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Sample records for campylobacter infections

  1. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... reactive arthritis or Guillain-Barre syndrome. To prevent Campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  2. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the most common Campylobacter species associated with diarrhea . Common ways that a child can get the ... and Symptoms Illness caused by Campylobacter infections includes diarrhea, stomach pain, and fever. Blood may be present ...

  3. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contact with fecal matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread the bacteria to people. ... preparing food. Clean and disinfect toilets after the person with diarrhea uses them. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands ...

  4. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26062576

  5. Experimental Campylobacter Jejuni Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Blaser MJI Black RE. Duncan DJ, Amer I. Campylobacter Clements ML, Robins-Brone R, Lim Y-L. Duration of jejuni -specific serum antibodies are elevated in...SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING •4UMBERS Experimental Campylobacter jejuni Infection 86PP6826 in Humans 61102A 30161102BS13 AB6. AUTHOR(S)DA328 Robert E. Black...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Contract Title: Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development ൔa• DISTRIBUTION

  6. Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  7. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon V. R. Epps

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions.

  8. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon V. R.; Harvey, Roger B.; Hume, Michael E.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Anderson, Robin C.; Nisbet, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions. PMID:24287853

  9. Milk-borne campylobacter infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D A; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    The common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. C jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. Pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. In England and Wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk s...

  10. Update on human Campylobacter jejuni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Tribble, David R

    2011-01-01

    The present review will update the reader to the clinical, epidemiological and immunologic advances in the field of human campylobacteriosis. New advances in human campylobacteriosis include an increased appreciation of the role of Campylobacter jejuni in postinfectious sequelae, a broadened understanding of Campylobacter-associated disease burden and the interplay between host immunity and bacterial factors. Antibiotic management has also become more complex: C. jejuni has undergone a rapid increase in resistance to the fluoroquinolone antibiotics and concurrently, postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome has been associated with a longer duration of untreated infection. In anticipation of new candidate C. jejuni vaccines, progress in understanding human immune responses to infection has been made via human experimental infections. These tightly controlled studies have also increased our understanding of the natural history of campylobacteriosis as well as observations of recrudescent infection following treatment with C. jejuni-sensitive antibiotics. As one of the most common agents of bacterial gastroenteritis and a major health burden for both developing world and industrialized nations, Campylobacter infections remain a high priority for research efforts to improve prevention and management. Priorities for the future include vaccine development, pathogen-specific immunity and identification of risk factors for postinfectious sequelae.

  11. Campylobacter: animal reservoirs, human infections, and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap; Newell, D.G.; Kalupahana, R.S.; Mughini Gras, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  12. Climate variability and campylobacter infection: an international study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari Kovats, R.; Edwards, Sally J.; Charron, Dominique; Cowden, John; D'Souza, Rennie M.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Gauci, Charmaine; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Hajat, Shakoor; Hales, Simon; Hernández Pezzi, Gloria; Kriz, Bohumir; Kutsar, Kuulo; McKeown, Paul; Mellou, Kassiani; Menne, Bettina; O'Brien, Sarah; Pelt, Wilfrid; Schmid, Hans

    2005-03-01

    Campylobacter is among the most important agents of enteritis in developed countries. We have described the potential environmental determinants of the seasonal pattern of infection with campylobacter in Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Specifically, we investigated the role of climate variability on laboratory-confirmed cases of campylobacter infection from 15 populations. Regression analysis was used to quantify the associations between timing of seasonal peaks in infection in space and time. The short-term association between weekly weather and cases was also investigated using Poisson regression adapted for time series data. All countries in our study showed a distinct seasonality in campylobacter transmission, with many, but not all, populations showing a peak in spring. Countries with milder winters have peaks of infection earlier in the year. The timing of the peak of infection is weakly associated with high temperatures 3 months previously. Weekly variation in campylobacter infection in one region of the UK appeared to be little affected by short-term changes in weather patterns. The geographical variation in the timing of the seasonal peak suggests that climate may be a contributing factor to campylobacter transmission. The main driver of seasonality of campylobacter remains elusive and underscores the need to identify the major serotypes and routes of transmission for this disease.

  13. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  14. Clinical aspects of Campylobacter jejuni infections in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, M C

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an almost ubiquitous, microaerophilic, gram-negative rod. Outbreaks have been associated with drinking raw milk or contaminated water and eating poultry. Campylobacter jejuni accounts for 3.2% to 6.1% of cases of diarrheal illness in the general population of the United States, and infected patients frequently present with abdominal pain and fever. Less frequently, C jejuni is responsible for bacteremia, septic arthritis, septic abortion, and other extraintestinal infe...

  15. Clinical Manifestations of Campylobacter concisus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. METHODS:: A study was performed during a two-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient...... with Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection. RESULTS:: Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two diarrheic stool samples from 1,867 children were cultured for pathogenic enteric bacteria during the study period, and 85 and 109 children with C. concisus and C. jejuni/coli, respectively, were identified. Comparison...... for more than two weeks and two-thirds of all children with C. concisus reported loose stools after six month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:: Campylobacter concisus infection in children seems to have a milder course of acute gastroenteritis compared with C. jejuni/coli infection, but is associated with more...

  16. Campylobacter coli infection in pet birds in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pace, Antonino; Romano, Violante; D'Orazio, Stefano; Varriale, Lorena; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2017-01-06

    Avian species are considered as the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, few data are available on the presence of this microorganism in pet birds. This study was therefore performed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pet birds bred in southern Italy. Faecal samples were collected from 88 cages housing different species of pet birds and examined by bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 13.6% of the cage samples were positive for Campylobacter coli. Other Campylobacter spp. were not found. The study shows that C. coli can be isolated from the cages of apparently healthy pet birds, which should therefore be considered as potential carriers of C. coli and a possible source of infection for humans and companion animals.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection. In this

  18. First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Stenram, U.; Andersen, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C. concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize...

  19. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Wołkowicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-22

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  20. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  1. Mouse Models for Campylobacter jejuni Colonization and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Martin; Graef, Franziska A; Vallance, Bruce A

    2017-01-01

    Relevant animal models for Campylobacter jejuni infection have been difficult to establish due to C. jejuni's inability to cause disease in many common animal research models. Fortunately, recent work has proven successful in developing several new and relevant mouse models of C. jejuni infection, including the SIGIRR-deficient mouse strain that develops acute enterocolitis in response to C. jejuni. Here we describe how to properly infect mice with C. jejuni, as well as a number of accompanying histological techniques to aid in studying C. jejuni colonization and infection in mice.

  2. Myocarditis related to Campylobacter jejuni infection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Christine H

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocarditis can develop as a complication of various infections and is most commonly linked to enterovirus infections. Myocarditis is rarely associated with bacterial infections; salmonellosis and shigellosis have been the most frequently reported bacterial cause. We report a case of myocarditis related to Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. Case Presentation A 30-year-old previously healthy man presented with a history of prolonged chest pain radiating to the jaw and the left arm. Five days prior to the onset of chest pain, he developed bloody diarrhea, fever and chills. Creatine kinase (CK and CK-MB were elevated to 289 U/L and 28.7 μg/L. Troponin I was 30.2 μg/L. The electrocardiogram (ECG showed T wave inversion in the lateral and inferior leads. The chest pain resolved within 24 hours of admission. The patient had a completely normal ECG stress test. The patient was initiated on ciprofloxacin 500 mg po bid when Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the stool. Diarrhea resolved within 48 hours of initiation of ciprofloxacin. The diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis and related myocarditis was made based on the clinical and laboratory results and the patient was discharged from the hospital in stable condition. Conclusion Myocarditis can be a rare but severe complication of infectious disease and should be considered as a diagnosis in patients presenting with chest pain and elevated cardiac enzymes in the absence of underlying coronary disease. It can lead to cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. There are only a few reported cases of myocarditis associated with Campylobacter infection.

  3. Raw milk - boiling protects against infection with Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2016-01-01

    It is known that raw milk can contain microorganisms that are harmful to health. In light of the increasing number of machines where raw milk is sold via raw milk vending systems, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) has assessed the risk for food infections with the Campylobacter bacterium resulting from the milk dispensed from these raw milk vending machines. The assessment also addresses the question of whether the more frequent occurrence of outbreaks of illness due to Campylob...

  4. Campylobacter infection in urban and rural populations in Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbald, C. J.; Sharp, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A review of campylobacter infection in Scotland over five years (1978-82), during which 7808 human isolates were recorded (mean annual isolation rate of 30 per 100000), revealed differences in the epidemiology of the disease between rural and urban populations which were not apparent in the national data. The incidence of infection in the two rural areas studied was greatest in the early months of the year, whereas that in the two urban areas showed a third-quarter predominance. In both urban...

  5. A case of defibrillator-associated infective endocarditis due to Campylobacter fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sękowska, A; Fabiszak, T; Mikucka, A; Andrzejewska, M; Kruszyńska, E; Gospodarek, E; Klawe, J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. are Gram-negative, spiral motile bacteria. Infections caused by Campylobacter fetus are frequently of invasive character, but they are very rare. The described case of infection of a cardioverter defibrillator implantation site was effectively cured with antibiotics, but it required removal of the cardioverter defibrillator.

  6. Clinical manifestations of Campylobacter concisus infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-11-01

    There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. A study was performed during a 2-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus-positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient was defined as a child or teenager (Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection. Two thousand three hundred seventy-two diarrheic stool samples from 1867 children were cultured for pathogenic enteric bacteria during the study period, and 85 and 109 children with C. concisus and C. jejuni/coli, respectively, were identified. Comparison of the acute clinical manifestations in 44 C. concisus patients with those in 64 C. jejuni/coli patients showed a significantly lower prevalence of fever, chills and blood in stools in the former. However, half of C. concisus patients compared with one-fourth of C. jejuni/coli patients had prolonged diarrhea for more than 2 weeks and two-thirds of all children with C. concisus reported loose stools after 6-month follow-up. C. concisus infection in children seems to have a milder course of acute gastroenteritis compared with C. jejuni/coli infection but is associated with more prolonged diarrhea. Children with C. concisus have the same degree of late gastrointestinal complaints as children diagnosed with C. jejuni/coli infection.

  7. Campylobacter infection in children in Malawi is common and is frequently associated with enteric virus co-infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer Mason

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. However, comparatively few studies have determined the epidemiological features of campylobacteriosis in resource-poor settings.A total of 1,941 faecal specimens collected from symptomatic (diarrhoeic children and 507 specimens from asymptomatic (non-diarrhoeic children hospitalised in Blantyre, Malawi, between 1997 and 2007, and previously tested for the presence of rotavirus and norovirus, was analysed for C. jejuni and C. coli using a real time PCR assay.Campylobacter species were detected in 415/1,941 (21% of diarrhoeic children, with C. jejuni accounting for 85% of all cases. The median age of children with Campylobacter infection was 11 months (range 0.1-55 months, and was significantly higher than that for children with rotavirus and norovirus (6 months and 7 months respectively; P<0.001. Co-infection with either rotavirus or norovirus was noted in 41% of all cases in the diarrhoeic group. In contrast, the detection rate of Campylobacter in the non-diarrhoeic group was 14%, with viral co-infection identified in 16% of children with Campylobacter. There was no association between Campylobacter detection rate and season over the 10 year period.Using molecular detection methodology in hospitalised Malawian children, we have demonstrated a high prevalence of Campylobacter infection, with frequent viral co-infection. The burden of Campylobacter infection in young African children may be greater than previously recognised.

  8. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved.

  9. Effect of acidified feed on suscebtibility of broiler chickens to intestinal infection by Campylobacter and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Engel, B.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is associated with human Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. One way to control the presence of these bacteria in broiler flocks is to make chickens less susceptible for colonisation. Acidification of feed may be a tool to reduce the Campylobacter and Salmonella

  10. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early colon...

  11. A one-year study of campylobacter carriage by individual Danish broiler chickens as the basis for selection of Campylobacter spp. strains for a chicken infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Nielsen, E.M.; Knudsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    (.)5 %). Campylobacter isolates were typed using Penner heat-stable serotyping and flaA-typing methods. Data of campylobacter carriage by individual chickens and data generated by the use of different typing methods contributed to a better understanding of the dynamics of campylobacter infection within the broiler...... flocks. C. jejuni Penner heat-stable serotype HS2, flaA-type 1 was the most common type found in Danish broiler chickens....

  12. Does Campylobacter jejuni infection elicit "demyelinating" Guillain-Barre syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, S; Ogawara, K; Misawa, S; Koga, M; Mori, M; Hiraga, A; Kanesaka, T; Hattori, T; Yuki, N

    2004-08-10

    Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is the most common antecedent infection in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). C. jejuni-related GBS is usually acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), but previous reports described many cases of the demyelinating subtype of GBS (acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy [AIDP]) after C. jejuni infection. To investigate whether C. jejuni infection elicits AIDP. In 159 consecutive patients with GBS, antibodies against C. jejuni were measured using ELISA. Antecedent C. jejuni infection was determined by the strict criteria of positive C. jejuni serology and a history of a diarrheal illness within the previous 3 weeks. Electrodiagnostic studies were performed weekly for the first 4 weeks, and sequential findings were analyzed. There was evidence of recent C. jejuni infection in 22 (14%) patients. By electrodiagnostic criteria, these patients were classified with AMAN (n = 16; 73%) or AIDP (n = 5; 23%) or as unclassified (n = 1) in the first studies. The five C. jejuni-positive patients with the AIDP pattern showed prolonged motor distal latencies in two or more nerves and had their rapid normalization within 2 weeks, eventually all showing the AMAN pattern. In contrast, patients with cytomegalovirus- or Epstein-Barr virus-related AIDP (n = 13) showed progressive increases in distal latencies in the 8 weeks after onset. Patients with C. jejuni-related Guillain-Barré syndrome can show transient slowing of nerve conduction, mimicking demyelination, but C. jejuni infection does not appear to elicit acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

  13. Campylobacter infection as a trigger for Guillain-Barré syndrome in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Wierzba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies of Campylobacter infection triggering Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS are conducted in western nations were Campylobacter infection and immunity is relatively rare. In this study, we explored Campylobacter infections, Campylobacter serotypes, autoantibodies to gangliosides, and GBS in Egypt, a country where Campylobacter exposure is common. METHODS: GBS cases (n = 133 were compared to age- and hospital-matched patient controls (n = 374. A nerve conduction study was performed on cases and a clinical history, serum sample, and stool specimen obtained for all subjects. RESULTS: Most (63.3% cases were demyelinating type; median age four years. Cases were more likely than controls to have diarrhea (29.5% vs. 22.5%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa = 1.69, P = 0.03, to have higher geometric mean IgM anti-Campylobacter antibody titers (8.18 vs. 7.25 P<0.001, and to produce antiganglioside antibodies (e.g., anti-Gd1a, 35.3 vs. 11.5, ORa = 4.39, P<0.0001. Of 26 Penner:Lior Campylobacter serotypes isolated, only one (41:27, C. jejuni, P = 0.02 was associated with GBS. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike results from western nations, data suggested that GBS cases were primarily in the young and cases and many controls had a history of infection to a variety of Campylobacter serotypes. Still, the higher rates of diarrhea and greater antibody production against Campylobacter and gangliosides in GBS patients were consistent with findings from western countries.

  14. Clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Choi, Yukyung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Genus Campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. Human Campylobacter infections have caused more concern. Campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. The major zoonotic species are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, which mostly reside in the intestines of avian species and are transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated poultry products, thus causing human gastroenteritis and other diseases as sequelae. The other campylobacters, human oral species, include C. concisus, C. showae, C. gracilis, C. ureolyticus, C. curvus, and C. rectus. These species are isolated from the oral cavity, natural colonization site, but have potential clinical relevance in the periodontal region to varying extent. Two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are believed to be mainly associated with intestinal diseases, but recent studies suggested that oral Campylobacter species also play a significant role in intestinal diseases. This review offers an outline of the two Campylobacter groups (zoonotic and human oral), their virulence traits, and the associated illnesses including gastroenteritis.

  15. Foodborne Disease Prevention and Broiler Chickens with Reduced Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003–2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006–2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks. PMID:23628089

  16. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks......) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp....... positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during the summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among...

  17. The effect of presence of infected neighbouring farms for the Campylobacter infection status in Danish broiler farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Sharmin; Sandberg, Marianne; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Neighbourhood risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broilers were evaluated. Campylobacter infection status of a flock was identified by PCR analysis of cloacal swab samples collected as a part of national surveillance program. Included into the study were, in total, 10,876 broiler...... flocks sent by 226 farms to processing plants from 2007 to 2009. A multivariable logistic regression model with autocorrelation structure was used to model the effect of exposure variables on the probability of being tested positive to Campylobacter. Results showed a significant protective effect...... with the absence of infected neighbours within a distance of 2km. The analysis was adjusted for potential confounding factors. Seasonal cyclic patterns of the Campylobacter infection was accounted for by using sine and cosine function. Predicted probability maps showed a heterogeneous spatial and temporal risk...

  18. Impact of human Campylobacter infections in Southeast Asia: The contribution of the poultry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premarathne, Jayasekara Mudiyanselage Krishanthi Jayarukshi Kumari; Satharasinghe, Dilan Amila; Huat, John Tang Yew; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-12-12

    Campylobacter is globally recognized as a major cause of foodborne infection in humans, whilst the development of antimicrobial resistance and the possibility of repelling therapy increase the threat to public health. Poultry is the most frequent source of Campylobacter infection in humans, and southeast Asia is a global leader in poultry production, consumption, and exports. Though three of the world's top 20 most populated countries are located in southeast Asia, the true burden of Campylobacter infection in the region has not been fully elucidated. Based on published data, Campylobacter has been reported in humans, animals, and food commodities in the region. To our knowledge, this study is the first to review the status of human Campylobacter infection in southeast Asia and to discuss future perspectives. Gaining insight into the true burden of the infection and prevalence levels of Campylobacter spp. in the southeast Asian region is essential to ensuring global and regional food safety through facilitating improvements in surveillance systems, food safety regulations, and mitigation strategies.

  19. Susceptibility to Campylobacter infection is associated with the species composition of the human fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicksved, Johan; Ellström, Patrik; Engstrand, Lars; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-09-16

    The gut microbiota is essential for human health, but very little is known about how the composition of this ecosystem can influence and respond to bacterial infections. Here we address this by prospectively studying the gut microbiota composition before, during, and after natural Campylobacter infection in exposed poultry abattoir workers. The gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S amplicon sequencing of fecal samples from poultry abattoir workers during the peak season of Campylobacter infection in Sweden. The gut microbiota compositions were compared between individuals who became culture positive for Campylobacter and those who remained negative. Individuals who became Campylobacter positive had a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.007) and Escherichia (P = 0.002) species than those who remained culture negative. Furthermore, this group had a significantly higher abundance of Phascolarctobacterium (P = 0.017) and Streptococcus (P = 0.034) sequences than the Campylobacter-negative group, which had an overrepresentation of Clostridiales (P = 0.017), unclassified Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.008), and Anaerovorax (P = 0.015) sequences. Intraindividual comparisons of the fecal microbiota compositions yielded small differences over time in Campylobacter-negative participants, but significant long-term changes were found in the Campylobacter-positive group (P microbiota reduces resistance to Campylobacter colonization in humans and that Campylobacter infection can have long-term effects on the composition of the human fecal microbiota. Studies using mouse models have made important contributions to our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in resistance to bacterial enteropathogen colonization. The relative abundances of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides species have been pointed out as important determinants of susceptibility to Gram-negative pathogens in general and Campylobacter infection in particular. In this study, we assessed the

  20. Association of Campylobacter jejuni infection with childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Veena; Chaudhry, Rama; Dua, Tarun; Dhawan, Benu; Sahu, Jitendra K; Mridula, B

    2009-06-01

    A prospective case-control study was conducted to determine the association between Campylobacter jejuni infection and childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome in the Indian population. We found evidence of recent Campylobacter jejuni infection in 27.7% of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, as compared with 2.3% in neurological controls (P = .003) and 2.3% in nonneurological controls (P = .003). Of the 15 patients with Campylobacter jejuni infection, 8 (53.3%) reported having had diarrhea within 12 weeks before the onset of the neurologic illness. Our results suggest association between recent Campylobacter jejuni infection and bulbar weakness (P = .043). No statistical difference was observed between the Campylobacter jejuni positive and negative groups with respect to age, other clinical features, albuminocytological dissociation, and residual paralysis at follow-up. It is concluded that subclinical Campylobacter jejuni infection is an important antecedent illness in childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome in the Indian population.

  1. Study of the infectivity of saline-stored Campylobacter jejuni for day-old chicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became noncultu......The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became......-campylobacter outer membrane protein serum antibodies in day-old chicks did not protect the chicks from campylobacter colonization....

  2. Host-pathogen interactions in Campylobacter infections: the host perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Cawthraw, S.A.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Owen, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. This study was aimed at summarizing the current understanding of host mechanisms involved in the defense against Campylobacter by evaluating data available from three sources: (i) epidemiological observations, (ii)

  3. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  4. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  5. The influence of age on Campylobacter jejuni infection in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zifeng; Pielsticker, Colin; Gerzova, Lenka; Rychlik, Ivan; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2016-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni)-host-interaction may be affected by the maturation stage of the chicken's immune system and the developing gut microbiota composition. We compared these parameters between birds C. jejuni-inoculated at day one, 10, 22 and 31 post hatch. The highest C. jejuni-colonization rate and numbers of colony forming units (CFU) were detected in caecal content of day-one-inoculated birds while the lowest was detected in 22-days-old birds. The low bacterial colonization of 22-days-old chickens correlated with the most prominent immune reactions in this age group in comparison to other age groups. Age and C. jejuni-inoculation had a significant effect on lymphocyte numbers and cytokine expression levels in caecum as well as on gut flora composition. Overall, the immune response to C. jejuni is significantly influenced by the age of the infected chickens leading to differences in C. jejuni-colonization pattern between age goups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Unilateral Oculomotor Nerve Palsy Following Campylobacter Infection: A Mild Form of Miller Fisher Syndrome without Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tatsuya; Kon, Tomoya; Kurihara, Ai-Ichiro; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2017-11-01

    Unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy can result from various neurological disorders. We herein report the case of a 68-year-old man with complete unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy following campylobacter infection. Based on the antecedent infection and the patient's decreased tendon reflexes, incomplete Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) without ataxia was suspected. His serum tested positive for anti-GQ1b antibodies. He recovered over a period of 87 days without immunotherapy. We conclude that incomplete MFS following campylobacter infection can cause unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy without ataxia. Mild MFS should be considered in patients presenting with unilateral isolated ophthalmoplegia and decreased tendon reflexes.

  7. Validation of an ELISA for the diagnosis of recent Campylobacter infections in Guillain-Barré and reactive arthritis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, C. W.; Krogfelt, K.; Herbrink, P.; Keijser, J.; van Pelt, W.; Dalby, T.; Kuijf, M.; Jacobs, B. C.; Bergman, M. P.; Schiellerup, P.; Visser, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    Weeks or months following Campylobacter infection, a small proportion of infected individuals develop Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or reactive arthritis (ReA). Stool culture for Campylobacter is often negative in these patients, and serology is therefore the method of choice for diagnosing a recent

  8. Monitoring chicken flock behaviour provides early warning of infection by human pathogen Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colles, Frances M; Cain, Russell J; Nickson, Thomas; Smith, Adrian L; Roberts, Stephen J; Maiden, Martin C J; Lunn, Daniel; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2016-01-13

    Campylobacter is the commonest bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in humans, and chicken meat is the major source of infection throughout the world. Strict and expensive on-farm biosecurity measures have been largely unsuccessful in controlling infection and are hampered by the time needed to analyse faecal samples, with the result that Campylobacter status is often known only after a flock has been processed. Our data demonstrate an alternative approach that monitors the behaviour of live chickens with cameras and analyses the 'optical flow' patterns made by flock movements. Campylobacter-free chicken flocks have higher mean and lower kurtosis of optical flow than those testing positive for Campylobacter by microbiological methods. We show that by monitoring behaviour in this way, flocks likely to become positive can be identified within the first 7-10 days of life, much earlier than conventional on-farm microbiological methods. This early warning has the potential to lead to a more targeted approach to Campylobacter control and also provides new insights into possible sources of infection that could transform the control of this globally important food-borne pathogen. © 2016 The Authors.

  9. Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Campylobacter Infections Associated with Reduced Growth in Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwenyth; Pan, William; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Tilley, Drake; Gregory, Michael; Oberhelman, Richard; Burga, Rosa; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Kosek, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Background Although diarrheal illnesses are recognized as both a cause and effect of undernutrition, evidence for the effect of specific enteropathogens on early childhood growth remains limited. We estimated the effects of undernutrition as a risk factor for campylobacteriosis, as well as associations between symptomatic and asymptomatic Campylobacter infections and growth. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from a prospective cohort of 442 children aged 0–72 months, the effect of nutritional status on the incidence of Campylobacter infection was estimated using uni- and multivariate Poisson models. Multivariate regression models were developed to evaluate the effect of Campylobacter infection on weight gain and linear growth. Overall, 8.3% of diarrheal episodes were associated with Campylobacter (crude incidence rate = 0.37 episodes/year) and 4.9% of quarterly asymptomatic samples were Campylobacter positive. In univariate models, the incidence of Campylobacter infection was marginally higher in stunted than non-stunted children (IRR 1.270, 95% CI (0.960, 1.681)(p = 0.095). When recent diarrheal burdens were included in the analysis, there was no difference in risk between stunted and unstunted children. Asymptomatic and symptomatic Campylobacter infections were associated with reduced weight gain over a three-month period (65.5 g (95% CI: −128.0, −3.0)(p = 0.040) and 43.9 g (95% CI:−87.6, −1.0)(p = 0.049) less weight gain, respectively). Symptomatic Campylobacter infections were only marginally associated with reduced linear growth over a nine month period (−0.059 cm per episode, 95% CI: −0.118, 0.001)(p = 0.054), however relatively severe episodes were associated with reduced linear growth (−0.169 cm/episode, 95% CI −0.310, −0.028)(p = 0.019). Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that Campylobacter is not as benign as commonly assumed, and that there is evidence to support expanding the indications for

  10. [Acute pancreatitis - association with a Campylobacter coli-infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, C; Schneider, J; Teyssen, S; Huppertz, H-I

    2007-09-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with intermittent abdominal pain and 9 kg weight loss within 3 weeks. Gastroscopy showed no pathological findings, coloscopy showed a colitis limited to the left flexure. Histology revealed a sustained infectious enterocolitis. A culture of the patient's stool was positive for CAMPYLOBACTER COLI. Because of the recurrent abdominal discomfort and weight loss the patient was admitted to the hospital. Ultrasound and multislice spiral computed tomography showed an acute oedematous pancreatitis. No other causes for the pancreatitis were found, the only remaining possibility was a CAMPYLOBACTER COLI-associated pancreatitis. Under symptomatic therapy the patient recovered definitively. An administration of antibiotics was not necessary.

  11. Recrudescent Campylobacter jejuni infection in an immunocompetent adult following experimental infection with a well-characterized organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqar, Shahida; Tribble, David R; Carmolli, Marya; Sadigh, Katrin; Poly, Frederic; Porter, Chad; Larsson, Catherine J; Pierce, Kristen K; Guerry, Patricia; Darsley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Beth

    2010-01-01

    The recrudescence of infection with Campylobacter jejuni after appropriate antibiotic treatment has not been previously reported in an immunocompetent adult. We present the complete clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic evaluation of a closely monitored healthy male with recrudescent C. jejuni infection occurring in the absence of immunodeficiency following experimental infection with a well-characterized strain. After antibiotic treatment, the initial infection was clinically cleared and microbiologically undetectable. Subsequently, two episodes of recrudescence occurred, with no change in in vitro antibiotic sensitivity being detected. The immune responses of the individual were compared to those of other participants in the experimental infection study: innate immune responses, including fecal cytokines and C-reactive protein, were intact; however, measures of Campylobacter-specific adaptive immune responses were absent, including serum antibodies, antibody-secreting cells, and in vitro gamma interferon responses. No primary or secondary immunodeficiency was identified. Recrudescent Campylobacter infections after treatment may be more common than has previously been appreciated. This work adds to our understanding of the human immune response to natural Campylobacter infection and reiterates the importance of pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses to this globally important pathogen.

  12. Recrudescent Campylobacter jejuni Infection in an Immunocompetent Adult following Experimental Infection with a Well-Characterized Organism▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqar, Shahida; Tribble, David R.; Carmolli, Marya; Sadigh, Katrin; Poly, Frederic; Porter, Chad; Larsson, Catherine J.; Pierce, Kristen K.; Guerry, Patricia; Darsley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Beth

    2010-01-01

    The recrudescence of infection with Campylobacter jejuni after appropriate antibiotic treatment has not been previously reported in an immunocompetent adult. We present the complete clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic evaluation of a closely monitored healthy male with recrudescent C. jejuni infection occurring in the absence of immunodeficiency following experimental infection with a well-characterized strain. After antibiotic treatment, the initial infection was clinically cleared and microbiologically undetectable. Subsequently, two episodes of recrudescence occurred, with no change in in vitro antibiotic sensitivity being detected. The immune responses of the individual were compared to those of other participants in the experimental infection study: innate immune responses, including fecal cytokines and C-reactive protein, were intact; however, measures of Campylobacter-specific adaptive immune responses were absent, including serum antibodies, antibody-secreting cells, and in vitro gamma interferon responses. No primary or secondary immunodeficiency was identified. Recrudescent Campylobacter infections after treatment may be more common than has previously been appreciated. This work adds to our understanding of the human immune response to natural Campylobacter infection and reiterates the importance of pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses to this globally important pathogen. PMID:19923572

  13. Bacteriophages to combat foodborne infections caused by food contamination by bacteria of the Campylobacter genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Myga-Nowak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that each year more than 2 million people suffer from diarrheal diseases, resulting from the consumption of contaminated meat. Foodborne infections are most frequently caused by small Gram-negative rods Campylobacter. The hosts of these bacteria are mainly birds wherein they are part of the normal intestinal flora. During the commercial slaughter, there is a likelihood of contamination of carcasses by the bacteria found in the intestinal content. In Europe, up to 90% of poultry flocks can be a reservoir of the pathogen. According to the European Food Safety Authority report from 2015, the number of reported and confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis exceeds 200 thousands per year, and such trend remains at constant level for several years. The occurrence of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria forces the limitation of antibiotic use in the animal production. Therefore, the European Union allows only using stringent preventive and hygienic treatment on farms. Achieving Campylobacter free chickens using these methods is possible, but difficult to implement and expensive. Utilization of bacterial viruses – bacteriophages, can be a path to provide the hygienic conditions of poultry production and food processing. Formulations applied in the food protection should contain strictly lytic bacteriophages, be non-pyrogenic and retain long lasting biological activity. Currently, on the market there are available commercial bacteriophage preparations for agricultural use, but neither includes phages against Campylobacter. However, papers on the application of bacteriophages against Campylobacter in chickens and poultry products were published in the last few years. In accordance with the estimates, 2-logarithm reduction of Campylobacter in poultry carcases will contribute to the 30-fold reduction in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Research on bacteriophages against Campylobacter have cognitive and economic

  14. Increased Incidence of Campylobacter spp. Infection and High Rates among Children, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Nissan, Israel; Agmon, Vered; Peretz, Chava

    2013-01-01

    During 1999–2010, the annual incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection in Israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. Children 26-fold higher than for the 30–<50 age group. PMID:24188185

  15. Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Campylobacter jejuni Infection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurun Nahar Mawla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, a neurologic disease that produces ascending paralysis, affects people all over the world. Acute infectious illness precedes 50%-75% of the GBS cases. Although many infectious agents have been associated with GBS, the strongest documented association is with Campylobacter infection. The first line of evidence supporting Campylobacter infection as a trigger of GBS is anecdotal reports. The second line of evidence is serological surveys, which have demonstrated that sera from GBS patients contain anti Campylobacter jejuni antibodies, consistent with recent infection. Finally, culture studies have proven that a high proportion of GBS patients have C. jejuni in their stools at the time of onset of neurological symptoms. One of every 1058 Campylobacter infections results in GBS. Sialic acid containing lipooligosaccharides (LOS biosynthesis gene locus are associated with GBS and the expression of ganglioside mimicking structures. GM1a was the most prevalent ganglioside mimic in GBS associated strains. Molecular mimicry between C. jejuni LOS and gangliosides in human peripheral nerves, and cross-reactive serum antibody precipitate the majority of GBS cases in Bangladesh, like worldwide.

  16. Gene expression profiling of innate immune response to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the bursa of broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a commensal microorganism in chickens, but caused significant health problems in humans. Reduction of C. jejuni colonization in the chicken gut will significantly decrease human campylobacteriosis. To study host response to C. jejuni infection in broilers, both ...

  17. Health burden of infections with thermophilic Campylobacter species in the Netherlands, 1990 - 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; Wit MAS de; Koningsveld R van; MGB; CIE

    2000-01-01

    Infection with thermophilic Campylobacter spp. (mainly C. jejuni) usually leads to an episode of acute gastro-enteritis, which resolves within a few days to a few weeks. Occasionally, more severe and prolonged diseases may be induced, notably Guillain-Barre syndrome, reactive arthritis or

  18. Relapsing Campylobacter jejuni Systemic Infections in a Child with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ariganello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is a primary immunodeficiency of the humoral compartment, due to a mutation in the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK gene, characterized by a severe defect of circulating B cells and serum immunoglobulins. Recurrent infections are the main clinical manifestations; although they are especially due to encapsulated bacteria, a specific association with Campylobacter species has been reported. Here, we report the case of a boy with XLA who presented with relapsing Campylobacter jejuni systemic infections. His clinical history supports the hypothesis of the persistence of C. jejuni in his intestinal tract. Indeed, as previously reported, XLA patients may become chronic intestinal carriers of Campylobacter, even in absence of symptoms, with an increased risk of relapsing bacteraemia. The humoral defect is considered to be crucial for this phenomenon, as well as the difficulties to eradicate the pathogen with an appropriate antibiotic therapy; drug resistance is raising in Campylobacter species, and the appropriate duration of treatment has not been established. C. jejuni should always be suspected in XLA patients with signs and symptoms of systemic infection, and treatment should be based on antibiogram to assure the eradication of the pathogen.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...

  20. Campylobacter infection has different outcomes in fast- and slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L K; Sait, L C; Trantham, E K; Cogan, T A; Humphrey, T J

    2013-06-01

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently carried by poultry, but they are not believed to cause significant disease in these animals. Modern poultry breeds have been selected to grow rapidly under intensive conditions, but recently, consumers have moved toward purchasing birds produced in higher welfare, free-range or organic systems. Birds reared in these systems tend to be a slower growing breed and are fed a different diet. Birds reared in such systems are stocked at a lower density compared with the standard conventional broilers, and they have access to environmental enrichment, such as perches. In previous research, these slower growing birds have been shown to have different levels of Campylobacter carriage in commercial rearing conditions, but the reasons for, and effect of, these different levels are unknown; is it the bird breed, diet, or environmental conditions? In this study, experimental flocks of fast- and slow-growing breeds of broiler chickens were reared to a standard commercial slaughter weight, with their weight gain being measured during the growing period. At 21 days, birds were either infected with Campylobacter jejuni or given a placebo as control. Cohorts of birds were euthanatized at various intervals, and samples were taken for examination for Campylobacter. The fast-growing birds gained weight more rapidly than the slow-growing birds. By 2 days postinfection (dpi), C. jejuni was detected in the caeca and by enrichment from the liver and spleen samples from both breeds of birds. Low-level colonization persisted in the spleen and liver samples but was undetectable by 28 dpi. Fast- and slow-growing birds did not show detectably different levels of Campylobacter carriage. Infection with C. jejuni affected the incidence of hock marks and pododermatitis in both breeds of birds, but the differences were greater with the fast-growing breed compared with the uninfected control birds. In addition, the incidence of pododermatitis was significantly higher

  1. Campylobacter infection in 682 bulgarian patients with acute enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and other chronic intestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Gergova, Galina; Spassova, Zoya; Koumanova, Radka; Yaneva, Penka; Mitov, Ivan; Derejian, Sirigan; Krastev, Zacharii

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess Campylobacter infections in 309 patients with acute enterocolitis, 272 patients with relapses of chronic enterocolitis, 70 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (involving Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) and 31 patients with other chronic intestinal illnesses. Isolation and identification were performed conventionally. Limited agar dilution method was used for susceptibility testing of the strains. Campylobacter species were isolated in patients with acute enterocolitis (7.8%), chronic enterocolitis (6.2%), Crohn's disease (6.2%), ulcerative colitis (3.7%), and irritable bowel syndrome (8.3%). Hippurate-positive Campylobacter jejuni isolates accounted for 62.2% of Campylobacter strains. One tetracycline resistant Campylobacter upsaliensis isolate was detected from a girl with acute enterocolitis. Resistance rates to erythromycin (31.1%) and clarithromycin (22.2%) were high, whereas those to amoxicillin/clavulanate (4.4%), ampicillin/sulbactam (13.3%), tetracycline (24.4%) and ciprofloxacin (22.2%) were relatively low. Resistance to erythromycin and either tetracycline or ciprofloxacin was detected in 8.9% and 6.7%. The involvement of Campylobacter infection in relapses of chronic intestinal disorders and the susceptibility patterns of the strains strongly emphasize the role of Campylobacter as a cause of infection in this group of patients.

  2. Most Campylobacter subtypes from sporadic infections can be found in retail poultry products and food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.; Fussing, V.; Engberg, J.

    2006-01-01

    The subtypes of Campylobacter isolates from human infections in two Danish counties were compared to isolates from retail food samples and faecal samples from chickens, pigs and cattle. During a 1-year period, 1285 Campylobacter isolates from these sources were typed by two methods: 'Penner' heat......-stable serotyping and automated ribotyping (RiboPrinting). C. jejuni was the dominating species, but C. coli was more prevalent among food and chicken isolates (16%) compared to human isolates (4%). In total, 356 different combined sero-ribotypes (subtypes) were found. A large subtype overlap was seen between human...... isolates and isolates from food (66%), chickens (59%) and cattle (83%). This was verified by PFGE typing of 212 isolates representing selected subtypes. All frequent (n > 3) subtypes found in food were also present in humans. Sixty-one per cent of the isolates from domestically acquired infections had...

  3. Risk factors for indigenous Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections in The Netherlands: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduyn, Y.; Brandhof, van den W.E.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.H.P.; Breukink, B.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Pelt, van W.

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study comprising 1315 Campylobacter jejuni cases, 121 Campylobacter coli cases and 3409 frequency-matched controls was conducted in The Netherlands in 2002-2003. Risk factors for both C. jejuni and C. coli enteritis were consumption of undercooked meat and barbecued meat, ownership of

  4. Serologic Evidence of Previous Campylobacter jejuni Infection in Patients with the Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-15

    Guillain - Barre syndrome . N Engl J Med.1992;326: ular serotype of C. jejuni , Penner type 019, was asso- 1130-6. ciated with...51. with the Guillain -Barrd syndrome who had previous 15. Ropper AN. Campylobacter diarrhea and Guillain - Barre syndrome . C. jejuni infection...with the Guillain - Barre 90PP0820 Syndrome Ban Mishu, M.D.; Amjad A. Ilyas, Ph.D.; Carol L. Koski, M.D.; Francine Vriesendorp, M.D.; Stuart D. Cook,

  5. Effects of a Campylobacter jejuni infection on the development of the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, C. H.; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Finster, K.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a Campylobacter jejuni colonization on the development of the microflora of the cecum and the ileum of broiler chickens was studied using molecular methods. The infection did affect the development and complexity of the microbial Communities of the ceca, but we found no permanent ef....... Some of these DGGE bands could be affiliated with Lactobacillus reuteri, Clostridium perfringens, and the genus Klebsiella....

  6. Intestinal colonization of broiler chickens by Campylobacter spp. in an experimental infection study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    was attributed to broiler chickens and a minor part to isolators, whereas infection trials did not affect the total variance. The results showed that pooled samples within isolators had lower c.f.u./g compared to the arithmetic mean of the individual samples. There was a significant correlation between faecal c...... infection trials, using four isolators during each infection trial to evaluate colonization of individual broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni over time. Individual and pooled faecal samples were obtained at days 4, 7 and 12 post-inoculation (p.i.) and caecal samples at day 12 p.i. There were large...

  7. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Sandberg, M; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Data from the Quality Assurance System in Danish Broiler Production (KIK system) were analyzed to identify within farm biosecurity- and management-related risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler flocks. In the study, data from 2,835 flocks originating from 187 farms in the time...... logistic regression model with a random effect of farm was performed. The analysis revealed that flocks had a higher risk of acquiring positive infection status during summer time: odds ratio = 12.59 (95% CI: 6.79–23.36) and when more than one person entered the broiler house: odds ratio = 2.03 (95% CI: 1...

  8. Immune responses to Campylobacter (C. jejuni or C. coli) infections: a two-year study of US forces deployed to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Dilara; Ruamsap, Nattaya; Aksomboon, Ajchara; Khantapura, Patchariya; Srijan, Apichai; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is a leading cause of diarrheal disease among US troops deployed to Thailand for exercise. We investigated the importance of immunological analysis and immune responses against Campylobacter infection in US troops deployed to Thailand. Blood and fecal samples were collected from volunteered soldiers with diarrhea and from healthy controls. Stool culture was performed to identify the pathogens. Campylobacter-specific antibodies, antibody secreting cells and cytokines were measured. Several bacterial protein fragments in the outer membrane extract of Campylobacter spp., were identified by an immunoblot analysis with plasma and fecal antibodies. Among all of the diarrheal cases, 35% were Campylobacter-positive. Based on antibody titers in plasma and in fecal extract and antibody secreting cells: 6% of healthy controls, 32% of the Campylobacter culture-negative diarrheal cases, and 85% of the Campylobacter culture-positive diarrheal cases were positive for Campylobacter. Our results indicate that the measurement of Campylobacter-specific antibodies in plasma and fecal extract samples is a good marker of exposure to Campylobacter, and this test may be a useful diagnostic tool for seroepidemiological studies. Elicited antibodies against several bacterial outer membrane protein fragments suggest that these protein fragments are vital in providing protective immunity against Campylobacter. © 2014 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Assessment of chicken protection against Campylobacter jejuni infection by immunization with avirulent Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium strain producing Campylobacter CjaD/Pal protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łaniewski P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pawel Laniewski,1 Malgorzata Lis,2 Agnieszka Wyszynska,1 Pawel Majewski,3 Renata Godlewska,1 Elzbieta Katarzyna Jagusztyn-Krynicka11Department of Bacterial Genetics, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 2Biowet Pulawy Ltd, Pulawy, Poland; 3Department of Vertebrate Physiology, Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, PolandAbstract: Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen, causing gastroenteritis worldwide. Chickens are considered to be one of the most common sources of human C. jejuni infection in developed countries. Campylobacter CjaD/Pal protein (annotated as Cj0113 in C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 is a highly immunogenic, membrane-located antigen, conserved among different strains, with the potential to provide broad protection against C. jejuni colonization. The present study examines the immunogenicity and the general efficacy of avirulent S. enterica sv. Typhimurium Δcrp Δcya expressing C. jejuni CjaD as a chicken vaccine against Campylobacter colonization. The high copy number plasmid pYA3341 Asd+ was used as a cloning vector. Here, 1- and 14-day old chickens were orally immunized with a delivery vector strain, expressing C. jejuni CjaD. Two weeks later, they were challenged with a wild-type C. jejuni strain isolated from chicken carcasses. This schedule of immunization induced significant levels of serum-specific IgG as well as mucosal intestinal sIgA as measured by ELISA tests using Campylobacter membrane proteins as a coating antigen. Nevertheless, protection experiments did not result in significant reduction of colonization of vaccinated birds relative to nonvaccinated birds.Keywords: Campylobacter, cjaD, immunization, Pal

  10. Using Galleria mellonella as an Infection Model for Campylobacter jejuni Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askoura, Momen; Stintzi, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Nonmammalian model systems of infection have been employed recently to study bacterial virulence. For instance, Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth) has been shown to be susceptible to infection by many bacterial pathogens including the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the traditional animal models for C. jejuni such as the chick colonization model and ferret diarrheal model, the Galleria mellonella infection model has the advantages of lower cost, ease of use and no animal breeding is required. However, injecting the larvae with bacteria requires care to avoid killing of larvae, which could lead to misleading results. Here, we describe the infection of G. mellonella larvae by C. jejuni and how to record/interpret results.

  11. Microfluidics meets metabolomics to reveal the impact of Campylobacter jejuni infection on biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Mercier, Kelly A; McRitchie, Susan; Cavallo, Tammy B; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Stewart, Delisha; Sumner, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    Microfluidic devices that are currently being used in pharmaceutical research also have a significant potential for utilization in investigating exposure to infectious agents. We have established a microfluidic device cultured with Caco-2 cells, and utilized metabolomics to investigate the biochemical responses to the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. In the microfluidic devices, Caco-2 cells polarize at day 5, are uniform, have defined brush borders and tight junctions, and form a mucus layer. Metabolomics analysis of cell culture media collected from both Caco-2 cell culture systems demonstrated a more metabolic homogenous biochemical profile in the media collected from microfluidic devices, compared with media collected from transwells. GeneGo pathway mapping indicated that aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis was perturbed by fluid flow, suggesting that fluid dynamics and shear stress impacts the cells translational quality control. Both microfluidic device and transwell culturing systems were used to investigate the impact of Campylobacter jejuni infection on biochemical processes. Caco-2 cells cultured in either system were infected at day 5 with C. jejuni 81-176 for 48 h. Metabolomics analysis clearly differentiated C. jejuni 81-176 infected and non-infected medias collected from the microfluidic devices, and demonstrated that C. jejuni 81-176 infection in microfluidic devices impacts branched-chain amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. In contrast, no distinction was seen in the biochemical profiles of infected versus non-infected media collected from cells cultured in transwells. Microfluidic culturing conditions demonstrated a more metabolically homogenous cell population, and present the opportunity for studying host-pathogen interactions for extended periods of time.

