on Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) Between Life Stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Gill, C.; Lowenberger, C.;

    2014-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter...

  12. Evidence that certain clones of Campylobacter jejuni persist during successive broiler flock rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Wedderkopp, A.

    2001-01-01

    Through the national surveillance program for Campylobacter spp,, nine broiler chicken farms that were infected with Campylobacter jejuni in at least five rotations in 1998 were identified. One additional farm, located at the island of Bornholm where divided slaughter is used extensively, was also...... selected. Twelve broiler houses located on 10 farms were included in the study. The C,jejuni isolates collected from the selected houses during the surveillance were typed using fla typing and macrorestriction profiling (MRP), and a subset of the isolates, representing each of the identified clones...... with recurrent Campylobacter problems. The MRPs of clones belonging to fla type 1/1 serotype O:2 isolated from persistently infected flocks shared a high percentage of bands compared to the remaining isolates, indicating that some clones that have the ability to cause persistent infections in broiler farms...

  13. Are host characteristics or exposure factors mainly involved in the acquisition of zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter coinfection in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradel, Kim O; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Kristensen, Brian; Dethlefsen, Claus; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2009-03-01

    We hypothesized that patients coinfected with zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter were frailer than monoinfected Salmonella or Campylobacter patients. The study cohort included all first-time Salmonella/Campylobacter infections in Aarhus and North Jutland counties, Denmark, from 1991 through 2003. Data on comorbidity, hospitalization in relation to the Salmonella/Campylobacter infection, and 1-year mortality were obtained from electronic registries. Among 13,449 individuals, 114 (0.85%) had Salmonella/Campylobacter coinfection, 6567 (48.8%) had Salmonella monoinfection, and 6768 (50.3%) had Campylobacter monoinfection. There were no major differences in age, gender, comorbidity, hospitalization rates, 1-year mortality, or seasonal variation between coinfected patients on the one hand and each of the monoinfected patient groups on the other. The main difference was encountered between the Salmonella serotype distribution as 49.1% of coinfected patients versus 20.3% of monoinfected Salmonella patients had Salmonella serotypes other than Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 4.07 [2.73-6.06]). In conclusion, Salmonella/Campylobacter coinfected patients were not frailer than monoinfected patients. The difference in Salmonella serotype distribution was compatible with a higher proportion of coinfections acquired during foreign travel.

  14. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. PMID:27638115

  15. Clinical Pharmacy Practice on the Cases of Bones be Infected by Campylobacter Coli and have Fever after the Bone Flacture Operation%骨结核并骨折术后持续发热病例的临床药学实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程运扬

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Study the medicine cure on the cases of bones be infected by Campylobacter coli and have fever after the bone flacture operation. METHODS The clinical apothecary take part in the medicine cure on the cases of bones be in-fected by Campylobacter coli and have fever after the bone flacture operation.RESULTS The clinical apothecary take part in the medicine cure in clinical can promote the clinic doctor use medicine effectively. CONCLUSION The clinical apothecary take part in the medicine cure in clinical can promote value helping for the clinic doctor to use a medicine reasonably,and promote the patients recover from illness.%  目的探讨骨结核并骨折术后持续发热病例的临床用药。方法临床药师参与骨结核并骨折术后持续发热病例的临床药学实践。结果临床药师参与临床药物治疗,能帮助临床医师有效应用药物。结论临床药师参与临床药物治疗,能为临床医师提供合理有效用药的有力帮助,促进病患者康复。

  16. Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the

  17. Adherence Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Strains to HEp-2 Cells by Mannan Oligosaccharides and a High-Molecular-Weight Component of Cranberry Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Hernandez, Alejandra; Rupnow, John; Hutkins, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    Campylobacter infections are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are a major cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world. Colonization and subsequent infection and invasion of Campylobacter require that the bacteria adhere to the surface of host cells. Agents that inhibit adherence could be used prophylactically to reduce Campylobacter carriage and infection. Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) have been used as a feed supplement in livestock animals to improve performance and to replace growth-promoting antibiotics. However, MOS and other nondigestible oligosaccharides may also prevent pathogen colonization by inhibiting adherence in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, plant extracts, including those derived from cranberries, have been shown to have antiadherence activity against pathogens. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of MOS and cranberry fractions to serve as antiadherence agents against strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Adherence experiments were performed using HEp-2 cells. Significant reductions in adherence of C. jejuni 29438, C. jejuni 700819, C. jejuni 3329, and C. coli 43485 were observed in the presence of MOS (up to 40 mg/ml) and with a high-molecular-weight fraction of cranberry extract (up to 3 mg/ml). However, none of the tested materials reduced adherence of C. coli BAA-1061. No additive effect in adherence inhibition was observed for an MOS-cranberry blend. These results suggest that both components, MOS and cranberry, could be used to reduce Campylobacter colonization and carriage in livestock animals and potentially limit human exposure to this pathogen. PMID:26219363

  18. Campylobacter hyoilei Alderton et al. 1995 and Campylobacter coli Veron and Chatelain 1973 are subjective synonyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, P.; VanDoorn, L.J.; AlRashid, S.T.;

    1997-01-01

    The taxonomic affiliation of Campylobacter hyoilei was reevaluated by examining a variety of phenotypic and genotypic criteria. Whole cell protein electrophoresis and a comparison of 66 phenotypic characters revealed that reference strains of C. hyoilei were indistinguishable from Campylobacter...

  19. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: a public health success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer M; Chiller, Tom M; Powers, John H; Angulo, Frederick J

    2007-04-01

    Campylobacter species cause 1.4 million infections each year in the United States. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are commonly used in adults with Campylobacter infection and other infections. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin) are also used in veterinary medicine. Human infections with fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species have become increasingly common and are associated with consumption of poultry. These findings, along with other data, prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to propose the withdrawal of fluoroquinolone use in poultry in 2000. A lengthy legal hearing concluded with an order to withdraw enrofloxacin from use in poultry (effective in September 2005). Clinicians are likely to continue to encounter patients with fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infection and other enteric infection because of the continued circulation of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species in poultry flocks and in persons returning from foreign travel who have acquired a fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric infection while abroad. Judicious use of fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobial agents in human and veterinary medicine is essential to preserve the efficacy of these important chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:17342653

  20. Clonality of Campylobacter sputorum bv. paraureolyticus determined by macrorestriction profiling and biotyping, and evidence for long-term persistent infection in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephan L.W.; Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.

    1999-01-01

    indistinguishable, indicating persistence of infection. Macrorestriction profiles of 5 strains representing the 5 SmaI genotypes and 8 other strains of C, sputorum from various sources, were prepared using 4 endonucleases (SmaI, SalI, BamHI and KpnI). The only other strain of C. sputorum by. paraureolyticus......, the seven strains of C, sputorum by. sputorum yielded various macrorestriction profiles with all the enzymes used, and features distinguishing the two biovars studied could be identified. This study indicates that C. sputorum can persist in cattle for at least 12 months and exhibits a clonal population...

  1. Medium-chain fatty acids and plant-derived antimicrobials to prevent Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, David; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Deun, Kim; Martel, An; Verlinden, Marc; Garmyn, An; Heyndrickx, Marc; Pasmans, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial-mediated diarrhoeal disease worldwide. Because poultry products are a major source of C. jejuni infections in humans, efforts should be taken to develop strategies to decrease Campylobacter colonization of poultry during primary production. Organic acids and plant-derived antimicrobial compounds possess marked bactericidal activity toward C. jejuni in vitro and might therefore have potential as feed additives to control C. jejuni colo...

  2. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni under Conditions of Atmospheric Oxygen Tension with the Support of Pseudomonas spp.▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbert, Friederike; Scherwitzel, Manuela; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen. Despite causing enteritis in humans, it is a well-adapted intestinal microorganism in animals, hardly ever generating disease symptoms. Nevertheless, as a true microaerophilic microorganism it is still puzzling how Campylobacter cells can survive on chicken meat, the main source of human infection. In this study, we demonstrate that C. jejuni is able to withstand conditions of atmospheric oxygen tension when cocultured with Pseudomonas spec...

  3. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Heriberto Fernández; Marianne Hitschfeld

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated.Foi estabelecida a prevalência de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos, em bovinos de corte e de leite do sul do Chile. Campylobacter foi estatisticamente mais prevalent...

  4. Protozoa: a novel Campylobacter reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous in vitro studies we found that Campylobacter jejuni remained viable for longer periods of time when they were cultivated in the presence of Tetrahymena pyriformis (ciliate) and Acanthamoeba castellanii (amoeba) than when they were in an independent planktonic state. Increased survival t...

  5. Campylobacter jejuni induces transcellular translocation of commensal bacteria via lipid rafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalischuk Lisa D

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter enteritis represents a risk factor for the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD via unknown mechanisms. As IBD patients exhibit inflammatory responses to their commensal intestinal microflora, factors that induce translocation of commensal bacteria across the intestinal epithelium may contribute to IBD pathogenesis. This study sought to determine whether Campylobacter induces translocation of non-invasive intestinal bacteria, and characterize underlying mechanisms. Methods Mice were infected with C. jejuni and translocation of intestinal bacteria was assessed by quantitative bacterial culture of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, liver, and spleen. To examine mechanisms of Campylobacter-induced bacterial translocation, transwell-grown T84 monolayers were inoculated with non-invasive Escherichia coli HB101 ± wild-type Campylobacter or invasion-defective mutants, and bacterial internalization and translocation were measured. Epithelial permeability was assessed by measuring flux of a 3 kDa dextran probe. The role of lipid rafts was assessed by cholesterol depletion and caveolin co-localization. Results C. jejuni 81–176 induced translocation of commensal intestinal bacteria to the MLNs, liver, and spleen of infected mice. In T84 monolayers, Campylobacter-induced internalization and translocation of E. coli occurred via a transcellular pathway, without increasing epithelial permeability, and was blocked by depletion of epithelial plasma membrane cholesterol. Invasion-defective mutants and Campylobacter-conditioned cell culture medium also induced E. coli translocation, indicating that C. jejuni does not directly 'shuttle' bacteria into enterocytes. In C. jejuni-treated monolayers, translocating E. coli associated with lipid rafts, and this phenomenon was blocked by cholesterol depletion. Conclusion Campylobacter, regardless of its own invasiveness, promotes the translocation of non-invasive bacteria across

  6. In vitro susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to azithromycin and erythromycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D E; Chang, N

    1991-01-01

    MICs of azithromycin and erythromycin for 20 Campylobacter coli and 20 Campylobacter jejuni strains were determined. The results demonstrated that, for Campylobacter species, all high-level erythromycin-resistant strains were also resistant to azithromycin and that azithromycin did not exhibit increased potency in comparison with that of erythromycin.

  7. Heterogeneity of Campylobacter species isolated from serial stool specimens of Egyptian children using pulsed field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. El-Gendy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of human acute bacteria lenteritis and travellers’ diarrhoea worldwide.Objective: To determine whether multiple serial isolations of Campylobacter spp., when obtained from a single child, represented the same or a different organism.Methods: In a birth cohort study conducted in Egypt, numerous children showed serial isolations of Campylobacter spp. Of these, 13 children were selected from different households based on the successive isolation of six or more Campylobacter isolates from stool samples.Results: Eighty isolates were recovered and identified as either Campylobacter coli (n = 25 or Campylobacter jejuni (n = 55. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE revealed the presence of 38 unique C. jejuni and 24 C. coli profiles at a similarity level of ≥ 90%. Although no seriallyidentical isolates were detected in six children, others demonstrated at least one identical couple of isolates; all identified serially between one to six weeks. Two children demonstrated > 80% similar couples of isolates that appeared seven months apart. PFGE could be a useful tool for differentiating reinfection, relapse and convalescent excretion phases.Conclusion: Our data suggest that Campylobacter infection in children is a complex process; children are exposed to multiple species in endemic environments and strains of the same bacterium appear to be shed serially between one to six weeks after the first exposure. Isolates that persisted for longer periods were relatively less similar, as shown from the results of this study.

  8. Guillain-Barré syndrome- and Miller Fisher syndrome-associated Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides induce anti-GM1 and anti-GQ1b Antibodies in rabbits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. de Klerk; H.P. Endtz (Hubert); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); J.D. Laman (Jon); F.G.A. van der Meché; P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); C.W. Ang (Wim)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCampylobacter jejuni infections are thought to induce antiganglioside antibodies in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) by molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and gangliosides. We used purifi

  9. Acute Pancreatitis in Association with Campylobacter jejuni- Associated Diarrhea in a 15-Year-Old with CFTR Mutations: Is There a Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kandula

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acute pancreatitis has occasionally been reported in association with Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans. However, the mechanism linking Campylobacter jejuni infection and pancreatitis isunclear. Acute pancreatitis in association with an infectious illness may be related to underlying genetic mutations. For instance, studies show that mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene increase the susceptibility for acute and chronic pancreatitis. Case report :We describe a patient with Campylobacter jejuni infection who developed acute pancreatitis in the setting of an underlying cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutation. Discussion :In this patient with an underlying mutation in the CFTR gene, we propose that the interaction between the mutant gene and an environmental factor, Campylobacter jejuni infection, resulted in pancreatitis.

  10. Prevalence and sources of Campylobacter spp. contamination in free-range broiler production in the southern part of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeplas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A one year epidemiological study was carried out between February 2005 and February 2006 in the southern part of Belgium to assess the Campylobacter prevalence in free-range broiler production. Three successive broiler flocks from six Belgian farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. during the rearing period. Each flock was visited four times, before and after the outdoor rearing period. During each visit, samples were taken in the broiler house (litter, cecal droppings, water-lines, feed, anteroom as well as from the outer rearing environment (open-air range. The Campylobacter detection in all samples was carried out according to the ISO 10272 standard. Identification was based on colonial morphology, microscopic examination, and biochemical tests. PCR multiplex was used for genetic confirmation. Campylobacter jejuni was the main species isolated from all contaminated samples. Overall, mixed infections C. jejuni / Campylobacter coli represented 40.6%, while C. jejuni and C. coli represented 46.9% and 12.5% of chicken samples respectively. A 100% flock contamination was observed in the 6 farms during the summer-autumn period, whereas only 66.7% and 33.3% of the flocks became Campylobacter-positive in spring and winter respectively, at the end of the rearing period. Half of contaminated flocks were infected before chickens have access to the open-air range. Environmental samples, especially the open-air range soil, were found to be Campylobacter-positive before flock infection. The other potential sources of contamination were delivery tray, anteroom floor and water-lines. Other animal productions like cattle on the farm, no applied rodent control, no cleaning and disinfection of water-lines between flocks, no detergent used for cleaning and thinning were recorded as risk factors. In conclusion, the contact with the environment, particularly the access to an open-air range, appeared to be the major way of Campylobacter

  11. Integration of Epidemiological Evidence in a Decision Support Model for the Control of Campylobacter in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Vigre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of human Campylobacteriosis is a priority in public health agendas all over the world. Poultry is considered a significant risk factor for human infections with Campylobacter and risk assessment models indicate that the successful implementation of Campylobacter control strategies in poultry will translate on a reduction of human Campylobacteriosis cases. Efficient control strategies implemented during primary production will reduce the risk of Campylobacter introduction in chicken houses and/or decrease Campylobacter concentration in infected chickens and their products. Consequently, poultry producers need to make difficult decisions under conditions of uncertainty regarding the implementation of Campylobacter control strategies. This manuscript presents the development of probabilistic graphical models to support decision making in order to control Campylobacter in poultry. The decision support systems are constructed as probabilistic graphical models (PGMs which integrate knowledge and use Bayesian methods to deal with uncertainty. This paper presents a specific model designed to integrate epidemiological knowledge from the United Kingdom (UK model in order to assist poultry managers in specific decisions related to vaccination of commercial broilers for the control of Campylobacter. Epidemiological considerations and other crucial aspects including challenges associated with the quantitative part of the models are discussed in this manuscript. The outcome of the PGMs will depend on the qualitative and quantitative data included in the models. Results from the UK model and sensitivity analyses indicated that the financial variables (cost/reward functions and the effectiveness of the control strategies considered in the UK model were driving the results. In fact, there were no or only small financial gains when using a hypothetical vaccine B (able to decrease Campylobacter numbers from two to six logs in 20% of the chickens with a

  12. [Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen. PMID:23267623

  13. Rapid Quantification of Viable Campylobacter Bacteria on Chicken Carcasses, Using Real-Time PCR and Propidium Monoazide Treatment, as a Tool for Quantitative Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck;

    2010-01-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter contaminated poultry focus on post-slaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach for enumeration...... of foodborne Campylobacter, combining real-time PCR (Q-PCR) with a simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 hours, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Campylobacter with an intact membrane. The method performance was evaluated...... by assessing the contribution to variability from individual chicken carcass rinse matrices, species of Campylobacter, and the efficiency of DNA extraction with differing cell inputs. The method was compared with culture-based enumeration on 50 naturally infected chickens. The cell contents correlated with Ct...

  14. Substrate utilization by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, H.N.; Rollins, D.M.; Weiss, E.

    1986-10-01

    An attempt was made to elucidate in Campylobacter spp. some of the physiologic characteristics that are reflected in the kinetics of CO/sub 2/ formation from four /sup 14/C-labeled substrates. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were grown in a biphasic medium, and highly motile spiral cells were harvested at 12 h. The cells were incubated with 0.02 M glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, or formate, or with concentrations of these substrates ranging from 0.0032 to 0.125 M. All four substrates were metabolized very rapidly by both species. A feature of many of these reactions, particularly obvious with /sup 2/chemically bond-ketoglutarate, was an immediate burst of CO/sub 2/ production followed by CO/sub 2/ evolution at a more moderate rate. These diphasic kinetics of substrate utilization were not seen in comparable experiments with Escherichia coli grown and tested under identical conditions. With C. jejuni, CO/sub 2/ production from formate proceeded rapidly for the entire period of incubation. The rate of metabolism of glutamate, glutamine, and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate by both species was greatly enhanced by increased substrate concentration. The approach to the study of the metabolism of campylobacters here described may be useful in detecting subtle changes in the physiology of cells as they are maintained past their logarithmic growth phase.

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Hippurate Hydrolase of Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Marina; Gyles, Carlton; Chan, Voon Loong; Odumeru, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Eleven monoclonal antibodies raised against recombinant Campylobacter jejuni hippurate hydrolase were tested for binding to lysates from 19 C. jejuni strains, 12 other Campylobacter strains, and 21 non-Campylobacter strains. Several monoclonal antibodies bound to C. jejuni but not to other Campylobacter species and may be useful in a species-specific immunoassay.

  16. Efficacy of feed additives against Campylobacter in live broilers during the entire rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard-Nicodème, M; Keita, A; Quesne, S; Amelot, M; Poezevara, T; Le Berre, B; Sánchez, J; Vesseur, P; Martín, Á; Medel, P; Chemaly, Marianne

    2016-02-01

    Poultry meat is the major source of human campylobacteriosis, the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonization in European broiler flocks is 71%. Despite considerable efforts, there is still no effective strategy available to prevent or reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers. This study tested a wide variety of feed additives to reduce Campylobacter shedding in primary poultry production. Twelve additives containing organic or fatty acids, monoglycerides, plant extracts, prebiotics, or probiotics were tested. For each additive, broilers contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni were fed with an additive free diet (control group) or with a supplemented diet (treated group) and Campylobacter loads compared at three sampling times. No treatment was able to prevent broiler colonization by Campylobacter, and there was a high degree of variation in contamination among the birds. At 14 d of age, eight treatments significantly decreased the colonization level compared to the control group by a maximum of 2 log10 CFU/g. At 35 d of age, three of these treatments still had a significant effect with a maximum reduction of 1.88 log10 CFU/g for a probiotic. At 42 d of age, only one short-chain fatty acid was still significantly efficient with a mean reduction over 2 log10 CFU/g. In addition, a probiotic and a prebiotic-like compound significantly decreased the contamination by a maximum of 3 log10 CFU/g, only at the 42-d sampling period. This study gives promising results regarding the use of feed additives to reduce Campylobacter infection in flocks. Nevertheless, a global approach, combining intervention measures at the different steps of the broiler meat production chain could have a greater impact on the reduction of public health risk. PMID:26706356

  17. Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; SUN Xin-ting; ZENG Zheng; YU Yan-yan

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a marked global increase in the incidence of human Campylobacter enteritis in recent years. This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients suffering from acute diarrhea.Methods This was a retrospective review of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea presenting at Beijing University First Hospital, Beijing, China, in the summer and autumn (April to October) of 2005 to 2009. The data collected included the species of campylobacter identified, and the age, gender, clinical manifestations and results of laboratory test on stool samples collected from the patients. Campylobacter sensitivity tests to various antimicrobial agents were conducted on 80 specimens. Chi-square tests were applied using SPSS13.0 software and a two-sided P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Campylobacter spp. isolated from the stool specimens of 142 patients with diarrhea represented 14.9% of all the cases examined. C. jejuni was identified in 127 patients (89.4%) and C. coli in 15 others (10.6%). The infection incidence was highest in the age range of 21-30 years which comprised 21.7% of the total cases examined. Most cases of diarrhea (46 patients) occurred in June. Watery diarrhea (97.2%), abdominal pain (72.5%) and fever (64.8%) were the most common manifestations of enteric campylobacteriosis. Only four patients (2.8%) had bloody diarrhea. The antimicrobial resistance rates were: cefoperazone (100%), levofloxacin (61.3%), gentamicin (12.5%), erythromycin (6.3%), and azithromycin (2.5%).Conclusions Campylobacter was prevalent among adults with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China. The large number of those afflicted by the disease warrants the commission of a large multicenter study to determine the extent of enteric campylobacteriosis in this region.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from patients in the town of Niš

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    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In some clinical forms of human Campylobacter infections, such as prolonged diarrhea or associated with postinfections sequels, antibacterial treatment is necessary. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea, as well as from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfections sequels, to drugs used in the therapy of enterocolitis, and to nalidixic acid used in laboratory identification and differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Methods. We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 131 Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea (122 strains, diarrhea associated with rheumatic disorders (8 strains, and one strain isolated from a patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome following Campylobacter enterocolitis. Susceptibility testing to erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the agar dilution method. Results. In the strains we investigated, resistance to gentamicin and chloramphenicol was not recorded, whereas a low rate of strains resistant to erythromycin (2.4%, a higher prevalence of strains resistant to tetracycline (9.9%, and a high level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (29.8% and nalidixic acid (33.3% were registered. All strains resistant to nalidixic acid were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. In addition, there was no difference in the occurrence of resistance between strains isolated from patients with diarrhea as compared to those isolated from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfection disorders. Conclusion. The fact that the most of Campylobacter strains were sensitive to erythromycin and all to gentamicin, makes erythromycin an antibiotic of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea and gentamicin when parenteral therapy should be administered. Resistance to tetracycline and, especially, ciprofloxacin

  19. Primary Isolation Strain Determines Both Phage Type and Receptors Recognised by Campylobacter jejuni Bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine C. Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina;

    2015-01-01

    In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of the Campylobacter ureolyticus Clinical Isolate RIGS 9880

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; On, Stephen L W;

    2015-01-01

    The emerging pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus has been isolated from human and animal genital infections, human periodontal disease, domestic and food animals, and from cases of human gastroenteritis. We report the whole-genome sequence of the human clinical isolate RIGS 9880, which is the first...

  1. Polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA fingerprinting for epidemiological studies on Campylobacter spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Goossens, H; Niesters, H G; Van Belkum, A; Koeken, A; Endtz, H P; Stegeman, H; Quint, W G

    1994-01-01

    The applicability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated DNA typing, with primers complementary to dispersed repetitive DNA sequences and arbitrarily chosen DNA motifs, to study the epidemiology of campylobacter infection was evaluated. With a single PCR reaction and simple gel electrophoresis,

  2. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  3. Compuesto bactericida contra Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Gañan, M.; Carrascosa, Alfonso V.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Adolfo J.

    2008-01-01

    Compuesto bactericida contra Campylobacter jejuni. Uso de algunos compuestos fenólicos como agentes antibacterianos contra C jejuni. Además de sus usos para conservación de alimentos, suplemento alimenticio para animales y para la elaboración de una composición farmacéutica para el tratamiento de enfermedades causadas por C. jejuni, debido a su actividad frente a este microorganismos.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Human and Canine Campylobacter upsaliensis Isolates by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter; Guardabassi, Luca; Pedersen, Karl;

    2008-01-01

    Human (n = 33) and canine (n = 53) Campylobacter upsaliensis isolates from seven countries were genotyped by a new amplified fragment length polymorphism method. We observed 100% typeability and high overall diversity. The majority of human strains (23/33) clustered separately from canine strains......, indicating that dogs may not be the main source of human infection.......Human (n = 33) and canine (n = 53) Campylobacter upsaliensis isolates from seven countries were genotyped by a new amplified fragment length polymorphism method. We observed 100% typeability and high overall diversity. The majority of human strains (23/33) clustered separately from canine strains...

  5. Campylobacter jejuni gene cj0511 encodes a serine peptidase essential for colonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Karlyshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to MEROPS peptidase database, Campylobacter species encode 64 predicted peptidases. However, proteolytic properties of only a few of these proteins have been confirmed experimentally. In this study we identified and characterised a Campylobacter jejuni gene cj0511 encoding a novel peptidase. The proteolytic activity associated with this enzyme was demonstrated in cell lysates. Moreover, enzymatic studies conducted with a purified protein confirmed a prediction of it being a serine peptidase. Furthermore, cj0511 mutant was found to be severely attenuated in chicken colonisation model, suggesting a role of the Cj0511 protein in infection.

  6. Campylobacter in zwemwater en mogelijke emissiebronnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, H.; Rijs, G.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Leenen, I.

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter vormt samen met Salmonella en Shigella één van de belangrijkste bacteriële ziekteverwekkers van het maagdarmkanaal bij de mens. De bacterie Campylobacter komt voor bij eenden, meeuwen, kippen en kalkoenen, maar is ook aanwezig in koeien, varkens en schapen. Al deze dieren zijn drager,

  7. Campylobacter as a venereal disease in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Visser, I.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Pastoor, P.W.; Strampel, J.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of AI, venereal diseases caused by Tritrichomonas fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis haved been eradicated in The Netherlands. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus can cause sporadic abortion and early embryonic death. When natural breeding is practised, venereal dise

  8. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  9. Interaction of campylobacter species with antibody, complement and phagocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernatowska, E.; Jose, P; Davies, H; Stephenson, M.; Webster, D

    1989-01-01

    The opsonisation of four different campylobacter species for human neutrophils was studied using a chemiluminescence system and electron microscopy. Opsonisation of Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter jejuni was mediated by antibody and enhanced by complement. Antibody was not, however, required for the phagocytosis of Campylobacter pylori because it activates the classical pathway of complement directly. This unusual property may be important in the pathogenesis of C p...

  10. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaoporn Prachantasena

    Full Text Available Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species.

  12. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  14. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia Revealed by Cellulitis without Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the Context of Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Brah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.

  15. Quantitative Proteomics of Intracellular Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Liu

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the USA and Europe. An important virulence attribute of this bacterial pathogen is its ability to enter and survive within host cells. Here we show through a quantitative proteomic analysis that upon entry into host cells, C. jejuni undergoes a significant metabolic downshift. Furthermore, our results indicate that intracellular C. jejuni reprograms its respiration, favoring the respiration of fumarate. These results explain the poor ability of C. jejuni obtained from infected cells to grow under standard laboratory conditions and provide the bases for the development of novel anti microbial strategies that would target relevant metabolic pathways.

  16. Evaluation of 11 PCR assays for species-level identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jordan, Penelope J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity and specificity of 11 PCR assays described for the species identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using 111 type, reference, and field strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and Campylobacter lari. For six assays, an additional 21 type strains...... representing related Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species were also included. PCR tests were initially established in the laboratory by optimizing conditions with respect to five type and reference strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. One PCR test for C. coli failed to give appropriate...

