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Sample records for campylobacter fetus aislado

  1. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in homosexual males.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, H R; McIntyre, L

    1983-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from the stools of two homosexual males. One was asymptomatic at the time of isolation. The other presented with diarrhea. Both isolates were initially grown at 42 degrees C. This organism should be included among the list of organisms that are found in homosexual males.

  2. Comparison of Characteristics of Patients Infected by Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Bessède, Emilie; Lehours, Philippe; Labadi, Leila; BAKIRI, Sarah; Mégraud, Francis

    2014-01-01

    A large database of Campylobacter isolates precisely identified at the species level was used to compare patients' characteristics. In a multivariate analysis, Campylobacter coli was found more often in older patients and in patients having traveled abroad and less often in summertime than Campylobacter jejuni. Campylobacter fetus infection occurred in much older patients and in hospitalized patients with a systemic disease.

  3. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are...

  4. Fatal relapse of a purulent pleurisy caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Bartizel, Christine; Gin, Thomas; Colin, Jean-Pierre; Fadel, Nicolas; Holler, C; Pollet, J; Megraud, Francis

    2007-07-01

    Campylobacter fetus is associated with invasive disease, while other Campylobacter species, such as C. coli and C. jejuni, are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea. Bacteremia has been well described, but pleurisy remains very uncommon. We report the recurrent isolation of a C. fetus subsp. fetus strain during two episodes of pleural effusion with a fatal outcome. PMID:17507518

  5. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

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    Agueda C. Vargas; Mateus M. Costa; Ana C.M. Groff; Luciane R. Viana; Cristina C. Krewer; Spricigo, Denis A.; Jackeline K. Kirinus

    2005-01-01

    A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subs...

  6. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus from a pet turtle.

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, S.; Greenwood, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    During the course of a Salmonella agona case investigation, Campylobacter fetus was isolated from a pet turtle. This is the first reported isolation of C. fetus from a turtle and suggests that turtles, in addition to being reservoirs for Salmonella species, may also be reservoirs for C. fetus.

  7. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum type strain 03-427T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. This Campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other C. fetus subspecies. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this C. fetus subspecies....

  8. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

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    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus

  9. Fatal Relapse of a Purulent Pleurisy Caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Bartizel, Christine; Gin, Thomas; Colin, Jean-Pierre; Fadel, Nicolas; Holler, C.; Pollet, J.; Megraud, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus is associated with invasive disease, while other Campylobacter species, such as C. coli and C. jejuni, are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea. Bacteremia has been well described, but pleurisy remains very uncommon. We report the recurrent isolation of a C. fetus subsp. fetus strain during two episodes of pleural effusion with a fatal outcome.

  10. Fatal Relapse of a Purulent Pleurisy Caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Bartizel, Christine; Gin, Thomas; Colin, Jean-Pierre; Fadel, Nicolas; Holler, C.; Pollet, J.; Megraud, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus is associated with invasive disease, while other Campylobacter species, such as C. coli and C. jejuni, are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea. Bacteremia has been well described, but pleurisy remains very uncommon. We report the recurrent isolation of a C. fetus subsp. fetus strain during two episodes of pleural effusion with a fatal outcome. PMID:17507518

  11. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  12. Analysis of strains of Campylobacter fetus by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, M; Fujimoto, S.; Morooka, T; Amako, K.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus chromosomal DNA from 21 strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The fingerprint patterns generated with SmaI and SalI were distinctive. Using the profiles obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we established the phylogenetic dendrogram of C. fetus to identify the genetic relationship of the strains.

  13. Structure and genotypic plasticity of the Campylobacter fetus sap locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zheng-Chao; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Thompson, Stuart A; Blaser, Martin J

    2003-05-01

    The Campylobacter fetus surface layer proteins (SLPs), encoded by five to nine sapA homologues, are major virulence factors. To characterize the sapA homologues further, a 65.9 kb C. fetus genomic region encompassing the sap locus from wild-type strain 23D was completely sequenced and analysed; 44 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) were recognized. The 53.8 kb sap locus contained eight complete and one partial sapA homologues, varying from 2769 to 3879 bp, sharing conserved 553-2622 bp 5' regions, with partial sharing of 5' and 3' non-coding regions. All eight sapA homologues were expressed in Escherichia coli as antigenic proteins and reattached to the surface of SLP- strain 23B, indicating their conserved function. Analysis of the sap homologues indicated three phylogenetic groups. Promoter-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and sapA homologue-specific reverse transcription (RT)-PCRs showed that the unique sapA promoter can potentially express all eight sapA homologues. Reciprocal DNA recombination based on the 5' conserved regions can involve each of the eight sapA homologues, with frequencies from 10(-1) to 10(-3). Intragenic recombination between sapA7 and sapAp8, mediated by their conserved regions with a 10(-1)-10(-2) frequency, allows the formation of new sap homologues. As divergent SLP C-termini possess multiple antigenic sites, their reciprocal recombination behind the unique sap promoter leads to continuing antigenic variation. PMID:12694614

  14. Genomic analysis of Campylobacter fetus subspecies: identification of candidate virulence determinants and diagnostic assay targets

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    Sanchez Daniel O

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, asymptomatic in bulls the disease is spread to female cattle causing extensive reproductive loss. The microbiological and molecular differentiation of C. fetus subsp. venerealis from C. fetus subsp. fetus is extremely difficult. This study describes the analysis of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain genome (~75–80% to identify elements exclusively found in C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains as potential diagnostic targets and the characterisation of subspecies virulence genes. Results Eighty Kb of genomic sequence (22 contigs was identified as unique to C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 and consisted of type IV secretory pathway components, putative plasmid genes and hypothetical proteins. Of the 9 PCR assays developed to target C. fetus subsp. venerealis type IV secretion system genes, 4 of these were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis and did not detect C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius. Two assays were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain, with a further single assay specific for the AZUL-94 strain and C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius (and not the remaining C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis strains tested. C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were found to share most common Campylobacter virulence factors such as SAP, chemotaxis, flagellar biosynthesis, 2-component systems and cytolethal distending toxin subunits (A, B, C. We did not however, identify in C. fetus the full complement of bacterial adherence candidates commonly found in other Campylobacter spp. Conclusion The comparison of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis genome sequence with the C. fetus subsp. fetus genome identified 80 kb of unique C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL94 sequence, with subsequent PCR confirmation demonstrating

  15. Tubo-ovarian abscess with endometrial cyst probably infected by Campylobacter fetus: Two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Sachiko; Matsumura, Noriomi; Ohtake, Noriko; Kita, Masato; Konishi, Ikuo

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus often causes systemic infection in immunocompromised or older patients, and prenatal infection, but Campylobacter has rarely been reported as a cause of adnexitis in healthy young women. Here we report two cases of endometriotic cysts infected by C. fetus for the first time. In case 1, a 28-year-old woman with a left adnexal cyst was hospitalized for left tubo-ovarian abscess and underwent left salpingo-oophorectomy. In case 2, a 22-year-old woman with a right adnexal cyst was hospitalized for a bilateral tubo-ovarian abscess and underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy and left salpingectomy. In both cases, C. fetus was detected on culture, and histopathology indicated a purulent endometriotic cyst. The present findings suggest that endometriotic cyst can be a focus of C. fetus infection. PMID:27080623

  16. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis

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    Telma M. Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Myeloma cells Sp2/0-Ag14 and spleen cells from BALB/c mouse immunized with sonicated Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 were fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG for the selection of clones producing antibodies. Clones were obtained by limiting dilution and screened for the production of specific antibodies to C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 by indirect ELISA and western blot against a panel of bacteria: C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354, C. fetus subsp fetus ADRI 1812, C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647, C. lari NCTC 11352, and Arcobacter skirrowii LMG 6621 for the ELISA and C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 and C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647 for the western blotting. Fifteen clones producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs anti-C. fetus subsp. venerealis of the IgM (1 and IgG (14 classes were further screened for species-specificity. Four clones of the 15 obtained were producers of species-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs: two were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and two were specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus. None of the clones were reactive against C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647. All clones recognized a protein with molecular mass of approximately 148 kDa from lysed C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354.

  17. Evaluation of a PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hum, S.; Quinn, K.; Brunner, J.; On, Stephen L.W.

    1997-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of Campylobacter fetus and differentiation of the defined subspecies. Design Characterisation of bacterial strains by traditional phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction, a probabilistic identification scheme and...... macrorestriction profiling using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Procedure The results of identification of 99 bacterial strains as determined by conventional phenotyping or by polymerase chain reaction were compared. Two of these were type strains of C fetus subsp fetus and C fetus subsp venerealis; the...... remaining strains were field isolates putatively identified as C fetus. In cases where the subspecies identity was disputed, isolates were identified by means of a probabilistic identification scheme and by macrorestriction profiling. Results The agreement between strain identities initially suggested by...

  18. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia Revealed by Cellulitis without Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the Context of Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Report of Three Cases

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    Souleymane Brah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.

  19. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  20. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L.; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was performed. The genomes of C. fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C. fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C. fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus. Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C. fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C. fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  1. Trombosis venosa profunda asociada a bacteriemia por campylobacter fetus Deep vein thrombosis related to Campylobacter fetus bacteriemia

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    F.J. Membrillo de Novales

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente que ingresa por un cuadro de desorientación, fiebre y deposiciones diarreicas. La exploración y pruebas complementarias mostraron una trombosis venosa profunda en la pierna izquierda, junto con hemocultivos positivos a C. fetus. Está descrita la asociación de C. fetus a fenómenos tromboembólicos, pero no hemos encontrado en nuestra revisión biliográfica casos en la literatura donde se confirme dicha asociación con el aislamiento del microorganismo en hemocultivos, salvo una trombosis séptica de vena ovárica.We present a patient who was admitted with symptoms of disorientation, fever, and diarrheal stools. Examination and laboratory tests showed a deep vein thrombosis in the left leg, and isolation of C. fetus in blood cultures taken during a fever peak. The association of C. fetus with thromboembolic events has been reported, but we haven't found any cases in our biliograpich search describing this association confirmed by the isolation of the organism in blood cultures, except for a ovaric vein thrombosis.

  2. Campylobacter fetus Subspecies Contain Conserved Type IV Secretion Systems on Multiple Genomic Islands and Plasmids

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf–van Bloois, Linda; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Forbes, Ken J.; Zomer, Aldert L.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    The features contributing to differences in pathogenicity of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins, which may disrupt host cell processes. In the genomes of 27 C. fetus strains, three phylogenetically-different T4SS-encoding regions (T4SSs) were identified: one was located in both the chromosome and in extra-chromosomal plasmids; one was located exclusively in the chromosome; and one exclusively in extra-chromosomal plasmids. We observed that C. fetus strains can contain multiple T4SSs and that homologous T4SSs can be present both in chromosomal genomic islands (GI) and on plasmids in the C. fetus strains. The GIs of the chromosomally located T4SS differed mainly by the presence of fic genes, insertion sequence elements and phage-related or hypothetical proteins. Comparative analysis showed that T4SS sequences, inserted in the same locations, were conserved in the studied C. fetus genomes. Using phylogenetic analysis of the T4SSs, it was shown that C. fetus may have acquired the T4SS regions from other Campylobacter species by horizontal gene transfer. The identified T4SSs and fic genes were found in Cff and Cfv strains, although the presence of T4SSs and fic genes were significantly associated with Cfv strains. The T4SSs and fic genes could not be associated with S-layer serotypes or geographical origin of the strains. PMID:27049518

  3. An unusual cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Campylobacter fetus with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, Yoshiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year-old man with severe alcoholic liver cirrhosis with a 2-day history of fatigue and abdominal pain was admitted. He reported eating sushi and sliced raw chicken a few days previously. His abdomen was distended, with shifting dullness. Based on the patient's history, physical examination and the results of abdominocentesis, he was diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; blood and ascitic fluid cultures were positive for Campylobacter fetus. The patient was started on treatment with cefotaxime, which was switched after 1 week to ampicillin for an additional 3 weeks. The patient was successfully treated with the 4-week course of intravenous antibiotic therapy. PMID:23417384

  4. Evaluation and histological examination of a Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis small animal infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, A; de Wet, S C; Turner, S; Cawdell-Smith, J; Venus, B; Greer, R M; Lew-Tabor, A E; Boe-Hansen, G B

    2015-04-01

    Bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC), caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, is associated with production losses in cattle worldwide. This study aimed to develop a reliable BGC guinea pig model to facilitate future studies of pathogenicity, abortion mechanisms and vaccine efficacy. Seven groups of five pregnant guinea pigs (1 control per group) were inoculated with one of three strains via intra-peritoneal (IP) or intra-vaginal routes. Samples were examined using culture, PCR and histology. Abortions ranged from 0% to 100% and re-isolation of causative bacteria from sampled sites varied with strain, dose of bacteria and time to abortion. Histology indicated metritis and placentitis, suggesting that the bacteria induce inflammation, placental detachment and subsequent abortion. Variation of virulence between strains was observed and determined by culture and abortion rates. IP administration of C. fetus subsp. venerealis to pregnant guinea pigs is a promising small animal model for the investigation of BGC abortion. PMID:25599935

  5. PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Hosseinzadeh; Mojtaba Kafi; Mostafa Pour-Teimouri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz ...

  6. Comparison of Culture and a Novel 5′ Taq Nuclease Assay for Direct Detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in Clinical Specimens from Cattle

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    McMillen, Lyle; Fordyce, Geoffry; Doogan, Vivienne J.; Lew, Ala E.

    2006-01-01

    A Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis-specific 5′ Taq nuclease PCR assay using a 3′ minor groove binder-DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) was developed based on a subspecies-specific fragment of unknown identity (S. Hum, K. Quinn, J. Brunner, and S. L. On, Aust. Vet. J. 75:827-831, 1997). The assay specifically detected four C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains with no observed cross-reaction with C. fetus subsp. fetus-related Campylobacter species or other bovine venereal microflora. The 5′ Taq nucleas...

  7. Rearrangement of sapA homologs with conserved and variable regions in Campylobacter fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummuru, M K; Blaser, M J

    1993-08-01

    The Campylobacter fetus surface-layer (S-layer) proteins mediate both complement resistance and antigenic variation in mammalian hosts. Wild-type strain 23D possesses the sapA gene, which encodes a 97-kDa S-layer protein, and several sapA homologs are present in both wild-type and mutant strains. Here we report that a cloned silent gene (sapA1) in C. fetus can express a functional full-length S-layer protein in Escherichia coli. Analysis of sapA and sapA1 and partial analysis of sapA2 indicate that a block of approximately 600 bp beginning upstream and continuing into the open reading frames is completely conserved, and then the sequences diverge completely, but immediately downstream of each gene is another conserved 50-bp sequence. Conservation of sapA1 among strains, the presence of a putative Chi (RecBCD recognition) site upstream of sapA, sapA1, and sapA2, and the sequence identities of the sapA genes suggest a system for homologous recombination. Comparison of the wild-type strain (23D) with a phenotypic variant (23D-11) indicates that variation is associated with removal of the divergent region of sapA from the expression locus and exchange with a corresponding region from a sapA homolog. We propose that site-specific reciprocal recombination between sapA homologs leads to expression of divergent S-layer proteins as one of the mechanisms that C. fetus uses for antigenic variation. PMID:8346244

  8. Detection of antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in the vaginal mucus of Nigerian breeding cows

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    Zerai Woldehiwet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of IgA antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in vaginal mucus (n = 66. IgA antibodies specific to C. fetus subsp. venerealis were detected in 7 (11% vaginal mucus samples. All but one of the IgA-positive samples originated from cows belonging to herds with a history of abortion and infertility which suggested an association between antibody detection and poor herd fertility. It was concluded that bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is prevalent in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria and its contribution to reduced reproductive performance in cattle herds may be grossly underestimated in this part of the world.

  9. Campylobacter fetus subspecies: Comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Soares, Siomar C.; Santos, Anderson R.;

    2012-01-01

    , sap gene, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Significantly, many of those genes were found in genomic regions with signals of horizontal gene transfer and, therefore, predicted as putative pathogenicity islands. We found CRISPR loci and dam genes in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus...

  10. PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Hosseinzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv, is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34 and cows (n = 61 in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6% were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran.

  11. Campylobacter fetus infection presenting with bacteremia and cellulitis in a 72-year-old man with an implanted pacemaker: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledina Dragan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Campylobacter is an important causative agent of intestinal infections in humans. Bacteremia is detected in less than 1% of patients, mainly in immunocompromised patients and in extreme age groups. Cellulitis is a relatively common manifestation of Campylobacter infection, but concomitant bacteremia is a rare event. Infections of the pacemaker area are caused primarily by staphylococci, followed by fungi, streptococci and Gram-negative rods. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of pacemaker pocket infection and bacteremia caused by Campylobacter fetus. Case presentation A 72-year-old Croatian Caucasian man with myelodysplasia, impaired fasting glucose levels and a recently implanted permanent pacemaker was admitted to hospital after six days of fever, development of red swelling of the pacemaker pocket area and worsening of his general condition. No antibiotic therapy was introduced in the outpatient setting. He denied any recent gastrointestinal disturbances. With the exception of an elevated leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein and blood glucose levels, other laboratory findings were normal. Treatment with vancomycin plus netilmicin was introduced, and a surgical incision with drainage of the pacemaker pocket was performed. The entire pacemaker system was removed and a new one re-implanted after 14 days of antibiotic therapy. Transesophageal echocardiography showed no pathological findings. Three subsequent blood cultures obtained on admission as well as swab culture of the incised pacemaker area revealed Campylobacter fetus; stool and pacemaker lead cultures were negative. According to the microbiological results, antibiotic therapy was changed to ciprofloxacin plus netilmicin. A clinical examination and the results of a laboratory analysis performed after two weeks of therapy were within normal limits. Conclusion Myelodysplasia, impaired fasting glucose levels

  12. Campylobacter fetus subspecies contain conserved type IV secretion systems on multiple genomic islands and plasmids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The features contributing to the differences in pathogenicity of the C. fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic-domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins. In the genomes of ...

  13. Comparison of culture and a novel 5' Taq nuclease assay for direct detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in clinical specimens from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Lyle; Fordyce, Geoffry; Doogan, Vivienne J; Lew, Ala E

    2006-03-01

    A Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis-specific 5' Taq nuclease PCR assay using a 3' minor groove binder-DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) was developed based on a subspecies-specific fragment of unknown identity (S. Hum, K. Quinn, J. Brunner, and S. L. On, Aust. Vet. J. 75:827-831, 1997). The assay specifically detected four C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains with no observed cross-reaction with C. fetus subsp. fetus-related Campylobacter species or other bovine venereal microflora. The 5' Taq nuclease assay detected approximately one single cell compared to 100 and 10 cells in the conventional PCR assay and 2,500 and 25,000 cells from selective culture from inoculated smegma and mucus, respectively. The respective detection limits following the enrichments from smegma and mucus were 5,000 and 50 cells/inoculum for the conventional PCR compared to 500 and 50 cells/inoculum for the 5' Taq nuclease assay. Field sampling confirmed the sensitivity and the specificity of the 5' Taq nuclease assay by detecting an additional 40 bulls that were not detected by culture. Urine-inoculated samples demonstrated comparable detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis by both culture and the 5' Taq nuclease assay; however, urine was found to be less effective than smegma for bull sampling. Three infected bulls were tested repetitively to compare sampling tools, and the bull rasper proved to be the most suitable, as evidenced by the improved ease of specimen collection and the consistent detection of higher levels of C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The 5' Taq nuclease assay demonstrates a statistically significant association with culture (chi2 = 29.8; P < 0.001) and significant improvements for the detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis-infected animals from crude clinical extracts following prolonged transport. PMID:16517880

  14. Comparison of Culture and a Novel 5′ Taq Nuclease Assay for Direct Detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in Clinical Specimens from Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Lyle; Fordyce, Geoffry; Doogan, Vivienne J.; Lew, Ala E.