  12. Prevalence and seasonality of campylobacter infections in the Primorsko - Goranska County (Croatia during 2007

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    Brigita Tićac

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the prevalence of campylobacter infections in the Primorsko-Goranska County(Croatia and find out possible connection between the prevalence and environmental factors (the averagemonthly temperature and rainfall.Methods The data (number of stool samples examined, age and sex of the patients, monthly distributionof isolates and distribution of isolates according to the species from the Laboratory for Diagnostics ofEnteric Infections of the Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-Goranska County for theyear 2007 were analysed retrospectively. Meteorological data were obtained from the Croatian Meteorologicaland Hydrological Service and demographical data from the Republic of Croatia - CentralBureau of Statistics.Results During that year 7,105 stool samples were examined for Campylobacter spp. Campylobacterswere found in 561 samples (7.89% but first isolates were identified in 310 cases and among themCampylobacter jejuni was found in 279 (90% and C. coli in 31 (10% cases. The patients were mostlychildren under four years of age (with the incidence of 669.21 cases/100,000 and young adults (20 - 29years what resulted in the incidence of 116.24 cases/100,000. The highest numbers of Campylobacterspp. isolates were seen in July and August but the isolations were still frequent in September and October,which was in a positive correlation with the average monthly temperature (p=0.028, but there wasno correlation with the rainfall (p=0.61.Conclusions Our findings show bimodal age distribution of patients typical for developed countries.Seasonal variation is also noticed but it is not completely consistent with climate factors. Further investigationsof the incidence of campylobacteriosis and connection with the routes of transmission inhumans as well as the causes of seasonality are necessary.

  13. Campylobacter bacteremia: A rare and under-reported event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.; Vliet, van A.H.M.; Belkum, van A.; Hays, J.P.; Endtz, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are

  14. Clinical Predictors of Shigella and Campylobacter Infection in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy; Ye, Xiangyang; Stockmann, Chris; Cohen, Daniel; Leber, Amy; Daly, Judy; Jackson, Jami; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Kanwar, Neena; Bender, Jeffery; Bard, Jennifer Dien; Festekjian, Ara; Duffy, Susan; Larsen, Chari; Baca, Tanya; Holmberg, Kristen; Bourzac, Kevin; Chapin, Kimberle C; Pavia, Andrew; Leung, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. While most episodes are self-limiting, for select pathogens such as Shigella and Campylobacter, etiological diagnosis may allow effective antimicrobial therapy and aid public health interventions. Unfortunately, clinical predictors of such pathogens are not well established and are based on small studies using bacterial culture for identification. Methods We used prospectively collected data from a multi-center study of pediatric gastroenteritis employing multi-pathogen molecular diagnostics to determine clinical predictors associated with 1) Shigella and 2) Shigella or Campylobacter infection. We used machine learning algorithms for clinical predictor identification, then performed logistic regression on features extracted plus pre-selected variables of interest. Results Of 993 children enrolled with acute diarrhea, we detected Shigella spp. in 56 (5.6%) and Campylobacter spp. in 24 (2.4%). Compared with children who had neither pathogen detected (of whom, >70% had ≥1 potential pathogen identified), bloody diarrhea (odds ratio 4.0), headache (OR 2.2), fever (OR 7.1), summer (OR 3.3), and sick contact with GI illness (OR 2.2), were positively associated with Shigella, and out-of-state travel (OR 0.3) and vomiting and/or nausea (OR 0.4) were negatively associated (Table). For Shigella or Campylobacter, predictors were similar but season was no longer significantly associated with infection. Conclusion These results can create prediction models and assist clinicians with identifying patients who would benefit from diagnostic testing and earlier antibiotic treatment. This may curtail unnecessary antibiotic use, and help to direct and target appropriate use of stool diagnostics. Disclosures A. Leber, BioFIre Diagnostics: Research Contractor and Scientific Advisor, Research support, Speaker honorarium and Travel expenses J. Daly, Biofire: Grant

  15. Enteric campylobacter: purging its secrets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crushell, Ellen; Harty, Sinead; Sharif, Farhana; Bourke, Billy

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacterial infections are the most common cause of bacterial enterocolitis in humans. Among children, especially in developing countries, Campylobacter infections can cause severe life-threatening diarrheal disease. Although usually associated with a benign outcome in the developed world, the burden of illness posed by Campylobacter infections is enormous, and serious neurologic sequelae also can occur. For a variety of reasons our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of Campylobacter infection has lagged far behind that of other enteric pathogens. However, recent completion of the genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni promises to open up the Campylobacter research field with the prospect of developing novel therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  16. Role of Campylobacter jejuni Infection in the Pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan Kumar Nyati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge on Campylobacter jejuni infections in humans has progressively increased over the past few decades. Infection with C. jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, sometimes surpassing other infections due to Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli. Most infections are acquired due to consumption of raw or undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, and contaminated water. After developing the diagnostic methods to detect C. jejuni, the possibility to identify the association of its infection with new diseases has been increased. After the successful isolation of C. jejuni, reports have been published citing the occurrence of GBS following C. jejuni infection. Thus, C. jejuni is now considered as a major triggering agent of GBS. Molecular mimicry between sialylated lipooligosaccharide structures on the cell envelope of these bacteria and ganglioside epitopes on the human nerves that generates cross-reactive immune response results in autoimmune-driven nerve damage. Though C. jejuni is associated with several pathologic forms of GBS, axonal subtypes following C. jejuni infection may be more severe. Ample amount of existing data covers a large spectrum of GBS; however, the studies on C. jejuni-associated GBS are still inconclusive. Therefore, this review provides an update on the C. jejuni infections engaged in the pathogenesis of GBS.

  17. Experimental infection of specific pathogen-free pigs with Campylobacter: excretion in faeces and transmission to non-inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc Maridor, Mily; Denis, Martine; Lalande, Françoise; Beaurepaire, Bernard; Cariolet, Roland; Fravalo, Philippe; Federighi, Michel; Seegers, Henri; Belloc, Catherine

    2008-10-15

    Campylobacter species are leading agents of human bacterial gastroenteritis and consumption of food of animal origin is a major source of infection. Although pigs are known to frequently exhibit high counts of Campylobacter in their faeces, more information is needed about the dynamics of this excretion. An experimental trial was conducted to evaluate the faecal excretion of Campylobacter by 7-week-old specific pathogen-free piglets inoculated per os with three Campylobacter strains (one C. coli isolated from a pig, one C. coli and one C. jejuni from chickens) alone or simultaneously (5x10(7)CFU/strain). Non-inoculated pigs were housed in adjacent pens. Pigs were monitored for 80 days for clinical signs and by bacteriological analysis of faeces. Pigs inoculated with porcine C. coli or with a mix of the three strains excreted from 10(3) to 10(6)CFU/g of faeces with a slight decrease at the end of the trial. Animals inoculated with poultry C. coli or C. jejuni strain excreted a lower quantity and some of them stopped excreting. At the end of the trial, only C. coli was detected in the faeces of pigs inoculated simultaneously with the three bacteria. Moreover, the transmission of Campylobacter was noticed between pens for the two C. coli strains and all the neighbouring animals became shedders with a level of excretion similar to the inoculated pigs. Intermittence in the Campylobacter excretion was also observed. Finally, our study highlighted a host preference of Campylobacter, namely C. coli seems to have a higher colonization potential for pigs than C. jejuni.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infection in Israel-a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, M; Moran-Gilad, J; Rokney, A; Davidov, Y; Agmon, V; Peretz, C; Valinsky, L

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of Campylobacter infection in Israel, particularly among children Campylobacter jejuni in Israel over a decade (2003-2012) using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) combined with demographic metadata. Representative clinical isolates (438) from a large national repository together with selected veterinary isolates (74) were subject to MLST. The distribution of age groups, ethnicity and clinical source across various genotypes was evaluated using Poisson modelling. The 512 studied isolates were assigned 126 distinct sequence types (STs) (18.8% novel STs) grouped into 21 clonal complexes (CCs). Most human, poultry and bovine STs clustered together in the leading CCs. Three dominant STs (ST21, ST6608, ST4766) were detected only since 2006. Patients infected with the leading CCs were similarly distributed along densely populated areas. The frequency of blood isolates was higher in patients infected with CC353 (relative rate (RR)=2.0, 95% CI 1.03-3.9, adjusted p value (adj.p) 0.047) and CC42 (RR=4.4, 95% CI 1.7-11.6, adj.p 0.018) and lower with CC257 (RR=0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9, adj. p 0.047). The distribution of age groups and ethnicity also varied across the leading CCs. In conclusion, C. jejuni isolates in a national sample appeared highly diverse with a high proportion of new STs. Phylogenic analysis was compatible with poultry and cattle as possible food sources of clinical infection. Demographic characteristics of the infected patients coupled with strain invasiveness across different genotypes revealed a complex epidemiology of C. jejuni transmission in Israel. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Axonal variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with Campylobacter infection in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Z; Jacobs, B C; van Belkum, A; Mohammad, Q D; Islam, M B; Herbrink, P; Diorditsa, S; Luby, S P; Talukder, K A; Endtz, H P

    2010-02-16

    Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is the predominant bacterial infection preceding Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an acute postinfectious immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy. The purpose of this study was to define the clinical phenotype of GBS and the relation with preceding C jejuni infections in Bangladesh. We performed a prospective matched case-control hospital surveillance including 100 patients fulfilling the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for GBS from 2006 to 2007 in the Dhaka area of Bangladesh. Detailed clinical, electrophysiologic, serologic, and microbiologic data were obtained with a follow-up of 6 months. GBS affected predominantly young adult males living in rural areas. Sixty-nine percent of the patients had clinical evidence of a preceding infection. The most frequent symptom was diarrhea (36%). The majority of patients had a pure motor variant of GBS (92%) with relatively infrequent cranial nerve involvement (30%). Twenty-five percent of patients required respiratory support. Electrophysiologic studies showed that 67% of patients had an axonal variant of GBS. Eleven patients (14%) died, and 23 (29%) remained severely disabled during the follow-up. Positive C jejuni serology was found in an unprecedented high frequency of 57% as compared with 8% in family controls and 3% in control patients with other neurologic diseases (p jejuni infection was significantly associated with serum antibodies to the gangliosides GM1 and GD1a, axonal neuropathy, and greater disability. We report an unusually high frequency of the axonal variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Bangladesh, associated with preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection, severe residual disability, and high mortality.

  20. [Campylobacter jejuni infection in patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopyta, Ilona; Wardak, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    The Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acute inflammatory polineuropathy; it's frequency is established at the level of 1,3 cases/ 100 000 persons/ year. The main etiological factors concerned with the GBS occurrence are: Campylobacter jejuni, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barre virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The authors present a case of the 15 years old boy with the clinical features of acute motor axonal polineuropathy and confirmed C. jejuni infection. Identification of C. jejuni isolate was based on colony morphology on CCDA plate (OXOID), characteristic motility, catalase, oxidase, hippurate hydrolysis and acetate hydrolysis. The identity of C. jejuni was also confirmed by a specific PCR. According to the authors' knowledge this is the first case of a patient with GBS with confirmed C. jejuni infection reported from Poland.

  1. Point source outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni infection--are they more common than we think and what might cause them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, I A; O'Brien, S J; Adak, G K; Tam, C C; Frost, J A; Bolton, F J; Tompkins, D S

    2003-06-01

    Despite being the commonest bacterial cause of infectious intestinal disease (IID) in England and Wales, outbreaks of campylobacter infection are rarely reported. However, data from the Campylobacter Sentinel Surveillance Scheme suggested that outbreaks might be more common than was previously suspected, since a high proportion of cases reported other illness in the home or in the community at the same time as their illness. To identify factors that might lead to these apparent outbreaks, the exposures of cases of Campylobacter jejuni infection reporting other illness, either in the home or the community, were compared with those for cases not reporting other illness using case-case methodology. Illness in the home was associated with consuming organic meats in the winter, having contact with a pet suffering from diarrhoea or visiting a farm in the 2 weeks before the onset of symptoms. Illness in the community was associated with the consumption of foods in restaurants or drinking unpasteurized milk. Prevention of campylobacter infection requires that better methods of outbreak detection and investigation are developed, which in turn should lead to a better understanding of risk factors.

  2. Morphologic observations of experimental Campylobacter jejuni infection in the hamster intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, C. D.; Montag, D. M.; Pittman, F. E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a model for the diarrhea and intestinal lesions seen in Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis by colonizing the hamster ileum and cecum with C jejuni. Erythematous inflammation of the ileum and cecum and distention of the cecum with fluid were observed at autopsy. The cecal mucosa appeared edematous. Epithelial abnormalities observed by light microscopy included focal edema, occasional hyperplasia, diffuse hyperemia, and infiltration of the lamina propria with leukocytes. C jejuni-like bacteria penetrated the epithelium and were seen in the lamina propria of infected animals but not in uninfected controls. Diverse microvillus lesions, including elongation, shortening, blebbing, and denudation, were seen by transmission electron microscopy. Occasional cytoplasmic aberrations included vacuoles, some containing C jejuni-like bacteria, swollen endoplasmic reticulum, and enlarged mitochondria. Campylobacter structures were vibrio and S-shaped types. Some C jejuni organisms had corrugated screwlike structures wrapped around their circumferences. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3942198

  3. Isolation of a novel thermophilic Campylobacter from cases of spotty liver disease in laying hens and experimental reproduction of infection and microscopic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Tim R; Chanter, Jeremy I; Young, Stuart C L; Cawthraw, Shaun; Whatmore, Adrian M; Koylass, Mark S; Vidal, Ana B; Salguero, Francisco J; Irvine, Richard M

    2015-09-30

    The condition known as spotty liver disease or spotty liver syndrome can cause significant mortality in free range laying hen flocks. It has been described in Europe and Australia but the aetiology has not been established. There are similarities between spotty liver disease and avian vibrionic hepatitis, a condition which was reported in the 1950s. A Vibrio-like organism was suspected to be the cause of avian vibrionic hepatitis, although this organism was never fully characterised. We report the isolation of a novel Campylobacter from five separate outbreaks of spotty liver disease. The conditions required for culture, the growth characteristics, electron microscopical morphology and results of the phenotypic tests used in the identification of this novel Campylobacter sp. are described. The novel Campylobacter is slow growing and fastidious and does not grow on media routinely used for isolating Campylobacter sp. The morphology is typical for a Campylobacter sp. and phenotypic tests and a duplex real time PCR test differentiate the novel Campylobacter from other members of the genus. 16S rRNA analysis of 19 isolates showed an identical sequence which appears to represent a hitherto unknown sub lineage within the genus Campylobacter. Experimental intraperitoneal infection of four week old SPF chickens produced microscopic liver pathology indistinguishable from natural disease and the novel Campylobacter was recovered from the experimentally infected chicks. The isolates described appear to be a possible causal organism for spotty liver disease. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interleukin-18 Mediates Immune Responses to Campylobacter jejuni Infection in Gnotobiotic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereswill, Stefan; Alutis, Marie E; Grundmann, Ursula; Fischer, André; Göbel, Ulf B; Heimesaat, Markus M

    2016-01-01

    Human Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively rising worldwide. Information about the molecular mechanisms underlying campylobacteriosis, however, are limited. In the present study we investigated whether cytokines such as IL-23, IL-22 and IL-18, which share pivotal functions in host immunity, were involved in mediating intestinal and systemic immunopathological responses upon C. jejuni infection. To assure stable infection, gnotobiotic (i.e. secondary abiotic) IL-23p19-/-, IL-22-/- and IL-18-/- mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Following peroral C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection, mice of all genotypes harbored comparably high pathogenic loads in their intestines. As compared to wildtype controls, however, IL-18-/- mice displayed less distinct C. jejuni induced sequelae as indicated by less pronounced large intestinal shrinkage and lower numbers of apoptotic cells in the colonic epithelial layer at day 8 postinfection (p.i.). Furthermore, lower colonic numbers of adaptive immune cells including regulatory T cells and B lymphocytes were accompanied by less distinct secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IFN-γ and lower IL-17A mRNA expression levels in colonic ex vivo biopsies of infected IL-18-/- as compared to wildtype mice. Upon C. jejuni infection, colonic IL-23p19 expression was up-regulated in IL-18-/- mice only, whereas IL-22 mRNA levels were lower in uninfected and infected IL-23p19-/- as well as infected IL-18-/- as compared to respective wildtype control mice. Remarkably, not only intestinal, but also systemic infection-induced immune responses were less pronounced in IL-18-/- mice as indicated by lower TNF, IFN-γ and IL-6 serum levels as compared to wildtype mice. We here show for the first time that IL-18 is essentially involved in mediating C. jejuni infection in the gnotobiotic mouse model. Future studies need to further unravel the underlying regulatory mechanisms orchestrating pathogen

  5. Host resistance to primary and secondary Campylobacter jejuni infections in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucković, Darinka; Abram, Maja; Bubonja, Marina; Wraber, Branka; Dorić, Miljenko

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been known as a main causative agent of human enterocolitis for more than 30 years. This has prompted the research on defence mechanisms of the host involved. Although the humoral immune response to C. jejuni has been addressed in many studies, relatively little is known about the role of T lymphocytes in campylobacteriosis. The current study was based on in vivo T-cell subsets depletion to evaluate the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in disseminated C. jejuni infection in C57BL/6 mice. Depletion of either CD8+ or CD4+ cells did not change the overall infection kinetics of primary campylobacteriosis. To assess the role of T cells in acquired immunity that develops during primary infection in C57BL/6 mice, in vivo depletions were performed during reinfection. Depletion of CD4+ cells did not have any effect on secondary infection kinetics, whereas depletion of CD8+ cells resulted in secondary liver infection that failed to resolve during the observed period. This study showed that both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells contribute to protection of C57BL/6 mice against C. jejuni. However, the predominant role resides in the CD8+ cell subpopulation. The exact mechanisms by which CD8+ cells operate during the course of campylobacteriosis will be the subject of our further research.

  6. The natural antimicrobial carvacrol inhibits Campylobacter jejuni motility and infection of epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke B van Alphen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural compounds with anti-microbial properties are attractive reagents to reduce the use of conventional antibiotics. Carvacrol, the main constituent of oregano oil, inhibits the growth of a variety of bacterial foodborne pathogens. As concentrations of carvacrol may vary in vivo or when used in animal feed, we here investigated the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of the compound on major virulence traits of the principal bacterial foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Motility assays revealed that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol inhibited the motility of C. jejuni without affecting bacterial growth. Immunoblotting and electron microscopy showed that carvacrol-treated C. jejuni still expressed flagella. The loss of motility was not caused by reduced intracellular ATP levels. In vitro infection assays demonstrated that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol also abolished C. jejuni invasion of human epithelial cells. Bacterial uptake of invasive Escherichia coli was not blocked by carvacrol. Exposure of C. jejuni to carvacrol prior to infection also inhibited cellular infection, indicating that the inhibition of invasion was likely caused by an effect on the bacteria rather than inhibition of epithelial cell function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Bacterial motility and invasion of eukaryotic cells are considered key steps in C. jejuni infection. Our results indicate that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol effectively block these virulence traits by interfering with flagella function without disturbing intracellular ATP levels. These results broaden the spectrum of anti-microbial activity of carvacrol and support the potential of the compound for use in novel infection prevention strategies.

  7. Feed can be a source of Campylobacter jejuni infection in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M B R; Fonseca, B B; Melo, R T; Mendonça, E P; Nalevaiko, P C; Girão, L C; Monteiro, G P; Silva, P L; Rossi, D A

    2017-02-01

    1. The aim was to determine the importance of a contaminated diet as a possible cause of Campylobacter jejuni infection in broilers. 2. This study evaluated the viability of C. jejuni in both starter and finisher diets and the interference from other mesophilic bacteria in this viability. 3. Starter and finisher samples of broiler diet were deliberately contaminated with 3 or 5 log CFU·g-1 of C. jejuni (NCTC 11351) and then maintained at two different storage temperatures (25°C or 37°C) for 3 or 5 d. 4. C. jejuni survived during this period and, when inoculated at 103 CFU·g-1, multiplied with greater proliferation at a storage temperature of 37°C. There was no relationship between the amount of mesophilic bacteria and C. jejuni viability. 5. This study highlights the importance of the diet in the epidemiology of C. jejuni in broilers.

  8. Virulence genes and cytokine profile in systemic murine Campylobacter coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, Anja; Pogačar, Maja Šikić; Raspor, Peter; Abram, Maja; Možina, Sonja Smole; Vučković, Darinka

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter coli are one of the most common bacteria in bacterial gastroenteritis and acute enterocolitis in humans. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms of pathogenesis and host response to C. coli infections. To investigate the influence of genetic changes, we first used PCR to demonstrate the presence of the known virulence genes cadF, virB11, cdtB, cdtC and ceuE in the clinical isolate C. coli 26536, which was isolated from the liver of infected BALB/c mice. Sequence analyses of the cadF, virB11, cdtB and ceuE genes in C. coli 26536 confirmed the stability in these virulence genes during their transmission through the host. We further investigated C. coli infection for the bacterial clearance from the liver and spleen of infected mice, and for their immune response. C. coli persisted well in both organs, with better survival in the liver. We also determined the levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., interleukin [IL]-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in plasma and in liver homogenates from the infected mice, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The lowest levels among these cytokines were for tumor necrosis factor-α in the plasma and IL-6 in the liver on days 1, 3 and 8 post-infection. The most pronounced production was for IL-10, in both plasma (days 1 and 8 post-infection) and liver (day 8 post-infection), which suggests that it has a role in healing of the organ inflammation. Our findings showed dynamic relationships between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and thus contribute toward clarification of the healing processes involved in the resolution of C. coli infections.

  9. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 reduces infection by and colonization of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Keita; Seto, Yasuyuki; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is a normal inhabitant of the chicken gut. Pathogenic infection with this organism in humans is accompanied by severe inflammation of the intestinal mucosal surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) to inhibit the adhesion and invasion of Campylobacter jejuni in vitro and to suppress C. jejuni colonization of chicks in vivo. Pretreatment with LG2055 significantly reduced adhesion to and invasion of a human epithelial cell line, Intestine 407, by C. jejuni 81-176. Methanol (MeOH)-fixed LG2055 also reduced infection by C. jejuni 81-176. However, proteinase K (ProK)-treated LG2055 eliminated the inhibitory effects. Moreover, LG2055 co-aggregated with C. jejuni 81-176. ProK treatment prevented this co-aggregation, indicating that the co-aggregation phenotype mediated by the proteinaceous cell-surface components of LG2055 is important for reducing C. jejuni 81-176 adhesion and invasion. In an in vivo assay, oral doses of LG2055 were administered to chicks daily for 14 days after oral inoculation with C. jejuni 81-176. At 14 days post-inoculation, chicks treated with LG2055 had significantly reduced cecum colonization by C. jejuni. Reduction in the number of C. jejuni 81-176 cells adhering to and internalized by human epithelial cells demonstrated that LG2055 is an organism that effectively and competitively excludes C. jejuni 81-176. In addition, the results of the chick colonization assay suggest that treatment with LG2055 could be useful in suppressing C. jejuni colonization of the chicks at early growth stages.

  10. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 reduces infection by and colonization of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Nishiyama

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is a normal inhabitant of the chicken gut. Pathogenic infection with this organism in humans is accompanied by severe inflammation of the intestinal mucosal surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055 to inhibit the adhesion and invasion of Campylobacter jejuni in vitro and to suppress C. jejuni colonization of chicks in vivo. Pretreatment with LG2055 significantly reduced adhesion to and invasion of a human epithelial cell line, Intestine 407, by C. jejuni 81-176. Methanol (MeOH-fixed LG2055 also reduced infection by C. jejuni 81-176. However, proteinase K (ProK-treated LG2055 eliminated the inhibitory effects. Moreover, LG2055 co-aggregated with C. jejuni 81-176. ProK treatment prevented this co-aggregation, indicating that the co-aggregation phenotype mediated by the proteinaceous cell-surface components of LG2055 is important for reducing C. jejuni 81-176 adhesion and invasion. In an in vivo assay, oral doses of LG2055 were administered to chicks daily for 14 days after oral inoculation with C. jejuni 81-176. At 14 days post-inoculation, chicks treated with LG2055 had significantly reduced cecum colonization by C. jejuni. Reduction in the number of C. jejuni 81-176 cells adhering to and internalized by human epithelial cells demonstrated that LG2055 is an organism that effectively and competitively excludes C. jejuni 81-176. In addition, the results of the chick colonization assay suggest that treatment with LG2055 could be useful in suppressing C. jejuni colonization of the chicks at early growth stages.

  11. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 303. Bhutta ZA. Acute gastroenteritis ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 340. DuPont HL. Approach to the ...

  12. Campylobacter jejuni Motility Is Required for Infection of the Flagellotropic Bacteriophage F341

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldvinsson, Signe Berg; Sørensen, Martine C. Holst; Vegge, Christina S.; Clokie, Martha R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a specific modification of the capsular polysaccharide as receptor for phages that infect Campylobacter jejuni. Using acapsular kpsM mutants of C. jejuni strains NCTC11168 and NCTC12658, we found that bacteriophage F341 infects C. jejuni independently of the capsule. In contrast, phage F341 does not infect C. jejuni NCTC11168 mutants that either lack the flagellar filaments (ΔflaAB) or that have paralyzed, i.e., nonrotating, flagella (ΔmotA and ΔflgP). Complementing flgP confirmed that phage F341 requires rotating flagella for successful infection. Furthermore, adsorption assays demonstrated that phage F341 does not adsorb to these nonmotile C. jejuni NCTC11168 mutants. Taken together, we propose that phage F341 uses the flagellum as a receptor. Phage-host interactions were investigated using fluorescence confocal and transmission electron microscopy. These data demonstrate that F341 binds to the flagellum by perpendicular attachment with visible phage tail fibers interacting directly with the flagellum. Our data are consistent with the movement of the C. jejuni flagellum being required for F341 to travel along the filament to reach the basal body of the bacterium. The initial binding to the flagellum may cause a conformational change of the phage tail that enables DNA injection after binding to a secondary receptor. PMID:25261508

  13. Campylobacter jejuni infection suppressed Cl⁻ secretion induced by CFTR activation in T-84 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Sachie; Shimohata, Takaaki; Hatayama, Syo; Sato, Yuri; Matsumoto, Mari; Iba, Hitomi; Aihara, Mutsumi; Uebanso, Takashi; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu; Yamasaki, Shinji; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Akira

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni causes foodborne disease associated with abdominal pain, gastroenteritis, and diarrhea. These symptoms are induced by bacterial adherence and invasion of host epithelial cells. C. jejuni infection can occur with a low infective dose, suggesting that C. jejuni may have evolved strategies to cope with the bacterial clearance system in the gastrointestinal tract. The mucosa layer is the first line of defense against bacteria. Mucus conditions are maintained by water and anion (especially Cl(-)) movement. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the main Cl(-) channel transporting Cl(-) to the lumen. Mutations in CFTR result in dehydrated secreted mucus and bacterial accumulation in the lungs, and recent studies suggest that closely related pathogenic bacteria also may survive in the intestine. However, the relationship between C. jejuni infection and CFTR has been little studied. Here, we used an (125)I(-) efflux assay and measurement of short-circuit current to measure Cl(-) secretion in C. jejuni-infected T-84 human intestinal epithelial cells. The basic state of Cl(-) secretion was unchanged by C. jejuni infection, but CFTR activator was observed to induce Cl(-) secretion suppressed in C. jejuni-infected T-84 cells. The suppression of activated Cl(-) secretion was bacterial dose-dependent and duration-dependent. A similar result was observed during infection with other C. jejuni strains. The mechanism of suppression may occur by affecting water movement or mucus condition in the intestinal tract. A failure of mucus barrier function may promote bacterial adhesion or invasion of host intestinal epithelial cells, thereby causing bacterial preservation in the host intestinal tract. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010-2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Emily; White, Richard; Mexia, Ricardo; Bruun, Tone; Kapperud, Georg; Lange, Heidi; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved. A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively). Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96), drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78), eating chicken (1.69), eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77), eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55), living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74), having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39), and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92). Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to protect and maintain the quality of water

  15. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010-2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily MacDonald

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved.A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS. Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated.A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively. Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96, drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78, eating chicken (1.69, eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77, eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55, living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74, having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39, and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92.Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to protect and maintain the quality of

  16. Infection-induced antibodies against the major outer membrane protein of Campylobacter jejuni mainly recognize conformational epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shouxiong; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing

    2007-07-01

    The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Campylobacter jejuni is an abundant surface protein with a pore-forming function and may be a potential candidate for vaccine development. Despite the fact that MOMP is immunogenic and the recombinant MOMP (rMOMP) can be readily produced in Escherichia coli, the nature of the antibody response to MOMP during in vivo infection is not well understood. In this study, various methods involving detergent replacement and liposome reconstitution were used to refold rMOMP, and antibody responses to MOMP elicited in Campylobacter-colonized chickens were evaluated using sera from chickens either naturally or experimentally infected by C. jejuni. The results demonstrated that proteoliposomes restored the reactivity of rMOMP to rabbit antibodies elicited by native MOMP, indicating the recovery of native MOMP conformation by this refolding method. Importantly, sera from naturally or experimentally infected chickens reacted weakly with denatured rMOMP, but strongly with rMOMP reconstituted in proteoliposome, suggesting that the chicken antibody response to MOMP is predominantly directed against conformational epitopes. These observations provide direct evidence for conformation-dependent humoral responses to MOMP induced by Campylobacter infection, demonstrate that C. jejuni MOMP is immunogenic in its natural host and suggest that proteoliposomes may be potentially used for the evaluation of rMOMP-based vaccines.

  17. Factores de riesgo de casos esporádicos de gastroenteritis por Campylobacter en niños Risk factors for sporadic cases of Campylobacter infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fajó-Pascual

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar factores de riesgo en casos esporádicos de gastroenteritis por Campylobacter en niños 2 veces (ORa:4,2; IC95%:1,2-14,7, pollo >3 veces (ORa:3,6; IC95%:1,1-11,1 y toma previa de antibióticos (ORa:4,7; IC95%:1,1-19,6 se asociaron independientemente con la enfermedad. Conclusiones Se identificó la carne de pollo como factor de riesgo de campilobacteriosis, bien por consumo o por manipulación inadecuada que podría ocasionar contaminación cruzada de otros alimentos «listos para comer», como los fiambres.Objectives: To identify risk factors for sporadic cases of Campylobacter infection in children aged 2 times (ORa:4.2, 95%CI:1.2-14.7, chicken >3 times (ORa:3.6, 95%CI:1.1-11.1 in the week before symptom onset, and previous antibiotic intake (ORa:4.7, 95%CI:1.1-19.6. Conclusions: Chicken meat was a risk factor for sporadic cases of campylobacteriosis in children, whether through consumption or through cross-contamination with other «ready-to-eat» foods such as cooked deli meat.

  18. [Investigation of campylobacter jejuni infection in children with diarrhea in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong-Qiang; Zhou, Zhen-Wen; Guo, Yan; Deng, Qiu-Lian; Huang, Yong

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the incidence of campylobacter jejuni (CJ) infection and the drug resistance of CJ in children with diarrhea in Guangzhou. The fecal samples of 3,351 children with diarrhea between July 2005 and June 2008 were collected for CJ culture. The species of CJ strains were identified by Lior methods. The drug susceptibility tests were performed by the Kirby-Bauer method. Two hundred and sixty-seven CJ strains (8.0%) were isolated from 3,351 samples. The children at age of 1 month to 1 year were susceptible to CJ, accounting for 91.0%. A higher incidence of CJ infection (76.8%) was found in summer and autumn. The CJ strains were susceptible to imipenem, amikacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, chloramphenicol, macrolides and lincomycins. Parts of CJ strains (20%-40%) were resistant to ampicillin, quinolones and ambramycin. All CJ strains were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and cefditoren. Two hundred and one strains (75.3%) were CJ biotype I. CJ is an important pathogen of diarrhea in children from Guangzhou. CJ is resistant to some antibiotics used often in clinical practice, and so it is thus important to use antibiotics based on the results of drug susceptibility tests in children with CJ infection.

  19. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  20. Glycoconjugates play a key role in Campylobacter jejuni infection: Interactions between host and pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Day

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycan based interactions between host and pathogen are critical in many bacterial and viral diseases. Glycan interactions range from initial receptor based adherence to protecting the infective agent from the host’s immune response through molecular mimicry. Campylobacter jejuni is an ideal model for studying the role of glycans in host-pathogen interactions, as well as the role of bacterial surface glycoconjugates in infection.Using glycan array analysis, C. jejuni has been shown to interact with a wide range of host glycoconjugates. Mannose and sialic acid residues appear to play a role in initial interactions between host and pathogen following environmental exposure, whereas fucose and galactose based interactions are likely to be required for prolonged colonisation. Other studies have highlighted potential decoy receptor type interactions between host’s intestinal mucins and C. jejuni, demonstrating the importance of host glycoproteins as defence against C. jejuni infection as well as the role for glycoconjugates found in human breast milk in protection of breast feeding infants from infection with C. jejuni.C. jejuni can produce N- and O-linked glycoproteins, capsular polysaccharide (CPS and/or lipooligosaccahride (LOS which results in C. jejuni presenting its own diverse sugar coated displays on the cell surface. Bacterial glycans play an important and versatile role in infection and disease. Of these, the best understood is the molecular mimicry of human gangliosides presented by C. jejuni’s LOS and its link to the onset of autoimmune neuropathies such as the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS. However, the role of glycoconjugates presented by C. jejuni extends beyond expression of sialylated ganglioside structures involved in initiation of GBS. Expression of surface glycans by C. jejuni may also relate to the ability of this organism to interact with the glycoproteins for initial host-pathogen interactions and continued infectivity.

  1. Risk factors associated with Campylobacter jejuni infections in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Endtz (Hubert); L. de Haan (Lidewij); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); Y. Halabi; N.P.W.C.J. van den Braak (Nicole); B.I. Kesztyus; C.W. Ang (Wim); I. Gerstenbluth; E. Leyde; A. Ott (Alewijn); F.G. Rodgers; R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); D.L. Woodward; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); L.J. Price; H. West; P.C.R. Godschalk (Peggy)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA steady increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with a seasonal preponderance, almost exclusively related to Campylobacter jejuni, and a rise in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter enteritis have been reported from Curacao,

  2. Campylobacter Infection and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Bangladesh: Clinical epidemiology and comparative microbial genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Islam (Zhahirul)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Campylobacter spp. are small motile, microaerophilic, S-shaped or spiral rods (0.2-0.5 μm wide by 0.5-5 μm long), gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter was first described in 1886 by Theodore Escherich (1) in the colon of children who had died of ‘cholera infantum’.

  3. Campylobacter in healthy slaughter pigs: a possible source of infection for man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticht-Groh, V

    1982-01-30

    Campylobacter were isolated from 103 of 173 (59 per cent) specimens of healthy slaughter pig faeces, washed intestines and water samples collected from a slaughterhouse and butcher's shop in West Germany. As most cases of human campylobacter enteritis are caused by Campylobacter jejuni, an attempt was made to find this organism among the isolates. Twenty-five out of the 103 strains (24 per cent) were identified as C jejuni. C jejuni was also isolated from salted water samples after overnight bowel storage in the butcher's shop, indicating that the customary salt preparation of the intestines did not eliminate all organisms present.

  4. Dynamics of Dual Infection with Campylobacter jejuni Strains in Chickens Reveals Distinct Strain-to-Strain Variation in Infection Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, Paul; Humphrey, Suzanne; Kemmett, Kirsty; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Humphrey, Tom; Williams, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Although multiple genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni may be isolated from the same commercial broiler flock, little is known about the infection dynamics of different genotypes within individuals or their colonization sites within the gut. Single experimental infections with C. jejuni M1 (sequence type 137, clonal complex 45) and C. jejuni 13126 (sequence type 21, clonal complex 21) revealed that 13126 colonized the ceca at significantly higher levels. The dissemination and colonization sites of the two C. jejuni strains then were examined in an experimental broiler flock. Two 33-day-old broiler chickens were infected with M1 and two with 13126, and 15 birds were left unchallenged. Cloacal swabs were taken postinfection to determine the colonization and shedding of each strain. By 2 days postinfection (dpi), 8/19 birds were shedding M1 whereas none were shedding 13126. At 8 dpi, all birds were shedding both strains. At 18 dpi, liver and cecal levels of each isolate were quantified, while in 10 birds they also were quantified at nine sites throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. 13126 was found throughout the GI tract, while M1 was largely restricted to the ceca and colon. The livers of 7/19 birds were culture positive for 13126 only. These data show that 13126 has a distinctly different infection biology than strain M1. It showed slower colonization of the lower GI tract but was more invasive and able to colonize at a high level throughout the GI tract. The finding that C. jejuni strains have markedly different infection ecologies within the chicken has implications for control in the poultry industry and suggests that the contamination risk of edible tissues is dependent on the isolate involved. PMID:25107966

  5. Faecal contamination of a municipal drinking water distribution system in association with Campylobacter jejuni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Takkinen, Johanna; Nieminen, Kalle; Siitonen, Anja; Kuusi, Markku; Holopainen, Arja; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2008-09-01

    After heavy rains Campylobacter jejuni together with high counts of Escherichia coli, other coliforms and intestinal enterococci were detected from drinking water of a municipal distribution system in eastern Finland in August 2004. Three patients with a positive C. jejuni finding, who had drunk the contaminated water, were identified and interviewed. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes from the patient samples were identical to some of the genotypes isolated from the water of the suspected contamination source. In addition, repetitive DNA element analysis (rep-PCR) revealed identical patterns of E. coli and other coliform isolates along the distribution line. Further on-site technical investigations revealed that one of the two rainwater gutters on the roof of the water storage tower had been in an incorrect position and rainwater had flushed a large amount of faecal material from wild birds into the drinking water. The findings required close co-operation between civil authorities, and application of cultivation and genotyping techniques strongly suggested that the municipal drinking water was the source of the infections. The faecal contamination associated with failures in cleaning and technical management stress the importance of instructions for waterworks personnel to perform maintenance work properly.

  6. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a

  7. Non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter infections among HIV-positive patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, I.K.; Gradel, Kim Oren; Helms, M.

    2011-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter are common causes of diarrhoea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. To investigate if incidence has changed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we combined data from The Danish Surveillance...... population. Moreover our study suggests that there is an increased incidence of Campylobacter-related illness among homosexual men in the HIV-positive population....

  8. Ganglioside GM1 mimicry in Campylobacter strains from sporadic infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachamkin, I; Ung, H; Moran, A P; Yoo, D; Prendergast, M M; Nicholson, M A; Sheikh, K; Ho, T; Asbury, A K; McKhann, G M; Griffin, J W

    1999-05-01

    To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 random enteritis-associated isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were analyzed. To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 enteritis-associated isolates, randomly collected in the United States, were analyzed using a cholera-toxin binding assay [corrected]. Overall, 26.2% of the isolates were positive for the GM1-like epitope. Of the 36 different O serotypes in the sample, 21 (58.3%) contained no strains positive for GM1, whereas in 6 serotypes (16.7%), >50% of isolates were positive for GM1. GBS-associated serotypes were more likely to contain strains positive for GM1 than were non-GBS-associated serotypes (37.8% vs. 15.1%, P=.0116). The results suggest that humans are frequently exposed to strains exhibiting GM1-like mimicry and, while certain serotypes may be more likely to possess GM1-like epitopes, the presence of GM1-like epitopes on Campylobacter strains does not itself trigger GBS.

  9. Human and chicken antibodies to gangliosides following infection by Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Seigo; Taguchi, Kyoji; Cawthraw, Shaun A; Shibata, Keiko; Ariga, Toshio; Newell, Diane G; Yu, Robert K

    2006-07-01

    Campylobacteriosis is frequently associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Poultry are frequently highly colonized with Campylobacter jejuni and are a major foodborne vehicle for campylobacteriosis. In this study, high titer anti-GM1 antibodies were found in the serum of a laboratory worker who developed campylobacteriosis. The microbiologically confirmed strain VLA2/18 (non-serotyped) was isolated from the worker and subsequently inoculated into chickens, resulting in high titers of serum antibodies to GM1. However, none of the immunized chickens in our study showed any noticeable neurological symptoms, such as paralysis or cramping. High titer anti-GM1 antibodies in chicken and human sera strongly inhibited spontaneous muscle action potential in an in vitro system of spinal cord and muscle cell co-culture. In addition, infection of chickens with C. jejuni strains 81116 (HS6) and 99/419 (HS21) or immunization with purified GM1, GM2, and GM3 resulted in elevation of serum anti-ganglioside antibodies with an inhibitory effect on spontaneous muscle action potential. Immunoabsorption studies demonstrated that this inhibitory activity is due to anti-ganglioside antibodies. On the other hand, anti-GM1 is the only specific human serum antibody to induce an inhibitory effect on neuromuscular junctions. Chicken anti-GM1 antibodies showed a strong inhibitory effect, but anti-GM2 and -GM3 had weaker activities. Taken together, our data suggest that campylobacteriosis in chickens may provide a strong link between infection and the development of anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated peripheral nerve dysfunctions.

  10. Phase variable expression of capsular polysaccharide modifications allows Campylobacter jejuni to avoid bacteriophage infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Camilla Holst Sørensen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are estimated to be the most abundant entities on earth and can be found in every niche where their bacterial hosts reside. The initial interaction between phages and Campylobacter jejuni, a common coloniser of poultry intestines and a major source of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, is not well understood. Recently, we isolated and characterised a phage F336 resistant variant of C. jejuni NCTC11168 called 11168R. Comparisons of 11168R with the wildtype lead to the identification of a novel phage receptor, the phase variable O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN moiety of the C. jejuni capsular polysaccharide (CPS. In this study we demonstrate that the 11168R strain has gained cross-resistance to four other phages in our collection (F198, F287, F303 and F326. The reduced plaquing efficiencies suggested that MeOPN is recognized as a receptor by several phages infecting C. jejuni. To further explore the role of CPS modifications in C. jejuni phage recognition and infectivity, we tested the ability of F198, F287, F303, F326 and F336 to infect different CPS variants of NCTC11168, including defined CPS mutants. These strains were characterised by high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. We found that in addition to MeOPN, the phase variable 3-O-Me and 6-O-Me groups of the NCTC11168 CPS structure may influence the plaquing efficiencies of the phages. Furthermore, co-infection of chickens with both C. jejuni NCTC11168 and phage F336 resulted in selection of resistant C. jejuni bacteria, which either lack MeOPN or gain 6-O-Me groups on their surface, demonstrating that resistance can be acquired in vivo. In summary, we have shown that phase variable CPS structures modulate phage infectivity in C. jejuni and suggest that the constant phage predation in the avian gut selects for changes in these structures leading to a continuing phage-host co-evolution.

  11. Campylobacter jejuni motility is required for infection of the flagellotropic bacteriophage F341

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldvinsson, Signe Berg; Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a specific modification of the capsular polysaccharide as receptor for phages that infect Campylobacter jejuni. Using acapsular kpsM mutants of C. jejuni strains NCTC11168 and NCTC12658, we found that bacteriophage F341 infects C. jejuni independently of the capsule....... In contrast, phage F341 does not infect C. jejuni NCTC11168 mutants that either lack the flagellar filaments (ΔflaAB) or that have paralyzed, i.e., nonrotating, flagella (ΔmotA and ΔflgP). Complementing flgP confirmed that phage F341 requires rotating flagella for successful infection. Furthermore, adsorption...... assays demonstrated that phage F341 does not adsorb to these nonmotile C. jejuni NCTC11168 mutants. Taken together, we propose that phage F341 uses the flagellum as a receptor. Phage-host interactions were investigated using fluorescence confocal and transmission electron microscopy. These data...

  12. CAMPYLOBACTER ENTERITIS AMONG CHILDREN IN DEMBIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    Dec 12, 2000 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven ... Campylobacter species can cause infection in all age groups but the ..... stereotype distribution of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated.

  13. Consumption of raw vegetables and fruits: a risk factor for Campylobacter infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.; Jansen, H.A.P.M.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in fresh vegetables and fruits at retail level in the Netherlands, and to estimate its implications on the importance of vegetables and fruits as risk factor for campylobacteriosis. Thirteen of the 5640 vegetable and fruit

  14. Campylobacter epidemiology-sources and routes of transmission for human infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Diane G.; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Kalupahana, R.S.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the sources and routes of transmission of Campylobacter jejuni/coli is essential to the prevention and control of human campylobacteriosis. However, this has proved a significant challenge over the past 35 years because these organisms were so unlike other enteric bacteria,

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice ...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter.......Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...

  16. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Denehy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness.Methods: A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises.Results: All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate, and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6. No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination.Discussion: Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  17. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Campylobacter Questions and Answers What is Campylobacter ? What harm can Campylobacter bacteria ... divisions/dfbmd/diseases/campylobacter/ [ Top of Page ] Campylobacter Questions and Answers Last Modified Aug 07, 2013 ').tablesorter({debug:false}). ...

  18. Campylobacter enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensh, R S; Brand, M H; Troncale, F J; McKinley, M J; Scholhamer, C F

    1981-06-01

    We report four patients with bloody diarrhea and colitis from Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni. Two patients had dogs with Campylobacter fetus in their stools. All patients responded rapidly and completely to erythromycin therapy. Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni is now a relatively common cause of enterocolitis, more common than salmonella or shigella. When the organism causes short-lived water diarrhea, a definitive diagnosis is not necessary. In a patient with bloody diarrhea and acute colitis, the clinician should pursue Campylobacter fetus as a potential offender, recognizing that acute colitis from Campylobacter fetus is clinically and and pathologically indistinguishable from any other acute colitis.

  19. Heterogeneity in the Infection Biology of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in Three Infection Models Reveals an Invasive and Virulent Phenotype in a ST21 Isolate from Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Chaloner, Gemma; Gibbs, Kirsty; Humphrey, Tom; Williams, Nicola; Wigley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Although Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in the world and the importance of poultry as a source of infection is well understood we know relatively little about its infection biology in the broiler chicken. Much of what we know about the biology of Campylobacter jejuni is based on infection of inbred or SPF laboratory lines of chickens with a small number of isolates used in most laboratory studies. Recently we have shown that both the host response and microbial ecology of C. jejuni in the broiler chicken varies with both the host-type and significantly between C. jejuni isolates. Here we describe heterogeneity in infection within a panel of C. jejuni isolates in two broiler chicken breeds, human intestinal epithelial cells and the Galleria insect model of virulence. All C. jejuni isolates colonised the chicken caeca, though colonisation of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract varied between isolates. Extra-intestinal spread to the liver varied between isolates and bird breed but a poultry isolate 13126 (sequence type 21) showed the greatest levels of extra-intestinal spread to the liver in both broiler breeds with over 70% of birds of the fast growing breed and 50% of the slower growing breed having C. jejuni in their livers. Crucially 13126 is significantly more invasive than other isolates in human intestinal epithelial cells and gave the highest mortality in the Galleria infection model. Taken together our findings suggest that not only is there considerable heterogeneity in the infection biology of C. jejuni in avian, mammalian and alternative models, but that some isolates have an invasive and virulent phenotype. Isolates with an invasive phenotype would pose a significant risk and increased difficulty in control in chicken production and coupled with the virulent phenotype seen in 13126 could be an increased risk to public health.