  17. Poultry flocks as a source of Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, K; Osek, J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is the leading foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and the bacteria are frequently isolated from the intestines of chickens. The broiler meat contamination with C. jejuni or C. coli may occur during slaughter processing. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry flocks and the corresponding broiler carcasses in 15 districts (voivodeships) all over Poland. A total of 128 samples from broiler flocks and the corresponding carcasses were collected between February 2011 and April 2013. The Campylobacter isolation and species identification were performed according to ISO 10272-1 standard and with PCR. It was found that 112 flock (96.5%) were contaminated with campylobacters, either C. jejuni (77 samples; 68.7%) or C. coli (35 flocks; 31.3%). Analysis of the corresponding chicken carcasses tested after chilling revealed that 77 out of 128 (60.2%) samples were positive for Campylobacter, either C. jejuni (58; 75.3%) or C. coli (19; 24.7%). Most of the carcasses were contaminated with the same Campylobacter species as identified in the corresponding flock before slaughter. As tested by PCR, out of the 77 crops with C. jejuni 58 were positive for the same bacterial species. On the other hand, out of the remaining 35 flocks infected with C. coli, only 19 corresponding carcass samples were contaminated with C. coli. In three cases in the slaughtered flocks C. jejuni was identified but in the same carcasses C. coli was found. The opposite findings (flock positive for C. coli but the corresponding carcasses contaminated with C. jejuni) were seen in six voivodeships. It was also observed that several carcass samples were negative for C. jejuni and C. coli although the original flocks were Campylobacter-positive before slaughter (total 36 of the 77 samples; 46.7%). On the other hand, some carcasses were contaminated with Campylobacter although the flocks were negative for these bacteria (9 samples; 11

  18. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuser Jürg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes of antibiotics recommended for treatment of human campylobacteriosis are also used in veterinary medicine, in view of food safety, the resistance status of Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat is of special interest. Methods Raw poultry meat samples were collected throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein at retail level and examined for Campylobacter spp. One strain from each Campylobacter-positive sample was selected for susceptibility testing with the disc diffusion and the E-test method. Risk factors associated with resistance to the tested antibiotics were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results In total, 91 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 415 raw poultry meat samples. Fifty-one strains (59% were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Nineteen strains (22% were resistant to a single, nine strains to two antibiotics, and eight strains showed at least three antibiotic resistances. Resistance was observed most frequently to ciprofloxacin (28.7%, tetracycline (12.6%, sulphonamide (11.8%, and ampicillin (10.3%. One multiple resistant strain exhibited resistance to five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These are the most important antibiotics for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. A significant risk factor associated with multiple resistance in Campylobacter was foreign meat production compared to Swiss meat production (odds ratio = 5.7. Conclusion Compared to the situation in other

  19. Safradan İzole Edilen Campylobacter Sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Yorgancıgil, Birdal; Tezeren, Deniz; Balaban, Neriman; Terzioğlu, Serdar; Öztürk, Süheyla

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1997 Haziran; 4(3) Safradan İzole Edilen Campylobacter Sp. Birdal YORGANCIGİL Deniz TEZEREN Neriman BALABAN Serdar TERZlOĞLU Süheyla ÖZTÜRK Özet Campylobacter sp. 'in neden olduğu, gastrointestinal traktüs haricindeki lokal veya sistemik infeksiyon vakaları oldukça azdır. Bu çalışmada safradan izole edilen bir Campylobacter sp. olgusu incelenmiştir. Ankara Numune Hastanesi Cerrahi Kliniğinde koles...

  20. Campylobacter ureolyticus: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bullman, Susan

    2011-03-01

    A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen.

  1. The role of radiology in Campylobacter enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Ponette, E.; Baert, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology); Lacquet, F.; Verbist, L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Microbiology); Rutgeerts, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    A series of 18 patients with diarrhoea and positive stool cultures for Campylobacter jejuni is presented. The most important radiological features were thickening of ileal mucosal folds, of interhaustral indentations and of the ileocaecal valve, lymphoid hyperplasia and microulcerations. Radiology, as well as endoscopy, are both non-specific in Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. The importance of radiology is to exclude more typical features of other causes of inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover, before the result of the stool culture is available, the radiological features should suggest the suspicion of an acute infectious enterocolitis by Campylobacter jejuni as possible diagnosis. (orig.).

  2. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic enzyme heptosyltransferase I gene (waaC) from Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klena, J D; Gray, S A; Konkel, M E

    1998-11-19

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are common causes of gastrointestinal disease and a proportion of C. jejuni infections have been shown to be associated with the Guillain-Barré syndrome. The waaC gene from Campylobacter coli, involved in lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis, was cloned by complementation of a heptose-deficient strain of Salmonella typhimurium, as judged by novobiocin sensitivity, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific phage sensitivity, and polyacrylamide-resolved lipopolysaccharide profiles. The C. jejuni waaC gene was subsequently cloned using the waaC gene isolated from C. coli as a probe. The C. jejuni and C. coli waaC genes are capable of encoding proteins of 342 amino acids with calculated molecular masses of 39381Da and 39317Da, respectively. Sequence and in-vitro analyses suggested that the C. coli waaC gene may be transcribed from its own promoter. Translation of the C. coli waaC gene in a cell-free system yielded a protein with a Mr of 39000. The waaC gene was detected in every C. jejuni and C. coli isolate tested as judged by dot-blot hybridization analysis. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that both Campylobacter species contain a single copy of the waaC gene. Unlike Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium isolates, the waaC gene in C. jejuni and C. coli isolates does not appear to be linked to the waaF (rfaF) gene.

  3. Bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad A; Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Arutyunov, Denis; Evoy, Stephane; Szymanski, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. Most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. Bacteriophages bind to their host specifically through their receptor binding proteins (RBPs), which can be exploited for pathogen detection. We recently sequenced the genome of C. jejuni phage NCTC12673 and identified its putative host receptor binding protein, Gp047. In the current study, we localized the receptor binding domain to the C-terminal quarter of Gp047. CC-Gp047 could be produced recombinantly and was capable of agglutinating both C. jejuni and C. coli cells unlike the host range of the parent phage which is limited to a subset of C. jejuni isolates. The agglutination procedure could be performed within minutes on a glass slide at room temperature and was not hindered by the presence of buffers or nutrient media. This agglutination assay showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity was 95% for C. jejuni (n = 40) and 90% for C. coli (n = 19). CC-Gp047 was also expressed as a fusion with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Chimeric EGFP_CC-Gp047 was able to specifically label C. jejuni and C. coli cells in mixed cultures allowing for the detection of these pathogens by fluorescent microscopy. This study describes a simple and rapid method for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli using engineered phage RBPs and offers a promising new diagnostics platform for healthcare and surveillance laboratories.

  4. Bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Javed

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. Most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. Bacteriophages bind to their host specifically through their receptor binding proteins (RBPs, which can be exploited for pathogen detection. We recently sequenced the genome of C. jejuni phage NCTC12673 and identified its putative host receptor binding protein, Gp047. In the current study, we localized the receptor binding domain to the C-terminal quarter of Gp047. CC-Gp047 could be produced recombinantly and was capable of agglutinating both C. jejuni and C. coli cells unlike the host range of the parent phage which is limited to a subset of C. jejuni isolates. The agglutination procedure could be performed within minutes on a glass slide at room temperature and was not hindered by the presence of buffers or nutrient media. This agglutination assay showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity was 95% for C. jejuni (n = 40 and 90% for C. coli (n = 19. CC-Gp047 was also expressed as a fusion with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. Chimeric EGFP_CC-Gp047 was able to specifically label C. jejuni and C. coli cells in mixed cultures allowing for the detection of these pathogens by fluorescent microscopy. This study describes a simple and rapid method for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli using engineered phage RBPs and offers a promising new diagnostics platform for healthcare and surveillance laboratories.

  5. Identification of genetic loci required for Campylobacter resistance to fowlicidin-1, a chicken host defense peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ky Van Hoang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are critical components of host defense limiting bacterial infections at the gastrointestinal mucosal surface. Bacterial pathogens have co-evolved with host innate immunity and developed means to counteract the effect of endogenous AMPs. However, molecular mechanisms of AMP resistance in Campylobacter, an important human food borne pathogen with poultry as a major reservoir, are still largely unknown. In this study, random transposon mutagenesis and targeted site-directed mutagenesis approaches were used to identify genetic loci contributing Campylobacter resistance to fowlicidin-1, a chicken AMP belonging to cathelicidin family. An efficient transposon mutagenesis approach (EZ::TNTM Transposome in conjunction with a microtiter plate screening identified three mutants whose susceptibilities to fowlicidin-1 were significantly increased. Backcrossing of the transposon mutations into parent strain confirmed that the AMP-sensitive phenotype in each mutant was linked to the specific transposon insertion. Direct sequencing showed that these mutants have transposon inserted in the genes encoding two-component regulator CbrR, transporter CjaB, and putative trigger factor Tig. Genomic analysis also revealed an operon (Cj1580c-1584c that is homologous to sapABCDF, an operon conferring resistance to AMP in other pathogens. Insertional inactivation of Cj1583c (sapB significantly increased susceptibility of Campylobacter to fowlicidin-1. The sapB as well as tig and cjaB mutants were significantly impaired in their ability to compete with their wild-type strain 81-176 to colonize the chicken cecum. Together, this study identified four genetic loci in Campylobacter that will be useful for characterizing molecular basis of Campylobacter resistance to AMPs, a significant knowledge gap in Campylobacter pathogenesis.

  6. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated in the region of Niš, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli represent one of the main causes of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. Although the disease is usually mild and self-limiting, severe chronic sequelae may occur, such as reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. Serotyping is used as an epidemiological marker, while post-infective polyneuropathies are associated with several O serotypes. Objective. Strains of C. jejuni and C. coli were serotyped based on heat stable (HS and heat labile (HL antigens, as well as biotypes to determine strain diversity. Methods. Campylobacter spp. was isolated using selective blood media with antibiotics. Differentiation to the species level was done by a combination of biotyping tests and by a PCR-based RFLP test. The isolates were characterised by Penner and Lior serotyping methods. Results. The serotypes showed diversity without predominant serotypes. 24 HS serotypes were detected among 29 C. jejuni strains, and seven serotypes among nine C. coli strains. HL serotyping method successfully typed 62.5% of strains. Among 16 C. jejuni strains 14 serotypes were detected, and three among four C. coli strains. A C. jejuni strain associated with a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome was typed as biotype II, O:19. Conclusion. The biotyping and serotyping results have indicated that C. jejuni and C. coli strains in the region of Niš, Serbia are diverse and could be probably of unrelated sources of origin or reservoirs. The strain associated with the Guillain-Barré syndrome patient was serotype O:19, one of the most common in this post-infective complication.

  7. Study on the prevalence and the age at initial colonization of campylobacter in broiler flocks in central province of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campylobacter is considered one of the main causes of bacterial enteritis worldwide and poultry meat appears to act as a common source of infection (Vandeplas et al., 2008). In Sri Lanka, the available data to show the importance of campylobacter as a cause of diarrhoeal diseases is sparse and the involvement of poultry in relation to Campylobacter has not been identified. Therefore this study was carried out to investigate the association of campylobacter with broiler chicken. The Campylobacter isolation and identification procedure based on ISO standard was established and poultry meat samples collected from retail markets were tested. A considerable number of meat samples were contaminated with thermotolerant Campylobacter. As Campylobacter is a commensal in the chicken gut, though it is a pathogen to human, the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks was studied. Cloacal swabs collected at farms and caeca collected at slaughter in processing plants were analysed. Out of 59 samples collected from the Central Province 42 became positive for Campylobacter. The prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is 71%. High prevalence indicated the importance of controlling the pathogen but there was no data available on the ecology of the pathogen in Sri Lanka. Previous studies elsewhere have shown that factors like geographical location, seasonality, farming system, bio-security measures as the key factors influencing the host pathogen relationship. However, most data have been generated in nontropical countries with clear summer and winter seasons (Newell and Fearnley, 2003). The relative importance of these factors in Sri Lanka was questionable as it is a tropical country with no clear seasonality. To investigate the colonization of Campylobacter in broiler flocks twenty broiler flocks reared in two farms where different management practices in use, in the Central Province were monitored during one year. From each flock, cloacae swabs were collected from

  8. Risicobeheersing Campylobacter op het vleeskuikenbedrijf = Campylobacter control on the broiler farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Bokma-Bakker, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    In dit onderzoek werden de risico’s voor introductie en verspreiding van Campylobacter op het vleeskuikenbedrijf geïnventariseerd. Er worden mogelijkheden aangegeven hoe deze risico’s beheerst kunnen worden. Het blijkt dat er veel mogelijkheden zijn waardoor Campylobacter geïntroduceerd of verspreid

  9. Successive bacteremias with "Campylobacter cinaedi" and "Campylobacter fennelliae" in a bisexual male.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, V L; Hadley, W K; Fennell, C L; Flores, B. M.; Stamm, W. E.

    1987-01-01

    A bisexual human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive male had successive bacteremias with "Campylobacter cinaedi" and "Campylobacter fennelliae." Because final identification of both isolates was not completed until 1 month after the last admission of the patient, a novel and nonstandardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing method was useful in guiding timely antimicrobial therapy.

  10. ISOLASI Campylobacter DARI KARKAS AYAM MENGGUNAKAN METODE KONVENSIONAL DAN POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTIONS [Isolation of Campylobacter from Poultry Carcasses using Conventional and Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachmi Setiyaningsih2

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are two spesies of Campylobacter sp. frequently found as pathogenic bacteria causing human gastrointestinal infections. Contaminated chicken carcasses have been reported as the source of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, Campylobacter were isolated from chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets and supermarkets. In traditional markets, chicken carcasses are sold without proper packaging or in an open space and stored at room temperature (25-30°C for prolonged period allowing pathogenic bacteria to grow. While at supermarkets, chicken carcasses are openly displayed or enclosed in plastic wrappings and stored in a refrigerator (4-8°C. A total of 298 samples of chicken carcasses from traditional markets and supermarkets in the area of DKI Jakarta, West Java (Bogor and Sukabumi and Central Java (Kudus and Demak were collected. Isolation and identification using conventional and Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR methods were done to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli contamination in poultry. The results showed that chicken carcasses sold in the sampling area, both traditional markets and supermarkets, were contaminated with C. jejuni and C. coli. The contamination rate of Campylobacter sp. in chicken carcasses sold in supermarkets, were 14.1% by conventional methods and 29.5% by PCR. This was higher than those in traditional markets, i.e. 5.7 and 12.1%, respectively. It is also confirmed that the prevalence for contamination of C. jejuni was higher than C. coli in 298 samples, i.e. 16.1% and 3.7% by conventional method and 23.5% and 18.1% by PCR method respectively.

  11. Study on the Relationship between Campylobacter Jejuni Infection and Guillain-Barre Syndrome%空肠弯曲菌感染与格林--巴利综合征的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶晶; 李春岩; 张建中; 刘瑞春; 田文强

    1995-01-01

    应用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)技术,免疫印迹分析和酶联免疫斑点检测方法,对不同型格林--巴利综合征(Guillain-Barre,Syndrome,GBS)患者的神经及从病人中分离的空肠弯曲菌(Campylobacter jejuni,G.J)进行了血清免疫反应分析,结果表明空肠弯曲菌与经典型GBS的关系比该病的亚型急性运动性轴索性神经病(Acute Motor Axonal New Neuropa-thy,AMAN)更为密切.提示空肠弯曲菌感染可能是格林-巴利综合征的重要诱发因素之一.

  12. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter bacteria on chicken carcasses, using real-time PCR and propidium monoazide treatment, as a tool for quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Hansen, T B; Christensen, L S; Olsen, J E; Hoorfar, J

    2010-08-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter-contaminated poultry focus on postslaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter bacteria. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach to the enumeration of food-borne Campylobacter bacteria that combines real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 h, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Campylobacter bacteria with an intact membrane. The method's performance was evaluated by assessing the contributions to variability by individual chicken carcass rinse matrices, species of Campylobacter, and differences in efficiency of DNA extraction with differing cell inputs. The method was compared with culture-based enumeration on 50 naturally infected chickens. The cell contents correlated with cycle threshold (C(T)) values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range of 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by the chicken rinse matrix or by the species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter bacteria in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter bacteria but recognizes the infectious potential of the VBNC state and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment.

  13. Epidemiological survey of Campylobacter infection associated with acute bacterial infectious children diarrhea in Shanghai%上海地区急性细菌感染性腹泻儿童弯曲菌感染流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何磊燕; 王传清; 王爱敏; 薛健昌; 宋建明; 付盼; 许学斌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of Campylobacter in the children with acute bacterial diarrhea in Shanghai.Methods Epidemiological survey.Totally 6 641 children with acute bacterial infectious diarrhea from outpatients and inpatients in Children′s Hospital of Fudan University were submitted to the investigation during January 2011 to December 2012.The Campylobacter was isolated from stool samples collected from subjects in micro aerobic environment and identified by both multi-PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF MS ) .Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were assayed by disk-diffusion method according to EUCAST standard.The isolates molecular typing was done by PFGE.SPSS16.0 was used to analyze the results.Results A total number of 6 641 subjects were enrolled, among them, 305 patients were infected with Campylobacter.The prevalence rate was 4.6%(305/6 641).Among the infected patients, 240 patients were infected with Campylobacter jejuni and 65 patients were infected with Campylobacter coli, the infectious rates of these two pathogenic bacteria were 3.6%and 1.0%, respectively.The peak infectious rate in patients older than 1 year of age was 6.2%(209/3 385) which was higher than that in children under 1 year of age (2.9%, 96/3 256),χ2 =35.98,P<0.001.The infectious rate in winter and spring (6.8%, 138/2 040) was higher than that in the other seasons ( 3.6%, 167/4 601 ) ,χ2 =28.59, P <0.001.Antimicrobial susceptibility test results showed that 91.5%( 279/305 ) isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 11.8%( 36/305 ) isolates were resistant to erythromycin.A total of 9 genotypes of Campylobacter were found by PFGE cluster analysis.The similarity were ranged from 65.1%-100.0%for type A, 67.6%-100.0%for type B, 61.7%-100.0%for type C, 59.0%-100.0%for type D, 71.4%for type F, 80.0%for type H, 54.4%-90.9%for type I, and only one strain was classified as type E and G.Conclusions Campylobacter is a major

  14. Study on the critical antigen that induces immune damage of peripheral nerve following Campylobacter jejuni infection%空肠弯曲菌诱导外周神经免疫损伤的关键抗原研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓红; 束晓梅; 杨冰竹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore whether lipo-oligosaccharide ( LOS) in Campylobacter jejuni ( CJ) is a critical antigen to induce damage of peripheral nerve, and to provide an immunology experimental evidence on CJ infection induced Guillain-Barr(e) syndromes ( GBS ) for the presumption of molecular mimicry.Methods A comparing study was carried out using the CJ parent strain ( with LOS and ganglioside-like epitopes ) and its direct waaF gene knockout mutant ( waaF mutant without LOS and ganglioside-like epitopes ).A total of 26 Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, parental strain group (n = 10), waaF mutant group (n = 10), and control group (n = 6).Three groups were immunized with Freund's adjuvant ( FA) plus parental strains of CJ HB9313, waaF mutants, and saline respectively.Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) was employed to detect serum anti ganglioside GMl-IgG antibodies.At 8th week after immunization, the animals were sacrificed.The sciatic nerves were separated.The expression of GMl, GMl-IgG antibody and C3c complement deposited on the sciatic nerves were detected by direct immunofluorescence.The pathologic changes were detected in a teased-fiber study.Results The ELISA results showed that the parental strain group had significantly higher serum GMl-IgG antibody titers at 2 weeks, which were further raised at 4 weeks, peaked at 6 weeks, and sustained at 8 weeks.The serum GMl-IgG antibodies had raised 4 times more than before immunization at 6 weeks.However, both waaF mutant group and control group displayed no raised levels of serum GMl-IgG antibody.Immunofluorescence results showed that the nodes of Ranvier and the paranodal myelin with fluorescein-labelled cholera toxin B subunit ( ligand of ganglioside GMl ) were positively stained in three groups.Deposition of GMl-IgG antibody and complement C3c at the nodes of Ranvier of sciatic nerves were observed in 4 rabbits from parental strain group.No such changes were observed in waa

  15. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are...

  16. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  17. Effects of feeding finisher pigs with chicory or lupine feed for one week or two weeks before slaughter with respect to levels of Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hansen, L. L.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau;

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp....... (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory...... roots) or control (100% organic concentrate) diet for 1 week (24 pigs) or 2 weeks (24 pigs) before slaughter. The Campylobacter spp. level in rectal faecal samples after 0, 1 and 2 weeks of feeding and in the luminal content from ileum, caecum and colon at slaughter was determined by direct plating...

  18. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter on chicken carcasses by real-time PCR and propidium monoazide as a tool for quantitative risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck;

    2010-01-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter contaminated poultry focus on post-slaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach for enumeration...... by assessing the contribution to variability from individual chicken carcass rinse matrices, species of Campylobacter, and the efficiency of DNA extraction with differing cell inputs. The method was compared with culture-based enumeration on 50 naturally infected chickens. The cell contents correlated with Ct......-values (R2 = 0.993), with a quantification range from 1×1021×107 CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R2 = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by chicken rinse matrix...

  19. "Limits of control"--crucial parameters for a reliable quantification of viable campylobacter by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Nora-Johanna; Buhler, Christiane; Iwobi, Azuka N; Huber, Ingrid; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Appel, Bernd; Stingl, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The unsuitability of the "CFU" parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr) was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS) or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase). In contrast, propidium iodide (PI) and propidium monoazide (PMA) were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the implementation of

  20. Occurrence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick V. G. Komba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the carriage and antimicrobial resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in the gastrointestinal tracts of farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania Materials and Methods: Faecal samples were collected from farm (n=244 and laboratory (n=466 animals and were subjected to the Cape Town protocol for isolation of Campylobacter. Isolates were preliminarily identified based on potassium hydroxide string and hippurate hydrolysis tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed for confirmation of isolates. Antimicrobial resistance testing was done using disc diffusion method. Results: Of the laboratory animals 26.7% of guinea pigs (n=30 and 1.2% of rats (n=242 were colonized with Campylobacter. Four isolates from guinea pigs were Campylobacter jejuni and the other four were C. coli. From rats, two isolates were C. jejuni and one was C. coli. In farm animals thermophilic Campylobacter were detected from 31.6% of sheep (n=57 and 60% horses (n=5. Of the isolates 12 (57% were C. jejuni (10 from sheep and 2 from horses and the remaining were C. coli (8 from sheep and 1 from a horse. The isolates were frequently resistant to erythromycin, norfloxacin, colistin sulphate and nalidixic acid; whereas low levels of resistance were observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Conclusion: Our study reveals carriage of antimicrobial resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in the intestines of the study animals. This highlights possibilities in involvement of these animals in the epidemiology of Campylobacter infections. Thus, there is a need to consider these animal species when planning control measures for this zoonotic bacterium.

  1. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. PMID:26541243

  2. Lack of association between the presence of the pVir plasmid and bloody diarrhea in Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.A. Wagenaar (Jaap); Y. Doorduyn; R. Achterberg; H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe main mechanisms by which Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea are unknown. In contrast to a recent communication, we report here the absence of an association with the plasmid pVir in patients infected with C. jejuni who developed bloody diarrhea in The Netherlands, and we suggest a

  3. Rapid PCR using nested primers of the 16S rRNA and the hippuricase (hipO) genes to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Wedderkopp, A.; Pedersen, Karl;

    2002-01-01

    Identification of sources Campylobacter infection in the poultry houses is in general problematic due to the lack of reliable methods to detect campylobacteria in environmental samples. Detection of campylobacteria in environmental samples by conventional culture methods is difficult and of limited...... sensitivity due to the use of selective media, the low number of bacteria in the samples and possibly also due to the presence of non-culturable or sub-lethally injured stages of the bacteria. The present paper describes a rapid PCR assay using nested primers of the 16S rRNA or the hippuricase (hipO) genes...... to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental samples. The sensitivity of the nested PCR was determined to be 0.01 pg/PCR, corresponding to 2-3 colony forming units (cfu) per ml. The nested PCR assays were applied to detect C. jejuni and C. coli in 269 environmental samples...

  4. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter Isolated from Chicken in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goualié Gblossi Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacters are major causes of gastroenteritis in human. The main risk factor of infection is consumption of contaminated or by cross-contaminated poultry meat. In Côte d’Ivoire, gastroenteritis is usually observed but no case of human campylobacteriosis has been formally reported to date. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from chickens ceaca in commercial slaughter in Abidjan. Between May and November 2009, one hundred and nineteen (119 chicken caeca samples were collected and analyzed by passive filtration method followed by molecular identification (PCR. From these 119 samples, 76 (63.8% were positive to Campylobacter tests. Among the positive colonies, 51.3% were C. jejuni and 48.7% were C. coli. Of the 39 C. jejuni isolates, 79.5%, 38.5%, 17.9%, 10.3%, and 7.7% were, respectively, resistant, to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Among the 37 isolates of C. coli, 78.4%, 43.2%, 13.5%, 8.1%, and 0% were resistant, respectively, to the same antibiotics. In conclusion, we reported in this study the presence of high Campylobacter contamination of the studied chickens. Molecular identification of the bacteria was performed and determination of high resistance to antimicrobials of the fluoroquinolone family was revealed.

  5. Identification and Analysis of Flagellar Co-expressed Determinants (Feds) of Campylobacter jejuni Involved in Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Barrero-Tobon, Angelica M.; Hendrixson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The flagellum of Campylobacter jejuni provides motility essential for commensal colonization of the intestinal tract of avian species and infection of humans resulting in diarrheal disease. Additionally, the flagellar type III secretion system has been reported to secrete proteins such as CiaI that influence invasion of human intestinal cells and possibly pathogenesis. The flagellar regulatory system ultimately influences σ28 activity required for expression of the FlaA major flagellin and ot...

  6. Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Key Programs Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Environmental Health Services Division of Viral Diseases Division of ... Key Programs Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Environmental Health Services Division of Viral Diseases Division of ...

  7. In vitro study on the effect of organic acids on Campylobacter jejuni/coli populations in mixtures of water and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveerach, P.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2002-01-01

    Gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter spp. infection has been recognized as one of the important public health problems in the developed countries. Outbreaks mostly originate from the consumption of contaminated poultry or infected water. The aim of this study was to determine the bactericidal act

  8. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  9. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates. PMID:25872616

  10. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller;

    2016-01-01

    , fat score, gender, and migration range were not found to be associated with Campylobacter spp. carriage. A correlation was found between the prevalence (%) of C. jejuni in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. jejuni in both manure on cattle farms (R-2 = 0.92) and poultry farms (R-2 = 0....... The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results...

  11. Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Vikrant; Altermann, Eric; Olson, Jonathan; Wray, Gregory Allan; Siletzky, Robin M; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp.: C. coli 11601 and C. jejuni 11601MD, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and C. coli 6067 and C. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. The genomes provide insights on Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations. PMID:27540063

  12. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. PMID:27244295

  13. Metode Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk Melacak Campylobacter sp. pada Daging Ayam (DIRECT POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION METHOD FOR DETECTION CAMPYLOBACTER SP. OF POULTRY MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani .

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter sp. is the most commonly reported as agent of foodborne zoonosis causing acutegastroenteritis in humans. Poultry meat is considered as a major source of C. jejuni infection in human.The conventional methods for detecting foodborne bacteria is time-consuming which rely on the of thebacteria in culture media, followed by biochemical identification. In this study polymerase chain reaction(PCR technique was used for rapid identification of the pathogenic Campylobacter sp. The samples usedwere 298 chicken carcass with sold in supermarkets and traditional markets, and were carried out inaccordance the isolation protocol ISO/ DIS 10272-1994. Identification was performed using biochemicalAPI Campy. The direct PCR (DPCR assay with two sets of primers was employed for isolation andidentification of C. jejuni and C. coli. The result of the isolation and identification both by conventional orPCR methods showed that chicken carcasses both from supermarket and traditional market werecontaminated with C. jejuni and or C. coli. Prevalence of Campylobacter sp. contamination in chicken meatwas higher by DPCR (62.6% than by conventional (19.8%, indicating that DPCR technique was moresensitive than conventional method with detection limit for C. jejuni was103 cfu/ml.