    2006-01-01

    A Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis-specific 5′ Taq nuclease PCR assay using a 3′ minor groove binder-DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) was developed based on a subspecies-specific fragment of unknown identity (S. Hum, K. Quinn, J. Brunner, and S. L. On, Aust. Vet. J. 75:827-831, 1997). The assay specifically detected four C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains with no observed cross-reaction with C. fetus subsp. fetus-related Campylobacter species or other bovine venereal microflora. The 5′ Taq nuclease assay detected approximately one single cell compared to 100 and 10 cells in the conventional PCR assay and 2,500 and 25,000 cells from selective culture from inoculated smegma and mucus, respectively. The respective detection limits following the enrichments from smegma and mucus were 5,000 and 50 cells/inoculum for the conventional PCR compared to 500 and 50 cells/inoculum for the 5′ Taq nuclease assay. Field sampling confirmed the sensitivity and the specificity of the 5′ Taq nuclease assay by detecting an additional 40 bulls that were not detected by culture. Urine-inoculated samples demonstrated comparable detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis by both culture and the 5′ Taq nuclease assay; however, urine was found to be less effective than smegma for bull sampling. Three infected bulls were tested repetitively to compare sampling tools, and the bull rasper proved to be the most suitable, as evidenced by the improved ease of specimen collection and the consistent detection of higher levels of C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The 5′ Taq nuclease assay demonstrates a statistically significant association with culture (χ2 = 29.8; P < 0.001) and significant improvements for the detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis-infected animals from crude clinical extracts following prolonged transport. PMID:16517880

  15. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial washing and vaginal mucus samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B W; Devenish, J; Lutze-Wallace, C L; Milnes, D; Robertson, R H; Berlie-Surujballi, G

    2004-10-01

    A monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was described and evaluated for use as a presumptive screening test for detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial washing and vaginal mucus samples. A total of 725 diagnostic samples collected in the field and submitted in Clark's transport enrichment medium (TEM) were analyzed. Cultural isolation of C. fetus was used as the standard for comparison. After incubation of the TEM vials for 4-5 days, fluid was removed for culture and ELISA testing. A sandwich ELISA format was used and the target antigen was C. fetus lipopolysaccharides (LPS). A rabbit anti-C. fetus polyclonal antiserum was used as the capture antibody. Murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to C. fetus serotype A and B LPS core and O-polysaccharides and a goat anti-mouse horseradish peroxidase conjugate were used as detection antibodies. ELISA and culture results for the diagnostic samples were in complete agreement. Seven hundred and eight samples were negative by both tests. All 17 culture positive samples were positive by ELISA with a MAb to LPS core. The ELISA with MAbs to LPS O-polysaccharides detected all culture positive samples with the homologous C. fetus serotype. Sixty-six preputial wash samples from three known C. fetus culture positive bulls were also analyzed. Forty-nine of these samples were positive by both ELISA and culture, 16 were positive by ELISA only, and one was negative by both ELISA and culture. The results indicate that this ELISA is useful as a screening test for the detection of C. fetus in diagnostic samples. PMID:15381269

  16. Campylobacter spp. Zoonotic micro organism

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanović Snežana

    2008-01-01

    There are two species of Campylobacter but, for human and animal health the most important are Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and for animal species also Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter laridis. Different temperatures, drying, pH of the environment, disinfectants, spices and probiotics and antibiotics influence the growth and multiplication of this micro organism in the animal as well as in the animal products. Campylobacter is present everywhere in the nature: in water, soil...

  17. Campylobacter as a venereal disease in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Visser, I.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Pastoor, P.W.; Strampel, J.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of AI, venereal diseases caused by Tritrichomonas fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis haved been eradicated in The Netherlands. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus can cause sporadic abortion and early embryonic death. When natural breeding is practised, venereal dise

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  20. Interaction of campylobacter species with antibody, complement and phagocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernatowska, E.; Jose, P; Davies, H; Stephenson, M.; Webster, D

    1989-01-01

    The opsonisation of four different campylobacter species for human neutrophils was studied using a chemiluminescence system and electron microscopy. Opsonisation of Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter jejuni was mediated by antibody and enhanced by complement. Antibody was not, however, required for the phagocytosis of Campylobacter pylori because it activates the classical pathway of complement directly. This unusual property may be important in the pathogenesis of C p...

  1. Comparative in vitro activities of twelve antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter species.

    OpenAIRE

    Fliegelman, R M; Petrak, R M; Goodman, L. J.; Segreti, J; Trenholme, G M; Kaplan, R L

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 27 Campylobacter jejuni, 31 Campylobacter coli, and 30 Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strains to 12 antimicrobial agents was determined. Ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline derivative, was the most active agent tested. Antimicrobial susceptibility differed among the three species tested.

  2. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  3. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485ET, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this species....

  4. Effect of sample pooling and transport conditions on the clinical sensitivity of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in preputial samples from bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerra, Alvaro; Waldner, Cheryl L; Pellegrino, Andrea; Macdonald, Nicole; Chaban, Bonnie; Hill, Janet E; Hendrick, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC) presents significant challenges, as traditional methods lack sensitivity when prolonged transport of samples is required. Assays of preputial samples by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provide good sensitivity and high throughput capabilities. However, there is limited information on the acceptable duration of transport and temperature during transport of samples. In addition, the use of pooled samples has proven to be a valuable strategy for the diagnosis of other venereal diseases in cattle. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of sample pooling and of transport time and temperature on the clinical sensitivity of a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in preputial samples from beef bulls. Eight infected bulls and 176 virgin yearling bulls were used as the source of samples. The qPCR sensitivity was comparable for unpooled samples and pools of 5 samples, whereas sensitivity was decreased for pools of 10 samples. Sensitivity for the various pool sizes improved with repeated sampling. For shorter-term transport (2 and 48 h), sensitivity was greatest when the samples were stored at 4°C and 30°C, whereas for longer-term transport (96 h) sensitivity was greatest when the samples were stored at -20°C. The creation of pools of 5 samples is therefore a good option to decrease costs when screening bulls for BGC with the qPCR assay of direct preputial samples. Ideally the samples should be stored at 4°C and arrive at the laboratory within 48 h of collection, but when that is not possible freezing at -20°C could minimize the loss of sensitivity. PMID:26733730

  5. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  6. Serotipos de Campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni aislado en carne de ave para consumo humano y en muestras de heces de niños con diarrea Campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni serotypes in avian meat for human consumption and in faecal samples of children with diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fernández

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a las aves de consumo como un importante reservorio de C. jejuni ssp jejuni y sus subproductos alimenticios como principal vehículo, fueron serotipificadas 50 cepas aisladas de carne de ave para consumo humano, correlacionándolas epidemiológicamente con los serotipos encontrados en 50 cepas aisladas de niños con diarrea. Las cepas de C.jejuni ssp jejuni fueron serotipificadas mediante la técnica de hemaglutinación pasiva descrita por Penner, utilizando un kit comercial (DENKA SEIKEN, conteniendo los 25 sueros tipificadores para los serotipos descritos como los más frecuentes. Los serotipos A, B, F, L, N e Y fueron aislados concomitantemente en ambos tipos de muestras. Los serotipos de mayor aislamiento en las muestras de origen humano fueron Z2 (16% y Z5 (12%, mientras que en las de origen aviar fueron los serotipos A (28%, C (10%, L (10% e Y (10%. Al no coexistir los serotipos Z y C, en ambos grupos muestrales, es posible inferir la existencia de otros reservorios y vehículos que estén actuando como agentes transmisores de esta bacteria al ser humano.Having in mind that fowl and avian byproducts for human consumption are important reservoirs and vehicles for C. jejuni ssp. jejuni, a serotyping study was conducted in 50 strains isolated from avian meat and 50 isolated from human diarrhoeic stools. C. jejuni ssp. jejuni serotyping was carried out using a commercial kit with 25 antisera (DENKA SEIKEN, based on the Penner’s passive haemagglutination technique. Serotypes A, B, F, L, N e Y were concomitantly found in both kinds of samples. Serotypes Z2 (16% and Z5 (12% were the most frequently found in human strains, whereas serotypes A (28%, C (10%, L (10% and Y (10% were the most frequently isolated from avian samples. However, serotypes Z and C did not coexist in both types of samples. The latter results suggest that additionally to fowl and avian meat, there might be other animal reservoirs and vehicles that could act as

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H.; Parker, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H; Parker, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  9. Eleutherine americana: a candidate for the control of Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirak, T; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected Thai medicinal plants (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, and Eleutherine americana Merr.) against Campylobacter spp. was investigated. Sixty-five Campylobacter, including 39 isolates from humans and 26 isolates from chicken samples, were tested. Reference Campylobacter spp. that are commonly encountered in gastroenteritis were included. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated good antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. Inhibition zones ranged from 10 to 37 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Campylobacter isolates from humans and chicken samples ranged from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL and 62.50 to 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 31.25 to 1,000 μg/mL for isolates from humans and 125 to 1,000 μg/mL from chicken isolates. The bactericidal activity of the ethanolic extracts of E. americana against important Campylobacter spp., including Campylobacter coli MUMT 18630, Campylobacter fetus ATCC 27374, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 81176, Campylobacter lari ATCC 43675, and Campylobacter upsaliensis DMST 19055, were assessed at MIC, 2 MIC, and 4 MIC by counting viable cells after various time intervals. At 4 MIC, the level of the tested isolates decreased by 2 to 5 log-fold within 8 h. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated antibacterial activity against all Campylobacter spp. from both human and chicken isolates. Further investigation of this plant species may provide an alternative medicine for Campylobacter infection and an effective food additive to prevent the infection. PMID:21406364

  10. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates. PMID:25872616

  11. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  12. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...

  13. Divergent distribution of the sensor kinase CosS in non-thermotolerant campylobacter species and its functional incompatibility with the response regulator CosR of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung Hwang

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems are commonly composed of a sensor histidine kinase and a cognate response regulator, modulating gene expression in response to environmental changes through a phosphorylation-dependent process. CosR is an OmpR-type response regulator essential for the viability of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogenic species causing human gastroenteritis. Although CosR is a response regulator, its cognate sensor kinase has not been identified in C. jejuni. In this study, DNA sequence analysis of the cosR flanking regions revealed that a gene encoding a putative sensor kinase, which we named cosS, is prevalent in non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., but not in thermotolerant campylobacters. Phosphorylation assays indicated that C. fetus CosS rapidly autophosphorylates and then phosphorylates C. fetus CosR, suggesting that the CosRS system constitutes a paired two-component signal transduction system in C. fetus. However, C. fetus CosS does not phosphorylate C. jejuni CosR, suggesting that CosR may have different regulatory cascades between thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter species. Comparison of CosR homolog amino acid sequences showed that the conserved phosphorylation residue (D51, which is present in all non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., is absent from the CosR homologs of thermotolerant Campylobacter species. However, C. jejuni CosR was not phosphorylated by C. fetus CosS even after site-directed mutagenesis of N51D, implying that C. jejuni CosR may possibly function phosphorylation-independently. In addition, the results of cosS mutational analysis indicated that CosS is not associated with the temperature dependence of the Campylobacter spp. despite its unique divergent distribution only in non-thermotolerant campylobacters. The findings in this study strongly suggest that thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have different signal sensing mechanisms

  14. Epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter , causing human infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, is mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products.Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Campylobacter isolates were serotyped, using a modificati

  15. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  16. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  17. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  18. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  19. Aislamiento de especies termotolerantes de Campylobacter de aguas fluviales utilizando dos métodos de colecta Isolation of thermotolerant species of Campylobacter from river water using two collection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FERNANDEZ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni y C. coli son agentes zoonóticos de infecciones intestinales que pueden contaminar cuerpos de agua. Varios brotes de gastroenteritis por Campylobacter asociados al consumo de agua han sido descritos. En este estudio se compara el rendimiento de los métodos de la tórula de Moore (MSM y de filtración por membrana para el aislamiento de Campylobacter en 181 muestras de agua obtenidas del curso urbano del río Calle-Calle. En el 24.3% de las muestras obtenidas por MSM y en el 7.2% de las obtenidas por MFM fue posible aislar especies termotolerantes de Campylobacter, siendo C. coli aislado en mayor proporción que C. jejuni. Los resultados sugieren que MSM es un método eficiente para el aislamiento de estas bacterias a partir de aguaCampylobacter jejuni and C. coli are zoonotic agents of intestinal infection that could contaminate water bodies. Several outbreaks of Campylobacter gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated water have been reported. Various methods have been described to determine the presence of these bacteria in water bodies. In this study the performance of the Moore swab (MSM and the filtration through membrane methods (MFM for the isolation of Campylobacter from 181 water samples obtained from the urban course of the Calle-Calle river water samples was compared. Campylobacter species were isolated in 24.3% of the samples obtained with MSM and in 7.2% of those processed by MFM thus, appearing MSM as an efficient method to isolate Campylobacter from river water samples

  20. Fathers and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, George W

    1986-04-01

    Harris postulates that in certain instances it would be morally impermissible for a woman to have an abortion because it would be a wrongful harm to the father and a violation of his autonomy. He constructs and analyzes five cases chosen to elucidate the moral issues involved and concludes that, for a man to lay claim to the fetus being his in a sense that the mother is obligated to respect, the fetus must be the result of his having pursued a legitimate interest in procreation in a morally legitimate way. When a man has satisfied the requirements of autonomy both for himself and for his sexual partner in regard to the interest in procreation, the woman has a prima facie obligation to him not to harm the fetus. Therefore, unless there is some contravening moral consideration that overrides this obligation, the abortion of the fetus is morally impermissible. PMID:11658724

  1. Media for Campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite their recent elaboration and the many variations in antibiotic combinations designed to attain selectivity, highly selective liquid and solid culture media for Campylobacter jejuni have proved satisfactory provided they are incubated at about 42°C and in a microaerophilic atmosphere such as

  2. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te laten treden tegen Campylobacter", zegt Wagenaar die werkt bij het CVI en hoogleraar is aan de Universiteit Utrecht. "Geen van de vaccins die onderzoekers tot nu hebben uitgeprobeerd werken"

  3. Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the

  4. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  5. Campylobacter Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    In several countries quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) have been performed for Campylobacter in chicken meat. The models constructed for this purpose provide a good example of the development of QMRA in general and illustrate the diversity of available methods. Despite the...... differences between the models, the most prominent conclusions of the QMRAs are similar. These conclusions for example relate to the large risk of highly contaminated meat products and the insignificance of contamination from Campylobacter positive flocks to negative flocks during slaughter and processing...

  6. Campylobacter isolation from the feces of sheep with a history of reproductive disorders bred in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Huber Rizzo; Lilian Gregory; Fidel Beraldi; Aline Feola de Carvalho; Eliana Scarcelli Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a significant cause of sheep abortion in most sheep-raising countries. The relationship between the presence of Campylobacter spp. in fecal samples and reproductive disorders was investigated in 274 sheep from 28 properties in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Biological samples from 16 aborted fetuses, one uterus, six placentas, five uterine secretion samples, five vaginal swabs, 17 semen samples, and three preputial swabs were also subjected to bacterial isolation. T...

  7. Campylobacter pylori gastritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahony, M. J.; Wyatt, J I; Littlewood, J M

    1988-01-01

    Campylobacter pylori colonisation of the stomach is strongly associated with type B non-autoimmune gastritis in adults. In a retrospective study of 38 gastric biopsy specimens taken during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in children attending this hospital we found C pylori in nine (24%). Ten biopsy specimens showed histological evidence of gastritis and C pylori was found in eight.

  8. Actividad fibrolítica de hongos ruminales aislados de ecosistemas tropicales

    OpenAIRE

    Gualdrón Duarte, Laura; Mayorga, O; Rodríguez, Diego Alberto; Manovacía, Patricia; Martín, Alejandro; Carulla Fornaguera, Juan Evangelista; Barahona, Rolando

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó la capacidad de degradación de sustratos altamente fibrosos por 18 aislados fungales ruminales en fermentaciones de 120 horas utilizando como única fuente de carbono pasto colosuana (Bothriochloa pertusa). Dentro del ensayo se incluyeron aislados pertenecientes a los géneros Neocallimastix, Orpinomyces y Piromyces. De acuerdo con los parámetros del modelo de Gompertz, la fase de adaptación de los aislados fue de 23,8 horas (h) ± 4,20, con una producción de gas promedio de 195 ml/g s...

  9. [The fetus and noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinka, C; Lechner, T; Stephan, K

    1997-01-01

    From 23 weeks of gestation some and from 28 weeks all healthy fetuses are capable of reacting to sound stimulation. The intrauterine acoustic environment is dominated by maternal sounds--heartbeat, breathing, the mother's voice, borborygmi and sounds caused by body movements. Background noise is never below 28 dB and can rise to 84 dB when the mother is singing. Noises that are meant to reach the fetus must be louder than the background noise and must be of low frequency as high frequency sounds are damped by maternal tissue. Vibroacoustic stimulation tests (VAST) have become popular in pregnancy surveillance over the last 20 years, mostly using an artificial larynx. Advantages and problems of the various VAST protocols in fetal monitoring are discussed in the light of animal experiments and clinical studies. Health legislation laws in most countries forbid pregnant women to work in surroundings with a high noise level (80 dB continuous noise and/or rapid impulse noise changes of 40 dB). Whereas regulations for pregnant women are easy to enforce in industry, pregnant women employed in discos or performing as musicians spend most of their working day exposed to noise impact higher than the recommended limit. PMID:9483870

  10. Multiple fetuses in fetu:imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetus in fetu is an extremely rare developmental abnormality secondary to abnormal embryogenesis in a diamniotic monochorionic pregnancy. It occurs when a vertebrate fetus is enclosed within the abdomen of a normally developing fetus. This report describes the prospective diagnosis of fetus in fetu by findings on a plain radiograph and CT scan. At surgery, two fetus in fetu were discovered. (orig.)

  11. Multiple fetuses in fetu:imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Krishna V.; Vinaya, Kikkeri; Maximin, Suresh; Barrerras, Jose [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Staten Island, NY 10310 (United States); Haller, Jack O. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Velchek, Francesca [Department of Pediatric Surgery, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Staten Island, NY 10310 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Fetus in fetu is an extremely rare developmental abnormality secondary to abnormal embryogenesis in a diamniotic monochorionic pregnancy. It occurs when a vertebrate fetus is enclosed within the abdomen of a normally developing fetus. This report describes the prospective diagnosis of fetus in fetu by findings on a plain radiograph and CT scan. At surgery, two fetus in fetu were discovered. (orig.)

  12. Multiple fetuses in fetu:imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Krishna V; Vinaya, Kikkeri; Haller, Jack O; Maximin, Suresh; Barrerras, Jose; Velchek, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    Fetus in fetu is an extremely rare developmental abnormality secondary to abnormal embryogenesis in a diamniotic monochorionic pregnancy. It occurs when a vertebrate fetus is enclosed within the abdomen of a normally developing fetus. This report describes the prospective diagnosis of fetus in fetu by findings on a plain radiograph and CT scan. At surgery, two fetus in fetu were discovered. PMID:12497241

  13. Improved Biotyping Schemes for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (20 strains) and Campylobacter coli (12 strains) were assigned to four biovars for each species based on phenotypic tests that were easy to perform and interpret. The resulting biotyping schemes offer a greater degree of distinction among C. jejuni and C. coli strains than any of the other biotyping schemes previously described for these organisms.

  14. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  15. Analytical Utility of Campylobacter Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to address the analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies in preparation for an upcoming United States Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) baseline study to enumerate Campylobacter...

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice ...... acquired resistance genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter.......Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by...

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves with and without diarrhea in Minas Gerais state, Brazil Susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras de Campylobacter sp isoladas de bezerros com e sem diarréia, no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Leite Miranda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility of 25 Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves with and without diarrhea - 7 C. coli, 16 C. fetus and 2 C. jejuni was studied by the disk diffusion method. Eleven antimicrobial agents were tested amikacin, ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, penicillin G, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. All Campylobacter sp strains were susceptible to amikacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin and nitrofurantoin. Three strains were moderately susceptible to kanamycin (2 C. coli and 1 C. fetus. All the strains were resistant to penicillin G. Two C. fetus strains were moderately susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and 1 C. coli, 9 C. fetus and 2 C. jejuni strains were resistant. Two C. fetus strains were moderately susceptible to tetracycline and 3 C. coli, 2 C. fetus and 1 C. jejuni strains were resistant. Eleven strains showed multidrug resistance (2 C. coli, 8 C. fetus and 1 C. jejuni. There was no correlation between resistance of Campylobacter sp strains to antimicrobials and the occurrence of diarrhea in calves. The frequency of resistance and, most importantly, multi drug resistance found among Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were high and the patterns of resistance observed are related to the antimicrobials agents most largely used in cattle in Brazil.Foi estudado o perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de 25 amostras de Campylobacter sp isoladas de bezerros com e sem diarréia (7 C. coli, 16 C. fetus e 2 C. jejuni. Foram testados pelo método de difusão 11 agentes antimicrobianos: amicacina, ampicilina, canamicina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina, gentamicina, neomicina, nitrofurantoína, penicilina G, tetraciclina e sulfametoxazole-trimetoprim. Todas as amostras de Campylobacter sp foram susceptíveis a amicacina, ampicilina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina

  18. A MOLECULAR (PCR SURVEY ON ABORTIONS CAUSED BY Campylobacter spp. IN THE DAIRY CATTLE OF TABRIZ-IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. HAMALI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. induced abortions in Tabriz (northwest Iran dairy herds and also to determine the pathogenic species responsible. A total number of 76 aborted fetuses and related placentas were admitted to the large animal clinic at the University of Tabriz, from May 2008 to August 2010. Tissue samples were collected from several fetal organs including liver, kidney, lung, spleen, heart, stomach fluid and placenta, then separately pulverized under liquid nitrogen and finally stored at -20°C until DNA extraction. DNA extraction from frozen tissues samples was performed using a commercial kit (AccuPrep Genomic DNA Extraction Kit, Bioneer, S. Korea following the manufacturer’s instructions. Of 76 submissions (fetuses, placentas, 3 (3.9% sample were diagnosed positive to the Campylobacter fetus subsp. Veneralis by the PCR protocol. This is the first report on abortion caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. Veneralis from the dairy herds of Tabriz-Iran.