  20. Heterogeneity in the Infection Biology of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in Three Infection Models Reveals an Invasive and Virulent Phenotype in a ST21 Isolate from Poultry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Humphrey

    Full Text Available Although Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in the world and the importance of poultry as a source of infection is well understood we know relatively little about its infection biology in the broiler chicken. Much of what we know about the biology of Campylobacter jejuni is based on infection of inbred or SPF laboratory lines of chickens with a small number of isolates used in most laboratory studies. Recently we have shown that both the host response and microbial ecology of C. jejuni in the broiler chicken varies with both the host-type and significantly between C. jejuni isolates. Here we describe heterogeneity in infection within a panel of C. jejuni isolates in two broiler chicken breeds, human intestinal epithelial cells and the Galleria insect model of virulence. All C. jejuni isolates colonised the chicken caeca, though colonisation of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract varied between isolates. Extra-intestinal spread to the liver varied between isolates and bird breed but a poultry isolate 13126 (sequence type 21 showed the greatest levels of extra-intestinal spread to the liver in both broiler breeds with over 70% of birds of the fast growing breed and 50% of the slower growing breed having C. jejuni in their livers. Crucially 13126 is significantly more invasive than other isolates in human intestinal epithelial cells and gave the highest mortality in the Galleria infection model. Taken together our findings suggest that not only is there considerable heterogeneity in the infection biology of C. jejuni in avian, mammalian and alternative models, but that some isolates have an invasive and virulent phenotype. Isolates with an invasive phenotype would pose a significant risk and increased difficulty in control in chicken production and coupled with the virulent phenotype seen in 13126 could be an increased risk to public health.

  1. Survey of extra-intestinal immune responses in asymptomatic long-term Campylobacter jejuni-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Haag, Lea-Maxie; Fischer, André; Otto, Bettina; Kühl, Anja A; Göbel, Ulf B; Bereswill, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is among the most frequently reported bacterial pathogens causing diarrhea in humans worldwide. We recently reported a murine infection model mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. Six days following oral C. jejuni infection immediately after weaning, infant mice developed acute enterocolitis resolving within 2 weeks. Thereafter, C. jejuni could still be isolated from the intestines of asymptomatic mice at low levels accompanied by distinct immune responses, both at intestinal and extra-intestinal locations. We here show that, at day 103 post infection (p.i.), long-term C. jejuni-infected mice exhibited higher numbers of T lymphocytes in liver, lung, kindneys, and cardiac muscle as compared to uninfected controls. In addition, B lymphocytes were slightly higher, but macrophage numbers were significantly lower in liver and lung of C. jejuni-infected versus naive mice. As compared to uninfected control animals, proliferating cells were significantly lower in liver, lung, kidneys, cardiac muscle, and spleen at day 103 p.i., whereas more apoptotic cells were abundant in the spleen with predominance in the red pulp. This study underlines that post-infectious, immunological sequelae at extra-intestinal locations are of importance even in asymptomatic long-term C. jejuni carriers and need to be further studied in order to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  2. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly foc...

  3. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  4. Key Role of Capsular Polysaccharide in the Induction of Systemic Infection and Abortion by Hypervirulent Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Terhorst, Samantha A; Burrough, Eric R; Shen, Zhangqi; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Tang, Yizhi; Plummer, Paul J; Ji, Ju; Yaeger, Michael J; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and a hypervirulent clone, named clone SA, has recently emerged as the predominant cause of ovine abortion in the United States. To induce abortion, orally ingested Campylobacter must translocate across the intestinal epithelium, spread systemically in the circulation, and reach the fetoplacental tissue. Bacterial factors involved in these steps are not well understood. C. jejuni is known to produce capsular polysaccharide (CPS), but the specific role that CPS plays in systemic infection and particularly abortion in animals remains to be determined. In this study, we evaluated the role of CPS in bacteremia using a mouse model and in abortion using a pregnant guinea pig model following oral challenge. Compared with C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and 81-176, a clone SA isolate (IA3902) resulted in significantly higher bacterial counts and a significantly longer duration of bacteremia in mice. The loss of capsule production via gene-specific mutagenesis in IA3902 led to the complete abolishment of bacteremia in mice and abortion in pregnant guinea pigs, while complementation of capsule expression almost fully restored these phenotypes. The capsule mutant strain was also impaired for survival in guinea pig sera and sheep blood. Sequence-based analyses revealed that clone SA possesses a unique CPS locus with a mosaic structure, which has been stably maintained in all clone SA isolates derived from various hosts and times. These findings establish CPS as a key virulence factor for the induction of systemic infection and abortion in pregnant animals and provide a viable candidate for the development of vaccines against hypervirulent C. jejuni. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Towards the production of reliable quantitative microbiological data for risk assessment: Direct quantification of Campylobacter in naturally infected chicken fecal samples using selective culture and real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam

    2015-01-01

    and for the evaluation of control strategies implemented in poultry production. The aim of this study was to compare estimates of the numbers of Campylobacter spp. in naturally infected chicken fecal samples obtained using direct quantification by selective culture and by real-time PCR. Absolute quantification...... of Campylobacter by real-time PCR was performed using standard curves designed for two different DNA extraction methods: Easy-DNA™ Kit from Invitrogen (Easy-DNA) and NucliSENS® MiniMAG® from bioMérieux (MiniMAG). Results indicated that the estimation of the numbers of Campylobacter present in chicken fecal samples...... was partly dependent on the methodologies used. In general, the numbers of Campylobacter obtained by real-time PCR when extracting DNA using the MiniMAG method were in most cases higher than the numbers of Campylobacter obtained by selective culture and by real-time PCR when using the Easy-DNA method...

  6. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Norkrans, G.; Svedhem, A.

    1982-01-01

    An epidemiological study on Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was performed in an urban Swedish community. The study included 55 patients gathered during a six-month period. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) were infected outside Sweden. Campylobacter enterocolitis was rare among children within the country. Patients infected in Sweden had eaten chicken significantly more often than a corresponding control group. Seven out of nine chicken consuming campylobacter patients also had prepared t...

  7. A case of myopericarditis associated to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the southern hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fica

    Full Text Available Myopericarditis is an infrequent complication of acute diarrheal illness due to Campylobacter jejuni, and it has been mainly reported in developed nations. The first case detected in Chile - an upper-middle income country -, that is coincidental with the increasing importance of acute gastroenteritis associated to this pathogen, is described. Recognition of this agent in stools requires special laboratory techniques not widely available, and it was suspected when a young patient presented with acute diarrhea, fever, and chest pain combined with electrocardiogram (EKG abnormalities and elevated myocardial enzymes. C. jejuni myopericarditis can easily be suspected but its detection requires dedicated laboratory techniques.

  8. Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Major Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Fecal Specimens: Intestinal Inflammation and Bacterial Load Are Correlated in Campylobacter Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlwend, Nadia; Tiermann, Sacha; Risch, Lorenz; Risch, Martin; Bodmer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A total of 1,056 native or Cary-Blair-preserved stool specimens were simultaneously tested by conventional stool culturing and by enteric bacterial panel (EBP) multiplex real-time PCR for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella spp., and shigellosis disease-causing agents (Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli [EIEC]). Overall, 143 (13.5%) specimens tested positive by PCR for the targets named above; 3 coinfections and 109 (10.4%) Campylobacter spp., 17 (1.6%) Salmonella spp., and 20 (1.9%) Shigella spp./EIEC infections were detected. The respective positive stool culture rates were 75 (7.1%), 14 (1.3%), and 7 (0.7%). The median threshold cycle (CT) values of culture-positive specimens were significantly lower than those of culture-negative ones (CT values, 24.3 versus 28.7; P Campylobacter infections, the respective median fecal calprotectin concentrations in PCR-negative/culture-negative (n = 40), PCR-positive/culture-negative (n = 14), and PCR-positive/culture-positive (n = 15) specimens were 134 mg/kg (interquartile range [IQR], 30 to 1,374 mg/kg), 1,913 mg/kg (IQR, 165 to 3,813 mg/kg), and 5,327 mg/kg (IQR, 1,836 to 18,213 mg/kg). Significant differences were observed among the three groups (P Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp./EIEC using the BD Max EBP assay will result in timely diagnosis and improved sensitivity. The determination of inflammatory markers, such as calprotectin, in fecal specimens may aid in the interpretation of PCR results, particularly for enteric pathogens associated with mucosal damage and colonic inflammation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Autoimmunity Links Vinculin to the Pathophysiology of Chronic Functional Bowel Changes Following Campylobacter jejuni Infection in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark; Morales, Walter; Pokkunuri, Venkata; Brikos, Constantinos; Kim, Sun Moon; Kim, Seong Eun; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Weitsman, Stacy; Marsh, Zachary; Marsh, Emily; Chua, Kathleen S; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Barlow, Gillian M; Chang, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Acute gastroenteritis can precipitate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in humans. Cytolethal distending toxin is common to all pathogens causing gastroenteritis. Its active subunit, CdtB, is associated with post-infectious bowel changes in a rat model of Campylobacter jejuni infection, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). To evaluate the role of host antibodies to CdtB in contributing to post-infectious functional sequelae in this rat model. Ileal tissues from non-IBS human subjects, C. jejuni-infected and control rats were immunostained with antibodies to CdtB, c-Kit, S-100, PGP 9.5 and vinculin. Cytosolic and membrane proteins from mouse enteric neuronal cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-CdtB and analyzed by mass spectrometry. ELISAs were performed on rat cardiac serum using CdtB or vinculin as antigens. Anti-CdtB antibodies bound to a cytosolic protein in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and myenteric ganglia in C. jejuni-infected and naïve rats and human subjects. Mass spectrometry identified vinculin, confirmed by co-localization and ELISAs. Anti-CdtB antibodies were higher in C. jejuni-infected rats (1.27 ± 0.15) than controls (1.76 ± 0.12) (P jejuni-infected rats (0.058 ± 0.053) versus controls (0.087 ± 0.023) (P = 0.0001), with greater reductions in rats with two C. jejuni infections (P = 0.0001) and rats that developed SIBO (P = 0.001). Host anti-CdtB antibodies cross-react with vinculin in ICC and myenteric ganglia, required for normal gut motility. Circulating antibody levels and loss of vinculin expression correlate with number of C. jejuni exposures and SIBO, suggesting that effects on vinculin are important in the effects of C. jejuni infection on the host gut.

  10. Campylobacter bacteremia: a rare and under-reported event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, R.; van Baarlen, P.; van Vliet, A. H. M.; van Belkum, A.; Hays, J. P.; Endtz, H. P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with both host factors and bacterial factors being involved in the pathogenesis of bacteremia. In the host, age, gender and immune-compromising conditions may predispose for Campylobacter infections, whilst the most important bacterial determinants mentioned in the literature are cytotoxin production and flagellar motility. The role of sialylated lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) and serum resistance in bacteremia is inconclusive at this time, and the clinical significance of Campylobacter bacteremia is not yet fully understood. More emphasis on the detection of Campylobacter species from blood cultures in susceptible patients at risk for Campylobacter infections will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis and the relevance of Campylobacter bacteremia. PMID:24611124

  11. Induction of spotty liver disease in layer hens by infection with Campylobacter hepaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Elshagmani, Eltaher; Gor, Mian-Chee; Anwar, Arif; Scott, Peter C; Moore, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    Spotty liver disease (SLD) in chickens can present with variable impacts on mortality and production, ranging from sporadic mortalities of individual birds and no notable impact on production to severe reduction in egg output and increased mortality in layer flocks of greater than 1% per day. It was first described over 60 years ago and there have been sporadic reports of the disease throughout the intervening decades, particularly in the US, UK and Germany. Recently it has become of increasing concern as outbreaks of the disease have occurred more frequently, particularly in the Australian poultry industry. An understanding of the causes of the disease has proven elusive. However, recent studies of SLD have strongly implicated a novel Campylobacter species, Campylobacter hepaticus, as the causative agent. Here we demonstrate that C. hepaticus is highly invasive in LMH cells, an immortalised chicken hepatoma cell line, and can induce disease when orally delivered to mature layer birds. Challenged birds developed liver lesions, typical of those seen in field clinical cases, within 5days of challenge. The bacterium used to challenge the birds could be recovered from the diseased liver and from bile, thus demonstrating that C. hepaticus is the causative agent of chicken SLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association study between an outbreak of Guillain-Barre syndrome in Jilin, China, and preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maojun; Li, Qun; He, Lihua; Meng, Fanliang; Gu, Yixin; Zheng, Minghuan; Gong, Yunwei; Wang, Ping; Ruan, Feng; Zhou, Lei; Wu, Jing; Chen, Li; Fitzgerald, Collette; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2010-08-01

    From June to July 2007, 36 cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) occurred in a township in north China. Serological study and bacteria culture were performed to investigate the association between preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection and this GBS outbreak. Anti-C. jejuni antibodies were found in significantly higher numbers of GBS patients (IgM 84%, IgG 87.5%) than in healthy inspection cases (IgM 33%, IgG 27%). IgG anti-GM1 was the dominant anti-ganglioside antibody among the GBS patients. Seven C. jejuni isolates (four from human stool and three from poultry specimens taken from the patients' houses) were obtained. Serotyping and molecular analysis were used to investigate the genetic relatedness among these C. jejuni isolates. The four human isolates, collected from residents of the same district, were indistinguishable by both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, suggesting these patients had a common source of infection. A new sequence type, sequence type-2993, was assigned to the human C. jejuni isolates, three of which belonged to Penner serotype heat-stable (HS):41. Both serotype and molecular subtype of the human C. jejuni isolates were different from those of isolates obtained from poultry specimens. Our results suggest that the antecedent C. jejuni infection triggered this GBS outbreak in China.

  13. A decision support system for the control of Campylobacter in chickens at farm level using data from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, A. B.; Madsen, A. L.; Vigre, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The control of Campylobacter in poultry is considered a public health priority and some intervention strategies have been implemented in Denmark. Nonetheless, Campylobacter infection in poultry can still be considerable particularly during the summer when the most promising Campylobacter control ...

  14. Integrated approach leads to less Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Hald, Birthe; Borck Høg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information.......Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information....

  15. Campylobacter jejuni strategies to evade hostile environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaezirad, M.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311482384

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of human bacterial foodborne disease in the western world. Each year hundreds of millions of cases of Campylobacter infection occur worldwide. After a few weeks, the infection may be followed by serious auto-immune diseases like the Guillain-Barre

  16. [Campylobacter jejuni and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in patients with the Guillain-Barre syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowski, D; Quijano-Roy, S; Sivadon-Tardy, V; Raphael, J-C; Gaillard, J-L

    2006-12-01

    Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare disease triggered by postinfectious mechanisms. The disease concerns all ages, and is widely distributed around the world. The principal risks are respiratory failure, especially during the initial phase of the disease, and persisting deficit at long term. Among the infectious known agents, Campylobacter jejuni and CMV represent more than 40% of GBS causes. The clinical presentation, and the long-term prognosis of GBS related to these two etiologies are different. The physiopathological mechanisms of the nervous attack are probably also different. There is no proof, at this time, that anti-infectious treatment can improve the prognosis. The treatment is based on the early use of immunomodulatory treatments like intravenous immunoglobulins or plasma exchanges.

  17. Enteric Salmonella or Campylobacter infections and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Tine; Simonsen, Jacob; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2011-01-01

    Enteric pathogens have been implicated in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but increased rates of stool testing of patients with unclear gastrointestinal symptoms might cause detection bias. Hence, the objective of this study was to analyse incidence rates of Crohn's disease and...... and ulcerative colitis among patients with Salmonella- or Campylobacter-positive and negative stool tests and to study the incidence of positive and negative stool tests among patients already diagnosed with IBD.......Enteric pathogens have been implicated in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but increased rates of stool testing of patients with unclear gastrointestinal symptoms might cause detection bias. Hence, the objective of this study was to analyse incidence rates of Crohn's disease...

  18. Binational outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection, Mexico and USA, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B R; Zegarra, J Alomía; López-Gatell, H; Sejvar, J; Arzate, F; Waterman, S; Núñez, A Sánchez; López, B; Weiss, J; Cruz, R Quintero; Murrieta, D Y López; Luna-Gierke, R; Heiman, K; Vieira, A R; Fitzgerald, C; Kwan, P; Zárate-Bermúdez, M; Talkington, D; Hill, V R; Mahon, B

    2014-05-01

    In June 2011, a cluster of suspected cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which can follow Campylobacter jejuni infection, was identified in San Luis Río Colorado (SLRC), Sonora, Mexico and Yuma County, Arizona, USA. An outbreak investigation identified 26 patients (18 from Sonora, eight from Arizona) with onset of GBS 4 May-21 July 2011, exceeding the expected number of cases (n = 1-2). Twenty-one (81%) patients reported antecedent diarrhoea, and 61% of 18 patients tested were seropositive for C. jejuni IgM antibodies. In a case-control study matched on age group, sex, ethnicity, and neighbourhood of residence, all Arizona GBS patients travelled to SLRC during the exposure period vs. 45% of matched controls (matched odds ratio 8·1, 95% confidence interval 1·5-∞). Exposure information and an environmental assessment suggested that GBS cases resulted from a large outbreak of C. jejuni infection from inadequately disinfected tap water in SLRC. Binational collaboration was essential in investigating this cross-border GBS outbreak, the first in mainland North America since 1976.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni: enterocolitis and myopericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzand, B S N; Ilhan, M; Heesen, W F; Meeder, J G

    2010-09-24

    Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is the commonest enteric infection in the developed world. There are only few reported cases in the medical literature of cardiac complications associated with C. jejuni enterocolitis, most of the patients in the reported literature were males and most of the cases followed a benign course. Severe left ventricular dysfunction complicated only two cases of C. jejuni myocarditis. We report here a young male with Campylobacter myopericarditis. We believe that this is the first reported case of Campylobacter associated myopericarditis in The Netherlands. The mechanism by which Campylobacter causes myo(peri)carditis remains uncertain, it may be caused by direct bacterial invasion of cardiac tissue, bacterial toxins, circulating immune complexes, or cytotoxic T-cells. Since the number of C. jejuni infection is increasing worldwide, cardiac complications, although rare, are a remarkable manifestation of this pathogen and should be always kept in mind. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Campylobacter jejuni infection of infant mice: acute enterocolitis is followed by asymptomatic intestinal and extra-intestinal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, L-M; Fischer, A; Otto, B; Grundmann, U; Kühl, A A; Göbel, U B; Bereswill, S; Heimesaat, M M

    2012-03-01

    Campylobacter (C.) jejuni is among the leading bacterial agents causing enterocolitis worldwide. Despite the high prevalence of C. jejuni infections and its significant medical and economical consequences, intestinal pathogenesis is poorly understood. This is mainly due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In the age of 3 months, adult mice display strong colonization resistance (CR) against C. jejuni. Previous studies underlined the substantial role of the murine intestinal microbiota in maintaining CR. Due to the fact that the host-specific gut flora establishes after weaning, we investigated CR against C. jejuni in 3-week-old mice and studied intestinal and extra-intestinal immunopathogenesis as well as age dependent differences of the murine colon microbiota. In infant animals infected orally immediately after weaning C. jejuni strain B2 could stably colonize the gastrointestinal tract for more than 100 days. Within six days following infection, infant mice developed acute enterocolitis as indicated by bloody diarrhea, colonic shortening, and increased apoptotic cell numbers in the colon mucosa. Similar to human campylobacteriosis clinical disease manifestations were self-limited and disappeared within two weeks. Interestingly, long-term C. jejuni infection was accompanied by distinct intestinal immune and inflammatory responses as indicated by increased numbers of T- and B-lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells, neutrophils, as well as apoptotic cells in the colon mucosa. Strikingly, C. jejuni infection also induced a pronounced influx of immune cells into extra-intestinal sites such as liver, lung, and kidney. Furthermore, C. jejuni susceptible weaned mice harbored a different microbiota as compared to resistant adult animals. These results support the essential role of the microflora composition in CR against C. jejuni and demonstrate that infant mouse models resemble C. jejuni mediated immunopathogenesis including the characteristic self-limited enterocolitis

  2. Impact of technical and economic performance on costs of campylobacter spp. interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and human Campylobacter spp. infections can result in severe sequelae. Because broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter spp. infections, it is relevant to control Campylobacter spp.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  4. Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Abstract. Background: Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. namely, Campylobacter jejuni and coli cause acute diarrheal diseases in humans ... Objective: Little is known about the presence of these bacteria in various food animals as possible sources of infection to humans in .... The preventive measures for reducing bacterial ...

  5. Using sequence data to identify alternative routes and risk of infection: a case-study of campylobacter in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessell Paul R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic typing data are a potentially powerful resource for determining how infection is acquired. In this paper MLST typing was used to distinguish the routes and risks of infection of humans with Campylobacter jejuni from poultry and ruminant sources Methods C. jejuni samples from animal and environmental sources and from reported human cases confirmed between June 2005 and September 2006 were typed using MLST. The STRUCTURE software was used to assign the specific sequence types of the sporadic human cases to a particular source. We then used mixed case-case logistic regression analysis to compare the risk factors for being infected with C. jejuni from different sources. Results A total of 1,599 (46.3% cases were assigned to poultry, 1,070 (31.0% to ruminant and 67 (1.9% to wild bird sources; the remaining 715 (20.7% did not have a source that could be assigned with a probability of greater than 0.95. Compared to ruminant sources, cases attributed to poultry sources were typically among adults (odds ratio (OR = 1.497, 95% confidence intervals (CIs = 1.211, 1.852, not among males (OR = 0.834, 95% CIs = 0.712, 0.977, in areas with population density of greater than 500 people/km2 (OR = 1.213, 95% CIs = 1.030, 1.431, reported in the winter (OR = 1.272, 95% CIs = 1.067, 1.517 and had undertaken recent overseas travel (OR = 1.618, 95% CIs = 1.056, 2.481. The poultry assigned strains had a similar epidemiology to the unassigned strains, with the exception of a significantly higher likelihood of reporting overseas travel in unassigned strains. Conclusions Rather than estimate relative risks for acquiring infection, our analyses show that individuals acquire C. jejuni infection from different sources have different associated risk factors. By enhancing our ability to identify at-risk groups and the times at which these groups are likely to be at risk, this work allows public health messages to be targeted more effectively. The

  6. Effect of fermented feed on the susceptibility for campylobacter jejuni infection in broilers with and without concurrent infection with Salmonella enteriditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Engel, B.; Knapen, van F.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Urlings, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fermented liquid feed (FLF) protects broiler chickens against colonisation with Salmonella. While Campylobacter causes more disease cases in humans than Salmonella, the effect of FLF on Campylobacter was assessed. The fermented liquid feed is a moistened feed with a high number of lactobacilli, a

  7. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  8. Survey of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in different taxa and ecological guilds of migratory birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fioretti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 169 faecal samples were collected from migrating birds, belonging to the Order of Passeriformes, in Campania region in order to isolate Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 of the 169 birds examined (23.1%. Among these 36 were identified as C. jejuni and the remaining strains were identified as Campylobacter coli. Given the high isolation rates wild birds could be considered natural reservoir of infection.

  9. Survey of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in different taxa and ecological guilds of migratory birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Sensale

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 169 faecal samples were collected from migrating birds, belonging to the Order of Passeriformes, in Campania region in order to isolate Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 of the 169 birds examined (23.1%. Among these 36 were identified as C. jejuni and the remaining strains were identified as Campylobacter coli. Given the high isolation rates wild birds could be considered natural reservoir of infection.

  10. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkrans, G.; Svedhem, A.

    1982-01-01

    An epidemiological study on Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was performed in an urban Swedish community. The study included 55 patients gathered during a six-month period. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) were infected outside Sweden. Campylobacter enterocolitis was rare among children within the country. Patients infected in Sweden had eaten chicken significantly more often than a corresponding control group. Seven out of nine chicken consuming campylobacter patients also had prepared the fresh chicken alone, and none of their family members became ill. Thus the preparation of food contaminated with Campylobacter seems to elevate the risk for contracting the disease. Sick household pets transmitted the campylobacter infection to two patients. Forty-six of the patients had a total of 85 close household members. Three definite secondary cases were found. There was no evidence of transmission of Campylobacter by food prepared by two cooks who were working while still being asymptomatic excreters. Clinical reinfection with Campylobacter was observed in one patient. No patients became long-term carriers of Campylobacter. PMID:7097000

  11. Quinolone resistant campylobacter infections in Denmark: risk factors and clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; Neimann, J.; Nielsen, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    ) than for 381 patients with quinolone-sensitive C. jejuni infections (median 10.3 days, p = 0.001). Foreign travel, eating fresh poultry other than chicken and turkey, and swimming were associated with increased risk for quinolone-resistant C. jejuni infection. Eating fresh chicken (of presumably Danish...... origin) was associated with a decreased risk. Typing data showed an association between strains from retail food products and broiler chickens and quinolone-sensitive domestically acquired C. jejuni infections. An association between treatment with a fluoroquinolone before stool-specimen collection...

  12. Gnotobiotic IL-10; NF-kappaB mice develop rapid and severe colitis following Campylobacter jejuni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Lippert

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms associated with Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni induced food-borne diarrheal illnesses. In this study, we investigated the function of TLR/NF-kappaB signaling in C. jejuni induced pathogenesis using gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice. In vitro analysis showed that C. jejuni induced IkappaB phosphorylation, followed by enhanced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and increased IL-6, MIP-2alpha and NOD2 mRNA accumulation in infected-mouse colonic epithelial cells CMT93. Importantly, these events were blocked by molecular delivery of an IkappaB inhibitor (Ad5IkappaBAA. NF-kappaB signalling was also important for C.jejuni-induced cytokine gene expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Importantly, C. jejuni associated IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice developed mild (day 5 and severe (day 14 ulcerating colonic inflammation and bloody diarrhea as assessed by colonoscopy and histological analysis. Macroscopic analysis showed elevated EGFP expression indicating NF-kappaB activation throughout the colon of C. jejuni associated IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice, while fluorescence microscopy revealed EGFP positive cells to be exclusively located in lamina propria mononuclear cells. Pharmacological NF-kappaB inhibition using Bay 11-7085 did not ameliorate C. jejuni induced colonic inflammation. Our findings indicate that C. jejuni induces rapid and severe intestinal inflammation in a susceptible host that correlates with enhanced NF-kappaB activity from lamina propria immune cells.

  13. Role of Infection Due to Campylobacter jejuni in the Initiation of Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Initiation of Guillain - Barre Syndrome 90PP0820 Ban Mishu and Martin J. Blaser Veterans Administration Medical Center 93-26165 Research Service 1310 24th...Unlimited Best Available Copy 104 Role of Infection Due to Campylobacterjejuni in the Initiation of Guillain - Barre Syndrome Ban Mishu and Martin J. Blaser...may cause Guillain -Barrk syndrome (GBS) by triggering demyelination of peripheral nerves. GBS is preceded by an acute infectious illness (due to a

  14. Campylobacter-Associated Diseases in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Yaeger, Michael; Wu, Zuowei; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-02-08

    Campylobacter includes a group of genetically diverse species causing a range of diseases in animals and humans. The bacterium is frequently associated with two economically important and epidemiologically distinct reproductive diseases in ruminants: enzootic infectious infertility in cattle owing to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and abortions in sheep, goats, and cattle. Septic abortion, usually epizootic in sheep, has been historically associated with C. fetus subsp. fetus and to a lesser extent with Campylobacter jejuni. However, there has been a dramatic species shift in the etiology of Campylobacter abortions in recent years: C. jejuni has now replaced C. fetus subsp. fetus as the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States, which appears to be driven primarily by clonal expansion of a hypervirulent tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone. Here we provide a review on the recent advances in understanding the pathobiology of Campylobacter infections in animals, with an emphasis on the diseases in ruminants, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, genomics, and control measures.

  15. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  16. A comparison of molecular technologies and genomotyping for tracing and strain characterization of Campylobacter isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, J. van der; Keijser, B.; Schuren, F.; Nocker, A.; Montijn, R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter species are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in developed countries. Campylobacter spp. are ubiquitous in nature and widespread in livestock. Infections occur sporadically, and are believed to occur through consumption of contaminated meat products and from

  17. Inflammasome activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Lieneke I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341590797; de Zoete, Marcel R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483419X; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; Flavell, Richard A; van Putten, Jos P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069916527

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. In this study, we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse

  18. Factors Associated with Sequelae of Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella Infections: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Oluwaseun B; Pearce, Madison; van Hecke, Oliver; Roberts, Nia; Collins, Dylan R J; Violato, Mara; McCarthy, Noel; Perera, Rafael; Fanshawe, Thomas R

    2017-02-01

    Despite the significant global burden of gastroenteritis and resulting sequelae, there is limited evidence on risk factors for sequelae development. We updated and extended previous systematic reviews by assessing the role of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and symptom severity in the development of sequelae following campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. We searched four databases, including PubMed, from 1 January 2011 to 29 April 2016. Observational studies reporting sequelae of reactive arthritis (ReA), Reiter's syndrome (RS), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following gastroenteritis were included. The primary outcome was incidence of sequelae of interest amongst cases of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. A narrative synthesis was conducted where heterogeneity was high. Of the 55 articles included, incidence of ReA (n=37), RS (n=5), IBS (n=12) and GBS (n=9) were reported following campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. A pooled summary for each sequela was not estimated due to high level of heterogeneity across studies (I2>90%). PPI usage and symptoms were sparsely reported. Three out of seven studies found a statistically significant association between antibiotics usage and development of ReA. Additional primary studies investigating risk modifying factors in sequelae of GI infections are required to enable targeted interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. What you eat is what you get: Novel Campylobacter models in the quadrangle relationship between nutrition, obesity, microbiota and susceptibility to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereswill, S; Plickert, R; Fischer, A; Kühl, A A; Loddenkemper, C; Batra, A; Siegmund, B; Göbel, U B; Heimesaat, M M

    2011-09-01

    Enterocolitis caused by Campylobacter jejuni-infections represents an important socioeconomic burden worldwide. Recent results from novel murine infection models reveal that the intestinal microbiota is essential for maintaining colonization resistance against C. jejuni. We extended these studies to investigate the role of nutrition and obesity in susceptibility to C. jejuni-infection. Gnotobiotic (GB) mice generated by antibiotic treatment, which were fed with a human cafeteria diet (CAF), as well as obese (ob/ob) mice with a conventional microbiota harbored higher Escherichia coli loads in their colon as compared to respective controls. Following oral infection, C. jejuni 43431 ATCC readily colonized the intestines of CAF and ob/ob mice, whereas GB mice fed with a standard chow (MUD) eradicated the pathogen within days. Furthermore, live C. jejuni translocated into mesenteric lymph nodes of CAF, but not MUD mice. Strikingly, stably infected animals developed enterocolitis as indicated by increased numbers of immune and apoptotic cells in the colon in situ. We conclude that a specific human diet and obesity render mice susceptible to C. jejuni infection. The corresponding murine models are excellently suited for the study of C. jejuni pathogenesis and will help to get further insights into interplays between C. jejuni, microbiota, diet, obesity and immunity.

  20. Small Intestinal Pro-Inflammatory Immune Responses Following Campylobacter Jejuni Infection of Secondary Abiotic IL-10-/- Mice Lacking Nucleotide-Oligomerization-Domain-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Grundmann, Ursula; Alutis, Marie E; Fischer, André; Bereswill, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Host immune responses are crucial for combating enteropathogenic infections including Campylobacter jejuni. Within 1 week following peroral C. jejuni infection, secondary abiotic IL-10-/- mice develop severe immunopathological sequelae affecting the colon (ulcerative enterocolitis). In the present study, we addressed whether pathogen-induced pro-inflammatory immune responses could also be observed in the small intestines dependent on the innate receptor nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-protein 2 (Nod2). Within 7 days following peroral infection, C. jejuni stably colonized the gastrointestinal tract of both IL-10-/- mice lacking Nod2 (Nod2-/- IL-10-/-) and IL-10-/- controls displaying bloody diarrhea with similar frequencies. Numbers of apoptotic and regenerating epithelial cells increased in the small intestines of C. jejuni-infected mice of either genotype that were accompanied by elevated ileal T and B lymphocyte counts. Notably, ileal T cell numbers were higher in C. jejuni-infected Nod2-/- IL-10-/- as compared to IL-10-/- counterparts. Furthermore, multifold increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF, and MCP-1 could be measured in small intestinal ex vivo biopsies derived from C. jejuni-infected mice of either genotype. In conclusion, C. jejuni-induced pro-inflammatory immune responses affected the small intestines of both Nod2-/- IL-10-/- and IL-10-/- mice, whereas ileal T lymphocyte numbers were even higher in the former.

  1. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Campylobacter infections occur worldwide. A recent study in Kampala, Uganda, found that 87% of broiler chickens had Campylobacter jejuni; these are potential source of human infection. Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with ...

  2. Vaccination of poultry against Campylobacter in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen in the European Union (EU) since 2005. Reportedly, 212,064 humans have been confirmed ill in 2010 due to a Campylobacter infection in the EU. The major source of infection, among sporadic human cases is to be found in...

  3. Occurrence and genotypes of Campylobacter species in broilers during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yin, Tiantian; Du, Xueqing; Yang, Wenbin; Huang, Jinlin; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-04-01

    Poultry are the main source of Campylobacter infection worldwide. To obtain information on Campylobacter-infected flocks and create a reference for preventing and controlling Campylobacter at farm level, Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broilers and the environments of nine chicken flocks in two farms during growth. The genetic relationship between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using multilocus sequence typing. Flocks were colonized as early as 3 weeks after introduction to the farm. The highest colonization rate was more than 90% and occurred 4-6 weeks after introduction to the farm. Quantitative data showed that the highest Campylobacter loads appeared at 1-2 weeks after initial colonization. Campylobacter loads in cloacal swabs in four flocks were significantly higher at 5 weeks than at 3 weeks (P Campylobacter jejuni and eight for Campylobacter coli isolates. The STs of the Campylobacter isolates recovered from farm 1 were more diversified than those from farm 2. The STs of environmental samples were highly consistent with those of the cloacal swab samples. The consistency between Campylobacter STs in the environmental and cloacal swab samples suggested that the environment might be one of the main sources of infection. Thus, our study highlights the prevalence and contamination load of Campylobacter in broilers during their rearing period and emphasizes the need for control and prevention measures for Campylobacter infection in broilers, which is also important for human health.

  4. Campylobacter in the environment: A major threat to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hasan Abulreesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that Campylobacter remains a worldwide leading cause of gastrointestinal infections. Improperly prepared meat products, unpasteurized milk as well as non chlorinated drinking water were shown to be the main sources of campylobacteriosis. The Campylobacter survival mechanism in various environments facilitated the transmission of Campylobacter-associated infections; however the exact mode of transmission remains to be elucidated. This review aims to summarize recent insights on the incidence and survival of Campylobacter in the environment. Besides, methods of detection and risk assessment for public health safety are also addressed.

  5. Selective gelatinase inhibition reduces apoptosis and pro-inflammatory immune cell responses in Campylobacter jejuni-infected gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alutis, M E; Grundmann, U; Fischer, A; Kühl, A A; Bereswill, S; Heimesaat, M M

    2014-12-01

    Increased levels of the matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (also referred to gelatinase-A and -B, respectively) can be detected in intestinal inflammation. We have recently shown that selective gelatinase blockage by the synthetic compound RO28-2653 ameliorates acute murine ileitis and colitis. We here investigated whether RO28-2653 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in acute Campylobacter jejuni-induced enterocolitis of gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-) mice generated following antibiotic treatment. Mice were perorally infected with C. jejuni (day 0) and either treated with RO28-2653 (75 mg/kg body weight/day) or placebo from day 1 until day 6 post infection (p.i.) by gavage. Irrespective of the treatment, infected mice displayed comparable pathogen loads within the gastrointestinal tract. Following RO28-2653 administration, however, infected mice exhibited less severe symptoms such as bloody diarrhea as compared to placebo controls. Furthermore, less distinct apoptosis but higher numbers of proliferating cells could be detected in the colon of RO28-2653-treated as compared to placebo-treated mice at day 7 p.i. Remarkably, gelatinase blockage resulted in lower numbers of T- and B-lymphocytes as well as macrophages and monocytes in the colonic mucosa of C. jejuni-infected gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-) mice. Taken together, synthetic gelatinase inhibition exerts anti-inflammatory effects in experimental campylobacteriosis.

  6. Campylobacter spp among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital in Kampala--Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshana, S E; Joloba, M; Kakooza, A; Kaddu-Mulindwa, D

    2009-09-01

    Campylobacter infections occur worldwide. A recent study in Kampala, Uganda, found that 87% of broiler chickens had Campylobacter jejuni; these are potential source of human infection. Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with acute diarrhea at Mulago hospital. A crossectional study from July to October 2005 was conducted involved 226 children with acute diarrhea. Serial sampling was done a total of 226 stool specimens were obtained and cultured on selective media. Identification was done using biochemical test and susceptibility using standard discs diffusion method. Campylobacter spp were isolated in 21 (9.3%) of 226 stool specimens analyzed. Campylobacter jejuni 17 (80.9%), Campylobacter lari 2 (9.5%), Campylobacter coli 1 (4.5%) and Campylobacter jejuni/coli 1(4.5%). All Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, and 20% had intermediate resistance to Ampicillin. Campylobacter spp are prevalent among children with acute diarrhea in Kampala- Uganda. A large multicenter study should be undertaken so that the extent of campylobacter infection in our setting can be established.

  7. Participation of some campylobacter species in the etiology of enterocolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Otašević Marica M.; Lazarević-Jovanović Branislava; Tasić-Dimov Desanka; Đorđević Nebojša; Miljković-Selimović Biljana G.

    2004-01-01

    Background. In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowdays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the dema...

  8. The role of serine protease HtrA in acute ulcerative enterocolitis and extra-intestinal immune responses during Campylobacter jejuni infection of gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M. Heimesaat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden. C. jejuni can cross the intestinal epithelial barrier as visualised in biopsies derived from human patients and animal models, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms and associated immunopathology are still not well understood. We have recently shown that the secreted serine protease HtrA plays a key role in C. jejuni cellular invasion and transmigration across polarised epithelial cells in vitro. In the present in vivo study we investigated the role of HtrA during C. jejuni infection of mice. We used the gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mouse model to study campylobacteriosis following peroral infection with the C. jejuni wild-type strain NCTC11168 and the isogenic, non-polar NCTC11168ΔhtrA deletion mutant. Six days post infection (p.i. with either strain mice harboured comparable intestinal C. jejuni loads, whereas ulcerative enterocolitis was less pronounced in mice infected with the ΔhtrA mutant strain. Moreover, ΔhtrA mutant infected mice displayed lower apoptotic cell numbers in the large intestinal mucosa, less colonic accumulation of neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes, lower large intestinal nitric oxide, IFN-γ and IL-6 as well as lower TNF-α and IL-6 serum concentrations as compared to wild-type strain infected mice at day 6 p.i. Notably, immunopathological responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract given that liver and kidneys exhibited mild histopathological changes six days p.i. with either C. jejuni strain. We also found that hepatic and renal nitric oxide levels or renal TNF-α concentrations were lower in the ΔhtrA mutant as compared to wild-type strain infected mice. In conclusion, we show here that the C. jejuni HtrA protein plays a pivotal role in inducing host cell apoptosis and immunopathology during murine campylobacteriosis in the gut in vivo.

  9. The role of serine protease HtrA in acute ulcerative enterocolitis and extra-intestinal immune responses during Campylobacter jejuni infection of gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Alutis, Marie; Grundmann, Ursula; Fischer, André; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Böhm, Manja; Kühl, Anja A; Göbel, Ulf B; Backert, Steffen; Bereswill, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden. C. jejuni can cross the intestinal epithelial barrier as visualized in biopsies derived from human patients and animal models, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms and associated immunopathology are still not well understood. We have recently shown that the secreted serine protease HtrA (high temperature requirement A) plays a key role in C. jejuni cellular invasion and transmigration across polarized epithelial cells in vitro. In the present in vivo study we investigated the role of HtrA during C. jejuni infection of mice. We used the gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-) mouse model to study campylobacteriosis following peroral infection with the C. jejuni wild-type (WT) strain NCTC11168 and the isogenic, non-polar NCTC11168ΔhtrA deletion mutant. Six days post infection (p.i.) with either strain mice harbored comparable intestinal C. jejuni loads, whereas ulcerative enterocolitis was less pronounced in mice infected with the ΔhtrA mutant strain. Moreover, ΔhtrA mutant infected mice displayed lower apoptotic cell numbers in the large intestinal mucosa, less colonic accumulation of neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes, lower large intestinal nitric oxide, IFN-γ, and IL-6 as well as lower TNF-α and IL-6 serum concentrations as compared to WT strain infected mice at day 6 p.i. Notably, immunopathological responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract given that liver and kidneys exhibited mild histopathological changes 6 days p.i. with either C. jejuni strain. We also found that hepatic and renal nitric oxide levels or renal TNF-α concentrations were lower in the ΔhtrA mutant as compared to WT strain infected mice. In conclusion, we show here that the C. jejuni HtrA protein plays a pivotal role in inducing host cell apoptosis and immunopathology during murine campylobacteriosis in the gut in vivo.

  10. Campylobacter enterocolitis in a neonatal nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, M A; Norrish, B; Lior, H; Heyes, B; Monteath, A; Montgomery, H

    1984-06-01

    During a five-day period, four neonates in a neonatal nursery developed Campylobacter entercolitis. Investigations suggested that cross-infection or common-source infection were unlikely and that the neonates acquired their infection during delivery from their respective mothers, three of whom were also found to harbour Campylobacter jejuni in their stools. This suggestion was confirmed with use of the Lior serotyping system in a blind fashion. Each neonate was infected with a different serotype, and each of the three culture-positive mothers had the same serotype as her neonate. Examination of multiple colonies from the stools of five individuals showed that each was likely to have been infected by only one serotype. The presenting clinical features in the four neonates provides further evidence that neonatal Campylobacter entercolitis typically manifests as a benign, self-limited, nonfebrile, diarrheal illness with bloody stools.

  11. Beta-resorcylic acid reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading food borne illnesses globally, has been linked with high prevalence of this bacterium in retail chicken meat. Reduction of Campylobacter in poultry will greatly reduce the risk of this disease. Unfortunately, strategies employed to reduce Campylobacter in li...

  12. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.; Sommer, H.M.; Nauta, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter

  14. Infection with multidrug-resistant Campylobacter coli mimicking recurrence of carcinoid syndrome: a case report of a neuroendocrine tumor patient with repeated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagler, Heimo; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Raderer, Markus

    2016-08-12

    Campylobacteriosis caused by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Campylobacter (mainly C. jejuni and C. coli) is one of the most common gastrointestinal zoonotic infections with increased incidence in humans worldwide. The typical symptoms are severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea and sometimes fever. The clinical course of Campylobacter infection is mainly mild and after one week self-limiting, but can take several weeks in some rare cases. However, patients with neuroendocrine tumors in the gastrointestinal tract, a neoplasm of enterochromaffin/neuroendocrine cell origin, can develop severe diarrhea during progression of tumor growth caused by hormonal excess due to the tumor. Both diseases have very similar clinical symptoms and this case report elaborates the differences. So far it is known in the literature that the clinical symptoms of campylobacteriosis can mimic appendicitis or acute colitis of inflammatory bowel disease but a mimicking of recurrence of carcinoid syndrome in a patient with neuroendocrine tumor is not reported. A 72-year-old man with already diagnosed and treated metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the terminal ileum (G1 rated, Ki-67 index 1 %) was again suffering from increasing diarrhea, abdominal cramps and weight lost. These symptoms were similar to the initial symptoms due to the tumor which improved at the time after total resection of the primary in the terminal ileum and regular therapy with long-acting release depot octreotide intramuscularly. As progression/tachyphylaxis in symptomatic patients with carcinoid syndrome undergoing therapy, reassessment of disease and analysis of tumor markers was initiated, and the interval of intramuscular injections was shortened. Radiological findings and tumor marker levels disclosed no evidence of neuroendocrine tumor progression and the symptoms continued. After 4 weeks with symptoms the patient developed additionally fever. Due to impaired renal function and elevated signs of systemic

  15. Age-related differences in the luminal and mucosa-associated gut microbiome of broiler chickens and shifts associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha Awad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of gut microbiota for broiler performance and health little is known about the composition of this ecosystem, its development and responds towards bacterial infections. Therefore, the current study was conducted to address the composition and structure of the microbial community in broiler chickens in a longitudinal study from day 1 to day 28 of age in the gut content and on the mucosa. Additionally, the consequences of a Campylobacter (C. jejuni infection on the microbial community were assessed. The composition of the gut microbiota was analyzed with 16S rRNA gene targeted Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Sequencing of 130 samples yielded 51,825,306 quality-controlled sequences, which clustered into 8,285 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 0.03 distance level representing 24 phyla. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Tenericutes were the main components of the gut microbiota, with Proteobacteria and Firmicutes being the most abundant phyla (between 95.0-99.7% of all sequences at all gut sites. Microbial communities changed in an age-dependent manner. Whereas young birds had more Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Tenericutes dominated in older birds (> 14 days old. In addition, 28 day old birds had more diverse bacterial communities than young birds. Furthermore, numerous significant differences in microbial profiles between the mucosa and luminal content of the small and large intestine were detected, with some species being strongly associated with the mucosa whereas others remained within the luminal content of the gut. Following oral infection of 14 day old broiler chickens with 1 × 108 CFU of C. jejuni NCTC 12744, it was found that C. jejuni heavily colonized throughout the small and large intestine. Moreover, C. jejuni colonization was associated with an alteration of the gut microbiota with infected birds having a significantly lower abundance of Escherichia (E. coli at different gut sites. On the

  16. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Danish broiler production: a cross-sectional survey and a retrospective analysis of risk factors for occurrence in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Wedderkopp, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study...... days (OR = 5.0, 1.2 important biosecurity measure for production of campylobacter-free broilers....