  14. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis of the incidence of Campylobacter cases and patients with general diarrhea in a Danish county, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Simonsen, Jacob; Ethelberg, Steen

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter infections are the main cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Denmark. While primarily foodborne, Campylobacter infections are also to some degree acquired through other sources which may include contact with animals or the environment, locally contaminated drinking water and more. We analyzed Campylobacter cases for clustering in space and time for the large Danish island of Funen in the period 1995-2003, under the assumption that infections caused by 'environmental' factors may show persistent clustering while foodborne infections will occur randomly in space. Input data were geo-coded datasets of the addresses of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter cases and of the background population of Funen County. The dataset had a spatial extent of 4.900 km2. Data were aggregated into units of analysis (so-called features) of 5 km by 5 km times 1 year, and the Campylobacter incidence calculated. We used a modified form of local Moran's I to test if features with similar incidence rates occurred next to each other in space and time, and compared the observed clusters with simulated clusters. Because clusters may be caused by a high tendency among local GPs to submit stool samples, we also analyzed a dataset of all submitted stool samples for comparison. The results showed a significant persisting clustering of Campylobacter incidence rates in the Western part of Funen. Results were visualized using the Netlogo software. The underlying causes of the observed clustering are not known and will require further examination, but may be partially explained by an increased rate of stool samples submissions by physicians in the area. We hope, by this approach, to have developed a tool which will allow for analyses of geographical clusters which may in turn form a basis for further epidemiological examinations to cast light on the sources of infection. PMID:19228436

  15. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis of the incidence of Campylobacter cases and patients with general diarrhea in a Danish county, 1995–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Simonsen, Jacob; Ethelberg, Steen

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter infections are the main cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Denmark. While primarily foodborne, Campylobacter infections are also to some degree acquired through other sources which may include contact with animals or the environment, locally contaminated drinking water and more. We analyzed Campylobacter cases for clustering in space and time for the large Danish island of Funen in the period 1995–2003, under the assumption that infections caused by 'environmental' factors may show persistent clustering while foodborne infections will occur randomly in space. Input data were geo-coded datasets of the addresses of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter cases and of the background population of Funen County. The dataset had a spatial extent of 4.900 km2. Data were aggregated into units of analysis (so-called features) of 5 km by 5 km times 1 year, and the Campylobacter incidence calculated. We used a modified form of local Moran's I to test if features with similar incidence rates occurred next to each other in space and time, and compared the observed clusters with simulated clusters. Because clusters may be caused by a high tendency among local GPs to submit stool samples, we also analyzed a dataset of all submitted stool samples for comparison. The results showed a significant persisting clustering of Campylobacter incidence rates in the Western part of Funen. Results were visualized using the Netlogo software. The underlying causes of the observed clustering are not known and will require further examination, but may be partially explained by an increased rate of stool samples submissions by physicians in the area. We hope, by this approach, to have developed a tool which will allow for analyses of geographical clusters which may in turn form a basis for further epidemiological examinations to cast light on the sources of infection. PMID:19228436

  16. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis of the incidence of Campylobacter cases and patients with general diarrhea in a Danish county, 1995–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonsen Jacob

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Campylobacter infections are the main cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Denmark. While primarily foodborne, Campylobacter infections are also to some degree acquired through other sources which may include contact with animals or the environment, locally contaminated drinking water and more. We analyzed Campylobacter cases for clustering in space and time for the large Danish island of Funen in the period 1995–2003, under the assumption that infections caused by 'environmental' factors may show persistent clustering while foodborne infections will occur randomly in space. Input data were geo-coded datasets of the addresses of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter cases and of the background population of Funen County. The dataset had a spatial extent of 4.900 km2. Data were aggregated into units of analysis (so-called features of 5 km by 5 km times 1 year, and the Campylobacter incidence calculated. We used a modified form of local Moran's I to test if features with similar incidence rates occurred next to each other in space and time, and compared the observed clusters with simulated clusters. Because clusters may be caused by a high tendency among local GPs to submit stool samples, we also analyzed a dataset of all submitted stool samples for comparison. The results showed a significant persisting clustering of Campylobacter incidence rates in the Western part of Funen. Results were visualized using the Netlogo software. The underlying causes of the observed clustering are not known and will require further examination, but may be partially explained by an increased rate of stool samples submissions by physicians in the area. We hope, by this approach, to have developed a tool which will allow for analyses of geographical clusters which may in turn form a basis for further epidemiological examinations to cast light on the sources of infection.

  17. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of bovine Campylobacter and their contribution to human campylobacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, R; Kittl, S; Overesch, G; Kuhnert, P

    2015-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most important bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis. Chicken has been recognized as a major source for human infection, whereas cattle might also contribute to a lesser extent. However, there is a paucity of information available regarding Campylobacter in Swiss cattle and their role for human campylobacteriosis. To gain more information on genotypes and antibiotic resistance of bovine C. jejuni and C. coli and on their contribution to human disease, 97 cattle isolates were analysed. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing were applied and the gyrA and 23S rRNA genes were screened for point mutations responsible for quinolone and macrolide resistance, respectively. A total of 37 sequence types (STs) and 44 flaB types were identified, including two sequence types and five flaB types not previously described. Most common sequence types were ST21 (21%), ST61 (12%) and ST48 (11%). Only one isolate was macrolide resistant while 31% (n = 30) were quinolone resistant. Source attribution indicated chicken as the main source of human infection with cattle being second. In conclusion, cattle should not be underestimated as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. PMID:25511436

  18. Oxygen requirement and tolerance of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered a microaerophile, yet it has been shown to grow in vitro under atmospheres with elevated oxygen tensions. Hence, a better understanding of the oxygen requirement and tolerance of C. jejuni is required. Bacterial growth was measured under various ...

  19. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in homosexual males.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, H R; McIntyre, L

    1983-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from the stools of two homosexual males. One was asymptomatic at the time of isolation. The other presented with diarrhea. Both isolates were initially grown at 42 degrees C. This organism should be included among the list of organisms that are found in homosexual males.

  20. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Larsen, Lars Stehr;

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions...... cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low...... stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large number of data available to identify the significant variables. To a large extent, the country specific models identified risk factors that were...

  1. Screening for lactic acid bacteria capable of inhibiting Campylobacter jejuni in in vitro simulations of the broiler chicken caecal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, J; Rasschaert, G; Messens, W; Pasmans, F; Heyndrickx, M

    2012-12-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., specifically Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, are the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis in developed countries. Consumption of improperly prepared poultry products and cross contamination are among the main causes of human campylobacteriosis. The aim of this study was to identify lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains capable of inhibiting C. jejuni growth in initial in vitro trials ('spot-on-lawn' method), as well as in batch fermentation studies mimicking the broiler caecal environment. These experiments served as an indication for using these strains to decrease the capability of Campylobacter to colonise and grow in the chicken caeca during primary production, with the aim of reducing the number of human campylobacteriosis cases. A total of 1,150 LAB strains were screened for anti-Campylobacter activity. Six strains were selected: members of the species Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus agilis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. After treatment with catalase, proteinase K and a-chymotrypsin, anti-Campylobacter activity of cell-free culture supernatant fluid (CSF) for all six strains was retained, which indicated that activity was probably not exerted by bacteriocin production. Based on the activity found in CSF, the compounds produced by the selected strains are secreted and do not require presence of live bacterial producer cells for activity. During initial in vitro fermentation experiments, the E. faecalis strain exhibited the highest inhibitory activity for C. jejuni and was selected for further fermentation experiments. In these experiments we tested for therapeutic or protective effects of the E. faecalis strain against C. jejuni MB 4185 infection under simulated broiler caecal growth conditions. The best inhibition results were obtained when E. faecalis was inoculated before the C. jejuni strain, lowering C. jejuni counts at

  2. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.;

    2001-01-01

    Sequences of 16S rDNA of a novel campylobacter from faeces of healthy humans were previously shown to originate from a new taxon, 'Candidatus Campylobacter hominis', which could not be cultured. Since phylogenetic analysis suggested that anaerobic conditions might be required for growth, an isola......Sequences of 16S rDNA of a novel campylobacter from faeces of healthy humans were previously shown to originate from a new taxon, 'Candidatus Campylobacter hominis', which could not be cultured. Since phylogenetic analysis suggested that anaerobic conditions might be required for growth......, an isolation strategy was developed employing initial non-selective membrane filtration onto fastidious anaerobe agar. Campylobacters were then isolated from the resulting mixed microbial flora by a dilution strategy and/or by immunomagnetic separation with genus-specific polyclonal antibody. Isolates were...... phenotypic characteristics. The name Campylobacter hominis sp. nov. is proposed for the new species, the type strain of which is NCTC 13146(T)(= LMG 19568(T))....

  3. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    The Campylobacter excretion patterns of 26 domestic pet dogs were described in a longitudinal study. The dogs entered the study between 3 and 8 months of age and were monitored until 2 years of age. They were tested monthly for Campylobacter carriage in stool samples that were cultured...... on the Campylobacter-selective media CAT and modified CCDA agar at 37 and 42 C. This study comprised 366 fecal swab samples, of which 278 (76.2%) were found to be Campylobacter positive, with the following distribution of species: 75.0% Campylobacter upsaliensis, 19.4% Campylobacter jejuni, 2.1% Campylobacter lari, 0.......7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100...

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans.

  5. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in salad vegetables in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lay Ching; Robin, Tunung; Ragavan, Usha Menon; Gunsalam, Jurin Wolmon; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohamad; Radu, Son; Kumar, Malakar Pradeep

    2007-06-10

    The main aim of this study was to combine the techniques of most probable number (MPN) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantifying the prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter spp. in ulam, a popular Malaysian salad dish, from a traditional wet market and two modern supermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 309 samples of raw vegetables which are used in ulam were examined in the study. The prevalences of campylobacters in raw vegetables were, for supermarket I, Campylobacter spp., 51.9%; Campylobacter jejuni, 40.7%; and Campylobacter coli, 35.2%: for supermarket II, Campylobacter spp., 67.7%; C. jejuni, 67.7%; and C. coli, 65.7%: and for the wet market, Campylobacter spp., 29.4%; C. jejuni, 25.5%; and C. coli, 22.6%. In addition Campylobacter fetus was detected in 1.9% of raw vegetables from supermarket I. The maximum numbers of Campylobacter spp. in raw vegetables from supermarkets and the wet market were >2400 and 460 MPN/g, respectively.

  6. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations.

  7. Novel Campylobacter lari-like bacteria from humans and molluscs: description of Campylobacter peloridis sp. nov., Campylobacter lari subsp. concheus subsp. nov. and Campylobacter lari subsp. lari subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Lies; On, Stephen L W; De Brandt, Evie; Vandamme, Peter

    2009-05-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to clarify the taxonomic position of Campylobacter lari-like strains isolated from shellfish and humans. The diversity within the strain collection was initially screened by means of fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and whole-cell protein electrophoresis, revealing the existence of two clusters distinct from C. lari and other Campylobacter species. The divergence of these clusters was confirmed by phenotypic analysis and by 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis identified C. lari, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter insulaenigrae as the closest phylogenetic neighbours of both taxa. DNA-DNA hybridizations revealed that one cluster, comprising 10 strains, represented a novel Campylobacter species, for which the name Campylobacter peloridis sp. nov. is proposed, with 2314BVA(T) (=LMG 23910(T) =CCUG 55787(T)) as the type strain. The second cluster, comprising six strains, represents a novel subspecies within the species C. lari, for which the name Campylobacter lari subsp. concheus subsp. nov. is proposed, with 2897R(T) (=LMG 21009(T) =CCUG 55786(T)) as the type strain. The description of C. lari subsp. concheus has the effect of automatically creating the subspecies Campylobacter lari subsp. lari subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 8846(T)=NCTC 11352(T)).

  8. Comparative Study of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Children With Gastroenteritis in Bahonar Hospital, Karaj, Using PCR and RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Campylobacter species are responsible for the majority of cases of food-borne gastroenteritis. The sources of the disease outbreaks are often contaminated water or milk, and consumption of undercooked poultry product is the main cause of sporadic campylobacteriosis cases. Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter gastroenteritis in children and to differentiate the interfering species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods at the Bahonar hospital in Karaj, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 150 stool samples were collected from children under 10 years old during the summer of 2014. PCR was performed using genus- and species-specific primers and RFLP was done using AluI and TasI enzymes. Results The results showed the amplification of 400 and 491 bp segments and Campylobacter contamination in 30 (20% samples; 5 out of 30 Campylobacter positive samples (16.66% were identified as C. jejuni, 20 (66.66% as C. coli, 3 (10% as C. jejuni and C. coli (mixed infection, and 2 (6.66% were identified as non-jejuni, non-coli Campylobacter using the PCR method. Following the evaluation of RFLP results, 7 positive samples (23.33% showed the electrophoretic pattern of C. jejuni, 21 (70% showed the electrophoretic pattern of C. coli, and 2 (6.6% showed both of the patterns and mixed contamination with jejuni and coli species. The results of digestion with TasI did not show any C. lari or C. upsaliensis patterns. Conclusions The results of this study showed high percentage of Campylobacter contamination in the tested stool samples. The other surprising finding was the high rate of Campylobacter coli positive samples; the difference between the results of PCR using species-specific primers (hipo and asp and the RFLP method (electrophoretic patterns in some of the positive samples confirms the hypothesis of variations in nucleotide sequences of the hipo

  9. Genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from domestic and travel-associated human cases

    OpenAIRE

    Niederer, Lilian; Kuhnert, Peter; Egger, Ralph; Büttner, Sabina; Hächler, Herbert; Korczak, Bozena M.

    2012-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) extended with flaB typing of 425 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 42 Campylobacter coli isolates revealed quite a low overlap between human isolates from travel-associated and domestic cases in Switzerland. Men were more frequently affected by Campylobacter than women, but strains from women and, overall, from travel-associated cases showed mutations conferring quinolone resistance more frequently than strains from men and domestic cases, respectively.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli recovered from organic turkey farms in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Ahmed, Marwa F E; Hotzel, Helmut; Tomaso, Herbert; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Hartung, Joerg; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hafez, Hafez M

    2015-11-01

    The popularity of food produced from animals kept under an organic regimen has increased in recent years. In Germany, turkey meat consumption has increased. Despite several studies assessing the susceptibility of campylobacters to various antibiotics in poultry, no sufficient data exists regarding the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacters in organic-reared turkeys. This study provides information about antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolated from turkeys reared on organic farms in Germany. Ninety-six Campylobacter strains (41 C. jejuni and 55 C. coli) were isolated from different free-range turkey flocks. In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done using a broth microdilution test, and the presence of resistance genes to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline) was investigated. All Campylobacter isolates from organic turkeys (n = 96) were phenotypically sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol. In this study, the antibiotic susceptibilities of C. jejuni to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and naladixic acid were 56.0%, 51.3%, and 56.0%, respectively. In contrast, 44.0%, 73.0%, and 74.6% of C. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid, respectively. Replacement of the Thr-86→Ile in the gyrA gene, and the presence of the tet(O) gene were the mainly identified resistance mechanisms against fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, respectively.These results also reinforce the need to develop strategies and implement specific control procedures to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26371330

  11. Sequence variability of Campylobacter temperate bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Lai-King

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophages integrated within the chromosomes of Campylobacter jejuni isolates have been demonstrated very recently. Prior work with Campylobacter temperate bacteriophages, as well as evidence from prophages in other enteric bacteria, suggests these prophages might have a role in the biology and virulence of the organism. However, very little is known about the genetic variability of Campylobacter prophages which, if present, could lead to differential phenotypes in isolates carrying the phages versus those that do not. As a first step in the characterization of C. jejuni prophages, we investigated the distribution of prophage DNA within a C. jejuni population assessed the DNA and protein sequence variability within a subset of the putative prophages found. Results Southern blotting of C. jejuni DNA using probes from genes within the three putative prophages of the C. jejuni sequenced strain RM 1221 demonstrated the presence of at least one prophage gene in a large proportion (27/35 of isolates tested. Of these, 15 were positive for 5 or more of the 7 Campylobacter Mu-like phage 1 (CMLP 1, also designated Campylobacter jejuni integrated element 1, or CJIE 1 genes tested. Twelve of these putative prophages were chosen for further analysis. DNA sequencing of a 9,000 to 11,000 nucleotide region of each prophage demonstrated a close homology with CMLP 1 in both gene order and nucleotide sequence. Structural and sequence variability, including short insertions, deletions, and allele replacements, were found within the prophage genomes, some of which would alter the protein products of the ORFs involved. No insertions of novel genes were detected within the sequenced regions. The 12 prophages and RM 1221 had a % G+C very similar to C. jejuni sequenced strains, as well as promoter regions characteristic of C. jejuni. None of the putative prophages were successfully induced and propagated, so it is not known if they were functional or

  12. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  13. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in water in Northern Ireland: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J E; Caldwell, P S; Millar, B C; Murphy, P G

    2001-11-01

    The occurrence of Campylobacter spp was examined in a variety of waters in Northern Ireland. Conventional cultural techniques were employed with 768 water specimens, including drinking waters (tap, spring, bore hole and bottled) and recreational waters (swimming pool, lough, river and sea). Positive waters included 1/11 (9.1%) drinking water from untreated well water, as well as 5/12 (41.7%) untreated surface waters from loughs and 7/8 (87.5%) untreated river waters. Overall, untreated surface waters may represent a source of contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Northern Ireland, where they have a recreational involvement or are used as a drinking source by man or agricultural livestock. Therefore waterborne campylobacteriosis should be considered in patients presenting with acute enteritis and a history of participation in water sports/activities. As faecal coliform organisms have been previously shown to be poor markers of water quality, especially for Campylobacter spp, new criteria should be established to assess the risk of this infection and to evaluate and monitor the quality of water used for recreational purposes. PMID:11795758

  14. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vinni; Rosenquist, Hanne; Baggesen, Dorte Lau;

    2007-01-01

    Background: The predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is Campylobacter. Campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages) have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of Campylobacter in broilers. One concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host...... (PFGE) and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) were used to characterize the phage genomes. Three categories of bacteriophages were observed. I: a genome size of similar to 194 kb and refractory to digestion with HhaI; II: a genome size of similar to 140 kb and digestible by HhaI; and III: a genome...... size undeterminable in PFGE. The categorization of the phages correlated with the host range patterns displayed by the phages. Six phages were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They all belonged to the family of Myoviridae. Conclusion: We have characterized and identified the host...

  15. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel

    2016-01-01

    An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15% an...

  16. Isolation of Campylobacter from human stool samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Salim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Campylobacter is an undetected cause of diarrhoea especially under 5 years of age in most of the countries. Isolation of this organism is difficult, expensive and cumbersome. Aims: Our objective of this study was to isolate this pathogen from the stool specimens on routinely available blood containing laboratory media using the candle jar for creating the microaerophilic atmosphere in our setup. Settings and Designs: A descriptive study. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 stool samples were inoculated onto selective and non-selective media with and without filtration using a 0.45 μm membrane. The inoculated media were simultaneously incubated in microaerophilic conditions using the Anoxomat as well as in candle jars at temperatures 37°C and 42°C. The culture isolates were confirmed by standard phenotypic tests. A simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid of Campylobacter was performed on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA of the culture isolates as well as on the DNA extracted from the stool filtrates. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as a proportion. Results: Campylobacter could be isolated in 5 out of 50 stool samples using both the Anoxomat as well as the candle jar. Furthermore, we did not find any difference between the isolation using the selective and blood containing media as well as the different incubation temperatures. All the five were confirmed phenotypically and genotypically to be Campylobacter jejuni. The PCR results corroborated with that of the culture. Conclusions: Isolation by culture was as sensitive as that of the PCR.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes in common teals (Anas crecca)

    OpenAIRE

    Gargiulo, Antonio; Sensale, Mariangela; Marzocco, Laura; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia F.; Dipineto, Ludovico

    2011-01-01

    Abstarct To evaluate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and related cdt genes, cloacal swabs were collected from 70 common teals (Anas crecca) and analyzed by culture methods and polymerase chain reaction. In addition, C. jejuni were examined also for the presence of wlaN gene. This is believed to be the first report of Campylobacter spp. in common teal and our results confirm the very common occurrence of C. jejuni (n=40) and C. coli (n=13) in waterfowls. Furthermore, the cdt gene...

  18. TEMPERATURE AFFECTS SOLE CARBON UTILIZATION PATTERNS OF CAMPYLOBACTER COLI 49941

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are small, asaccharolytic bacteria exhibiting unique nutritional and environmental requirements. Campylobacter spp. exist as commensal organisms in some animal species, yet are estimated to be the most common causative agents of foodborne illness in humans. C. jejuni is most oft...

  19. Cellular response of Campylobacter jejuni to trisodium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Cohn, M. T.; Stabler, R. A.;

    2012-01-01

    The highly alkaline compound trisodium phosphate (TSP) is used as an intervention to reduce the load of Campylobacter on poultry meat in U.S. poultry slaughter plants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular responses of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 when exposed to sublethal...

  20. Campylobacter and Toll-like receptors : implications for vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative highly motile bacterium that colonizes the intestinal tract of humans, leading to inflammation of the intestinal mucosal layer. Campylobacter-induced enteritis causes (bloody) diarrhea, cramps, malaise and fever, which resolves within two weeks. In a small num

  1. Quantifying Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in Commercial Broiler Flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Miflin, J.K.; Templeton, J.M.; Bouma, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    Since meat from poultry colonized with Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, human exposure should be reduced by, among other things, prevention of colonization of broiler flocks. To obtain more insight into possible sources of introduction of Campylobacter into broiler f

  2. Incidence and ecology of Campylobacter jejuni and coli in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since its initial emergence in the 1970’s, Campylobacter have been estimated to be one of the most common causative agents of foodborne illnesses, along with nontyphoidal Salmonella species. Campylobacter species naturally colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of domestic and feral animals and are a...

  3. Simultaneous presence of multiple Campylobacter species in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, M.G.J.; Houwers, D.J.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Duim, B.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of coinfection of Campylobacter species in dogs was determined using four isolation methods. In 26% of the positive-testing stools, multiple Campylobacter species were identified. The use of multiple isolation methods as well as the time lapse between sampling and processing are impor

  4. Molecular Mimicry: Sensitization of Lewis Rats With Campylobacter jejuni Lipopolysaccharides Induces Formation of Antibody Toward GD3 Ganglioside

    OpenAIRE

    Usuki, Seigo; Thompson, Stuart A.; Rivner, Michael H.; Taguchi, Kyoji; Shibata, Keiko; Ariga, Toshio; Robert K Yu

    2006-01-01

    Recently we have reported cases of demyelinating inflammatory neuropathy showing elevated titers of anti-GD3 antibodies, which occurs rarely in Guillain-Barré syndrome. To examine the correlation between the anti-GD3 antibody titer and Campylobacter jejuni infection, we sensitized female Lewis rats with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from serotype HS19 of C. jejuni and examined changes in nerve conduction velocity and nerve conduction block (P/D ratio). After 16 weeks of sensitization, animals re...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Cultural Isolation and Pcr Based Assay for Detection of Campylobacter Jejuni In Food and Faecal Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Harkanwaldeep; Rathore, R. S.; Singh, Satparkash; Cheema, Pawanjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on mapA gene of C. jejuni was tested for detection of Campylobacter jejuni in naturally infected as well as spiked faecal and food samples of human and animal origin. Simultaneously, all the samples were subjected to the cultural isolation of organism and biochemical characterization. The positive samples resulted in the amplification of a DNA fragment of size ~589 bp in PCR assay whereas the absence of such amplicon ...

  6. Comparative analysis of cultural isolation and PCR based assay for detection of Campylobacter jejuni in food and faecal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Harkanwaldeep Singh; Rathore, R. S.; Satparkash Singh; Pawanjit Singh Cheema

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on mapA gene of C. jejuni was tested for detection of Campylobacter jejuni in naturally infected as well as spiked faecal and food samples of human and animal origin. Simultaneously, all the samples were subjected to the cultural isolation of organism and biochemical characterization. The positive samples resulted in the amplification of a DNA fragment of size ~589 bp in PCR assay whereas the absence of such amplicon ...

  7. Antimicrobial activities of isothiocyanates against Campylobacter jejuni isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eDufour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne human infection with Campylobacter jejuni is a medical concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Efficient eradication of C. jejuni reservoirs within live animals and processed foods is limited by the development of antimicrobial resistances and by practical problems related to the use of conventional antibiotics in food processes.We have investigated the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of two phytochemicals, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC and benzyl-isothiocyanate (BITC, against 24 C. jejuni isolates from chicken feces, human infections and contaminated foods, as well as two reference strains NCTC11168 and 81-176.Both AITC and BITC displayed a potent antibacterial activity against C. jejuni. BITC showed a higher overall antibacterial effect (MIC of 2.5 to 5 g mL-1 compared to AITC (MIC of 50 to 200 g mL-1. Interestingly, the 24 C. jejuni isolates could be classified in 3 groups according to their sensitivity levels to both compounds, suggesting that AITC and BITC shared identical activity mechanisms and consequently faced similar resistance processes in bacterial cells.The sensitivity levels of C. jejuni strains against isothiocyanates were neither correlated with the presence of a GGT (-Glutamyl Transpeptidase encoding gene in the genome nor with the origin of the biological sample. However the ggt mutant of C. jejuni 81-176 displayed a decreased survival rate compared to WT when exposed to ITC.

  8. A Charcoal- and Blood-Free Enrichment Broth for Isolation and PCR Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. is a Gram negative bacterium and is the major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. The microaerophilic nature of Campylobacter and its requirement of ~5% O2 for growth have complicated its recovery from foods. This is achieved with the addition to the enrichment media of ...

  9. Complete genomic sequences of Campylobacter jejuni strains RM3196 (233.94) and RM3197 (308.95) that were isolated from patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infection with Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans and also the most prevalent infection preceding Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). This study describes the complete genomic sequences of Cjj HS:41 strains RM3196 (233.94) and RM3197 (308...

  10. Toename Salmonella en Campylobacter bij slacht : Campylobacter in pluimveesector constant, Salmonella sterk gedaald

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2009-01-01

    In vrijwel alle schakels van de pluimveevleesketen is de besmetting met Salmonella in de periode van 2002 tot 2005 gedaald. Campylobacter werd in diezelfde periode juist vaker in slachthuizen aangetroffen. Tijdens het slachten nam de besmetting met beide pathogenen toe, voor Salmonella gold dit voor

  11. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M.; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Boer, de Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; Pelt, Van Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contam

  12. Computer-assisted analysis and epidemiological value of genotyping methods for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Duim, B.; Rigter, A.; Plas, J. van der; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    For epidemiological tracing of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli, reliable and highly discriminatory typing techniques are necessary. In this study the genotyping techniques of flagellin typing (flaA typing), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated ribotyping,

  13. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller;

    2016-01-01

    order to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119...