  19. CARACTERIZACIÓN FENOTÍPICA DE AISLADOS DE RIZOBIOS PROCEDENTES DE LA LEGUMINOSA FORRAJERA Canavalia ensiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Hernández Forte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar fenotípicamente aislados de rizobios procedentes de la leguminosa forrajera Canavalia ensiformis. Se caracterizaron doce aislados, cinco posibles miembros del género Rhizobium/ Sinorhizobium, siete posibles integrantes del género Bradyrhizobium y dos cepas comerciales, BR 2001 y BR 2003a. Para la caracterización fenotípica de los aislados bacterianos se estudió su capacidad de utilizar seis fuentes de carbono, la tolerancia a condiciones de acidez y a diferentes niveles de cloruro de sodio (NaCl, la resistencia a seis antibióticos así como su crecimiento en tres temperaturas de incubación. Se determinó además la capacidad de estos aislados de producir polihidroxibutiratos (PHB. Todos los aislados estudiados utilizaron la lactosa, glucosa y manitol como fuentes de carbono. Uno de los aislados de rápido crecimiento resultó el más tolerante a pH 4.5. Los aislados posibles miembros del género Rhizobium/ Sinorhizobium toleraron una mayor concentración de NaCl que los posibles integrantes del género Bradyrhizobium. Tres de los aislados de rápido crecimiento fueron resistentes a los seis antibióticos utilizados. Cuando los aislados fueron incubados a 370C todos, con excepción del el aislado CP3 y la cepa comercial BR 2001, presentaron un crecimiento similar al control. El aislado CP10, de lento crecimiento, tuvo la capacidad de producir las mayores concentraciones de PHB (0.023 g.L-1.

  20. Survival and resuscitation of ten strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveerach, P.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2003-01-01

    The culturability of 10 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was studied after the bacteria were exposed to acid conditions for various periods of time. Campylobacter cells could not survive 2 h under acid conditions (formic acid at pH 4). The 10 Campylobacter strains could not be

  1. Molecular subtyping methods for campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause worldwide of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. The continued development of more effective and informative typing methods is necessary to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and population dynamics of this important pathogen. Comparative genome ind...

  2. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzhat, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses) and group II (third-trimester fetuses), followed by dissection. Result. (1) Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%). In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2) Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3) Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4) Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position. PMID:27313956

  3. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses and group II (third-trimester fetuses, followed by dissection. Result. (1 Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%. In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2 Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3 Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4 Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position.

  4. Campylobacter pylori, the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis, is not a true Campylobacter sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Romaniuk, P J; Zoltowska, B; Trust, T J; Lane, D J; Olsen, G.J.; Pace, N R; Stahl, D A

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of partial 16S rRNA sequences from representative Campylobacter species indicates that the Campylobacter species form a previously undescribed basic eubacterial group, which is related to the other major groups only by very deep branching. This analysis was extended to include the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis, Campylobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pyloridis). The distance between C. pylori and the other Campylobacter species is sufficient to exclude the p...

  5. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to ...

  6. FETUS PAPYRACEOUS : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetus Papyraceous is a rare manifestation of discordant growth in twins . It is usually diagnosed during labour or after delivery of papyraceous . The main complication is that the normal twin and occasionally the mother may be adversely affected .

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by...... acquired resistance genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  8. Concerted evolution in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerted evolution is the phenomenon in which multiple copies of genes maintain sequence similarity in a single individual while the genes continue to diverge between individuals. Concerted evolution has been described in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli for the pair of flagellin genes, which are ...

  9. Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme of Lens in Fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kexi Ding; Yasong Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The LDH isoenzyme patterns were evaluated in lens of fetus to study the metabolism in human lenses.Methods: LDH isoenzyme electrophoresis was performed in 15 lenses of human fetus aged from 4~6 months.Results: There are 5 bands of LDH in fetus lens. LDH4 lever is the highest, and LDH1 is the lowest, especially in the cortex of lens. LDH1 is higher in lens of 4 months of age than in that of 5 and 6 months of age.Conclusions: LDH isoenzyme in lens of fetus shows mainly anaerobic metabolism in development, but there is also aerobic metabolism, especially in younger fetus.

  10. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vinni; Rosenquist, Hanne; Baggesen, Dorte Lau;

    2007-01-01

    Background: The predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is Campylobacter. Campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages) have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of Campylobacter in broilers. One concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host...... range often displayed by phages. To identify the potential of phages as a Campylobacter reducing agent we needed to determine their infectivity on a panel of isolates representing the Campylobacter strains found in broilers as well as humans. Results: In this study, Campylobacter phages were isolated...... from the intestines of broilers and ducks and from abattoir sewage. Twelve phages were investigated to determine their ability to infect the Campylobacter Penner serotypes commonly present in Danish poultry and patients with campylobacteriosis. A total of 89% of the Campylobacter jejuni strains and 14...

  11. Campylobacter hyoilei Alderton et al. 1995 and Campylobacter coli Veron and Chatelain 1973 are subjective synonyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, P.; VanDoorn, L.J.; AlRashid, S.T.;

    1997-01-01

    The taxonomic affiliation of Campylobacter hyoilei was reevaluated by examining a variety of phenotypic and genotypic criteria. Whole cell protein electrophoresis and a comparison of 66 phenotypic characters revealed that reference strains of C. hyoilei were indistinguishable from Campylobacter...

  12. Campylobacter hyoilei Alderton et al. 1995 and Campylobacter coli Veron and Chatelain 1973 are subjective synonyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, P.; VanDoorn, L.J.; AlRashid, S.T.; Quint, W.G.V.; VanderPlas, J.; Chan, V.L.; On, Stephen L.W.

    1997-01-01

    The taxonomic affiliation of Campylobacter hyoilei was reevaluated by examining a variety of phenotypic and genotypic criteria. Whole cell protein electrophoresis and a comparison of 66 phenotypic characters revealed that reference strains of C. hyoilei were indistinguishable from Campylobacter c...

  13. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Heriberto Fernández; Marianne Hitschfeld

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated.Foi estabelecida a prevalência de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos, em bovinos de corte e de leite do sul do Chile. Campylobacter foi estatisticamente mais prevalent...

  14. Protozoa: a novel Campylobacter reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous in vitro studies we found that Campylobacter jejuni remained viable for longer periods of time when they were cultivated in the presence of Tetrahymena pyriformis (ciliate) and Acanthamoeba castellanii (amoeba) than when they were in an independent planktonic state. Increased survival t...

  15. A 2007 UPDATE ON CAMPYLOBACTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illnesses are estimated at 76 million cases, 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths annually in the United States. Yet the etiology—viral, bacterial, protozoan— for ~ 81.6% of these cases is unknown. Campylobacter jejuni is the number one cause of human bacterial foodborne enteritis w...

  16. In vitro susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to azithromycin and erythromycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D E; Chang, N

    1991-01-01

    MICs of azithromycin and erythromycin for 20 Campylobacter coli and 20 Campylobacter jejuni strains were determined. The results demonstrated that, for Campylobacter species, all high-level erythromycin-resistant strains were also resistant to azithromycin and that azithromycin did not exhibit increased potency in comparison with that of erythromycin.

  17. Serotypes and typability of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Nielsen, Niels Ladefoged

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is one of the most common bacterial enteric pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections are mostly food- and waterborne and especially poultry is often assumed to be an important source. The heat-stable serotyping system (the 'Penner' scheme) was used...

  18. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Waterborne Protozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Snelling, W. J.; McKenna, J. P.; Lecky, D. M.; Dooley, J. S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The failure to reduce the Campylobacter contamination of intensively reared poultry may be partially due to Campylobacter resisting disinfection in water after their internalization by waterborne protozoa. Campylobacter jejuni and a variety of waterborne protozoa, including ciliates, flagellates, and alveolates, were detected in the drinking water of intensively reared poultry by a combination of culture and molecular techniques. An in vitro assay showed that C. jejuni remained viable when in...

  19. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Norkrans, G.; Svedhem, A

    1982-01-01

    An epidemiological study on Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was performed in an urban Swedish community. The study included 55 patients gathered during a six-month period. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) were infected outside Sweden. Campylobacter enterocolitis was rare among children within the country. Patients infected in Sweden had eaten chicken significantly more often than a corresponding control group. Seven out of nine chicken consuming campylobacter patients also had prepared t...

  20. Substrate utilization by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, H.N.; Rollins, D.M.; Weiss, E.

    1986-10-01

    An attempt was made to elucidate in Campylobacter spp. some of the physiologic characteristics that are reflected in the kinetics of CO/sub 2/ formation from four /sup 14/C-labeled substrates. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were grown in a biphasic medium, and highly motile spiral cells were harvested at 12 h. The cells were incubated with 0.02 M glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, or formate, or with concentrations of these substrates ranging from 0.0032 to 0.125 M. All four substrates were metabolized very rapidly by both species. A feature of many of these reactions, particularly obvious with /sup 2/chemically bond-ketoglutarate, was an immediate burst of CO/sub 2/ production followed by CO/sub 2/ evolution at a more moderate rate. These diphasic kinetics of substrate utilization were not seen in comparable experiments with Escherichia coli grown and tested under identical conditions. With C. jejuni, CO/sub 2/ production from formate proceeded rapidly for the entire period of incubation. The rate of metabolism of glutamate, glutamine, and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate by both species was greatly enhanced by increased substrate concentration. The approach to the study of the metabolism of campylobacters here described may be useful in detecting subtle changes in the physiology of cells as they are maintained past their logarithmic growth phase.

  1. Protecting fetuses from certain harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E L

    1998-09-01

    Deborah Mathieu's proposal for state intervention in the lives of pregnant substance abusers in order to prevent serious harm to their future children sparked a lively debate in this journal. The present discussion characterizes the three main arguments offered against her proposal as (a) the "uncertainty principle"--the inability to predict which fetuses will be affected, (b) the "father factor"--gender bias with respect to prenatal damage, and (c) "critical periods"--the vulnerability of the embryo/fetus at different times of pregnancy. Each of these arguments is examined in the specific context of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Since the birth of a child with FAS is a virtual certainty if a woman has previously given birth to a child with FAS, since no father has ever sired a child with FAS unless his spouse is an alcoholic, and since the most damaging effects are those associated with exposure throughout and especially late in pregnancy, none of the arguments offered against Mathieu's proposal are relevant in this particularly narrow set of circumstances. While Mathieu's proposal seems pertinent in this situation, her proposal would be even more effective if modified as suggested here. PMID:12408145

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Hippurate Hydrolase of Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Marina; Gyles, Carlton; Chan, Voon Loong; Odumeru, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Eleven monoclonal antibodies raised against recombinant Campylobacter jejuni hippurate hydrolase were tested for binding to lysates from 19 C. jejuni strains, 12 other Campylobacter strains, and 21 non-Campylobacter strains. Several monoclonal antibodies bound to C. jejuni but not to other Campylobacter species and may be useful in a species-specific immunoassay.

  3. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  4. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca; Marcelo Emílio Beletti; Roberta Torres de Melo; Eliane Pereira Mendonça; Letícia Ríspoli Coelho; Priscila Christen Nalevaiko; Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to...

  5. Compuesto bactericida contra Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Gañan, M.; Carrascosa, Alfonso V.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Adolfo J.

    2008-01-01

    Compuesto bactericida contra Campylobacter jejuni. Uso de algunos compuestos fenólicos como agentes antibacterianos contra C jejuni. Además de sus usos para conservación de alimentos, suplemento alimenticio para animales y para la elaboración de una composición farmacéutica para el tratamiento de enfermedades causadas por C. jejuni, debido a su actividad frente a este microorganismos.

  6. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong;

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  7. Campylobacter in zwemwater en mogelijke emissiebronnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, H.; Rijs, G.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Leenen, I.

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter vormt samen met Salmonella en Shigella één van de belangrijkste bacteriële ziekteverwekkers van het maagdarmkanaal bij de mens. De bacterie Campylobacter komt voor bij eenden, meeuwen, kippen en kalkoenen, maar is ook aanwezig in koeien, varkens en schapen. Al deze dieren zijn drager,

  8. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Dybdahl, Jens; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Madsen, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  9. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkrans, G; Svedhem, A

    1982-08-01

    An epidemiological study on Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was performed in an urban Swedish community. The study included 55 patients gathered during a six-month period. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) were infected outside Sweden. Campylobacter enterocolitis was rare among children within the country. Patients infected in Sweden had eaten chicken significantly more often than a corresponding control group. Seven out of nine chicken consuming campylobacter patients also had prepared the fresh chicken alone, and none of their family members became ill. Thus the preparation of food contaminated with Campylobacter seems to elevate the risk for contracting the disease. Sick household pets transmitted the campylobacter infection to two patients. Forty-six of the patients had a total of 85 close household members. Three definite secondary cases were found. There was no evidence of transmission of Campylobacter by food prepared by two cooks who were working while still being asymptomatic excreters. Clinical reinfection with Campylobacter was observed in one patient. No patients became long-term carriers of Campylobacter. PMID:7097000

  10. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a modifi

  11. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods, and...

  12. Trisomy 15 mosaicism in an IVF fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, C P; T. Davis; Seller, M J

    1992-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of an IVF pregnancy in a woman aged 41 years showed a fetus mosaic for trisomy 15. The fetus had dysmorphic features, hypoplastic adrenal glands, and an accessory spleen. Both IVF and advanced maternal age would seem to increase the risk of trisomy 15.

  13. Benzoquinona e hidroquinona preniladas y otros constituyentes aislados de piper bogotense c. dc.

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Luz Angela; Avella, Eliseo; Puentes de Díaz, Aura María

    2010-01-01

    Dos compuestos, que innovan la química conocida del género Piper, (2'E,6'E)-2- famesilhidroquinona, (2'E,6'E)-2-famesil- 1,4-benzoquinona, y a-D-glucosa fueron aislados de los frutos de Piper bogotense C. DC; los tallos y las hojas presentaron, como constimyentes mayoritarios, lactama del ácido 10-amino-4-hidroxi-2,3-dimetoxifenantreno carboxílico, 1,2-metilendioxi- 6-metil-4H-dibenzo lde,g] quinolina- ,5(6H)-diona (Cefaradiona A), estigmasterol y sitosterol. Adicionalmente de las ho...

  14. Benzoquinona e hidroquinona preniladas y otros constituyentes aislados de Piper Bogotense C. DC.

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Angela Peña; Eliseo Avella; Aura María Puentes de Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Dos compuestos, que innovan la química conocida del género Piper, (2'E,6'E)-2- famesilhidroquinona, (2'E,6'E)-2-famesil- 1,4-benzoquinona, y a-D-glucosa fueron aislados de los frutos de Piper bogotense C. DC; los tallos y las hojas presentaron, como constimyentes mayoritarios, lactama del ácido 10-amino-4-hidroxi-2,3-dimetoxifenantreno carboxílico, 1,2-metilendioxi- 6-metil-4H-dibenzo lde,g] quinolina- ,5(6H)-diona (Cefaradiona A), estigmasterol y sitosterol. Adicionalmente de las ho...

  15. Actividad antiinflamatoria de d-amirona y 4, 7-dimetoxiapigenina aislados de alnus acuminata

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Ahmed; Avendaño, Inés Yamile

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo determinó el efecto antiinflamatorio de d-amirona (olean-13(18)-en-3-ona) y 4',7-dimetoxiapigenina (5-hidroxi-4¢,7-dimetoxiflavona), aislados de Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae), por el método del edema plantar en ratas hembra, en dosis de 30, 60 y 100 mg/kg y de 30, 60 y 80 mg/kg respectivamente. Ambas sustancias mostraron una actividad antiinflamatoria significativa. El efecto más alto de d-amirona se presentó a la primera hora en las tres dosis ensayadas comparable con el e...

  16. Survey of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in different taxa and ecological guilds of migratory birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fioretti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 169 faecal samples were collected from migrating birds, belonging to the Order of Passeriformes, in Campania region in order to isolate Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 of the 169 birds examined (23.1%. Among these 36 were identified as C. jejuni and the remaining strains were identified as Campylobacter coli. Given the high isolation rates wild birds could be considered natural reservoir of infection.

  17. Campylobacter isolation from the feces of sheep with a history of reproductive disorders bred in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Rizzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are a significant cause of sheep abortion in most sheep-raising countries. The relationship between the presence of Campylobacter spp. in fecal samples and reproductive disorders was investigated in 274 sheep from 28 properties in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Biological samples from 16 aborted fetuses, one uterus, six placentas, five uterine secretion samples, five vaginal swabs, 17 semen samples, and three preputial swabs were also subjected to bacterial isolation. The bacteria were isolated from fecal samples of 14.9% (5/28 of the properties, affecting 3.65% (10/274 of the sheep, 3.5% (9/255 of females and 5.3% (1/19 of males. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species, present in 66.67% (7 of the positive samples, followed by Campylobacter coli, present in 22.22% (2, and one strain was identified as Campylobacter spp. The birth of “weak” lambs (p=0.06, OR=6.83 and CI=1.73 to 27.05 and neonatal death (p=0.087, OR=3.5 and CI=0.83 to 14.72 were associated with the fecal isolation of Campylobacter spp. Diarrhea was also associated with the bacteria (p=0.003, OR=9.83 and CI=2.19 to 44.18. The dissemination of Campylobacter spp. in Brazilian sheep is low and that, at present, the existing strains are not responsible for significant economic losses in sheep production, especially in adult animals.

  18. Campylobacter Enteritis among Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pourmand

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter enteritis is a common form of acute gastroenteritis. Among children, especially in developing countries, Campylobacter infections can cause sever life-threatening diarrheal disease. The incidence of Campylobacter infection among children is age related with a higher incidence among younger children in the developing world whereas in industrialized countries the incidence is highest in older children. In a study of American children, Campylobacter was isolated in 4.8% of diarrheal stools in aged 1-4 years. In 1985 the prevalence of Campylobacter diarrheal was 4.4%, whereas in current report 6% of stool samples from children aged<5 years with diarrhea grew Campylobacter jejuni. There were no significant differences between age groups of patients. All thirteen isolated strains of Campylobacter were resistance to Bactrim, Colistin and Polymyxin B and were sensitive to Neomycin, Erythromycin, Gentamicin and Nalidixic acid. The incidence of human campylobacteriosis is increasing worldwide. Thus, public health awareness about the problem is necessary, with a view towards setting up national surveillance programs.

  19. Evaluation of 11 PCR assays for species-level identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jordan, Penelope J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity and specificity of 11 PCR assays described for the species identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using 111 type, reference, and field strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and Campylobacter lari. For six assays, an additional 21 type strains...... representing related Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species were also included. PCR tests were initially established in the laboratory by optimizing conditions with respect to five type and reference strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. One PCR test for C. coli failed to give appropriate...

  20. Campylobacter spp. u mesu peradi

    OpenAIRE

    Levak, dr.med.vet.,, Stefani

    2015-01-01

    Termorolerantne vrste bakterijskog roda Campylobacter (C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, C. upsaliensis) su najčešći uzročnici bolesti kampilobakterioze koja se prenosi hranom u razvijenim zemljama. Meso peradi, osobito svježe pileće meso, smatra se najznačajnijim izvorom infekcije za ljude. Križna kontaminacija je najznačajniji put prijenosa ovog uzročnika pa stoga prevencija predstavlja ključan način zaštite zdravlja ljudi. Širenje ove zoonoze se može spriječiti poštivanjem higijensko-sanitarnih...

  1. Safradan İzole Edilen Campylobacter Sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Yorgancıgil, Birdal; Tezeren, Deniz; Balaban, Neriman; Terzioğlu, Serdar; Öztürk, Süheyla

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1997 Haziran; 4(3) Safradan İzole Edilen Campylobacter Sp. Birdal YORGANCIGİL Deniz TEZEREN Neriman BALABAN Serdar TERZlOĞLU Süheyla ÖZTÜRK Özet Campylobacter sp. 'in neden olduğu, gastrointestinal traktüs haricindeki lokal veya sistemik infeksiyon vakaları oldukça azdır. Bu çalışmada safradan izole edilen bir Campylobacter sp. olgusu incelenmiştir. Ankara Numune Hastanesi Cerrahi Kliniğinde koles...

  2. The role of radiology in Campylobacter enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Ponette, E.; Baert, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology); Lacquet, F.; Verbist, L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Microbiology); Rutgeerts, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    A series of 18 patients with diarrhoea and positive stool cultures for Campylobacter jejuni is presented. The most important radiological features were thickening of ileal mucosal folds, of interhaustral indentations and of the ileocaecal valve, lymphoid hyperplasia and microulcerations. Radiology, as well as endoscopy, are both non-specific in Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. The importance of radiology is to exclude more typical features of other causes of inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover, before the result of the stool culture is available, the radiological features should suggest the suspicion of an acute infectious enterocolitis by Campylobacter jejuni as possible diagnosis. (orig.).

  3. Campylobacter ureolyticus: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bullman, Susan

    2011-03-01

    A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of 46, XX male fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo-Tiebas, M J; González-González, C.; Lorda-Sánchez, I.; Querejeta, M. E.; Ayuso, C; Ramos, C.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of sex differentiation disorders is extremely rare and is estimated in 1/2500 analyzed gestations. A group of this disorders are the 46, XX males and its incidence is estimated in 1/20000 male neonates. We report a male XX fetus in which the diagnosis of sex determination was requested at 20 gestation weeks to clarify the real gender of the fetus. Discrepancy between cytogenetic and ultrasonographic was detected.

  5. Integrated approach leads to less Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Hald, Birthe; Borck Høg, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information....

  6. Risicobeheersing Campylobacter op het vleeskuikenbedrijf = Campylobacter control on the broiler farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Bokma-Bakker, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    In dit onderzoek werden de risico’s voor introductie en verspreiding van Campylobacter op het vleeskuikenbedrijf geïnventariseerd. Er worden mogelijkheden aangegeven hoe deze risico’s beheerst kunnen worden. Het blijkt dat er veel mogelijkheden zijn waardoor Campylobacter geïntroduceerd of verspreid

  7. An outbreak of infectious hepatitis in commercially reared ostriches associated with Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, C.P.; On, S.L.W.; Gibson, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    lesions resembled those of vibrionic hepatitis in other avian species. Campylobacter coli was isolated from the livers of affected ostriches from five of the six properties. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from birds from the remaining property. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based (PFGE...