  17. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  18. Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis presenting as inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quondamcarlo, C; Valentini, G; Ruggeri, M; Forlini, G; Fenderico, P; Rossi, Z

    2003-10-01

    We report a case of Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis presenting as inflammatory bowel disease in a 19-year old woman. After a useless course of corticosteroids, ceftazidime and metronidazole, she was successfully treated with erythromicin. Campylobacter species represent an important cause of gastroenteritis in children and adults. The rate of Campylobacter isolation is 5-6 per 100,000 persons. This rate, however, grossly understimates the actual number of Campylobacter infections. In most cases, Campylobacter enteritis is a self-limiting disease, rarely associated with severe complications. Our case demonstrates the difficulty in distinguishing inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis) at onset from atypical infectious colitis. Unfortunately, corticosteroids (necessary for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease) may exacerbate infectious etiologies. Campylobacter jejuni should be ruled out when assessing inflammatory bowel diseases at onset (as during flare-ups), especially if corticosteroids or immunosuppressive therapies are required.

  19. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between Presence of Anti-Campylobacter FliD Protein Antibodies and Campylobacter jejuni Isolation from Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Poultry products are regarded as a major source of this bacterium for human infection. Although this bacterium is a commensal in chicken cecal microbiome, Campylobacte...

  1. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use associated with laboratory-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection in two health units in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Anne E; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Tamblyn, Susan E; Morrell, Larry; Seliske, Patrick; Jamieson, Frances B; Irwin, Rebecca; Dewey, Catherine E; Boerlin, Patrick; McEwen, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    A population-based study was conducted over a two-year period in the Perth District (PD) and Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph (WDG) health units in Ontario to document antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use associated with clinical cases of laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis. Etest (bioMérieux SA, France) was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin (CIP), clindamycin, erythromycin (ERY), gentamicin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Data regarding antimicrobial use were collected from 250 cases. Of the 250 cases, 165 (65.7%) reported staying home or being hospitalized due to campylobacteriosis. Fifty-four per cent of cases (135 of 249) reported taking antimicrobials to treat campylobacteriosis. In 115 cases (51.1%), fecal culture results were not used for treatment decisions because they were not available before the initiation of antimicrobial treatment and/or they were not available before the cessation of symptoms. Of the 250 cases, 124 (49.6%) had available Campylobacter isolates, of which 66 (53.2%) were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested. No resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin was found in these isolates. Six isolates (4.8%) were resistant to CIP. Two isolates (1.6%) were resistant to ERY; however, no isolates were resistant to both CIP and ERY. Prudent use practices should be promoted among physicians to reduce the use of antimicrobials for the treatment of gastroenteritis in general and campylobacteriosis in particular, as well as to minimize the future development of resistance to these antimicrobials in Campylobacter species.

  2. The impact of serine protease HtrA in apoptosis, intestinal immune responses and extra-intestinal histopathology during Campylobacter jejuni infection of infant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Fischer, André; Alutis, Marie; Grundmann, Ursula; Boehm, Manja; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Göbel, Ulf B; Kühl, Anja A; Bereswill, Stefan; Backert, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has emerged as a leading cause of bacterial enterocolitis. The serine protease HtrA has been shown to be a pivotal, novel C. jejuni virulence factor involved in cell invasion and transmigration across polarised epithelial cells in vitro. However, the functional relevance of the htrA gene for the interaction of C. jejuni with the host immune system in the infant mouse infection model has not been investigated so far. Here we studied the role of C. jejuni htrA during infection of 3-weeks-old infant mice. Immediately after weaning, conventional wild-type mice were perorally infected with the NCTC11168∆htrA mutant (∆htrA) or the parental wild-type strain. Approximately one third of infected infant mice suffered from bloody diarrhea until day 7 post infection (p.i.), whereas colonic histopathological changes were rather moderate but comparable between the two strains. Interestingly, parental, but not ∆htrA mutant infected mice, displayed a multifold increase of apoptotic cells in the colonic mucosa at day 7 p.i., which was paralleled by higher colonic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ and the matrix-degrading enzyme matrixmetalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Furthermore, higher numbers of proliferating cells could be observed in the colon of ∆htrA infected mice as compared to the parental wild-type strain. Remarkably, as early as 7 days p.i. infant mice also exhibited inflammatory changes in extra-intestinal compartments such as liver, kidneys and lungs, which were less distinct in kidneys and lungs following ∆htrA versus parental strain infection. However, live C. jejuni bacteria could not be found in these organs, suggesting the induction of systemic effects during intestinal infection. Upon C. jejuni ∆htrA strain infection of infant mice, intestinal and extra-intestinal pro-inflammatory immune responses were ameliorated in the infant mouse model system. Future studies will shed further light onto the molecular

  3. Absence of Nucleotide-Oligomerization-Domain-2 Is Associated with Less Distinct Disease in Campylobacter jejuni Infected Secondary Abiotic IL-10 Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Grundmann, Ursula; Alutis, Marie E; Fischer, André; Bereswill, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Human Campylobacter jejuni-infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Despite their high prevalence and socioeconomic impact the underlying mechanisms of pathogen-host-interactions are only incompletely understood. Given that the innate immune receptor nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 (Nod2) is involved in clearance of enteropathogens, we here evaluated its role in murine campylobacteriosis. To address this, we applied Nod2-deficient IL-10-/- (Nod2-/- IL-10-/-) mice and IL-10-/- counterparts both with a depleted intestinal microbiota to warrant pathogen-induced enterocolitis. At day 7 following peroral C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection, Nod2 mRNA was down-regulated in the colon of secondary abiotic IL-10-/- and wildtype mice. Nod2-deficiency did neither affect gastrointestinal colonization nor extra-intestinal and systemic translocation properties of C. jejuni. Colonic mucin-2 mRNA was, however, down-regulated upon C. jejuni-infection of both Nod2-/- IL-10-/- and IL-10-/- mice, whereas expression levels were lower in infected, but also naive Nod2-/- IL-10-/- mice as compared to respective IL-10-/- controls. Remarkably, C. jejuni-infected Nod2-/- IL-10-/- mice were less compromised than IL-10-/- counterparts and displayed less distinct apoptotic, but higher regenerative cell responses in colonic epithelia. Conversely, innate as well as adaptive immune cells such as macrophages and monocytes as well as T lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells, respectively, were even more abundant in large intestines of Nod2-/- IL-10-/- as compared to IL-10-/- mice at day 7 post-infection. Furthermore, IFN-γ concentrations were higher in ex vivo biopsies derived from intestinal compartments including colon and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in systemic tissue sites such as the spleen of C. jejuni infected Nod2-/- IL-10-/- as compared to IL10-/- counterparts. Whereas, at day 7 postinfection anti-inflammatory IL-22 mRNA levels were up-regulated, IL-18 mRNA was down

  4. A Gene-By-Gene Approach to Bacterial Population Genomics: Whole Genome MLST of Campylobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K. Sheppard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis remains a major human public health problem world-wide. Genetic analyses of Campylobacter isolates, and particularly molecular epidemiology, have been central to the study of this disease, particularly the characterization of Campylobacter genotypes isolated from human infection, farm animals, and retail food. These studies have demonstrated that Campylobacter populations are highly structured, with distinct genotypes associated with particular wild or domestic animal sources, and that chicken meat is the most likely source of most human infection in countries such as the UK. The availability of multiple whole genome sequences from Campylobacter isolates presents the prospect of identifying those genes or allelic variants responsible for host-association and increased human disease risk, but the diversity of Campylobacter genomes present challenges for such analyses. We present a gene-by-gene approach for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypes in diverse bacteria such as Campylobacter, implemented with the BIGSdb software on the pubMLST.org/campylobacter website.

  5. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identifi cation and Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria R; Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Ivanov, Ivan N; Petrov, Peter K; Velev, Valeri R; Tomova, Ivelina I; Tiholova, Maida M; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causative agents of gastrointestinal infections in humans. The most frequently isolated strains of this bacterial genus are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. To date, genetic methods for bacterial identification have not been used in Bulgaria. We optimized the multiplex PSR assay to identify Campylobacter spp. and differentiate C. jejuni from C. coli in clinical isolates. We also compared this method with the routinely used biochemical methods. To identify Campylobacter spp. and discriminate C. coli from C. jejuni in clinical isolates using multiplex PCR assay. Between February 2014 and January 2015 we studied 93 stool samples taken from patients with diarrheal syndrome and identified 40 species of Campylobacter spp. in them. The clinical material was cultured in microaerophilic atmosphere, the isolated strains being biochemically diff erentiated (hydrolysis of sodium hippurate for C. jejuni, and hydrolysis of indoxyl acetate for C. coli). DNA was isolated from the strains using QiaAmp MiniKit (QIAGEN, Germany). Twenty strains were tested with multiplex PCR for the presence of these genes: cadF, characteristic for Campylobacter spp., hipO for C. jejuni and asp for C. coli. The biochemical tests identified 16 strains of C. jejuni, 3 strains of C. coli, and 1 strain of C. upsaliensis. After the multiplex PCR assay the capillary gel electrophoresis confirmed 16 strains of C. jejuni, 2 strains of C. coli and 2 strains of Campylobacter spp. - because of the presence of the gene cadF. C. jejuni has the gene hipO, and it is possible that this gene may not be expressed in the biochemical differentiation yielding a negative reaction as a result. In comparison, we can conclude that the genetic differentiation is a more accurate method than the biochemical tests. The multiplex PCR assay is a fast, accurate method for identifi cation of Campylobacter spp. which makes it quite necessary in the clinical diagnostic practice.

  6. Novel murine infection models provide deep insights into the "ménage à trois" of Campylobacter jejuni, microbiota and host innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bereswill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Campylobacter jejuni-infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden, it is still not well understood how C. jejuni causes intestinal inflammation. Detailed investigation of C. jejuni-mediated intestinal immunopathology is hampered by the lack of appropriate vertebrate models. In particular, mice display colonization resistance against this pathogen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To overcome these limitations we developed a novel C. jejuni-infection model using gnotobiotic mice in which the intestinal flora was eradicated by antibiotic treatment. These animals could then be permanently associated with a complete human (hfa or murine (mfa microbiota. After peroral infection C. jejuni colonized the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic and hfa mice for six weeks, whereas mfa mice cleared the pathogen within two days. Strikingly, stable C. jejuni colonization was accompanied by a pro-inflammatory immune response indicated by increased numbers of T- and B-lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells, neutrophils and apoptotic cells, as well as increased concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 in the colon mucosa of hfa mice. Analysis of MyD88(-/-, TRIF(-/-, TLR4(-/-, and TLR9(-/- mice revealed that TLR4- and TLR9-signaling was essential for immunopathology following C. jejuni-infection. Interestingly, C. jejuni-mutant strains deficient in formic acid metabolism and perception induced less intestinal immunopathology compared to the parental strain infection. In summary, the murine gut flora is essential for colonization resistance against C. jejuni and can be overcome by reconstitution of gnotobiotic mice with human flora. Detection of C. jejuni-LPS and -CpG-DNA by host TLR4 and TLR9, respectively, plays a key role in immunopathology. Finally, the host immune response is tightly coupled to bacterial formic acid metabolism and invasion fitness. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that

  7. Guillain Barré Syndrome is induced in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice following Campylobacter jejuni infection and is exacerbated by antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Charles, J L; Bell, J A; Gadsden, B J; Malik, A; Cooke, H; Van de Grift, L K; Kim, H Y; Smith, E J; Mansfield, L S

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis linked to several serious autoimmune sequelae such as the peripheral neuropathies Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). We hypothesized that GBS and MFS can result in NOD wild type (WT) mice or their congenic interleukin (IL)-10 or B7-2 knockouts secondary to C. jejuni infection. Mice were gavaged orally with C. jejuni strains HB93-13 and 260.94 from patients with GBS or CF93-6 from a patient with MFS and assessed for clinical neurological signs and phenotypes, anti-ganglioside antibodies, and cellular infiltrates and lesions in gut and peripheral nerve tissues. Significant increases in autoantibodies against single gangliosides (GM1, GQ1b, GD1a) occurred in infected NOD mice of all genotypes, although the isotypes varied (NOD WT had IgG1, IgG3; NOD B7-2-/- had IgG3; NOD IL-10-/- had IgG1, IgG3, IgG2a). Infected NOD WT and NOD IL-10-/- mice also produced anti-ganglioside antibodies of the IgG1 isotype directed against a mixture of GM1/GQ1b gangliosides. Phenotypic tests showed significant differences between treatment groups of all mouse genotypes. Peripheral nerve lesions with macrophage infiltrates were significantly increased in infected mice of NOD WT and IL-10-/- genotypes compared to sham-inoculated controls, while lesions with T cell infiltrates were significantly increased in infected mice of the NOD B7-2-/- genotype compared to sham-inoculated controls. In both infected and sham inoculated NOD IL-10-/- mice, antibiotic treatment exacerbated neurological signs, lesions and the amount and number of different isotypes of antiganglioside autoantibodies produced. Thus, inducible mouse models of post-C. jejuni GBS are feasible and can be characterized based on evaluation of three factors-onset of GBS clinical signs/phenotypes, anti-ganglioside autoantibodies and nerve lesions. Based on these factors we characterized 1) NOD B-7-/- mice as an acute inflammatory

  8. [Invasive Campylobacter jejuni/coli Infections: 9 Case Reports at a Single Center between 2000 and 2015, and a Review of Literature Describing Japanese Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Keiji; Matsubara, Kousaku; Nigami, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Aya; Isome, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Go

    2016-05-01

    There have been few coherent reports on extraintestinal infection or bacteremia caused by Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) or C. coli in Japan. To clarify the clinical and microbiological characteristics of invasive infections caused by these two species, we retrospectively analyzed the records of patients from whom these pathogens had been isolated from sterile sites between 2000 and 2015. During this study period, we identified 9 patients. The clinical syndrome of all of these patients was bacteremia. Three patients had underlying diseases with both liver cirrhosis and malignant neoplasm, and all of these patients were aged 60 years or older. The remaining 6 patients were immunocompetent and younger than 40 years of age. All 9 patients had a fever of 38.5 degrees C or higher. The proportion of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms was lower for the 3 patients with underlying diseases, compared with the 6 patients without underlying diseases (1/3 cases vs, 4/6 cases). Of the 8 strains evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility, all were susceptible to imipenem/cilastatin, kanamycin and erythromycin, and 2 were resistant to levofloxacin. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to 8 patients, but one spontaneously recovered without any treatment. We were able to follow the outcomes of 8 patients, and all of these patients completely recovered without relapses. We also reviewed 14 Japanese patients reported in the Japanese and English literature and found similar clinical features consisting of a high-grade fever and an association with underlying diseases and gastrointestinal symptoms. Of note, 3 agammaglobulinemic patients presented with bacteremia and extraintestinal infections and had multiple relapses. Based on the findings of our 9 cases and previous reports, the affected patients were divided into two groups according to clinical syndrome and therapeutic intervention. One group consisted of previously healthy children or young adults showing bacteremia

  9. Chitosan supplementation reduces enteric colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens and down-regulates expression of colonization genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and poultry is considered as the most common source of human infections. Campylobacter is prevalent in most poultry flocks and a reduction of Campylobacter in poultry would greatly reduce the risk of campylo...

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter concisus in diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Permin, Henrik; On, Stephen L W

    2002-01-01

    The importance of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni/coli in diarrhoeal disease is largely unknown. We wished to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of C. concisus infection in patients with enteric disease in a tertiary hospital. Stool specimens were routinely tested...... for the presence of Campylobacter species, by use of the filter isolation method. The medical records of the C. concisus-positive patients were reviewed. Of 224 Campylobacter isolates obtained, 110 were identified as C. concisus. Concomitant infection occurred in only 27% of cases. By means of protein profiling we...

  11. The Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter spp. From Retail Poultry Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Kurinčič; Ingrid Berce; Tina Zorman; Sonja Smole Možina

    2005-01-01

    Macrolides and fluoroquinolones are regarded as drugs of choice for the treatment of human Campylobacter infections. The use of antimicrobials for this purpose as well as in food animal production has resulted in the resistance of Campylobacter spp. to selected antibiotics. Since poultry is one of the most important sources of human Campylobacter infections the use of antibiotics in animal production can shorten the effective therapeutic life of antibiotics for human use. During 2001–2003, ov...

  12. A novel mouse model of Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis reveals key pro-inflammatory and tissue protective roles for Toll-like receptor signaling during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Martin; Ries, Jenna; Vermeulen, Jenny; Yang, Hong; Sham, Ho Pan; Crowley, Shauna M; Badayeva, Yuliya; Turvey, Stuart E; Gaynor, Erin C; Li, Xiaoxia; Vallance, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major source of foodborne illness in the developed world, and a common cause of clinical gastroenteritis. Exactly how C. jejuni colonizes its host's intestines and causes disease is poorly understood. Although it causes severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans, C. jejuni typically dwells as a commensal microbe within the intestines of most animals, including birds, where its colonization is asymptomatic. Pretreatment of C57BL/6 mice with the antibiotic vancomycin facilitated intestinal C. jejuni colonization, albeit with minimal pathology. In contrast, vancomycin pretreatment of mice deficient in SIGIRR (Sigirr(-/-)), a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent signaling led to heavy and widespread C. jejuni colonization, accompanied by severe gastroenteritis involving strongly elevated transcription of Th1/Th17 cytokines. C. jejuni heavily colonized the cecal and colonic crypts of Sigirr(-/-) mice, adhering to, as well as invading intestinal epithelial cells. This infectivity was dependent on established C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, capsular polysaccharides (kpsM) and motility/flagella (flaA). We also explored the basis for the inflammatory response elicited by C. jejuni in Sigirr(-/-) mice, focusing on the roles played by Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, as these innate receptors were strongly stimulated by C. jejuni. Despite heavy colonization, Tlr4(-/-)/Sigirr(-/-) mice were largely unresponsive to infection by C. jejuni, whereas Tlr2(-/-)/Sigirr(-/-) mice developed exaggerated inflammation and pathology. This indicates that TLR4 signaling underlies the majority of the enteritis seen in this model, whereas TLR2 signaling had a protective role, acting to promote mucosal integrity. Furthermore, we found that loss of the C. jejuni capsule led to increased TLR4 activation and exaggerated inflammation and gastroenteritis. Together, these results validate the use of Sigirr(-/-) mice as an exciting and relevant animal model for

  13. A Novel Mouse Model of Campylobacter jejuni Gastroenteritis Reveals Key Pro-inflammatory and Tissue Protective Roles for Toll-like Receptor Signaling during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Martin; Yang, Hong; Sham, Ho Pan; Crowley, Shauna M.; Badayeva, Yuliya; Turvey, Stuart E.; Gaynor, Erin C.; Li, Xiaoxia; Vallance, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major source of foodborne illness in the developed world, and a common cause of clinical gastroenteritis. Exactly how C. jejuni colonizes its host's intestines and causes disease is poorly understood. Although it causes severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans, C. jejuni typically dwells as a commensal microbe within the intestines of most animals, including birds, where its colonization is asymptomatic. Pretreatment of C57BL/6 mice with the antibiotic vancomycin facilitated intestinal C. jejuni colonization, albeit with minimal pathology. In contrast, vancomycin pretreatment of mice deficient in SIGIRR (Sigirr−/−), a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent signaling led to heavy and widespread C. jejuni colonization, accompanied by severe gastroenteritis involving strongly elevated transcription of Th1/Th17 cytokines. C. jejuni heavily colonized the cecal and colonic crypts of Sigirr−/− mice, adhering to, as well as invading intestinal epithelial cells. This infectivity was dependent on established C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, capsular polysaccharides (kpsM) and motility/flagella (flaA). We also explored the basis for the inflammatory response elicited by C. jejuni in Sigirr−/− mice, focusing on the roles played by Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, as these innate receptors were strongly stimulated by C. jejuni. Despite heavy colonization, Tlr4−/−/Sigirr−/− mice were largely unresponsive to infection by C. jejuni, whereas Tlr2−/−/Sigirr−/− mice developed exaggerated inflammation and pathology. This indicates that TLR4 signaling underlies the majority of the enteritis seen in this model, whereas TLR2 signaling had a protective role, acting to promote mucosal integrity. Furthermore, we found that loss of the C. jejuni capsule led to increased TLR4 activation and exaggerated inflammation and gastroenteritis. Together, these results validate the use of Sigirr−/− mice as an exciting and relevant animal

  14. A novel mouse model of Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis reveals key pro-inflammatory and tissue protective roles for Toll-like receptor signaling during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stahl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major source of foodborne illness in the developed world, and a common cause of clinical gastroenteritis. Exactly how C. jejuni colonizes its host's intestines and causes disease is poorly understood. Although it causes severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans, C. jejuni typically dwells as a commensal microbe within the intestines of most animals, including birds, where its colonization is asymptomatic. Pretreatment of C57BL/6 mice with the antibiotic vancomycin facilitated intestinal C. jejuni colonization, albeit with minimal pathology. In contrast, vancomycin pretreatment of mice deficient in SIGIRR (Sigirr(-/-, a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent signaling led to heavy and widespread C. jejuni colonization, accompanied by severe gastroenteritis involving strongly elevated transcription of Th1/Th17 cytokines. C. jejuni heavily colonized the cecal and colonic crypts of Sigirr(-/- mice, adhering to, as well as invading intestinal epithelial cells. This infectivity was dependent on established C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, capsular polysaccharides (kpsM and motility/flagella (flaA. We also explored the basis for the inflammatory response elicited by C. jejuni in Sigirr(-/- mice, focusing on the roles played by Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and 4, as these innate receptors were strongly stimulated by C. jejuni. Despite heavy colonization, Tlr4(-/-/Sigirr(-/- mice were largely unresponsive to infection by C. jejuni, whereas Tlr2(-/-/Sigirr(-/- mice developed exaggerated inflammation and pathology. This indicates that TLR4 signaling underlies the majority of the enteritis seen in this model, whereas TLR2 signaling had a protective role, acting to promote mucosal integrity. Furthermore, we found that loss of the C. jejuni capsule led to increased TLR4 activation and exaggerated inflammation and gastroenteritis. Together, these results validate the use of Sigirr(-/- mice as an exciting and relevant animal model for

  15. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Though Campylobacter enteritis is a self-limiting disease, antimicrobial agents are recommended for extraintestinal infections and for treating immunocompromised persons. Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin are drugs of choice. The rate of resistance to these drugs is increasing in both developed and developing ...

  16. Molecular characterization of thermophilic Campylobacter species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We identified two species of thermophilic Campylobacter in companion dogs in Jos. Majority of C. jejuni were isolated from mucoid faeces while mixed infections of the two species were more common among diarrhoeic dogs. Pet owners should observe strict hand hygiene especially after handling dogs or their faeces to ...

  17. Multiple factors interact to produce responses resembling spectrum of human disease in Campylobacter jejuni infected C57BL/6 IL-10-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Julia A; St Charles, Jessica L; Murphy, Alice J; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Plovanich-Jones, Anne E; Stanley, Erin L; Wolf, John E; Gettings, Jenna R; Whittam, Thomas S; Mansfield, Linda S

    2009-03-18

    Campylobacter jejuni infection produces a spectrum of clinical presentations in humans--including asymptomatic carriage, watery diarrhea, and bloody diarrhea--and has been epidemiologically associated with subsequent autoimmune neuropathies. This microorganism is genetically variable and possesses genetic mechanisms that may contribute to variability in nature. However, relationships between genetic variation in the pathogen and variation in disease manifestation in the host are not understood. We took a comparative experimental approach to explore differences among different C. jejuni strains and studied the effect of diet on disease manifestation in an interleukin-10 deficient mouse model. In the comparative study, C57BL/6 interleukin-10-/- mice were infected with seven genetically distinct C. jejuni strains. Four strains colonized the mice and caused disease; one colonized with no disease; two did not colonize. A DNA:DNA microarray comparison of the strain that colonized mice without disease to C. jejuni 11168 that caused disease revealed that putative virulence determinants, including loci encoding surface structures known to be involved in C. jejuni pathogenesis, differed from or were absent in the strain that did not cause disease. In the experimental study, the five colonizing strains were passaged four times in mice. For three strains, serial passage produced increased incidence and degree of pathology and decreased time to develop pathology; disease shifted from watery to bloody diarrhea. Mice kept on an ~6% fat diet or switched from an approximately 12% fat diet to an approximately 6% fat diet just before infection with a non-adapted strain also exhibited increased incidence and severity of disease and decreased time to develop disease, although the effects of diet were only statistically significant in one experiment. C. jejuni strain genetic background and adaptation of the strain to the host by serial passage contribute to differences in disease

  18. Multiple factors interact to produce responses resembling spectrum of human disease in Campylobacter jejuni infected C57BL/6 IL-10-/- mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf John E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni infection produces a spectrum of clinical presentations in humans – including asymptomatic carriage, watery diarrhea, and bloody diarrhea – and has been epidemiologically associated with subsequent autoimmune neuropathies. This microorganism is genetically variable and possesses genetic mechanisms that may contribute to variability in nature. However, relationships between genetic variation in the pathogen and variation in disease manifestation in the host are not understood. We took a comparative experimental approach to explore differences among different C. jejuni strains and studied the effect of diet on disease manifestation in an interleukin-10 deficient mouse model. Results In the comparative study, C57BL/6 interleukin-10-/- mice were infected with seven genetically distinct C. jejuni strains. Four strains colonized the mice and caused disease; one colonized with no disease; two did not colonize. A DNA:DNA microarray comparison of the strain that colonized mice without disease to C. jejuni 11168 that caused disease revealed that putative virulence determinants, including loci encoding surface structures known to be involved in C. jejuni pathogenesis, differed from or were absent in the strain that did not cause disease. In the experimental study, the five colonizing strains were passaged four times in mice. For three strains, serial passage produced increased incidence and degree of pathology and decreased time to develop pathology; disease shifted from watery to bloody diarrhea. Mice kept on an ~6% fat diet or switched from an ~12% fat diet to an ~6% fat diet just before infection with a non-adapted strain also exhibited increased incidence and severity of disease and decreased time to develop disease, although the effects of diet were only statistically significant in one experiment. Conclusion C. jejuni strain genetic background and adaptation of the strain to the host by serial passage

  19. Campylobacter enteritis: early diagnosis with Gram's stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D D; Ault, M J; Ault, M A; Murata, G H

    1982-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has become one of the most important causes of infectious diarrhea in the United States. We examined the utility of Gram's stain of stool for the rapid presumptive diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis in a large, urban hospital and found that this test has a sensitivity of 43.5% and a specificity of 99.4%. We believe that Gram's stain of stool could be used to direct the early management of up to one half of patients infected with this pathogen.

  20. Absence of Nucleotide-Oligomerization-Domain-2 Is Associated with Less Distinct Disease in Campylobacter jejuni Infected Secondary Abiotic IL-10 Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M. Heimesaat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human Campylobacter jejuni-infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Despite their high prevalence and socioeconomic impact the underlying mechanisms of pathogen-host-interactions are only incompletely understood. Given that the innate immune receptor nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 (Nod2 is involved in clearance of enteropathogens, we here evaluated its role in murine campylobacteriosis. To address this, we applied Nod2-deficient IL-10−/− (Nod2−/− IL-10−/− mice and IL-10−/− counterparts both with a depleted intestinal microbiota to warrant pathogen-induced enterocolitis. At day 7 following peroral C. jejuni strain 81–176 infection, Nod2 mRNA was down-regulated in the colon of secondary abiotic IL-10−/− and wildtype mice. Nod2-deficiency did neither affect gastrointestinal colonization nor extra-intestinal and systemic translocation properties of C. jejuni. Colonic mucin-2 mRNA was, however, down-regulated upon C. jejuni-infection of both Nod2−/− IL-10−/− and IL-10−/− mice, whereas expression levels were lower in infected, but also naive Nod2−/− IL-10−/− mice as compared to respective IL-10−/− controls. Remarkably, C. jejuni-infected Nod2−/− IL-10−/− mice were less compromised than IL-10−/− counterparts and displayed less distinct apoptotic, but higher regenerative cell responses in colonic epithelia. Conversely, innate as well as adaptive immune cells such as macrophages and monocytes as well as T lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells, respectively, were even more abundant in large intestines of Nod2−/− IL-10−/− as compared to IL-10−/− mice at day 7 post-infection. Furthermore, IFN-γ concentrations were higher in ex vivo biopsies derived from intestinal compartments including colon and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in systemic tissue sites such as the spleen of C. jejuni infected Nod2−/− IL-10−/− as compared to IL10−/− counterparts. Whereas, at day

  1. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni for Food Safety and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cakmak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are microorganisms that can be found in nature in the entire domestic and wild animal’s intestinal flora including the poultry and the sea animals. Campylobacter can better colonize in the poultry than the other animals. Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen among the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. whose growth temperature’s are different than the other Campylobacter spp. and can cause serious gastroenteritis in human beings which in some cases ended up with death. Human beings are generally infected with C. jejuni mainly because of the poultry meat and products and rarely because of the red meat which are contaminated during preparation and serving stages. Inadequate cooking, consumption of poorly chlorinated drinking water or unpasteurized milk are other infection sources of C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis especially affect children under 5 years of age and reported to be a zoonotic illness that cause acute gastroenteritis in human. In many countries, food sourced C. jejuni infections were reported to occur more frequently than Salmonella spp. infections. In order to avoid Campylobacter infections, it is very important to enforce food security programmes and HACCP like systems during growth, slaughterhouses and point of sales stages. Also adequate cooking of the products, hygiene of the kitchen and personnel are important. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 157-166

  2. Participation of some campylobacter species in the etiology of enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otašević Marica M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowdays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the demanding features of Campylobacter, as well as poorly equipped microbiological laboratories, campylobacteriosis is insufficiently studied in our country. This investigation aimed to determine the participation of some Campylobacter species in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in our population. Methods. The four-years continuous monitoring of Campylobacter presence was performed in the faeces of 12 605 patients with enterocolitis. The control group included 5 774 examinees of healthy children and youth. Faeces samples were cultivated on Skirrow's selective medium, and further incubated according to effective methodology for Campylobacter. Identification of strains was based on morphological, cultural and physiologic features of strains (oxidase test, catalase test, susceptibility to nalidixic acid, and hypurate hydrolysis. As a statistical method, for data processing, c2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used. Results. Campylobacter was proven in 3.86% of enterocolitis patients, and in 0.71% of healthy population. Out of 518 Campylobacter isolates, 86.48% belonged to enterocolitis outpatients, and 13,51% to inpatients. Predominant symptoms of the disease were diarrhea (81.83%, increased temperature (34.71%, vomiting (19.77%, and stomach pain (15.17%. The diseased were predominantly infants in the first year of life. Out of 300 Campylobacter isolates, 75% were identified as Campylobacer jejuni, 23% as Campylobacter coli (C. coli, and 2% as Campylobacter lari

  3. Beta-resorcylic acid, a phytophenolic compound, reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this s...

  4. [The hemolytic-uremic syndrome in enterocolitis caused by Campylobacter jejuni].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezel, Z; Stejskal, J; Dostálková, D

    1993-11-01

    In the submitted case-history the authors describe the clinical course of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) during Campylobacter infection in a two-year-old boy. On the described case the authors wish to confirm that in the manifestation of HUS in childhood not only infections caused by the usual microbial agents can participate but also Campylobacter jejuni.

  5. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  6. Acute myocarditis secondary to Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, A J; Crilley, J G; Hall, J A

    2008-10-01

    Myocarditis is a rare condition that can mimic an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We present the case of a 24-year-old male with Noonan syndrome who presented with a diarrhoeal pro-dromal illness, acute onset chest pain, elevated cardiac biomarkers and an abnormal ECG with ST elevation in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. The patient had acute myocarditis secondary to Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. Infective myocarditis is most commonly due to a viral infection. Myocarditis is very rarely due to a bacterial infection with only isolated reports of myocarditis induced by Campylobacter jejuni infection. At follow-up he remains well. Myocarditis should be considered in all patients presenting with acute onset chest pain and elevated cardiac biomarkers.

  7. A Prospective Follow-Up Study on Transmission of Campylobacter from Poultry to Abattoir Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  8. Development of real-time PCR and hybridization methods for detection and identification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in pig faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Andersen, M. T.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To develop a real-time (rt) PCR for species differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter and to develop a method for assessing co-colonization of pigs by Campylobacter spp. Methods and Results: The specificity of a developed 5' nuclease rt-PCR for species-specific identification...... of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis and of a hipO gene nucleotide probe for detection of C. jejuni by colony-blot hybridization were determined by testing a total of 75 reference strains of Campylobacter spp. and related organisms. The rt-PCR method allowed...... species-specific detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally infected pig faecal samples after an enrichment step, whereas the hybridization approach enhanced the specific isolation of C. jejuni (present in minority to C. coli) from pigs. Conclusions: The rt-PCR was specific for Campylobacter jejuni, C...

  9. Preventing Campylobacter at the source: why is it so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; French, Nigel P; Havelaar, Arie H

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is the most common recognized bacterial zoonosis in the European Union and the United States. The acute phase is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. The long-term sequelae (Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis, and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome) contribute considerably to the disease burden. Attribution studies identified poultry as the reservoir responsible for up to 80% of the human Campylobacter infections. In the European Union, an estimated 30% of the human infections are associated with consumption and preparation of poultry meat. Until now, interventions in the poultry meat production chain have not been effectively introduced except for targeted interventions in Iceland and New Zealand. Intervention measures (eg, biosecurity) have limited effect or are hampered by economic aspects or consumer acceptance. In the future, a multilevel approach should be followed, aiming at reducing the level of contamination of consumer products rather than complete absence of Campylobacter.

  10. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  11. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material......Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  12. Identification of Campylobacter jejuni Proteins Recognized by Maternal Antibodies of Chickens▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaf-Sweeney, Kari D.; Larson, Charles L.; Tang, Xiaoting; Konkel, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of food-borne gastroenteritis. Infection with C. jejuni is frequently acquired through the consumption of undercooked poultry or foods cross-contaminated with raw poultry. Given the importance of poultry as a reservoir for Campylobacter organisms, investigators have performed studies to understand the protective role of maternal antibodies in the ecology of Campylobacter colonization of poultry. In a previous study, chicks with mater...

  13. Media for Campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite their recent elaboration and the many variations in antibiotic combinations designed to attain selectivity, highly selective liquid and solid culture media for Campylobacter jejuni have proved satisfactory provided they are incubated at about 42°C and in a microaerophilic atmosphere such as

  14. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR Approach for Assessing Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Colonization in Broiler Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Katrin; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a major public health concern in developed countries, with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry recognized as the main source of human infection. Identification of Campylobacter-positive broiler herds before slaughter is essential for implementing measures to avoid carryover of pathogens via the slaughter process into the food chain. However, appropriate methods that have been validated for testing poultry flocks antemortem are lacking for Campylobacter. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) that allows simultaneous detection and quantification of C. jejuni and C. coli was adapted and optimized to be applied on boot socks. The adjusted qPCR serves as an easy, sensitive, and quantitative method for Campylobacter detection in poultry flocks antemortem by analysis of boot socks. An adequate correlation was found between qPCR and culture, as well as between boot socks and cecal samples, which are regarded as the "gold standard." Therefore, boot sock sampling followed by qPCR analysis provides a reliable and simple method for assessing Campylobacter load within a flock prior to slaughter. The approach allows categorization of broiler herds into negative, low, moderate, or high Campylobacter colonization. Based on the results of this new approach, risk assessment models, such as evaluating the possible effect of sorting flocks before slaughter, can be easily implemented. Similarly, targeted identification of highly colonized flocks for improvement of biosecurity measures at the farm level will become feasible, presenting an opportunity to increase food safety.

  15. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter.

  16. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  17. Mycotic aortic aneurysm. A complication of Campylobacter fetus septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolik, J R; Mildvan, D; Winter, J W; Puttlitz, D; Rubenstein, S; Lozman, H

    1983-03-01

    The first surviving case, to our knowledge, of a Campylobacter fetus mycotic aortic aneurysm is reported. Bacteremia and an ileofemoral thrombophlebitis preceded the development of the infected aneurysm, reconfirming the vascular tropism of this organism. The clinical similarity with infections caused by Salmonella choleraesuis is illustrated by this case. The full recovery of our patient attests to the efficacy of extralanatomic bypass combined with long-term antibiotic therapy in the treatment of aortic mycotic aneurysm. Because of frequent changes in nomenclature and insufficient emphasis on speciation of the various campylobacters, pathogenesis and optimal antimicrobial therapy for systemic C fetus infections have not yet been adequately defined.

  18. Establishing a campylobacter-free pig population through a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    Fattening pigs are often infected with campylobacter. To eliminate campylobacter from the pig population, a top-down approach, involving the breeding and reproduction farms, seems appropriate. In order to investigate the effectiveness of a top-down approach, sows' faeces from the following farms

  19. The efficacy of the natural plant extracts, thymol and carvacrol against campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the world and consumption of poultry products are a major cause of human infections. The ability to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter colonization in chickens would greatly reduce the risk of human campylobacteriosis. Unfortunately, ...

  20. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production Chain in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Makela, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading course of food borne bacterial infections worldwide. It is believed that a decline in the occurrence of campylobacteriosis can be achieved by reducing the number of the bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Phage therapy using Campylobacter specific phages...

  1. Neonatal sepsis by Campylobacter jejuni : Genetically proven transmission from a household puppy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, TFW; Duim, B; Geelen, SPM; Rigter, A; Thomson-Carter, F; Fleer, A; Wagenaar, JA

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of neonatal Campylobacter jejuni sepsis in a 3-week-old infant who acquired the infection through transmission from a recently acquired household puppy. Genotyping of Campylobacter strains obtained from puppy and child resulted in highly homogenous findings. This represents the

  2. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royden, A.; Wedley, A.; Merga, J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipter...

  3. The use of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy against Campylobacter in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, A.; Vigre, Håkan

    ’ exposure to Campylobacter.In this presentation we focus on the development of a computerized decision support system to aid management decisions on Campylobacter vaccination of commercial broilers. Broilers should be vaccinated against Campylobacter in the first 2 weeks of age. Therefore, the decision......Human campylobacteriosis represents an important economic and public health problem. Campylobacter originating from feces of infected chickens will contaminate chicken meat posing a risk to the consumer. Vaccination against Campylobacter in broilers is one probable measure to reduce consumers...... about vaccination needs to be made usually before Campylobacter is introduced in the flock. In fact, there is uncertainty regarding the introduction of Campylobacter into the flock that needs to be taken into account in the decision making process. Probabilistic Graphical Models (PGMs) integrate...

  4. The pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms; external and internal sources.

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    Battersby, T; Whyte, P; Bolton, D J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the most sensitive molecular techniques in combination with culture-based methods to characterize broiler farms in terms of the timeline ('appearance' and 'pattern') of Campylobacter contamination prior to and post detection in the birds. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from three broiler farms (two flocks per farm). Real-time PCR was used to test for the presence of Campylobacter. Culture-based methods (enrichment and direct plating) were also applied and isolates were subject to a range of confirmatory tests before speciation (multiplex PCR). All flocks were colonized by Campylobacter before first thin and a similar pattern of Campylobacter contamination was observed; (day -1) a range of external and internal samples real-time PCR positive but culture negative; (day 0) chicks negative; (6-9 days pre-detection in the birds) internal samples (feeders, drinkers, barrier and/or bird weigh) culture positive and (post broiler infection) increasing concentrations of Campylobacter in internal samples but also on the tarmac apron and anteroom. It was concluded that; (i) vertical transmission did not occur; (ii) the environment was a potential source of Campylobacter; (iii) testing areas frequented by all birds (e.g. feeders and drinkers), may offer an opportunity for early Campylobacter detection and (iv) once the broilers are infected with Campylobacter, these bacteria are spread from the birds, through the anteroom to the areas surrounding the broiler house, highlighting the need for improved biosecurity. This study has established the pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms, identified an early detection opportunity, highlighted the need to better understand the role of viable but nonculturable Campylobacter in the ecology of Campylobacter on broiler farms and demonstrated the need for improved biosecurity to prevent the spread of Campylobacter from within the house to the surrounding environment.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni infection and virulence-associated genes in children with moderate to severe diarrhoea admitted to emergency rooms in northeastern Brazil.

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    Quetz, Josiane da S; Lima, Ila F N; Havt, Alexandre; Prata, Mara M G; Cavalcante, Paloma A; Medeiros, Pedro H Q S; Cid, David A C; Moraes, Milena L; Rey, Luís Carlos; Soares, Alberto M; Mota, Rosa M S; Weigl, Bernhard H; Guerrant, Richard L; Lima, Aldo A M

    2012-04-01

    Campylobacter is an important cause of foodborne gastroenteritis. We determined the occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, using culture-based methods and PCRs targeting virulence-associated genes (VAGs) among children aged ≤14 years who were treated for diarrhoea at emergency rooms in northeastern Brazil. Genomic DNA was extracted directly from stool samples collected from 366 children. A questionnaire was also applied to qualify the clinical conditions presented by each child at the time of admission. C. jejuni and C. coli were detected in 16.4 % (60/366) and 1.4 % (5/366) of the diarrhoeal samples, respectively, by PCR, a much higher proportion than that detected by conventional methods. C. jejuni VAGs were detected in the following proportions of hipO-positive samples: ciaB, 95 % (57/60); dnaJ, 86.7 % (52/60); racR, 98.3 % (59/60); flaA, 80 % (48/60); pldA, 45 % (27/60); cdtABC, 95 % (57/60); and pVir 0 % (0/60). Particular symptoms, such as blood in faeces, vomiting, fever, and/or abdominal pain, were not associated with detection of C. jejuni nor were they associated with any particular VAG or combination of VAGs (P>0.05). C. jejuni and its VAGs were detected in a substantial proportion of the children admitted. Further efforts shall be directed towards elucidating whether these genetic factors or their expressed proteins play a role in Campylobacter pathogenesis.

  6. [Campylobacter and Salmonella acute gastroenteritis: epidemiology and health care utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala Farré, Maria Rosa; Osorio Sánchez, Dimelza; Arias Varela, Cesar; Simó Sanahuja, Maria; Recasens Recasens, Assumpta; Pérez Jové, Josefa

    2015-10-05

    In Catalonia the current surveillance systems do not allow to know the true incidence or the health care utilization of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. The aim of this study is to analyze these characteristics. Descriptive study of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections reported in 2002 and 2012 in Catalonia, Spain. We included cases isolated and reported by the laboratory to a regional Surveillance Unit. The estimated incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter AGE decreased by almost 50% and 20% respectively in 2012. Children between one and 4 years old were the most affected in both years. Significant differences in the clinical characteristics and disease duration were observed between Campylobacter and Salmonella. Visits to the Emergency Department and hospitalization rates were 63.7% and 15%, being more frequent among salmonellosis cases. The estimated incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections has decreased, however rates are still important, as well as it is the health care utilization in both diseases. Current surveillance systems need appropriateness improvements to reach a better control of these infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  9. Campylobacter colonization is not associated with proventricular dilatation disease in psittacines

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    Bulbow H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Holden Bulbow, Jing Wu, Debra Turner, Michael McEntire, Ian Tizard Schubot Exotic Bird Health Center, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Psittacine proventricular dilatation disease (PDD is a neurological disease caused by parrot bornaviruses. A competing theory suggests that intestinal colonization by Campylobacter species may also be a potential cause of PDD or that their presence may be required for disease development. This theory proposes that PDD results from the activities of antiganglioside antibodies on enteric neurons in a manner similar to the pathogenesis of Guillain–Barré syndrome in humans. We therefore cultured feces from domestic chickens as well as from multiple parrot species to determine whether Campylobacter spp. could be detected in the latter. We failed to detect Campylobacter in a flock of cockatiels known to be highly susceptible to experimental parrot bornavirus-induced PDD. Even in naturally infected psittacines suffering from clinical PDD, no Campylobacter species were detected. Conversely, Campylobacter was readily cultured from domestic poultry samples and confirmed by using matrix-associated laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy/real-time polymerase chain reaction. We conclude that not only are Campylobacter infections of psittacines uncommon, but also that infection by Campylobacter species is not related to the etiology of PDD. Keywords: bornavirus, campylobacter, proventricular dilatation disease, parrots, chickens

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

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    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  12. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Simulation model for Campylobacter cross-contamination during poultry processing at slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Y; Yamamoto, T; Kasuga, F; Tsutsui, T

    2011-09-01

    Broiler meat is regarded as the most common source of Campylobacter infection and risk management measures are required to reduce broiler meat contamination. Among the quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat, evaluation of the poultry processing stage is particularly important for predicting the contamination level of broiler meat and the effects of control measures. In this study, we built a simulation model for cross-contamination during poultry processing focusing on Campylobacter contamination at the individual carcass level. Using this model, we examined changes in the prevalence of contaminated carcasses and the number of Campylobacter per carcass after processing. As a result, it was found that the prevalence and number of Campylobacter after processing were largely influenced by the number of Campylobacter on the contaminated carcasses before processing. In the baseline model, where it was assumed that the mean number of Campylobacter on contaminated carcasses before processing was 4.7 log₁₀ cfu per carcass, the prevalence after processing was less than that before processing. Although the median value of Campylobacter on contaminated carcasses was reduced after processing, the distributions after processing became wider and the upper limit of the 95% credible interval of Campylobacter on contaminated carcasses remained elevated. The individual-based simulation model can trace individual level changes considering discrete interactions, while models tracing mean values cannot handle these interactions in detail. The individual-based approach is considered useful for modelling cross-contamination among individual carcasses during poultry processing. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Campylobacter Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    In several countries quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) have been performed for Campylobacter in chicken meat. The models constructed for this purpose provide a good example of the development of QMRA in general and illustrate the diversity of available methods. Despite...... the differences between the models, the most prominent conclusions of the QMRAs are similar. These conclusions for example relate to the large risk of highly contaminated meat products and the insignificance of contamination from Campylobacter positive flocks to negative flocks during slaughter and processing...

  15. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  16. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.

  17. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Patients with Diarrhea in Shunyi, Beijing

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    Ying Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens have been confirmed as the major cause of acute diarrhea among outpatients in China. In this study, 370 stool samples from the patients aged from 15 to 87 years old with diarrhea were collected over 12 months (from May 2016 to April 2017 in two hospitals in Shunyi, Beijing. Bacterial isolation was performed for the common enteric pathogens: Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus for 370 samples. The filtration method was used for the Campylobacter isolation in this study. The prevalence and molecular characterization of the Campylobacter were investigated. The isolation ratio for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic E. coli, and V. parahaemolyticus was 7.0% (26/370, 6.2% (23/370, 0.3% (1/370, 7.3% (27/370, and 10.3% (38/370, respectively. Based on the isolation result, Campylobacter positive cases presented in almost every month of the whole year and the isolation ratio was the highest among the tested pathogens during October to March. There was no significant difference between genders of Campylobacter positive cases. More Campylobacter positive cases presented dehydration compared with those who were positive for Salmonella. Twenty-six Campylobacter isolates were obtained in this study and 24 of these were Campylobacter jejuni. The antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that 83.3% (20/24 of the isolates exhibited resistance to three or more types of antibiotic. Twenty STs were identified for the 26 Campylobacter isolates and four novel STs were identified in this study. No clonal cluster was found among these isolates. This is the first study for Campylobacter isolated using the filtration method in China which indicated the Campylobacter infection might be seriously under-ascertained in the diarrheal patients in China.