  14. Novel Anti-Campylobacter Compounds Identified Using High Throughput Screening of a Pre-selected Enriched Small Molecules Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Drozd, Mary; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Xu, Xiulan; Helmy, Yosra A.; Antwi, Janet; Fuchs, James R.; Nislow, Corey; Templeton, Jillian; Blackall, Patrick J.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and infections can be fatal. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter spp. necessitates the development of new antimicrobials. We identified novel anti-Campylobacter small molecule inhibitors using a high throughput growth inhibition assay. To expedite screening, we made use of a “bioactive” library of 4182 compounds that we have previously shown to be active against diverse microbes. Screening for growth inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni, identified 781 compounds that were either bactericidal or bacteriostatic at a concentration of 200 μM. Seventy nine of the bactericidal compounds were prioritized for secondary screening based on their physico-chemical properties. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration against a diverse range of C. jejuni and a lack of effect on gut microbes, we selected 12 compounds. No resistance was observed to any of these 12 lead compounds when C. jejuni was cultured with lethal or sub-lethal concentrations suggesting that C. jejuni is less likely to develop resistance to these compounds. Top 12 compounds also possessed low cytotoxicity to human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and no hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells. Next, these 12 compounds were evaluated for ability to clear C. jejuni in vitro. A total of 10 compounds had an anti-C. jejuni effect in Caco-2 cells with some effective even at 25 μM concentrations. These novel 12 compounds belong to five established antimicrobial chemical classes; piperazines, aryl amines, piperidines, sulfonamide, and pyridazinone. Exploitation of analogs of these chemical classes may provide Campylobacter specific drugs that can be applied in both human and animal medicine. PMID:27092106

  15. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

  16. Vorkommen, Antibiotika- Resistenz und Genotypisierung (AFLP) von thermophilen Campylobacter spp. bei Masthähnchen sowie Bewertung von Einflussfaktoren auf den Campylobacter- Status in der Mast

    OpenAIRE

    Näther, Gritt

    2010-01-01

    From May 2004 to July 2005, 279 broiler flocks of different production types were tested for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Of each flock caecal content of ten chickens was tested. All Campylobacter isolates were additionally identified by multiplex- PCR. 79 Campylobacter isolates were tested for susceptibility to eight antimicrobial agents and combinations by microbroth dilution and 236 Campylobacter isolates were genotyped by AFLP- analysis, too. To identify potential risk ...

  17. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosenquist, H

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the responses to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years; longer downtime (no. of days between flocks), probably a consequence of longer downtimes being associated with less focus on maintaining a high biosecurity level; broiler houses without a separate ante-room or barrier; and the use of the drinker nipples with cups or bells compared with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large

  18. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosenquist, H

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the responses to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years; longer downtime (no. of days between flocks), probably a consequence of longer downtimes being associated with less focus on maintaining a high biosecurity level; broiler houses without a separate ante-room or barrier; and the use of the drinker nipples with cups or bells compared with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large

  19. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Fakhr

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL, arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL. A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (512–2,048 μg/mL, and arsenate (128–1,024 μg/mL, but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4–16 μg/mL. Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3, 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR. The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates.

  20. Distribution and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Russian poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, N J; Bannov, V A; Svetoch, E A; Mitsevich, E V; Mitsevich, I P; Volozhantsev, N V; Gusev, V V; Perelygin, V V

    2004-02-01

    The distribution of Campylobacter spp. on 13 poultry farms (broiler chicken, quail, pheasant, peacock, and turkey) from eight regions (Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Kaluga, Liptsk, Moscow, Orenburg, and Orel) in Russia was surveyed. Intestinal materials were plated onto Campylobacter-selective medium and plates were incubated microaerobically at 42 degrees C for 24 or 48 h. Identification was based on colonial morphology, microscopic examination, and biochemical tests; latex agglutination assays were used for confirmation. In total, 116 isolates were derived from 370 samples. Isolation rates were similar, regardless of whether the birds were from small or large broiler production farms. Susceptibility of 48 representative (from these production sources) strains of Campylobacter spp. to 38 antimicrobial compounds was determined by disk diffusion assays. All strains tested were sensitive to amikacin, gentamycin, sisomycin, chloramphenicol, imipenem, oleandomycin, erythromycin, azitromycin, and ampicillin. The strains were also sensitive to 100 microg/disk of carbenicillin, fluoroquinolones, and to nitrofurans. Fluoroquinolone sensitivity was most notable and may be related to its limited application in poultry production within Russia. Hippurate and ribosomal RNA gene primers were developed and used to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and to provide a measure of strain discrimination. The combination of PCR analysis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing were conducted for selected isolates. The various poultry species and the different locations yielded Campylobacter isolates with discrete randomly amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. The distribution and substantial diversity of Campylobacter spp. isolates appears similar to that previously reported in other countries.

  1. Oral Campylobacter species: Initiators of a subgroup of inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2015-08-21

    In recent years, a number of studies detected a significantly higher prevalence of Campylobacter species such as Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) in intestinal biopsies and fecal samples collected from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to controls. Most of these Campylobacter species are not of zoonotic origin but are human oral Campylobacter species. Bacterial species usually cause diseases in the location where they colonize. However, C. concisus and other oral Campylobacter species are associated with IBD occurring at the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that these Campylobacter species may have unique virulence factors that are expressed in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Spencer, A.G.; Hald, Birthe;

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the role of beetles infesting broiler chicken rearing facilities as potential reservoirs for Salmonella enterica infections between successive broiler flocks. In addition, their role as potential reservoirs for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was also investigated. Fourteen broiler...... houses located at 11 different farms were included in the study. The houses were nonrandomly selected on the basis of their salmonella status; nine were persistently contaminated with salmonella whereas five were salmonella negative. For each broiler house, two consecutive broiler flocks (i.e., 28...... broiler flocks in all) as well as beetles collected during both rotations of production and in the empty period (after cleaning and disinfection) between these flocks were monitored for the presence of salmonella. Examinations for the presence of campylobacter in the same sample materials were also...

  3. Effects of feeding finisher pigs with chicory or lupine feed for one week or two weeks before slaughter with respect to levels of Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A N; Hansen, L L; Baggesen, D L; Mølbak, L

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp. (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory roots) or control (100% organic concentrate) diet for 1 week (24 pigs) or 2 weeks (24 pigs) before slaughter. The Campylobacter spp. level in rectal faecal samples after 0, 1 and 2 weeks of feeding and in the luminal content from ileum, caecum and colon at slaughter was determined by direct plating on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar plates. DNA extracted from the luminal content of distal ileum and caecum was used for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the composition of intestinal microbiota and for measuring the amount of bifidobacterial and total bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control- and chicory-fed pigs (mean log(10) 2.9 v. 4.1 CFU/g; P bacteria with terminal restriction fragment values >5% relative to the intensity of total abundance differed between the feed treatments (P Campylobacter spp. excretion level after 1 week.

  4. Campylobacter fetus subespécie fetus: abortamento e natimortalidade em ovinos Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus: abortion and stillbirths in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Trevisan Gressler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria do gênero Campylobacter está comumente envolvida em surtos de abortos ovinos em muitos países. No Brasil, até o presente momento, ainda não houve relato sobre a ocorrência de aborto em ovinos causado pelo C. fetus, subespécie fetus (C. fetus ssp. fetus. No presente trabalho, relata-se a detecção deste agente em fetos e natimortos ovinos naturalmente infectados. Desse modo, alerta-se para a possibilidade de novos casos de aborto em ovinos causados por C. fetus ssp. fetus.The bacteria of genus Campylobacter spp, is commonly involved in outbreaks of ovine abortion in many countries. In Brazil, until now, there has been no report on the occurrence of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus. In this paper, we report the detection this bacteria in ovine fetuses naturally infected. Thus, alert for possible cases of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus.

  5. Filamentation of Campylobacter in broth cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacheervan M Ghaffar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition from rod to filamentous cell morphology has been identified as a response to stressful conditions in many bacterial species and has been ascribed to confer certain survival advantages. Filamentation of Campylobacter jejuni was demonstrated to occur spontaneously on entry in to stationary phase distinguishing it from many other bacteria where a reduction in size is more common. The aim of this study was to investigate the cues that give rise to filamentation of C. jejuni and C. coli and gain insights into the process. Using minimal medium, augmentation of filamentation occurred and it was observed that this morphological change was wide spread amongst C. jejuni strains tested but was not universal in C. coli strains. Filamentation did not appear to be due to release of diffusible molecules, toxic metabolites, or be in response to oxidative stress in the medium. Separated filaments exhibited greater intracellular ATP contents (2.66 to 17.4 fg than spiral forms (0.99 to 1.7 fg and showed enhanced survival in water at 4oC and 37oC compared to spiral cells. These observations support the conclusion that the filaments are adapted to survive extra-intestinal environments. Differences in cell morphology and physiology need to be considered in the context of the design of experimental studies and the methods adopted for the isolation of campylobacters from food, clinical and environmental sources.

  6. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been perf

  7. Survival and Virulence of Campylobacter spp. in the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of food-borne illness in Europe, and this important zoonotic pathogen has been the focus of many research projects and scientific publications in recent years. However, we know less about the biology and pathogenicity of this pathogen than we know about many...... less prevalent pathogens. In this PhD project, I have investigated the survival and virulence of Campylobacter spp. in various matrices such as chicken faeces, swine manure and in co-culture with protozoa. In the first study, using bacterial culture and RT-qPCR methods, I found that viable C. jejuni...... cells could be detected for up to 5 days in both spiked and the naturally Campylobacter contaminated chicken faecal samples. Negative RT-qPCR was obtained when viable C. jejuni cells could not be counted by culture. In contrast, using a DNA-based qPCR method, dead or non-viable Campylobacter cells were...

  8. DNA Micorarrays for Genotyping and Population Studies of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause worldwide of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. The continued development of more effective and informative typing methods is necessary to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and population dynamics of this important pathogen. Comparat...

  9. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Danish broilers at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wedderkopp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims : To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli isolates from Danish poultry at the farm level, as well as for the whole country. Methods and Results : Data and isolates were collected from a national surveillance of Campylobacter in poultry....... Quinolone resistance was investigated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Among Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli combined, 7.5% were resistant to nalidixic acid. Quinolone resistance varied considerably from farm to farm, with 0% on some farms and almost...... 100% on others, but the resistance was evenly distributed geographically. With respect to isolates from farms where resistance was detected, quinolone resistance was higher among Camp. coli (28.7%) than among Camp. jejuni (11.3%). PFGE typing of quinolone-resistant and quinolone-susceptible isolates...

  10. An outbreak of infectious hepatitis in commercially reared ostriches associated with Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, C.P.; On, S.L.W.; Gibson, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    A disease causing high morbidity and mortality was observed in young ostriches from six properties in southeast Queensland, Australia. The disease affected birds from 2-8 weeks of age and was characterised clinically by bright-green urates and pathologically by severe necrotic hepatitis. The liver...... lesions resembled those of vibrionic hepatitis in other avian species. Campylobacter coli was isolated from the livers of affected ostriches from five of the six properties. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from birds from the remaining property. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based (PFGE...... biochemical test results and PFGE clearly distinguished the C. jejuni strain isolated from the geographically remote farm from the outbreak of C. coli type. We believe this to be the first definitive report of avian hepatitis associated with C. coli....

  11. Phage-displayed peptides selected for binding to Campylobacter jejuni are antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Rea, Philippa J; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2010-10-01

    In developed countries, Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of zoonotic bacterial gastroenteritis in humans with chicken meat implicated as a source of infection. Campylobacter jejuni colonises the lower gastrointestinal tract of poultry and during processing is spread from the gastrointestinal tract onto the surface of dressed carcasses. Controlling or eliminating C.jejuni on-farm is considered to be one of the best strategies for reducing human infection. Molecules on the cell surface of C.jejuni interact with the host to facilitate its colonisation and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. We used a subtractive phage-display protocol to affinity select for peptides binding to the cell surface of a poultry isolate of C.jejuni with the aim of finding peptides that could be used to control this microorganism in chickens. In total, 27 phage peptides, representing 11 unique clones, were found to inhibit the growth of C.jejuni by up to 99.9% in vitro. One clone was bactericidal, reducing the viability of C.jejuni by 87% in vitro. The phage peptides were highly specific. They completely inhibited the growth of two of the four poultry isolates of C.jejuni tested with no activity detected towards other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  12. Pentavalent single-domain antibodies reduce Campylobacter jejuni motility and colonization in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riazi

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the world, with symptoms ranging from acute diarrhea to severe neurological disorders. Contaminated poultry meat is a major source of C. jejuni infection, and therefore, strategies to reduce this organism in poultry, are expected to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter-associated diseases. We have investigated whether oral administration of C. jejuni-specific single-domain antibodies would reduce bacterial colonization levels in chickens. Llama single-domain antibodies specific for C. jejuni were isolated from a phage display library generated from the heavy chain IgG variable domain repertoire of a llama immunized with C. jejuni flagella. Two flagella-specific single-domain antibodies were pentamerized to yield high avidity antibodies capable of multivalent binding to the target antigen. When administered orally to C. jejuni-infected two-day old chicks, the pentabodies significantly reduced C. jejuni colonization in the ceca. In vitro, the motility of the bacteria was also reduced in the presence of the flagella-specific pentabodies, suggesting the mechanism of action is through either direct interference with flagellar motility or antibody-mediated aggregation. Fluorescent microscopy and Western blot analyses revealed specific binding of the anti-flagella pentabodies to the C. jejuni flagellin.

  13. Campylobacter inoculation and quantification from broiler cecal samples to compare two plate counting methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderlise Borsoi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis, a disease transmitted to humans from animals or animal products. The primarily source of Campylobacter infection in human is believed to be the handling and/or consumption of contaminated meat, especially poultry meat. Although in humans such infections are generally self-limiting, complications can arise and may include bacteraemia, Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis and abortion. In this study, 32 birds were divided in 2 groups: a control (C group and an inoculated (I group, with 16 birds each. The I group was inoculated orally with 108 CFU/mL of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291, whereas the C group was inoculated with a saline solution. Four chicks per group were euthanized by cervical dislocation at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days post-inoculation (pi. Cecum samples were collected for microbiological analyses. The samples were processed by two plate count methodologies, one developed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture in 2011 (B method and the other a serial dilution direct count method (A method. All birds from the C group remained negative until day 21. For the I group, the B method was found to be statistically superior to the A method for counting the recovered cells from the cecal contents at 7, 14 and 21 days pi. The microbiological direct plating counting method is a cost effective and rapid method to determine the level of contamination in broilers to help risk assessment programs at the industry level.

  14. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L.; Cummmings, Nicola J.; Connerton, Ian F.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cy...

  15. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  16. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude...... that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions...... of particles in the 0.5- to 2-mu m-diameter range and high proportions in the 2- to 5-mu m-diameter range. Campylobacter could also be detected by PCR in air samples collected at the hanging stage during the slaughter process but not at the other stages tested at the slaughterhouse. The exploitation...

  17. Use of culture, PCR analysis, and DNA microarrays for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from chicken feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne;

    2004-01-01

    . detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. By PCR and capillary electrophoresis, 95% of the samples were positive....... coli by conventional culture but were positive for C. jejuni by both PCR-capillary electrophoresis and DNA microarray analysis. The discrepancy between the methods is discussed....... for Campylobacter spp., whereas with DNA microarrays all samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. By application of DNA microarray analysis, the isolates in 4 samples (6%) could not be identified to the species level, whereas by PCR-capillary electrophoresis, the isolates in 12 samples (19%) remained...

  18. Eugenol wash and chitosan based coating reduces Campylobacter jejuni counts on poultry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne illness globally in humans, is strongly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Unfortunately, current strategies to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry have had limited success. Our study investigated the efficacy of eugenol ...

  19. CAMPYLOBACTER COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF SIGNIFICANT GUT MICROBIOTA TRANSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter colonization of poultry causes a considerable public health risk. Interactions between the pathogen and the autochthonous intestinal microbiota have not been defined, however, Campylobacter can be excluded from the intestinal habitat by unidentified microbial species. To enhance our un...

  20. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485ET, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this species....

  1. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum type strain 03-427T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. This Campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other C. fetus subspecies. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this C. fetus subspecies....

  2. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  3. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on Campylobacter jejuni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, J.D.; Maxcy, R.B.

    Radiation resistance of Campylobacter jejuni in broth, ground beef, and ground turkey meat was determined using dose levels from 0-200 Krad at -30 +/- 10/sup 0/C, at 0-5/sup 0/C, and at 30 +/- 10/sup 0/C. Irradiation at -30/sup 0/C increased radiation resistance of cultures in ground meats; broth cultures were not greatly influenced by temperature. The effect of culture age on radiation resistance was also evaluated using cells in various physiological phases. Age did not have a pronounced effect on radiation resistance. The largest D/sub 10/ value for C. jejuni was 32 Krad, which was less than D/sub 10/ values commonly reported for salmonellae. 20 references, 4 figures.

  5. Defense and adaptation: The complex inter-relationship between Campylobacter jejuni and mucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abofu eAlemka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucus colonization is the first step towards the establishment of infection and disease by mucosal pathogens. There is an emerging literature implicating specific mucin subtypes and mucin modifications in protecting the host from Campylobacter jejuni infection. However, mucosal pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to breach the mucus layer and C. jejuni in particular appears to harbor specific adaptations to better colonize intestinal mucus. For example, components of mucus are chemotactic for C. jejuni and the rheological properties of mucus promote motility of the organism. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrate that mucins modulate the pathogenicity of C. jejuni in a species-specific manner and likely help determine whether these bacteria become pathogenic (as in humans, or adopt a commensal mode of existence (as in chickens and other animals. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the complex interplay between C. jejuni and components of the mucus layer.

  6. Comparative in vitro activities of twelve antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter species.

    OpenAIRE

    Fliegelman, R M; Petrak, R M; Goodman, L. J.; Segreti, J; Trenholme, G M; Kaplan, R L

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 27 Campylobacter jejuni, 31 Campylobacter coli, and 30 Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strains to 12 antimicrobial agents was determined. Ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline derivative, was the most active agent tested. Antimicrobial susceptibility differed among the three species tested.

  7. Emergence of aminoglycoside resistance genes aadA and aadE in the genus Campylobacter.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto-Alphandary, H; Mabilat, C; Courvalin, P

    1990-01-01

    Resistance to streptomycin or spectinomycin or both in five Campylobacter coli strains, two Campylobacter jejuni strains, and a Campylobacter-like strain was studied by enzymatic assays and dot blot hybridization. Resistance was due to 6- or 3",9-aminoglycoside adenylyltransferases and to new types of phospho- and adenylyltransferases.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H; Parker, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  9. Source attribution of human Campylobacter isolates by MLST and fla-typing and association of genotypes with quinolone resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Sonja; Heckel, Gerald; Korczak, Bożena M; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST) and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant. PMID:24244747

  10. Source attribution of human Campylobacter isolates by MLST and fla-typing and association of genotypes with quinolone resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kittl

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant.

  11. Detection of Campylobacter species and Arcobacter butzleri in stool samples by use of real-time multiplex PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. de Boer (Richard); A. Ott (Alewijn); P. Güren (Pinar); E. van Zanten; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); A.M.D. Kooistra-Smid

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of Campylobacter (or Campylobacter-like) species in stools from patients suspected of infectious gastroenteritis (n = 493) was investigated using real-time PCR for detection of Arcobacter butzleri (hsp60 gene), Campylobacter coli (ceuE gene), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA), fiv

  12. Enumeração de Campylobacter spp. e presença de Campylobacter jejuni em carcaças de frango no estado de Minas Gerais Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. and presence of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler carcasses in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso de Liguori Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    consumption of chicken meat. The objective of this study was to detect and enumerate the Campylobacter spp. by a rapid method (SimPlate® and and conventional method (direct plating on mCCDA and determine frequency and level of contamination in 75 broiler carcasses (25 pre-chill; 25 post-chill at establishments under federal inspection in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil and 25 frozen broiler carcass samples taken from the retail trade. Evaluated samples, regardless of the technique used, detected the presence of Campylobacter spp. in 56.0% before the chiller and 44.0% after the chiller. Counts of the frozen samples were below the detection limit of the method. Of the 75 samples tested, 34.7% were positive for Campylobacter spp. and that, 38.5% were identified as C. jejuni. Among them, the largest number of C. jejuni obtained was from the carcass of the chicken before the chiller (42.9%, followed by chicken carcass after the chiller (36.4%. The study showed that the detection and enumeration is variable, although in none of the samples intended for trade has been obtained scores above the infective dose. The use of SimPlate® technique was appropriate and equivalent to direct plating on agar mCCD and showed a better recovery rate cells of Campylobacter spp..

  13. Eukaryotic Cell Invasion does not correlate to flaA SVR Sequence Type based on a Library of Genetically Diverse Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Originally Recovered from A Variety of Sources in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are considered to be a leading bacterial etiologic agent of acute food-borne gastroenteritis among human populations. Epithelial cell invasion is hypothesized to be necessary for human infection and cell invasion assays have been utilized to demonstrate that distinc...

  14. Investigations into the antiadhesive activity of herbal extracts against Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K; Tiralongo, J; Schmidt, K; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R; Tiralongo, E

    2011-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrhoea in the industrialized world, being associated with the occurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and inducing diseases partially through intestinal adherence. With increasing reports of C. jejuni drug resistance against standard antibiotics, investigations into antiadhesive agents for the prevention of bacterial infection are highly significant. Given the consumer-driven development towards holistic and integrative healthcare, research into additional anti-Campylobacter effects of herbal medicines that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions is important. Twenty-one herbal extracts were screened for antiadhesive activity against C. jejuni using modifications of previously published antiadhesion assays. Antiadhesion effects with IC(50) values 35 mg/mL) was found for Agrimonia eupatoria (agrimony), Andrographis paniculata (andrographis), Matricaria recutita (chamomile), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Filipendula ulmaria (meadowsweet) and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) extracts. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of marketed herbal medicines in gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:21280113

  15. Passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization and transmission in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, David; Van Steendam, Katleen; Verbrugghe, Elin; Verlinden, Marc; Martel, An; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Heyndrickx, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Zutter, Lieven; Deforce, Dieter; Pasmans, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterium-mediated diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Poultry products are considered the most important source of C. jejuni infections in humans but to date no effective strategy exists to eradicate this zoonotic pathogen from poultry production. Here, the potential use of passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broiler chicks was examined. For this purpose, laying hens were immunized with either a whole-cell lysate or the hydrophobic protein fraction of C. jejuni and their eggs were collected. In vitro tests validated the induction of specific ImmunoglobulinY (IgY) against C. jejuni in the immunized hens' egg yolks, in particular. In seeder experiments, preventive administration of hyperimmune egg yolk significantly (P seeder animals three days after oral inoculation with approximately 104 cfu C. jejuni, compared with control birds. Moreover, transmission to non-seeder birds was dramatically reduced (hydrophobic protein fraction) or even completely prevented (whole-cell lysate). Purified IgY promoted bacterial binding to chicken intestinal mucus, suggesting enhanced mucosal clearance in vivo. Western blot analysis in combination with mass spectrometry after two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis revealed immunodominant antigens of C. jejuni that are involved in a variety of cell functions, including chemotaxis and adhesion. Some of these (AtpA, EF-Tu, GroEL and CtpA) are highly conserved proteins and could be promising targets for the development of subunit vaccines. PMID:24589217

  16. Engineering the Campylobacter jejuni N-glycan to create an effective chicken vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothaft, Harald; Davis, Brandi; Lock, Yee Ying; Perez-Munoz, Maria Elisa; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Walter, Jens; Coros, Colin; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a predominant cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Source-attribution studies indicate that chickens are the main reservoir for infection, thus elimination of C. jejuni from poultry would significantly reduce the burden of human disease. We constructed glycoconjugate vaccines combining the conserved C. jejuni N-glycan with a protein carrier, GlycoTag, or fused to the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-core. Vaccination of chickens with the protein-based or E. coli-displayed glycoconjugate showed up to 10-log reduction in C. jejuni colonization and induced N-glycan-specific IgY responses. Moreover, the live E. coli vaccine was cleared prior to C. jejuni challenge and no selection for resistant campylobacter variants was observed. Analyses of the chicken gut communities revealed that the live vaccine did not alter the composition or complexity of the microbiome, thus representing an effective and low-cost strategy to reduce C. jejuni in chickens and its subsequent entry into the food chain. PMID:27221144

  17. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to control Campylobacter in the New Zealand poultry meat food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robin J; Horn, Beverley J; Dunn, Alex H; Parris, Ruth; Green, F Terri; McNickle, Don C

    2013-07-01

    An analysis of the cost-effectiveness of interventions to control Campylobacter in the New Zealand poultry supply examined a series of interventions. Effectiveness was evaluated in terms of reduced health burden measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Costs of implementation were estimated from the value of cost elements, determined by discussions with industry. Benefits were estimated by changing the inputs to a poultry food chain quantitative risk model. Proportional reductions in the number of predicted Campylobacter infections were converted into reductions in the burden of disease measured in DALYs. Cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated for each intervention, as cost per DALY reduction and the ratios compared. The results suggest that the most cost-effective interventions (lowest ratios) are at the primary processing stage. Potential phage-based controls in broiler houses were also highly cost-effective. This study is limited by the ability to quantify costs of implementation and assumptions required to estimate health benefits, but it supports the implementation of interventions at the primary processing stage as providing the greatest quantum of benefit and lowest cost-effectiveness ratios. PMID:23834790

  18. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.;

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007. Furthermore...

  19. Campylobacter jejuni y Campylobacter coli en tres grupos de gallinas de diferente origen geográfico del sur de Chile Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in three groups of hens of different geographic origin in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FERNANDEZ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 300 muestras fecales de gallinas obtenidas en tres sitios geográficos del sur de Chile (comunas de Loncoche, Valdivia y Puerto Montt, para conocer la prevalencia de Campylobacter jejuni y de C. coli en estas aves consideradas como reservorio. La prevalencia de especies termotolerantes del género Campylobacter fue del 25,7%, siendo C. jejuni aislado con una frecuencia del 76,6% y la de C. coli del 23,4%. Fueron encontrados sólo 2 de los 4 biotipos de C. jejuni, siendo aislado el biotipo II con mayor frecuencia (68.8%. En C. coli fueron encontrados los 2 biotipos descritos para esta especie, siendo, también, el biotipo II el más frecuenteIn order to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, 300 fecal samples obtained from hens in three different geographical places (Loncoche, Valdivia and Puerto Montt cities from Southern Chile were studied. The prevalence of the thermotolerant species of Campylobacter was 25.7%, being Campylobacter jejuni isolated with a frequency of 76.6% and C. coli with 23.4%. Only two of the four biotypes of C. jejuni were found, being biotype II the most frequent one (68.8%. The two biotypes described for C. coli were isolated, and biotype II was also the most frequent (68.8%.

  20. Survival with a helping hand: Campylobacter and microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eIndikova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulphur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain.

  1. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter, and Sutterella spp. in human fecal samples as estimated by a reevaluation of isolation methods for Campylobacters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Harrington, C.S.;

    2000-01-01

    CCDA recovered significantly more thermophilic Campylobacter spp. than Skirrow's medium (P = 0.0034). No significant difference between Skirrow's medium and CAT agar was observed in this study. Another six taxa were identified, namely, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter curvus-like bacteria, Arcobacter......The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of campylobacteria including Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli in human clinical samples and in samples from healthy individuals and to reevaluate the efficacies of conventional selective methods...... for isolation of Campylobacter spp. Two charcoal-based selective media, modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and cefoperazone-amphotericin-teicoplanin (CAT) agar, were compared with Skirrow's blood-based medium and with a filter method (filter) applied to a yeast-enriched blood agar. A total...

  2. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.;

    2009-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been...... identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods: Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture...... and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143) were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results: No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal...