  8. Successive bacteremias with "Campylobacter cinaedi" and "Campylobacter fennelliae" in a bisexual male.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, V L; Hadley, W K; Fennell, C L; Flores, B. M.; Stamm, W. E.

    1987-01-01

    A bisexual human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive male had successive bacteremias with "Campylobacter cinaedi" and "Campylobacter fennelliae." Because final identification of both isolates was not completed until 1 month after the last admission of the patient, a novel and nonstandardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing method was useful in guiding timely antimicrobial therapy.

  9. Comparison of Selective Campylobacter Media for Detection and Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. on Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal illness; poultry has been linked as a primary source of contamination. Detection and enumeration of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry is difficult due to the presence of competing micro...

  10. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rastyani; Alikhani; Sedighi; Kazemi; Farhadi Kohan; Arabestani

    2015-01-01

    Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. ...

  11. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl;

    2008-01-01

    The vector potential of flies (Diptera: Brachycera) for spread of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on 5 Danish broiler farms was evaluated in a longitudinal field study from April to November 2004. First, the prevalence of C. jejuni- and C. coli-positive flies was determined in 2...... houses was estimated by trapping of insects (n = 5,936) in ventilation vents. In total, 31 flies (28 of which were of the Muscidae family) caught in farm surroundings were Campylobacter spp.-positive (C. jejuni, n = 7; C. coli, n = 23; other Campylobacter spp., n = 1). Musca domestica (L) (house fly) was...... caesar (L) (green bottle fly) of the Calliphoridae family and 2 flies of unidentified species were also positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flies varied from 0.0 in April to a peak of 16.3% in July and decreasing to 2.0% in October on a farm with pig production. On 4 broiler farms...

  12. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Perko-MÀkelÀ, PÀivikki; Isohanni, Pauliina; Katzav, Marianne; Lund, Marianne; HÀnninen, Marja-Liisa; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conven...

  13. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  14. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  15. RECOVERY OF CAMPYLOBACTER FROM COMMERCIAL BROILER HATCHERY TRAYLINERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has identified Campylobacter as one of the leading causes of foodborne illness. Poultry and poultry products have been identified as a major source of Campylobacter in human infections. Although many risk factors that contribute to Campylobacter levels have been identified, preci...

  16. FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir del extracto etanólico de las inflorescencias de la especie Piper hispidum Kunth (Piperaceae fueron aislados tres flavonoides: 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona, 5-hidroxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona y 2’,4’,6’-trimetoxidihidrochalcona. De las flavanonas aisladas fueron obtenidos los  derivados acetilados: 5-acetoxi-7-metoxiflavanona y  5-acetoxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona. Las estructuras fueron elucidadas empleando técnicas espectroscópicas y por comparación con datos de literatura. Los compuestos naturales y sus derivados fueron sometidos al bioensayo de letalidad frente a Artemia salina. El flavonoide 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona presenta la mayor actividad tóxica frente a los microcrustaceos CL50 1.8 µg/ml.

  17. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos Quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans and from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.Eight quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans with diarrheal disease were compared with 23 isolates from chicken and from laying hens. Samples were cultured on selective agar in microaerophilia, identified by conventional tests, and conserved in 17% glycerol at -70 °C. Clones were determined by RAPD-PCR employing the 1254 primer (Stern NJ. Five patterns were obtained. Patterns I, II, and V were found in both poultry and human isolates. Pattern I was obtained from poultry in a domestic henhouse. Pattern III was only obtained from humans whereas pattern IV was only obtained from poultry. A 95.3% of clones were found in both, humans and poultry. According to these

  18. Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Key Programs Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Environmental Health Services Division of Viral Diseases Division of ... Key Programs Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Environmental Health Services Division of Viral Diseases Division of ...

  19. [Characterization of Campylobacter spp. from wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glünder, G

    1989-02-01

    Bacteria of the genus Campylobacter were isolated from 28 Rooks (Corvus frugilegus), 1 Red Kite (Milvus milvus), 1 Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), 1 Coot (Fulica atra), 1 Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) and 1 Northern Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Altogether, C. jejuni biovar 1, was isolated 19x, C. jejuni biovar 2 8x and C. coli 5x. Among C. jejuni biovar 1 and 2 there were 5 isolates tolerating a content of 1.5% NaCl in the medium. H2S proof of 3 C. jejuni biovar 2 and 1 C. coli isolates resulted positive or negative dependent on incubation time of the used bacterial inoculum. Concerning Rooks the findings indicate that nestlings are more often infected with campylobacters than older birds. Only 1 campylobacter isolate could be recovered from altogether 54 birds of prey although 16 Buzzards (Buteo buteo) were investigated as nestlings. PMID:2930449

  20. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; Thurik, F. F.; Koelewijn, J. M.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases ar

  1. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  2. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    Living in a household with a dog or cat has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for acquiring campylobacteriosis, in particular, with reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis infection. In a cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark between August and December 1996, 72 healthy...... puppies and 42 healthy kittens, aged between 11 and 17 weeks, were sampled for fecal campylobacter shedding by culture of rectal swab specimens on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 32 mg/liter and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter and on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 8 mg/liter, teicoplanin...... Campylobacter spp., with a species distribution of 76% C. jejuni, 5% C. coli, and 19% C. upsaliensis, Of the kittens examined, two (5%) excreted campylobacters; both strains were C. upsaliensis, None of the chicken samples examined were found to be positive for C. upsaliensis. We concluded that young puppies...

  3. Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses from Malaria in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157683.html Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses From Malaria in Study Findings suggest ... used to treat malaria in adults also protects pregnant women and their fetuses from the disease, according ...

  4. Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Vikrant; Altermann, Eric; Olson, Jonathan; Wray, Gregory Allan; Siletzky, Robin M; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp.: C. coli 11601 and C. jejuni 11601MD, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and C. coli 6067 and C. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. The genomes provide insights on Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations. PMID:27540063

  5. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. PMID:27244295

  6. Thermophilic campylobacters in surface waters around Lancaster, UK: negative correlation with Campylobacter infections in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Betaieb, M; Telford, D R

    1990-11-01

    The incidence of campylobacter enteritis in Lancaster City Health Authority is three times the UK average for similar sizes of population and has marked seasonal peaks in May and June. Environmental monitoring of surface waters around Lancaster showed that thermophilic campylobacters were absent from drinking water from the fells and from the clean upper reaches of the River Conder but were present in the main rivers entering Morecambe Bay, the lower reaches of the River Conder, the Lancaster canal, and seawater from the Lune estuary and Morecambe Bay. All the surface waters tested showed the same seasonality, namely, higher numbers in the winter months and low numbers or none in May, June and July. The absence of thermophilic campylobacters in the summer months may be due to high sunshine levels because experiments on the effects of light showed that campylobacters in sewage effluent and seawater were eliminated within 60 and 30 min of daylight respectively but survived for 24 h in darkness. As the concentrations of campylobacters in surface waters were at their lowest precisely at the time of peak infections in the community it is unlikely that surface waters form Lancaster's reservoir of campylobacter infection for the community. PMID:2276990

  7. Oxygen requirement and tolerance of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered a microaerophile, yet it has been shown to grow in vitro under atmospheres with elevated oxygen tensions. Hence, a better understanding of the oxygen requirement and tolerance of C. jejuni is required. Bacterial growth was measured under various ...

  8. Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni for chicken embryos.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, S; Rodgers, F G

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Campylobacter jejuni was examined in chicken embryos. In this system, mortality data and histopathological findings induced by organisms and by bacterium-free filtered broth were identical. The absence in chicken embryo tissues both of organisms and of an inflammatory infiltrate suggests a toxin etiology.

  9. Campylobacter-From Gate to Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is an important bacterial foodborne pathogen. While the severity of most cases of human campylobacteriosis cases is usually slight, the prevalence of human infection, the potential for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and the gravity of long-term sequelae such as Guillain-Bar...

  10. Mundos aislados: segregación urbana y desigualdad en la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONZALO A SARAVÍ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available De qué nos habla la segregación urbana en México y cuáles son sus implicaciones en este contexto en particular, son las dos preguntas centrales que guían el análisis desarrollado en este artículo. El argumento que responde a estas dos preguntas se estructura en torno a la hipótesis de una "coexistencia de mundos aislados". Para sustentar dicha hipótesis, el autor analiza teórica y empíricamente la relación entre las dimensiones objetiva y simbólica de la segregación urbana. El análisis se basa en datos secundarios y en información obtenida a partir de entrevistas semi-estructuradas con jóvenes residentes en colonias populares y estigmatizadas de la Ciudad de México.What does urban segregation mean in México and what are its implications for this particular context? This article poses these two questions. Our response is based on the hypothesis of the "co-existence of isolated worlds." In order to support and develop this hypothesis, the author analyses the relationship between the objective and symbolic dimensions of urban segregation. The analysis is based on secondary data and semi-structured interviews with young people from poor and stigmatized neighborhoods in México City.

  11. Effects of fluorine on the human fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, W.Q. [Huaxi Medical University, Huaxi (China)

    2008-10-15

    In an endemic fluorosis area, 16 fetuses that were delivered during their sixth to eighth month of gestation by means of artificial abortion were collected and studied. The results (compared to 10 control fetuses from a non-endemic area) show that fluorine levels in tissues are obviously high, especially in brain, calvarium, and femur. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in femur and kidney was raised. By observation of the ultrastructure of samples, the number of mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosome in neurons of cerebral cortex were reduced, and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was obviously dilated. These findings indicate that the neurons of the cerebral cortex in the developing brain may be one of the targets of fluorine.

  12. Nutrition of the Fetus and Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Kennaugh, Jan M.; Hay, William W.

    1987-01-01

    Both the successful development of healthy, long-term animal models to study fetal nutrition and metabolism and the improved survival of low-birth-weight, preterm infants have focused interest and research on fetal and neonatal nutrition and metabolism. Such a focus is important, given the recent emphasis on promoting neonatal growth in preterm infants at “normal” in utero growth rates. Estimates of nutrient requirements for growth in a human fetus remain ill defined, however. Body compositio...

  13. Hidden Danger for the Fetus: Chorioamnionitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Berber

    2013-01-01

    Despite all the advances in medicine, chorioamnionitis are still an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Intrauterine infections are the most important cause of chorioamnionitis. Antenatal infections may lead to serious problems such as preterm birth and loss of the fetus in the early period and in the long term mental retardation, cerebral palsy, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Early treatment of the etiology is still the most effective treatment in terms of re...

  14. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.

  15. Genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from domestic and travel-associated human cases

    OpenAIRE

    Niederer, Lilian; Kuhnert, Peter; Egger, Ralph; Büttner, Sabina; Hächler, Herbert; Korczak, Bozena M.

    2012-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) extended with flaB typing of 425 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 42 Campylobacter coli isolates revealed quite a low overlap between human isolates from travel-associated and domestic cases in Switzerland. Men were more frequently affected by Campylobacter than women, but strains from women and, overall, from travel-associated cases showed mutations conferring quinolone resistance more frequently than strains from men and domestic cases, respectively.

  16. Detection and Typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and Analysis of Indicator Organisms in Three Waterborne Outbreaks in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Haajanen, H.; Pummi, T.; Wermundsen, K.; Katila, M.-L.; Sarkkinen, H; Miettinen, I.; Rautelin, H

    2003-01-01

    Waterborne outbreaks associated with contamination of drinking water by Campylobacter jejuni are rather common in the Nordic countries Sweden, Norway, and Finland, where in sparsely populated districts groundwater is commonly used without disinfection. Campylobacters, Escherichia coli, or other coliforms have rarely been detected in potential sources. We studied three waterborne outbreaks in Finland caused by C. jejuni and used sample volumes of 4,000 to 20,000 ml for analysis of campylobacte...

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli recovered from organic turkey farms in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Ahmed, Marwa F E; Hotzel, Helmut; Tomaso, Herbert; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Hartung, Joerg; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hafez, Hafez M

    2015-11-01

    The popularity of food produced from animals kept under an organic regimen has increased in recent years. In Germany, turkey meat consumption has increased. Despite several studies assessing the susceptibility of campylobacters to various antibiotics in poultry, no sufficient data exists regarding the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacters in organic-reared turkeys. This study provides information about antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolated from turkeys reared on organic farms in Germany. Ninety-six Campylobacter strains (41 C. jejuni and 55 C. coli) were isolated from different free-range turkey flocks. In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done using a broth microdilution test, and the presence of resistance genes to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline) was investigated. All Campylobacter isolates from organic turkeys (n = 96) were phenotypically sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol. In this study, the antibiotic susceptibilities of C. jejuni to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and naladixic acid were 56.0%, 51.3%, and 56.0%, respectively. In contrast, 44.0%, 73.0%, and 74.6% of C. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid, respectively. Replacement of the Thr-86→Ile in the gyrA gene, and the presence of the tet(O) gene were the mainly identified resistance mechanisms against fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, respectively.These results also reinforce the need to develop strategies and implement specific control procedures to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26371330

  18. Molecular Characterization of Invasive and Noninvasive Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alexandro C. T.; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Ramos-Cervantes, Pilar; Cervantes, Luz-Elena; Jiang, Xi; Pickering, Larry K.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is the primary bacterial cause of food-borne illness. Adherence to and invasion of epithelial cells are the most important pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter diarrhea. Molecular characterization of invasive and noninvasive Campylobacter isolates from children with diarrhea and symptom-free children was performed by random amplified polymorphic DNA techniques (RAPD). A distinct RAPD profile with a DNA band of 1.6 kb was observed significantly more frequently among invasive (63%) than among noninvasive (16%) Campylobacter isolates (P = 0.000005). The 1.6-kb band was named the invasion-associated marker (IAM). Using specifically designed primers, a fragment of 518 bp of the iam locus was amplified in 85% of invasive and 20% of noninvasive strains (P = 0.0000000). Molecular typing with a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay which amplified the entire iam locus showed a HindIII restriction fragment polymorphism pattern associated mainly with invasive strains. Although cluster analysis of the RAPD fingerprinting showed genetic diversity among strains, two main clusters were identified. Cluster I comprised significantly more pathogenic and invasive isolates, while cluster II grouped the majority of nonpathogenic, noninvasive isolates. These data indicate that most of the invasive Campylobacter strains could be differentiated from noninvasive isolates by RAPD analysis and PCR using specific primers that amplify a fragment of the iam locus. PMID:11283056

  19. NUEVOS AISLADOS DE Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus EN CULTIVOS DE IMPORTANCIA ECONÓMICA PARA CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dibut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, un llamado importante para los microbiólogos del suelo ha sido el estudio de microorganismos endófitos que se asocian con plantas superiores, con el consiguiente beneficio sobre los cultivos. En este trabajo, se ofrecen los resultados sobre el aislamiento y la distribución de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus en cultivos de importancia económica para Cuba. La bacteria se aisló a partir de filtrados y secciones de diferentes órganos del vegetal dispuestos sobre medios de cultivo LGI-P, donde se comprobó el crecimiento característico a las 96 h de incubación a 320C de temperatura, obteniéndose finalmente 22 aislados a partir de diez especies cultivables. Experimentos de dinámica poblacional desarrollados en condiciones de invernadero mediante diseño completamente aleatorizado permitieron cuantificar el microorganismo en hojas, tallos y raíces de maíz, boniato, yuca, malanga y caña de azúcar, con poblaciones que oscilan entre 1.8 x 102-2.3 x 107 células por gramo de tejido fresco. Las poblaciones celulares más altas se detectaron en las hojas, seguido de los tallos y por último las raíces o tubérculos. La respuesta favorable de ocho cultivos a la inoculación de la bacteria, esta vez crecida en medio de cultivo SG e incubada a 320C durante 72 h, permite plantear la potencialidad que este microorganismo presenta como biofertilizante. Se informa por primera vez la presencia de la Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus en cinco especies de plantas pertenecientes cada una a diferentes familias botánicas.

  20. Evaluación in vitro de la actividad inhibitoria de extractos vegetales sobre aislados de Colletotrichum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Sierra2 Johanna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad inhibitoria in vitro de extractos de hojas de Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare,Jatropha gossypilia, Eucalyptus sp., Melia azederach y Mascagnia concinna sobre aislados de hongo delgénero Colletotrichum, causante de la enfermedad antracnosis en el cultivo del ñame (Dioscorea alata, D.rotundata en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Para la obtención de extractos etanólicos de hojasde M. officinalis y O. vulgare, se utilizó el método de percolación y para las otras especies vegetales, elmétodo de Soxhlet. Una vez preparados los extractos de hojas, se evaluó su actividad inhibitoria sobreseis aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum (BVC 279a, BVC 279b, BVC 853, BVC 040, BVC 342 yBVC 507. Para la prueba inhibitoria se utilizó el método de siembra directa sobre la superficie del mediopapa-dextrosa-agar. Sobre las diferentes cepas se adicionaron 250 μl de cada extracto por separado. Seutilizó un control positivo con nistatina (4 mg/ml y un testigo absoluto sin ningún tipo de tratamiento.La prueba se evaluó midiendo el crecimiento radial de cada cepa con los diferentes tratamientos a 96y 168 h. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones, para probardiferencias significativas entre tratamientos, cepas (aislados y tiempo de inhibición. Los resultadosexpresados en porcentaje de inhibición, mostraron una alta actividad de los extractos obtenidos de lashojas de las plantas de M. azederach y M. concinna, sobre los hongos evaluados y su acción fue similaral control positivo

  1. Evaluación in vitro de la actividad inhibitoria de extractos vegetales sobre aislados de Colletotrichum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez Cordero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad inhibitoria in vitro de extractos de hojas de Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Jatropha gossypilia, Eucalyptus sp., Melia azederach y Mascagnia concinna sobre aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum, causante de la enfermedad antracnosis en el cultivo del ñame (Dioscorea alata, D. rotundata en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Para la obtención de extractos etanólicos de hojas de M. officinalis y O. vulgare, se utilizó el método de percolación y para las otras especies vegetales, el método de Soxhlet. Una vez preparados los extractos de hojas, se evaluó su actividad inhibitoria sobre seis aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum (BVC 279a, BVC 279b, BVC 853, BVC 040, BVC 342 y BVC 507. Para la prueba inhibitoria se utilizó el método de siembra directa sobre la superficie del medio papa-dextrosa-agar. Sobre las diferentes cepas se adicionaron 250 µl de cada extracto por separado. Se utilizó un control positivo con nistatina (4 mg/ml y un testigo absoluto sin ningún tipo de tratamiento. La prueba se evaluó midiendo el crecimiento radial de cada cepa con los diferentes tratamientos a 96 y 168 h. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones, para probar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos, cepas (aislados y tiempo de inhibición. Los resultados expresados en porcentaje de inhibición, mostraron una alta actividad de los extractos obtenidos de las hojas de las plantas de M. azederach y M. concinna, sobre los hongos evaluados y su acción fue similar al control positivo.

  2. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

    OpenAIRE

    Willian Jirón T.; Niurka Batista S.; Daniel Arencibia A.; Luis Rosario F.; Juan Infante B.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa), evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad...

  3. Actividad antinociceptiva, anti-inflamatoria y relajante muscular de (+)-curcufenol aislado de la esponja marina didiscus oxeata

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Ahmed; Toscano, Mariela; Del Valle, Martha; Vargas, Erika

    2008-01-01

    Mediante el método de edema plantar inducido por carragenina en la pata de la rata, (+)-curcufenol aislado de la esponja marina Didiscus oxeata mostró una actividad antiinflamatoria moderada, en las dosis de 100, 150 y 200 mg/kg administradas por vía oral, mientras que la actividad antinociceptiva fue confirmada por el método de contorsiones inducidas por ácido acético en ratones mostrando un efecto analgésico muy alto, en las dosis de 50, 100, 150 y 200 mg/kg administradas por vía oral, en c...

  4. Neuroprotecci??n mediada por diterpenos aislados de Sideritis spp. frente al estr??s oxidativo en astrocitos

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz??lez-Burgos, E.; Palomino, O.M.; Carretero Accame, M.E.; G??mez-Serranillos, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    La presente investigaci??n aborda el estudio de las propiedades neuroprotectoras, en base a la capacidad antioxidante, de los diterpenos andalusol, conchitriol y sidol aislados de diferentes especies del g??nero Sideritis. La actividad protectora de estos compuestos fue evaluada en un modelo de estr??s oxidativo inducido por el per??xido de hidr??geno sobre la l??nea celular U373 MG de astrocitoma humano. Los resultados mostraron que un pretratamiento durante 24 horas con los dite...

  5. Variabilidad genética de Colletotrichum spp aislado de frutos tropicales mediante el uso de marcadores moleculares RAPD.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Hernández, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides presenta alta variabilidad morfológica, patogénica y genética, lo cual ha sido difícil de evaluar usando los métodos tradicionales. En los últimos años, las técnicas moleculares han facilitado la separación y caracterización genética. El presente trabajo se divide en dos fases, en la primera se realizaron los aislados, la identificación morfológica y se realizaron pruebas de efectividad bilógica in vivo e in vitro de imazalil para el control de la antracnosis en...

  6. Blood leucocyte count in the human fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Jenkins, E; Layton, D. M.; Nicolaides, K H

    1992-01-01

    Total and differential leucocyte counts were measured in cord blood samples obtained by cordocentesis (n = 316) or at elective caesarean section (n = 11) from normal fetuses of between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation. The total fetal leucocyte count increased exponentially from 2.8 x 10(9)/l at 18 weeks to 11.8 x 10(9)/l at term. The lymphocyte and monocyte counts increased linearly and the number of neutrophils increased exponentially from a mean value of 0.2 x 10(9)/l at 18 weeks to 0.8 x 10(9)/...