  18. Campylobacter: pathogenicity and significance in foods.

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    Butzler, J P; Oosterom, J

    1991-01-01

    In the last 10 years Campylobacter jejuni has emerged as the most frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in man. Acute enterocolitis, the most common presentation of C. jejuni infection, can affect persons of all ages. C. jejuni has been found in virtually every country where investigations have been carried out. The frequent finding of dysenteric stools suggests that mucosal damage due to an invasive process analogous to that seen in shigellosis is important in the pathogenesis. Campylobacteriosis in man is mainly a foodborne infection in which foods of animal origin, particularly poultry, play an important role. Epidemiological investigations have demonstrated a significant correlation between the handling and consumption of poultry meat and the occurrence of Campylobacter enteritis. Barbecues appear to present special hazards for infection, because they permit easy transfer of bacteria from raw meats to hands and other foods and from these to the mouth. Milk is sometimes found to be contaminated and consumption of raw milk has caused several outbreaks of campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter can remain viable in fresh cheese for only a short period of time. The organism is also found in shellfish, such as clams. Campylobacter is probably very vulnerable to factors such as high temperatures and dry environments, and also to the presence of oxygen in atmospheric concentrations. Therefore, it is assumed that the organism does not persist in products like pelleted feed, meals, egg powder and spices, which are often contaminated by Salmonella. A number of preventive measures on different levels, taken simultaneously, are needed to reduce the incidence of campylobacteriosis in man.

  19. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. relative to other enteric pathogens in grow-finish pigs with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrough, Eric; Terhorst, Samantha; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella spp., Lawsonia intracellularis, and Brachyspira spp. are pathogens commonly associated with diarrhea in growing and finishing pigs. Brachyspira spp. infection has recently reemerged as a significant concern due to an increase in the incidence of swine dysentery; however, the mechanisms underlying this increase in dysentery remain largely unknown. Pigs are also well-recognized as potential carriers of Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter coli, yet enteric disease in swine associated with infection by these bacteria is considered uncommon and diagnosis has historically been based upon exclusion of other causes. Accordingly, Campylobacter culture is often excluded in routine diagnostic testing of cases of porcine enterocolitis and the incidence of infection is therefore largely unknown. In this study, feces from 155 cases of clinical diarrhea in grow-finish pigs submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory were cultured for Campylobacter spp. in addition to other testing as indicated for routine diagnostic investigation. Campylobacter culture was positive from 82.6% (128/155) of samples with C. coli accounting for 75% of isolates and Campylobacter jejuni for the remaining 25%. In 14.8% (23/155) of cases a Campylobacter spp. was the sole infectious agent detected; however, there was no association with any particular Campylobacter spp. Interestingly, for those cases with a laboratory diagnosis of Brachyspira-associated disease, 100% (15/15) were also culture positive for Campylobacter spp. suggesting a possible interrelationship between these bacteria in the pig gut. No association was noted between Campylobacter culture results and infection with either Salmonella spp. or L. intracellularis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of Campylobacter in Stool and Determination of Significance by Culture, Enzyme Immunoassay, and PCR in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H.; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T.; Fox, James G.; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level. PMID:24452175

  1. Detection of Campylobacter in stool and determination of significance by culture, enzyme immunoassay, and PCR in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T; Fox, James G; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-04-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P PCR, Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level.

  2. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran.

  3. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te

  4. Campylobacter enterocolitis in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K; Ertan, A; Janney, A; Cook, M E; Mather, F; Akdamar, K

    1983-07-01

    Campylobacter is being increasingly recognized as a common pathogen producing acute diarrheal illness. During 1981, all stool cultures at Charity Hospital were routinely screened for Campylobacter. Twenty-nine of 2,233 total cultures were positive. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the disease's clinical picture and epidemiologic features. Campylobacter-positive cultures comprised 1.3% of all stool specimens and 21.6% of all positive cultures. Age, sex, and race in the Campylobacter group did not differ significantly from a comparison group. The distribution of the rates of Campylobacter-positive cultures did not show temporal trends. The clinical symptoms were nonspecific and the disease was usually self-limited, with diarrhea lasting from seven to ten days in untreated patients. The disease may occasionally be confused with a nonspecific inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, it is important that stool cultures be routinely screened for Campylobacter so that appropriate therapy can be administered.

  5. A Campylobacter coli foodborne outbreak in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronveaux, O; Quoilin, S; Van Loock, F; Lheureux, P; Struelens, M; Butzler, J P

    2000-01-01

    In May 1995, the Scientific Institute of Public Health was informed of an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a congregational school in the Brussels area. The field investigation identified 24 cases with mild to severe gastrointestinal and general symptoms of acute bacterial enterocolitis. Campylobacter coli was detected in the stools of 5 patients. A retrospective cohort study suggested that a mixed salad (containing ham and feta cheese) was the probable source of infection, but the route of contamination remained unknown. The rapid investigation of such episodes of collective foodborne infections is essential for the implementation of adequate control measures.

  6. Increased risk for Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infection of pet origin in dog owners and evidence for genetic association between strains causing infection in humans and their pets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, L.M.; Smid, J.H.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Koene, M.G.J.; Havelaar, A.H.; Friesema, I.H.M.; French, N.P.; Flemming, C.; Galson, J.D.; Graziani, C.; Busani, L.; Pelt, van W.

    2013-01-01

    We compared Campylobacter jejuni/coli multilocus sequence types (STs) from pets (dogs/cats) and their owners and investigated risk factors for pet-associated human campylobacteriosis using a combined source-attribution and case-control analysis. In total, 132/687 pet stools were

  7. [The role of certain Campylobacter types in the etiology of enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otasević, Marica; Lazarević-Jovanović, Branislava; Tasić-Dimov, Desanka; Dordević, Nebojsa; Miljković-Selimović, Biljana

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowadays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the demanding features of Campylobacter, as well as poorly equipped microbiological laboratories, campylobacteriosis is insufficiently studied in our country. This investigation aimed to determine the participation of some Campylobacter species in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in our population. The four-years continuous monitoring of Campylobacter presence was performed in the faeces of 12,605 patients with enterocolitis. The control group included 5,774 examinees of healthy children and youth. Faeces samples were cultivated on Skirrow's selective medium, and further incubated according to effective methodology for Campylobacter. Identification of strains was based on morphological, cultural and physiologic features of strains (oxidase test, catalase test, susceptibility to nalidixic acid, and hypurate hydrolysis). As a statistical method, for data processing, chi 2 test and Fisher's exact test were used. Campylobacter was proven in 3.86% of enterocolitis patients, and in 0.71% of healthy population. Out of 518 Campylobacter isolates, 86.48% belonged to enterocolitis outpatients, and 13.51% to inpatients. Predominant symptoms of the disease were diarrhea (81.83%), increased temperature (34.71%), vomiting (19.77%), and stomach pain (15.17%). The diseased were predominantly infants in the first year of life. Out of 300 Campylobacter isolates, 75% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni, 23% as Campylobacter coli (C. coli), and 2% as Campylobacter lari (C. lari). Species of Campylobacter genus

  8. Prevalence, Antigenic Specificity, and Bactericidal Activity of Poultry Anti-Campylobacter Maternal Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing; Meitzler, Jerrel C.; Harr, Brian S.; Morishita, Teresa Y.; Mohan, R

    2001-01-01

    Poultry are considered the major reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human food-borne diarrhea. To understand the ecology of C. jejuni and develop strategies to control C. jejuni infection in the animal reservoir, we initiated studies to examine the potential role of anti-Campylobacter maternal antibodies in protecting young broiler chickens from infection by C. jejuni. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the prevalence of anti-C. jejuni antibodies...

  9. Evaluation of the novel DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay for the rapid detection of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, Zaira; Rando-Segura, Ariadna; Gimferrer, Laura; Roig, Gloria; Pumarola, Tomas; Rodriguez-Garrido, Virginia

    2017-04-29

    Campylobacter spp. infection is one of the leading causes of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in humans worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay for human campylobacteriosis diagnosis. A total of 645 stool samples from 640 patients suspected of having gastrointestinal infection were included. A stool culture was simultaneously performed with the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay to detect the presence of Campylobacter spp. Taking the conventional culture to be the perfect gold standard, sensitivity and specificity rates of the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)Campylobacter assay were 100% and 97.7%, respectively; and 99.1% and 98.6%, respectively, when taking the culture to be the imperfect gold standard (Bayesian Model). This new assay might be a useful tool especially for the screening of negative results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Amol D. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India); Shashidhar, Ravindranath [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.in [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kapadnis, Balu P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 {sup o}C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D{sub 10} values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: > Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. > Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. > No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. > First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  11. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  12. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Kip, consument en Campylobacter: infectieziektebestrijding met consumentenvoorlichting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Nauta, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Pluimveevlees is een belangrijke bron van Campylobacter en Campylobacter is een belangrijke verwekker van gastro-enteritis in Nederland. Maatregelen die gericht zijn op het terugbrengen van het aantal Campylobacter-bacteriën in pluimveevlees, bieden geen garantie op Campylobacter-vrij vlees.

  14. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Campylobacter species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.

  15. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  16. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for identification of Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamazaki-Matsune, Wataru; Taguchi, Masumi; Seto, Kazuko; Kawahara, Ryuji; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Kumeda, Yuko; Kitazato, Miyoshi; Nukina, Masafumi; Misawa, Naoaki; Tsukamoto, Teizo

    2007-01-01

    ...{at}iph.pref.osaka.jp Received 26 April 2007 Accepted 9 July 2007 A multiplex PCR assay has been developed for the identification of the six common Campylobacter taxa associated with human gastroenteritis...

  17. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis adhesion to MDBK cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiapparrone, María L; Morán, Pedro E; Echevarría, Hilda M; Soto, Pedro; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Catena, María

    2014-01-01

    ..., adhesion, chemotaxis or tissue tropism 4 . Campylobacter fetus is highly adapted to mucosal surfaces. Bacterial adhesion is an important initial step in infection. Pathogens use surface-located adhesins to interact with specific host cell receptors. Although some bacterial structures involved in the adhesion process are still unknown, there is evidence that ...

  18. Molecular characterization and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloois, L.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) can cause disease in humans and animals. In humans, C. fetus can cause septicemia and intestinal illness. Contaminated food, like unpasteurized milk, is possibly a source of human C. fetus infections. This thesis focuses on the mammal-associated C. fetus

  19. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be

  20. The numbers game: Campylobacter survival in poultry products through the pH effects of polyphosphate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter species are responsible for the largest number of food-borne gastrointestinal bacterial infections in the developed world. Poultry products are a primary pathway for the introduction of Campylobacter into the food supply. Undercooked poultry products and the cross-contamination of ot...

  1. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  2. Does age acquired immunity confer selective protection to common serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Iain D

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter infection is a major cause of bacterial gastrointestinal disease. Exposure to Campylobacter is known to produce an immune response in humans that can prevent future symptomatic infections. Further, studies of the general population have shown that seroprevalence to Campylobacter increases with age. Methods A large collection of serotyped Campylobacter isolates, obtained from human clinical faecal samples, were analysed by comparing the ratio of uncommon to common serotypes by different age groups, using χ2 tests. Results We have identified that older age groups, as well as having generally lower incidence, are significantly less likely to be infected by the more common serotypes. Conclusion These results are indicative of acquired immunity, however, further studies are needed to rule out the confounding effects of the variations in exposure pathways experienced by different age groups.

  3. Vaccination of chickens against Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoete, de M.R.; Putten, J.P.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial entero-colitis in humans and is associated with the occurrence of life-threatening auto-immune based neurological disorders. Chickens, which are often heavily colonized with Campylobacter without signs of pathology, are

  4. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and enteric Helicobacter in domestic and free living birds in North-Western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, P; Tomassone, L; Tramuta, C; Rodo, M; Giammarino, M; Vaschetti, G; Nebbia, P

    2010-09-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of some thermophilic Campylobacter (C. jejuni and C. coli) and enteric Helicobacter (H. pullorum and H. canadensis) in domestic and wild birds, a total of 278 bird caecal samples were analyzed over a 2 year period in North-Western Italy. Samples were collected from poultry raised in intensive farming at the slaughterhouse (n=102, group A) and in small scale rural farms (n=60, group B) as well as from wild birds (n=116, group C). PCR amplifications were carried out on DNA extracted from caecal samples. Molecular assays targeted the hipO gene for C. jejuni, the asp gene for C. coli and the 16S rRNA gene of H. pullorum/H. canadensis. To differentiate H. pullorum from H. canadensis, PCR products were subjected to an ApaLI digestion assay. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter and enteric Helicobacter was significantly different among groups (p<0.0001). Campylobacter infections were detected in all three bird groups (78.4% group A, 18.3% group B and 38.8% group C, respectively), Helicobacter infections were only detected in poultry, with H. pullorum infecting 68.6% of group A and 21.7% of group B birds. H. canadensis was detected in Guinea fowls (group A) and for the first time in pheasants (group B). Mixed infections by enteric Campylobacter and Helicobacter were shown in 53.9% of group A and in 5.0 % of group B. Our results show that both microorganisms commonly infect poultry, especially intensive farming animals. Only hooded crows among the wild bird group (group C), proved to be highly sensitive to Campylobacter infection.

  5. Genomic Insights into Campylobacter jejuni Virulence and Population Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuowei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a main food-borne pathogen in many parts of the world. Natural reservoirs include a wide variety of domestic and wild birds and mammals, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of the organism. Understanding the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of C. jejuni is vital to prevent and control Campylobacter-associated infections. The recent progress in sequencing techniques has allowed for a rapid increase in our knowledge of the molecular biology and the genetic structures of Campylobacter. Single-molecule realtime (SMRT sequencing, which goes beyond four-base sequencing, revealed the role of DNA methylation in modulating the biology and virulence of C. jejuni at the level of epigenetics. In this review, we will provide an up-to-date review on recent advances in understanding C. jejuni genomics, including structural features of genomes, genetic traits of virulence, population genetics, and epigenetics.

  6. Time-series analysis of Campylobacter incidence in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Schüpbach, G; Held, L

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacteriosis has been the most common food-associated notifiable infectious disease in Switzerland since 1995. Contact with and ingestion of raw or undercooked broilers are considered the dominant risk factors for infection. In this study, we investigated the temporal relationship between the disease incidence in humans and the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers in Switzerland from 2008 to 2012. We use a time-series approach to describe the pattern of the disease by incorporating seasonal effects and autocorrelation. The analysis shows that prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers, with a 2-week lag, has a significant impact on disease incidence in humans. Therefore Campylobacter cases in humans can be partly explained by contagion through broiler meat. We also found a strong autoregressive effect in human illness, and a significant increase of illness during Christmas and New Year's holidays. In a final analysis, we corrected for the sampling error of prevalence in broilers and the results gave similar conclusions.

  7. Outcome of infection of C57BL/6 IL-10−/− mice with Campylobacter jejuni strains is correlated with genome content of open reading frames up- and down-regulated in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. A.; Jerome, J.P.; Plovanich-Jones, A. E.; Smith, E. J.; Gettings, J. R.; Kim, H. Y.; Landgraf, J. R.; Lefébure, T.; Kopper, J. J.; Rathinam, V. A.; St. Charles, J. L.; Buffa, B. A.; Brooks, A. P.; Poe, S. A.; Eaton, K. A.; Stanhope, M. J.; Mansfield, L. S.

    2014-01-01

    Human Campylobacter jejuni infection can result in an asymptomatic carrier state, watery or bloody diarrhea, bacteremia, meningitis, or autoimmune neurological sequelae. Infection outcomes of C57BL/6 IL-10−/− mice orally infected with twenty-two phylogenetically diverse C. jejuni sstrains were evaluated to correlate colonization and disease phenotypes with genetic composition of the strains. Variation between strains was observed in colonization, timing of development of clinical signs, and occurrence of enteric lesions. Five pathotypes of C. jejuni in C57BL/6 IL-10−/− mice were delineated: little or no colonization, colonization without disease, colonization with enteritis, colonization with hemorrhagic enteritis, and colonization with neurological signs with or without enteritis. Virulence gene content of ten sequenced strains was compared in silico; virulence gene content of twelve additional strains was compared using a C. jejuni pan-genome microarray. Neither total nor virulence gene content predicted pathotype; nor was pathotype correlated with multilocus sequence type. Each strain was unique with regard to absences of known virulence-related loci and/or possession of point mutations and indels, including phase variation, in virulence-related genes. An experiment in C. jejuni 11168-infected germ-free mice showed that expression levels of ninety open reading frames (ORFs) were significantly up- or down-regulated in the mouse cecum at least two-fold compared to in vitro growth. Genomic content of these ninety C. jejuni 11168 ORFs was significantly correlated with the capacity to colonize and cause enteritis in C57BL/6 IL-10−/− mice. Differences in gene expression levels and patterns are thus an important determinant of pathotype in C. jejuni strains in this mouse model. PMID:22960579

  8. Outcome of infection of C57BL/6 IL-10(-/-) mice with Campylobacter jejuni strains is correlated with genome content of open reading frames up- and down-regulated in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J A; Jerome, J P; Plovanich-Jones, A E; Smith, E J; Gettings, J R; Kim, H Y; Landgraf, J R; Lefébure, T; Kopper, J J; Rathinam, V A; St Charles, J L; Buffa, B A; Brooks, A P; Poe, S A; Eaton, K A; Stanhope, M J; Mansfield, L S

    2013-01-01

    Human Campylobacter jejuni infection can result in an asymptomatic carrier state, watery or bloody diarrhea, bacteremia, meningitis, or autoimmune neurological sequelae. Infection outcomes of C57BL/6 IL-10(-/-) mice orally infected with twenty-two phylogenetically diverse C. jejuni strains were evaluated to correlate colonization and disease phenotypes with genetic composition of the strains. Variation between strains was observed in colonization, timing of development of clinical signs, and occurrence of enteric lesions. Five pathotypes of C. jejuni in C57BL/6 IL-10(-/-) mice were delineated: little or no colonization, colonization without disease, colonization with enteritis, colonization with hemorrhagic enteritis, and colonization with neurological signs with or without enteritis. Virulence gene content of ten sequenced strains was compared in silico; virulence gene content of twelve additional strains was compared using a C. jejuni pan-genome microarray. Neither total nor virulence gene content predicted pathotype; nor was pathotype correlated with multilocus sequence type. Each strain was unique with regard to absences of known virulence-related loci and/or possession of point mutations and indels, including phase variation, in virulence-related genes. An experiment in C. jejuni 11168-infected germ-free mice showed that expression levels of ninety open reading frames (ORFs) were significantly up- or down-regulated in the mouse cecum at least two-fold compared to in vitro growth. Genomic content of these ninety C. jejuni 11168 ORFs was significantly correlated with the capacity to colonize and cause enteritis in C57BL/6 IL-10(-/-) mice. Differences in gene expression levels and patterns are thus an important determinant of pathotype in C. jejuni strains in this mouse model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Characterization of Campylobacter Jejuni and C. coli Isolated From Broilers Using flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbakht, Rahem; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Seifi, Saeed

    2015-05-01

    Thermophilic campylobacters, particularly Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the main agents of human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products is the most important source of foodborne gastroenteritis. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Campylobacter population is critical for understanding the epidemiology of this bacterium and developing effective control strategies against Campylobacter infections and other related disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from broiler fecal samples in Shiraz, southern Iran. Ninety Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broiler feces using enrichment process followed by cultivation method. The isolates were species typing on the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16SrRNA and multiplex PCR for determining two thermophilic species. To evaluate strain diversity of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was performed using DdeI restriction enzyme. All 90 Campylobacter isolates confirmed by m-PCR were successfully typed using flaA-PCR-RFLP. Eleven different types were defined according to flaA-typing method and the RFLP patterns were located at three separate clusters in RFLP image analysis dendrogram. Campylobacter jejuni isolates significantly showed more variety than C. coli isolates. A relatively low genetic diversity existed among C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from broilers in Shiraz, southern Iran. In our knowledge, this was the first report of genetic diversity among broiler originated human pathogen thermophilic campylobacters in Shiraz, southern Iran.

  10. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  12. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banya Banowary

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR and high resolution melt (HRM curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  13. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry.

  14. Real Time PCR to detect and differentiate Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, A; Chanter, J; Gale, S; Parr, J; Toszeghy, M; Line, K

    2013-09-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacter infection, caused by Campylobacter fetus venerealis, is of significant economic importance to the livestock industry. Unfortunately, the successful detection and discrimination of C. fetus venerealis from C. fetus fetus continue to be a limitation throughout the world. There are several publications warning of the problem with biotyping methods as well as with recent molecular based assays. In this study, assessed on 1071 isolates, we report on the successful development of two Real Time SYBR® Green PCR assays that will allow for the detection and discrimination of C. fetus fetus and C. fetus venerealis. The sensitivity reported here for the C. fetus (CampF4/R4) and the C. fetus venerealis (CampF7/R7) specific PCR assays are 100% and 98.7% respectively. The specificity for these same PCR assays are 99.6% and 99.8% respectively. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PRESENCE OF RESISTANCE IN CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava Kocić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There are 18 species belonging to the genus of Campylobacter (rRNK group I, of which thermophilic ones are the following: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis. The aim of our research was to determine the sensitivity of Campylobacter species, isolated from human feces, to antibiotics being used in practice. The study involved 50 human strains of C. jejuni/coli isolated from feces in the Center for Microbiology in the Public Health Institute Nis. Sensitivity was tested by applying the disk diffusion method on seven antibiotics (erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, hloramphenicol, cephalexin and nalidixic acid. Our results showed low resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin and tetracycline (2%, which corresponds to the studies conducted in the world. Moreover, these findings indicate that erythromycin may be considered the drug of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea in this region. Resistance to fluoroquinolone and nalidixic acid was 44%, and C. coli showed higher resistance compared to C. jejuni, though statistical significance was not proved.

  16. Evaluation of fecal calprotectin in Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter jejuni/coli gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-05-01

    Calprotectin (CP) is a calcium-binding cytosolic neutrophil protein and the concentration in feces reflects the migration of neutrophils into the gut lumen. Testing for fecal CP (f-CP) in patients with negative cultures for enteric pathogens is widely accepted as a useful screening tool for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from endoscopy for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with the assumption that a negative f-CP is compatible with a functional disorder. Campylobacter concisus has recently been reported to have a high incidence in the Danish population almost equal to Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and has been reported to cause prolonged watery diarrhea. However, isolation of C. concisus from feces requires the filter method in a hydrogen-enriched microaerobic atmosphere, which is not commonly used in the laboratory, and the diagnosis may consequently be missed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the f-CP levels, as a marker for the intestinal inflammation in C. jejuni/coli- and C. concisus-infected patients. The authors found a high concentration of f-CP (median 631: IQR 221-1274) among 140 patients with C. jejuni/coli infection, whereas the f-CP level among 99 C. concisus-infected patients was significantly lower (median 53: IQR 20-169). The data correlate to the severe inflammatory gastroenteritis seen in patients infected with C. jejuni/coli, whereas C. concisus-infected patients have a much lower intestinal inflammation which could be compared with viral gastroenteritis. Nevertheless, clinicians should be aware of C. concisus infection, especially in patients with prolonged mild diarrhea, in the differential diagnosis to IBD.

  17. Helicobacter marmotae and novel Helicobacter and Campylobacter species isolated from the livers and intestines of prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisele, Maike; Shen, Zeli; Parry, Nicola; Mobley, Melissa; Taylor, Nancy S.; Buckley, Ellen; Abedin, Mohammad Z.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used to study the aetiology and prevention of gallstones because of the similarities of prairie dog and human bile gallstone composition. Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested a connection between infection with Helicobacter species and cholesterol cholelithiasis, cholecystis and gallbladder cancer. Ten of the 34 prairie dogs in this study had positive Helicobacter species identified by PCR using Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Ten of 34 prairie dogs had positive Campylobacter species identified in the intestine by PCR with Campylobacter genus-specific primers. Six Helicobacter sp. isolates and three Campylobacter sp. isolates were identified taxonomically by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The prairie dog helicobacters fell into three clusters adjacent to Helicobacter marmotae. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three strains in two adjacent clusters were included in the species H. marmotae. Three strains were only 97.1 % similar to the sequence of H. marmotae and can be considered a novel species with the provisional designation Helicobacter sp. Prairie Dog 3. The prairie dog campylobacters formed a single novel cluster and represent a novel Campylobacter sp. with the provisional designation Campylobacter sp. Prairie Dog. They branched with Campylobacter cuniculorum at 96.3 % similarity and had the greatest sequence similarity to Campylobacter helveticus at 97.1 % similarity. Whether H. marmotae or the novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp. identified in prairie dogs play a role in cholesterol gallstones or hepatobiliary disease requires further studies. PMID:21546560

  18. Enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni followed by acute motor axonal neuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Tatjana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Campylobacter species represent the main cause of bacterial diarrhea in developed countries and one of the most frequent causes of enterocolitis in developing ones. In some patients, Campylobacter jejuni infection of the gastrointestinal tract has been observed as an antecedent illness of acute motor axonal neuropathy, a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Case presentation We present a case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni, biotype II, heat stable serotype O:19. A 46-year-old Caucasian man developed acute motor neuropathy 10 days after mild intestinal infection. The proximal and distal muscle weakness of his upper and lower extremities was associated with serum antibodies to Campylobacter jejuni and antibodies to ganglioside GM1. The electromyographic signs of neuropathic muscle action potentials with almost normal nerve conduction velocities indicated axonal neuropathy. Our patient's clinical and electrophysiological features fulfilled criteria for the diagnosis of an acute motor axonal neuropathy, a subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Conclusion As this is the first case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni reported from the Balkan area, the present findings indicate the need for systematic studies and further clinical, epidemiological and microbiological investigations on the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and its heat stable serotypes in the etiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other post-infectious sequelae.

  19. Enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni followed by acute motor axonal neuropathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljković-Selimović, Biljana; Lavrnić, Dragana; Morić, Olga; Ng, Lai-King; Price, Lawrence; Suturkova, Ljubica; Kocic, Branislava; Babić, Tatjana; Ristić, Ljiljana; Apostolski, Slobodan

    2010-03-31

    Campylobacter species represent the main cause of bacterial diarrhea in developed countries and one of the most frequent causes of enterocolitis in developing ones. In some patients, Campylobacter jejuni infection of the gastrointestinal tract has been observed as an antecedent illness of acute motor axonal neuropathy, a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. We present a case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni, biotype II, heat stable serotype O:19. A 46-year-old Caucasian man developed acute motor neuropathy 10 days after mild intestinal infection. The proximal and distal muscle weakness of his upper and lower extremities was associated with serum antibodies to Campylobacter jejuni and antibodies to ganglioside GM1. The electromyographic signs of neuropathic muscle action potentials with almost normal nerve conduction velocities indicated axonal neuropathy. Our patient's clinical and electrophysiological features fulfilled criteria for the diagnosis of an acute motor axonal neuropathy, a subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome. As this is the first case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni reported from the Balkan area, the present findings indicate the need for systematic studies and further clinical, epidemiological and microbiological investigations on the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and its heat stable serotypes in the etiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other post-infectious sequelae.

  20. Recent developments in Campylobacter pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereswill, Stefan; Kist, Manfred

    2003-10-01

    The Campylobacter species jejuni and coli are leading causes of enteritis and enterocolitis worldwide. Arthritis, Reiter syndrome, and Guillain-Barré syndrome represent post-infectious sequelae. Although the acute and chronic clinical manifestations highlight Campylobacter species as excellent models for the identification of mechanisms involved in pathogenesis, detailed investigations at the molecular level are complicated by the fastidious growth requirements of the bacteria and by the tremendous variability displayed by Campylobacter isolates. Thus, research activities in this field constitute a substantial challenge for scientists of many different disciplines. The genome information has greatly stimulated investigations at the molecular level and the resulting modern research trends lead to a better understanding of Campylobacter-associated diseases providing the basis for new developments in prevention and therapy. This review summarizes results from the most recent investigations in the field of Campylobacter pathogenesis. Topics include genome analysis, surface structures and post-infectious complications, adaptation, host cell interaction and cell toxicity. During its coevolution with human and other vertebrate hosts, Campylobacter species have developed specific survival strategies, which are required for host adaptation and establishment in the intestinal environment. The bacterial factors involved in these processes are the subject of intensive research activities. With a focus on molecular aspects of the most important human pathogen, C. jejuni, this review intends to summarize the recent trends and developments in Campylobacter research by highlighting selected publications in the field of microbial pathogenesis.

  1. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pentavalent Single-Domain Antibodies Reduce Campylobacter jejuni Motility and Colonization in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Riazi; Strong, Philippa C. R.; Russell Coleman; Wangxue Chen; Tomoko Hirama; Henk van Faassen; Matthew Henry; Logan, Susan M; Szymanski, Christine M.; Roger Mackenzie; Mehdi Arbabi Ghahroudi

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the world, with symptoms ranging from acute diarrhea to severe neurological disorders. Contaminated poultry meat is a major source of C. jejuni infection, and therefore, strategies to reduce this organism in poultry, are expected to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter-associated diseases. We have investigated whether oral administration of C. jejuni-specific single-domain antibodies would reduce bacterial colonizati...

  3. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of......-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry...

  4. Comparative characterization of the virulence gene clusters (lipooligosaccharide [LOS] and capsular polysaccharide [CPS]) for Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and related Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P; Lefébure, Tristan; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D; Stanhope, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and Campylobacter coli are leading causes of gastroenteritis, with virulence linked to cell surface carbohydrate diversity. Although the associated gene clusters are well studied for C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, C. coli has been largely neglected. Here we provide comparative analysis of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) gene clusters, using genome and cluster sequence data for 36 C. coli strains, 67 C. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains and ten additional Campylobacter species. Similar to C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, C. coli showed high LOS/CPS gene diversity, with each cluster delineated into eight gene content classes. This diversity was predominantly due to extensive gene gain/loss, with the lateral transfer of genes likely occurring both within and between species and also between the LOS and CPS. Additional mechanisms responsible for LOS/CPS diversity included phase-variable homopolymeric repeats, gene duplication/inactivation, and possibly host environment selection pressure. Analyses also showed that (i) strains of C. coli and Campylobacter upsaliensis possessed genes homologous to the sialic acid genes implicated in the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and (ii) C. coli LOS classes were differentiated between bovine and poultry hosts, potentially aiding post infection source tracking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative characterization of the virulence gene clusters (lipooligosacharide [LOS] and capsular polysaccharide [CPS]) for Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and related Campylobacter species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P.; Lefébure, Tristan; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and Campylobacter coli are leading causes of gastroenteritis, with virulence linked to cell surface carbohydrate diversity. Although the associated gene clusters are well studied for C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, C. coli has been largely neglected. Here we provide comparative analysis of the lipooligosacharide (LOS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) gene clusters, using genome and cluster sequence data for 36 C. coli strains, 67 C. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains and ten additional Campylobacter species. Similar to C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, C. coli showed high LOS/CPS gene diversity, with each cluster delineated into eight gene content classes. This diversity was predominantly due to extensive gene gain/loss, with the lateral transfer of genes likely occurring both within and between species and also between the LOS and CPS. Additional mechanisms responsible for LOS/CPS diversity included phase-variable homopolymeric repeats, gene duplication/inactivation, and possibly host environment selection pressure. Analyses also showed that (i) strains of C. coli and Campylobacter upsaliensis possessed genes homologous to the sialic acid genes implicated in the neurological disorder Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS), and (ii) C. coli LOS classes were differentiated between bovine and poultry hosts, potentially aiding post infection source tracking. PMID:23279811

  6. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  7. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 °C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 °C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat.

  8. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royden, A; Wedley, A; Merga, J Y; Rushton, S; Hald, B; Humphrey, T; Williams, N J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0-0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates demonstrated that the flies were carrying broiler-associated sequence types, responsible for human enteric illness. Malaise traps were used to survey the dipteran species diversity on study farms and also revealed up to 612 flies present around broiler-house ventilation inlets over a 2-h period. Therefore, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest.

  9. Risk factors associated with Campylobacter detected by PCR in humans and animals in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbjer, K; Boqvist, S; Sokerya, S; Chheng, K; San, S; Davun, H; Rautelin, H; Magnusson, U

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacter are worldwide-occurring zoonotic bacteria, with the species Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli commonly associated with diarrhoea in children in low-income countries. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli in human and livestock faecal samples was detected by PCR and zoonotic risk factors associated with human Campylobacter positivity were identified. In total 681 humans and 753 livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle) from 269 households were sampled. Children aged Campylobacter positive (19%) than adults (8%) and multilevel logistic models revealed that human C. jejuni positivity was associated with the following household practices: home-slaughtering [odds ratio (OR) 2·4, P = 0·01], allowing animals access to sleeping and food preparation areas (OR 2·8, P = 0·02), and eating undercooked meat (OR 6·6, P = 0·05), while frequent consumption of beef was protective (OR 0·9, P = 0·05). Associations were stronger for home-slaughtering (OR 4·9, P = 0·004) with C. jejuni infection in children only. Campylobacter was highly prevalent in pigs (72%) and chickens (56%) and risk factors associated with human Campylobacter positivity were identified throughout the meat production chain. The findings underline the importance of studying source attributions throughout the production chain and the need for upgraded understanding of Campylobacter epidemiology in low-income countries.

  10. Genomic Evidence for the Emergence and Evolution of Pathogenicity and Niche Preferences in the Genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology. PMID:25193310

  11. New, extended biotyping scheme for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and "Campylobacter laridis".

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H.

    1984-01-01

    A biotyping scheme using improved media and methods for the detection of hippurate hydrolysis, rapid H2S production, and DNA hydrolysis was applied to 1,826 cultures of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and "Campylobacter laridis" isolates from human and nonhuman sources. Four biotypes were identified among C. jejuni: 57.3% of the isolates belonged to biotype I; 36.0%, to biotype II; 4.0%, to biotype III; and 2.7%, to biotype IV. C. coli organisms were differentiated into biotype I (67...

  12. Survival and resuscitation of ten strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveerach, P.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2003-01-01

    The culturability of 10 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was studied after the bacteria were exposed to acid conditions for various periods of time. Campylobacter cells could not survive 2 h under acid conditions (formic acid at pH 4). The 10 Campylobacter strains could not be

  13. The in vivo efficacy of two administration routes of a phage cocktail to reduce numbers of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Carla M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, an acute bacterial enteritis which is a major problem worldwide. Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are the most common Campylobacter species associated with this disease. These pathogens live in the intestinal tract of most avian species and under commercial conditions they spread rapidly to infect a high proportion of the flock, which makes their treatment and prevention very difficult. Bacteriophages (phages are naturally occurring predators of bacteria with high specificity and also the capacity to evolve to overcome bacterial resistance. Therefore phage therapy is a promising alternative to antibiotics in animal production. This study tested the efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of three phages for the control of poultry infected with C. coli and C. jejuni. Moreover, it evaluated the effectiveness of two routes of phage administration (by oral gavage and in feed in order to provide additional information regarding their future use in a poultry unit. Results The results indicate that experimental colonisation of chicks was successful and that the birds showed no signs of disease even at the highest dose of Campylobacter administered. The phage cocktail was able to reduce the titre of both C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces by approximately 2 log10 cfu/g when administered by oral gavage and in feed. This reduction persisted throughout the experimental period and neither pathogen regained their former numbers. The reduction in Campylobacter titre was achieved earlier (2 days post-phage administration when the phage cocktail was incorporated in the birds' feed. Campylobacter strains resistant to phage infection were recovered from phage-treated chickens at a frequency of 13%. These resistant phenotypes did not exhibit a reduced ability to colonize the chicken guts and did not revert to sensitive types. Conclusions Our findings provide

  14. Lack of association between the presence of the pVir plasmid and bloody diarrhea in Campylobacter jejuni Enteritis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Louwen, R.P; Belkum, van, A; Wagenaar, J.A; Doorduyn, Y; Achterberg, R.P; Endtz, H.P

    2006-01-01

    The main mechanisms by which Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea are unknown. In contrast to a recent communication, we report here the absence of an association with the plasmid pVir in patients infected with C...

  15. [Evaluation of antigenic properties of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli proteins in a western-immunoblot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Waldemar, Rastawicki; Jagielski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial cause for acute diarrheal illnesses in developed countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenic properties of Campylobacterjejuni and Campylobacter coli proteins in western-blot assay. Whole-cell components of Campulobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electroforesis. Using this method we detected in all seven C. jejuni strains 21 peptides migrating between 180-29 kDa. All three Ccoli strains had a 17 bands migrating with the same molecular weight range. Proteins were transferred electrophoretically to nitrocellulose paper for immunoblotting experiments. The 74 kDa protein reacted strongly in all classes ofimmmunoglobulin with all tested human serum samples. We observed that this protein reacted also with human immunoglobulins for Salmonella and Yersinia sp. This cross-reaction observed for this protein could give false positive results in routine diagnosis of C. jejuni infections. The proteins with molecular weight of: 92, 62, 56, 52, 45-43, 29 kDa were most recognized in the 20 human serum samples. The other proteins of Cljejuni and C. coli, particularly in the 68-50 kDa and 45-31 kDa regions, were recognized occasionally and the response to these in reconvalescent sera was usually weak. The result of this study showed that the proteins with molecular weight: 92, 62, 56, 52, 45-43 and 29 kDa can be use in routine serological diagnostic of campylobacteriosis.

  16. Detection and species identification of Campylobacter in stool samples of children and animals from Vellore, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rajendran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis frequently isolated from animal, poultry and environmental samples. In this study, we investigated the zoonotic potential of Campylobacter spp. by comparing prevalence rates and species in 394 children with diarrhoea and 652 animals in Vellore using PCR-based tools. Eighteen children (4.5% had campylobacteriosis, a majority of whom had co-pathogens (15/18 and most were infected with Campylobacter jejuni (16/18. A few C. coli and mixed infections with both species were also seen. Among the animal samples, 16/25 chicken samples (64% were positive and all were found to be C. jejuni.

  17. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J.; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  18. Campylobacter as a venereal disease in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Visser, I.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Pastoor, P.W.; Strampel, J.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of AI, venereal diseases caused by Tritrichomonas fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis haved been eradicated in The Netherlands. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus can cause sporadic abortion and early embryonic death. When natural breeding is practised, venereal

  19. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Oyofo, B A; Thornton, S A; Burr, D H; Trust, T J; Pavlovskis, O R; Guerry, P

    1992-01-01

    Development of a routine detection assay for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaA gene of C. coli VC167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by PCR. The primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of C. coli and 47 strains of C. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis, ...

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  1. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacterjejuni and Campylobacter coli from Adult Hospitalized Patients with Diarrhea in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Trinh, Quang Duy; Khamrin, Pattara; Komine-Aizawa, Shihoko; Okitsu, Shoko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Hayakawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are recognized as the major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. A total of 310 fecal samples collected from Thai adult patients with diarrhea in 2008 were screened for the presence of Campylobacter by PCR. Resistance to fluoroquinolone and macrolides of the detected Campylobacter strains were analyzed by studying the mutations in the gyrA and 23S rRNA genes, respectively. Campylobacter species were detected in 4/310 (1.3%) of diarrheal patients, and C. jejuni was found in 3 of the 4 cases (75%). Fluoroquinolone resistance was noted in 2 cases (50%); however, no resistance to macrolides was observed. Campylobacter was detected in a low prevalence in adult Thai patients hospitalized with diarrhea, and the resistance to fluoroquinolones is still a matter of concern in case antibiotic therapy is required.

  2. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Thai Children with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Trinh, Quang Duy; Khamrin, Pattara; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Kongsricharoern, Tipachan; Yamazaki, Wataru; Komine-Aizawa, Shihoko; Okitsu, Shoko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter species are common causes of bacterial diarrhea, and Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are known as the predominant causative agents in humans. Recent studies suggested that loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an efficient and practical tool for rapid detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in clinical samples. We used LAMP to screen 151 stool samples for Campylobacter; these samples were collected in 2012 from Thai children with diarrhea. The PCR method discriminated C. jejuni and C. coli among the detected Campylobacter strains; these species were subjected to sequencing of the hipO gene (in C. jejuni) or the ask gene (in C. coli). The results suggest that the prevalence of Campylobacter infection among Thai children with diarrhea is 8.6%, and C. jejuni is the most prevalent species.

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children and environmental sources in urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Bernadeta; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Spica, Dorota; Klawe, Jacek J

    2017-04-04

    Campylobacteriosis is a dominant bacterial cause of foodborne infection and is considered the main public health problem in Europe and many other countries worldwide. In the study lasting from 2011 to 2013 we compared the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children, domestic animals, poultry meat and surface water in Northern Poland. During a 3-years study 1973 samples were analysed. The results proved the presence of Campylobacter spp. in 306 (15.5%) samples. The percentage of Campylobacter-positive samples differed among the sample types, from 0% (freshwater beaches) to 38.6% (poultry meat in 2011). Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in children isolates was 9.6%. It decreased from 13.2% in 2011 to 8.0% in 2013. It should be highlighted with a particular concern that Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 20.0% of fountains. All children and poultry meat isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. Two C. coli (3.7%) and four C. jejuni (3.3%) isolated from poultry meat were resistant to erythromycin. The highest percentage of C. jejuni isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin were found in samples from 80% dogs and 85% ponds. Among isolates resistant to two antimicrobials 74.7% C. jejuni and 59.2% C. coli isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin as well as to tetracycline. Only one cat C. coli isolate was resistant to both azithromycin and erythromycin. One C. jejuni isolate from a fountain was resistant to four antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, azithromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin). The study proved that surface water, poultry meat and pets constituted potential sources of Campylobacter to children. Fountains can be a direct source of children campylobacteriosis but can also pollute other environments with multidrug-resistant Campylobacter. The high resistance to some antimicrobials among the isolates may lead to increasing numbers of difficult-to-treat campylobacteriosis cases among children.

  4. Oxidative and nitrosative stress defences of Helicobacter and Campylobacter species that counteract mammalian immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Annika; Stintzi, Alain; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-11-01

    Helicobacter and Campylobacter species are Gram-negative microaerophilic host-associated heterotrophic bacteria that invade the digestive tract of humans and animals. Campylobacter jejuni is the major worldwide cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans, while Helicobacter pylori is ubiquitous in over half of the world's population causing gastric and duodenal ulcers. The colonisation of the gastrointestinal system by Helicobacter and Campylobacter relies on numerous cellular defences to sense the host environment and respond to adverse conditions, including those imposed by the host immunity. An important antimicrobial tool of the mammalian innate immune system is the generation of harmful oxidative and nitrosative stresses to which pathogens are exposed during phagocytosis. This review summarises the regulators, detoxifying enzymes and subversion mechanisms of Helicobacter and Campylobacter that ultimately promote the successful infection of humans.

  5. Control of campylobacter in poultry industry from farm to poultry processing unit: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaraw, Pramila; Prajapati, A; Verma, Akhilesh K; Pathak, V; Singh, V P

    2017-03-04

    Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic bacterial threat in the poultry industry. Most of the human cases of campylobacteriosis recorded have revealed their poultry origins. Various control measures have been employed both at the farm and processing levels to combat with it. The antibiotic treatment, phage therapy, competitive exclusion, and vaccination have been adapted at the farm level to reduce colonization of Campylobacter in poultry gut. While prevention of intestinal spillage, scheduled slaughter, logistic slaughter, chemical decontamination of carcasses are recommended to reduce contamination during processing. The postharvest interventions such as heat treatment, freezing, irradiation of contaminated carcass can effectively reduce Campylobacter contamination. Thus, integrated approaches are required to tackle infection of Campylobacter in humans.

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry are recognized as a main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, longitudinal studies investigating the persistence of Campylobacter on broilers and retail chciekn meat in Tanzania are rare. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. isolated ...

  7. Molecular Subtyping and Source Attribution of Campylobacter Isolated from Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; Tate, Heather P; Abbott, Jason; Tran, Thu-Thuy; Kabera, Claudine; Crarey, Emily; Young, Shenia; McDermott, Patrick F; Sprague, Grisselle; Campbell, Mark; Adeyemo, Oyewole; Browne-Silva, Johnette; Myers, Michael; Thitaram, Sutawee; Zhao, Shaohua

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. commonly cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. Poultry meats have long been considered the predominant source of these infections, but few in-depth Campylobacter source attribution studies have been completed. We analyzed more than 1,300 Campylobacter isolates recovered from a number of animal and food sources, including dairy and beef cattle, pigs, poultry, and retail poultry meat, and compared them with Campylobacter isolates recovered from human clinical samples. Each isolate was subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI and queried against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PulseNet database to identify human isolates with indistinguishable patterns. Half (49.5%) of the PFGE patterns from poultry animal and retail meat isolates were indistinguishable from patterns of at least one human isolate. Among the isolates from beef and dairy cows, 56.6 and 65.0%, respectively, of their PFGE patterns were indistinguishable from those of human isolates. Only a small portion of the PFGE patterns of Campylobacter isolated from pigs (9.5%) were found to have PFGE patterns in common with human isolates. These data imply that cattle may be larger contributors to Campylobacter infections than previously recognized and help further our understanding of potential sources of human campylobacteriosis.

  8. Campylobacter seroconversion rates in selected countries in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, P F M; Falkenhorst, G; Ang, C W; Strid, M A; De Valk, H; Sadkowska-Todys, M; Zota, L; Kuusi, M; Rota, M C; Simonsen, J B; Mølbak, K; Van Duynhoven, Y T H P; Van Pelt, W

    2013-10-01

    As a major foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter is frequently isolated from food sources of animal origin. In contrast, human Campylobacter illness is relatively rare, but has a considerable health burden due to acute enteric illness as well as severe sequelae. To study silent transmission, serum antibodies can be used as biomarkers to estimate seroconversion rates, as a proxy for infection pressure. This novel approach to serology shows that infections are much more common than disease, possibly because most infections remain asymptomatic. This study used antibody titres measured in serum samples collected from healthy subjects selected randomly in the general population from several countries in the European Union (EU). Estimates of seroconversion rates to Campylobacter were calculated for seven countries: Romania, Poland, Italy, France, Finland, Denmark and The Netherlands. Results indicate high infection pressures in all these countries, slightly increasing in Eastern EU countries. Of these countries, the differences in rates of notified illnesses are much greater, with low numbers in France and Poland, possibly indicating lower probability of detection due to differences in the notification systems, but in the latter case it cannot be excluded that more frequent exposure confers better protection due to acquired immunity.