  3. Tracing Back Clinical Campylobacter jejuni in the Northwest of Italy and Assessing Their Potential Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Garofolo, Giuliano; Alessiani, Alessandra; Di Donato, Guido; Candeloro, Luca; Vencia, Walter; Decastelli, Lucia; Marotta, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Food-borne campylobacteriosis is caused mainly by the handling or consumption of undercooked chicken meat or by the ingestion of contaminated raw milk. Knowledge about the contributions of different food sources to gastrointestinal disease is fundamental to prioritize food safety interventions and to establish proper control strategies. Assessing the genetic diversity among Campylobacter species is essential to our understanding of their epidemiology and population structure. We molecularly characterized 56 Campylobacter jejuni isolates (31 from patients hospitalized with gastroenteritis, 17 from raw milk samples, and 8 from chicken samples) using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to trace the source of the disease. We also used a population genetic approach to investigate the source of the human cases from six different reservoirs of infection. MLST identified 25 different sequence types and 11 clonal complexes (CCs) (21, 658, 206, 353, 443, 48, 61, 257, 1332, 354, 574) and these included several alleles not cited previously in the PubMLST international database. The most prevalent CCs were 21, 206, and 354. PFGE showed 34 pulsotypes divided between 28 different clusters. At the fine scale, by means of PFGE and MLST, only two human cases were linked to raw milk, while one case was linked to chicken meat. The investigation revealed the presence of several genotypes among the human isolates, which probably suggests multiple foci for the infections. Finally, the source attribution model we used revealed that most cases were attributed to chicken (69.75%) as the main reservoir in Italy, followed to a lesser extent by the following sources: cattle (8.25%); environment (6.28%); wild bird (7.37%); small ruminant (5.35%), and pork (2.98%). This study confirms the importance of correlating epidemiological investigations with molecular epidemiological data to better understand the dynamics of infection. PMID:27379033

  4. Tracing Back Clinical Campylobacter jejuni in the Northwest of Italy and Assessing Their Potential Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Garofolo, Giuliano; Alessiani, Alessandra; Di Donato, Guido; Candeloro, Luca; Vencia, Walter; Decastelli, Lucia; Marotta, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Food-borne campylobacteriosis is caused mainly by the handling or consumption of undercooked chicken meat or by the ingestion of contaminated raw milk. Knowledge about the contributions of different food sources to gastrointestinal disease is fundamental to prioritize food safety interventions and to establish proper control strategies. Assessing the genetic diversity among Campylobacter species is essential to our understanding of their epidemiology and population structure. We molecularly characterized 56 Campylobacter jejuni isolates (31 from patients hospitalized with gastroenteritis, 17 from raw milk samples, and 8 from chicken samples) using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to trace the source of the disease. We also used a population genetic approach to investigate the source of the human cases from six different reservoirs of infection. MLST identified 25 different sequence types and 11 clonal complexes (CCs) (21, 658, 206, 353, 443, 48, 61, 257, 1332, 354, 574) and these included several alleles not cited previously in the PubMLST international database. The most prevalent CCs were 21, 206, and 354. PFGE showed 34 pulsotypes divided between 28 different clusters. At the fine scale, by means of PFGE and MLST, only two human cases were linked to raw milk, while one case was linked to chicken meat. The investigation revealed the presence of several genotypes among the human isolates, which probably suggests multiple foci for the infections. Finally, the source attribution model we used revealed that most cases were attributed to chicken (69.75%) as the main reservoir in Italy, followed to a lesser extent by the following sources: cattle (8.25%); environment (6.28%); wild bird (7.37%); small ruminant (5.35%), and pork (2.98%). This study confirms the importance of correlating epidemiological investigations with molecular epidemiological data to better understand the dynamics of infection. PMID:27379033

  5. Detection of Campylobacter bacteria in air samples for continuous real-time monitoring of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Katja N; Lund, Marianne; Skov, Julia; Christensen, Laurids S; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2009-04-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions of particles in the 0.5- to 2-microm-diameter range and high proportions in the 2- to 5-microm-diameter range. Campylobacter could also be detected by PCR in air samples collected at the hanging stage during the slaughter process but not at the other stages tested at the slaughterhouse. The exploitation of airborne dust in poultry houses as a sample material for the detection of Campylobacter and other pathogens provides an intriguing possibility, in conjunction with new detection technologies, for allowing continuous or semicontinuous monitoring of colonization status.

  6. Isolation of Campylobacter from Brazilian broiler flocks using different culturing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; Pozza, J S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2014-11-01

    Conventional culturing methods enable the detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. However, laboratory culture of Campylobacter is laborious because of its fastidious behavior and the presence of competing nontarget bacteria. This study evaluated different protocols to isolate Campylobacter from broiler litter, feces, and cloacal and drag swabs. Samples taken from commercial Brazilian broiler flocks were directly streaked onto Preston agar (PA), Campy-Line agar (CLA), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and also enriched in blood-free Bolton broth (bfBB) for 24 and 48 h followed by plating onto the different selective media. Higher numbers of Campylobacter-positive cloacal and drag swab samples were observed using either direct plating or enrichment for 24 h before plating onto PA, compared with enrichment for 48 h (P Campylobacter in broiler litter and feces samples. Analysis of directly plated samples revealed that higher Campylobacter levels were detected in feces streaked onto PA (88.8%), cloacal swabs plated onto mCCDA (72.2%), drag swabs streaked onto CLA or mCCDA (69.4%), and litter samples inoculated onto PA (63.8%). Preston agar was the best agar to isolate Campylobacter from directly plated litter samples (P Campylobacter in other samples. The isolated Campylobacter strains were phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The predominant contaminant observed in the Campylobacter cultures was Proteus mirabilis, which was resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents in selective media. Together, these data showed that direct plating onto PA and onto either CLA or mCCDA as the second selective agar enabled the reliable isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter species from broiler samples. Finally, Campylobacter was detected in all broiler flocks sampled.

  7. Different contributions of HtrA protease and chaperone activities to Campylobacter jejuni stress tolerance and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, Kristoffer Torbjørn; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Skórko-Glonek, Joanna;

    2011-01-01

    The microaerophilic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne infections in the developed world. Tolerance to environmental stress relies on proteases and chaperones in the cell envelope such as HtrA and SurA. HtrA displays both chaperone and protease activity......, but little is known about how each of these activities contributes to stress tolerance in bacteria. In vitro experiments showed temperature dependent protease and chaperone activities of C. jejuni HtrA. A C. jejuni mutant lacking only the protease activity of HtrA was used to show that the HtrA chaperone...

  8. Differentiation of the virulence potential of Campylobacter jejuni strains by use of gene transcription analysis and a caco-2 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poli, Vanessa Fadanelli Schoenardie; Thorsen, Line; Olesen, Inger;

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal disease in humans, and contaminated poultry and poultry products are recognized as the main vehicle of infection. Despite the significance of C. jejuni as a foodborne pathogen, little is known about its response to stress, and...... expression of C. jejuni. The clinical strains appeared to be more virulent than the chicken isolate as measured by the Caco-2 invasion assay which could be due to differences in CipA functionality. The RT-qPCR analysis and Caco-2 assay showed to be useful tools for differentiating virulence potentials...

  9. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  10. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia;

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt......ABC, characterized by PCR, revealed that all but one of the C. jejuni strains had the wild-type sequence. Sequencing of cdtABC from this strain showed two major deletions. From all of the strains, CDT titers were determined, and toxin neutralizing antibodies were documented using an in vitro assay. Three of the...

  11. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia;

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from...... 2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk...... providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers....

  12. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  13. Nutrient Acquisition and Metabolism by Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eStahl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is able to colonize numerous different hosts and compete against the gut microbiota. To do this, it must be able to efficiently acquire sufficient nutrients from its environment to support its survival and rapid growth in the intestine. However, despite almost 50 years of research, many aspects as to how C. jejuni accomplishes this feat remain poorly understood. C. jejuni lacks many of the common metabolic pathways necessary for the use of glucose, galactose, or other carbohydrates upon which most other microbes thrive. It does however make efficient use of citric acid cycle intermediates and various amino acids. C. jejuni readily uses the amino acids aspartate, glutamate, serine, and proline, with certain strains also possessing additional pathways allowing for the use of glutamine and asparagine. More recent work has revealed that some C. jejuni strains can metabolize the sugar L-fucose. This finding has upset years of dogma that C. jejuni is an asaccharolytic organism. C. jejuni also possesses diverse mechanisms for the acquisition of various transition metals that are required for metabolic activities. In particular, iron acquisition is critical for the formation of iron-sulphur complexes. C. jejuni is also unique in possessing both molybdate and tungsten cofactored proteins and thus has an unusual regulatory scheme for these metals. Together these various metabolic and acquisition pathways help C. jejuni to compete and thrive in wide variety of hosts and environments.

  14. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli genotypes in poultry flocks by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Ana Cláudia; Cunha, Mónica V

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple, rapid, and discriminatory methodology that allows the routine molecular characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates. The proposed approach is built on one of the earliest and simplest molecular typing methods ever, consisting on the analysis of the fragments of different lengths generated by digestion of homologous DNA sequences with specific restriction endonucleases, a process known as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The strategy underneath the workflow reported here is meant to explore the polymorphisms of Campylobacter spp. flaA gene (flaA-RFLP) that allows the local investigation of the genetic diversity and distribution of C. coli and C. jejuni isolates from different sources, namely, chickens' caeca. Although not appropriate for global and long-term epidemiological studies as a single approach, flaA-RFLP analysis can be very useful in surveys limited in space and time and, for specific epidemiological settings, an alternative to more modern and resource-demanding techniques.

  15. Campylobacter shared between free-ranging cattle and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Porrero, M C; Zamora, L; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Lavín, S; Domínguez, L

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter infections are a public health concern and an increasingly common cause of food-borne zoonoses in the European Union. However, little is known about their spill-over from free-ranging livestock to sympatric wild ungulates, especially in regards to uncommon Campylobacter species. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and other C. spp. in game ungulates (wild boar Sus scrofa and Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica) and free-ranging sympatric cattle in a National Game Reserve in NE Spain. Furthermore, we explore the extent to which Campylobacter species are shared among these co-habiting hosts. Faecal samples from Iberian ibex (n = 181) were negative for C. spp. By direct plating, two wild boars out of 150 were positive for C. coli (1.3%, 95% CI 0.16-4.73), and one was positive for C. jejuni (0.67%, 95% CI 0.02-3.66). The latter was predominant in cattle: 5.45% (n = 55, 95% CI 1.14-5.12), while C. coli was not isolated from this host. C. lanienae was the most frequent species in wild boar at 10% (95% CI 5.7-15.96), and one cow cohabiting with positive wild boars in the same canyon also carried C. lanienae. Four enrichment protocols (using Bolton or Preston broth combined with either mCCDA or CFA) were added for 172 samples (57 from wild boars, 55 cattle and 60 Iberian ibexes) to increase the number of isolates obtained allowing the detection of statistically significant differences. The prevalence of C. lanienae was statistically significantly higher in wild boar than in cattle (P < 0.01), but the prevalence of C. jejuni was higher in the latter (P = 0.045). These results suggest that wild boar and cattle carry their own predominant Campylobacter species, while Iberian ibex do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter. However, there is a potential spill-over of C. spp., and thus, further research is needed to elucidate the factors determining inter-species transmission.

  16. Host epithelial cell invasion by Campylobacter jejuni: trigger or zipper mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadhg eÓ Cróinín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni, a spiral-shaped Gram-negative pathogen, is a highly frequent cause of gastrointestinal foodborne illness in humans worldwide. Clinical outcome of C. jejuni infections ranges from mild to severe diarrheal disease, and some other complications including reactive arthritis and Guillain–Barré syndrome. This review article highlights various C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, host cell determinants and proposed signaling mechanisms involved in human host cell invasion and their potential role in the development of C. jejuni-mediated disease. A model is presented which outlines the various important interactions of C. jejuni with the intestinal epithelium, and we discuss the pro’s and con’s for the zipper over the trigger mechanism of invasion. Future work should clarify the contradictory role of some previously identified factors, and should identify and characterize novel virulence determinants, which are crucial to provide fresh insights into the diversity of strategies employed by this pathogen to cause disease.

  17. Humoral immune response to campylobacter jejuni in patients with enterocolitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. In addition, it can cause neurological post-infectious sequels, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS. Humoral immune response to C. jejuni was monitored in patients with C. jejuni enterocolitis, GBS patients and healthy persons, by ELISA. Statistical significance between patients with enterocolitis and healthy persons, as well as among GBS patients and healthy controls, was proven. Statistical significance in IgA among the examined groups was also noticed. The highest values of IgM were found in the patients with GBS, while the highest values of IgG were found in those with enterocolitis. C. jejuni is a significant cause of antecedent infection in GBS. ELISA techniques can be considered a reliable method in determining the presence of serum antibodies in patients with enterocolitis caused by C. jejuni, as well as in patients with GBS.

  18. In vitro phagocytosis and intracellular survival of Campylobacter jejuni with phagocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiehlbauch, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro phagocytosis and intracellular survival of Campylobacter jejuni was studied using three types of mononuclear phagocytes: a J774G8 peritoneal macrophage line, resident BABL/c peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes. In phagocytosis assays using CFU determinations, phagocytosis increased steadily over an 8 hr time period. Results obtained using a /sup 51/Cr assay indicated no consistent significant difference between phagocytosis of C. jejuni between the three mononuclear phagocytes or PMN's and that maximum infection occurred prior to 0.5 hr and maintained throughout the 4 hr assay. Further investigation of the mechanism of attachment and entry of C. jejuni revealed this process required the expenditure of energy by the phagocyte, but was not inhibited by inhibitors of microfilament functions. In addition, phagocytosis was enhanced by the presence of 20% FCS,

  19. Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase-resistant glycoconjugates in Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh; Hara, Hiromitsu; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2015-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome. The mechanism by which C. jejuni infection results in such the hyperimmunity is not completely understood. Host immunity plays an important role in the disease pathogenesis; however, little is known how immune system recognizes this human pathogen. In this study, we report that Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase K-resistant glycoconjugates in C. jejuni and Escherichia coli. Lipopolysaccharide is solely proteinase-resistant glycoconjugate in E. coli. In contrast, C. jejuni possesses at least five different components that are resistant to proteinase digestion and are capable of inducing NF-κB activation through TLR2 and TLR4. Possession of multiple activators of Toll-like receptors may be the unique strategy of C. jejuni to trigger hyperimmunity.

  20. Prevalence of Type VI Secretion System in Spanish Campylobacter jejuni Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Stabler, R A; Domínguez, L; Porrero, M C; Wren, B W; Dorrell, N; Gundogdu, O

    2015-11-01

    Infections from Campylobacter jejuni pose a serious public health problem and are now considered the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Sequencing of C. jejuni genomes has previously allowed a number of loci to be identified, which encode virulence factors that aid survival and pathogenicity. Recently, a Type VI secretion system (T6SS) consisting of 13 conserved genes was described in C. jejuni strains and recognised to promote pathogenicity and adaptation to the environment. In this study, we determined the presence of this T6SS in 63 Spanish C. jejuni isolates from the food chain and urban effluents using whole-genome sequencing. Our findings demonstrated that nine (14%) strains harboured the 13 ORFs found in prototype strain C. jejuni 108. Further studies will be necessary to determine the prevalence and importance of T6SS-positive C. jejuni strains.

  1. Campylobacter jejuni acquire new host-derived CRISPR spacers when in association with bacteriophages harbouring a CRISPR-like Cas4 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Connerton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a worldwide cause of human diarrhoeal disease. Clustered Repetitively Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs and associated proteins allow Bacteria and Archaea to evade bacteriophage and plasmid infection. Type II CRISPR systems are found in association with combinations of genes encoding the CRISPR-associated Cas1, Cas2, Cas4 or Csn2, and Cas9 proteins. C. jejuni possesses a minimal subtype II-C CRISPR system containing cas1, cas2, and cas9 genes whilst cas4 is notably absent. Cas4 proteins possess 5ʹ-3ʹ exonuclease activity to create recombinogenic-ends for spacer acquisition. Here we report a conserved Cas4-like protein in Campylobacter bacteriophages that creates a novel split arrangement between the bacteriophage and host that represents a new twist in the bacteriophage/host co-evolutionary arms race. The continuous association of bacteriophage and host in the carrier state life cycle of C. jejuni provided an opportunity to study spacer acquisition in this species. Remarkably all the spacer sequences observed were of host origin. We hypothesise that Campylobacter bacteriophages can use Cas4-like protein to activate spacer acquisition to use host DNA as an effective decoy to bacteriophage DNA. Bacteria that acquire self-spacers and escape phage infection must overcome CRISPR-mediated autoimmunity either by loss of the interference functions leaving them susceptible to foreign DNA incursion or tolerate changes in gene regulation.

  2. Host adaptation mechanisms and transcriptional regulation in Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, A.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness causing >100 million human cases each year worldwide. In contrast to other important enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni appears to lack a set of classical virulence traits, like adhesins, type I

  3. Maatschappelijke acceptatie van maatregelen tegen Campylobacter in kippenvlees in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, M.J.; Sengers, H.H.W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt ingegaan op de acceptatie bij vleeskuikenhouders, pluimveeslachterijen en consumenten van elf mogelijk te nemen maatregelen waarmee de besmetting van kippenvlees met Campylobacter kan worden verminderd in Nederland. Uit het enquêteonderzoek blijkt dat bij vleeskuikenhouders en p

  4. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus from a pet turtle.

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, S.; Greenwood, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    During the course of a Salmonella agona case investigation, Campylobacter fetus was isolated from a pet turtle. This is the first reported isolation of C. fetus from a turtle and suggests that turtles, in addition to being reservoirs for Salmonella species, may also be reservoirs for C. fetus.

  5. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been performed in reptiles. Due to their distinct physiology, reptiles might display a unique microbiome which can provide insights in bacterial host association, adaptation, and speciation. In this thesis,...

  6. Salmonella og Campylobacter i økologisk svineproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2005-01-01

    De mere ekstensive systemer i økologisk svineproduktion formodes at have en positiv effekt på dyrenes robusthed f.eks. over for infektioner. Der er dog ingen dokumentation for, at økologiske svin har et lavere indhold af de almindelige zoonotiske bakterier som f.eks. Salmonella og Campylobacter end...

  7. Role of emerging Campylobacter species in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M; Man, Si Ming

    2014-11-01

    The gut microbiota is a central player in the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases. As such, there is intense scientific interest in elucidating the specific group/s of bacteria responsible for driving barrier damage and perpetuating the chronic inflammation that results in disease. Because of their ability to colonize close to the surface of the host intestinal epithelium, mucosa-associated bacteria are considered key players in the initiation and development of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The leading bacterial candidates include adherent and invasive Escherichia coli, Helicobacter, Fusobacteria, Mycobacteria, and Campylobacter species. Of these, a member of the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter concisus, has recently emerged as a putative player in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Current research indicates that this bacterium possesses extraordinarily diverse pathogenic capacities as well as unique genetic and functional signatures that are defined by their ability to adhere to and invade host cells, secrete toxins, and the presence of a virulence-associated restriction-modification system. These characteristics enable the potential classification of C. concisus into distinct pathotypes, which we have named adherent and invasive C. concisus and adherent and toxinogenic C. concisus. In this review, we evaluate evidence for the role of emerging Campylobacter species in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  8. Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strain M1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Carsten; Wassenaar, Gertrude Maria; Javed, Muhammad A.;

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni strain M1 (laboratory designation 99/308) is a rarely documented case of direct transmission of C. jejuni from chicken to a person, resulting in enteritis. We have sequenced the genome of C. jejuni strain M1, and compared this to 12 other C. jejuni sequenced genomes currently...

  9. Role of Rodents in transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Kijlstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are generally regarded as the most important food-borne pathogens in the world. Reduction or elimination of these pathogens in the first part of the food chain (on the farm) is important to prevent disease among consumers of animal products. In organic farming, eliminati

  10. Case of acute pancreatitis associated with Campylobacter enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Rumiko; Matsumoto, Satohiro; Yoshida, Yukio

    2014-06-21

    A 25-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaints of right flank pain, watery diarrhea, and fever. Blood tests revealed high levels of inflammatory markers, and infectious enteritis was diagnosed. A stool culture obtained on admission revealed no growth of any significant pathogens. Conservative therapy was undertaken with fasting and fluid replacement. On day 2 of admission, the fever resolved, the frequency of defecation reduced, the right flank pain began to subside, and the white blood cell count started to decrease. On hospital day 4, the frequency of diarrhea decreased to approximately 5 times per day, and the right flank pain resolved. However, the patient developed epigastric pain and increased blood levels of the pancreatic enzymes. Abdominal computed tomography revealed mild pancreatic enlargement. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed, and conservative therapy with fasting and fluid replacement was continued. A day later, the blood levels of the pancreatic enzymes peaked out. On hospital day 7, the patient passed stools with fresh blood, and Campylobacter jejuni/coli was detected by culture. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy performed on hospital day 8 revealed diffuse aphthae extending from the terminal ileum to the entire colon. Based on the findings, pancreatitis associated with Campylobacter enteritis was diagnosed. In the present case, a possible mechanism of onset of pancreatitis was invasion of the pancreatic duct by Campylobacter and the host immune responses to Campylobacter.

  11. Campylobacter Prevalence in the Broiler Supply Chain in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Brakel, van R.P.; Voet, van der H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2008-01-01

    After a national control program, data on Campylobacter prevalence in the broiler supply chain in the Netherlands were gathered for 3 sampling points: departure of broiler farm and arrival and departure of the slaughterhouse. Monitoring data from this control program for 2002 to 2005 were analyzed t

  12. Colonization of broilers by Campylobacter jejuni internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the first report that Campylobacter jejuni, internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii, colonized broilers. After 1, 3, 7 and 14 days post challenge none of the broilers challenged with negative controls were colonized, but were with internalized C. jejuni. The biology of protozoa-Cam...

  13. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Hald, Anna Bodil;

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish...

  14. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    culture techniques since 1998. However, using conventional culture methods is time consuming and laborious, and therefore a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Campylobacter detection assay suitable for mass screening of cloacal swab samples from broilers was developed. By comparing the PCR detection...... with conventional culture methods, significantly more samples were found positive for Campylobacter with the PCR method. The PCR method is rapid, sensitive and suitable for mass screening for Campylobacter in poultry. Using this PCR method Campylobacter can be detected within 15 h. Notably, the method can......Campylobacter is the most common cause of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In order to comply with the demands of consumers for food free of bacterial pathogens, a mass screening program for Campylobacter in Danish broilers has been carried out based on conventional bacterial...

  15. Seasonal influence on the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in retail broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Vigre, Håkan; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, as well as the Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, is strongly influenced by season with a summer peak in July–August. Therefore, it was considered that the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler meat sold at retail in Denmark...... might also be influenced by season. A retrospective survey analysis was performed on 2001–2007 national surveillance data of the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in all conventional broiler flocks at slaughter, and in randomly sampled broiler meat at retail. There was a significant effect...... of season on the occurrence of Campylobacter in meat at retail; the largest effect was found for domestic chilled meat. Thus, the Campylobacter prevalence in Danish broiler flocks, which fluctuated with season, was found to be a strong predictor for the occurrence of Campylobacter in fresh, chilled, Danish...

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Market-Weight Turkeys On-Farm and at Slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    To monitor the effects of feed withdrawal on the prevalence of Campylobacter, market weight turkeys from six farms were examined before and after perimarketing events (feed withdrawal, transport, and holding at the slaughterhouse). Prior to transport, birds (n = 30/farm) were slaughtered on-farm an...

  17. Description and sources of contamination by Campylobacter spp. of river water destined for human consumption in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; M Tanguy; Chidaine, B; Laisney, M-J; Mégraud, F; Fravalo, P

    2011-10-01

    Presence or absence of Campylobacter spp. in water of five rivers upstream from an intake point for drinking water production was investigated, and isolates genetically compared with human, pig and poultry isolates in order to determine their source. River water and drinking water obtained from these rivers were sampled one time per month, over a period of one year, and tested for Campylobacter. Isolates were typed by PFGE. Campylobacter was not detected in treated drinking water, but 50% of the river samples were contaminated. Contamination was observed on the four seasons. In total, 297 Campylobacter isolates were collected and generated 46 PFGE profiles. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently detected species in samples (74.1% of the isolates), followed by Campylobacter coli (17.8%) and Campylobacter lari (8.1%). Forty-two of the 46 PFGE profiles were unique. Only one genotype was detected three times in a river during the year and four genotypes in two different rivers. When compared to animal and human Campylobacter PFGE profiles, 14, 11 and one Campylobacter genotypes from water were genetically closed to human, poultry, and pig Campylobacter genotypes, respectively. The Campylobacter population displayed a high level of genetic diversity, suggesting that contamination originated from various origins. Human, poultry and pig were sources of contamination of the river by Campylobacter. Finally, no Campylobacter were detected in drinking water, indicating that the risk of outbreaks due to consumption of drinking water is low.

  18. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis: toxin detection, antibody production, and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisen, Nadia [University of Virginia School of Medicine

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdtABC, characterized by PCR, revealed that all but one of the C. jejuni strains had the wild-type sequence. Sequencing of cdtABC from this strain showed two major deletions. From all of the strains, CDT titers were determined, and toxin neutralizing antibodies were documented using an in vitro assay. Three of the thirty clinical isolates, including the one with the mutant cdtABC coding genes, did not have a detectable CDT activity. Analyzing the relationship between CDT titer, serum neutralization of CDT, and the clinical outcome showed that campylobacteriosis caused by CDT-negative strains was clinically indistinguishable from that of patients infected with an isolate that produced high levels of CDT. These results suggest that CDT does not solely determine severity of infection and clinical outcome.

  19. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2016-01-01

    An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15% and 30% in maize-based diets. Broilers were orally inoculated with 2 × 10(5) log cfu/ml C. jejuni on day 14. Four birds from each pen were randomly selected and killed by cervical dislocation on days 3, 6, 9, 14 and 21 post infection and intestinal contents from ileum, caeca and rectum as well as liver samples were taken. Body weight and feed consumption of broilers were registered on days 13, 22 and 35. On day 35, litter dry matter (DM) was measured and the condition of the foot pads was evaluated. There was no significant effect of CKMS on the colonization of C. jejuni. Body weight of the broilers supplemented with 15% CKMS was comparable with the control maize-based feed, whereas addition of 30% CKMS reduced broiler body weight (P < 0.001). However, DM intake and feed conversion ratio were the same in all three dietary treatments. Furthermore, the foot pad condition of broilers significantly improved with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers.

  20. Intranasal Immunization with Chitosan/pCAGGS-flaA Nanoparticles Inhibits Campylobacter jejuni in a White Leghorn Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-lin Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common zoonotic bacterium associated with human diarrhea, and chickens are considered to be one of the most important sources for human infection, with no effective prophylactic treatment available. We describe here a prophylactic strategy using chitosan-DNA intranasal immunization to induce specific immune responses. The chitosan used for intranasal administration is a natural mucus absorption enhancer, which results in transgenic DNA expression in chicken nasopharynx. Chickens immunized with chitosan-DNA nanoparticles, which carried a gene for the major structural protein FlaA, produced significantly increased levels of serum anti-Campylobacter jejuni IgG and intestinal mucosal antibody (IgA, compared to those treated with chitosan-DNA (pCAGGS. Chitosan-pCAGGS-flaA intranasal immunization induced reductions of bacterial expellation by 2-3 log10 and 2 log10 in large intestine and cecum of chickens, respectively, when administered with the isolated C. jejuni strain. This study demonstrated that intranasal delivery of chitosan-DNA vaccine successfully induced effective immune response and might be a promising vaccine candidate against C. jejuni infection.