  7. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  8. Survey of nine abortifacient infectious agents in aborted bovine fetuses from dairy farms in Beijing, China, by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Cui, Xia; Qian, Weifeng; Yu, Shanshan; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    Abortion in dairy cattle causes considerable economic losses to the dairy industry. Aborted fetuses and samples from the corresponding aborting dams from 12 dairy herds in Beijing were tested for 9 abortifacient infectious pathogens by PCR between 2008 and 2010. From a total of 80 abortion cases collected during this period, infectious agents were detected in 45 (56.3%) cases, 22 (48.9%) of which represented co-infections with two or three infectious agents. The detected pathogens included infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (36.3%) and Neospora caninum (31.3%), followed by bovine viral diarrhoea virus (7.5%), Brucella abortus (6.3%), Tritrichomonas foetus (5%) and Toxoplasma gondii (1.3%). Campylobacter fetus, Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila psittaci were not detected in any abortion case. Findings from this study indicated that infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and Neospora caninum were the main potential causes of abortions in Beijing dairy herds, whereas the bacterial pathogens were not, in contrast to reports from other countries. This is the first study to test nine abortifacient infectious agents by PCR at the same time, and it is also the first time to report the involvement of a variety of infectious agents in bovine abortion cases in China. PMID:22366134

  9. Isolation of Campylobacter from human stool samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Salim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Campylobacter is an undetected cause of diarrhoea especially under 5 years of age in most of the countries. Isolation of this organism is difficult, expensive and cumbersome. Aims: Our objective of this study was to isolate this pathogen from the stool specimens on routinely available blood containing laboratory media using the candle jar for creating the microaerophilic atmosphere in our setup. Settings and Designs: A descriptive study. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 stool samples were inoculated onto selective and non-selective media with and without filtration using a 0.45 μm membrane. The inoculated media were simultaneously incubated in microaerophilic conditions using the Anoxomat as well as in candle jars at temperatures 37°C and 42°C. The culture isolates were confirmed by standard phenotypic tests. A simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid of Campylobacter was performed on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA of the culture isolates as well as on the DNA extracted from the stool filtrates. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as a proportion. Results: Campylobacter could be isolated in 5 out of 50 stool samples using both the Anoxomat as well as the candle jar. Furthermore, we did not find any difference between the isolation using the selective and blood containing media as well as the different incubation temperatures. All the five were confirmed phenotypically and genotypically to be Campylobacter jejuni. The PCR results corroborated with that of the culture. Conclusions: Isolation by culture was as sensitive as that of the PCR.

  10. Campylobacter jejuni--an emerging foodborne pathogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Altekruse, S. F.; Stern, N. J.; Fields, P. I.; Swerdlow, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of foodborne infection in the United States. Adding to the human and economic costs are chronic sequelae associated with C. jejuni infection--Guillian-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis. In addition, an increasing proportion of human infections caused by C. jejuni are resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobacteriosis....

  11. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes in common teals (Anas crecca)

    OpenAIRE

    Gargiulo, Antonio; Sensale, Mariangela; Marzocco, Laura; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia F.; Dipineto, Ludovico

    2011-01-01

    Abstarct To evaluate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and related cdt genes, cloacal swabs were collected from 70 common teals (Anas crecca) and analyzed by culture methods and polymerase chain reaction. In addition, C. jejuni were examined also for the presence of wlaN gene. This is believed to be the first report of Campylobacter spp. in common teal and our results confirm the very common occurrence of C. jejuni (n=40) and C. coli (n=13) in waterfowls. Furthermore, the cdt gene...

  12. An outbreak of infectious hepatitis in commercially reared ostriches associated with Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, C.P.; On, S.L.W.; Gibson, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    lesions resembled those of vibrionic hepatitis in other avian species. Campylobacter coli was isolated from the livers of affected ostriches from five of the six properties. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from birds from the remaining property. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based (PFGE...... biochemical test results and PFGE clearly distinguished the C. jejuni strain isolated from the geographically remote farm from the outbreak of C. coli type. We believe this to be the first definitive report of avian hepatitis associated with C. coli....

  13. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller;

    2016-01-01

    birds eating food of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin and foraging on the ground close to livestock were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. than those foraging further away or hunting in the air. These findings suggest that wild birds may play a role in sustaining the epidemiology of...... general, birds feeding on a diet of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stables were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P <0.001) and winter (P <0.001) than birds foraging further away from the farm or in...

  14. TEMPERATURE AFFECTS SOLE CARBON UTILIZATION PATTERNS OF CAMPYLOBACTER COLI 49941

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are small, asaccharolytic bacteria exhibiting unique nutritional and environmental requirements. Campylobacter spp. exist as commensal organisms in some animal species, yet are estimated to be the most common causative agents of foodborne illness in humans. C. jejuni is most oft...

  15. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen;

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denm...

  16. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  17. Cellular response of Campylobacter jejuni to trisodium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Cohn, M. T.; Stabler, R. A.;

    2012-01-01

    The highly alkaline compound trisodium phosphate (TSP) is used as an intervention to reduce the load of Campylobacter on poultry meat in U.S. poultry slaughter plants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular responses of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 when exposed to sublethal...

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE RATES IN CAMPYLOBACTER ISOLATES DERIVED FROM SWINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter, a microaerophilic gram-negative rod, is a major foodborne pathogen and commonly present in swine intestinal tract without causing any clinical disease. In this project, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance profiles of fecal Campylobacter isolates (n= 194) obtained from a swin...

  19. Incidence and ecology of Campylobacter jejuni and coli in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since its initial emergence in the 1970’s, Campylobacter have been estimated to be one of the most common causative agents of foodborne illnesses, along with nontyphoidal Salmonella species. Campylobacter species naturally colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of domestic and feral animals and are a...

  20. A Comparison of Methods for the Speciation of Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Infection with Campylobacter is of global public health concern as one of the leading causes of enteric illness. Campylobacter is a fastidious organism and conventional culture from food or other samples can take several days, particularly if numbers are low and competing flora is hig...

  1. Detección y caracterización de aislados de "escherichia coli" de origen clínico y fecal en gallinas ponedoras

    OpenAIRE

    Gibert Perelló, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis ha sido realizar la caracterización de aislados de E. coli clínicos (responsables de cuadros de colibacilosis en gallinas ponedoras) y fecales. Tras llevar a cabo el aislamiento e identificación bioquímica de los aislados, se ha procedido a la determinación del serogrupo, patotipo (detección de factores de virulencia por PCR), sensibilidad a antimicrobianos y pulsotipo (mediante la técnica de Pulsed Field-Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE). Además, se ha realizado un estudio...

  2. Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Alain; Baud, Catherine; Ferran, Jean Louis; Saguintaah, Magali; Veyrac, Corinne [Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, 34 - Montpellier (France). Service de Radiologie Pediatrique

    2008-07-01

    Sonography of the gastrointestinal tract in fetuses, neonates and children entails no known biological risk, permits serial scanning and can provide information unobtainable with any other imaging modality. In experienced hands it can be used as the initial imaging technique in a number of gastrointestinal diseases and conditions. This book provides a comprehensive account of the current state of the art regarding sonography in this context. An introductory chapter compares the merits of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent chapters focus on the technique, pitfalls and findings in a wide variety of applications, including antropyloric diseases, bowel obstruction, bowel wall thickening, colitis, appendicitis, some types of intussusception, abdominal wall and umbilical abnormalities, intraperitoneal tumors, and trauma. In each case the sonographic morphology is considered in depth with the aid of high-quality illustrations. A concluding chapter comprises a quiz based on 15 case reports. Gastrointestinal Tract Sonography in Fetuses and Children will be of value to all with an interest in this field. (orig.)

  3. Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonography of the gastrointestinal tract in fetuses, neonates and children entails no known biological risk, permits serial scanning and can provide information unobtainable with any other imaging modality. In experienced hands it can be used as the initial imaging technique in a number of gastrointestinal diseases and conditions. This book provides a comprehensive account of the current state of the art regarding sonography in this context. An introductory chapter compares the merits of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent chapters focus on the technique, pitfalls and findings in a wide variety of applications, including antropyloric diseases, bowel obstruction, bowel wall thickening, colitis, appendicitis, some types of intussusception, abdominal wall and umbilical abnormalities, intraperitoneal tumors, and trauma. In each case the sonographic morphology is considered in depth with the aid of high-quality illustrations. A concluding chapter comprises a quiz based on 15 case reports. Gastrointestinal Tract Sonography in Fetuses and Children will be of value to all with an interest in this field. (orig.)

  4. Chemical decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C. T.; Brondsted, L.O.; Rosenquist, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading course of food borne bacterial infections worldwide. It is believed that a decline in the occurrence of campylobacteriosis can be achieved by reducing the number of the bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Phage therapy using Campylobacter specific phages...... given to poultry prior to slaughter is a promising control measure. However, the reducing effect of most phages tested so far is rather limited due to the development of phage resistant Campylobacter. An increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of importance for development of phage resistant...... Campylobacter is therefore essential for implementation of this method. Recently, a collection of Campylobacter bacteriophages has been established. The phages were isolated from faeces from broilers and ducks and it was shown by transmission electron microscopy that they all belong to the family of Myoviridae...

  5. Vaccination of poultry against Campylobacter in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen in the European Union (EU) since 2005. Reportedly, 212,064 humans have been confirmed ill in 2010 due to a Campylobacter infection in the EU. The major source of infection, among sporadic human cases is to be found in...... the food chain, from farm-to-fork, where poultry meat is considered to be one of the major vehicles of Campylobacter infections in humans, accounting for 50–80% of reported cases. One way to reduce this economic loss to society is perhaps the introduction of a new Campylobacter vaccine, which could be...... the EU27 level. In this study, benefits are mainly assumed to comprise lower risk of illness due to Campylobacter infections, and hence increased labor productivity. In the modeled analysis presented in this paper, the possible price of the vaccine is estimated when it is assumed that: (i) the number...

  6. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna K; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J; Jones, Trevor R; Wigley, Paul; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cross, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs' ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public's preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%-52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%-98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections. PMID:27314748

  7. Radionuclide Exposure of the Embryo/Fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the determination of radiation dose to the embryo (the conceptus from fertilisation to organogenesis) and the fetus (post-organogenesis to birth) from radionuclides that are present in the woman before her pregnancy or that enter her during her pregnancy. This exposure may be via nuclear medicine procedures, occupational exposures or environmental sources that may affect the general population. The effects of radiation on the embryo/fetus are greatly influenced by the dependence on stage of gestation, which affects the transfer of radioactivity from the pregnant woman to the fetoplacental system, the distribution of the activity and the developmental effects of the resulting radiation absorbed doses. A chapter is therefore devoted to a detailed discussion of development of the embryo/fetus through the stages of pre-implantation, implantation and post-implantation development and the fetal period. To an non-expert the anatomical detail and nomenclature are rather difficult, but diagrams are clear and well labelled and a useful glossary of terms is provided. Mechanisms of maternal-fetal exchange and the effects of the maternal organs and placenta as external sources of radiation are then discussed, though it is stressed here - as throughout the report - that most information about the distribution and retention of materials during pregnancy has been obtained from studies in experimental animals. Extrapolation of animal data to humans is difficult and potentially inaccurate. The effects of prenatal irradiation are categorised as early, delayed and late effects. Early effects are further divided into the pre-implantation period (blastogenesis), period of organ formation (organogenesis) and period of the fetus (fetogenesis). Chapters 7 and 8 deal with compartmental modelling, dosimetry and estimation of embryo/fetus dose in radiation protection practice. The ICRP and MIRD methodologies are discussed, both of which differentiate source and target

  8. Comparison of genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on chicken retail meat and at slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    Kittl, Sonja; Korczak, Bozena M.; Niederer, Lilian; Baumgartner, Andreas; Buettner, Sabina; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antibiotic resistance patterns of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from retail chicken meat showed high overlap with isolates collected at slaughterhouses, indicating little selection along the production chain. They also showed significant common sequence types with human clinical isolates, revealing chicken meat as a likely source for human infection.

  9. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the ...

  10. Comparison of genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on chicken retail meat and at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Sonja; Korczak, Bożena M; Niederer, Lilian; Baumgartner, Andreas; Buettner, Sabina; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antibiotic resistance patterns of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from retail chicken meat showed high overlap with isolates collected at slaughterhouses, indicating little selection along the production chain. They also showed significant common sequence types with human clinical isolates, revealing chicken meat as a likely source for human infection. PMID:23584778

  11. A Charcoal- and Blood-Free Enrichment Broth for Isolation and PCR Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. is a Gram negative bacterium and is the major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. The microaerophilic nature of Campylobacter and its requirement of ~5% O2 for growth have complicated its recovery from foods. This is achieved with the addition to the enrichment media of ...

  12. Nuevo alcaloide oxoaporfínico y otros constituyentes químicos aislados de Pleurothyrium cinereum (Lauraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericsson Coy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico de las hojas de Pleurothyrium cinereum (Lauraceae fue aislado el nuevo alcaloide oxoaporfínico oxiprenilado 1,2-metilendioxi-9,10-dimetoxi-3-isopreniloxi-7H-dibenzo[de,g]quinolin-7-ona (Pleurotirina 1, el cual fue purificado por  métodos cromatográficos y cuya elucidación estructural se realizó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (RMN-1H, RMN-13C, RMN-2D y EM. Junto al alcaloide 1 fueron aislados los compuestos thalicminina 2, ácido ent-kaurenóico 3, alloxantoxiletina 4, xantiletina 5, dihydroflavokawina B 6, 3’-metoxi-3,4-metilendioxi-4’,7-epoxi-nor-8.5’-neolignan-7.8’-dieno 7 y friedelina 8, los cuales se reportan por primera vez para la especie y para el género.

  13. Caracterización bioquímica y molecular de aislados de Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a antimicrobianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita Castañeda

    2000-02-01

    diferentes aislados bacterianos resistentes a antibióticos, son insuficientes para discriminar un posible brote de infección nosocomial, siendo necesaria la utilización de técnicas basadas en el estudio genotípico, que logren establecer diferencias entre los aislados.

    El análisis del perfil de plásmidos es de mucha aplicabilidad, ya que permite una evaluación epidemiológica útil para determinar la diferencia o la semejanza entre los aislados sometidos a estudio. Sin embargo, no es suficiente para determinar el origen clonal de un brote y se requiere un método que permita una caracterización mas precisa de las cepas. Para este fin, se utiliza el análisis del DNA genómico, cortado con endonucleasas de restricción con baja frecuencia de corte, por medio de la electroforesis de campo pulsado (PFGE, que ha mostrado ser una buena herramienta epidemiológica, debido a su alta reproducibilidad y a su poder discriminatorio para determinar el origen clonal en varias especies bacterianas incluyendo Klebsiella pneunoniae, Este proyecto pretende determinar y caracterizar el comportamiento genético de esta resistencia en las cepas de Klebsiella pneumoniae circulantes en nuestro medio, lo que permitirá plantear estrategias epidemiológicas en el manejo y prevención de las diferentes infecciones debidas a este microorganismo.

    Objetivo general: Caracterizar bioquímica y molecularmente aislados de Klebsiella pneumoniae resistentes a antimicrobianos.

    Objetivos específicos: 1. Biotipificar los aislados de Klebsiella pneumoniae. 2. Determinar la susceptibilidad de los aislados, incluyendo la detección de la producci

  14. Toename Salmonella en Campylobacter bij slacht : Campylobacter in pluimveesector constant, Salmonella sterk gedaald

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2009-01-01

    In vrijwel alle schakels van de pluimveevleesketen is de besmetting met Salmonella in de periode van 2002 tot 2005 gedaald. Campylobacter werd in diezelfde periode juist vaker in slachthuizen aangetroffen. Tijdens het slachten nam de besmetting met beide pathogenen toe, voor Salmonella gold dit voor

  15. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M.; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Boer, de Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; Pelt, Van Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contam

  16. Tight junction changes in epithelial cells by Campylobacter jejuni and non-jejuni Campylobacter species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bücker, Roland; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Krüg, S;

    Campylobacter concisus infections of the gastrointestinal tract can be accompanied by diarrhea and inflammation, whereas colonization of the human oral cavity might have a commensal nature. We focus on the pathophysiology of C. concisus and the effects of different clinical oral and fecal C...

  17. Computer-assisted analysis and epidemiological value of genotyping methods for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Duim, B.; Rigter, A.; Plas, J. van der; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    For epidemiological tracing of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli, reliable and highly discriminatory typing techniques are necessary. In this study the genotyping techniques of flagellin typing (flaA typing), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated ribotyping,

  18. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller;

    2016-01-01

    order to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119...

  19. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection. In this

  20. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    Living in a household with a dog or cat has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for acquiring campylobacteriosis, in particular, with reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis infection. In a cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark between August and December 1996, 72 healthy...

  1. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli species in cats and dogs from Bydgoszcz (Poland) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewska, M; Szczepańska, B; Klawe, J J; Spica, D; Chudzińska, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cats and dogs as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Rectal swabs from 83 dogs and 71 cats were examined. Samples were obtained from the animals aged between 2 weeks and 24 months living in shelters, private households, farms and from veterinary clinics located in Bydgoszcz region during routine check-up. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 4.81% dogs and 9.86% cats, respectively. C. jejuni was predominant in this study. All strains were isolated in autumn and winter from the animals living in farms and private houses. All the animals positive for Campylobacter prevalence had access to small water basins, accidental source of food and had contact with wild birds, poultry or their feaces. Isolates characterization revealed high prevalence of Campylobacter virulence genes-flaA, cadF and cdtB. 91% of isolated strains were susceptible to erythromycin. 81% among isolated strains were susceptible to azithromycin, 64% to tetracycline and 36% to ciprofloxacin. For 2 C. jejuni strains isolated from cats Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling indicated 80% homology between them. PMID:23691584

  2. Exploring PFGE for Detecting Large Plasmids in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Various Retail Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya Marasini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in retail meat, particularly poultry, and is a leading cause of diarrhea in humans. Studies related to Campylobacter large plasmids are limited in the literature possibly due to difficulty in isolating them using available alkaline lysis methods. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of plasmids, particularly large ones, in Campylobacter spp. isolated from various Oklahoma retail meats, and to explore PFGE (Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis as a tool in facilitating the detection of these plasmids. One hundred and eighty nine strains (94 Campylobacter jejuni and 95 Campylobacter coli were screened for the presence of plasmids using both alkaline lysis and PFGE. Plasmids were detected in 119/189 (63% using both methods. Most of the plasmids detected by alkaline lysis were smaller than 90 kb and only three were larger than 90 kb. Plasmids over 70 kb in size were detected in 33 more strains by PFGE of which 11 strains contained larger than 90 kb plasmids. Plasmids were more prevalent in Campylobacter coli (73.5% than in Campylobacter jejuni (52%. BglII restriction analysis of plasmids isolated from 102 isolates revealed 42 different restriction patterns. In conclusion, PFGE was able to detect large plasmids up to 180 Kb in Campylobacter spp. which might have been missed if the alkaline lysis method was solely used. Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail meats harbor a diverse population of plasmids with variable sizes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use PFGE to detect large plasmids in Campylobacter.

  3. Participation of some campylobacter species in the etiology of enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otašević Marica M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowdays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the demanding features of Campylobacter, as well as poorly equipped microbiological laboratories, campylobacteriosis is insufficiently studied in our country. This investigation aimed to determine the participation of some Campylobacter species in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in our population. Methods. The four-years continuous monitoring of Campylobacter presence was performed in the faeces of 12 605 patients with enterocolitis. The control group included 5 774 examinees of healthy children and youth. Faeces samples were cultivated on Skirrow's selective medium, and further incubated according to effective methodology for Campylobacter. Identification of strains was based on morphological, cultural and physiologic features of strains (oxidase test, catalase test, susceptibility to nalidixic acid, and hypurate hydrolysis. As a statistical method, for data processing, c2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used. Results. Campylobacter was proven in 3.86% of enterocolitis patients, and in 0.71% of healthy population. Out of 518 Campylobacter isolates, 86.48% belonged to enterocolitis outpatients, and 13,51% to inpatients. Predominant symptoms of the disease were diarrhea (81.83%, increased temperature (34.71%, vomiting (19.77%, and stomach pain (15.17%. The diseased were predominantly infants in the first year of life. Out of 300 Campylobacter isolates, 75% were identified as Campylobacer jejuni, 23% as Campylobacter coli (C. coli, and 2% as Campylobacter lari

  4. Pathohistological changes in fetuses with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đolai Matilda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystic fibrosis or mucoviscidosis is a genetically caused disease. The intensity of disease and histopathological changes grow throughout the life. According to the literature, pathological changes characteristic of cystic fibrosis become noticeable around the sixth month of life. Case Report. After amniocentesis of a 5-lunar month-old fetus had been done, which confirmed cystic fibrosis, the Ethics Commission approved the preterm labor. The autopsy and histopathological analysis demonstrated the existence of typical histopathological changes in the pancreas and intestines. Discussion. In the late fetal period or during the period around the delivery, cystic fibrosis is usually manifested as meconial cap with or without obstruction of the intestinal lumen. Morphological changes in the exocrine glands usually develop only after birth. In this case, the existence of meconial obstruction, as well as the typical acidofil content in the secretory ducts and acini of the pancreas was confirmed, which is unusual for the fetal age of five months.