  9. Cell wall anchoring of the Campylobacter antigens to Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Kobierecka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type Campylobacter jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analysed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered

  10. Whole genome sequencing and analysis of Campylobacter coli YH502 from retail chicken reveals a plasmid-borne type VI secretion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a major cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Campylobacter infections, commonly caused by ingestion of undercooked poultry and meat products, can lead to gastroenteritis and chronic reactive arthritis in humans. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a powerful technology that provides...

  11. The Effects of Temperature and Innate Immunity on Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) Between Life Stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Gill, C.; Lowenberger, C.

    2014-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter j...

  12. Riding in shopping carts and exposure to raw meat and poultry products: prevalence of, and factors associated with, this risk factor for salmonella and campylobacter infection in children younger than 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Mary E; Mahon, Barbara E; Zansky, Shelley M; Hurd, Sharon; Scallan, Elaine

    2010-06-01

    Riding in a shopping cart next to raw meat or poultry is a risk factor for Salmonella and Campylobacter infections in infants. To describe the frequency of, and factors associated with, this behavior, we surveyed parents of children aged younger than 3 years in Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network sites. We defined exposure as answering yes to one of a series of questions asking if packages of raw meat or poultry were near a child in a shopping cart, or if a child was in the cart basket at the same time as was raw meat or poultry. Among 1,273 respondents, 767 (60%) reported that their children visited a grocery store in the past week and rode in shopping carts. Among these children, 103 (13%) were exposed to raw products. Children who rode in the baskets were more likely to be exposed than were those who rode only in the seats (odds ratio [OR], 17.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0 to 28.9). In a multivariate model, riding in the basket (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 9.2 to 26.1), income less than $55,000 (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5) were associated with exposure. Our study shows that children can be exposed to raw meat and poultry products while riding in shopping carts. Parents should separate children from raw products and place children in the seats rather than in the baskets of the cart. Retailer use of leak-proof packaging, customer placement of product in a plastic bag and on the rack underneath the cart, use of hand sanitizers and wipes, and consumer education may also be helpful.

  13. Molecular characterization of Campylobacter jejuni from patients with Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Endtz (Hubert); F.G. Rodgers; W.M. Johnson; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.A. Wagenaar (Jaap); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); C.W. Ang (Wim); N.P.W.C.J. van den Braak (Nicole); B. Duim; A. Rigter; L.J. Price; D.L. Woodward

    2000-01-01

    textabstractCampylobacter jejuni has been identified as the predominant cause of antecedent infection in Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The risk of developing GBS or MFS may be higher after infection with specific C. jejuni types. To

  14. Interaction between Campylobacter and intestinal epithelial cells leads to a different proinflammatory response in human and porcine host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Carmen; Jiménez-Marín, Ángeles; Martins, Rodrigo Prado; Garrido, Juan J

    2014-11-15

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the leading causes of human diarrheal disease throughout the development world. Unlike human beings, gastrointestinal tract of pigs are frequently colonized by Campylobacter to a high level in a commensal manner. The aim of this study was to identify the differences underlying the divergent outcome following Campylobacter challenge in porcine versus human host. In order to address this, a comparative in vitro infection model was combined with microscopy, gentamicin protection assay, ELISA and quantitative PCR techniques. Invasion assays revealed that Campylobacter invaded human cells up to 10-fold more than porcine cells (pCampylobacter in human epithelial cell at early times of infection, whereas a very reduced cytokine gene expression was detected in porcine epithelial cells. These data indicate that Campylobacter fails to invade porcine cells compared to human cells, and this leads to a lack of proinflammatory response induction, probably due to its pathogenic or commensal behavior in human and porcine host, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in calves with and without diarrhea in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Alispahic, M; Sofka, D; Iwersen, M; Drillich, M; Hilbert, F

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter in feces of calves with and without diarrhea on dairy farms and to survey farm characteristics and management practices to define risk factors for the presence of Campylobacter. Fifty dairy farms were chosen based on the presence of calf diarrhea, and 50 farms in which calves were free from diarrhea served as a standard of comparison. In total, fecal samples were taken from 382 calves. Farm data and management practices were surveyed using a questionnaire on farm. Campylobacter were isolated from fecal samples and colonies were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Campylobacter spp., mainly Campylobacter jejuni (93% of isolated species), were detected on 33% of the farms and in 14.9% of the calves. Detection of Campylobacter did not differ between farms or between calves with and without diarrhea, although we found a tendency for calves suffering from diarrhea to shed Campylobacter more often. Calves may act as a reservoir of Campylobacter and may therefore lead to infections of other animals and humans. To define control strategies to reduce Campylobacter in calves, we identified on-farm risk factors. The presence of poultry on the farm, the time of cow-calf separation following birth, the use of an individual bucket for each calf, the feeding of waste milk, and the duration of individual housing were variables significantly associated with the appearance or absence of Campylobacter. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Avoidance of antibiotic administration to Campylobacter enterocolitis mimicking severe salmonellosis by clinical and laboratory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ning; Chen, Chih-Jen; Tang, Kuo-Shu; Huang, Fu-Chen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the clinical and laboratory features of non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis in children and formulate a risk scoring system (with receiver-operating characteristic curve) to facilitate early decision making and avoid antibiotic overuse in C. jejuni enterocolitis. Between January 2008 and December 2011, children (age enterocolitis and NTS enterocolitis in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical features and laboratory data were collected for analysis and a risk calculation score is created for the identification of Campylobacter infections. A total of 309 cases of C. jejuni enterocolitis and 496 cases of NTS enterocolitis were enrolled. Compared with Salmonella group clinically, the Campylobacter group had older age (81.06 ± 50.65 vs. 32.70 ± 34.88 months, p Campylobacter group had higher level of white blood cell count (11 208 ± 4380 vs. 9095 ± 3598 cell/mm3, p Campylobacter enterocolitis. When three criteria were fulfilled, Campylobacter enterocolitis was highly suspected and antibiotic could be withheld even when C-reactive protein is high and before stool culture results are known. When four criteria were fulfilled, antibiotic usage was absolutely unnecessary. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Key role of Mfd in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Sahin, Orhan; Barton, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Qijing

    2008-06-06

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter readily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes a transcription-repair coupling factor involved in strand-specific DNA repair. Mutation of the mfd gene resulted in an approximately 100-fold reduction in the rate of spontaneous mutation to ciprofloxacin resistance, while overexpression of mfd elevated the mutation frequency. In addition, loss of mfd in C. jejuni significantly reduced the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter in culture media or chickens treated with fluoroquinolones. These findings indicate that Mfd is important for the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter, reveal a previously unrecognized function of Mfd in promoting mutation frequencies, and identify a potential molecular target for reducing the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

  19. Key role of Mfd in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter readily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes a transcription-repair coupling factor involved in strand-specific DNA repair. Mutation of the mfd gene resulted in an approximately 100-fold reduction in the rate of spontaneous mutation to ciprofloxacin resistance, while overexpression of mfd elevated the mutation frequency. In addition, loss of mfd in C. jejuni significantly reduced the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter in culture media or chickens treated with fluoroquinolones. These findings indicate that Mfd is important for the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter, reveal a previously unrecognized function of Mfd in promoting mutation frequencies, and identify a potential molecular target for reducing the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

  20. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Campylobacter species in foods of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence and evaluation of antibiotic resistance pattern and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Campylobacter species isolated from foods of animal origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 samples (comprising 150 chicken meat, 50 chevon and 80 milk were collected from retail meat markets, slaughter houses and dairy farms and analyzed for isolation of Campylobacter species. A total of 29 isolates comprising 23 Campylobacter jejuni and 6 Campylobacter coli were recovered, characterized biochemically and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. These isolates were then tested for antibiotic resistance pattern through disc diffusion method, and MIC was assessed by MIC strips. The antibiotic resistance assessment was performed against 8 antibiotics viz. ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and norfloxacin. Results: The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat, chevon and milk samples were observed 17.33%, 6% and 0%, respectively. All the isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole but sensitive to erythromycin. All the isolates showed different resistance pattern for the rest of the antibiotics. MIC results revealed that all the isolates were within prescribed concentrations for sensitivity for the antibiotics tested. Conclusions: The foods of animal origin are source of Campylobacter infections to human beings. Thus, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains emphasizes the requirement of better surveillance and monitoring of the foods of animal origin and the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine require careful regulation.

  1. Thermotolerant coliforms are not a good surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's rho coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques.

  2. Thermotolerant Coliforms Are Not a Good Surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Water ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D.; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's ρ coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques. PMID:19734335

  3. Temporal variation in the prevalence and species richness of Campylobacter spp. in a prairie watershed impacted by urban and agricultural mixed inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Boa, Tyler; Aryal, Bijaya; Yost, Christopher K

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a substantial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Human infection can result from ingestion of contaminated food or water from a variety of sources, including the consumption of fresh produce that is contaminated with the pathogen via the use of contaminated irrigation water. Using molecular methods, we investigated the occurrence of Campylobacter in the Qu'Appelle River watershed, an important source of irrigation water for vegetable producers in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Water samples were collected from 7 sampling sites from April to September 2009 (145 samples), and from 5 sampling sites from May to October 2013 (116 samples). Campylobacter was detected in 57% and 16% of the samples collected in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Campylobacter detection was highest in May and June for both sampling years. In 2009, the predominant species were Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter jejuni, with prevalences of 84% and 41%, respectively. Other Campylobacter spp. were detected less frequently. Only C. lari was detected in 2013. The results in 2009 demonstrate the species richness of Campylobacter in water sources within the watershed. The occurrence of Campylobacter in the study area also underscores the importance of monitoring irrigation water used to irrigate fresh produce from a public health prospective.

  4. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Client-Owned Dogs and Cats, and Retail Raw Meat Pet Food in the Manawatu, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, K; Midwinter, A C; Marshall, J C; Rogers, L E; Biggs, P J; Acke, E

    2017-09-01

    Campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. The disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on New Zealand pets are limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food products in New Zealand and to characterize Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety dogs and 110 cats examined at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for elective procedures, and fifty locally purchased retail raw meat pet diets were sampled. Two culture protocols combining Bolton broth enrichment and mCCDA and CAT agars in a microaerobic atmosphere at 42°C and 37°C with species identification using PCR were performed. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus was 36%, 13%, 23% and 1% in dogs and 16%, 5%, 5% and 7% in cats, respectively. One dog had Campylobacter lari confirmed, and three dogs and one cat had multiple Campylobacter spp. detected. Significantly more animals tested positive using CAT than mCCDA agar (P dogs, whereas attendance for dental treatment was a risk factor for cats. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 28%, C. jejuni 22%, C. lari 6% and Campylobacter coli 6% of food samples. Six isolates positive by Campylobacter genus PCR were identified as Arcobacter butzleri. Poultry meat was more likely to be positive than non-poultry meat (P = 0.006). Of the 13 C. jejuni pet isolates with full MLST profiles, eight were of different sequence types (ST) and all nine food isolates were of different STs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Isolation, identification and differentiation of Campylobacter spp. using multiplex PCR assay from goats in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbrissi, Atif; Sabeil, Y A; Khalifa, Khalda A; Enan, Khalid; Khair, Osama M; El Hussein, A M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize thermophilic Campylobacter species in faecal samples from goats in Khartoum State, Sudan, by application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease of global concern, and the organisms can be transmitted to human via food, water and through contact with farm animals and pets. There are five clinically related Campylobacter species: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni). Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter fetus. Conventional cultural methods to diagnose campylobacteriosis are tedious and time consuming. Wide ranges of genes have been reported to be used for PCR-based identification of Campylobacter spp. We used a multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously detect genes from the major five clinically significant Campylobacter spp. The genes selected were hipO (hippuricase) and 23S rRNA from glyA (serine hydroxymethyl transferase) from each of C. jejuni. C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis; and sapB2 (surface layer protein) from C. fetus subsp. fetus. The assay was used to identify Campylobacter isolates recovered from 336 cultured faecal samples from goats in three localities in Khartoum State. C. coli was the most predominant isolate (234; 69.6%), followed by C. jejuni (19; 5.7%), C. upsaliensis (13; 3.9%), C. fetus subsp. fetus (7; 2.1%) and C. lari (6; 1.8%). Twenty-nine goats showed mixed infection with Campylobacter spp., 21 of which harbored two Campylobacter spp., while eight animals were infected with three species. Ten out of twelve goats that displayed diarrhea harbored C. coli only. C. coli, C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis showed significant variation with localities. The prevalence of C. coli was significantly higher (87; 25.9%) in goats from Omdurman, whereas C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis were significantly higher (11; 3.3%, 9; 2.7%) in goats from Khartoum. The multiplex PCR assay was found to be rapid and easy to perform and

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pig, Dairy and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac eKashoma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~ 30% of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5%, 35.4%, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5% and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9% of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (70% and 76%, gentamicin (1.8% and 12.6%, respectively, streptomycin (65.8% and 74.8%, erythromycin (41.4% and 48.7%, tetracycline (18.9% and 23.4%, and ciprofloxacin (14.4% and 7.2%. Resistance to nalidixic acid (39.6%, azithromycin (13.5%, and chloramphenicol (4.5% was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (38.7% was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli of which 7 were novel (6 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli. Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country.

  7. Chicken anti-Campylobacter vaccine – comparison of various carriers and routes of immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Kobierecka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered GEM (Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein CjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that CjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous Campylobacter jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens.

  8. Lipooligosaccharide of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houliston, R. Scott; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Li, Jianjun; St. Michael, Frank; Karwaski, Marie-France; Brochu, Denis; Jarrell, Harold C.; Parker, Craig T.; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Mandrell, Robert E.; Gilbert, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is well known for synthesizing ganglioside mimics within the glycan component of its lipooligosaccharide (LOS), which have been implicated in triggering Guillain-Barré syndrome. We now confirm that this pathogen is capable of synthesizing a much broader spectrum of host glycolipid/glycoprotein mimics within its LOS. P blood group and paragloboside (lacto-N-neotetraose) antigen mimicry is exhibited by RM1221, a strain isolated from a poultry source. RM1503, a gastroenteritis-associated strain, expresses lacto-N-biose and sialyl-Lewis c units, the latter known as the pancreatic tumor-associated antigen, DU-PAN-2 (or LSTa). C. jejuni GC149, a Guillain-Barré syndrome-associated strain, expresses an unusual sialic acid-containing hybrid oligosaccharide with similarity to both ganglio and Pk antigens and can, through phase variation of its LOS biosynthesis genes, display GT1a or GD3 ganglioside mimics. We show that the sialyltransferase CstII and the galactosyltransferase CgtD are involved in the synthesis of multiple mimic types, with LOS structural diversity achieved through evolving allelic substrate specificity. PMID:21257763

  9. Public health burden due to infections by verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Campylobacter spp. as estimated by cost of illness and different approaches to model disability-adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toljander, Jonas; Dovärn, Anna; Andersson, Yvonne; Ivarsson, Sofie; Lindqvist, Roland

    2012-05-01

    To estimate disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and cost of illness (COI) associated with the gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens Campylobacter and verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in Sweden and to investigate the impact of variability in health outcomes, data availability, and different assumptions about underreporting on DALY. Data from the Swedish notification system, public databases, and the literature were used to estimate COI and DALY. DALY was modelled using a deterministic and a stochastic approach, the latter describing variation in health outcomes between individuals. Effects of different assumptions about underreporting of gastroenteritis were evaluated in separate scenarios. COI and DALY were greater for Campylobacter than for VTEC. Years of life lost due to haemolytic uraemic syndrome and years lived with gastroenteritis constituted most of DALY for VTEC and Campylobacter, respectively. Productivity losses due to gastroenteritis constituted the main cost associated with both pathogens. Degree of underreporting had a greater impact on DALY for Campylobacter, due to higher estimated incidence of gastroenteritis associated with campylobacteriosis. Pathogen-specific health outcomes and data quality may influence the preferred modelling approach. There was a fair agreement between modelling approaches, but the stochastic model reflected the contribution of some rare health outcomes not captured in the deterministic model. Health outcomes excluded due to lack of data lead to an underestimation of the total burden associated with the pathogens. Increased knowledge, especially on the degree of underreporting and the contribution of the pathogens to sequelae, is needed to further improve public health burden estimates for these pathogens in Sweden.

  10. CAMPYLOBACTER ENTERITIS IN ILORIN, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-09-09

    Sep 9, 2006 ... Objective: To determine the role of Campylobacter jejuni!coli as an agent of diarrhoea in the middle- belt of Nigeria. Design: A prospective case control study. Setting: University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), private hospitals and primary health centers all in Ilorin, Nigeria. Subjects: Three hundred and ...

  11. Virulence strategies of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, Lieke van

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease, causing approximately 400 million human cases of enterocolitis world wide each year. Many cases can be attributed to foreign travel, making it one of the most important causative agents of traveller's diarrhea.

  12. Clonality of Campylobacter sputorum bv. paraureolyticus determined by macrorestriction profiling and biotyping, and evidence for long-term persistent infection in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephan L.W.; Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.

    1999-01-01

    identical, although repeat testing indicated resistance to metronidazole was not a reliable trait for typing purposes. Five SmaI-derived genotypes were identified among the 18 strains. In 5 of 7 cows, isolates obtained from the same animal, but from different time periods, were genotypically...... indistinguishable, indicating persistence of infection. Macrorestriction profiles of 5 strains representing the 5 SmaI genotypes and 8 other strains of C, sputorum from various sources, were prepared using 4 endonucleases (SmaI, SalI, BamHI and KpnI). The only other strain of C. sputorum by. paraureolyticus...... examined (a Canadian isolate from human faeces), was found to have a SmaI macrorestriction profile identical with one of the five clones isolated from the cattle. Moreover, SalI and BamHI profiles of all by. paraureolyticus strains were similar, while digestion with KpnI was not observed. By contrast...

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of Campylobacter jejuni associated with Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes: Neuropathogenic and enteritis-associated isolates can share high levels of genomic similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.N. Taboada (Eduardo); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); N. Yuki (Nobuhiro); R.R. Acedillo (Rey); P.C.R. Godschalk (Peggy); M. Koga (Michiaki); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); M. Gilbert (Michel); J.H.E. Nash (John)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Campylobacter jejuni infection represents the most frequent antecedent infection triggering the onset of the neuropathic disorders Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). Although sialylated ganglioside-mimicking lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) structures

  14. Acute pancreatitis in association with Campylobacter jejuni-associated diarrhea in a 15-year-old with CFTR mutations: is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Leena; Khan, Seema; Whitcomb, David C; Lowe, Mark E

    2006-09-10

    Acute pancreatitis has occasionally been reported in association with Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans. However, the mechanism linking Campylobacter jejuni infection and pancreatitis is unclear. Acute pancreatitis in association with an infectious illness may be related to underlying genetic mutations. For instance, studies show that mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene increase the susceptibility for acute and chronic pancreatitis. We describe a patient with Campylobacter jejuni infection who developed acute pancreatitis in the setting of an underlying cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutation. In this patient with an underlying mutation in the CFTR gene, we propose that the interaction between the mutant gene and an environmental factor, Campylobacter jejuni infection, resulted in pancreatitis.

  15. Guillain-Barré syndrome- and Miller Fisher syndrome-associated Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides induce anti-GM1 and anti-GQ1b Antibodies in rabbits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. de Klerk; H.P. Endtz (Hubert); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); J.D. Laman (Jon); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); C.W. Ang (Wim)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCampylobacter jejuni infections are thought to induce antiganglioside antibodies in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) by molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and gangliosides. We used

  16. Changes within the intestinal flora of broilers by colonisation with Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofka, Dmitri; Pfeifer, Agathe; Gleiss, Barbara; Paulsen, Peter; Hilbert, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    In most European countries human campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial zoonotic foodborne infection. Chicken meat is considered the main source of infection. Since most strategies assessed so far, in reducing Campylobacter colonization in chickens or in the reduction of human disease, have not been very effective, new knowledge regarding Campylobacter's interaction with the host is needed. In this study we analysed fecal and cecal samples of five chicken flocks of different Austrian farms for the occurrence of Cjejuni and C. coli, and analysed the intestinal microbiota by PCR-SSCP, cultural detection of lactic acid bacteria, Enterococci, Staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and total aerobic colony counts. Furthermore ten chicken samples of cecal content of a flock during colonization with Campylobacter spp. was analysed by high throughput sequencing. With all three methods used we could detect a change within the microbiota caused by Cjejuni. Enumeration of different bacteria was significantly lower in fecal samples positive for C. jejuni, pointing out that a higher water content and thus, a preliminary stage of diarrhea might appear during Campylobacter colonization. By PCR-SSCP analysis the microbiota composition differed between colonized and non-colonized chicken fecal samples. This could also be detected in community analysis by high throughput sequencing, but this difference was only a tendency and not statistically significant. It can be concluded that C. jejuni is interacting with the intestinal microflora in their respective hosts and hence, this has to be taken into account when providing new strategies to combat Campylobacter colonization and disease.

  17. Prevalence and sources of Campylobacter spp. contamination in free-range broiler production in the southern part of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeplas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A one year epidemiological study was carried out between February 2005 and February 2006 in the southern part of Belgium to assess the Campylobacter prevalence in free-range broiler production. Three successive broiler flocks from six Belgian farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. during the rearing period. Each flock was visited four times, before and after the outdoor rearing period. During each visit, samples were taken in the broiler house (litter, cecal droppings, water-lines, feed, anteroom as well as from the outer rearing environment (open-air range. The Campylobacter detection in all samples was carried out according to the ISO 10272 standard. Identification was based on colonial morphology, microscopic examination, and biochemical tests. PCR multiplex was used for genetic confirmation. Campylobacter jejuni was the main species isolated from all contaminated samples. Overall, mixed infections C. jejuni / Campylobacter coli represented 40.6%, while C. jejuni and C. coli represented 46.9% and 12.5% of chicken samples respectively. A 100% flock contamination was observed in the 6 farms during the summer-autumn period, whereas only 66.7% and 33.3% of the flocks became Campylobacter-positive in spring and winter respectively, at the end of the rearing period. Half of contaminated flocks were infected before chickens have access to the open-air range. Environmental samples, especially the open-air range soil, were found to be Campylobacter-positive before flock infection. The other potential sources of contamination were delivery tray, anteroom floor and water-lines. Other animal productions like cattle on the farm, no applied rodent control, no cleaning and disinfection of water-lines between flocks, no detergent used for cleaning and thinning were recorded as risk factors. In conclusion, the contact with the environment, particularly the access to an open-air range, appeared to be the major way of Campylobacter

  18. Survey of chicken abattoir for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L.L. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled carcasses were collected in six chicken abattoirs. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was performed in Campylobacter spp.-positive isolates using the gene HIP, specific for hippuricase enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni and aspartokinase gene, specific to detect Campylobacter coli. The percentage of positive isolates of Campylobacter jejuni was 4.9% (14/288. Isolation was greater in feces samples (22%, 8/36. One sample was positive for the species C. coli. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to improve quality control for Campylobacter spp. in chicken abattoirs.O gênero Campylobacter tem grande destaque em saúde pública, principalmente por pertencerem a este gênero várias espécies que podem causar diarréia. Estas espécies podem ser encontradas em amostras de água, alimentos e no trato intestinal das aves. Este estudo investigou a presença de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves no Estado de São Paulo. As 288 amostras foram coletadas em seis estabelecimentos e incluíram: fezes; penas; água de escaldamento, de evisceração e de resfriamento; e água de enxaguadura de carcaça não eviscerada, eviscerada e resfriada. Após o isolamento microbiológico das amostras positivas de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR utilizando o gene HIP, da hipuricase, específico para Campylobacter jejuni e o gene da enzima aspartoquinase, específico para Campylobacter coli. A

  19. Campylobacter colitis: Rare cause of toxic megacolon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kwok, MBBS

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Toxic megacolon should be considered in a patient with Campylobacter colitis who becomes critically unwell. Despite treatment, toxic megacolon is associated with a significant risk of mortality.

  20. Integration of Epidemiological Evidence in a Decision Support Model for the Control of Campylobacter in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Vigre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of human Campylobacteriosis is a priority in public health agendas all over the world. Poultry is considered a significant risk factor for human infections with Campylobacter and risk assessment models indicate that the successful implementation of Campylobacter control strategies in poultry will translate on a reduction of human Campylobacteriosis cases. Efficient control strategies implemented during primary production will reduce the risk of Campylobacter introduction in chicken houses and/or decrease Campylobacter concentration in infected chickens and their products. Consequently, poultry producers need to make difficult decisions under conditions of uncertainty regarding the implementation of Campylobacter control strategies. This manuscript presents the development of probabilistic graphical models to support decision making in order to control Campylobacter in poultry. The decision support systems are constructed as probabilistic graphical models (PGMs which integrate knowledge and use Bayesian methods to deal with uncertainty. This paper presents a specific model designed to integrate epidemiological knowledge from the United Kingdom (UK model in order to assist poultry managers in specific decisions related to vaccination of commercial broilers for the control of Campylobacter. Epidemiological considerations and other crucial aspects including challenges associated with the quantitative part of the models are discussed in this manuscript. The outcome of the PGMs will depend on the qualitative and quantitative data included in the models. Results from the UK model and sensitivity analyses indicated that the financial variables (cost/reward functions and the effectiveness of the control strategies considered in the UK model were driving the results. In fact, there were no or only small financial gains when using a hypothetical vaccine B (able to decrease Campylobacter numbers from two to six logs in 20% of the chickens with a

  1. High Prevalence and Predominance of the aph(2″)-If Gene Conferring Aminoglycoside Resistance in Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Liu, Dejun; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Qijing; Shen, Zhangqi

    2017-05-01

    Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen, and previous studies revealed that Campylobacter isolates from food-producing animals are increasingly resistant to gentamicin in China. The molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms responsible for gentamicin resistance in China have not been well understood. In this study, 607 Campylobacter isolates of chicken and swine origins collected in 2014 were analyzed, revealing that 15.6% (25/160) of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 79.9% (357/447) of the Campylobacter coli isolates were resistant to gentamicin. PCR detection of the gentamicin resistance genes indicated that aph(2″)-If was more prevalent than the previously identified aacA/aphD gene and has become the dominant gentamicin resistance determinant in Campylobacter Transformation and whole-genome sequencing as well as long-range PCR discovered that aph(2″)-If was located on a chromosomal segment inserted between two conserved genes, Cj0299 and panB Cloning of aph(2″)-If into gentamicin-susceptible C. jejuni NCTC 11168 confirmed its function in conferring high-level resistance to gentamicin and kanamycin. Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested that both regional expansion of a particular clone and horizontal transmission were involved in the dissemination of the aph(2″)-If gene in Campylobacter To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the high prevalence of a chromosomally encoded aph(2″)-If gene in Campylobacter The high prevalence and predominance of this gene might be driven by the use of aminoglycoside antibiotics in food animal production in China and potentially compromise the usefulness of gentamicin as a therapeutic agent for Campylobacter-associated systemic infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. [Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen.

  3. Substrate utilization by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, H.N.; Rollins, D.M.; Weiss, E.

    1986-10-01

    An attempt was made to elucidate in Campylobacter spp. some of the physiologic characteristics that are reflected in the kinetics of CO/sub 2/ formation from four /sup 14/C-labeled substrates. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were grown in a biphasic medium, and highly motile spiral cells were harvested at 12 h. The cells were incubated with 0.02 M glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, or formate, or with concentrations of these substrates ranging from 0.0032 to 0.125 M. All four substrates were metabolized very rapidly by both species. A feature of many of these reactions, particularly obvious with /sup 2/chemically bond-ketoglutarate, was an immediate burst of CO/sub 2/ production followed by CO/sub 2/ evolution at a more moderate rate. These diphasic kinetics of substrate utilization were not seen in comparable experiments with Escherichia coli grown and tested under identical conditions. With C. jejuni, CO/sub 2/ production from formate proceeded rapidly for the entire period of incubation. The rate of metabolism of glutamate, glutamine, and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate by both species was greatly enhanced by increased substrate concentration. The approach to the study of the metabolism of campylobacters here described may be useful in detecting subtle changes in the physiology of cells as they are maintained past their logarithmic growth phase.

  4. Bacteremia caused by antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter species at a medical center in Taiwan, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Hsing; Chuang, Chia-Yunn; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Lee, Ping-Ing; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-11-01

    This study was intended to delineate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Campylobacter species. Twenty-four patients with Campylobacter bacteremia were treated at the National Taiwan University Hospital from 1998 to 2008. All isolates from the 24 patients were confirmed to the species level by multiplex PCR (cadF, hipO and asp gene) and 16S RNA gene sequencing. Bacteremia was caused by Campylobacter coli in 15 (62.5%) patients, Campylobacter fetus in 6 (25%), and Campylobacter jejuni in 3 (12.5%). Of the 24 patients, 16 were male. The major underlying conditions included chronic renal insufficiency (41.7%), liver cirrhosis (37.5%), malignancy (33.3%), and previous abdominal surgery (33.3%). The most common infections were intra-abdominal infection (54.2%), followed by primary bacteremia (41.7%), and cellulitis (4.2%). The mean Pittsburgh bacteremia score was 2.5 (range, 0-9). During the bacteremic episodes, six (25%) patients developed septic shock. Third-generation cephalosporins were administered to 12 (50%) patients as empirical therapy. All-cause mortality was 4.2% at 14 days and 12.5% at 30 days. The majority of the isolates were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values of 32 mg/L for cefotaxime, 128 mg/L for ceftriaxone, and 32 mg/L for both ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. All isolates possessed a parC mutation (Arg-139-Gln) and 15 exhibited an additional gyrA mutation (Thr-86-Ile). Among these isolates, 20.8% were susceptible to erythromycin (MIC≤0.5 mg/L). Bacteremia caused by antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter species is alarming although the mortality rate is low. Copyright © 2012 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Sun, Xin-Ting; Zeng, Zheng; Yu, Yan-Yan

    2011-05-01

    There has been a marked global increase in the incidence of human Campylobacter enteritis in recent years. This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients suffering from acute diarrhea. This was a retrospective review of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea presenting at Beijing University First Hospital, Beijing, China, in the summer and autumn (April to October) of 2005 to 2009. The data collected included the species of campylobacter identified, and the age, gender, clinical manifestations and results of laboratory test on stool samples collected from the patients. Campylobacter sensitivity tests to various antimicrobial agents were conducted on 80 specimens. Chi-square tests were applied using SPSS13.0 software and a two-sided P value of Campylobacter spp. isolated from the stool specimens of 142 patients with diarrhea represented 14.9% of all the cases examined. C. jejuni was identified in 127 patients (89.4%) and C. coli in 15 others (10.6%). The infection incidence was highest in the age range of 21 - 30 years which comprised 21.7% of the total cases examined. Most cases of diarrhea (46 patients) occurred in June. Watery diarrhea (97.2%), abdominal pain (72.5%) and fever (64.8%) were the most common manifestations of enteric campylobacteriosis. Only four patients (2.8%) had bloody diarrhea. The antimicrobial resistance rates were: cefoperazone (100%), levofloxacin (61.3%), gentamicin (12.5%), erythromycin (6.3%), and azithromycin (2.5%). Campylobacter was prevalent among adults with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China. The large number of those afflicted by the disease warrants the commission of a large multicenter study to determine the extent of enteric campylobacteriosis in this region.

  6. Effects of meat juice on biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Feng, Jinsong; Ma, Lina; de la Fuente Núñez, César; Gölz, Greta; Lu, Xiaonan

    2017-07-17

    Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, vastly harboured by raw meat as their common food reservoir. Both microbes are prevalent in meat processing environments in the form of biofilms that contribute to cross-contamination and foodborne infection. This study applied raw meat juice (chicken juice and pork juice) as a minimally processed food model to study its effects on bacterial biofilm formation. Meat juice was collected during the freeze-thaw process of raw meat and sterilized by filtration. In 96-well polystyrene plates and glass chambers, supplementation of over 25% meat juice (v/v) in laboratory media led to an increase in biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella. During the initial attachment stage of biofilm development, more bacterial cells were present on surfaces treated with meat juice residues compared to control surfaces. Meat juice particulates on abiotic surfaces facilitated biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella under both static and flow conditions, with the latter being assessed using a microfluidic platform. Further, the deficiency in biofilm formation of selected Campylobacter and Salmonella mutant strains was restored in the presence of meat juice particulates. These results suggested that meat juice residues on the abiotic surfaces might act as a surface conditioner to support initial attachment and biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella. This study sheds light on a possible survival mechanism of Campylobacter and Salmonella in meat processing environments, and indicates that thorough cleaning of meat residues during meat production and handling is critical to reduce the bacterial load of Campylobacter and Salmonella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from patients in the town of Niš

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In some clinical forms of human Campylobacter infections, such as prolonged diarrhea or associated with postinfections sequels, antibacterial treatment is necessary. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea, as well as from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfections sequels, to drugs used in the therapy of enterocolitis, and to nalidixic acid used in laboratory identification and differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Methods. We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 131 Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea (122 strains, diarrhea associated with rheumatic disorders (8 strains, and one strain isolated from a patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome following Campylobacter enterocolitis. Susceptibility testing to erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the agar dilution method. Results. In the strains we investigated, resistance to gentamicin and chloramphenicol was not recorded, whereas a low rate of strains resistant to erythromycin (2.4%, a higher prevalence of strains resistant to tetracycline (9.9%, and a high level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (29.8% and nalidixic acid (33.3% were registered. All strains resistant to nalidixic acid were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. In addition, there was no difference in the occurrence of resistance between strains isolated from patients with diarrhea as compared to those isolated from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfection disorders. Conclusion. The fact that the most of Campylobacter strains were sensitive to erythromycin and all to gentamicin, makes erythromycin an antibiotic of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea and gentamicin when parenteral therapy should be administered. Resistance to tetracycline and, especially, ciprofloxacin

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from patients in the town of Nis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljković-Selimović, Biljana; Babić, Tatjana; Kocić, Branislava; Ristić, Ljiljana

    2009-07-01

    In some clinical forms of human Campylobacter infections, such as prolonged diarrhea or associated with postinfections sequels, antibacterial treatment is necessary. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea, as well as from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfections sequels, to drugs used in the therapy of enterocolitis, and to nalidixic acid used in laboratory identification and differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 131 Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea (122 strains), diarrhea associated with rheumatic disorders (8 strains), and one strain isolated from a patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome following Campylobacter enterocolitis. Susceptibility testing to erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the agar dilution method. In the strains we investigated, resistance to gentamicin and chloramphenicol was not recorded, whereas a low rate of strains resistant to erythromycin (2.4%), a higher prevalence of strains resistant to tetracycline (9.9%), and a high level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (29.8%) and nalidixic acid (33.3%) were registered. All strains resistant to nalidixic acid were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. In addition, there was no difference in the occurrence of resistance between strains isolated from patients with diarrhea as compared to those isolated from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfection disorders. The fact that the most of Campylobacter strains were sensitive to erythromycin and all to gentamicin, makes erythromycin an antibiotic of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea and gentamicin when parenteral therapy should be administered. Resistance to tetracycline and, especially, ciprofloxacin, necessitates antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  9. Genomic evidence for the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences in the genus Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-09-04

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Hippurate Hydrolase of Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Marina; Gyles, Carlton; Chan, Voon Loong; Odumeru, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Eleven monoclonal antibodies raised against recombinant Campylobacter jejuni hippurate hydrolase were tested for binding to lysates from 19 C. jejuni strains, 12 other Campylobacter strains, and 21 non-Campylobacter strains. Several monoclonal antibodies bound to C. jejuni but not to other Campylobacter species and may be useful in a species-specific immunoassay.

  11. Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from human, food, veterinary and environmental sources in Iceland using PFGE, MLST and fla-SVR sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnússon, S H; Guðmundsdóttir, S; Reynisson, E; Rúnarsson, A R; Harðardóttir, H; Gunnarson, E; Georgsson, F; Reiersen, J; Marteinsson, V Th

    2011-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates from various sources in Iceland were genotyped with the aim of assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, source distribution and campylobacter transmission routes to humans. A collection of 584 Campylobacter isolates were collected from clinical cases, food, animals and environment in Iceland in 1999-2002, during a period of national Campylobacter epidemic in Iceland. All isolates were characterized by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and selected subset of 52 isolates representing the diversity of the identified PFGE types was further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and fla-SVR sequencing to gain better insight into the population structure. The results show a substantial diversity within the Icelandic Campylobacter population. Majority of the human Campylobacter infections originated from domestic chicken and cattle isolates. MLST showed the isolates to be distributed among previously reported and common sequence type complexes in the MLST database. The genotyping of Campylobacter from various sources has not previously been reported from Iceland, and the results of the study gave a valuable insight into the population structure of Camp. jejuni in Iceland, source distribution and transmission routes to humans. The geographical isolation of Iceland in the north Atlantic provides new information on Campylobacter population dynamics on a global scale. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to Icelandic Government works.

  12. Genomic sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 Penner serotype reference strain RM3420

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Parker (Craig); Huynh, S. (Steven); A.P. Heikema (Astrid)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCampylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and the most prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Penner serotype HS:19 is among several capsular types shown to be markers for GBS. This study describes the genome of C.

  13. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators produces chickens more resistant to Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the second leading cause of bacterial-induced foodborne illnesses with an estimated economic burden of nearly $2 billion per year. Most human illness associated with campylobacteriosis is due to infection by C. jejuni and chickens are recognized as a reservoir, which could le...

  14. Complete genomic sequence of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 penner reference strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and the most prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Capsular type Penner HS:19 is among several capsule types shown to be markers for GBS. This study describes the genome of Cjj HS:19...

  15. Chicken Immune Response after In Ovo Immunization with Chimeric TLR5 Activating Flagellin of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radomska, Katarzyna A; Vaezirad, Mahdi M; Verstappen, Koen M; Wösten, Marc M S M; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in developed countries. Chickens are the most important source of human infection. Vaccination of poultry is an attractive strategy to reduce the number of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract of chickens. We investigated the

  16. Sialylation of campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides: Impact on phagocytosis and cytokine production in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Huizinga (Ruth); A.S. Easton (Alistair); A.M. Donachie (Anne); J. Guthrie (Jim); W. van Rijs (Wouter); A.P. Heikema (Astrid); L. Boon (Louis); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); H.J. Willison (Hugh); C.S. Goodyear (Carl)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a post-infectious polyradiculoneuropathy, frequently associated with antecedent Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) infection. The presence of sialic acid on C. jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) is considered a risk factor for development of GBS

  17. It is all about flagellin : Towards development of a Campylobacter jejuni flagellin-based vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radomska, K.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41331846X

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of foodborne bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. C. jejuni is highly prevalent in livestock, poultry in particular. The most common source of human infection is C. jejuni-contaminated poultry meat products. The main objective of the work described in

  18. Dual role of Helicobacter and Campylobacter species in IBD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Lee, Way Seah; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2017-02-01

    To conduct a comprehensive global systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and IBD. As bacterial antigen cross-reactivity has been postulated to be involved in this association, published data on enterohepatic Helicobacter spp (EHS) and Campylobacter spp and IBD was also analysed. Electronic databases were searched up to July 2015 for all case-control studies on H. pylori infection/EHS/Campylobacter spp and IBD. Pooled ORs (P-OR) and 95% CIs were obtained using the random effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity and stratified analyses were performed. Analyses comprising patients with Crohn's disease (CD), UC and IBD unclassified (IBDU), showed a consistent negative association between gastric H. pylori infection and IBD (P-OR: 0.43, p value Campylobacter spp, in particular C. concisus (P-OR: 3.76, p value=0.006) and C. showae (P-OR: 2.39, p value=0.027), increase IBD risk. H. pylori infection is negatively associated with IBD regardless of ethnicity, age, H. pylori detection methods and previous use of aminosalicylates and corticosteroids. Antibiotics influenced the magnitude of this association. Closely related bacteria including EHS and Campylobacter spp increase the risk of IBD. These results infer that H. pylori might exert an immunomodulatory effect in IBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolates involved in a neonatal outbreak indicates nosocomial transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovo, J.; Mateo, E.; Munoz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that two neonates in a neonatal ward were infected with the same Campylobacter jejuni strain. Isolates from the mother and brother of the index patient were identical to each other but distinc...

  20. Polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA fingerprinting for epidemiological studies on Campylobacter spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Goossens, H; Niesters, H G; Van Belkum, A; Koeken, A; Endtz, H P; Stegeman, H; Quint, W G

    The applicability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated DNA typing, with primers complementary to dispersed repetitive DNA sequences and arbitrarily chosen DNA motifs, to study the epidemiology of campylobacter infection was evaluated. With a single PCR reaction and simple gel electrophoresis,

  1. Campylobacter jejuni capsular genotypes are related to Guillain-Barré syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikema, A P; Islam, Z; Horst-Kreft, D; Huizinga, R; Jacobs, B C; Wagenaar, J A; Poly, F; Guerry, P; van Belkum, A; Parker, C T; Endtz, H P

    In about one in a thousand cases, a Campylobacter jejuni infection results in the severe polyneuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). It is established that sialylated lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) of C. jejuni are a crucial virulence factor in GBS development. Frequent detection of C. jejuni with

  2. Identification of a functional type VI secretion system in Campylobacter jejuni conferring capsule polysaccharide sensitive cytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; van Alphen, Lieke B; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Wösten, MM; van Putten, Jos P M

    2013-01-01

    The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s) that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are increasingly recognized to contribute to

  3. Comparative population structure analysis of Campylobacter jejuni from human and poultry origin in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Z.; Belkum, van A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Cody, A.J.; Boer, de A.G.; Sarker, S.K.; Jacobs, B.C.; Talukder, K.A.; Endtz, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of antecedent infections leading to Guillain-Barr, syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The objective of the present study was to define the genetic diversity, population structure, and potential role of poultry in the transmission of

  4. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered...

  5. Multiple angiomatous proliferations of ileal stoma following Campylobacter enteritis. Effect of laser photocoagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, S. G.; Willig, A. P.; Hausman, R.; Starink, T. M.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Multiple polypoid sessile tumors arose at the tip of the ileal stoma of a 37-year-old man, who previously underwent proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis. The lesions developed shortly after a well-established gastrointestinal infection with Campylobacter jejuni with mucosal ulceration. The

  6. Chicken immune response after in ovo Immunization with Chimeric TLR5 activating flagellin of campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radomska, Katarzyna A.; Vaezirad, Mahdi M.; Verstappen, Koen M.; Wösten, Marc M.S.M.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Putten, van Jos P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in developed countries. Chickens are the most important source of human infection. Vaccination of poultry is an attractive strategy to reduce the number of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract of chickens. We investigated the

  7. Antimicrobial wash with Trans-cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion reduces Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe enteritis in humans largely due to consumption of contaminated poultry products. Reducing C. jejuni contamination on chicken carcasses would reduce subsequent human infections. This study investigated the efficacy of Trans-cinnama...

  8. Primary Isolation Strain Determines Both Phage Type and Receptors Recognised by Campylobacter jejuni Bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine C. Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated...

  9. FliD. : Exploring the flagellar tip protein as a target against Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitag, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is most common bacterial agent causing human diarrhea. Symptoms can range from mild colitis to severe bloody enteritis with abdominal cramping. Chickens represent the main reservoir of C. jejuni and contaminated meat products are an important source of human infection. In order

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Campylobacter ureolyticus Clinical Isolate RIGS 9880

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; On, Stephen L W

    2015-01-01

    The emerging pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus has been isolated from human and animal genital infections, human periodontal disease, domestic and food animals, and from cases of human gastroenteritis. We report the whole-genome sequence of the human clinical isolate RIGS 9880, which is the firs...

  11. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Persson, Søren; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2017-06-08

    The development of diagnostic metagenomics is driven by the need for universal, culture-independent methods for detection and characterization of pathogens to substitute the time-consuming, organism-specific, and often culture-based laboratory procedures for epidemiological source-tracing. Some of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU/g Campylobacter jejuni was sequenced and data analysis was done by the metagenomic tools Kraken and CLARK. More hits were obtained at higher spiking levels, however with no significant linear correlations (human samples p = 0.12, chicken samples p = 0.10). Therefore, no definite detection limit could be determined, but the lowest spiking levels found positive were 7.75 × 104 CFU/ml in human feces and 103 CFU/g in chicken feces. Eight human clinical fecal samples with estimated Campylobacter infection loads from 9.2 × 104-1.0 × 109 CFU/ml were analyzed using the same methods. It was possible to detect Campylobacter in all the clinical samples. Sensitivity in diagnostic metagenomics is improving and has reached a clinically relevant level. There are still challenges to overcome before real-time diagnostic metagenomics can replace quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or culture-based surveillance and diagnostics, but it is a promising new technology.

  12. Molecular Characterization, Antimicrobial Resistance and Caco-2 Cell Invasion Potential of Campylobacter jejuni/coli from Young Children with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haijian; Ge, Yanling; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Jianmin; Kuang, Dai; Yang, Xiaowei; Su, Xudong; Huang, Zheng; Shi, Xianming; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2016-03-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Young children represent a particular age group affected by Campylobacter infection because of their limited diets and weak immune systems. In this study, a total of 110 Campylobacter (80 Campylobacter jejuni and 30 Campylobacter coli) isolated from children younger than 5 years of age with diarrhea in Shanghai, China in 2011 were examined for their genetic relationship and antimicrobial susceptibility. The presence of virulence genes and its association with invasion potential in Caco-2 cell were also determined. Multilocus sequence typing revealed 62 sequence types (STs) under 14 clonal complexes from C. jejuni and 15 STs under 2 clonal complexes from C. coli. High resistance rates among the 110 isolates were observed to nalidixic acid (88.2%), ciprofloxacin (87.3%) and tetracycline (87.3%), followed by ampicillin (30.9%), gentamicin (28.2%), clindamycin (21.8%), erythromycin (21.8%) and chloramphenicol (8.2%). Compared with that of C. jejuni (32.5%), a larger proportion of C. coli (83.3%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobials, including 16 isolates of ST-828 complex resistant to 6 antimicrobials: ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Furthermore, 57 Campylobacter isolates were selected based on their distinct STs and the presence of virulence genes to determine their abilities to adhere to and invade Caco-2 cells. The level of invasion varied widely among isolates and had relatively weak correlation with the genotype data. Our findings provided baseline data on Campylobacter among young children. Active surveillance of Campylobacter is needed to better understand the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance trends of this significant pathogen to help control and protect young children from such infections.