  1. Point mutations in the major outer membrane protein drive hypervirulence of a rapidly expanding clone of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuowei; Periaswamy, Balamurugan; Sahin, Orhan; Yaeger, Michael; Plummer, Paul; Zhai, Weiwei; Shen, Zhangqi; Dai, Lei; Chen, Swaine L; Zhang, Qijing

    2016-09-20

    Infections due to clonal expansion of highly virulent bacterial strains are clear and present threats to human and animal health. Association of genetic changes with disease is now a routine, but identification of causative mutations that enable disease remains difficult. Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans mainly via the foodborne route. C. jejuni typically colonizes the gut, but a hypervirulent and rapidly expanding clone of C. jejuni recently emerged, which is able to translocate across the intestinal tract, causing systemic infection and abortion in pregnant animals. The genetic basis responsible for this hypervirulence is unknown. Here, we developed a strategy, termed "directed genome evolution," by using hybridization between abortifacient and nonabortifacient strains followed by selection in an animal disease model and whole-genome sequence analysis. This strategy successfully identified SNPs in porA, encoding the major outer membrane protein, are responsible for the hypervirulence. Defined mutagenesis verified that these mutations were both necessary and sufficient for causing abortion. Furthermore, sequence analysis identified porA as the gene with the top genome-wide signal of adaptive evolution using Fu's Fs, a population genetic metric for recent population size changes, which is consistent with the recent expansion of clone "sheep abortion." These results identify a key virulence factor in Campylobacter and a potential target for the control of this zoonotic pathogen. Furthermore, this study provides general, unbiased experimental and computational approaches that are broadly applicable for efficient elucidation of disease-causing mutations in bacterial pathogens. PMID:27601641

  2. Evolution of an agriculture-associated disease causing Campylobacter coli clade: evidence from national surveillance data in Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Sheppard

    Full Text Available The common zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter coli is an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide but its evolution is incompletely understood. Using multilocus sequence type (MLST data of 7 housekeeping genes from a national survey of Campylobacter in Scotland (2005/6, and a combined population genetic-phylogenetics approach, we investigated the evolutionary history of C. coli. Genealogical reconstruction of isolates from clinical infection, farm animals and the environment, revealed a three-clade genetic structure. The majority of farm animal, and all disease causing genotypes belonged to a single clade (clade 1 which had comparatively low synonymous sequence diversity, little deep branching genetic structure, and a higher number of shared alleles providing evidence of recent clonal decent. Calibration of the rate of molecular evolution, based on within-species genetic variation, estimated a more rapid rate of evolution than in traditional estimates. This placed the divergence of the clades at less than 2500 years ago, consistent with the introduction of an agricultural niche having had an effect upon the evolution of the C. coli clades. Attribution of clinical isolate genotypes to source, using an asymmetric island model, confirmed that strains from chicken and ruminants, and not pigs or turkeys, are the principal source of human C. coli infection. Taken together these analyses are consistent with an evolutionary scenario describing the emergence of agriculture-associated C. coli lineage that is an important human pathogen.

  3. Identification of unusual Campylobacter-like isolates from poultry products as Helicobacter pullorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, Stephen L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Campy identification kits and a 16-test identification scheme developed for campylobacters failed to identify these bacteria, or identified them as Campylobacter spp. Eighteen strains (including the two isolated on a different occasion) were chosen for examination using a more comprehensive......Twenty-six unclassified Campylobacter-like strains previously isolated from 15 chicken carcasses and caecal contents, together with two more strains isolated from chicken faeces on a different occasion, were identified as Helicobacter pullorum using various phenotypic identification methods. API...

  4. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänninen Marja-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456 were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143 were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of

  5. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki; Isohanni, Pauliina; Katzav, Marianne; Lund, Marianne; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143) were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of Campylobacter in the

  6. Prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire, Laxman; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Basnet, Hom Bahadur; Bhattarai, Rebanta Kumar; Dhakal, Santosh; Sharma, Bishwas

    2014-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the primary cause of food borne gastroenteritis. Moreover, the emergence of multiple drug resistant campylobacters from poultry and pork has produced a potential threat to public health. Research addressing these issues is sparse in Nepal. So, this cross-sectional study aims at determining the prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of campylobacters from dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal. Results We collected 139 samples of dressed porcine carcass from 10...

  7. Can Campylobacter jejuni play a role in development of celiac disease? A hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behnam Sabayan; Farzaneh Foroughinia; Mohammad Hadi Imanieh

    2007-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an entropathy with malabsortive condition in which an allergic reaction to the cereal grain-protein (gluten) causes small intestine mucosal injury. CD is a multifactorial disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the disease development. Mechanisms have been described to explain the pathology of CD. T cells specific for multiple gluten peptides are found in virtually all patients. Generation of such a broad T cell response may be a prerequisite for disease development. CD is associated with multiple extraintestinal presentations,including neurological deficits. Recent studies have shown a significant correlation between anti-ganglioside antibodies and neurological disorders in patients with underlying CD. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids which are abundant in nervous system and in other tissues including gastrointestinal tract. It is not known what triggers the release of anti-ganglioside antibodies in people with gluten sensitivity. But, the mechanism is likely to involve the intestinal immune system response to ingested gliadin, a component of wheat gluten. Studies showed that mechanisms different from gluten exposure may be implicated in antibody formation, and other environmental factors may also exist. In addition, considering the fact that genetic predisposition dysregulating mucosal immune responses in the presence of certain environmental triggers like gastrointestinal infections may be strong etiological factors for developing chronic intestinal inflammation including CD, the hypothesis raised in our mind that antiganglioside antibody formation in CD may play a role not only in development of neurological complications in celiac patients, but also in development of CD itself. As presence of Campylobacter jejuni in other diseases with antigangliosides antibody formation has been established, we propose the possible role of Campylobacter jejuni in development of CD in association with other genetic and

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.;

    2001-01-01

    and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...

  9. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in raw poultry meat, environmental and pigeon stools collected in open-air markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bellio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis for confirmed human cases in European Union during 2011. Poultry meat was very often implicated in Campylobacter infections in humans. In Italy commerce of raw poultry meat is common in open-air markets: these areas can be considered at high risk of bacterial contamination due to the high presence birds like pigeons. The aim of this study was to collect data about the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter of raw poultry meat commercialised in open-air markets, of work-surfaces in contact with poultry meat and of pigeon stools sampled in the market areas in Turin, Northern Italy. Between September 2011 and December 2012, 86 raw poultry meat samples, 86 environmental swabs and 108 animal samples were collected in 38 open-air markets. Analysis were carried out according to ISO10272-1:2006 standard. C.coli was detected in 2.3% (2/86 of raw poultry meat samples, whereas no swab (0/86 resulted positive. Of pigeon stool 28% (30/107 was positive for C.jejuni (83.3% C.jejuni subsp. jejuni and 16.7% C.jejuni subsp. doylei. C.jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from 1 dead pigeon. Our results showed lower rates of contamination than those reported at retail in Europe. Although samples were collected in areas at high risk of contamination, raw poultry meat and work surfaces reported a low level of presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter. The high percentage of C.jejuni isolated from pigeon stools showed the importance of a continuous application of preventive measures by the food business operators and the surveillance activity by the Competent Authority.

  10. The 30th Anniversary of Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms Workshops – What Have We Learned In Three Decades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Szymanski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As we commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms (CHRO workshops with this special Frontiers edition, we look back upon three decades of research and provide some highlights from the 16th International CHRO meeting. As Martin Skirrow noted, Elizabeth King was the first to isolate campylobacters in the 1950’s, although Escherich himself provided drawings of these fecal organisms back in the 1880’s. Helicobacter is a more recent organism, first described to be the causative agent of stomach ulcers at a CHRO meeting by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren – who then later received the Nobel Prize for their findings that bacteria could cause diseases previously believed to be caused by human factors. Studies of the intersection of host microbial ecology and pathogen infection have been pioneered by scientists such as Brett Finlay, who described his current work on this topic. And as general antibiotics are routinely administered, we see a rise in bacterial antibiotic resistance. Julian Davies emphasized that there is a growing need for the development of new bioactive compounds on the horizon as we advance our knowledge on these pathogens. The first genome of C. jejuni was published in 2000; now one decade later we have 30 Campyobacter taxa sequenced, and this number continues to rise quickly. However, we continue to obtain unexpected results as a pioneer in CHRO research, Martin Blaser explained – i.e., although H. pylori is now classified as a level I carcinogen, there may be benefits to carrying this organism as part of your normal flora. Other findings indicate that Campylobacters and Helicobacters do not follow classic paradigms of other well-characterized gastrointestinal pathogens. And we are learning that there is a whole world of interesting related organisms beyond C. jejuni and H. pylori. This review summarizes some of the history of CHRO research and the exciting directions ahead.

  11. Genomic characterization of the Guillain-Barre syndrome-associated Campylobacter jejuni ICDCCJ07001 Isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maojun Zhang

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni ICDCCJ07001 (HS:41, ST2993 was isolated from a Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS patient during a 36-case GBS outbreak triggered by C. jejuni infections in north China in 2007. Sequence analysis revealed that the ICDCCJ07001 genome consisted of 1,664,840 base pairs (bp and one tetracycline resistance plasmid of 44,084 bp. The GC content was 59.29% and 1,579 and 37 CDSs were identified on the chromosome and plasmid, respectively. The ICDCCJ07001 genome was compared to C. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains 81-176, 81116, NCTC11168, RM1221 and C. jejuni subsp. doylei 269.97. The length and organization of ICDCCJ07001 was similar to that of NCTC11168, 81-176 and 81-116 except that CMLP1 had a reverse orientation in strain ICDCCJ07001. Comparative genomic analyses were also carried out between GBS-associated C. jejuni strains. Thirteen common genes were present in four GBS-associated strains and 9 genes mapped to the LOS cluster and the ICDCCJ07001_pTet (44 kb plasmid was mosaic in structure. Thirty-seven predicted CDS in ICDCCJ07001_pTet were homologous to genes present in three virulence-associated plasmids in Campylobacter: 81-176_pTet, pCC31 and 81-176_pVir. Comparative analysis of virulence loci and virulence-associated genes indicated that the LOS biosynthesis loci of ICDCCJ07001 belonged to type A, previously reported to be associated with cases of GBS. The polysaccharide capsular biosynthesis (CPS loci and the flagella modification (FM loci of ICDCCJ07001 were similar to corresponding sequences of strain 260.94 of similar serotype as strain ICDCCJ07001. Other virulence-associated genes including cadF, peb1, jlpA, cdt and ciaB were conserved between the C. jejuni strains examined.

  12. Biological roles of the O-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke B van Alphen

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and the capsular polysaccharide (CPS of this organism is required for persistence and disease. C. jejuni produces over 47 different capsular structures, including a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN modification present on most C. jejuni isolates. Although the MeOPN structure is rare in nature it has structural similarity to some synthetic pesticides. In this study, we have demonstrated, by whole genome comparisons and high resolution magic angle spinning NMR, that MeOPN modifications are common to several Campylobacter species. Using MeOPN biosynthesis and transferase mutants generated in C. jejuni strain 81-176, we observed that loss of MeOPN from the cell surface correlated with increased invasion of Caco-2 epithelial cells and reduced resistance to killing by human serum. In C. jejuni, the observed serum mediated killing was determined to result primarily from activation of the classical complement pathway. The C. jejuni MeOPN transferase mutant showed similar levels of colonization relative to the wild-type in chickens, but showed a five-fold drop in colonization when co-infected with the wild-type in piglets. In Galleria mellonella waxmoth larvae, the MeOPN transferase mutant was able to kill the insects at wild-type levels. Furthermore, injection of the larvae with MeOPN-linked monosaccharides or CPS purified from the wild-type strain did not result in larval killing, indicating that MeOPN does not have inherent insecticidal activity.

  13. A PAS Domain-Containing Regulator Controls Flagella-Flagella Interactions in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eReuter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The bipolar flagella of the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni confermotility, which is essential for virulence. The flagella of C. jejuni are posttranslationallymodified, but how this process is controlled is not well understood. Inthis work, we have identified a novel PAS-domain containing regulatory system, whichmodulates flagella-flagella interactions in C. jejuni. Inactivation of the cj1387c gene,encoding a YheO-like PAS6 domain linked to a helix-turn-helix domain, resulted in thegeneration of a tightly associated 'cell-train' morphotype, where up to four cells wereconnected by their flagella. The morphotype was fully motile, resistant to vortexing,accompanied by increased autoagglutination, and was not observed in aflagellated cells.The Δcj1387c mutant displayed increased expression of the adjacent Cj1388 protein,which comprises of a single endoribonuclease L-PSP domain. Comparative genomicsshowed that cj1387c (yheO orthologs in bacterial genomes are commonly linked to anadjacent cj1388 ortholog, with some bacteria, including C. jejuni, containing anothercj1388-like gene (cj0327. Inactivation of the cj1388 and cj0327 genes resulted indecreased autoagglutination in Tween-20-supplemented media. The Δcj1388 andΔcj0327 mutants were also attenuated in a Galleria larvae-based infection model.Finally, substituting the sole cysteine in Cj1388 for serine prevented Cj1388dimerisation in non-reducing conditions, and resulted in decreased autoagglutination inthe presence of Tween-20. We hypothesize that Cj1388 and Cj0327 modulate posttranslationalmodification of the flagella through yet unidentified mechanisms, andpropose naming Cj1387 the Campylobacter Flagella Interaction Regulator CfiR, andthe Cj1388 and Cj0327 protein as CfiP and CfiQ, respectively.

  14. [Bacteriologic and serologic diagnosis of enteral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelmann, R

    1988-09-01

    Infections of the gastrointestinal tract still are numerous, ranging on the second place after infections of the respiratory tract. Some of them show quite severe or prolonged course. In contrast to other infections, especially those of the urinary tract, laboratory diagnostic of enteritis is only scarcely ordered. During the last ten years new methods and knowledge of etiologic germs like Campylobacter, Yersinia, various types of E. coli, Clostridium difficile, Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Giardia, Blastomyces and Cryptosporidia have been accumulated. A better etiologic diagnosis of these infections should enable the clinician to start a more precise and therefore more effective therapy.

  15. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skanseng, Beate; Trosvik, Pal; Zimonja, Monika;

    2007-01-01

    A major bottleneck in understanding zoonotic pathogens has been the analysis of pathogen co-infection dynamics. We have addressed this challenge using a novel direct sequencing approach for pathogen quantification in mixed infections. The major zoonotic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni...

  16. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  17. Prevalence of virulence genes and cytolethal distending toxin production in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukder, Kaisar A.; Aslam, Mohammad; Islam, Zhahirul; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Dutta, Dilip K.; Hossain, Sabir; Nur-E-Kamal, Alam; Nair, Gopinath B.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Sack, David A.; Endtz, Hubert P.

    2008-01-01

    From 300 stool samples, 58 Campylobacter strains were isolated by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Of these, 40 strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 5 as Campylobacter coli. The presence of flaA (100%), cadF (100%), racR (100%), dnaJ (100%), pldA (100%), ciaB (95%), v

  18. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skanseng, Beate; Trosvik, Pal; Zimonja, Monika;

    2007-01-01

    with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host......A major bottleneck in understanding zoonotic pathogens has been the analysis of pathogen co-infection dynamics. We have addressed this challenge using a novel direct sequencing approach for pathogen quantification in mixed infections. The major zoonotic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni....... We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature ( treated...

  19. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe;

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution with a signific......The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...... with a significant proportion of metronidazole-resistant isolates among C. jejuni from raw broiler and turkey meat. Metronidazole resistance occurred most frequently among turkey meat isolates (P bacteria carrying metronidazole resistance....

  20. Estimation of on-farm interventions to control Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Rosenquist, Hanne;

    2015-01-01

    individual interventions gave only a limited reduction in prevalence if the biosecurity was not accounted for. Furthermore, the effect of the interventions differed between countries, depending on current farm management practices and Campylobacter prevalence. The most effective interventions were “building......Before making risk management decisions to control Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, it is useful to identify effective interventions. A given risk factor may seem to have a large effect, but in practice interventions related to this risk factor may have only limited effect due to a...... relative small proportion of the farms that can actually be intervened for the given risk factors. We present a novel tool for risk assessors to obtain such estimates of the effect of interventions before it is implemented at the farms. A statistical method was developed in order to estimate the flock...

  1. Campylobacter concisus: an evaluation of certain phenotypic and genotypic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; Bang, D. D.; Aabenhus, R.;

    2005-01-01

    The clinical relevance of Campylobacter concisus in gastrointestinal disease has not been determined definitively. This study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 39 C. concisus isolates from Danish patients with diarrhoea, three isolates from healthy individuals and the t......The clinical relevance of Campylobacter concisus in gastrointestinal disease has not been determined definitively. This study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 39 C. concisus isolates from Danish patients with diarrhoea, three isolates from healthy individuals...... primers identified 37 unique profiles, but requires further evaluation. The isolates obtained from healthy carriers were distinguished by cluster analysis from the isolates obtained from patients with diarrhoea. All the isolates were susceptible to 11 antimicrobial agents tested. Overall...

  2. The abundant free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, increases the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in milk and orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Olofsson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of human bacterial diarrhea in most parts of the world. Most C. jejuni infections are acquired from contaminated poultry, milk, and water. Due to health care costs and human suffering, it is important to identify all possible sources of infection. Unpasteurized milk has been associated with several outbreaks of C. jejuni infection. Campylobacter has been identified on fresh fruit, and other gastrointestinal pathogens such as Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and Cryptosporidium have been involved in fruit juice outbreaks. C. jejuni is sensitive to the acidic environment of fruit juice, but co-cultures with the amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, have previously been shown to protect C. jejuni at low pH. Methods: To study the influence of A. polyphaga on the survival of C. jejuni in milk and juice, the bacteria were incubated in the two products at room temperature and at 4°C with the following treatments: A C. jejuni preincubated with A. polyphaga before the addition of product, B C. jejuni mixed with A. polyphaga after the addition of product, and C C. jejuni in product without A. polyphaga. Bacterial survival was assessed by colony counts on blood agar plates. Results: Co-culture with A. polyphaga prolonged the C. jejuni survival both in milk and juice. The effect of co-culture was most pronounced in juice stored at room temperature. On the other hand, A. polyphaga did not have any effect on C. jejuni survival during pasteurization of milk or orange juice, indicating that this is a good method for eliminating C. jejuni in these products. Conclusion: Amoebae-associated C. jejuni in milk and juice might cause C. jejuni infections.

  3. Broiler Campylobacter Contamination and Human Campylobacteriosis in Iceland ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Callicott, Kenneth A.; Harðardóttir, Hjördís; Georgsson, Franklín; Reiersen, Jarle; Friðriksdóttir, Vala; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Michel, Pascal; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Kristinsson, Karl G; Briem, Haraldur; Hiett, Kelli L.; Needleman, David S.; Stern, Norman J.

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic broiler chicken carcasses and the incidence of human disease, 1,617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using the flaA short variable region [SVR[) to 289 isolates from cases of human campylobacteriosis whose onset was within approximately 2 weeks from the date of processing. When there was genetic identity between broiler is...

  4. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. PMID:24210812

  5. Transferrin as a source of iron for Campylobacter rectus

    OpenAIRE

    Grenier, Daniel; Tanabe, Shin-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Campylobacter rectus is considered as one of the bacterial species of etiological importance in periodontitis. Iron-containing proteins such as transferrin are found in periodontal sites and may serve as a source of iron for periodontopathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of C. rectus to assimilate transferrin-bound iron to support its growth. Design: Growth studies were performed in broth media pretreated with an iron-chelating resin and s...

  6. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Chemaly, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria's main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens. PMID:27413761

  7. Prevalenza di Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italia, nel periodo 5 febbraio-15 dicembre 2008, in applicazione della Decisione 516/2007/CE, sono state eseguite le attività di campionamento e analisi previste dal relativo Piano di sorveglianza. Tra gli obiettivi, la rilevazione dell’entità di contaminazione da Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso allevato in Italia. Sono stati selezionati 48 mattatoi avicoli, distribuiti in undici regioni italiane, in cui sono stati prelevati intestini ciechi e carcasse di pollo da ingrasso appartenenti a 393 lotti di macellazione. In 284 lotti (72,3% è stato isolato Campylobacter spp.: il 52,1% è risultato contaminato da C. jejuni, il 55,6% da C. coli e l’1,1% da C. lari. Nel 13,0% di quelli positivi (37 lotti sono stati rilevati contemporaneamente C. jejuni e C. coli. Dall’esame degli intestini ciechi, Campylobacter spp. è risultato presente in 251 lotti di macellazione (63,9%, in particolare, C. jejuni nel 48,2%, C. coli nel 50,6% e C. lari nell’1,2%. Le carcasse appartenenti a 182 lotti (46,3% sono risultate contaminate da C. jejuni nel 40,7% e C. coli nel 57,7% dei lotti positivi, C. lari non è stato isolato. I livelli di contaminazione riscontrati nelle carcasse sono risultati compresi tra 10 e 1,6 × 107 UFC/g.

  8. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Hirchaud, Edouard; Parra, Alberto; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria's main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens. PMID:27413761

  9. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage. PMID:24671947

  10. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens.

  11. Comparison of selective media for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are known to be among the most common bacteria to cause diarrheal illness, with poultry being linked as the primary source of contamination related to foodborne illness. Enumeration and detection of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry pro...

  12. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Fels, van der H.J.; Thissen, J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages

  13. House-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be an important source of Campylobacter to broilers. Our objective was to identify broiler house characteristics and house-level management practices associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Icel...

  14. Temperature-Related Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...

  15. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp.: A comparison toclassic culturing and enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Rahaoui, H.; Leer, R.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    The major disadvantage of the current gold standard for detection of the food pathogen Campylobacter, i.e. culturing, is the lengthy procedure. In this study we assessed the use of real-time PCR for detection of Campylobacter. To this end, 926 poultry samples, taken from transport containers and bro

  16. Processing practices contributing to Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Habib, Ihab; Berkvens, Dirk; Dumoulin, Ann; Zutter, Lieven De; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2008-12-10

    The aim of this study was to obtain insight into processing practices in the poultry sector contributing to the variability in Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations. This was achieved by company profiling of eleven food business operators, in order to evaluate variation of processing management, in addition to statistical modelling of microbiological testing results for Campylobacter spp. contamination in 656 end product samples. Almost half (48%) of chicken meat preparation samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. Results revealed a statistically significant variation in Campylobacter contamination between 11 chicken meat producers across Belgium at both quantitative and qualitative detection levels. All producers provided Campylobacter-positive samples, but prevalence ranged from 9% up to 85% at single producer level. The presence or addition of skin during production of chicken meat preparations resulted in almost 2.2-fold increase in the probability of a sample being positive for Campylobacter, while chicken meat preparations made from frozen meat, or partly containing pre-frozen meat, had a significant (Odds Ratio=0.41; CI 95% 0.18:0.98) lower probability of being positive for Campylobacter. However, the quantitative results indicated that the positive freezing effect on Campylobacter count was compromised by the presence and/or adding of skin.

  17. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  18. Improved toluidine blue-DNA agar for detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H; Patel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Our improved toluidine blue-DNA agar was compared with methyl green DNase test agar for the detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters. The toluidine blue-DNA agar gave clear-cut positive and negative reactions with campylobacter strains belonging to several species.

  19. Retention of Campylobacter (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgard, H.; Kristensen, K.; Hald, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) may transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We assessed the retention lime of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni at five temperatures and three doses. Flies were inoculated individually at their proboscis with 1.6 x 10(7) CFU (colony forming units) of C...

  20. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095 bp.) harboring tet(O) was identified in...

  1. Variation in Campylobacter MLST Subtypes Detected from Chickens on Three Different Plating Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni and coli detected on three discreet selective Campylobacter plating media to determine if different media select for different subtypes. Fifty ceca and fifty carcasses (n=100, representing 50 flocks) were collected from the...

  2. Targeting motility properties of bacteria in the development of probiotic cultures against Campylobacter in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter is commonly present in the intestinal tract of poultry and one strategy to reduce enteric colonization is the use of probiotic cultures. This strategy has successfully reduced enteric colonization of Salmonella, but has...

  3. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  4. Potential Use of Fosfomycin-Tromethamine for Treatment of Recurrent Campylobacter Species Enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Company, Juan; Los-Arcos, Ibai; Pigrau, Carles; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Larrosa, María Nieves; Rodríguez-Garrido, Virginia; Sihuay-Diburga, Denisse; Almirante, Benito

    2016-07-01

    We report 2 cases of recurrent Campylobacter coli enteritis caused by macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains in 2 patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, successfully treated with a prolonged course of fosfomycin-tromethamine with no side effects. Fosfomycin-tromethamine may be a feasible alternative therapy for recurrent enteritis caused by Campylobacter species resistant to first-line drugs. PMID:27161640

  5. Comparison of Campylobacter Levels in Crops and Ceca of Broilers at Slaughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Bouma, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.

    2010-01-01

    considerable fraction of the poultry carcasses becomes contaminated with Campylobacter by cross-contamination from the digestive tract of colonized broilers at slaughter. Campylobacter in the crop may serve as a possible source of cross-contamination, because the crop may contain high numbers of Cam

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Evidence for L-fucose Utilization by Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter remains among the leading causes of bacterial food-borne illness. The current understanding of Campylobacter physiology suggests that it is asaccharolytic and is unable to catabolize exogenous carbohydrates. Contrary to this paradigm, we provide evidence for L-fucose utilization by C....

  7. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  8. Comparison of polycarbonate and cellulose acetate membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter concisus from stool samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde Nielsen, Hans; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove;

    2013-01-01

    One thousand seven hundred ninety-one diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. We found a high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus with use of a polycarbonate filter (n = 114) compared to a cellulose acetate filter (n = 79) (P ... to the commonly used cellulose acetate filter for detection of C. concisus....

  9. Genomotyping and flaA Sequencing to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter Isolates from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human enteritis in the United States, accounting for an estimated 2.4 million cases per year. Different Campylobacter spp. isolates vary in their virulence properties and sequence analysis of the single locus of the flaA short variable region (SVR) of Camp...

  10. 75 FR 27288 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... coli, Aerobic Plate Count (APC), Enterobacteriaceae, and total coliforms. Re-hang sample results were... Food Safety and Inspection Service New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young... performance standards for the pathogenic micro-organisms Salmonella and Campylobacter for use in young...

  11. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible. PMID:26991032

  12. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  13. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni YH001 from beef liver which contains a novel plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and is commonly found in poultry and meat products. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Campylobacter jejuni strain recently isolated from retail beef liver. The genome size was 1,712,361 bp, ...

  14. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari in Fresh Chicken Meat and By-Products in Bangkok, Thailand, Using Modified Multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, S; Phusri, K; Buates, S

    2015-07-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari was developed and validated to assess the occurrence of these bacteria in fresh chicken meat and by-products in Bangkok, Thailand, by using a new combination of four previously published PCR primers for C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and a universal 16S rDNA gene as an internal control. The specificity was determined by using 13 strains of other bacteria. With pure culture DNA, the detection limit was 0.017 ng/PCR for C. jejuni and C. coli and was 0.016 ng/PCR for C. lari. It can detect 10 CFU of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in 2 g of chicken meat within a 16-h enrichment time. Our multiplex PCR assay was applied for identification of Campylobacter spp. in 122 supermarket samples and 108 fresh market samples. Of the 230 samples evaluated by multiplex PCR, 54.0, 3.3, and 10.7% of supermarket samples were positive for C. jejuni, C. coli, and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, and 56.5 and 33.3% of fresh market samples were positive for C. jejuni and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. No sample was positive for C. lari. Fresh market samples had significantly higher C. jejuni and C. coli contamination than those from supermarkets (relative risk: 1.3; P = 0.0001). Compared with the culture method (a gold standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of multiplex PCR were 97.7, 86.8, 96.1, 92.0, and 95.2%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between results from two methods (P = 0.55). Therefore, the established multiplex PCR was not only rapid and easy to perform but had a high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, even in samples containing mixed contamination. Our study indicated that fresh chicken meat and by-products from fresh markets were significantly less hygienic than those

  15. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Holst Sørensen

    Full Text Available In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb, host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220 as well as receptors (CPS or flagella recognised by the isolated phages.

  16. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos Quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans and from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.Eight quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans with diarrheal disease were compared with 23 isolates from chicken and from laying hens. Samples were cultured on selective agar in microaerophilia, identified by conventional tests, and conserved in 17% glycerol at -70 °C. Clones were determined by RAPD-PCR employing the 1254 primer (Stern NJ. Five patterns were obtained. Patterns I, II, and V were found in both poultry and human isolates. Pattern I was obtained from poultry in a domestic henhouse. Pattern III was only obtained from humans whereas pattern IV was only obtained from poultry. A 95.3% of clones were found in both, humans and poultry. According to these

  17. Prevalence of Campylobacter Jejuni and Coli in Sheep Carcasses by Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 randomly sheep carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter analyzed using microbiological examinations. Results: Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 10.13% meat cultures samples examined. Among these 80% sample were C. jejuni and 20% sample were C. coli. Using PCR assays, the number of positive campylobacters increased to 11.48%. Of these positive samples, 82.35% were C. jejuni and 17.65% were C. coli. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p<0.05 were found in the meat samples taken in summer (47.05%. Conclusion: The PCR is a reliable and sensitive method which can be used as a diagnostic technique for the detection of campylobacter in lamb samples.