  5. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, M; Thurik, F F; Koelewijn, J M; van der Schoot, C E

    2015-08-01

    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases are caused by anti-D, despite the introduction of antental and postnatal anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis. In general, red blood cell antibody screening programmes are aimed to detect maternal alloimmunization early in pregnancy to facilitate the identification of high-risk cases to timely start antenatal and postnatal treatment. In this review, an overview of the clinical relevance of red cell alloantibodies in relation to occurrence of HDFN and recent views on prevention, screening and treatment options of HDFN are provided. PMID:25899660

  6. Vorkommen, Antibiotika- Resistenz und Genotypisierung (AFLP) von thermophilen Campylobacter spp. bei Masthähnchen sowie Bewertung von Einflussfaktoren auf den Campylobacter- Status in der Mast

    OpenAIRE

    Näther, Gritt

    2010-01-01

    From May 2004 to July 2005, 279 broiler flocks of different production types were tested for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Of each flock caecal content of ten chickens was tested. All Campylobacter isolates were additionally identified by multiplex- PCR. 79 Campylobacter isolates were tested for susceptibility to eight antimicrobial agents and combinations by microbroth dilution and 236 Campylobacter isolates were genotyped by AFLP- analysis, too. To identify potential risk ...

  7. Possible homozygous Waardenburg syndrome in a fetus with exencephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-06

    This paper describes a pedigree with Waardenburg syndrome and an aborted fetus who had severe congenital malformations but no detected genetic mutations. The authors concluded that despite the fact that no homozygosity of the fetus was demonstrated, the phenotype pointed to homozygous mutations of the PAX3 gene. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Milk Modulates Campylobacter Invasion into Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, Rogier; van Neerven, R J Joost

    2015-09-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. Although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of Campylobacter species is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of cow, goat, horse, and formula milk on Campylobacter invasion into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, a pathogenic feature of this bacterial species, using a gentamicin exclusion invasion assay. We found that all milk products modulated the invasion of Campylobacter species into the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Control experiments showed that the milks were not toxic for the Caco-2 cells and that the effect on invasion is caused by heat labile (e.g., milk proteins) or heat stable (e.g., sugar/lipids) components depending on the Campylobacter species studied. This in vitro study shows for the first time that pasteurized and formula milk affect the invasion of Campylobacter. We recommend a prospective study to examine whether pasteurized and formula milk affect Campylobacteriosis. PMID:26495128

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on Campylobacter jejuni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation resistance of Campylobacter jejuni in broth, ground beef, and ground turkey meat was determined using dose levels from 0-200 Krad at -30 +/- 100C, at 0-50C, and at 30 +/- 100C. Irradiation at -300C increased radiation resistance of cultures in ground meats; broth cultures were not greatly influenced by temperature. The effect of culture age on radiation resistance was also evaluated using cells in various physiological phases. Age did not have a pronounced effect on radiation resistance. The largest D10 value for C. jejuni was 32 Krad, which was less than D10 values commonly reported for salmonellae. 20 references, 4 figures

  10. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M;

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain a...... better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of Campylobacter in the Danish broiler population. In this study, we observed a non-random temporal occurrence of Campylobacter, with high prevalence during summer and low during winter. Significant spatio-temporal clusters were identified in...

  11. Survey of thermotolerant Campylobacter in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fioretti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus in Southern Italy. To achieve this goal, 60 cloacal swabs were collected. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 52 out of 60 cloacal swabs tested. As proved by PCR, 100% of the strains were identified as C. coli (52/52, and 10 out of the 52 (19.2% positive samples were also positive to C. jejuni. The pheasant, can be considered, at least theoretically, as potential Campylobacter carriers.

  12. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.; Stanley, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sequences of 16S rDNA of a novel campylobacter from faeces of healthy humans were previously shown to originate from a new taxon, 'Candidatus Campylobacter hominis', which could not be cultured. Since phylogenetic analysis suggested that anaerobic conditions might be required for growth, an...... identified by a genus and taxon-specific PCR assay, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out. All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and Gram-negative. Unusually, however, they were straight rods lacking...

  13. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  14. Efecto de aislados bacterianos de la familia de las rhizobacterias provenientes de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) en la mejora del crecimiento de plantas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) y nodulación en jitomate (Solanum lycopersicon)

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Lilián Guerrero Barrera; Cristina Garcidueñas Piña; Ilse Patricia Rivas Valdéz; Ezequiel Alejandro Madrigal Carrillo; José Francisco Morales Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de aislados de rhizobacterias provenientes de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), en el crecimiento y expresión de proteínas en plantas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) y jitomate (Solanum lycopersicon). Se obtuvieron dos diferentes aislados; A y Ab, los cuales se inocularon en semillas de frijol Bayo, Pinto y Negro y de jitomate Bola y Río Grande. Los mejores resultados en crecimiento se observaron en el frijol Pinto y el Bayo con los aislados A y Ab, respectivamente. En el jito...

  15. Resistencia antibiótica asociada a integrones de clase 1 en aislados humanos de enterobacterias de dos contextos epidemiológicos: zoonosis por "Salmonella enterica" e infección por "Klebsiella pneumoniae" adquirida en un centro sociosanitario

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Moreno, Mª del Mar

    2011-01-01

    [spa] OBJETIVO: Establecer la contribución de los integrones de clase 1 a la resistencia antibiótica en aislados clínicos de enterobacterias de dos contextos epidemiológicos: zoonosis por Salmonella enterica e infección por Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a amoxicilina/clavulánico (ACL) adquirida en un centro sociosanitario. AISLADOS: Se estudiaron (a) 92 aislados humanos de Salmonella enterica serotipo Typhimurium (ST) recuperados entre 2004 y 2006 en el laboratorio de microbiología del ...

  16. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter-selective media CAT and modified CCDA agar at 37 and 42 C. This study comprised 366 fecal swab samples, of which 278 (76.2%) were found to be Campylobacter positive, with the following distribution of species: 75.0% Campylobacter upsaliensis, 19.4% Campylobacter jejuni, 2.1% Campylobacter lari, 0...... concurrent minor mutative changes) or independent strains. In contrast, the excreted C. jejuni isolates were much more diverse and, in most cases, only seen in one sample from each dog. A high degree of diversity among different dogs was seen. We conclude that young domestic pet dogs excreted Campylobacter...

  17. Vergleich des SimPlate™ Campylobacter CI-Systems mit dem kulturellen Standardverfahren zum Nachweis von Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Manopas, Aranya Sira Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of the SimPlate™ Campylobacter CI-System as a rapid test for Campylobacter spp. detection was investigated in comparison with the ISO-MPN-method as stipulated in ISO 10272:1995(E). 116 turkey and chicken meat samples were used for both, preliminary and main experiments. With the ISO-MPN-method system 24 out of 116 meat samples were identified as Campylobacter positive whereas SimPlate™ detected only 6 Campylobacterpositive samples, partly reasoned by the high detection limit o...

  18. Digestibilidad de nutrimentos en lechones alimentados con dietas con aislado o concentrado de proteína de soya

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de los Angeles Aguilera Barreiro; Tércia Cesária Reis de Souza; Gerardo Mariscal Landín; Arturo Germán Borbolla Sosa; Araceli Aguilera Barreyro

    2006-01-01

    Se utilizaron 15 lechones destetados a los 17 días con 6.1 ± 1.8 kg para medir el efecto de la fuente de proteína sobre la digestibilidad de tres dietas, una con concentrado de proteína de soya (CPS) y las otras dos con aislado de proteína de soya solo (APS) o con suero de leche (APSSL). Se determinó la digestibilidad ileal y total aparente (DIA y DTA) de materia seca (MS), proteína cruda (PC) y energía (En) en tres periodos (P): P1= 26-29; P2= 33-36 y P3= 40-43 días. La DIA-MS fue mayor (P0....

  19. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.;

    2001-01-01

    Sequences of 16S rDNA of a novel campylobacter from faeces of healthy humans were previously shown to originate from a new taxon, 'Candidatus Campylobacter hominis', which could not be cultured. Since phylogenetic analysis suggested that anaerobic conditions might be required for growth, an...... isolation strategy was developed employing initial non-selective membrane filtration onto fastidious anaerobe agar. Campylobacters were then isolated from the resulting mixed microbial flora by a dilution strategy and/or by immunomagnetic separation with genus-specific polyclonal antibody. Isolates were...... identified by a genus and taxon-specific PCR assay, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out. All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and Gram-negative. Unusually, however, they were straight rods lacking...

  20. DNA Micorarrays for Genotyping and Population Studies of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause worldwide of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. The continued development of more effective and informative typing methods is necessary to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and population dynamics of this important pathogen. Comparat...

  1. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been perf

  2. Dose estimation in embryo or fetus in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryo or the fetus can be irradiated as result of radiological procedures of diagnosis of therapy in where the beam effects directly on the same one or in tissues or peripherical organs. Some authors have suggested that in the first stages of the pregnancy the dose in ovaries can be the good estimated of the dose in embryo or fetus. In advanced conditions of the development, probably also in the early stage, is more appropriated to specify the dose in the embryo or fetus equal of the uterus. The dose in the uterus is a good estimated so much for external irradiation as for radionuclides incorporation

  3. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Danish broilers at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wedderkopp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims : To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli isolates from Danish poultry at the farm level, as well as for the whole country. Methods and Results : Data and isolates were collected from a national surveillance of Campylobacter in poultry....... Quinolone resistance was investigated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Among Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli combined, 7.5% were resistant to nalidixic acid. Quinolone resistance varied considerably from farm to farm, with 0% on some farms and almost...... 100% on others, but the resistance was evenly distributed geographically. With respect to isolates from farms where resistance was detected, quinolone resistance was higher among Camp. coli (28.7%) than among Camp. jejuni (11.3%). PFGE typing of quinolone-resistant and quinolone-susceptible isolates...

  4. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes in common teals (Anas crecca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Antonio; Sensale, Mariangela; Marzocco, Laura; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia F; Dipineto, Ludovico

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and related cdt genes, cloacal swabs were collected from 70 common teals (Anas crecca) and analyzed by culture methods and polymerase chain reaction. In addition, C. jejuni were examined also for the presence of wlaN gene. This is believed to be the first report of Campylobacter spp. in common teal and our results confirm the very common occurrence of C. jejuni (n=40) and C. coli (n=13) in waterfowls. Furthermore, the cdt genes were frequently present in both C. jejuni and C. coli isolated. Moreover, seven C. jejuni isolates carried also the wlaN gene which is presumably involved in the expression of ganglioside mimics in Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:21450419

  5. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution may cause systemic inflammatory response which may trigger preterm delivery in pregnant women. Environmental toxic chemicals that alter intrauterine environment disregulates fetal epigenome causing epigenetic-mediated changes in gene expression that may be linked to later childhood and adulthood diseases. Exposure to ambient air pollution during the whole pregnancy especially in third-trimester may cause intrauterine vitamin D deficiency which is critical for the normal development of the lung, and immune system in fetus. However, more research is needed to understand the cause and effect interaction between air pollution and fetal development. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  6. Campylobacter concisus – A New Player in Intestinal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kaakoush, Nadeem Omar; Mitchell, Hazel Marjory

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade Campylobacter concisus, a highly fastidious member of the Campylobacter genus has been described as an emergent pathogen of the human intestinal tract. Historically, C. concisus was associated with the human oral cavity and has been linked with periodontal lesions, including gingivitis and periodontitis, although currently its role as an oral pathogen remains contentious. Evidence to support the role of C. concisus in acute intestinal disease has come from studies that ha...

  7. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter: emergence, transmission and persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Han, Jing; Plummer, Paul; Logue, Catherine M.; Zhang, Qijing

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading foodborne bacterial pathogen, which causes gastroenteritis in humans. This pathogenic organism is increasingly resistant to antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are the most frequently used antimicrobials for the treatment of campylobacteriosis when clinical therapy is warranted. As a zoonotic pathogen, Campylobacter has a broad animal reservoir and infects humans via contaminated food, water or milk. Antibiotic usage in both animal agricul...

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to consumption of contaminated surface water. In this thesis the prevalence of Campylobacter in sewage purification plants was investigated in order to obtain more information on the survival of this pathogen in aquatic envi...

  9. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L.; Cummmings, Nicola J.; Connerton, Ian F.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cy...

  10. Enumeration and identity of Campylobacter spp. in Italian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, G; De Cesare, A; Bondioli, V; Stern, N J; Franchini, A

    2006-03-01

    Transmission of Campylobacter to humans has been prominently associated with mishandling or improperly preparing contaminated poultry carcasses. The number of organisms per carcass represents an important measure of human exposure to the agent. Therefore, we wished to estimate this public exposure over 1 yr among Italian broiler carcasses. We sampled 213 broiler carcasses from rinse water samples collected from a single slaughterhouse. Groups of carcasses had mean processed weights ranging from 1.2 to 2.7 kg. These were produced from 22 commercial broiler chicken flocks collected from 12 different farms, 3 of which were seasonally tested. Carcasses were rinsed with sterile water, and the rinse suspension was then serially diluted and spread-plated directly onto Campy-Cefex agar plates. One to 5 typical Campylobacter colonies per plate were identified by polymerase chain reaction as Campylobacter thermo-tolerant species. The overall estimated mean count per carcass in our study was 5.16 +/- 0.80 log10 cfu. This value increased in summer and autumn, as well as on carcasses collected from farms located > 100 km far from the slaughterhouse. A total of 678 Campylobacter colonies were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (49.2%) or Campylobacter coli (47.5%). The overall number of C. jejuni was significantly higher on 1) carcasses weighing > 2 kg, 2) carcasses belonging to flocks with > 10,000 birds, and 3) carcasses collected from farms located > 100 km from the slaughterhouse. Moreover, among farms tested seasonally, C. jejuni was significantly greater than C. coli in winter. These data provide the first results of a continuing survey on Campylobacter loads and species identification from Italian broiler carcasses and represents an important baseline to estimate the human exposure to Campylobacter in Italy. PMID:16553289

  11. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Hirchaud, Edouard; Parra, Alberto; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for thi...

  12. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  13. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni for Food Safety and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cakmak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are microorganisms that can be found in nature in the entire domestic and wild animal’s intestinal flora including the poultry and the sea animals. Campylobacter can better colonize in the poultry than the other animals. Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen among the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. whose growth temperature’s are different than the other Campylobacter spp. and can cause serious gastroenteritis in human beings which in some cases ended up with death. Human beings are generally infected with C. jejuni mainly because of the poultry meat and products and rarely because of the red meat which are contaminated during preparation and serving stages. Inadequate cooking, consumption of poorly chlorinated drinking water or unpasteurized milk are other infection sources of C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis especially affect children under 5 years of age and reported to be a zoonotic illness that cause acute gastroenteritis in human. In many countries, food sourced C. jejuni infections were reported to occur more frequently than Salmonella spp. infections. In order to avoid Campylobacter infections, it is very important to enforce food security programmes and HACCP like systems during growth, slaughterhouses and point of sales stages. Also adequate cooking of the products, hygiene of the kitchen and personnel are important. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 157-166

  14. CAMPYLOBACTER COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF SIGNIFICANT GUT MICROBIOTA TRANSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter colonization of poultry causes a considerable public health risk. Interactions between the pathogen and the autochthonous intestinal microbiota have not been defined, however, Campylobacter can be excluded from the intestinal habitat by unidentified microbial species. To enhance our un...

  15. Eugenol wash and chitosan based coating reduces Campylobacter jejuni counts on poultry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne illness globally in humans, is strongly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Unfortunately, current strategies to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry have had limited success. Our study investigated the efficacy of eugenol ...

  16. Study on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. from chicken meat in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Quynh Huong; Tran, Thi Hanh; Phung, Dac Cam; Nguyen, Thi Be

    2006-10-01

    Campylobacter spp. is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. In developing countries, Campylobacter spp. diarrhea is an important cause of childhood morbidity. Chicken meat is known to be a major source of Campylobacteriosis infection in the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat. A total of 100 samples from breast part of chicken carcass were collected from retail market in Hanoi. The samples were taken for bacteriological analysis following the ISO 10272 standards. Thirty one samples (31%) were found positive for Campylobacter spp. The most frequently isolated Campylobacter was Campylobacter jejuni (45.2%) followed by Campylobacter coli (25.8%). Due to high contamination rates of retail chicken products, special attention must be paid to good manufacturing practices of food processors and vendors. Further studies should be done to assess the risk factors of Campylobacter spp. contamination in the Vietnamese fowl production chain. PMID:17135525

  17. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for press Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Selected biographies & science-focused interviews ... Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: NICHD Archive Note: Information ...

  18. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social ... a baby is still in the uterus, greatly reduces the need to divert, or shunt, fluid away ...

  19. Mom's Obesity, Diabetes May Spur Fetus to Grow Too Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158192.html Mom's Obesity, Diabetes May Spur Fetus to Grow Too Fast ... Big babies may be at higher risk of obesity and diabetes later on, according to Smith's team. ...

  20. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... defect, myelomeningocele, is the most serious form of spina bifida, a condition in which the spinal column fails ...

  1. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... defect, myelomeningocele, is the most serious form of spina bifida, a condition in which the spinal column fails ...

  2. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Scientific databases, models, datasets & repositories ... Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: NICHD Archive Note: Information ...

  3. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spotlights Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida ... opening in the spine. In a new Web video, study author Catherine Y. Spong, M.D., Chief ...

  4. Occurrence of Campylobacter in the genitals of teaser bulls maintained at an embryo transfer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modolo J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Em central de transferência de embriões, após os procedimentos de reconhecimento do cio em 37 vacas receptoras, através de quatro rufiões vasectomizados, observou-se que 83% delas apresentavam retorno ao cio e algum corrimento serofibrinoso. Nos exames bacteriológicos realizados nos lavados prepuciais dos rufiões foi isolado o Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis em todos, fato que, analisado associadamente com o retorno ao cio das vacas receptoras, é indicativo da ocorrência de campilobacteriose no plantel. Essa ocorrência demonstra a necessidade de medidas eficazes de planejamento de saúde animal, pela utilização de rufiões com desvio lateral do pênis. Uma vez impossibilitado o contato sexual, seria impedida a transmissão do agente durante o coito. Torna-se imperioso consignar que a prática da prevenção racional de enfermidades continua sendo o procedimento mais econômico para uma produtividade animal mais rentável.

  5. Presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Wild Small Mammals on Organic Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Meerburg, B.G.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kijlstra, A.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in rodents and insectivores (n = 282) was investigated on organic farms. Infections were encountered in house mice (8 of 83 Campylobacter positive and 1 of 83 Salmonella sp. strain Livingstone positive) and brown rats (1 of 8 Campylobacter positive) but not in other species. No shared Campylobacter genotypes were found between rodent and pig manure isolates. Effective on-farm rodent management is recommended.

  6. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and antibiogram

    OpenAIRE

    Shivani Modi; M. N. Brahmbhatt; Y. A. Chatur; J. B. Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Aim: During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, ...

  7. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-01-01

        The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar preg...

  8. Plastinated fetus: 3D CT scan (VRT) evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpi Tiwari; Nandlal, B; N M Shama Sundar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The intent of this study was to evaluate the effect of plastination on the morphology and structure of stored organs, to find out how much accuracy a plastinated specimen has, and to look into the changes that occurred because of plastination. Materials and Methods: A human fetus of gestational age 24 weeks was plastinated, and 3D CT scan evaluation of the fetus was done. Results: The results showed normal, well-defined, clearly identifiable organs, with no alteration in morp...

  9. Prediction and prevention of the macrosomic fetus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2012-06-01

    Fetal macrosomia is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. In the long term, infants who are large for gestational age are more likely than other infants to be obese in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and are inherently at higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications in adulthood. With over one billion adults in the world now overweight and more than 600 million clinically obese, preventing the vicious cycle effect of fetal macrosomia and childhood obesity is an increasingly pertinent issue. Fetal growth is determined by a complex interplay of various genetic and environmental influences. Consequently the prediction of pregnancies at risk of pathological overgrowth is difficult. Many risk factors for fetal macrosomia, such as maternal obesity and advanced maternal age, are also conversely associated with intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic detection of fetal macrosomia is notoriously fraught with difficulties, with dozens of formulas for estimated fetal weight proposed but few with sufficient sensitivity to alter clinical practice. This calls into question policies of elective delivery based on projected estimated fetal weight cut-offs alone. More recently the identification of markers of fetal adiposity and maternal serum biomarkers are being investigated to improve the antenatal detection of the large for gestational age fetus. Prevention of fetal macrosomia is entirely dependent upon correct identification of those at risk. Maternal weight, gestational weight gain and glycaemic control are the risk factors for fetal macrosomia that are most amenable to intervention, and have potential maternal health benefits beyond pregnancy and childbirth. The ideal method of optimising maternal weight and glucose homeostasis is yet to be elucidated, though a number of promising advances are recently being reported. In this review we outline the contemporary evidence for the prediction and prevention of fetal macrosomia

  10. Emergence of aminoglycoside resistance genes aadA and aadE in the genus Campylobacter.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto-Alphandary, H; Mabilat, C; Courvalin, P

    1990-01-01

    Resistance to streptomycin or spectinomycin or both in five Campylobacter coli strains, two Campylobacter jejuni strains, and a Campylobacter-like strain was studied by enzymatic assays and dot blot hybridization. Resistance was due to 6- or 3",9-aminoglycoside adenylyltransferases and to new types of phospho- and adenylyltransferases.