  13. Compuesto bactericida contra Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Gañan, M.; Carrascosa, Alfonso V.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Adolfo J.

    2008-01-01

    Compuesto bactericida contra Campylobacter jejuni. Uso de algunos compuestos fenólicos como agentes antibacterianos contra C jejuni. Además de sus usos para conservación de alimentos, suplemento alimenticio para animales y para la elaboración de una composición farmacéutica para el tratamiento de enfermedades causadas por C. jejuni, debido a su actividad frente a este microorganismos.

  14. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  15. Campylobacter jejuni gene cj0511 encodes a serine peptidase essential for colonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Karlyshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to MEROPS peptidase database, Campylobacter species encode 64 predicted peptidases. However, proteolytic properties of only a few of these proteins have been confirmed experimentally. In this study we identified and characterised a Campylobacter jejuni gene cj0511 encoding a novel peptidase. The proteolytic activity associated with this enzyme was demonstrated in cell lysates. Moreover, enzymatic studies conducted with a purified protein confirmed a prediction of it being a serine peptidase. Furthermore, cj0511 mutant was found to be severely attenuated in chicken colonisation model, suggesting a role of the Cj0511 protein in infection.

  16. Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. namely, Campylobacter jejuni and coli cause acute diarrheal diseases in humans worldwide; although these species are known to occur in the intestinal tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Objective: Little is known about the presence of these bacteria in ...

  17. Quantifying transmission of Campylobacter spp. among broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.J.; Bouma, A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Broek, van den E.W.F.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter species are frequently identified as a cause of human gastroenteritis, often from eating or mishandling contaminated poultry products. Quantitative knowledge of transmission of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is necessary, as this may help to determine the moment of introduction of

  18. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-01-01

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and

  19. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  20. The prevalence of Campylobacter in childhood diarrhoea in Enugu state of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanu, Martin E; Offune, J

    2009-06-01

    This study was aimed at finding the prevalence rate of Campylobacter in childhood diarrhea in Enugu. The study covered a period of five years. All the specimens were set to come from children attending clinics in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Five hundred and fourteen children (257 males and 257 females) within the age range of one and sixty months with diarrhea were investigated. All the stool specimens were processed for Campylobacter by microscopy and culture using the candle jar method. Out of the 514 stool samples, 43 (8.3%) were positive for Campylobacter and 40 (93%) of which were isolates of Carpylobacter jejuni. Patients aged 1-24 months (74.4% of positive cases) though not statistically significant (x2 = 2.032, df = 8, p = 0.9800) were more vulnerable to the infection. A high proportion of the patients with Campylobacter (74%) had RBC and WBC in stool. An even pattern of distribution of this was observed yearly throughout the period of study (x2 = 0.3019, df = 4, p = 0.9897). It is therefore recommended that Campylobacter should be looked for in stool samples of children with diarrhoea as it has now been found to be an important aetiologic agent of childhood diarrhoea in Enugu Nigeria.

  1. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels. PMID:26886590

  2. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaoporn Prachantasena

    Full Text Available Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  3. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...... specimens before slaughter is therefore vital to prevent disease transmission. By combining two techniques – immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this study developed a reliable and specific method for rapid detection of C. jejuni in chicken fecal samples. The specificity...... of the assay was assured by two selection steps: 1) Dynabeads®M-270 Amine microbeads (2.8 μm in diameter) coated with C. jejuni monoclonal antibodies were used as the primary selection to isolate bacteria from fecal samples. 2) A PCR assay amplifying the Hippuricase gene was performed as the specific selection...

  4. Campylobacter jejuni-induced severe colitis--a rare cause of toxic megacolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A; Rünzi, M; Peitgen, K; von Birgelen, C; Gerken, G

    2000-04-01

    The development of toxic megacolon as a sequel of infectious colitis is rare. We have observed the very rare case of a campylobacter jejuni-induced toxic megacolon. A 28-year-old man was admitted with severe enterocolitis and appearance of blood in stools. He had been treated with loperamide without success. Two days after admission stool cultures revealed campylobacter jejuni and then an oral antibiotic therapy was started. On the fifth day clinical performance deteriorated again with development of toxic megacolon and consecutive subtotal colectomy. Rectoscopy before discharge after 13 days showed a normal mucosa. The unusual course with first improvement and then rapid deterioration despite adequate therapy was observed in 4 other cases, which may also be a hint of ensuing megacolon. Even in usually harmless enterocolitis like campylobacter infection, predisposing factors such as loperamide are known to precipitate toxic megacolon and should be considered in clinical practice.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370804465; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/080432565; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Duim, Birgitta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143855352

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species.

  6. Complete genomic sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS: 19 strain RM1285 isolated from packaged chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Parker (Craig); Huynh, S. (Steven); A.P. Heikema (Astrid)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPoultry products serve as the main source of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni infections in humans. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and are a prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome. This study describes the genome of C.

  7. Complete genomic sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 strain RM1285 that was isolated from packaged chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry products serve as the main source of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) infections in humans. Cjj infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and are a prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). This study describes the genome of Cjj HS:19 strain RM1285 isol...

  8. Complete Genomic Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 Strain RM1285 Isolated from Packaged Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Craig; Huynh, S; Heikema, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPoultry products serve as the main source of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni infections in humans. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and are a prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome. This study describes the genome of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 strain RM1285, isolated from packaged chicken in California.

  9. A Deep-Rough Mutant of Campylobacter Jejuni 81-176 Is Noninvasive for Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    worldwide (7, 17). In addition, C. jejuni is associated with the development of a devastating neurological disorder, Guillain -Barré syndrome, perhaps... Guillain -Barré syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 178:1549–1550. 17. Oberhelman, R., and D. Taylor. 2000. Campylobacter infections in develop- ing countries

  10. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia Revealed by Cellulitis without Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the Context of Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Brah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.

  11. A Case of Bacteremia Due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Importance of Gram Stain at Laboratory Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Müşerref TATMAN OTKUN; Gülten AYDIN TUTAK; Emrah GÜLŞEN; Özgen, Zeren

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus is related with bacteriemia and extraintestinal system infections at immunodeficient patients. Bacteriemia may cause systemic complications like septic abortus, septic arthritis, abscess, menengitidis, endocarditis, micotic aneurisym, trombophlebitis, peritonitis and salphengitis. In this case report, a 92 years old male patient with secondary chronic renal failure due to chronic pylenophritis developed bacteriemia possibly after a gastrointestinal infection c...

  12. β-Resorcylic Acid, a Phytophenolic Compound, Reduces Campylobacter jejuni in Postharvest Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, B R; Arsi, K; Upadhyay, A; Shrestha, S; Venkitanarayanan, K; Donoghue, A M; Donoghue, D J

    2017-08-01

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this study investigated the potential of the phytophenolic compound β-resorcylic acid (BR) to reduce Campylobacter counts on postharvest poultry (chicken skin or meat). Four trials in total, two each on thigh skin or breast meat, were conducted in which chicken skin or meat samples (2 ± 0.1 g; 10 samples per treatment) were inoculated with 50 μL (∼10 6 CFU per sample) of a cocktail of four wild strains of C. jejuni. After 30 min of attachment, inoculated samples were dipped in a 0, 0.5, 1, or 2% BR solution for 30 s immediately followed by vigorously vortexing the samples in Butterfield's phosphate diluent and plating the supernatant for Campylobacter enumeration. In addition, the effect of BR on the color of skin and meat samples was studied. Moreover, the change in the expression of survival and virulence genes of C. jejuni exposed to BR was evaluated. Data were analyzed by the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS (P Campylobacter populations on both chicken or meat samples by 1 to 3 log CFU/g compared with non-BR-treated washed controls. No significant difference in the lightness, redness, and yellowness of skin and meat samples was observed on exposure to BR wash (P > 0.05). Real-time PCR results revealed that BR treatment down-regulated expression of select genes coding for motility (motA, motB) and attachment (cadF, ciaB) in the majority of C. jejuni strains. Stress response genes (sodB, katA) were upregulated in C. jejuni S-8 (P Campylobacter on chicken carcasses.

  13. Observational trial of safe food handling behavior during food preparation using the example of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzl, C; Mayerhofer, U; Steininger, M; Brüller, W; Hofstädter, D; Aldrian, U

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter infections are one of the most prominent worldwide food-related diseases. The primary cause of these infections is reported to be improper food handling, in particular cross-contamination during domestic preparation of raw chicken products. In the present study, food handling behaviors in Austria were surveyed and monitored, with special emphasis on Campylobacter cross-contamination. Forty participants (25 mothers or fathers with at least one child ≤10 years of age and 15 elderly persons ≥60 years of age) were observed during the preparation of a chicken salad (chicken slices plus lettuce, tomato, and cucumber) using a direct structured observational scoring system. The raw chicken carcasses and the vegetable part of the salad were analyzed for Campylobacter. A questionnaire concerning knowledge, attitudes, and interests related to food safety issues was filled out by the participants. Only 57% of formerly identified important hygiene measures were used by the participants. Deficits were found in effective hand washing after contact with raw chicken meat, but proper changing and cleaning of the cutting board was noted. Campylobacter was present in 80% of raw chicken carcasses, albeit the contamination rate was generally lower than the limit of quantification (10 CFU/g). In the vegetable part of the prepared product, no Campylobacter was found. This finding could be due to the rather low Campylobacter contamination rate in the raw materials and the participants' use of some important food handling behaviors to prevent cross-contamination. However, if the initial contamination had been higher, the monitored deficits in safe food handling could lead to quantifiable risks, as indicated in other published studies. The results of the observational trial and the questionnaire indicated knowledge gaps in the food safety sector, suggesting that further education of the population is needed to prevent the onset of foodborne diseases.

  14. Quantitative Proteomics of Intracellular Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Liu

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the USA and Europe. An important virulence attribute of this bacterial pathogen is its ability to enter and survive within host cells. Here we show through a quantitative proteomic analysis that upon entry into host cells, C. jejuni undergoes a significant metabolic downshift. Furthermore, our results indicate that intracellular C. jejuni reprograms its respiration, favoring the respiration of fumarate. These results explain the poor ability of C. jejuni obtained from infected cells to grow under standard laboratory conditions and provide the bases for the development of novel anti microbial strategies that would target relevant metabolic pathways.

  15. Sacroiliitis and Septicemia Caused by Campylobacter rectus and Actinomyces odontolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Harvey

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter rectus, formerly known as Wolinella recta, is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus, generally recognized as an agent responsible for severe periodontitis; only two cases of extra-oral infections have been reported. The first case of septicemia with C rectus and Actinomyces odontolyticus is described in a 37-year-old farmer who suffered from severe sacroiliitis. Also presented are a review of C rectus in human pathology, and a brief review of pyogenic sacroiliitis, a rather rare disease.

  16. Campylobacter sp in eggs from cloacal swab positive breeder hens Campylobacter sp em ovos provenientes de matrizes pesadas com swab cloacal positivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter sp is a microaerophilic, thermotolerating Gram negative bacterium, known to be one of the main causes of food-borne human infections. Among the foods that carry these microorganisms, the chicken is outstanding. In Brazil, a large chicken exporting country, few researches are conducted about their prevalence in breeder hens and the transmission through eggs. The aim of this research was to verify the presence of Campylobacter sp in the shells and within the eggs from positive cloacal swab breeder hens. Microbiological analyses were made on cloacal swabs of 140 weighed breeder hens. The positive breeder hens were set aside and in a total of 244 of their eggs, Campylobacter sp was present in macerated shells and yolk contents during 7 weeks. Out of the 140 researched breeder hens, 25 (17.8% were positive from cloacal swabs, however the eggs were not positive. The physiological characteristics of the birds, their eggs and Campylobacter sp favor the bacterium entering and surviving in the eggs, but in this study, no positive result was found in macerated shells or in the yolks, indicating that vertical transmission is probably an unusual event.Campylobacter sp é reconhecida como uma das principais causas de gastrenterite humana de origem alimentar. Dentre os alimentos veiculadores desses microrganismos, a carne de frango tem sido a mais implicada. Os estudos existentes sobre a transmissão vertical da Campylobacter são escassos e não conclusivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a presença de Campylobacter sp na casca e interior de ovos de matrizes positivas em swabs cloacais e a possibilidade de transmissão vertical. Foram analisados swabs cloacais de 140 matrizes pesadas e seus ovos colhidos para análise durante 7 semanas consecutivas. Dos 244 ovos colhidos, 129 foram fumigados e 115 analisados sem tratamento. Foram analisados o macerado da casca e a gema. Das 140 matrizes pesquisadas, 25 (17,8% foram positivas em swabs

  17. Quantification of Campylobacter spp. in pig feces by direct real-time PCR with an internal control of extraction and amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc-Maridor, Mily; Garénaux, Amélie; Beaudeau, François; Chidaine, Bérangère; Seegers, Henri; Denis, Martine; Belloc, Catherine

    2011-04-01

    The rapid and direct quantification of Campylobacter spp. in complex substrates like feces or environmental samples is crucial to facilitate epidemiological studies on Campylobacter in pig production systems. We developed a real-time PCR assay for detecting and quantifying Campylobacter spp. directly in pig feces with the use of an internal control. Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia ruckeri primers-probes sets were designed and checked for specificity with diverse Campylobacter, related organisms, and other bacterial pathogens before being used in field samples. The quantification of Campylobacter spp. by the real-time PCR then was realized on 531 fecal samples obtained from experimentally and naturally infected pigs; the numeration of Campylobacter on Karmali plate was done in parallel. Yersinia ruckeri, used as bacterial internal control, was added to the samples before DNA extraction to control DNA-extraction and PCR-amplification. The sensitivity of the PCR assay was 10 genome copies. The established Campylobacter real-time PCR assay showed a 7-log-wide linear dynamic range of quantification (R²=0.99) with a detection limit of 200 Colony Forming Units of Campylobacter per gram of feces. A high correlation was found between the results obtained by real-time PCR and those by culture at both qualitative and quantitative levels. Moreover, DNA extraction followed by real-time PCR reduced the time needed for analysis to a few hours (within a working day). In conclusion, the real-time PCR developed in this study provides new tools for further epidemiological surveys to investigate the carriage and excretion of Campylobacter by pigs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Collo, Laura P; Karns, Jeffrey S; Biswas, Debabrata; Lombard, Jason E; Haley, Bradd J; Kristensen, R Camilla; Kopral, Christine A; Fossler, Charles P; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2017-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently isolated from dairy cows as commensal organisms. Sporadic Campylobacter infections in humans in the United States are generally attributed to poultry, but outbreaks are also commonly associated with dairy products, particularly unpasteurized or raw milk. Bulk tank milk samples and milk filters from US dairy operations were collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2014 study and analyzed using real-time PCR and traditional culture techniques for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species. The weighted prevalence of operations from which we detected Campylobacter spp. in either bulk tank milk or milk filters was 24.9%. We detected Campylobacter spp. in a higher percentage of operations with 100-499 cows (42.8%) and 500 or more cows (47.5%) than in operations with 30-99 cows (6.5%). Campylobacter spp. were also more frequently detected in operations in the west than the east (45.9 and 22.6%, respectively). We isolated Campylobacter spp. from approximately half of PCR-positive samples, representing 12.5% (weighted prevalence) of operations. The majority (91.8%) of isolates were C. jejuni, but C. lari and C. coli were also isolated. We detected resistance to tetracycline in 68.4% of C. jejuni isolates, and resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in 13.2% of C. jejuni isolates. Based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found that dairy-associated C. jejuni were genotypically diverse, although clonal strains were isolated from different geographic regions. These results suggest that bulk tank milk can be contaminated with pathogenic Campylobacter spp., and that the consumption of unpasteurized or raw milk presents a potential human health risk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sialylation of Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides is associated with severe gastro-enteritis and reactive arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Kuijf, Mark L; Ang, C Wim; Schiellerup, Peter; Krogfelt, Karen A; Jacobs, Bart C; van Belkum, Alex; Endtz, Hubert Ph; Bergman, Mathijs P

    2009-10-01

    We used various genotyping methods to identify bacterial genetic markers for development of arthritic symptoms following Campylobacter enteritis. We genotyped a collection of population derived Campylobacter strains, with detailed information on clinical characteristics, including arthritic symptoms. Besides using whole genome screening methods, we focused on the lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) gene locus in which marker genes for developing post-Campylobacter neurological disease are present. Patients with arthritic symptoms were more frequently infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains with a class A LOS locus. We also found that patients who were infected with a C. jejuni strain containing sialic acid-positive LOS (class A, B or C) more frequently had bloody diarrhoea and a longer duration of symptoms. Furthermore, the IgM antibody response against Campylobacter was stronger in patients with a sialic acid containing LOS. Ganglioside auto-antibodies were observed in a small number of patients following infection with a class C strain. We conclude that sialylation of C. jejuni LOS is not only a risk factor for development of post-infectious symptoms, but is also associated with increased severity of enteric disease.

  20. Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Ana L.L.; Carvalho, Angela C.F.B.; Scarcelli, Eliana; Miyashiro, Simone; Vidal-Martins, Ana M.C.; Bürger, Karina P.

    2006-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled c...

  1. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  2. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni is not an important pathogen as a cause of diarrhea in US travelers to Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Nicolas A; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Flores-Figueroa, Jose; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Paredes, Mercedes; Mohamed, Jamal A; Nair, Parvathy; Carlin, Lily; DuPont, Herbert L

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an unusual cause of travelers' diarrhea acquired in Mexico, but previous studies have relied only on stool culture for diagnosis. We conducted a cohort study to determine if antibody seroconversion to C jejuni would better reflect the occurrence of infection acquired in Mexico. Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies to Campylobacter seroconverted in only 2 of 353 participants (0.6%). These data further support that C jejuni infection is an unusual cause of travelers' diarrhea in US visitors to Mexico. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  4. Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli EM CARCAÇAS DE FRANGO RESFRIADAS E CONGELADAS

    OpenAIRE

    Cisco, Isabel Cristina; Tedesco, Denise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Santos, Suelen Priscila; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Santos, Luciana Ruschel dos

    2017-01-01

    Resumo Espécies de Campylobacter spp. termotolerantes são agentes de surtos de campilobacteriose em humanos e os produtos de origem avícola são considerados uma importante fonte de infecção. Foram identificados Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em carcaças de frango resfriadas e congeladas coletadas em três abatedouros entre 2014 e 2015. A detecção de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada por microbiologia convencional e a identificação de C. jejuni e C. coli por multiplex-PCR. Dentre as a...

  5. Poultry flocks as a source of Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, K; Osek, J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is the leading foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and the bacteria are frequently isolated from the intestines of chickens. The broiler meat contamination with C. jejuni or C. coli may occur during slaughter processing. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry flocks and the corresponding broiler carcasses in 15 districts (voivodeships) all over Poland. A total of 128 samples from broiler flocks and the corresponding carcasses were collected between February 2011 and April 2013. The Campylobacter isolation and species identification were performed according to ISO 10272-1 standard and with PCR. It was found that 112 flock (96.5%) were contaminated with campylobacters, either C. jejuni (77 samples; 68.7%) or C. coli (35 flocks; 31.3%). Analysis of the corresponding chicken carcasses tested after chilling revealed that 77 out of 128 (60.2%) samples were positive for Campylobacter, either C. jejuni (58; 75.3%) or C. coli (19; 24.7%). Most of the carcasses were contaminated with the same Campylobacter species as identified in the corresponding flock before slaughter. As tested by PCR, out of the 77 crops with C. jejuni 58 were positive for the same bacterial species. On the other hand, out of the remaining 35 flocks infected with C. coli, only 19 corresponding carcass samples were contaminated with C. coli. In three cases in the slaughtered flocks C. jejuni was identified but in the same carcasses C. coli was found. The opposite findings (flock positive for C. coli but the corresponding carcasses contaminated with C. jejuni) were seen in six voivodeships. It was also observed that several carcass samples were negative for C. jejuni and C. coli although the original flocks were Campylobacter-positive before slaughter (total 36 of the 77 samples; 46.7%). On the other hand, some carcasses were contaminated with Campylobacter although the flocks were negative for these bacteria (9 samples; 11

  6. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

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    Danuser Jürg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes of antibiotics recommended for treatment of human campylobacteriosis are also used in veterinary medicine, in view of food safety, the resistance status of Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat is of special interest. Methods Raw poultry meat samples were collected throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein at retail level and examined for Campylobacter spp. One strain from each Campylobacter-positive sample was selected for susceptibility testing with the disc diffusion and the E-test method. Risk factors associated with resistance to the tested antibiotics were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results In total, 91 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 415 raw poultry meat samples. Fifty-one strains (59% were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Nineteen strains (22% were resistant to a single, nine strains to two antibiotics, and eight strains showed at least three antibiotic resistances. Resistance was observed most frequently to ciprofloxacin (28.7%, tetracycline (12.6%, sulphonamide (11.8%, and ampicillin (10.3%. One multiple resistant strain exhibited resistance to five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These are the most important antibiotics for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. A significant risk factor associated with multiple resistance in Campylobacter was foreign meat production compared to Swiss meat production (odds ratio = 5.7. Conclusion Compared to the situation in other

  7. Campylobacter jejuni : An emerging pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne diarrhea in many countries. However, in some countries, a number of cases were undetected because of the inappropriate detection method and ignorance. Although C. jejuni usually does not cause death in health adults, it can be deadly for immunocompromised persons (Pigrau, et al., 1997. Although thought to be very susceptible in several conditions, C. jejuni in fact is quite prevalent in nature. It can easily cause sporadic cases and outbreaks resulting in economic loss. This review covers three major parts: clinical aspects of Campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni reservoirs and transmission, and methods for detection.

  8. The role of radiology in Campylobacter enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Ponette, E.; Baert, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology); Lacquet, F.; Verbist, L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Microbiology); Rutgeerts, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    A series of 18 patients with diarrhoea and positive stool cultures for Campylobacter jejuni is presented. The most important radiological features were thickening of ileal mucosal folds, of interhaustral indentations and of the ileocaecal valve, lymphoid hyperplasia and microulcerations. Radiology, as well as endoscopy, are both non-specific in Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. The importance of radiology is to exclude more typical features of other causes of inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover, before the result of the stool culture is available, the radiological features should suggest the suspicion of an acute infectious enterocolitis by Campylobacter jejuni as possible diagnosis. (orig.).

  9. The role of radiology in Campylobacter enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaerel, P; Ponette, E; Lacquet, F; Verbist, L; Rutgeerts, P; Baert, A L

    1989-05-01

    A series of 18 patients with diarrhoea and positive stool cultures for Campylobacter jejuni is presented. The most important radiological features were thickening of ileal mucosal folds, of interhaustral indentations and of the ileocaecal valve, lymphoid hyperplasia and microulcerations. Radiology, as well as endoscopy, are both nonspecific in Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. The importance of radiology is to exclude more typical features of other causes of inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover, before the result of the stool culture is available, the radiological features should suggest the suspicion of an acute infectious enterocolitis by Campylobacter jejuni as possible diagnosis.

  10. Campylobacter ureolyticus: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bullman, Susan

    2011-03-01

    A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen.

  11. Study in ovo immunisation with flagellin and whole cell protein antigens of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

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    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In ovo immunisation of chickens with flagellin and whole cell protein antigens of Campylobacter jejuni was examined to determine Campylobacter infection. Four groups of embryonated chicken eggs (10 eggs per group were immunised in ovo at day 17 of incubation and booster was given at 7 days post-hatch. Group I was immunised in ovo and oral booster with whole cell protein of C. jejuni, group II was immunised in ovo and oral booster with C. jejuni flagellin protein, group III was immunised in ovo and intraperitoneal booster with whole cell, and group IV was treated as control. The humoral immune responses were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the mucosal immune responses were examined by a direct fluorescent histology antibody technique. Immunised chickens of Group I, II, and III shown to have higher antibody titers than those of control chickens (group IV. The titres of anti-campylobacter antibodies of all isotypes in serum, bile, and intestinal scrapping after challenge were not significantly different in all groups. In addition, when immunised chickens were orally challenged with a homologous strain of viable C. jejuni organism, the chickens remained infected throughout the experiment based on cloacal swabs and caecal contents. These findings indicated that although in ovo immunisation resulted in increasing of the mucosal and humoral immune responses in chickens, it is not strong enough to protect the Campylobacter colonisation in the intestinal tract.

  12. Occurrence and characterization of Campylobacter spp.isolates in dogs, cats and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia G. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available To improve the understanding of implications of Campylobacterspp. infections in pets and children of different environments were analysed 160 faecal samples from children and 120 from pets (103 dogs and 17 cats. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 6.87% of the children and in 18.3% of the dogs and cats. From 33 stool samples positive for Campylobacter spp., 57.6% were identified as C. jejuni, and 33.4% were identified as C. coli. More than 50% of the isolates in pets were resistant to ceftiofur, sulphazotrim, norfloxacin and tetracycline. In humans, most of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, cefazolin, ceftiofur, erythromycin and norfloxacin. From 19 isolates of C. jejuni, 11 isolates from children and 5 from dogs contained two to four of the virulence genes flaA, pldA, cadF or ciaB.We found an association between the presence of virulence genes and diarrhoea. Furthermore, an association was observed between the presence of Campylobacter spp. and diarrhoea in dewormed pets with blood picture suggestive of bacterial infection, and the therapeutic use of antibiotics was associated with more positive detection of Campylobacterspp. in the faeces of pets. Our data indicate that virulent strains of Campylobacter spp. can be risk factor to diarrhoea in animals, and that high resistance to antimicrobial agents is common in pets.

  13. Phenotypes and genotypes of campylobacter strains isolated after cleaning and disinfection in poultry slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrat, M B; Soumet, C; Maris, P; Sanders, P

    2008-04-30

    Campylobacter is responsible for human bacterial enteritis and poultry meat is recognised as a primary source of infection. In slaughterhouses, cleaning and disinfection procedures are performed daily, and it has been suggested that disinfectant molecules might select for antibiotic resistant strains if shared targets or combined resistance mechanisms were involved. The aim of the study was to investigate if cleaning and disinfection procedures in poultry slaughterhouses select for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli and to determine the genotypes of isolates collected after cleaning and disinfection. Nine sampling visits were made to four French slaughterhouses. Samples were collected from transport crates and equipment surfaces, before and after cleaning and disinfection. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the recovered C. jejuni and C. coli isolates to six antibiotics and two disinfectants were measured. The C. jejuni isolates collected from equipment surfaces after cleaning and disinfection were subjected to PCR-RFLP typing. Twenty-five C. jejuni isolates and 1 C. coli were recovered from equipment surfaces after cleaning and disinfection during five visits to three different slaughterhouses. Those isolates did not show an increased resistance to the tested antibiotics compared to isolates collected before cleaning and disinfection. Only one or two genotypes were recovered after cleaning and disinfection during single visits to each slaughterhouse. This observation suggests that such genotypes may be particularly adapted to survive cleaning and disinfection stress. Understanding the survival mechanisms of Campylobacter should facilitate the implementation of better-targeted strategies and reduce the public health burden associated with Campylobacter infection.

  14. Molecular and Statistical Analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Carriage in Wildlife and Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the carriage of Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter among livestock and mammalian wildlife on Ontario farms, and (ii) investigate the potential sharing of Campylobacter subtypes between livestock and wildlife. Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms in 2010, we assessed associations, using mixed logistic regression models, between Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter carriage and the following explanatory variables: animal species (beef, dairy, swine, raccoon, other), farm type (swine, beef, dairy), type of sample (livestock or wildlife) and Campylobacter species (jejuni, coli, other). Models included a random effect to account for clustering by farm where samples were collected. Samples were subtyped using a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative fingerprinting assay. A total of 92 livestock and 107 wildlife faecal samples were collected, and 72% and 27% tested positive for Campylobacter, respectively. Pooled faecal samples from livestock were significantly more likely to test positive for Campylobacter than wildlife samples. Relative to dairy cattle, pig samples were at significantly increased odds of testing positive for Campylobacter. The odds of isolating Campylobacter jejuni from beef cattle samples were significantly greater compared to dairy cattle and raccoon samples. Fifty unique subtypes of Campylobacter were identified, and only one subtype was found in both wildlife and livestock samples. Livestock Campylobacter isolates were significantly more likely to exhibit antimicrobial resistance (AMR) compared to wildlife Campylobacter isolates. Campylobacter jejuni was more likely to exhibit AMR when compared to C. coli. However, C. jejuni isolates were only resistant to tetracycline, and C.  coli isolates exhibited multidrug resistance patterns. Based on differences in prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and resistant Campylobacter between

  15. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated in the region of Niš, Serbia

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    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli represent one of the main causes of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. Although the disease is usually mild and self-limiting, severe chronic sequelae may occur, such as reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. Serotyping is used as an epidemiological marker, while post-infective polyneuropathies are associated with several O serotypes. Objective. Strains of C. jejuni and C. coli were serotyped based on heat stable (HS and heat labile (HL antigens, as well as biotypes to determine strain diversity. Methods. Campylobacter spp. was isolated using selective blood media with antibiotics. Differentiation to the species level was done by a combination of biotyping tests and by a PCR-based RFLP test. The isolates were characterised by Penner and Lior serotyping methods. Results. The serotypes showed diversity without predominant serotypes. 24 HS serotypes were detected among 29 C. jejuni strains, and seven serotypes among nine C. coli strains. HL serotyping method successfully typed 62.5% of strains. Among 16 C. jejuni strains 14 serotypes were detected, and three among four C. coli strains. A C. jejuni strain associated with a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome was typed as biotype II, O:19. Conclusion. The biotyping and serotyping results have indicated that C. jejuni and C. coli strains in the region of Niš, Serbia are diverse and could be probably of unrelated sources of origin or reservoirs. The strain associated with the Guillain-Barré syndrome patient was serotype O:19, one of the most common in this post-infective complication.

  16. Sensitive and rapid detection of campylobacter species from stools of children with diarrhea in Japan by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shuichi; Thongprachum, Aksara; Shimizu-Onda, Yuko; Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Takanashi, Sayaka; Dey, Shuvra Kanti; Okitsu, Shoko; Yamazaki, Wataru; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Hayakawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We detected Campylobacter spp. in 5% (20/380) of diarrheal stool samples collected at an outpatient clinic in Kyoto using a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit with a fluorescent detection reagent after DNA extraction. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% in comparison with those of semi-nested PCR for the differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Fourteen of the 20 samples were already determined as C. jejuni by the culture method. All 20 samples were also positive for C. jejuni by the PCR method. Among the 58 cultured samples, the sensitivity of the culture method against the LAMP method was 93.3% (14/15) and the specificity was 100% (43/43). The detection rate of Campylobacter spp. from the heated supernatants by the LAMP method was lower than that from the supernatant after DNA extraction. In total, 25% (5/20) of the Campylobacter-positive samples by the LAMP method were co-infected with norovirus (3/20), rotavirus (1/20), and human parechovirus (1/20), although no other bacterial co-infection was identified by the culture method. C. jejuni was mostly detected in children aged >5 years throughout the year. Based on these results, we concluded that care should be taken while diagnosing Campylobacter infection in children. Our newly modified LAMP method is a rapid, easy, and useful method for this diagnosis.

  17. [Campylobacter enterocolitis complaining of melena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, I; Yamaguchi, H; Hirai, M; Miki, M

    1991-06-01

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of 5 episodes of melena without abdominal pain or diarrhea. No abnormalities were noted through an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but a proctoscopy revealed a large amount of coagulated blood within the rectum immediately before his admission. A colonoscopy revealed spotty redness with dark-red coagulation in the region from the splenic flexure down to the rectum except oral colon beyond the transverse colon. A presumptive diagnosis of campylobacter enterocolitis was made by a microscopy performed on the stool specimen, then an oral administration of erythromycin was started. A colonoscopy done on the 5th hospital day proved improvement on the mucosal changes. The final diagnosis of campylobacter enterocolitis was made by the stool culture. The patient took a satisfactory course of hospitalization and was discharged on the 10th day. Bacteriological examination of stool specimen together with endoscopy has been confirmed to be useful for the diagnosis of melena cases without manifestation of infectious enterocolitis.

  18. Campylobacter upsaliensis isolated from a breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C; Lamothe, F

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter upsaliensis is a rare human pathogen recovered so far only from stools or blood from patients with enterocolitis or bacteremia. We report the isolation of C. upsaliensis from a breast abscess. PMID:1583149

  19. Campylobacter upsaliensis isolated from a breast abscess.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C; Lamothe, F

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter upsaliensis is a rare human pathogen recovered so far only from stools or blood from patients with enterocolitis or bacteremia. We report the isolation of C. upsaliensis from a breast abscess.

  20. Detection and molecular analysis of Campylobacter ureolyticus in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziel, Monika; Corcoran, Gerard D; Sleator, Roy D; Lucey, Brigid

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed the presence of Campylobacter ureolyticus in a large proportion of diarrhoeal samples from patients in Ireland. This emerging gastrointestinal pathogen was the second most common Campylobacter species detected in patients presenting with gastroenteritis, surpassed only by C. jejuni. However, the source of C. ureolyticus infections in humans remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. ureolyticus in a range of domestic animals. Over a period of 6 months, 164 samples collected from various domestic animals were tested using molecular method based on detection of the C. ureolyticus specific hsp60 gene. These included canine faeces (n = 44), feline faeces (n = 31) and porcine faeces (n = 89). C. ureolyticus was detected in 32% (10/31) of feline faeces, 9% (4/44) of canine faeces and 18% (16/89) of porcine faeces. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of C. ureolyticus isolates showed that an isolate from a cat is genetically similar to a strain isolated from a patient presenting with gastroenteritis. This study reports the first detection and isolation of this organism in domestic animals in Ireland, with a potential source for human infection. Together with the previously reported detection of C. ureolyticus in bovine samples, it is likely that this emerging pathogen has a zoonotic potential.

  1. Human Volunteer Studies with Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    AD-A271 892 1 April 1993 Reprint Human Volunteer Studies with Campylobacter jejuni Army Project Order 90PP0820 Robert E. Black, Daniel Perlman, Mary...the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development Approved for public release; distribution unlimited NTxxeISfl RFor...C. jejuni results in diarrhea cosa visualized on a microscopic study of rectal with fecal leukocytes and blood, similar to nat- biopsy specimens

  2. Presence of antibodies against campylobacter flagellar capping proteins versus campylobacter jejuni isolation in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human cases have been linked to consumption and/or handling of contaminated poultry products. Although Campylobacter jejuni is commonly regarded as a commensal in broiler cecal micro...

  3. Inaccuracy of routine susceptibility tests for detection of erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.T.; Claas, E.C.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both an increase in and regional differences in erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli have been reported. To determine the accuracy of routine tests for erythromycin resistance, 48 erythromycin-resistant isolates from various laboratories that

  4. ISOLASI Campylobacter DARI KARKAS AYAM MENGGUNAKAN METODE KONVENSIONAL DAN POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTIONS [Isolation of Campylobacter from Poultry Carcasses using Conventional and Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachmi Setiyaningsih2

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are two spesies of Campylobacter sp. frequently found as pathogenic bacteria causing human gastrointestinal infections. Contaminated chicken carcasses have been reported as the source of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, Campylobacter were isolated from chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets and supermarkets. In traditional markets, chicken carcasses are sold without proper packaging or in an open space and stored at room temperature (25-30°C for prolonged period allowing pathogenic bacteria to grow. While at supermarkets, chicken carcasses are openly displayed or enclosed in plastic wrappings and stored in a refrigerator (4-8°C. A total of 298 samples of chicken carcasses from traditional markets and supermarkets in the area of DKI Jakarta, West Java (Bogor and Sukabumi and Central Java (Kudus and Demak were collected. Isolation and identification using conventional and Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR methods were done to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli contamination in poultry. The results showed that chicken carcasses sold in the sampling area, both traditional markets and supermarkets, were contaminated with C. jejuni and C. coli. The contamination rate of Campylobacter sp. in chicken carcasses sold in supermarkets, were 14.1% by conventional methods and 29.5% by PCR. This was higher than those in traditional markets, i.e. 5.7 and 12.1%, respectively. It is also confirmed that the prevalence for contamination of C. jejuni was higher than C. coli in 298 samples, i.e. 16.1% and 3.7% by conventional method and 23.5% and 18.1% by PCR method respectively.

  5. Rapid identification and quantification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by real-time PCR in pure cultures and in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc-Maridor, Mily; Beaudeau, François; Seegers, Henri; Denis, Martine; Belloc, Catherine

    2011-05-22

    Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli), are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. Livestock animals carrying Campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. Pigs are known to be frequently colonized with Campylobacter, especially C. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. Molecular tools, notably real-time PCR, provide an effective, rapid, and sensitive alternative to culture-based methods for the detection of C. coli and C. jejuni in various substrates. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool supporting Campylobacter epidemiology, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR method for species-specific detection and quantification of C. coli and C. jejuni directly in faecal, feed, and environmental samples. With a sensitivity of 10 genome copies and a linear range of seven to eight orders of magnitude, the C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays allowed a precise quantification of purified DNA from C. coli and C. jejuni. The assays were highly specific and showed a 6-log-linear dynamic range of quantification with a quantitative detection limit of approximately 2.5 × 10² CFU/g of faeces, 1.3 × 10² CFU/g of feed, and 1.0 × 10³ CFU/m² for the environmental samples. Compared to the results obtained by culture, both C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays exhibited a specificity of 96.2% with a kappa of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. For faecal samples of experimentally infected pigs, the coefficients of correlation between the C. coli or C. jejuni real-time PCR assay and culture enumeration were R² = 0.90 and R² = 0.93 respectively. The C. coli and C. jejuni real-time quantitative PCR assays developed in this study provide a method capable of directly detecting and quantifying C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces, feed, and environmental samples. These assays represent a new diagnostic tool for studying the epidemiology of

  6. Rapid identification and quantification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by real-time PCR in pure cultures and in complex samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Martine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli (C. coli, are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. Livestock animals carrying Campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. Pigs are known to be frequently colonized with Campylobacter, especially C. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. Molecular tools, notably real-time PCR, provide an effective, rapid, and sensitive alternative to culture-based methods for the detection of C. coli and C. jejuni in various substrates. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool supporting Campylobacter epidemiology, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR method for species-specific detection and quantification of C. coli and C. jejuni directly in faecal, feed, and environmental samples. Results With a sensitivity of 10 genome copies and a linear range of seven to eight orders of magnitude, the C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays allowed a precise quantification of purified DNA from C. coli and C. jejuni. The assays were highly specific and showed a 6-log-linear dynamic range of quantification with a quantitative detection limit of approximately 2.5 × 102 CFU/g of faeces, 1.3 × 102 CFU/g of feed, and 1.0 × 103 CFU/m2 for the environmental samples. Compared to the results obtained by culture, both C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays exhibited a specificity of 96.2% with a kappa of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. For faecal samples of experimentally infected pigs, the coefficients of correlation between the C. coli or C. jejuni real-time PCR assay and culture enumeration were R2 = 0.90 and R2 = 0.93 respectively. Conclusion The C. coli and C. jejuni real-time quantitative PCR assays developed in this study provide a method capable of directly detecting and quantifying C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces, feed, and environmental samples. These assays represent a new

  7. Rapid identification and quantification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by real-time PCR in pure cultures and in complex samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli), are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. Livestock animals carrying Campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. Pigs are known to be frequently colonized with Campylobacter, especially C. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. Molecular tools, notably real-time PCR, provide an effective, rapid, and sensitive alternative to culture-based methods for the detection of C. coli and C. jejuni in various substrates. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool supporting Campylobacter epidemiology, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR method for species-specific detection and quantification of C. coli and C. jejuni directly in faecal, feed, and environmental samples. Results With a sensitivity of 10 genome copies and a linear range of seven to eight orders of magnitude, the C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays allowed a precise quantification of purified DNA from C. coli and C. jejuni. The assays were highly specific and showed a 6-log-linear dynamic range of quantification with a quantitative detection limit of approximately 2.5 × 102 CFU/g of faeces, 1.3 × 102 CFU/g of feed, and 1.0 × 103 CFU/m2 for the environmental samples. Compared to the results obtained by culture, both C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays exhibited a specificity of 96.2% with a kappa of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. For faecal samples of experimentally infected pigs, the coefficients of correlation between the C. coli or C. jejuni real-time PCR assay and culture enumeration were R2 = 0.90 and R2 = 0.93 respectively. Conclusion The C. coli and C. jejuni real-time quantitative PCR assays developed in this study provide a method capable of directly detecting and quantifying C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces, feed, and environmental samples. These assays represent a new diagnostic tool for studying

  8. Selective medium for growth of Campylobacter in containers incubated aerobically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Campylobacter are traditionally cultured in primary containers inside of secondary containers filled with microaerobic atmospheres. Recent findings indicated that media supplemented with optimal concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, and bicarbonate support Campylobacter growth ...

  9. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The vector potential of flies (Diptera: Brachycera) for spread of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on 5 Danish broiler farms was evaluated in a longitudinal field study from April to November 2004. First, the prevalence of C. jejuni- and C. coli-positive flies was determined in 2...... houses was estimated by trapping of insects (n = 5,936) in ventilation vents. In total, 31 flies (28 of which were of the Muscidae family) caught in farm surroundings were Campylobacter spp.-positive (C. jejuni, n = 7; C. coli, n = 23; other Campylobacter spp., n = 1). Musca domestica (L) (house fly...... caesar (L) (green bottle fly) of the Calliphoridae family and 2 flies of unidentified species were also positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flies varied from 0.0 in April to a peak of 16.3% in July and decreasing to 2.0% in October on a farm with pig production. On 4 broiler farms...

  10. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter bacteria on chicken carcasses, using real-time PCR and propidium monoazide treatment, as a tool for quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Hansen, T B; Christensen, L S; Olsen, J E; Hoorfar, J

    2010-08-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter-contaminated poultry focus on postslaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter bacteria. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach to the enumeration of food-borne Campylobacter bacteria that combines real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 h, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Campylobacter bacteria with an intact membrane. The method's performance was evaluated by assessing the contributions to variability by individual chicken carcass rinse matrices, species of Campylobacter, and differences in efficiency of DNA extraction with differing cell inputs. The method was compared with culture-based enumeration on 50 naturally infected chickens. The cell contents correlated with cycle threshold (C(T)) values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range of 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by the chicken rinse matrix or by the species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter bacteria in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter bacteria but recognizes the infectious potential of the VBNC state and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment.

  11. Effect of climatic elements on Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks reared in southern Japan from 2008 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, K; Chuma, T; Andoh, M; Yamashita, M; Asakura, H; Yamamoto, S

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate the effect of climatic elements on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens reared in Japan, the correlation between Campylobacter isolated from chickens (191 of 236 flocks, 80.9%) between 2008 and 2012 and climatic elements was analyzed by logistic regression. We divided the rearing process into 13 terms of 5 d each (total: 65 d). Terms were numbered backwards, wherein a 0-term lag was considered as the sampling day plus 4 d before sampling; 1-term lag was the 5-d term before the 0-term lag, and so on, until the 12-term lag. We obtained climatic data tracing back from the 0-term to the 12-term lags. For evaluation in each season, we divided chickens reared during periods of rising temperature (spring, summer) and decreasing temperature (autumn, winter). Air temperature showed a positive correlation with Campylobacter colonization from the 0- to 12-term lags in chickens reared during the period of rising temperature (odds ratio [OR], 1.069 to 1.104), and from the 0- to 4- and 6-term lags (OR, 1.079 to 1.105) in chickens reared during the period of decreasing temperature. The strong positive effect of air temperature on Campylobacter colonization, particularly during the period of rising temperature, may be associated with the effect on the Campylobacter environmental sources and/or vectors. A positive correlation was observed between Campylobacter colonization and humidity when chicken houses were empty and new chicks were introduced (from the 9- to 12-term lags) during the period of decreasing temperature (OR, 1.076 to 1.141). Thus, high humidity would be an important factor causing carry-over of Campylobacter infection during the period of decreasing temperature. We also found that solar radiation increased Campylobacter colonization during the period of decreasing temperature, from the 2- to 8-term lags, except for the 4- and 5-term lags, in Japan. The results of this study demonstrate the effects of air temperature, humidity, and solar

  12. Molecular, antigenic, and functional characteristics of ferric enterobactin receptor CfrA in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ximin; Xu, Fuzhou; Lin, Jun

    2009-12-01

    The ferric enterobactin receptor CfrA not only is responsible for high-affinity iron acquisition in Campylobacter jejuni but also is essential for C. jejuni colonization in animal intestines. In this study, we determined the feasibility of targeting the iron-regulated outer membrane protein CfrA for immune protection against Campylobacter colonization. Alignment of complete CfrA sequences from 15 Campylobacter isolates showed that the levels of amino acid identity for CfrA range from 89% to 98%. Immunoblotting analysis using CfrA-specific antibodies demonstrated that CfrA was dramatically induced under iron-restricted conditions and was widespread and produced in 32 Campylobacter primary strains from various sources and from geographically diverse areas. The immunoblotting survey results were highly correlated with the results of an enterobactin growth promotion assay and a PCR analysis using cfrA-specific primers. Inactivation of the cfrA gene also impaired norepinephrine-mediated growth promotion, suggesting that CfrA is required for C. jejuni to sense intestinal stress hormones during colonization. Complementation of the cfrA mutant with a wild-type cfrA allele in trans fully restored the production and function of CfrA. A growth assay using purified anti-CfrA immunoglobulin G demonstrated that specific CfrA antibodies could block the function of CfrA, which diminished ferric enterobactin-mediated growth promotion under iron-restricted conditions. The inhibitory effect of CfrA antibodies was dose dependent. Immunoblotting analysis also indicated that CfrA was expressed and immunogenic in chickens experimentally infected with C. jejuni. Amino acid substitution mutagenesis demonstrated that R327, a basic amino acid that is highly conserved in CfrA, plays a critical role in ferric enterobactin acquisition in C. jejuni. Together, these findings strongly suggest that CfrA is a promising vaccine candidate for preventing and controlling Campylobacter infection in

  13. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  14. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  15. The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is known to occur in the intestinal systems of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause acute diarrhoeal diseases in humans worldwide, they mostly manifest themselves in an apparently healthy carrier state in ...