  18. Biotyping of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry in and around Anand city, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Tayde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of different biotypes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the study area. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples comprising 90 chicken and 60 caecal content were collected from retail meat market and processed for isolation of Campylobacter spp. 52 Campylobacter isolates obtained from raw poultry meat (6 and caecal content (46 were subjected to biotyping using Lior's biotyping scheme. Results: Among the 52 Campylobacter isolates studied, 60.46 % isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni Biotype I and 39.53% were C. jejuni Biotype II, whereas 83.33 % were C. coli Biotype I and 16.66 % C. coli Biotype II. No other biotypes were identified. Conclusions: The present study revealed that C. jejuni Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II whereas in case of C. coli, Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II providing basis for further epidemiological study.

  19. Recommendations of the Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Campylobacter and related bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, P.; On, S.L.W.

    2001-01-01

    The ICSB Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Campylobacter and related bacteria has discussed several contemporaneous issues and makes the following recommendations. (i) The reported synonymy between Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter hyoilei was based on valid taxonomic arguments. The subcommittee...... therefore discourages the use of the name C. hyoilei. (ii) The revised infrasubspecific nomenclature of Campylobacter sputorum is endorsed. C. sputorum is subdivided into C. sputorum biovar sputorum (characterized by the absence of catalase and urease activity); C. sputorum biovar faecalis (characterized......, including Helicobacter bills and Helicobacter trogontum. (iv) Finally, the subcommittee wishes to point out that the etymology of several specific or subspecific epithets of Campylobacter taxa has been corrected and that the spelling of the epithet 'fecalis' was corrected to 'faecalis'....

  20. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne;

    2008-01-01

    During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products......, the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive. In marinated poultry products, Campylobacter was detected at a prevalence of 21.1% and 9.5% in turkey...... and chicken products, respectively. In August, there was a peak with 28.9% positive Campylobacter samples. Campylobacter inoculation tests were carried out to test the detection limit of both methods. The PCR method used is faster than microbiological analyses. However, enrichment of the samples is necessary...

  1. Variation of chemosensory receptor content of Campylobacter jejuni strains and modulation of receptor gene expression under different in vivo and in vitro growth conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Day Christopher J; Hartley-Tassell Lauren E; Shewell Lucy K; King Rebecca M; Tram Greg; Day Serena K; Semchenko Evgeny A; Korolik Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chemotaxis is crucial for the colonisation/infection of hosts with Campylobacter jejuni. Central to chemotaxis are the group A chemotaxis genes that are responsible for sensing the external environment. The distribution of group A chemoreceptor genes, as found in the C. jejuni sequenced strains, tlp1-4, 7, 10 and 11 were determined in 33 clinical human and avian isolates. Results Group A tlp gene content varied among the strains with genes encoding tlp1 (aspartate receptor...

  2. Analysis of the LIV System of Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Alternative Roles for LivJ and LivK in Commensalism beyond Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ribardo, Deborah A.; Hendrixson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of diarrheal disease in humans and an intestinal commensal in poultry and other agriculturally important animals. These zoonotic infections result in significant amounts of C. jejuni present in the food supply to contribute to disease in humans. We previously found that a transposon insertion in Cjj81176_1038, encoding a homolog of the Escherichia coli LivJ periplasmic binding protein of the leucine, isoleucine, and valine (LIV) branched-chain amino aci...

  3. Use of a Rabbit Soft Tissue Chamber Model to Investigate Campylobacter jejuni - Host Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eFlint

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of C. jejuni as an important food borne pathogen, the microbial factors governing its infection process are poorly characterized. In this study, we developed a novel rabbit soft tissue chamber model to investigate C. jejuni interactions with its host. The in vivo transcriptome profile of C. jejuni was monitored as a function of time post-infection by competitive microarray hybridization with cDNA obtained from C. jejuni grown in vitro. Genome-wide expression analysis identified 449 genes expressed at significantly different levels in vivo. Genes implicated to play important roles in early colonization of C. jejuni within the tissue chamber include up-regulation of genes involved in ribosomal protein synthesis and modification, heat shock response, and primary adaptation to the host environment (DccSR regulon. Genes encoding proteins involved in the TCA cycle and flagella related components were found to be significantly down regulated during early colonization. Oxidative stress defense and stringent response genes were found to be maximally induced during the acute infectious phase. Overall, these findings reveal possible mechanisms involved in adaptation of Campylobacter to the host.

  4. Establishment and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni%空肠弯曲杆菌LAMP检测方法的建立及初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐梦君; 周生; 张小燕; 唐修君; 顾荣; 高玉时

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish a method of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Campylobacter jejuni , specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification primers were designed, and a novel and highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the sensitive and rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni were developed. According to Campylobacter jejuni gyrA gene sequences published on GenBank, the natural infection rate of Campylobacter jejuni was tested in ten chicken breeds. The results show that the products of LAMP demonstrated the typical ladder patterns and digested fragments were found with the predicted sizes. Sensitivity of the LAMP assay for direct detection of Campylobacter jejuni in pure cultures was 20 cfu/mL. It was 10-fold more sensitive than that of the conventional PCR assay. The assay identified Campylobacter jejuni correctly, but did not detect 7 non-Campylobacter jejuni strains. The natural infection rate of Campylobacter jejuni was 6%-90% in the ten chicken breeds. The LAMP assay is a sensitive, rapid and simple tool for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and will play a role in clinical detection.%目的 建立一种灵敏的环介导等温扩增方法(Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification,LAMP)用于空肠弯曲杆菌(Campylobacter jejuni)的快速检测.方法 根据已公布的空肠弯曲杆菌旋转酶基因(gyrA)设计引物,建立并优化LAMP反应体系,对检测方法的特异性和灵敏度进行验证,并运用该方法对我国不同地方鸡种空肠弯曲杆菌的携带率进行调查.结果 该方法能扩增出典型的梯形条带,且扩增产物的酶切鉴定结果与理论值相符;对单增李斯特菌等8株实验菌株进行检测,仅空肠弯曲杆菌的LAMP结果为阳性;该方法检测空肠弯曲杆菌纯培养物的灵敏度为20 cfu/mL,高于常规PCR;不同地方鸡种空肠弯曲杆菌携带率介于6%~90%之间,差异显著.结论 本试验建立的空肠弯曲杆菌LAMP检测

  5. A fluoroquinolone resistance associated mutation in gyrA affects DNA supercoiling in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eHan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ-resistant Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of FQ-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand the impact of FQ resistance on the fitness of Campylobacter in its natural hosts as understanding fitness will help to determine and predict the persistence of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. Previously it was shown that acquisition of resistance to FQ antimicrobials enhanced the in vivo fitness of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. In this study, we confirmed the role of the Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA in modulating Campylobacter fitness by reverting the mutation to the wild-type allele, which resulted in the loss of the fitness advantage. Additionally, we determined if the resistance-conferring GyrA mutations alter the enzymatic function of the DNA gyrase. Recombinant wild-type gyrase and mutant gyrases with three different types of mutations (Thr-86-Ile, Thr-86-Lys, and Asp-90-Asn, which are associated with FQ resistance in Campylobacter, were generated in E. coli and compared for their supercoiling activities using an in vitro assay. The mutant gyrase with the Thr-86-Ile change showed a greatly reduced supercoiling activity compared with the wild-type gyrase, while other mutant gyrases did not show an altered supercoiling. Furthermore, we measured DNA supercoiling within Campylobacter cells using a reporter plasmid. Consistent with the results from the in vitro supercoiling assay, the FQ-resistant mutant carrying the Thr-86-Ile change in GyrA showed much less DNA supercoiling than the wild-type strain and the mutant strains carrying other mutations. Together, these results indicate that the Thr-86-Ile mutation, which is predominant in clinical FQ-resistant Campylobacter, modulates DNA supercoiling homeostasis in FQ-resistant Campylobacter.

  6. CAMPYLOBACTER-HYOINTESTINALIS SUBSP LAWSONII SUBSP-NOV, ISOLATED FROM THE PORCINE STOMACH, AND AN EMENDED DESCRIPTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER-HYOINTESTINALIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on, Stephen L.W.; Bloch, Buchardt; Holmes, B.;

    1995-01-01

    The taxonomic relationships of seven isolates obtained from porcine stomachs (the ''CHY'' group), which resembled (but were distinct from) the type strain and other reference strains of Campylobacter hyointestinalis, were examined by using phenotypic and genomic methods. The phenotypic...... could be clearly distinguished from reference strains representing 20 related taxa, principally species and subspecies belonging to the genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that the porcine stomach strains were genomically homogeneous (levels of...

  7. Campylobacter jejuni acquire new host-derived CRISPR spacers when in association with bacteriophages harboring a CRISPR-like Cas4 protein

    OpenAIRE

    Hooton, Steven P. T.; Connerton, I.F.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a worldwide cause of human diarrhoeal disease. Clustered Repetitively Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) and associated proteins allow Bacteria and Archaea to evade bacteriophage and plasmid infection. Type II CRISPR systems are found in association with combinations of genes encoding the CRISPR-associated Cas1, Cas2, Cas4 or Csn2, and Cas9 proteins. C. jejuni possesses a minimal subtype II-C CRISPR system containing cas1, cas2, and cas9 genes whilst cas4 is not...

  8. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Thissen, J; van Asselt, E D

    2012-09-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages of the broiler supply chain. Three different sampling points were considered: departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, and the end of the slaughterline. Strong associations were found between Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence at a particular sampling point and their prevalence at the preceding point of the chain. Statistical analyses showed that the country of origin of the broiler farm had a significant effect on the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter at slaughterhouse arrival. The feeding company delivering to the farm also showed a significant effect on the occurrence of both pathogens at departure from the broiler farm. The prevalence of Campylobacter decreased with an increasing number of birds per flock, whereas the prevalence of Salmonella increased with an increasing number of birds per flock. The number of flocks processed within a specific slaughterhouse was not associated with an increased or decreased prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. The results provide more insight into factors related to the occurrence of both pathogens and in understanding their epidemiology. The results can be supportive in decision making on measures to reduce the contamination of broiler products with Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  9. Colonisation of a phage susceptible Campylobacter jejuni population in two phage positive broiler flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Kittler

    Full Text Available The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails.

  10. Freezing as an intervention to reduce the numbers of campylobacters isolated from chicken livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D; Corry, J E L; Tchórzewska, M A; Morris, V K; Hutchison, M L

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence and numbers of campylobacters in 63 samples of raw livers purchased at retail across the UK and (ii) to investigate whether the freezing of chicken livers contaminated with Campylobacter was a reliable method for decontamination. Chicken livers naturally contaminated with campylobacters were subjected to freezing at -15 and -25°C for one day and 7 days. Numbers of campylobacters on the livers were determined immediately before and after a 24-h or 7-days freeze treatment and daily during 3 days post-thaw refrigerated storage. Freezing for 24 h at -25°C can reduce numbers of Campylobacter by up to 2 log10 CFU g(-1). Freezing the livers for 24 h at -25°C, thawing overnight in a fridge set to 4°C and refreezing for another 24 h at -25°C reduced the numbers of campylobacters by up to three logs. Reduction in the numbers of campylobacters was significantly greater following a second freeze treatment compared with a single freeze treatment. PMID:23647008

  11. Evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Maurer, J J; Berrang, M E; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Byrd, J A; Lee, M D; Hofacre, C L; O'Kane, P M; Lammerding, A M; Clark, A G; Thayer, S G; Doyle, M P

    2012-10-01

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen, and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing national and international controversy about whether Campylobacter can pass from one generation of poultry to the next via the fertile egg. We recognize that there are numerous sources of Campylobacter entry into flocks of commercial poultry (including egg transmission), yet the environment is often cited as the only source. There has been an abundance of published research globally that refutes this contention, and this article lists and discusses many of them, along with other studies that support environment as the sole or primary source. One must remember that egg passage can mean more than vertical, transovarian transmission. Fecal bacteria, including Campylobacter, can contaminate the shell, shell membranes, and albumen of freshly laid fertile eggs. This contamination is drawn through the shell by temperature differential, aided by the presence of moisture (the "sweating" of the egg); then, when the chick emerges from the egg, it can ingest bacteria such as Campylobacter, become colonized, and spread this contamination to flock mates in the grow house. Improvements in cultural laboratory methods continue to advance our knowledge of the ecology of Campylobacter, and in the not-so-distant future, egg passage will not be a subject continuously debated but will be embraced, thus allowing the development and implementation of more effective intervention strategies. PMID:23043845

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter Strains from Diarrheal Patients in Central and Suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Eampokalap, Bunchuay; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is increasingly recognized worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the Campylobacter strains associated with diarrheal patients in Thailand. In this study, we attempted to isolate Campylobacter strains from diarrheal patients in Thailand and to characterize the species using a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus-specific multiplex PCR assay. Campylobacter species were also confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and hipO gene detection. From 2,500 diarrheal stool specimens, 76 Campylobacter-like organisms were isolated and identified via conventional culture methods. Among these 76 organisms, 73 were identified as Campylobacter species (43 C. jejuni, 29 C. coli, and 1 C. fetus) via multiplex PCR, whereas 3 remained unidentified. Two Campylobacter-like organisms yielded 2 amplicons corresponding to cdt genes from C. jejuni and C. coli. Subsequently, C. jejuni and C. coli were reisolated from each sample. The third isolate was identified as C. hyointestinalis via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from a diarrheal patient in Thailand. These data indicate that C. jejuni (58%) and C. coli (40%) are prevalent among diarrheal patients in Thailand.

  13. Effects of Climate on Incidence of Campylobacter spp. in Humans and Prevalence in Broiler Flocks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Mary Evans; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Wainø, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    of sunlight on Campylobacter incidence in humans and broiler flocks by using lag dependence functions, locally fitted linear models, and cross validation methods. For humans, the best model included average temperature and sunlight 4 weeks prior to infection; the maximum temperature lagged at 4 weeks...... humidity predicted the incidence in humans equally well. For broiler flock incidence these factors explained considerably less. Future research should focus on elements within the broiler environment that may be affected by climate, as well as the interaction of microclimatic factors on and around broiler...... farms. There is a need to quantify the contribution of broilers as a source of campylobacteriosis in humans and to further examine the effect of temperature on human incidence after this contribution is accounted for. Investigations should be conducted into food consumption and preparation practices...

  14. Tight junction changes in epithelial cells by Campylobacter jejuni and non-jejuni Campylobacter species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bücker, Roland; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Krüg, S;

    /B6 cells and impaired epithelial barrier function, characterized by a time- and dose-dependent decrease in R(t) either after infection from the apical side but even more from the basolateral compartment. TJ protein expression changes were sparse, only in apoptotic areas of infected monolayers TJ...

  15. Exploring the chemotactic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract...... are found to be colonized by C. jejuni, and the bacteria are expected to be attracted to this particular environment by chemotaxis. In order to explore the role of chemotaxis in C. jejuni colonization we are construction deletion mutants in the putative chemoreceptors of the sequenced strain NCTC11168...

  16. Exploring the chemotatic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world and the bacteria causes millions of gastroenteritis cases each year. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism....... Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract of chickens are found to be colonized by C. jejuni, and the bacteria are expected to be attracted to this particular environment by chemotaxis. From the full genome sequence of C. jejuni NCTC11168 several chemotactic proteins...

  17. Analysis of putative chemoreceptor proteins of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Bang, Dang D.;

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. A very important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized efficiently and commensally by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract...... are found to be colonized by C. jejuni and the bacteria are expected to be attracted to this environment by chemotaxis. In order to explore the role of chemotaxis in C. jejuni colonization and to identify chemoreceptors with matching attractants and/or repellants we have constructed deletion mutants of five...

  18. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products. PMID:27237112

  19. Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flocks: a 2-year study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Gradel, K.O.; Jorgensen, J.C.;

    2001-01-01

    at the farms. Of the swabs, 42.5% were Campylobacter positive. Most positive samples were found during July, August and September, while the lowest number of positive samples were found during January, February, March and April. Of the flocks, 5.5% were Salmonella positive, but no seasonal variation...... was observed. For each flock, the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella was recorded in order to estimate the possible correlation between colonisation with the two pathogens. In conclusion, no significant effects on intensive cleaning and disinfection procedures on Campylobacter occurrence could...

  20. Taxonomy of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and related bacteria: current status, future prospects and immediate concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.

    2001-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Campylobacter has changed dramatically since its inception in 1963. At that time the genus comprised just two species. At present, taxa that were once assigned to Campylobacter may belong to one of over 50 species distributed among six genera. Most of these taxa belong...... and taxonomists. The purpose of this article is briefly to review the major developments in the taxonomy of Campylobacter from its inception to the present day; summarize the most recent changes in the field; analyse current topical issues of special relevance to applied microbiologists, including identification...... of the bacteria; and speculate on future prospects for campylobacterial taxonomy....

  1. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nielsen, Niels L.;

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of specific slaughter operations on the contamination of broiler carcasses with naturally occurring thermotolerant Campylobacter, experiments were carried out in two Danish commercial slaughter plants (Plant I and Plant 11). Six broiler flocks determined Campylobacter......) cfu/g, respectively. In packed frozen chickens (Plant II) an additional reduction of 1.38 log(10) cfu/g in average was obtained due to the freezing operation. In packed chilled chickens (Plant 1), however, the number of thermotolerant Campylobacter per gram remained at the same level as after air...

  2. Biofilm spatial organization by the emerging pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: comparison between NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains under microaerobic and oxygen-enriched conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana eTuronova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne infections in developed countries. Described as an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter has puzzled scientists by surviving a wide range of environmental oxidative stresses on foods farm to retail, and thereafter intestinal transit and oxidative damage from macrophages to cause human infection. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to explore the biofilm development of two well-described Campylobacter jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176 prior to or during cultivation under oxygen-enriched conditions. Quantitative and qualitative appraisal indicated that C. jejuni formed finger-like biofilm structures with an open ultrastructure for 81-176 and a multilayer-like structure for NCTC 11168 under microaerobic conditions. The presence of motile cells within the biofilm confirmed the maturation of the C. jejuni 81-176 biofilm. Acclimation of cells to oxygen-enriched conditions led to significant enhancement of biofilm formation during the early stages of the process. Exposure to these conditions during biofilm cultivation induced an even greater biofilm development for both strains, indicating that oxygen demand for biofilm formation is higher than for planktonic growth counterparts. Overexpression of cosR in the poorer biofilm-forming strain, NCTC 11168, enhanced biofilm development dramatically by promoting an open ultrastructure similar to that observed for 81-176. Consequently, the regulator CosR is likely to be a key protein in the maturation of C. jejuni biofilm, although it is not linked to oxygen stimulation. These unexpected data advocate challenging studies by reconsidering the paradigm of fastidious requirements for C. jejuni growth when various subpopulations (from quiescent to motile cells coexist in biofilms. These findings constitute a clear example of a survival strategy used by this emerging human pathogen.

  3. Direct quantification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lanienae in feces of cattle by real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G Douglas; Kalischuk, Lisa D

    2004-04-01

    Campylobacter species are fastidious to culture, and the ability to directly quantify biomass in microbiologically complex substrates using real-time quantitative (RTQ) PCR may enhance our understanding of their biology and facilitate the development of efficacious mitigation strategies. This study reports the use of nested RTQ-PCR to directly quantify Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lanienae in cattle feces. For C. jejuni, the single-copy mapA gene was selected. For C. lanienae, the three-copy 16S rRNA gene was targeted. RTQ-PCR primers were tested alone or they were nested with species-specific primers, and amplification products were detected using the intercalating dye SYBR Green. Nesting did not increase the specificity or sensitivity of C. jejuni quantification, and the limit of quantification was 19 to 25 genome copies ( approximately 3 x 10(3) CFU/g of feces). In contrast, nested RTQ-PCR was necessary to confer specificity on C. lanienae by targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The limit of quantification was 1.8 genome copies ( approximately 250 CFU/g of feces), and there was no discernible difference between the two C. lanienae secondary primer sets evaluated. Detection and quantification of C. jejuni in naturally infested cattle feces by RTQ-PCR were comparable to the results of culture-based methods. In contrast, culturing did not detect C. lanienae in 6 of 10 fecal samples positive for the bacterium and substantially underestimated cell densities relative to nested RTQ-PCR. The results of this study illustrate that RTQ-PCR can be used to directly quantify campylobacters, including very fastidious species, in a microbiologically and chemically complex substrate. Furthermore, targeting of a multicopy universal gene provided highly sensitive quantification of C. lanienae, but nested RTQ-PCR was necessary to confer specificity. This method will facilitate subsequent studies to elucidate the impact of this group of bacteria within the gastrointestinal tracts

  4. Investigation of motility and biofilm formation by intestinal Campylobacter concisus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrencic Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motility helps many pathogens swim through the highly viscous intestinal mucus. Given the differing outcomes of Campylobacter concisus infection, the motility of eight C. concisus strains isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease (n=3, acute (n=3 and chronic (n=1 gastroenteritis and a healthy control (n=1 were compared. Following growth on solid or liquid media the eight strains formed two groups; however, the type of growth medium did not affect motility. In contrast, following growth in viscous liquid medium seven of the eight strains demonstrated significantly decreased motility. In media of increasing viscosities the motility of C. concisus UNSWCD had two marked increases at viscosities of 20.0 and 74.7 centipoises. Determination of the ability of UNSWCD to swim through a viscous medium, adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells showed that while adherence levels significantly decreased with increasing viscosity, invasion levels did not significantly change. In contrast, adherence to and invasion of UNSWCD to mucus-producing intestinal cells increased upon accumulation of mucus, as did bacterial aggregation. Given this aggregation, we determined the ability of the eight C. concisus strains to form biofilms, and showed that all strains formed biofilms. In conclusion, the finding that C. concisus strains could be differentiated into two groups based on their motility may suggest that strains with high motility have an increased ability to swim through the intestinal mucus and reach the epithelial layer.

  5. Comparison of Proteomics Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Strain Bf under Microaerobic and Aerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ramila C.; Haddad, Nabila; Chevret, Didier; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Tresse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni accounts for one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. Despite being considered an obligate microaerobic microorganism, C. jejuni is regularly exposed to oxidative stress. However, its adaptive strategies to survive the atmospheric oxygen level during transmission to humans remain unclear. Recently, the clinical C. jejuni strain Bf was singled out for its unexpected ability to grow under ambient atmosphere. Here, we aimed to understand better the biological mechanisms underlying its atypical aerotolerance trait using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, gene expression, and enzymatic activities. Forty-seven proteins were identified with a significantly different abundance between cultivation under microaerobic and aerobic conditions. The over-expressed proteins in aerobiosis belonged mainly to the oxidative stress response, enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, iron uptake, and regulation, and amino acid uptake when compared to microaerobic conditions. The higher abundance of proteins related to oxidative stress was correlated to dramatically higher transcript levels of the corresponding encoding genes in aerobic conditions compared to microaerobic conditions. In addition, a higher catalase-equivalent activity in strain Bf was observed. Despite the restricted catabolic capacities of C. jejuni, this study reveals that strain Bf is equipped to withstand oxidative stress. This ability could contribute to emergence and persistence of particular strains of C. jejuni throughout food processing or macrophage attack during human infection.

  6. Effect of human isolated probiotic bacteria on preventing Campylobacter jejuni colonization of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cean, Ada; Stef, Lavinia; Simiz, Eliza; Julean, Calin; Dumitrescu, Gabi; Vasile, Aida; Pet, Elena; Drinceanu, Dan; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    This study was performed in order to determine whether human isolated probiotic bacteria can be effective in reducing Campylobacter jejuni infection of chicken intestinal cells, in vitro, and in decreasing its colonization abilities within the chicken gut. Our results show that the probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei J. R, L. rhamnosus 15b, L. lactis Y, and L. lactis FOa had a significant effect on C. jejuni invasion of chicken primary cells, with the strongest inhibitory effect detected when a combination of four was administered. In regard to the in vivo effect, using all four strains in one combination prevented mucus colonization in the duodenum and cecum. Moreover, the pathogen load in the lumen of these two compartments was significantly reduced. When probiotics were introduced during the early growth period, the presence of the pathogen in feces was increased (p>0.05), but when they were given during the last week of growth, there was no significant effect. In conclusion, our data indicate that these four new probiotic strains are able to cause modifications in the chicken intestinal mucosa and can reduce the ability of C. jejuni to invade, in vitro, and to colonize, in vivo. These probiotics are now proven to be effective even when introduced in broiler's feed 7 days before slaughter, which makes them cost-effective for the producers.

  7. The role of autophagy in the intracellular survival of Campylobacter concisus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Burgos-Portugal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen that has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases. Given the importance of autophagy for the elimination of intracellular bacteria and the subversion of this process by pathogenic bacteria, we investigated the role of autophagy in C. concisus intracellular survival. Gentamicin protection assays were employed to assess intracellular levels of C. concisus within Caco-2 cells, following autophagy induction and inhibition. To assess the interaction between C. concisus and autophagosomes, confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were employed. Expression levels of 84 genes involved in the autophagy process were measured using qPCR. Autophagy inhibition resulted in two- to four-fold increases in intracellular levels of C. concisus within Caco-2 cells, while autophagy induction resulted in a significant reduction in intracellular levels or bacterial clearance. C. concisus strains with low intracellular survival levels showed a dramatic increase in these levels upon autophagy inhibition. Confocal microscopy showed co-localization of the bacterium with autophagosomes, while transmission electron microscopy identified intracellular bacteria persisting within autophagic vesicles. Further, qPCR showed that following infection, 13 genes involved in the autophagy process were significantly regulated, and a further five showed borderline results, with an overall indication towards a dampening effect exerted by the bacterium on this process. Our data collectively indicates that while autophagy is important for the clearance of C. concisus, some strains may manipulate this process to benefit their intracellular survival.

  8. Outer membrane vesicle-mediated release of cytolethal distending toxin (CDT from Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhlin Bernt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Background: Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT is one of the well-characterized virulence factors of Campylobacter jejuni, but it is unknown how CDT becomes surface-exposed or is released from the bacterium to the surrounding environment. Results Our data suggest that CDT is secreted to the bacterial culture supernatant via outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released from the bacteria. All three subunits (the CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC proteins were detected by immunogold labeling and electron microscopy of OMVs. Subcellular fractionation of the bacteria indicated that, apart from the majority of CDT detected in the cytoplasmic compartment, appreciable amounts (20-50% of the cellular pool of CDT proteins were present in the periplasmic compartment. In the bacterial culture supernatant, we found that a majority of the extracellular CDT was tightly associated with the OMVs. Isolated OMVs could exert the cell distending effects typical of CDT on a human intestinal cell line, indicating that CDT is present there in a biologically active form. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that the release of outer membrane vesicles is functioning as a route of C. jejuni to deliver all the subunits of CDT toxin (CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC to the surrounding environment, including infected host tissue.

  9. Mucosal reactive oxygen species decrease virulence by disrupting Campylobacter jejuni phosphotyrosine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Alvarez, Luis A J; Sharp, Thomas H; Strengert, Monika; Alemka, Abofu; Mantell, Judith; Verkade, Paul; Knaus, Ulla G; Bourke, Billy

    2012-07-19

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in mucosal defense, yet how they are induced and the consequences for pathogens are unclear. We report that ROS generated by epithelial NADPH oxidases (Nox1/Duox2) during Campylobacter jejuni infection impair bacterial capsule formation and virulence by altering bacterial signal transduction. Upon C. jejuni invasion, ROS released from the intestinal mucosa inhibit the bacterial phosphotyrosine network that is regulated by the outer-membrane tyrosine kinase Cjtk (Cj1170/OMP50). ROS-mediated Cjtk inactivation results in an overall decrease in the phosphorylation of C. jejuni outer-membrane/periplasmic proteins, including UDP-GlcNAc/Glc 4-epimerase (Gne), an enzyme required for N-glycosylation and capsule formation. Cjtk positively regulates Gne by phosphorylating an active site tyrosine, while loss of Cjtk or ROS treatment inhibits Gne activity, causing altered polysaccharide synthesis. Thus, epithelial NADPH oxidases are an early antibacterial defense system in the intestinal mucosa that modifies virulence by disrupting bacterial signaling.