  11. Gene Expression Profile of Campylobacter jejuni in Response to Chicken Weep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. Handling and consumption of raw poultry products are considered to be a major source of Campylobacter induced disease in humans. There is a high incidence of Campylobacter-positive poultry carcasses, even ...

  12. Comparison of Campylobacter species Using flaA Short Variable Region DNA Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Although the relative rates of Campylobacter infections have been declining in the U.S. over the last decade, Campylobacter species continue to be one of the primary bacterial agents responsible for gastroenteritis worldwide. Infections are usually considered foodborne as Campylobacter...

  13. Differential carbon source utilization by Campylobacter jejuni strain 11168 in response to growth temperature variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. readily colonize the intestinal tracts of both human and avian species. While most often a commensal organism in birds, campylobacters remain the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The association of campylobacters with poultry is well established as a primary...

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on Campylobacter jejuni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, J.D.; Maxcy, R.B.

    Radiation resistance of Campylobacter jejuni in broth, ground beef, and ground turkey meat was determined using dose levels from 0-200 Krad at -30 +/- 10/sup 0/C, at 0-5/sup 0/C, and at 30 +/- 10/sup 0/C. Irradiation at -30/sup 0/C increased radiation resistance of cultures in ground meats; broth cultures were not greatly influenced by temperature. The effect of culture age on radiation resistance was also evaluated using cells in various physiological phases. Age did not have a pronounced effect on radiation resistance. The largest D/sub 10/ value for C. jejuni was 32 Krad, which was less than D/sub 10/ values commonly reported for salmonellae. 20 references, 4 figures.

  15. Detection of Campylobacter species and Arcobacter butzleri in stool samples by use of real-time multiplex PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. de Boer (Richard); A. Ott (Alewijn); P. Güren (Pinar); E. van Zanten; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); A.M.D. Kooistra-Smid

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of Campylobacter (or Campylobacter-like) species in stools from patients suspected of infectious gastroenteritis (n = 493) was investigated using real-time PCR for detection of Arcobacter butzleri (hsp60 gene), Campylobacter coli (ceuE gene), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA), fiv

  16. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  17. Estudio de aislados no patogénicos de Fusarium oxysporum para el control biológico de patógenos fúngicos oportunistas

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Gallardo, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Los hongos oportunistas afectan numerosas especies vegetales tanto en los cultivos como en productos almacenados. Este tipo de enfermedades son muy difíciles de combatir mediante el empleo de fitosanitarios. La aplicación de los mismos se encuentra muy limitada y es especialmente importante en productos destinados a consumo. Por ello, en el presente estudio planteamos el control biológico como alternativa. Para conseguir este objetivo, trabajamos con siete aislados no patogénicos de Fus...

  18. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. PMID:26628341

  19. Evidence for a lineage of virulent bacteriophages that target Campylobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Nicola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the dynamics of genome stability versus gene flux within bacteriophage lineages is limited. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the use of bacteriophages as 'therapeutic' agents; a prerequisite for their use in such therapies is a thorough understanding of their genetic complement, genome stability and their ecology to avoid the dissemination or mobilisation of phage or bacterial virulence and toxin genes. Campylobacter, a food-borne pathogen, is one of the organisms for which the use of bacteriophage is being considered to reduce human exposure to this organism. Results Sequencing and genome analysis was performed for two Campylobacter bacteriophages. The genomes were extremely similar at the nucleotide level (≥ 96% with most differences accounted for by novel insertion sequences, DNA methylases and an approximately 10 kb contiguous region of metabolic genes that were dissimilar at the sequence level but similar in gene function between the two phages. Both bacteriophages contained a large number of radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM genes, presumably involved in boosting host metabolism during infection, as well as evidence that many genes had been acquired from a wide range of bacterial species. Further bacteriophages, from the UK Campylobacter typing set, were screened for the presence of bacteriophage structural genes, DNA methylases, mobile genetic elements and regulatory genes identified from the genome sequences. The results indicate that many of these bacteriophages are related, with 10 out of 15 showing some relationship to the sequenced genomes. Conclusions Two large virulent Campylobacter bacteriophages were found to show very high levels of sequence conservation despite separation in time and place of isolation. The bacteriophages show adaptations to their host and possess genes that may enhance Campylobacter metabolism, potentially advantaging both the bacteriophage and its host

  20. Patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de aislados clínicos de Staphylococcus aureus procedentes de la comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Alvarez Varela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la resistencia antimicrobiana de 695 aislamientos clínicos de Staphylococcus aureus procedentes de infecciones de las vías respiratorias superiores, lesiones en piel, secreciones de heridas, exudados conjuntivales, óticos y sistema genitourinario de pacientes atendidos en consulta externa de cinco hospitales pediátricos, ubicados en diferentes ciudades y regiones de Cuba durante el período enero de 2002 a diciembre de 2004. Los datos fueron obtenidos por el Sistema DIRAMIC y procesados por el sistema de programas para la confección de Mapas Microbianos, versión 6.0. Los antibióticos probados fueron: penicilina G, oxacilina, cefazolina, gentamicina, amicacina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina, ciprofloxacina y sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim. Los aislados fueron clasificados sobre la base de su resistencia a la oxacilina. De ellos, 118 (17,0 % fueron resistentes al fármaco (Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente, SAMR y 577 (83,0 % sensibles (Staphylococcus aureus meticilina sensible, SAMS. Se observó un incremento significativo de las cepas SAMR en el período y de la resistencia dentro de este grupo al resto de los antibióticos probados, aunque más del 50 % de los aislados conservan la susceptibilidad a macrólidos, aminoglucósidos y quinolonas. Por su parte, los porcentajes de resistencia de las cepas sensibles fueron bajos y muy similares en los tres años para la mayoría de los antibióticos ensayados, con excepción de eritromicina y ciprofloxacina, para los que se observaron incrementos en el año 2004. Los resultados revelaron que en Cuba los Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a oxacilina aún no son un problema. Pero la aparición de este germen en la comunidad en una frecuencia cercana al 20 %, hace necesario mantener la vigilancia de este fenómeno, lo cual permitirá tomar a tiempo las medidas pertinentes para evitar sus consecuencias negativas.

  1. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.; Nordentoft, Steen; Ethelberg, S.; Borck, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007....... Furthermore, the number of registered human Campylobacter cases decreased by 12%; from 4379 cases in 2002 to 3865 cases in 2007. We believe that the observed decrease in the occurrence of Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat and the coincidental fall in the number of registered human cases is, in part...

  2. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed. PMID:27317896

  3. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. PMID:26658311

  4. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  5. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne;

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial...... contaminated broiler meat, but more importantly for analyses of the effects of control measures at different stages in the broiler meat production chain. This review paper provides a comparative overview of models developed in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany, and aims to identify...... variability in Campylobacter concentrations between meat products and meals determine the risks, not the mean values of those distributions. Although a unified model for risk assessment of Campylobacter in the broiler meat production would be desirable in order to promote a European harmonized approach, it is...

  6. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen supply of the fetus depends on the blood oxygen content and flow rate in the uterine and umbilical arteries and the diffusing capacity of the placenta. Oxygen consumption by the placenta is a significant factor and a potential limitation on availability to the fetus. The relevance of...... at high altitude. This conceals the fact that there are structural changes and that placental oxygen consumption is reduced. The underlying mechanisms are a current focus of research. One intriguing possibility is that increased anaerobic metabolism of glucose in the placenta spares oxygen for the...... fetus but reduces its supply of substrate and thereby limits fetal growth. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1381-1403, 2015....

  7. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. (Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London (United Kingdom)); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. (Cytogenetics Lab., London (United Kingdom)); Nicolaides, K. (King' s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Autonomous adrenocorticotropin reaction to stress stimuli in human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinska-Kaczynska, Katarzyna; Bartkowiak, Robert; Kaczynski, Bartosz; Szymusik, Iwona; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether human fetuses show ACTH response to stress stimuli, to define the gestational age from which these reactions may be present and to analyze the relationship between hormone concentrations and their changes, both in fetuses and in pregnant women. The study included 81 intrauterine transfusions carried out in 19 pregnant women. 52 procedures were performed directly into the umbilical vein, which is not innervated, so neutral for the fetus (the PCI group) and 29 transfusions into the intrahepatic vein -which puncture is stressful for the fetus (the IHV group). ACTH and cortisol concentrations in fetal and maternal plasma obtained during the procedures were assayed. The initial mean plasma ACTH concentration in the PCI group equaled 18.94pg/mL, but in the IHV group it was significantly higher and amounted 75.17pg/mL (ptransfusion both in the IHV group (95.8pg/mL, p>0.05) and in the PCI group (22.36pg/mL, p>0.05). The observed hormonal response in the IHV group proves the existence of fetal pituitary reaction to stress. The initial fetal ACTH concentration in the IHV group correlated with the number of transfusions performed on a single fetus (R=0.41; p=0.04). No correlation with parity, gestational weeks or the volume of transfused packed red blood cells was found. There was also no correlation between fetal and maternal ACTH concentrations in any group. Presented data suggest that the human fetus shows autonomous ACTH reaction to stress stimulation. PMID:21925813

  9. Risks of irradiation of the human embryo and fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that the embryo and the fetus have a high sensibility for irradiation. This sensibility is thought to be related to the frequent mitosis of embryonic cells. However, the conclusion that the irradiation sensibility of the embryo is larger in early states of development, is not justified. During the development in utero three phases can be distinguished, each with its own specific sensibility to irradiation. The author reviews the development-depending effects of irradiation of the human embryo and fetus. (Auth.)

  10. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  11. Fetus-in-fetu presenting as acute intestinal obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Sunita; Rattan Kamal; Navtej; Gil Meenu; Mathur S; Sen Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Fetus-in-fetu is a rare condition in which a fetiform calcified mass is often present in the abdomen of its host; a newborn or infant. We present the case of a three-month-old male baby with acute intestinal obstruction and abdominal mass. X-ray abdomen and ultrasonogram revealed a cystic mass with calcification. On laparotomy, a well encapsulated retroperitoneal mass causing high intestinal obstruction was identified. Total excision of the mass was done. Diagnosis of fetus-in-fetu was confir...

  12. Fetus-in-fetu presenting as acute intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sunita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu is a rare condition in which a fetiform calcified mass is often present in the abdomen of its host; a newborn or infant. We present the case of a three-month-old male baby with acute intestinal obstruction and abdominal mass. X-ray abdomen and ultrasonogram revealed a cystic mass with calcification. On laparotomy, a well encapsulated retroperitoneal mass causing high intestinal obstruction was identified. Total excision of the mass was done. Diagnosis of fetus-in-fetu was confirmed on histopathology. Postoperative recovery was uneventful.

  13. Teratogenic effects of Gentamicin on skeletal system of rat fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzban H

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin was evaluated for developmental toxicity in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat. Gentamicin was administered subcutaneously on days 6-15 gestation at dose of 100 mg/kg. On gestation day 21, all live fetuses were examined for external and skeletal malformations and variations. Increased resorptions and dead fetuses, and reduced fetal body weight were observed at dose of 100 mg/kg. Gentamicin caused severe skeletal anomalies, such as: wavy ribs, incomplete ossification of sternebrae, tail vertebra, metacarpus, metatarsus and calvaria. These results indicate the nature and extent of embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of gentamicin in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  14. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  15. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia;

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt......ABC, characterized by PCR, revealed that all but one of the C. jejuni strains had the wild-type sequence. Sequencing of cdtABC from this strain showed two major deletions. From all of the strains, CDT titers were determined, and toxin neutralizing antibodies were documented using an in vitro assay. Three of the...

  16. Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa de Fabricio: Relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: antigenic interrelationships between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Noda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa (EIB sigue afectando la industria avícola por la aparición de variantes patogénicas y antigénicas del virus, originadas en la permanente evolución del virus producto de la presión inmunológica por el uso intensivo de vacunas. La caracterización antigénica de los virus de campo resulta esencial para la aplicación de vacunas más adecuadas en el control de la enfermedad. En este trabajo se determinaron las relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos, obtenidos de poblaciones de pollos vacunados con el virus de la EIB. Los aislados virales se adaptaron a cultivos celulares y se obtuvieron antisueros monoespecíficos de cada uno de ellos y de una cepa de referencia. Las relaciones se establecieron por virusneu-tralización cruzada utilizando nueve aislados cubanos (BD, BL, 35/95, 29/96, 118/96, BF2, BF8, BF9 y 70/98, tres chilenos (G1, G2 y G4 y una cepa de referencia del serotipo 1 (Lukert. Los aislados cubanos y chilenos se adaptaron eficientemente a cultivos de fibroblastos de embrión de pollo (con excepción de BF3 y G3. Además, los aislados cubanos se adaptaron a células VERO, presentando mayores títulos infectivos en fibroblastos de embrión de pollo que en esta línea celular. Los resultados de la seroneutralización cruzada mostraron entre los aislados cubanos una relación mayor a un 80% y entre éstos y la cepa de referencia mayor de un 70%, de igual modo con los aislados chilenos G1 y G4 (mayor de 77%. El aislado G2 presentó diferencias antigénicas consideradas menores con los aislados cubanos BL, 35/95 y 29/96 (­ 69%. Ninguno de los aislados mostró relaciones antigénicas inferiores al 30% con la cepa de referencia del serotipo 1, por lo tanto no corresponden a cepas variantesInfectious Bursal Disease (IBD is still affecting the poultry industry through the appearance of pathogenic and antigenic variations of the virus. This is due to its permanent evolution as a

  17. Development of forelimb bones in indigenous sheep fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included detection of the sites of ossification centers and their sequence of appearance in the forelimb bones of indigenous sheep fetuses by using double staining method with younger specimens and radiography or maceration methods with old specimens, as well as, histological study with some ages. The results showed that the primary ossification centers of the forelimb in indigenous sheep fetuses appeared firstly in the diaphyses of radius and ulna, humerus, scapula, metacarpus, phalanges and lastly in the carpal bone at an estimated age of 43, 45, 46, 47, 49 - 56 and 90-118 days old respectively. The results of statistical analysis of the total lengths of scapula, humerus, radius, ulna and metacarpus with the lengths of their ossified parts through the 7th – 15th weeks of fetus age, showed presence of significant differences in the average of these measurements among most of studied weeks. Also there was a significant differences in the average of relative increase in the total length and length of ossified part of diaphysis of studied bones during the 7th week in comparison to the same average in the other studied weeks (8th-15th week of indigenous sheep fetuses age.

  18. Meconium aspiration in the midtrimester fetus: an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Elin; Kearney, Michael Shelley

    2009-01-01

    We studied the incidence, severity, and significance of intrauterine meconium aspiration (IUMA) in the midtrimester fetus. Lung sections from 219 midtrimester fetuses were examined for meconium, identified by finding meconium corpuscles. There were 21 cases (9.6%) with IUMA. Gestational age ranged from 13 to 23 weeks (mean 18.7 weeks); 11 were female, and 10 were male. Eighteen were spontaneous abortions, 11 of which were macerated, and 1 of these was associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device. There were 3 terminations of pregnancy, 2 for fetal abnormality and 1 for severe preeclampsia. One fetus was conceived by in vitro fertilization. Fifteen cases (71.4%) showed slight IUMA, 5 cases (23.8%) showed moderate IUMA, and in 1 case (4.8%) IUMA was massive. The incidence of IUMA in an autopsy series of midtrimester fetuses was 9.6%. The amount of aspirated meconium was usually small and possibly physiologic. When IUMA was moderate or massive, it was associated with severe abnormality of the umbilical cord or placenta, particularly subchorionic hematoma. PMID:19323599

  19. MASA syndrome : ultrasonographic evidence in a male fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomili, G; Donti, GV; Carrozza, LA; Ardisia, C; Servidio, F; Hofstra, RMW; Gilardi, G; Donti, E

    2000-01-01

    The recent identification of a common etiology among MASA syndrome (McKusick 303300), X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS) (McKusick 307000) and other related neurological disorders, which had previously been considered distinct nosological entities, allowed us to diagnose MASA syndrome in a male fetus in

  20. [Anomalies of the tongue in the fetus and neonate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronin-Walknowska, Elzbieta; Samborska, Monika; Płonka, Tomasz

    2006-01-01

    This work reviews the literature on the development of the tongue and its function during fetal life. Research on fetal behavior in general and functioning of structures of the skull, face and neck during fetal life in particular was very difficult, not to say impossible, until the present era of ultrasonography with flow (color Doppler and power Doppler), as well as 3D and 4D imaging. The results of measurements of the tongue, its perimeter, length, and area in normal fetuses and in fetuses with chromosomal aberrations are discussed. Abnormalities of the tongue appear as isolated defects or in association with other genetic abnormalities. Initial ultrasonographic detection of abnormalities of the fetal tongue demands further examination with more sophisticated sonographic methods. Some researchers also advocate karyotyping. Reports are discussed on the function of the tongue, such as protrusion, licking, grooving, sucking, yawning, and swallowing, and the time during pregnancy when these functions appear concurrently with growing complexity of movements of the fetus. These functions of the tongue have been studied in normal fetuses and in those with abnormalities during fetal life, such as Rh immunization and intrauterine growth retardation. Attention should focus on the presence of fetal tumors of the tongue or floor of the oral cavity. Prenatal diagnosis of tumors of the oral cavity and throat enables treatment to be undertaken immediately after birth and during the neonatal period. PMID:17937017

  1. INTRACRANIAL TERATOMA WITH MULTIPLE FETUSES - PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL APPEARANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENCATE, LN; VERMEIJKEERS, C; SMIT, DA; COHENOVERBEEK, TE; GERSSENSCHOORL, KBJ; DIJKHUIZEN, T

    1995-01-01

    An intracranial teratoma in which six distinct dysmorphic fetuses were included was studied at autopsy. Karyotopic studies showed a normal chromosomal number in the child and the same karyotype in the three tumoral parts that were examined. This is the second tumor of this type reported. Copyripht (

  2. Near-Term Fetuses Process Temporal Features of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier-Deferre, Carolyn; Ribeiro, Aurelie; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Bassereau, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The perception of speech and music requires processing of variations in spectra and amplitude over different time intervals. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, but whether they can process complex auditory streams, such as speech sequences and more specifically their temporal variations, fast or…

  3. Prenatal Development of Interlimb Motor Learning in the Rat Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Scott R.; Kleven, Gale A.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of sensory feedback in the early ontogeny of motor coordination remains a topic of speculation and debate. On E20 of gestation (the 20th day after conception, 2 days before birth), rat fetuses can alter interlimb coordination after a period of training with an interlimb yoke, which constrains limb movement and promotes synchronized,…

  4. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Jirón T.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa, evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad durante 14 días, lesiones anatomopatológicas macroscópicas y microscópicas mediante tinción con hematoxilina-eosina y tinción de Warthyn Starryn. Resultados. Todas las cepas presentaron alta mortalidad, mostrando un cuadro tanto clínico, como lesional característico de la infección experimental. Además, causaron la muerte al 100% de los animales entre el tercer y décimo día postinfección. En el estudio anatomopatológico la cepa del serogrupo Ballum y la del serogrupo Pomona produjeron focos de hemorragias específicamente en el riñón y pulmones. De forma similar ocurrió una congestión hepática y renal, mientras que la hemorragia renal fue observada con mayor frecuencia en la cepa del serogrupo Pomona, diferenciándose del resto de las cepas que mostraron esta lesión con menos frecuencia. Conclusiones. Este trabajo permitió una mayor caracterización de estas cepas siendo utilizadas como futuras candidatas vacunales frente a una nueva epidemia de Leptospirosis en Nicaragua.

  5. Morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fetus central nervous system was evaluated morphologically by ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CT scan to analyze the prenatal diagnostic value for CNS anomalies. A total of 31 patients with 42 lesions had been diagnosed during the preceding 7 years. The patients included 24 with hydrocephalus, three with anencephaly, three with myeloschisis, three with holoprosencephaly, three with an encephalocele, two with a Dandy-Walker cyst, one with hydroencephalodysplasia, one with an intracranial neoplasm, one with sacrococcygeal teratoma, and one with sacral agenesis. Compared with US and MRI, CT proved to be more accurate in the detection of spine and cranium-bone morphology. This finding seems to be valuable in the diagnosis of spina bifida, cranium bifidum and some cases of hypertensive hydrocephalus, especially in the axial view. MRI was definitely superior in the anatomico-pathological diagnosis of cerebral dysgenesis, ventriculomegaly, intracranial tumors, and other brain parenchymal changes in view of multi-dimensional analysis. The most considerable disadvantage of MRI in the diagnosis of a fetus CNS anomaly is the poor information about spine and cranium morphology. A super-conducting MRI system is still insufficient to demonstrate the spinal cord of a fetus. US was routinely used, and the multidimensional slices were useful for screening the CNS abnormalies. Some of the fetus brain lesions, such as intracranial hematomas, had a specific echogenecity on US. However, US sometimes failed to demarcate the cerebral parenchymal or subdural morphological changes because its artifacts had hyperchoic shadows. While US, MRI, and CT were valuable diagnostic tools in the morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies, each modality has different diagnostic advantages and disadvantages. Improvement can be expected when these diagnostic imaging modalities are complementary, depending upon the nature of the anatomy. (J.P.N.)