  16. The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Abstract. Background: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is known to occur in the intestinal systems of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause acute diarrhoeal diseases in humans worldwide, they mostly manifest themselves in an apparently healthy ...

  17. “Limits of Control” – Crucial Parameters for a Reliable Quantification of Viable Campylobacter by Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Nora-Johanna; Buhler, Christiane; Iwobi, Azuka N.; Huber, Ingrid; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Appel, Bernd; Stingl, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The unsuitability of the “CFU” parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr) was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS) or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase). In contrast, propidium iodide (PI) and propidium monoazide (PMA) were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the implementation of

  18. "Limits of control"--crucial parameters for a reliable quantification of viable campylobacter by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Nora-Johanna; Buhler, Christiane; Iwobi, Azuka N; Huber, Ingrid; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Appel, Bernd; Stingl, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The unsuitability of the "CFU" parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr) was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS) or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase). In contrast, propidium iodide (PI) and propidium monoazide (PMA) were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the implementation of

  19. Occurrence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick V. G. Komba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the carriage and antimicrobial resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in the gastrointestinal tracts of farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania Materials and Methods: Faecal samples were collected from farm (n=244 and laboratory (n=466 animals and were subjected to the Cape Town protocol for isolation of Campylobacter. Isolates were preliminarily identified based on potassium hydroxide string and hippurate hydrolysis tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed for confirmation of isolates. Antimicrobial resistance testing was done using disc diffusion method. Results: Of the laboratory animals 26.7% of guinea pigs (n=30 and 1.2% of rats (n=242 were colonized with Campylobacter. Four isolates from guinea pigs were Campylobacter jejuni and the other four were C. coli. From rats, two isolates were C. jejuni and one was C. coli. In farm animals thermophilic Campylobacter were detected from 31.6% of sheep (n=57 and 60% horses (n=5. Of the isolates 12 (57% were C. jejuni (10 from sheep and 2 from horses and the remaining were C. coli (8 from sheep and 1 from a horse. The isolates were frequently resistant to erythromycin, norfloxacin, colistin sulphate and nalidixic acid; whereas low levels of resistance were observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Conclusion: Our study reveals carriage of antimicrobial resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in the intestines of the study animals. This highlights possibilities in involvement of these animals in the epidemiology of Campylobacter infections. Thus, there is a need to consider these animal species when planning control measures for this zoonotic bacterium.

  20. "Limits of control"--crucial parameters for a reliable quantification of viable campylobacter by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora-Johanna Krüger

    Full Text Available The unsuitability of the "CFU" parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase. In contrast, propidium iodide (PI and propidium monoazide (PMA were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the

  1. Use of Culture, PCR Analysis, and DNA Microarrays for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Chicken Feces

    OpenAIRE

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens; Bunkenborg, Henrik; Telleman, Pieter; Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2004-01-01

    A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp. detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter je...

  2. Novel gentamicin resistance genes in Campylobacter isolated from humans and retail meats in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaohua; Mukherjee, Sampa; Chen, Yuansha; Li, Cong; Young, Shenia; Warren, Melissa; Abbott, Jason; Friedman, Sharon; Kabera, Claudine; Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2015-05-01

    To understand the molecular epidemiology of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter and investigate aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms. One-hundred-and-fifty-one gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter isolates from humans (n = 38 Campylobacter jejuni; n = 41, Campylobacter coli) and retail chickens (n = 72 C. coli), were screened for the presence of gentamicin resistance genes by PCR and subtyped using PFGE. A subset of the isolates (n = 41) was analysed using WGS. Nine variants of gentamicin resistance genes were identified: aph(2″)-Ib, Ic, Ig, If, If1, If3, Ih, aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-Ia and aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-If2. The aph(2″)-Ib, Ic, If1, If3, Ih and aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-If2 variants were identified for the first time in Campylobacter. Human isolates showed more diverse aminoglycoside resistance genes than did retail chicken isolates, in which only aph(2″)-Ic and -Ig were identified. The aph(2″)-Ig gene was only gene shared by C. coli isolates from human (n = 27) and retail chicken (n = 69). These isolates displayed the same resistance profile and similar PFGE patterns, suggesting that contaminated retail chicken was probably the source of human C. coli infections. Human isolates were genetically diverse and generally more resistant than the retail chicken isolates. The most frequent co-resistance was to tetracycline (78/79, 98.7%), followed by ciprofloxacin/nalidixic acid (46/79, 58.2%), erythromycin and azithromycin (36/79, 45.6%), telithromycin (32/79, 40.5%) and clindamycin (18/79, 22.8%). All human and retail meat isolates were susceptible to florfenicol. This study demonstrated that several new aminoglycoside resistance genes underlie the recent emergence of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter, and that, in addition to contaminated retail chicken, other sources have also contributed to gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter infections in humans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  3. Lipooligosaccharide locus classes and putative virulence genes among chicken and human Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Nilsson, Anna; Rautelin, Hilpi; Olsson Engvall, Eva

    2016-11-21

    Campylobacter cause morbidity and considerable economic loss due to hospitalization and post infectious sequelae such as reactive arthritis, Guillain Barré- and Miller Fischer syndromes. Such sequelae have been linked to C. jejuni harboring sialic acid structures in their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) layer of the cell wall. Poultry is an important source of human Campylobacter infections but little is known about the prevalence of sialylated C. jejuni isolates and the extent of transmission of such isolates to humans. Genotypes of C. jejuni isolates from enteritis patients were compared with those of broiler chicken with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to study the patterns of LOS biosynthesis genes and other virulence associated genes and to what extent these occur among Campylobacter genotypes found both in humans and chickens. Chicken and human isolates generally had similar distributions of the putative virulence genes and LOS locus classes studied. However, there were significant differences regarding LOS locus class of PFGE types that were overlapping between chicken and human isolates and those that were distinct to each source. The study highlights the prevalence of virulence associated genes among Campylobacter isolates from humans and chickens and suggests possible patterns of transmission between the two species.

  4. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of Campylobacter from stool specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S R; Ray, N C; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Sarkar, S; Kobayashi, N

    2014-07-01

    This was a study to prospectively evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify Campylobacter. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on cadF, hipO & asp gene for Campylobacter genus, C. jejuni & C. coli were tested for detection of Campylobacter jejuni & C. coli in naturally infected faecal samples of human. All the samples were subjected to the cultural isolation of organism and biochemical characterization. The samples resulted in the amplification of a DNA fragment of size 400 bp, 500 bp &735 bp in PCR assay. Two hundred faecal samples comprising diarrheal stools, 23(11.5%) could be detected by isolation whereas 24(12.0%) were found positive by PCR. All culture positive cases were positive by PCR and among 01 culture negative case, were positive by PCR. PCR was found to be more sensitive for Campylobacter detection in faecal samples 12.0% as relative to culture isolation which could detect the organism in 11.5% samples. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 100% and 99.4% respectively taking Culture as gold standard. The results depicted the superior efficacy of PCR for rapid screening of samples owing to its high sensitivity, specificity and automation potential.

  5. Changing risk of environmental Campylobacter exposure with emerging poultry production systems in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena, M C; Mekonnen, Y; Bettridge, J M; Williams, N J; Wigley, P; Sisay Tessema, T; Christley, R M

    2016-02-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of diarrhoea, and its presence in chickens is a significant risk for zoonotic infection. Poultry production is becoming increasingly intensive in Ethiopia and is incorporating more high-producing breeds into traditionally managed smallholdings, especially in peri-urban areas. This cross-sectional study sampled 219 household environments in one peri-urban and two rural areas of Ethiopia, and an additional 20 semi-intensive farms in the peri-urban district. Campylobacter was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-specific assays in 44 samples; 16 of which could be identified as C. jejuni. Flocks in the peri-urban area were at significantly greater odds of detection, including those which only kept indigenous birds under a scavenging system. It was also noted that scavenging flocks of exotic high-production birds (Rhode Island Red) were at slightly greater risk, perhaps as exotic birds are under more stress when kept under traditional management systems. We suggest that changes to the system of chicken production may alter the ecology and epidemiology of Campylobacter in the environment, chickens and people, which may drive emergence of new epidemiological patterns of disease. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which the current management intensification and the distribution programmes of exotic and/or improved indigenous birds may alter Campylobacter epidemiology, ecology and public health risk, before their widespread adoption.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni prevalence and hygienic quality of retail bovine ground meat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena, A-K; Sivonen, K; Hänninen, M-L

    2014-05-01

    Detection of common genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni among Finnish human and bovine isolates, suggested that bovines may be a source for zoonotic Camp. jejuni infection. In addition, a Finnish epidemiological study implied the tasting and eating raw or undercooked beef as risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. We therefore performed a study on the occurrence of Camp. jejuni in retail bovine ground meat in Helsinki by the use of both cultivation and PCR. During 2011 and 2012, 175 bovine ground meat samples were collected. None of the samples were Campylobacter positive by cultivation, and only one sample (0.6%) was Camp. jejuni positive by the use of PCR on template extracted directly from ground meat. According to our findings, Finnish bovine ground meat is an unlikely source for human campylobacteriosis. Additionally, the hygienic quality of bovine ground meat at retail level was screened and found to be good when monitored by aerobic micro-organisms, total thermotolerant coliforms and Eshericha coli. This study provides the first data on the occurrence of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in Finnish bovine ground meat. This knowledge is important as part of future Campylobacter risk assessment, management and monitoring programs, particularly when assessing the relative attribution of poultry, pork and bovine meat to the burden of human campylobacteriosis. According to our results, Finnish bovine ground meat at retail level is of good hygienic quality. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Comparative analysis of Campylobacter populations within individual market-age broilers using Fla gene typing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pallavi; Kwon, Young Min

    2013-08-01

    Campylobacter species is the most common human pathogen causing gastrointestinal infections in humans, and poultry is considered a major source of this pathogen. In this project, we aim to study the genetic diversity of Campylobacter populations within individual chickens using cecal samples to understand the nature of intestinal colonization in chickens by Campylobacter species. Genotyping was conducted based on the DNA sequence of short variable regions (SVR) in the flaA gene. Cecal samples were collected from 9 market-age broiler chickens and used for isolation of Campylobacter genomic DNA. The SVR fragments of 400 bp were amplified using SVR-specific primers, cloned, and sequenced. Sequencing results obtained from 86 clones (~10 clones/bird) showed that on an average 23.25% of clones had mutations within individuals. The mutations did not show any consistent pattern, suggesting a random nature of the mutations. When translated SVR sequences were analyzed, on average 20.57% of strains carried altered amino acid sequences in SVR within individuals. Four translated sequences had nonsense mutations to produce truncated proteins. These results suggest that there are multiple genotypes colonizing in a cecum and the occurrence of truncated FlaA protein may represent a novel mechanism for evasion of adaptive immune responses.

  8. Guillain-Barré syndrome-related Campylobacter jejuni in Bangladesh: Ganglioside mimicry and cross-reactive antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Islam (Zhahirul); M. Gilbert (Michel); Q.D. Mohammad (Quazi); K. Klaij (Kevin); J. Li (Jianjun); W. van Rijs (Wouter); A.P. Tio-Gillen (Anne); K.A. Talukder (Kaisar); H.J. Willison (Hugh); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); B.C. Jacobs (Bart)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Campylobacter jejuni is the predominant antecedent infection in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Molecular mimicry and cross-reactive immune responses to C. jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) precipitate the development of GBS, although this mechanism has not been established

  9. Lack of association between the presence of the pVir plasmid and bloody diarrhea in Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, R P L; van Belkum, A; Wagenaar, J A; Doorduyn, Y; Achterberg, R; Endtz, H P

    2006-05-01

    The main mechanisms by which Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea are unknown. In contrast to a recent communication, we report here the absence of an association with the plasmid pVir in patients infected with C. jejuni who developed bloody diarrhea in The Netherlands, and we suggest a role for other virulence determinants.

  10. Lack of association between the presence of the pVir plasmid and bloody diarrhea in Campylobacter jejuni Enteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.P.; Belkum, van A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Doorduyn, Y.; Achterberg, R.P.; Endtz, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The main mechanisms by which Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea are unknown. In contrast to a recent communication, we report here the absence of an association with the plasmid pVir in patients infected with C. jejuni who developed bloody diarrhea in The Netherlands, and we suggest a role for

  11. The effects of 405-nm visible light on the survival of Campylobacter on chicken skin and stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are major food-borne pathogens responsible for a significant portion of the human cases of bacterial mediated gastrointestinal disease, and poultry products are an important source of infections. Reducing the numbers of this pathogen on poultry products should lower the incidence...

  12. Distinct Campylobacter jejuni capsular types are related to Guillain-Barré syndrome in The Netherlands and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infection with the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni leads to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in around one in thousand cases. It is established that sialylated lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of C. jejuni are a crucial virulence factor in GBS development. Frequent detection of C. jejuni with sia...

  13. Lack of association between the presence of the pVir plasmid and bloody diarrhea in Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.A. Wagenaar (Jaap); Y. Doorduyn; R. Achterberg; H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe main mechanisms by which Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea are unknown. In contrast to a recent communication, we report here the absence of an association with the plasmid pVir in patients infected with C. jejuni who developed bloody diarrhea in The Netherlands, and we suggest a

  14. Relaxation of DNA supercoiling leads to increased invasion of epithelial cells and protein secretion by Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Campylobacter jejuni is a critical step during infection of the human intestine by this important human pathogen. In this study we investigated the role played by DNA supercoiling in the regulation of invasion of epithelial cells and the mechanism by which ...

  15. Campylobacter jejuni strain CG8421: a refined model for the study of Campylobacteriosis and evaluation of Campylobacter vaccines in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, David R; Baqar, Shahida; Carmolli, Marya P; Porter, Chad; Pierce, Kristen K; Sadigh, Katrin; Guerry, Patricia; Larsson, Catherine J; Rockabrand, David; Ventone, Cassandra H; Poly, Frederic; Lyon, Caroline E; Dakdouk, Sandra; Fingar, Ann; Gilliland, Theron; Daunais, Patrick; Jones, Erika; Rymarchyk, Stacia; Huston, Christopher; Darsley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2009-11-15

    A robust human challenge model for Campylobacter jejuni is an important tool for the evaluation of candidate vaccines. The previously established model conveys a potential risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome attributable to lipooligosaccharide ganglioside mimicry. This work establishes a new C. jejuni human challenge model that uses a strain (CG8421) without ganglioside mimicry and that applies Campylobacter-specific cellular immunity screening to achieve high attack rates at lower inoculum doses. Healthy Campylobacter-naive adults participated in an open-label challenge trial. Participants were dosed with C. jejuni CG8421 and followed as inpatients. Pattern of illness, bacterial shedding, and immunologic responses were determined. Following screening, 23 subjects received 1 X 10(6) or 1 X 10(5) colony-forming units of C. jejuni, with attack rates (percentage of patients who became ill) of 100% (1 X 10(6) colony-forming units) or 93% (1 X 10(5) colony-forming units). Every subject shed CG8421; the median time to diarrhea onset was 72.3 h (interquartile range, 53.9-99.9 h). Symptoms included abdominal cramps (74%), nausea (65%), and fever (39%). No major safety concerns occurred, including bacteremia, hypotension, or postinfectious sequelae. Unexpectedly, recrudescent infection occurred in 2 subjects (1 subject without Campylobacter-specific adaptive immune responses and 1 with azithromycin resistance acquired in vivo); both infections cleared after receipt of additional antibiotics. Cumulative Campylobacter-specific immune responses were as follows: serologic response occurred in 87% (immunoglobulin [Ig] A) and 48% (IgG) of subjects, in vitro interferon-gamma production occurred in 91% of subjects, and 96% of subjects had IgA antibody-secreting cells and fecal IgA detected. The C. jejuni CG8421 challenge model provides a safe and effective tool, without the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The model demonstrates high attack rates after lower doses of challenge

  16. Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods ISO 10272: 2006 in Curitiba - Parana State - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konell, K; Gelinsk, M A; Benetti, T M; Abrahão, W M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection.

  17. Insights into Campylobacter jejuni colonization and enteritis using a novel infant rabbit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuwei; Ren, Fangzhe; Song, Zhaojun; Li, Qiuchun; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Zhonglan; Bao, Guangyu; Wan, Ting; Lei, Tianyao; Wang, Nan; Jiao, Xin-an; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    A lack of relevant disease models for Campylobacter jejuni has long been an obstacle to research into this common enteric pathogen. Here we used an infant rabbit to study C. jejuni infection, which enables us to define several previously unknown but key features of the organism. C. jejuni is capable of systemic invasion in the rabbit, and developed a diarrhea symptom that mimicked that observed in many human campylobacteriosis. The large intestine was the most consistently colonized site and produced intestinal inflammation, where specific cytokines were induced. Genes preferentially expressed during C. jejuni infection were screened, and acs, cj1385, cj0259 seem to be responsible for C. jejuni invasion. Our results demonstrates that the infant rabbit can be used as an alternative experimental model for the study of diarrheagenic Campylobacter species and will be useful in exploring the pathogenesis of other related pathogens. PMID:27357336

  18. Rapid PCR using nested primers of the 16S rRNA and the hippuricase (hipO) genes to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Wedderkopp, A.; Pedersen, Karl

    2002-01-01

    to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental samples. The sensitivity of the nested PCR was determined to be 0.01 pg/PCR, corresponding to 2-3 colony forming units (cfu) per ml. The nested PCR assays were applied to detect C. jejuni and C. coli in 269 environmental samples......Identification of sources Campylobacter infection in the poultry houses is in general problematic due to the lack of reliable methods to detect campylobacteria in environmental samples. Detection of campylobacteria in environmental samples by conventional culture methods is difficult and of limited...... sensitivity due to the use of selective media, the low number of bacteria in the samples and possibly also due to the presence of non-culturable or sub-lethally injured stages of the bacteria. The present paper describes a rapid PCR assay using nested primers of the 16S rRNA or the hippuricase (hipO) genes...

  19. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. El-Zamkan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli. Results: Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6% samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli. Conclusion: Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard.

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zamkan, Mona A; Hameed, Karima G Abdel

    2016-10-01

    This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each) were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli. Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6%) samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli. Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard.

  1. Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalarathna, Helen M L; Richardson, Judith F; Lawson, Andy J; Elson, Richard; Meldrum, Richard; Little, Christine L; Maiden, Martin C J; McCarthy, Noel D; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2013-07-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is increasing among clinical Campylobacter cases and is common among isolates from other sources, specifically retail poultry - a major source of human infection. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from a UK-wide survey of Campylobacter in retail poultry in 2001 and 2004-5 was investigated. The occurrence of phenotypes resistant to tetracycline, quinolones (ciprofloxacin and naladixic acid), erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides was quantified. This was compared with a phylogeny for these isolates based upon Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance acquisition. Antimicrobial resistance was present in all lineage clusters, but statistical testing showed a non-random distribution. Erythromycin resistance was associated with Campylobacter coli. For all antimicrobials tested, resistant isolates were distributed among relatively distant lineages indicative of widespread acquisition. There was also evidence of clustering of resistance phenotypes within lineages; indicative of local expansion of resistant strains. These results are consistent with the widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among chicken associated Campylobacter isolates, either through mutation or horizontal gene transfer, and the expansion of these lineages as a proportion of the population. As Campylobacter are not known to multiply outside of the host and long-term carriage in humans is extremely infrequent in industrialized countries, the most likely location for the proliferation of resistant lineages is in farmed chickens.

  2. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter Isolated from Chicken in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goualié Gblossi Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacters are major causes of gastroenteritis in human. The main risk factor of infection is consumption of contaminated or by cross-contaminated poultry meat. In Côte d’Ivoire, gastroenteritis is usually observed but no case of human campylobacteriosis has been formally reported to date. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from chickens ceaca in commercial slaughter in Abidjan. Between May and November 2009, one hundred and nineteen (119 chicken caeca samples were collected and analyzed by passive filtration method followed by molecular identification (PCR. From these 119 samples, 76 (63.8% were positive to Campylobacter tests. Among the positive colonies, 51.3% were C. jejuni and 48.7% were C. coli. Of the 39 C. jejuni isolates, 79.5%, 38.5%, 17.9%, 10.3%, and 7.7% were, respectively, resistant, to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Among the 37 isolates of C. coli, 78.4%, 43.2%, 13.5%, 8.1%, and 0% were resistant, respectively, to the same antibiotics. In conclusion, we reported in this study the presence of high Campylobacter contamination of the studied chickens. Molecular identification of the bacteria was performed and determination of high resistance to antimicrobials of the fluoroquinolone family was revealed.

  3. The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Spencer, A.G.; Hald, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the role of beetles infesting broiler chicken rearing facilities as potential reservoirs for Salmonella enterica infections between successive broiler flocks. In addition, their role as potential reservoirs for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was also investigated. Fourteen broiler...... broiler flocks in all) as well as beetles collected during both rotations of production and in the empty period (after cleaning and disinfection) between these flocks were monitored for the presence of salmonella. Examinations for the presence of campylobacter in the same sample materials were also...... performed. Beetles sampled during production were positive for salmonella or campylobacter or both. Furthermore, in one house, the occurrence of Salmonella indiana in two consecutive broiler flocks coincided with the presence of S. indiana-contaminated beetles in the empty period between the flocks...

  4. Identification of a Functional Type VI Secretion System in Campylobacter jejuni Conferring Capsule Polysaccharide Sensitive Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M.C.; van Alphen, Lieke B.; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s) that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are increasingly recognized to contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. Here we report the presence of a functional Type VI secretion system in C. jejuni. Proteome and genetic analyses rev...

  5. Transient protein losing enteropathy associated with acute gastritis and campylobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, I D; Sinclair-Smith, C.; Lastovica, A J; Bowie, M. D.; Emms, M

    1987-01-01

    Three children presented with acute protein losing enteropathy and were found to have acute gastritis associated with Campylobacter pylori infection. Recovery from protein losing enteropathy was accompanied by resolution of the gastritis and the disappearance of C pylori from the gastric mucosa. Their clinical course suggested that the C pylori had caused the gastritis and the protein losing enteropathy. The association between gastritis caused by C pylori and protein losing enteropathy in ch...

  6. Complete genome sequences of Campylobacter jejuni strains RM3196 (233.94) and RM3197 (308.95) isolated from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Parker (Craig); Huynh, S. (Steven); A.P. Heikema (Astrid); Cooper, K.K. (Kerry K.); W.G. Miller (William)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractInfections with Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and the most prevalent infection preceding Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). This study describes the genomes of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:41 strains RM3196 (233.94) and RM3197 (308.95) that

  7. In vitro study on the effect of organic acids on Campylobacter jejuni/coli populations in mixtures of water and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveerach, P.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2002-01-01

    Gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter spp. infection has been recognized as one of the important public health problems in the developed countries. Outbreaks mostly originate from the consumption of contaminated poultry or infected water. The aim of this study was to determine the bactericidal

  8. Identification of Chicken Originated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, Hasan Basri; ÇETİNKAYA, Burhan; MUZ, Adile; ÖNGÖR, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate Campylobacter species from the intestines and livers of chicken and to identify Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by both conventional methods and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Four specific primers derived from the ceuE gene present in the genomes of C. coli and C. jejuni were used for PCR identification. In the examination of 150 intestine and liver samples by culture and PCR, 25 (16.6%) and 32 (21.3%) were identified as C. coli and C...

  9. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  11. Prevalence of Campylobacter and four endoparasites in dog populations associated with Hearing Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, C M; Stephen, J M; Price, C J

    2007-11-01

    This study established the prevalence of four gastrointestinal parasites (Isopora species, Giardia species, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis) and one bacterial infection (Campylobacter jejuni/coli) in dogs associated with the charity Hearing Dogs for Deaf People. Dogs' faeces were routinely sampled from dogs according to whether they were in Socialising, Kennelling or Visiting the Hearing Dogs site. A further group consisted of dogs with diarrhoea. Prevalence rates for dogs in Socialising (n=326), Kennelling (n=117), Visiting (n=106) and Diarrhoea (n=59) groups, respectively, were as follows: Campylobacter- 26, 21, 15 and 31 per cent; Coccidia - 3, 0, 0 and 2 per cent; Giardia- 13, 3, 2 and 10 per cent; hookworm - 1, 1, 4 and 5 per cent; and Toxocara- 4, 2, 3 and 2 per cent. There were significant differences in the levels of Giardia and hookworm found between the four different groups of dogs. No significant gender differences were found, and dogs that were positive for Campylobacter in the Visiting group were significantly younger. This study provides current information on the infection rates in specific dog populations in the UK. This is relevant to the veterinary health of dogs and the possible risk of zoonotic infection to humans.

  12. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL), arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL) and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL). A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campyl...

  13. Trans-Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol, and Eugenol Reduce Campylobacter jejuni Colonization Factors and Expression of Virulence Genes in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Abhinav; Arsi, Komala; Wagle, Basanta R; Upadhyaya, Indu; Shrestha, Sandip; Donoghue, Ann M; Donoghue, Dan J

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis in humans characterized by fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. In the human gut, Campylobacter adheres and invades the intestinal epithelium followed by cytolethal distending toxin mediated cell death, and enteritis. Reducing the attachment and invasion of Campylobacter to intestinal epithelium and expression of its virulence factors such as motility and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) production could potentially reduce infection in humans. This study investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs, concentration not inhibiting bacterial growth) of three GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status phytochemicals namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC; 0.005, 0.01%), carvacrol (CR; 0.001, 0.002%), and eugenol (EG; 0.005, 0.01%) in reducing the attachment, invasion, and translocation of C. jejuni on human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Additionally, the effect of these phytochemicals on Campylobacter motility and CDT production was studied using standard bioassays and gene expression analysis. All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated three times on three strains (wild type S-8, NCTC 11168, 81-176) of C. jejuni. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with GraphPad ver. 6. Differences between the means were considered significantly different at P jejuni adhesion, invasion, and translocation of Caco-2 cells (P jejuni genes critical for infection in humans (P jejuni infection in humans.

  14. Rapid detection and differentiation of important Campylobacter spp. in poultry samples by dot blot and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanot, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Cecchini, Francesca; Comi, Giuseppe; Manzano, Marisa

    2014-10-01

    The detection of Campylobacter, the most commonly reported cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the European Union, is very important for human health. The most commonly recognised risk factor for infection is the handling and/or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. The methods typically applied to evaluate the presence/absence of Campylobacter in food samples are direct plating and/or enrichment culture based on the Horizontal Method for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. (ISO 10272-1B: 2006) and PCR. Molecular methods also allow for the detection of cells that are viable but cannot be cultivated on agar media and that decrease the time required for species identification. The current study proposes the use of two molecular methods for species identification: dot blot and PCR. The dot blot method had a sensitivity of 25 ng for detection of DNA extracted from a pure culture using a digoxigenin-labelled probe for hybridisation; the target DNA was extracted from the enrichment broth at 24 h. PCR was performed using a pair of sensitive and specific primers for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli after 24 h of enrichment in Preston broth. The initial samples were contaminated by 5 × 10 C. jejuni cells/g and 1.5 × 10(2)C. coli cells/g, thus the number of cells present in the enrichment broth at 0 h was 1 or 3 cell/g, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation of a Campylobacter lanienae-like bacterium from laboratory chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, E E; Shen, Z; Ducore, R M; Parry, N M A; Kirega, A; Dewhirst, F E; Fox, J G

    2014-12-01

    Routine necropsies of 27 asymptomatic juvenile chinchillas revealed a high prevalence of gastric ulcers with microscopic lymphoplasmacytic gastroenteritis and typhlocolitis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using Campylobacter genus-specific partial 16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of Campylobacter spp. DNA in the faeces of 12 of 27 animals (44.4%). Species-specific partial 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing confirmed that these animals were colonized with Campylobacter lanienae, a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that was first identified on routine faecal screening of slaughterhouse employees and subsequently isolated from faeces of livestock. Campylobacter lanienae was isolated from the faeces of six PCR-positive animals and identified with species-specific PCR and full 16S rRNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates clustered with C. lanienae strain NCTC 13004. PCR analysis of DNA extracted from gastrointestinal tissues revealed the presence of C. lanienae DNA in the caecum and colon of these chinchillas. Gastrointestinal lesions were scored and compared between C. lanienae-positive and C. lanienae-negative animals. There was no correlation between colonization status and lesion severity in the stomach, liver, duodenum, or colon. Possible routes of C. lanienae infection in chinchillas could include waterborne transmission and faecal-oral transmission from wild mice and rats or livestock. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that C. lanienae colonizes the lower bowel of chinchillas in the absence of clinical disease. This is the first report of C. lanienae in any rodent species. Campylobacter lanienae isolates from different mammalian species demonstrate heterogeneity by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. Analysis using rpoB suggests that isolates and clones currently identified as C. lanienae may represent multiple species or subspecies. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Use of culture, PCR analysis, and DNA microarrays for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from chicken feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    . detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. By PCR and capillary electrophoresis, 95% of the samples were positive...... for Campylobacter spp., whereas with DNA microarrays all samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. By application of DNA microarray analysis, the isolates in 4 samples (6%) could not be identified to the species level, whereas by PCR-capillary electrophoresis, the isolates in 12 samples (19%) remained......A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp...

  17. A PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Nagita, Akira; Misawa, Naoaki; Matsuda, Motoo; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2014-05-01

    Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of human gastrointestinal diseases, other Campylobacter species are also involved in human and animal infections. In this study, we developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis. Previously designed common primers, which can amplify the cdtB gene of C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus, were used for detecting seven Campylobacter species and differentiating between them by restriction digestion. The PCR-RFLP assay was validated with 277 strains, including 35 C. jejuni, 19 C. coli, 20 C. fetus, 24 C. hyointestinalis, 13 C. lari, 2 C. helveticus, 22 C. upsaliensis, 3 other Campylobacter spp. and 17 other species associated with human diseases. Sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-RFLP assay were 100 % except for C. hyointestinalis (88 % sensitivity). Furthermore, the PCR-RFLP assay successfully detected and differentiated C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus in clinical and animal samples. The results indicate that the PCR-RFLP assay is useful for the detection and differentiation of seven Campylobacter species important for human and animal diseases.

  18. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Danish broilers at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wedderkopp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims : To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli isolates from Danish poultry at the farm level, as well as for the whole country. Methods and Results : Data and isolates were collected from a national surveillance of Campylobacter in poultry......-resistant variant. Conclusions : Overall, quinolone resistance among Campylobacter isolates from Danish broilers was 7.5% in 1998 and 1999; it was higher among Camp. coli than Camp. jejuni . Genetic diversity among resistant isolates was lower than among susceptible isolates, and certain clones existed in both...... a resistant and a susceptible variant. Some resistant clones appeared to persist on the farms and were repeatedly isolated from poultry flocks. Significance and Impact of the Study : The study is important for the understanding of persistence and dynamics of Campylobacter in broiler houses. It also highlights...

  19. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp....... The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results...

  20. Evaluation of 11 PCR assays for species-level identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jordan, Penelope J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity and specificity of 11 PCR assays described for the species identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using 111 type, reference, and field strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and Campylobacter lari. For six assays, an additional 21 type strains...... representing related Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species were also included. PCR tests were initially established in the laboratory by optimizing conditions with respect to five type and reference strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. One PCR test for C. coli failed to give appropriate...... gave amplicons in four of seven C. jejuni PCR tests only where purified DNA was used as the template; corresponding results were seen with one strain of C. coli in each of three assays for the latter species. Our findings indicate that a polyphasic strategy for PCR-based identification should be used...

  1. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    feeding on a diet of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stables were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P birds foraging further away from the farm or in the air. Age......, fat score, gender, and migration range were not found to be associated with Campylobacter spp. carriage. A correlation was found between the prevalence (%) of C. jejuni in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. jejuni in both manure on cattle farms (R-2 = 0.92) and poultry farms (R-2 = 0...... food of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin and foraging on the ground close to livestock were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. than those foraging further away or hunting in the air. These findings suggest that wild birds may play a role in sustaining the epidemiology of Campylobacter...

  2. Prevalence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat in Croatia and Multilocus Sequence Typing of a Small Subset of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Humski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in Croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86 %. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35 % of the samples, respectively. In 4.98 % of isolates thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were not determined. The multi locus sequence typing method was used to evaluate genetic diversity of eight Campylobacter jejuni and four Campylobacter coli isolates. To our knowledge, these results of genotyping provided the first data on the presence of sequence types (STs and clonal complexes (CCs of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates in Croatia. By applying the multilocus sequence typing, a new allele of tkt gene locus was discovered and marked tkt508. The C. jejuni ST 6182 and C. coli ST 6183 genotypes were described for the fi rst time, and all other identified genotypes were clustered in the previously described sequence types and clonal complexes. These findings provide useful information on the prevalence and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Croatia.

  3. Interaction of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli with lectins and blood group antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, K H; Skelton, S K; Feeley, J C

    1985-01-01

    Lectins and blood group antibodies were used to probe the surface structures of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Of the 29 strains tested, there were distinct reaction patterns. The lectin-reactive and blood group antibody-reactive sites on the bacterial surface were distinguishable from the heat-stable (lipopolysaccharide) antigenic determinants. The interactions were strain specific. The reactive sites were stable with respect to culture media and passage and may be useful as ad...

  4. Growth of non-Campylobacter, oxidase-positive bacteria on selective Campylobacter agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, L B; Chester, B

    1982-01-01

    A total of 67 oxidase-positive, gram-negative bacteria were tested for growth on selective Campylobacter agar (Blaser formulation, BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) at 42 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions. Although the growth of most of these bacteria was prevented, all strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes grew as well as Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

  5. Survival and Virulence of Campylobacter spp. in the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan

    the epidemiology of recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases from vegetables. During transmission and infection, C. jejuni may encounter many different stresses but little is known about how this bacterium survives and interacts with the protozoa under these conditions. I have investigated the impacts......Campylobacter is the most common cause of food-borne illness in Europe, and this important zoonotic pathogen has been the focus of many research projects and scientific publications in recent years. However, we know less about the biology and pathogenicity of this pathogen than we know about many......: Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., in raw slurry, in the liquid fraction of separated slurry, and in the liquid fraction after ozonation to ground water using intact soil columns models. I observed that solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution of contaminants in liquid fraction...

  6. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metode Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk Melacak Campylobacter sp. pada Daging Ayam (DIRECT POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION METHOD FOR DETECTION CAMPYLOBACTER SP. OF POULTRY MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani .

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter sp. is the most commonly reported as agent of foodborne zoonosis causing acutegastroenteritis in humans. Poultry meat is considered as a major source of C. jejuni infection in human.The conventional methods for detecting foodborne bacteria is time-consuming which rely on the of thebacteria in culture media, followed by biochemical identification. In this study polymerase chain reaction(PCR technique was used for rapid identification of the pathogenic Campylobacter sp. The samples usedwere 298 chicken carcass with sold in supermarkets and traditional markets, and were carried out inaccordance the isolation protocol ISO/ DIS 10272-1994. Identification was performed using biochemicalAPI Campy. The direct PCR (DPCR assay with two sets of primers was employed for isolation andidentification of C. jejuni and C. coli. The result of the isolation and identification both by conventional orPCR methods showed that chicken carcasses both from supermarket and traditional market werecontaminated with C. jejuni and or C. coli. Prevalence of Campylobacter sp. contamination in chicken meatwas higher by DPCR (62.6% than by conventional (19.8%, indicating that DPCR technique was moresensitive than conventional method with detection limit for C. jejuni was103 cfu/ml.

  8. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis of the incidence of Campylobacter cases and patients with general diarrhea in a Danish county, 1995–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonsen Jacob

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Campylobacter infections are the main cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Denmark. While primarily foodborne, Campylobacter infections are also to some degree acquired through other sources which may include contact with animals or the environment, locally contaminated drinking water and more. We analyzed Campylobacter cases for clustering in space and time for the large Danish island of Funen in the period 1995–2003, under the assumption that infections caused by 'environmental' factors may show persistent clustering while foodborne infections will occur randomly in space. Input data were geo-coded datasets of the addresses of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter cases and of the background population of Funen County. The dataset had a spatial extent of 4.900 km2. Data were aggregated into units of analysis (so-called features of 5 km by 5 km times 1 year, and the Campylobacter incidence calculated. We used a modified form of local Moran's I to test if features with similar incidence rates occurred next to each other in space and time, and compared the observed clusters with simulated clusters. Because clusters may be caused by a high tendency among local GPs to submit stool samples, we also analyzed a dataset of all submitted stool samples for comparison. The results showed a significant persisting clustering of Campylobacter incidence rates in the Western part of Funen. Results were visualized using the Netlogo software. The underlying causes of the observed clustering are not known and will require further examination, but may be partially explained by an increased rate of stool samples submissions by physicians in the area. We hope, by this approach, to have developed a tool which will allow for analyses of geographical clusters which may in turn form a basis for further epidemiological examinations to cast light on the sources of infection.

  9. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis of the incidence of Campylobacter cases and patients with general diarrhea in a Danish county, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Simonsen, Jacob; Ethelberg, Steen

    2009-02-20

    Campylobacter infections are the main cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Denmark. While primarily foodborne, Campylobacter infections are also to some degree acquired through other sources which may include contact with animals or the environment, locally contaminated drinking water and more. We analyzed Campylobacter cases for clustering in space and time for the large Danish island of Funen in the period 1995-2003, under the assumption that infections caused by 'environmental' factors may show persistent clustering while foodborne infections will occur randomly in space. Input data were geo-coded datasets of the addresses of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter cases and of the background population of Funen County. The dataset had a spatial extent of 4.900 km2. Data were aggregated into units of analysis (so-called features) of 5 km by 5 km times 1 year, and the Campylobacter incidence calculated. We used a modified form of local Moran's I to test if features with similar incidence rates occurred next to each other in space and time, and compared the observed clusters with simulated clusters. Because clusters may be caused by a high tendency among local GPs to submit stool samples, we also analyzed a dataset of all submitted stool samples for comparison. The results showed a significant persisting clustering of Campylobacter incidence rates in the Western part of Funen. Results were visualized using the Netlogo software. The underlying causes of the observed clustering are not known and will require further examination, but may be partially explained by an increased rate of stool samples submissions by physicians in the area. We hope, by this approach, to have developed a tool which will allow for analyses of geographical clusters which may in turn form a basis for further epidemiological examinations to cast light on the sources of infection.

  10. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis of the incidence of Campylobacter cases and patients with general diarrhea in a Danish county, 1995–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Simonsen, Jacob; Ethelberg, Steen

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter infections are the main cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Denmark. While primarily foodborne, Campylobacter infections are also to some degree acquired through other sources which may include contact with animals or the environment, locally contaminated drinking water and more. We analyzed Campylobacter cases for clustering in space and time for the large Danish island of Funen in the period 1995–2003, under the assumption that infections caused by 'environmental' factors may show persistent clustering while foodborne infections will occur randomly in space. Input data were geo-coded datasets of the addresses of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter cases and of the background population of Funen County. The dataset had a spatial extent of 4.900 km2. Data were aggregated into units of analysis (so-called features) of 5 km by 5 km times 1 year, and the Campylobacter incidence calculated. We used a modified form of local Moran's I to test if features with similar incidence rates occurred next to each other in space and time, and compared the observed clusters with simulated clusters. Because clusters may be caused by a high tendency among local GPs to submit stool samples, we also analyzed a dataset of all submitted stool samples for comparison. The results showed a significant persisting clustering of Campylobacter incidence rates in the Western part of Funen. Results were visualized using the Netlogo software. The underlying causes of the observed clustering are not known and will require further examination, but may be partially explained by an increased rate of stool samples submissions by physicians in the area. We hope, by this approach, to have developed a tool which will allow for analyses of geographical clusters which may in turn form a basis for further epidemiological examinations to cast light on the sources of infection. PMID:19228436

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-25

    CMV), Epstein-. Barr virus (EBV), Hepatitis B and C virus,. Mycoplasma. Pneumoniae,. Haemophilus influenzae and Campylobacter jejuni have all been implicated in. GBS.[6]. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has ...

  12. Campylobacter genotypes from food animals, environmental sources and clinical disease in Scotland 2005/6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Samuel K.; Dallas, John F.; MacRae, Marion; McCarthy, Noel D.; Sproston, E.L.; Gormley, F.J.; Strachan, Norval J.C.; Ogden, Iain D.; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Forbes, Ken J.

    2014-01-01

    A nationwide multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) survey was implemented to analyze patterns of host association among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from clinical disease in Scotland (July 2005-September 2006), food animals (chickens, cattle, sheep, pigs and turkey), non-food animals (wild birds) and the environment. Sequence types (STs) were determined for 5247 clinical isolates and 999 from potential disease sources (augmented with 2420 published STs). Certain STs were over represented among particular sample sets/host groups. These host-associated STs were identified for all sample groups in both Campylobacter species and host associated clonal complexes (groups of related STs) were characterized for C. jejuni. Some genealogical lineages were present in both human disease and food animal samples. This provided evidence for the relative importance of different infection routes/food animal sources in human disease. These results show robust associations of particular genotypes with potential infection sources supporting the contention that contaminated poultry is a major source of human disease. PMID:19269051

  13. ERIC-PCR Genotyping of Some Campylobacter jejuni Isolates of Chicken and Human Origin in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Heba A; El Hofy, Fatma I; Ammar, Ahmed M; Abd El Tawab, Ashraf A; Hefny, Ahmed A

    2015-12-01

    The public health importance of the genus Campylobacter is attributed to several species causing diarrhea in consumers. Poultry and their meat are considered the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, 287 samples from chicken (131 cloacal swabs, 39 chicken skin, 78 chicken meat, and 39 cecal parts) obtained from retail outlets as well as 246 stool swabs from gastroenteritis patients were examined. A representative number of the biochemically identified Campylobacter jejuni isolates were identified by real-time PCR, confirming the identification of the isolates as C. jejuni. Genotyping of the examined isolates (n = 31) by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) revealed a high discriminatory index of ERIC-PCR (D = 0.948), dividing C. jejuni isolates of chicken and human origins into 18 profiles and four clusters. The 18 profiles obtained indicated the heterogeneity of C. jejuni. Dendrogram analysis showed that four clusters were generated; all human isolates fell into clusters I and III. These observations further support the existence of a genetic relationship between human and poultry isolates examined in the present study. In conclusion, the results obtained support the speculation that poultry and poultry meat have an important role as sources of infection in the acquisition of Campylobacter infection in humans.

  14. Prevalence of Virulence/Stress Genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Chicken Meat Sold in Qatari Retail Outlets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marawan Abu-Madi

    Full Text Available Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53% and Qatari (45.9% producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis.

  15. Prevalence of Virulence/Stress Genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Chicken Meat Sold in Qatari Retail Outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan; Behnke, Jerzy M; Sharma, Aarti; Bearden, Rebecca; Al-Banna, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB) was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53%) and Qatari (45.9%) producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali) were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis.

  16. Comparison of Campylobacter fla-SVR genotypes isolated from humans and poultry in three European regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, T M; Fernández-Astorga, A; Alonso, R; Marteinsson, V T; Magnússon, S H; Kristoffersen, A B; Hofshagen, M

    2009-09-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter isolated from human infection and from poultry was assessed in strains originating in three different European regions in order to compare these two hosts and to investigate European regional differences. Randomly chosen isolates originated from Norway, Iceland and Basque Country in Spain were genotyped by sequencing of the short variable region (SVR) of flaA. A total of 293 strains were investigated, c. 100 per country with half originated from either host. The results indicate extensive diversity in both hosts and identified differences in the nature and distribution of genotypes between the countries. These differences could in part be related to geographical location, in that Campylobacter genotypes from Iceland and Norway were more similar to each other than either was to Basque Country. Differences between the countries exceeded the observed differences between human and poultry isolates within a country. Regional differences are extensive and should not be ignored when comparing genotyping data originating from different international studies.

  17. Comprehensive Detection and Discrimination of Campylobacter Species by Use of Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and Multilocus Sequence Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Huang, Qian; Miller, William G.; Aston, D. Eric; Xu, Jie; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Hongwei; Rasco, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel strategy for the rapid detection and identification of traditional and emerging Campylobacter strains based upon Raman spectroscopy (532 nm) is presented here. A total of 200 reference strains and clinical isolates of 11 different Campylobacter species recovered from infected animals and humans from China and North America were used to establish a global Raman spectroscopy-based dendrogram model for Campylobacter identification to the species level and cross validated for its feasibility to predict Campylobacter-associated food-borne outbreaks. Bayesian probability coupled with Monte Carlo estimation was employed to validate the established Raman classification model on the basis of the selected principal components, mainly protein secondary structures, on the Campylobacter cell membrane. This Raman spectroscopy-based typing technique correlates well with multilocus sequence typing and has an average recognition rate of 97.21%. Discriminatory power for the Raman classification model had a Simpson index of diversity of 0.968. Intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility with different instrumentation yielded differentiation index values of 4.79 to 6.03 for wave numbers between 1,800 and 650 cm−1 and demonstrated the feasibility of using this spectroscopic method at different laboratories. Our Raman spectroscopy-based partial least-squares regression model could precisely discriminate and quantify the actual concentration of a specific Campylobacter strain in a bacterial mixture (regression coefficient, >0.98; residual prediction deviation, >7.88). A standard protocol for sample preparation, spectral collection, model validation, and data analyses was established for the Raman spectroscopic technique. Raman spectroscopy may have advantages over traditional genotyping methods for bacterial epidemiology, such as detection speed and accuracy of identification to the species level. PMID:22740711

  18. Serotyping of Campylobacter jejuni/coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, J. D.; Dale, B.; Eldridge, J.; Jones, D. M.; Sutcliffe, E M

    1980-01-01

    Antisera were prepared from strains of Campylobacter jejuni/coli isolated from patients in six outbreaks of enteritis. Bactericidal antibodies, and agglutinating antibodies to heat-labile and heat-stable antigens, were demonstrated. These reactions were used to type a number of strains isolated from patients in each outbreak, and to distinguish 'epidemic' from 'non-epidemic' strains.

  19. Prevalence and molecular identification of Campylobacter species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and molecular identification of Campylobacter species isolates from poultry and humans were conducted using culture, biochemical reaction and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) techniques. A total of 798 (506 poultry and 292 human) samples were identified biochemically, out of which 312(39.1%) were ...

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter foetus and Trichomonas foetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis are diseases caused by Trichomonas foetus and Campylobacter foetus respectively. These diseases pose economic losses due to infertility and abortion. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of C. foetus and T. foetus among southern African cattle.