  10. Campylobacter jejuni cocultured with epithelial cells reduces surface capsular polysaccharide expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corcionivoschi, N

    2012-02-01

    The host cell environment can alter bacterial pathogenicity. We employed a combination of cellular and molecular techniques to study the expression of Campylobacter jejuni polysaccharides cocultured with HCT-8 epithelial cells. After two passages, the amount of membrane-bound high-molecular-weight polysaccharide was considerably reduced. Microarray profiling confirmed significant downregulation of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) locus genes. Experiments using conditioned media showed that sugar depletion occurred only when the bacterial and epithelial cells were cocultured. CPS depletion occurred when C. jejuni organisms were exposed to conditioned media from a different C. jejuni strain but not when exposed to conditioned media from other bacterial species. Proteinase K or heat treatment of conditioned media under coculture conditions abrogated the effect on the sugars, as did formaldehyde fixation and cycloheximide treatment of host cells or chloramphenicol treatment of the bacteria. However, sugar depletion was not affected in flagellar export (fliQ) and quorum-sensing (luxS) gene mutants. Passaged C. jejuni showed reduced invasiveness and increased serum sensitivity in vitro. C. jejuni alters its surface polysaccharides when cocultured with epithelial cells, suggesting the existence of a cross talk mechanism that modulates CPS expression during infection.

  11. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, C; Schmidt, K; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R; Tiralongo, E

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of gastric diseases is increasing with H. pylori, the causative agent of acute and chronic gastritis, being a major predisposing factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. C. jejuni is the most common cause of enteric infections, particularly among children, resulting in severe diarrhoea. Increasing drug resistance of these bacteria against standard antibiotics, and the more widespread use of herbal medicines, favours investigations into additional anti-Helicobacter and anti-Campylobacter effects of phytotherapeutics that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions. Twenty-one hydroethanol herbal extracts and four essential oils were screened for antibacterial activity using a modification of a previously described micro-dilution assay and compared with the inhibitory effects of antibiotics. The herbal extracts showing the highest growth inhibition of C. jejuni were Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Zingiber officinale, Salvia officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare and Silybum marianum. Agrimonia eupatoria, Hydrastis canadensis, Filipendula ulmaria and Salvia officinalis were the most active herbal extracts in inhibiting the growth of H. pylori. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of phytotherapeutics marketed for their gastrointestinal effects and identifies new beneficial antibacterial effects for some herbal medicines not currently recommended for gastrointestinal problems. PMID:19653313

  12. Investigation and resistance analysis of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler%鸡源空肠弯曲菌调查与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂霞; 徐世文

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a kind of pathogenic bacteria which cause serious damage to the human and animal health. To understand the epidemiological and drug resistance of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler of Harbin, the present study investigated the infection status of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler in Harbin and its surrounding area, meanwhile, detected the drug resistance and expression of resistant genes. The results showed that the average infections of chicken farms were 35.67%. Campylobacter jejuni had different degrees of antibiotic resistance to 13 kinds of antibiotics, which the antibiotic resistance of tetracycline and ampicil in sodium were 100%, while there were multiple drug resistance. The highest drug-resistant spectrums were 11, while the detection rate of bacterial strain was 14.95%. 57.94%bacterial strain contained tetA, tetB, tetC, blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaNDM-1 genes, that the detection rate were 57.94%, 66.36%, 28.97%, 42.99%, 55.14% and 8.41%, respectively. However, the present study didn't detect tetD and blaSHV-1 genes. The results showed that the infections of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken farms of Harbin were occured commonly, while there were multiple drug resistance. It provided the basis for effective prevention and treatment of Campylobacter jejuni.%空肠弯曲菌是严重危害人畜健康的病原菌,为了解哈尔滨市肉鸡源性空肠弯曲菌流行病学和耐药性,研究调查哈尔滨市周边肉鸡场空肠弯曲菌感染状况,通过耐药性和耐药基因检测,发现鸡场平均感染率为35.67%,对13种抗生素均有不同程度耐药性,四环素和氨苄西林钠达100%,存在多重耐药性,最高耐药谱达11个,检出菌株率为14.95%.57.94%菌株携带tetA、tetB、tetC、blaCTX-M、blaTEM和blaNDM-1基因,检出率分别为57.94%、66.36%、28.97%、42.99%、55.14%和8.41%,而tetD和blaSHV-1基因未检出.结果表明,哈尔滨市肉鸡场空肠弯曲菌感染普遍,存在多重耐药并携带多种耐药

  13. Screening of Australian plants for antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurekci, Cemil; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Vercoe, Philip E; Durmic, Zoey; Al Jassim, Rafat A M; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2012-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of acute enteritis in humans, with symptoms such as diarrhoea, fever and abdominal cramps. In this study, 115 extracts from 109 Australian plant species were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against two C. jejuni strains using an in vitro broth microdilution assay. Among the plants tested, 107 (93%) extracts showed activity at a concentration between 32 and 1024 µg/mL against at least one C. jejuni strain. Seventeen plant extracts were selected for further testing against another six C. jejuni strains, as well as Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Proteus mirabilis and Enterococcus faecalis. The extract from Eucalyptus occidentalis demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity, with an inhibitory concentration of 32 µg/mL against C. jejuni and B. cereus. This study has shown that extracts of selected Australian plants possess antimicrobial activity against C. jejuni and thus may have application in the control of this organism in live poultry and retail poultry products.

  14. LuxS and quorum-sensing in Campylobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul ePlummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several intercellular bacterial communication mechanisms have been identified in a broad range of bacterial species. These systems, collectively termed quorum-sensing systems, have been demonstrated to play significant roles in a variety of bacterial processes including motility, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes and animal colonization. Campylobacter jejuni is known to poses a LuxS/ autoinducer-2 mediated system that has been partially characterized over the last decade. AI-2 is formed as a byproduct of the activated methyl recycling pathway, specifically by the LuxS enzyme. Previous work in our laboratory and that of others has demonstrated that this gene is involved in a variety of physiologic pathways of C. jejuni including motility, autoagglutination, CDT expression, flagellar expression, oxidative stress and animal colonization. This review article will summarize the current research associated with LuxS in C. jejuni and will provide insights into the role of this system in the metabolism and intercellular communication of this organism. Additionally, the evidence for other quorum sensing pathways in Campylobacter will be discussed.

  15. Campylobacter intestinal carriage among stray and pet dogs Disseminação de Campylobacter entre cães vadios e de estimação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Fernández

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural distribution of thermotolerant Campylobacter sp. in dogs (150 stray animals and 64 pets was studied. Campylobacters were more frequently isolated (pFoi estudada a distribuição natural de espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter em 159 cães vadios e em 64 cães de companhia em confinamento permanente. Espécies de Campylobacter foram isoladas mais freqüentemente (p<0,01 dos cães vadios (51,3% do que dos cães de companhia (21,9%. Todos os biotipos descritos por Lior para C. jejuni e C. coli foram encontrados entre as amostras isoladas dos cães vadios. Nas amostras isoladas dos cães mantidos em confmamento permanente somente foram encontrados os biotipos I e II de C. jejuni e o biotipo II do C. coli. Salienta-se a necessidade de realizar outros estudos para estabelecer a relação entre as condições de saneamento ambiental e a disseminação das espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter.

  16. The complete genome sequence and analysis of the human pathogen Campylobacter lari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, WG; Wang, G; Binnewies, Tim Terence;

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter lari is a member of the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant Campylobacter group, a clade that includes the human pathogen C. jejuni. Here we present the complete genome sequence of the human clinical isolate, C. lari RM2100. The genome of strain...... RM2100 is approximately 1.53 Mb and includes the 46 kb megaplasmid pCL2100. Also present within the strain RM2100 genome is a 36 kb putative prophage, termed CLIE1, which is similar to CJIE4, a putative prophage present within the C. jejuni RM1221 genome. Nearly all (90%) of the gene content...... in strain RM2100 is similar to genes present in the genomes of other characterized thermotolerant campylobacters. However, several genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and energy metabolism, identified previously in other Campylobacter genomes, are absent from the C. lari RM2100 genome. Therefore, C...

  17. Cloning and alignment of WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Cong-cong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To clone the WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni, and analyse its relationship with WaaF genetic evolution. Methods Amplified WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei by PCR, and constructed pGEM-T-WaaF cloning plasmid. Downloaded five WaaF associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and one WaaF not associated with GBS, and then constructed phylogenetic tree. Results pGEM-T-WaaF cloning plasmid was constructed successfully. WaaF presented cluster phenomenon in Campylobacter jejuni associated with GBS. Conclusion WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei is the fragment of 807 bp, and has the nearest relationship with the genetic evolution of Lichang.

  18. Quantitative risk assessment of human campylobacteriosis associated with thermophilic Campylobacter species in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Nielsen, N. L.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard;

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment comprising the elements hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization has been prepared to assess the effect of different mitigation strategies on the number of human cases in Denmark associated with thermophilic...... Campylobacter spp. in chickens. To estimate the human exposure to Campylobacter from a chicken meal and the number of human cases associated with this exposure, a mathematical risk model was developed. The model details the spread and transfer of Campylobacter in chickens from slaughter to consumption and the...... covers the transfer of Campylobacter during food handling in private kitchens. The age and sex of consumers were included in this module to introduce variable hygiene levels during food preparation and variable sizes and compositions of meals. Finally, the outcome of the exposure assessment modules was...

  19. The Prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a Free-Range Broiler Breeder Flock Was Primarily Affected by Flock Age

    OpenAIRE

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D.; Ruth Layton; Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter successfully colonizes broiler chickens, but little is known about the longer term natural history of colonization, since most flocks are slaughtered at an immature age. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter colonizing a single free-range broiler breeder flock was investigated over the course of a year. The age of the flock was the most important factor in determining both the prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter over time. There was no correl...

  20. Heterogeneity of Campylobacter species isolated from serial stool specimens of Egyptian children using pulsed field gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Atef M. El-Gendy; Wasfy, Momtaz O.; Adel M. Mansour; Buhari T. Oyofo; Marwa M. Yousry; John D Klena

    2013-01-01

    Background: The genus Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of human acute bacteria lenteritis and travellers’ diarrhoea worldwide.Objective: To determine whether multiple serial isolations of Campylobacter spp., when obtained from a single child, represented the same or a different organism.Methods: In a birth cohort study conducted in Egypt, numerous children showed serial isolations of Campylobacter spp. Of these, 13 children were selected from different households based on the successive i...

  1. Significance of flagella in colonization resistance of rabbits immunized with Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovskis, O R; Rollins, D M; Haberberger, R L; Green, A. E.; Habash, L; Strocko, S; Walker, R I

    1991-01-01

    Cross-protection among different Lior and Penner serogroups of Campylobacter spp. was studied. Rabbits were orally immunized by gastric feeding with Campylobacter spp., and 27 to 30 days later, they were challenged with matched or unmatched serogroups by the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea (RITARD) procedure. When immunized animals were challenged with different Lior serotypes, no protection against colonization was seen; however, when challenged with homologous Lior serogroups...

  2. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Williams, N.; Merga, Y.; Cerda Cuellar, M.; Dolz, R.; Wieczorek, K.; Osek, J; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Wagenaar, J.; Bolder, N. M.; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This study was part of the EU financed project CamCon. The objective of the study was to identify on-farm risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks based on comparable data from six European countries. The data included explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning production, farm management procedures and conditions, climate data on mean temperature, sunshine hours, precipitation, as well as data on Campylobacter status of broiler flocks. Overall, the study...

  3. Survey of thermophilic Campylobacter species in cats and dogs in north-western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adewale Kolawale; Junaidu U. Abdulkadir; Abdullahi A. Magaji; Mohammed D. Salihu

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in north-western Nigeria to investigate the role of cats and dogs as potential reservoirs of thermophilic Campylobacter species. Faecal samples were analysed from 104 cats and 141 dogs between March 2007 and March 2009. The samples were collected from animals in households, those presented to veterinary premises and feline colonies. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 (27.7%) and 19 (18.3%) dogs and cats, respectively. There was no significant difference in isola...

  4. Phenotypic and Genotypic Evidence for l-Fucose Utilization by Campylobacter jejuni▿

    OpenAIRE

    Muraoka, Wayne T.; Zhang, Qijing

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains among the leading causes of bacterial food-borne illness. The current understanding of Campylobacter physiology suggests that it is asaccharolytic and is unable to catabolize exogenous carbohydrates. Contrary to this paradigm, we provide evidence for l-fucose utilization by C. jejuni. The fucose phenotype, shown in chemically defined medium, is strain specific and linked to an 11-open reading frame (ORF) plasticity region of the bacterial chromosome. By constructi...

  5. Growth capacity of thermotolerant campylobacters in culture media supplemented with pig and cow blood

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Tresierra-Ayala; Manuel Navas; Josué Flores; Ramsés Perea; Juan Huanaquiri; María Bendayán; Heriberto Fernández

    2010-01-01

    In this work 60 thermotolerant Campylobacter strains (37 C. jejuni and 23 C. coli) isolated from the cows, pigs, chickens and ducks (15 strains of each type of animal) were used to establish their growth capacity on media containing cow or swine blood as potential substitutes of sheep or horse blood. The growth capacity was assessed by viable counts on cow and swine blood media, using the modified Miles and Misra method. Campylobacter strains showed better growth in the media supplemented wit...

  6. A study of the oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements of thermophilic campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, F J; Coates, D.

    1983-01-01

    The oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements of different biotypes of thermophilic campylobacters were investigated by means of (a) quantitative studies, and (b) total growth studies. Oxygen tolerance of the five test organisms differed markedly and varied with the carbon dioxide concentration. At most carbon dioxide concentrations tested, Campylobacter jejuni strains NCTC 11168 and NCTC 11392 tolerated 21% oxygen (growth reduced), C coli NCTC 11353 tolerated 15% oxygen (growth reduced), and C ...

  7. Effect of distillers feedstuffs and lasalocid on Campylobacter carriage in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin C; Harvey, Roger B; Wickersham, Tryon A; MacDonald, Jim C; Ponce, Christian H; Brown, Mike; Pinchak, William E; Osterstock, Jason B; Krueger, Nathan; Nisbet, David J

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are foodborne pathogens that can colonize the gut of food animals. Limited in their ability to ferment sugars, Campylobacter can derive energy for growth via amino acid catabolism. The objectives of the present studies were to test whether supplemental distillers grains containing high amounts of rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid may, by promoting amino acid flow to the lower bovine gut, increase intestinal carriage of Campylobacter. In study one, 10 steers (5 per treatment) were adapted to diets formulated to achieve 0 or 30% dried distillers grains. After an initial 14-day adaptation to the basal diet, control and treated steers were fed their respective diets for 23 days, after which time they were fed supplemental lasalocid for an additional 8 days, followed by a 5-day withdrawal. In study two, 24 steers preacclimated to a basal diet were adapted via 3-day periodic increases to dietary treatments formulated to achieve 0, 30, or 60% wet corn distillers grains with solubles. Analysis of Campylobacter bacteria cultured from duodenal and fecal samples in study one and from fecal samples in study two revealed no effect of dried distillers grains or wet corn distillers grains with solubles on the prevalence or concentrations of duodenal or fecal Campylobacter. The results from study one indicated that colonized steers, regardless of treatment, harbored higher Campylobacter concentrations when transitioned to the basal diet than when coming off pasture. Campylobacter carriage was unaffected by lasalocid. These results provide no evidence that feeding distillers grains high in rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid contributes to increased intestinal carriage of Campylobacter in fed cattle.

  8. Development of a Chemically Defined Medium suitable for [35S]-methionine labeling of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Rosenquist, Hanne; Knøchel, Susanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is a micro-aerobic foodborne pahtogenic bacteria generally regarded as one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in humans worlwoide. Consumption and handling of fresh poultry meat are considered the primary sources of campylobacteriosis in Denmark.......Campylobacter jejuni is a micro-aerobic foodborne pahtogenic bacteria generally regarded as one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in humans worlwoide. Consumption and handling of fresh poultry meat are considered the primary sources of campylobacteriosis in Denmark....

  9. Molecular Subtype Analyses of Campylobacter spp. from Arkansas and California Poultry Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Hiett, K. L; Stern, N. J.; Fedorka-Cray, P.; Cox, N. A.; Musgrove, M. T.; Ladely, S.

    2002-01-01

    Campylobacter isolates from diverse samples within broiler production and processing environments were typed by using flaA short variable region DNA sequence analysis. Sixteen flocks from four different farms representing two broiler producers in Arkansas and California were analyzed. Fourteen of the flocks (87.5%) were Campylobacter-positive; two remained negative throughout the 6-week rearing period. In general, multiple clones were present within a flock. Additionally, clones found within ...

  10. Controlling Campylobacter in the chicken meat chain - Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mangen MJJ; Havelaar AH; Nauta MJ; de Koeijer AA; de Wit GA; LEI; Animal Sciences Group (ASG); PZO; MGB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the estimation of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of various interventions to control Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat. The relative risk, the intervention costs, the disease burden (expressed in Disability Adjusted Live Years (DALYs)) and the costs-of-illness for the various interventions were all estimated in previous studies within the CARMA (CAmpylobacter Risk Management and Assessment) project, and were inputs for the current calculations. The cos...

  11. Multicenter Evaluation of Clinical Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Patrick, Mary; Gonzalez, Anthony; Akin, Joshua; Polage, Christopher R; Wymore, Kate; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Xavier, Karen; Sadlowski, Jennifer; Monahan, Jan; Hurd, Sharon; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Jerris, Robert; Watson, Renee; Santovenia, Monica; Mitchell, David; Harrison, Cassandra; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; DeMartino, Mary; Pentella, Michael; Razeq, Jafar; Leonard, Celere; Jung, Carrianne; Achong-Bowe, Ria; Evans, Yaaqobah; Jain, Damini; Juni, Billie; Leano, Fe; Robinson, Trisha; Smith, Kirk; Gittelman, Rachel M; Garrigan, Charles; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-05-01

    The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of Campylobacter in stool is increasing. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen CIDTs compared to culture and PCR for Campylobacter detection. Between July and October 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of Campylobacter selective media, four commercial stool antigen assays, and a commercial PCR assay. Illnesses from which specimens were positive by one or more culture media or at least one CIDT and PCR were designated "cases." A total of 95 specimens (3.4%) met the case definition. The stool antigen CIDTs ranged from 79.6% to 87.6% in sensitivity, 95.9 to 99.5% in specificity, and 41.3 to 84.3% in positive predictive value. Culture alone detected 80/89 (89.9% sensitivity) Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli-positive cases. Of the 209 noncases that were positive by at least one CIDT, only one (0.48%) was positive by all four stool antigen tests, and 73% were positive by just one stool antigen test. The questionable relevance of unconfirmed positive stool antigen CIDT results was supported by the finding that noncases were less likely than cases to have gastrointestinal symptoms. Thus, while the tests were convenient to use, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Campylobacter stool antigen tests were highly variable. Given the relatively low incidence of Campylobacter disease and the generally poor diagnostic test characteristics, this study calls into question the use of commercially available stool antigen CIDTs as standalone tests for direct detection of Campylobacter in stool. PMID:26962088

  12. Characterization of the Structurally Diverse N-Linked Glycans of Campylobacter Species

    OpenAIRE

    Jervis, Adrian J.; Butler, Jonathan A.; Lawson, Andrew J.; Langdon, Rebecca; Wren, Brendan W.; Linton, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni encodes an extensively characterized N-linked protein glycosylation system that modifies many surface proteins with a heptasaccharide glycan. In C. jejuni, the genes that encode the enzymes required for glycan biosynthesis and transfer to protein are located at a single pgl gene locus. Similar loci are also present in the genome sequences of all other Campylobacter species, although variations in gene content and organization are evident. In th...

  13. Novel gastric helicobacters and oral campylobacters are present in captive and wild cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Cinthia G.; Matteo, Mario J; Loureiro, Julio D.; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Vay, Carlos; Catalano, Mariana; Heredia, Sergio Rodríguez; Mantero, Paula; Boccio, Jose R.; Zubillaga, Marcela B.; Cremaschi, Graciela A.; Solnick, Jay V.; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian gastric and oral mucosa may be colonized by mixed Helicobacter and Campylobacter species, respectively, in individual animals. To better characterize the presence and distribution of Helicobacter and Campylobacter among marine mammals, we used PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis to examine gastric and oral samples from ten dolphins (Tursiops gephyreus), one killer whale (Orcinus orca), one false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), and three wild La Plata river dolphins (Pontopor...

  14. A pre-enrichment step is essential for detection of Campylobacter sp. in turbid pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulreesh, H H; Paget, T A; Goulder, R

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to detect Campylobacter species from naturally contaminated turbid pond water by PCR. A total of 16 water samples were collected from a turbid village pond. Four methods of DNA extraction were applied to centrifuge pellets from eight 100 ml pond water samples prior to attempted detection of Campylobacter by PCR without an enrichment step. These methods were (1) Tris-HCl and sodium dodecyl sulfate followed by phenol:chloroform:isoamylalcohol extraction followed by treatment with DNA clean up kit, (2) proteinase K, (3) Chelex® 100, and (4) boiling. The other eight pond water samples (10 ml and 100 ml) were filtered and filters were incubated overnight in Preston enrichment broth. The centrifuge pellets obtained from enrichment cultures were treated by proteinase K for DNA extraction. Primers CF03 and CF04 for the flagellin genes (flaA and flaB) of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were used for amplifying the extracted DNA. The DNA extracted from eight-100 ml pond water samples that were not subject to selective enrichment was never amplified with primers CF03 and CF04, hence Campylobacter was not detected. In contrast, the DNA that was from samples that were subjected to a selective enrichment step in Preston broth prior to PCR assay always gave amplified bands of 340-380 bp, therefore the presence of Campylobacter was confirmed. Detection of campylobacters from naturally contaminated, turbid, environmental water may not be feasible by direct PCR assay because of low numbers and the presence of high concentration of humic matter and other PCR inhibitors. The enrichment of water samples in selective broth, however, facilitated PCR detection of Campylobacter probably by increasing cell number and by diluting PCR inhibitors.

  15. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Skånseng

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A major bottleneck in understanding zoonotic pathogens has been the analysis of pathogen co-infection dynamics. We have addressed this challenge using a novel direct sequencing approach for pathogen quantification in mixed infections. The major zoonotic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, with an important reservoir in the gastrointestinal (GI tract of chickens, was used as a model. We investigated the co-colonisation dynamics of seven C. jejuni strains in a chicken GI infection trial. The seven strains were isolated from an epidemiological study showing multiple strain infections at the farm level. We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature (treated with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host and not the background flora that is important in determining the Campylobacter colonisation pattern. Our results showed that mainly two of the seven C. jejuni strains dominated the Campylobacter flora in the chickens, with a shift of the dominating strain during the infection period. We propose a model in which multiple C. jejuni strains can colonise a single host, with the dominant strains being replaced as a consequence of strain-specific immune responses. This model represents a new understanding of C. jejuni epidemiology, with future implications for the development of novel intervention strategies.

  16. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A

    2016-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. PMID:26841300

  17. Influence of measurement and control of microaerobic gaseous atmospheres in methods for Campylobacter growth studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macé, Sabrina; Haddad, Nabila; Zagorec, Monique; Tresse, Odile

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in the world. For this reason, this pathogen is widely studied. As a microaerophilic and capnophilic microorganism, this foodborne pathogen requires an atmosphere with reduced oxygen (O2) and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations for its optimal growth in vitro. According to the procedure for Campylobacter spp. isolation and cultivation from food products and environmental samples, European and American standards recommend gas proportions of 5% O2 and 10% CO2, complemented with nitrogen (N2). However, in the literature, the reported proportion of O2 for microaerobic growth conditions of Campylobacter spp. can range from 2.5% to 15% and the reason for this variation is usually not explained. The use of different gas generating systems and media to detect and to grow Campylobacter from foodstuff and the lack of information about gas producing systems are the main sources of the loss of consistancy between data. In this review, the relevance, strengths and weaknesses of these methods and their impact on Campylobacter biology are discussed. In conclusion the minimum information concerning microaerobic gaseous atmospheres are suggested in order to better harmonize data obtained from research studies for a better understanding of Campylobacter features.

  18. Effect of refrigeration and frozen storage on the Campylobacter jejuni recovery from naturally contaminated broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike T. Maziero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common thermophilic Campylobacter associated with human enteritis in many countries. Broilers and their by-products are the main sources for human enteritis. Refrigeration and freezing are used to control bacterial growth in foods. The effect of these interventions on survival of Campylobacter jejuni is yet not quite understood. This study evaluated the effect of storage temperature on the survival of C. jejuni in chicken meat stored for seven days at 4ºC and for 28 days at -20ºC. The influence of selective enrichment on recovery of Campylobacter was also evaluated. Thirty fresh chicken meat samples were analyzed and 93.3% was contaminated with termotolerant Campylobacter spp. with average count of 3.08 Log10 CFU/g on direct plating. After refrigeration, 53.3% of the analyzed samples tested positive for Campylobacter and the average count was 1.19 Log10 CFU/g. After storage at -20ºC, 36.6% of the samples were positive with a verage count of 0.75 Log10 CFU/g. C. jejuni was detected after enrichment, respectively, in 50% of the fresh, 36.7% of the refrigerated and 33.3% of the frozen meat samples analyzed. No difference was detected for the recovery of C. jejuni from fresh, refrigerated or frozen samples after selective enrichment, showing that this microorganism can survive under the tested storage conditions.

  19. Survey of thermophilic Campylobacter species in cats and dogs in north-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Kolawale

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in north-western Nigeria to investigate the role of cats and dogs as potential reservoirs of thermophilic Campylobacter species. Faecal samples were analysed from 104 cats and 141 dogs between March 2007 and March 2009. The samples were collected from animals in households, those presented to veterinary premises and feline colonies. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 (27.7% and 19 (18.3% dogs and cats, respectively. There was no significant difference in isolation rate observed between dogs (27.7% and cats (18.3% and there was also no significance difference between younger and older dogs; 23.1% (young compared to 30.3% (older dogs, but a significant difference was seen between young (4.3% and older (29.3% cats. Campylobacter upsaliensis predominated in the isolates, accounting for 89.5% and 74.4% of the positive samples in cats and dogs, respectively, C. jejuni constituted 21.1% and 23.1% of the positive samples from cats and dogs, respectively. This finding is an indication that dogs and cats frequently shed thermophilic Campylobacter spp. which could be of public health importance. To establish the zoonotic significance of canine and feline Campylobacter, isolates need to be further characterised and compared. This is the first study on the prevalence of campylobacter in cats and dogs in the region.

  20. A comparison of self-reported joint symptoms following infection with different enteric pathogens: effect of HLA-B27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiellerup, P.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Locht, H.

    2008-01-01

    with positive fecal culture for Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and E. coli were addressed by questionnaires inquiring about gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the occurrence of joint pain in a previously healthy joint within 4 weeks after onset of infection. A blood sample was requested for HLA......-B27 typing. RESULTS: Of 3146 patients invited, 2105 (67%) responded to the survey questionnaire. The triggering infections were Campylobacter, 1003; Salmonella, 619; E. coli, 290; Shigella, 102; and Yersinia, 91. JPrea was reported by 294 subjects: Campylobacter, 131 (13.1%); Salmonella, 104 (16.......8%); Yersinia, 21 (23.1%); Shigella, 10 (9.8%); and E. coli, 28 (9.7%). There was a significant association between severity of gastroenteritis and development of arthralgia (p = 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for JPrea in an HLA-B27-positive individual was 2.62 (95% CI 1.67-3.93) for the entire group...