  6. Mathematical models for calculating radiation dose to the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of radiation dose from radionuclides inside the body are calculated on the basis of energy deposition in mathematical models representing the organs and tissues of the human body. Complex models may be used with radiation transport codes to calculate the fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed in a target tissue even at a distance from the source. Other models may be simple geometric shapes for which absorbed fractions of energy have already been calculated. Models of Reference Man, the 15-year-old (Reference Woman), the 10-year-old, the five-year-old, the one-year-old, and the newborn have been developed and used for calculating specific absorbed fractions (absorbed fractions of energy per unit mass) for several different photon energies and many different source-target combinations. The Reference woman model is adequate for calculating energy deposition in the uterus during the first few weeks of pregnancy. During the course of pregnancy, the embryo/fetus increases rapidly in size and thus requires several models for calculating absorbed fractions. In addition, the increases in size and changes in shape of the uterus and fetus result in the repositioning of the maternal organs and in different geometric relationships among the organs and the fetus. This is especially true of the excretory organs such as the urinary bladder and the various sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Several models have been developed for calculating absorbed fractions of energy in the fetus, including models of the uterus and fetus for each month of pregnancy and complete models of the pregnant woman at the end of each trimester. In this paper, the available models and the appropriate use of each will be discussed. (Author) 19 refs., 7 figs

  7. Clinical Manifestations of Campylobacter concisus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. METHODS:: A study was performed during a two-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient was def...

  8. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Bodil Hald, Anna;

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish...

  9. Maatschappelijke acceptatie van maatregelen tegen Campylobacter in kippenvlees in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, M.J.; Sengers, H.H.W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt ingegaan op de acceptatie bij vleeskuikenhouders, pluimveeslachterijen en consumenten van elf mogelijk te nemen maatregelen waarmee de besmetting van kippenvlees met Campylobacter kan worden verminderd in Nederland. Uit het enquêteonderzoek blijkt dat bij vleeskuikenhouders en p

  10. First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Stenram, U.; Andersen, L.P.;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C. concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize and...

  11. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe;

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution with a...

  12. Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strain M1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Carsten; Wassenaar, Gertrude Maria; Javed, Muhammad A.;

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni strain M1 (laboratory designation 99/308) is a rarely documented case of direct transmission of C. jejuni from chicken to a person, resulting in enteritis. We have sequenced the genome of C. jejuni strain M1, and compared this to 12 other C. jejuni sequenced genomes currently...

  13. Role of Rodents in transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Kijlstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are generally regarded as the most important food-borne pathogens in the world. Reduction or elimination of these pathogens in the first part of the food chain (on the farm) is important to prevent disease among consumers of animal products. In organic farming, eliminati

  14. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Bodil Hald, Anna; Lassen, Jesper; Korzen, Sara Marie; Lund, Mogens; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Christensen, T.; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Sandøe, Peter

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish...... situation is screening broiler houses with fly nets....

  15. ADVANCES IN CAMPYLOBACTER BIOLOGY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen of animal origin and a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. During the past decade, especially since the publication of the first C. jejuni genome sequence, major advances have been made in understanding the pathobiology and physiol...

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to consumption of contamina

  17. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter gracilis ATCC 33236T

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human oral pathogen Campylobacter gracilis has been isolated from periodontal and endodontal infections, and also from non-oral head, neck or lung infections. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the human periodontal isolate ATCC 33236T (=FDC 1084), which is the first closed genome...

  18. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been performed in reptiles. Due to their distinct physiology, reptiles might display a unique microbiome which can provide insights in bacterial host association, adaptation, and speciation. In this thesis,...

  19. Prevalence of Campylobacter concisus in diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Permin, Henrik; On, Stephen L W;

    2002-01-01

    The importance of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni/coli in diarrhoeal disease is largely unknown. We wished to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of C. concisus infection in patients with enteric disease in a tertiary hospital. Stool specimens were routinely tested for t...

  20. Campylobacter in: Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter species are enteric pathogens and are considered one of the leading foodborne disease agents in the United States causing an estimated 2.1 to 2.4 million cases of gastroenteritis annually. This chapter, intended for inclusion in the book, Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Indust...

  1. Gérmenes patógenos aislados en niños con infecciones respiratorias a repetición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoenny Peña García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones respiratorias agudas son la causa más frecuente de morbilidad y de elevada mortalidad en el mundo, particularmente en los países en desarrollo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, para caracterizar a los niños con infecciones respiratorias a repetición, según los gérmenes patógenos aislados, en el círculo infantil “Flores de la Vida” del municipio de Puerto Padre, en el período de abril a mayo de 2014. Se trabajó con los niños de los salones de segundo, tercero y cuarto año de vida, distribuidos según edad y sexo, a los que se les identificaron los gérmenes patógenos aislados en exudados nasofaríngeos. La información se obtuvo del departamento de microbiología del Centro Municipal de Higiene y Epidemiología. Se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados: el grupo de edad más frecuente fue el de dos años, que representó el 45 % de la muestra y se correspondió con la media de la edad. El 62,5 % de la muestra de estudio correspondió al sexo masculino. Los gérmenes patógenos aislados con mayor frecuencia fueron: el Streptococcus pneumoneae, para un 83,9 %, el Streptococcus B hemolítico, para un 7,1 % y el Haemophillus inflienzae para un 5,4 %

  2. Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa de Fabricio: Relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: antigenic interrelationships between

    OpenAIRE

    J Noda; J ULLOA; C L Perera; G Jara; Cuello, S.; E. Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    La Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa (EIB) sigue afectando la industria avícola por la aparición de variantes patogénicas y antigénicas del virus, originadas en la permanente evolución del virus producto de la presión inmunológica por el uso intensivo de vacunas. La caracterización antigénica de los virus de campo resulta esencial para la aplicación de vacunas más adecuadas en el control de la enfermedad. En este trabajo se determinaron las relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chileno...

  3. Selección de hongos aislados de bagazo de caña con actividad celulasa sobre celulosa cristalina para posibles aplicaciones industriales

    OpenAIRE

    Yoandy Ferrer-Marcelo; Marta León-Rodríguez; Georgina Michelena-Álvarez; Julio César Dustet-Mendoza; Arianna Duque-Ortiz; My-Lai Ibañez-Fuentes; Keyla Tortoló-Cabañas

    2011-01-01

    Las enzimas comerciales necesarias en procesos de producción de bioetanol celulósico y enriquecimiento de forrajes, son excesivamente caras. La mayoría provienen de mutantes B-glucosidasa, con la velocidad y extensión de la hidrólisis reducida, y débil acción sobre la celulosa cristalina. A partir de bagazo, se aislaron varios hongos filamentosos con capacidad de degradación de la celulosa cristalina, para ello se diseñó un medio selectivo de celulosa agar. Del total de aislados, solo 9 micro...

  4. Variabilidad morfológica, patogénica y susceptibilidad a fungicidas de Rhizoctonia solani aislado de rizósfera de Vitis vinifera var. perlette seedless

    OpenAIRE

    Amparo Meza-Moller; Martín Esqueda; Alfonso Gardea; Martín Tiznado; Gil Virgen-Calleros

    2007-01-01

    Se estudió la variabilidad morfológica, reacción de anastomosis, patogenicidad y susceptibilidad a fungicidas de Rhizoctonia solani aislado de la rizósfera de Vitis vinifera var. perlette seedless plantada a pie franco en Sonora, México. El hongo se aisló mediante el método de tamizado en húmedo y la siembra en agar-agua 2 %. Se obtuvieron 122 cepas, las cuales presentaron hifas con 3 a 9 núcleos por célula, de 3 a 8 µm de diámetro y de color blanco sucio a moreno oscuro. Los aislamientos cor...

  5. Actividad antifúngica del aceite esencial de Eugenia caryophyllata sobre cepas de Candida tropicalis de aislados clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana MOURA MENDES; Felipe Queiroga SARMENTO GUERRA; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Janiere PEREIRA de SOUSA; Vinicius NOGUEIRA TRAJANO; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2012-01-01

    La candidiasis es una infección fúngica oportunista causada por levaduras del género Candida. En Brasil, la especie C. tropicalis esta siendo aislada frecuentemente, es el segundo microorganismo más aislado después de C. albicans. La aparición de cepas resistentes a los antifúngicos convencionales ha aumentado la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas provenientes de productos naturales, especialmente los aceites esenciales. En este estudio se investigó la actividad de los aceites esenciales contra ...

  6. Detección de aislados clínicos de Escherichia coli y Klebsiella spp. productoras de B-lactamasas de espectro extendido mediante el sistema DIRAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Álvarez-Varela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, se ha incrementado el interés por las enterobacterias productoras de B-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE. Las cepas que expresan este fenotipo son capaces de hidrolizar un amplio grupo de antibióticos, incluidas las cefalosporinas de tercera generación y aztreonam, por lo que constituyen un reto terapéutico de difícil abordaje. Este mecanismo les confiere a las bacterias un grado de resistencia variable a los oximino-betalactámicos, se manifiesta en un aumento de la concentración mínima inhibitoria, que permanece en el intervalo de sensibilidad. Puede pasar inadvertido en el laboratorio, pero se manifiesta en el paciente, en el que no hay actividad de la droga y por lo tanto, se presenta una falla terapéutica. De ahí, la gran importancia de perfeccionar su detección a nivel del laboratorio de microbiología. En este trabajo, se comparó el sistema DIRAMIC con el método de sinergia de doble disco modificado (DDD para la detección fenotípica de BLEE. Se estudiaron 175 aislados clínicos, 132 Escherichia coli y 43 Klebsiella spp., provenientes de tres hospitales de Ciudad de La Habana, recolectados de junio de 2008 a junio de 2009. De un total de 42 (24 % aislados que presentaron fenotipo de BLEE por el método de DDD, el sistema DIRAMIC fue capaz de detectar 39 (22,3 %. En tres aislados, el fenotipo de BLEE solo fue detectado por DDD, los cuales resultaron falsos negativos por DIRAMIC. El 72,6 % de los aislados (127 fueron negativos por ambos métodos. Los métodos empleados tuvieron un desempeño similar, para un 92,85 % de correspondencia. El DIRAMIC mostró una sensibilidad del 92,85 % y una especificidad del 95,48 % con respecto al método de DDD.

  7. Atrial flutter in the fetus and young infant: an association with accessory connections.

    OpenAIRE

    Till, J; WREN, C.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To highlight the association between atrial flutter and accessory connections in the fetus and young infant. DESIGN--A retrospective review from January 1985 to January 1990. PATIENTS--Fetuses, neonates, and young infants with atrial flutter. RESULTS--Four fetuses and five infants presented with atrial flutter. In two fetuses and one infant sinus rhythm returned spontaneously. The other six required cardioversion. Three of them developed orthodromic atrioventricular re-entry tachyc...

  8. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nielsen, Niels L.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak

    2006-01-01

    ) and had intestinal mean counts ranging from 6.65 to 8.20 log(10) cfu/g. A correlation between Campylobacter concentrations in intestinal content and on chicken carcasses after the defeathering operation was documented. This finding indicates that a reduction in the Campylobacter concentration on......To evaluate the effect of specific slaughter operations on the contamination of broiler carcasses with naturally occurring thermotolerant Campylobacter, experiments were carried out in two Danish commercial slaughter plants (Plant I and Plant 11). Six broiler flocks determined Campylobacter...... positive prior to slaughter were investigated at four sampling locations within each slaughter plant. Quantification of thermotolerant Campylobacter in 30 neck skin samples per flock per sampling location showed that the evisceration operation in Plant I led to a significant increase in the Campylobacter...

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.;

    2001-01-01

    and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp....... were isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special...... characteristics of organic broiler production provide a high prevalence of Campylobacter positive flocks. Antimicrobial resistance was scarce among Campylobacter isolates from all rearing systems. Significance and Impact of the Study: Organic broiler flocks constitute a strong potential for introduction of...

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from Chicken Carcass Rinsates: Update from the Animal Arm of NARMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species, particularly C. jejuni and C. coli, is of public health concern. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for antimicrobials used in susceptibility testing of C....

  11. Identification of unusual Campylobacter-like isolates from poultry products as Helicobacter pullorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, Stephen L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-six unclassified Campylobacter-like strains previously isolated from 15 chicken carcasses and caecal contents, together with two more strains isolated from chicken faeces on a different occasion, were identified as Helicobacter pullorum using various phenotypic identification methods. API...... Campy identification kits and a 16-test identification scheme developed for campylobacters failed to identify these bacteria, or identified them as Campylobacter spp. Eighteen strains (including the two isolated on a different occasion) were chosen for examination using a more comprehensive...

  12. An epidemiological investigation of Campylobacter in pig and poultry farms in the Mekong delta of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    CARRIQUE-MAS, J. J.; Bryant, J.E.; Cuong, N. V.; HOANG, N. V. M.; Campbell, J.; HOANG, N. V.; DUNG, T. T. N.; DUY, D.T.; HOA, N. T.; Thompson, C.; HIEN, V. V.; PHAT, V. V.; Farrar, J; Baker, S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter are zoonotic pathogens commonly associated with gastroenteritis. To assess the relevance of Campylobacter in Vietnam, an economically transitioning country in SE Asia, we conducted a survey of 343 pig and poultry farms in the Mekong delta, a region characterized by mixed species farming with limited biosecurity. The animal-level prevalence of Campylobacter was 31·9%, 23·9% and 53·7% for chickens, ducks and pigs, respectively. C. jejuni was predominant in all three host s...

  13. Prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire, Laxman; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Basnet, Hom Bahadur; Bhattarai, Rebanta Kumar; Dhakal, Santosh; Sharma, Bishwas

    2014-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the primary cause of food borne gastroenteritis. Moreover, the emergence of multiple drug resistant campylobacters from poultry and pork has produced a potential threat to public health. Research addressing these issues is sparse in Nepal. So, this cross-sectional study aims at determining the prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of campylobacters from dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal. Results We collected 139 samples of dressed porcine carcass from 10...

  14. Pernicious anaemia and Campylobacter like organisms; is the gastric antrum resistant to colonisation?

    OpenAIRE

    Flejou, J F; Bahame, P; Smith, A. C.; Stockbrugger, R W; Rode, J.; Price, A B

    1989-01-01

    Gastric biopsies from 86 patients with pernicious anaemia were examined for Campylobacter like organisms with particular attention to those showing an antral gastritis in addition to the usual pattern of body gastritis. All the patients had chronic atrophic gastritis in the body but Campylobacter like organisms were found at this site in only three patients. Thus the Type A pattern of gastritis (autoimmune) seen in patients with pernicious anaemia is only rarely associated with Campylobacter ...

  15. Quantification of Campylobacter Species Cross-Contamination during Handling of Contaminated Fresh Chicken Parts in Kitchens

    OpenAIRE

    Luber, Petra; Brynestad, Sigrid; Topsch, Daniela; Scherer, Kathrin; Bartelt, Edda

    2006-01-01

    Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies for campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter-contaminated chicken products is a risk factor for infection and illness. There is currently extremely limited quantitative data on the levels of Campylobacter cross-contamination in the kitchen, hindering risk assessments for the pathogen commodity combination of Campylobacter and chicken meat. An exposure assessment needs to quantify the transfer of the bacteri...

  16. Prevalencija i kontrola termotolerantnih Campylobacter spp. u svježem mesu peradi u Maroku

    OpenAIRE

    Jouahri, Mustapha; Asehraou, Abdeslam; Karib, Hakim; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Touhami, Meryem

    2007-01-01

    Prevalencija termo-tolerantnih Campylobacter spp ispitana je u sirovom mesu peradi neposredno nakon klanja i stavljanja u promet u području Oujda (Maroko). Rezultati su pokazali visok stupanj kontaminiranosti u 62% analiziranih uzoraka mesa. Identifikacija izolata pokazala je dominaciju Campylobacter jejuni nad Campylobacter coli, uz učestalost od 90% odnosno 10%. Ispitano je antimikrobijsko djelovanje nekih prirodnih začina, koji se tradicionalno koriste u pripremi hrane u Maroku, na neke iz...

  17. Study of the ureter structure in anencephalic fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of this paper is to analyze the structure of the ureter in normal and anencephalic human fetuses. Materials and Methods We studied 16 ureters from 8 human fetuses without congenital anomalies aged 16 to 27 weeks post-conception (WPC and 14 ureters from 7 anencephalic fetuses aged 19 to 33 WPC. The ureters were dissected and embedded in paraffin, from which 5 µm thick sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome, to quantify smooth muscle cells (SMC and to determine the ureteral lumen area, thickness and ureteral diameter. The samples were also stained with Weigert Resorcin Fucsin (to study elastic fibers and Picro-Sirius Red with polarization and immunohistochemistry analysis of the collagen type III fibers to study collagen. Stereological analysis of collagen, elastic system fibers and SMC were performed on the sections. Data were expressed as volumetric density (Vv-%. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done using the Image Pro and Image J programs. For biochemical analysis, samples were fixed in acetone, and collagen concentrations were expressed as micrograms of hydroxyproline per mg of dry tissue. Means were statistically compared using the unpaired t-test (p < 0.05. Results The ureteral epithelium was well preserved in the anencephalic and control groups. We did not observe differences in the transitional epithelium in the anencephalic and control groups. There was no difference in elastic fibers and total collagen distribution in normal and anencephalic fetuses. SMC concentration did not differ significantly (p = 0.1215 in the anencephalic and control group. The ureteral lumen area (p = 0.0047, diameter (p = 0.0024 and thickness (p = 0.0144 were significantly smaller in anencephalic fetuses. Conclusions Fetuses with anencephaly showed smaller diameter, area and thickness. These differences could indicate that anencephalic fetal

  18. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. PMID:25583335

  19. Evaluation of different plate media for direct cultivation of Campylobacter species from live broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potturi-Venkata, L-P; Backert, S; Lastovica, A J; Vieira, S L; Norton, R A; Miller, R S; Pierce, S; Oyarzabal, O A

    2007-07-01

    Accurate identification and optimal culturing procedures for Campylobacter spp. from live broilers are needed for epidemiological studies. Because there is no standardized protocol, we designed and conducted studies to evaluate different selective media for the culturing and isolation of Campylobacter spp. from cecal and fecal samples obtained from battery-reared and commercial broilers. Five media selective for Campylobacter were evaluated: Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, Campy-Line, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. With contaminated broilers reared in battery cages, Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar revealed similar isolation rates (P > 0.05), whereas Campy-Line showed a lower efficacy (P agar was more consistent for the isolation of Campylobacter from feces, whereas modified Campy-Cefex and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar showed similar isolation rates from cecal samples. Campy-Line agar showed a lower identification rate (P plate medium may influence the efficiency of isolating Campylobacter spp. from broiler chickens by direct plating from fecal or cecal samples. PMID:17575175

  20. Campylobacter MLST Subtypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Broiler Cecal Isolates: A Two Year Study from 142 Commercial Flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are recognized as important agents of human foodborne gastroenteritis. To monitor trends in food safety and public health, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter derived from poultry products and infected patients has become common practice in both r...

  1. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from naturally infected aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Nuno; Meireles, Carla S; Rocha, A; da Costa, J M Correia; Erickson, M W; Dubey, J P

    2002-12-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are related parasites. The former is a common cause of abortion in dairy cattle. The latter has not been conclusively demonstrated in bovine fetuses. During the course of attempts to isolate N. caninum from aborted fetuses, T. gondii was isolated from 2 aborted fetuses, 1 from Portugal and 1 from the United States. Both isolates were made by bioassay of fetal brains in mice. The fetus from Portugal was about 5 mo in gestational age, and the fetus from the United States was a full-term stillborn. PMID:12537120

  2. X radiation and the human fetus - a bibliography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography is the end result of many years' survey of the literature pertaining to the effects of ionizing radiation, particularly x radiation, on the human embryo and fetus. It is intended to provide the technical and scientific community with a ready identification of material available to them in this discipline. It is divided into three sections: an index (KWIC) by keywords, an author list, and the bibliography

  3. Maternal homocystinuria: studies of an untreated mother and fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurczynski, T W; Muir, W A; Fleisher, L D; Palomaki, J F; Gaull, G E; Rassin, D K; Abramowsky, C

    1980-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman with untreated homocystinuria was examined when she was 18 weeks' pregnant. Amniocentesis was performed and raised levels of homocystine and methionine were present in the amniotic fluid. Assay of cystathionine synthetase activity in cultured amniotic fluid cells showed the carrier state for homocystinuria. An abortion was performed because of the possible adverse effects of continuing the pregnancy both for the mother and the fetus. No pathological abnormality was found i...

  4. Ontogenesis of somatomedin and insulin receptors in the human fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sara, V R; Hall, K.; Misaki, M; Fryklund, L.; Christensen, N.; Wetterberg, L

    1983-01-01

    This study examines the ontogenesis of somatomedin and insulin receptors in man. Particulate plasma membranes were prepared by ultracentrifugation from various tissues removed from fetuses after abortion and classified as less than 17, 17-25, and greater than 25 cm in length. The binding of iodinated insulinlike growth factors 1 (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2), somatomedin A (SMA), multiplication-stimulating activity (MSA), and insulin was examined at the different ages. In the liver, cross-reaction st...

  5. Fetus -in -fetu in a 6-month-old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur-Rahman L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu is a malformed parasitic monozygotic diamniotic twin found inside the body of the living child or adult. We report a case of lumbar mass having superficial rudimentary phallus, labioscrotal fold, testes, pedunculated thumb-like digit and rudimentary pelvis in addition to bowel loops in a 6-month-old Nigerian girl. The mass was excised and the baby did well. We propose based on these that dizygotic parasitic foetiform twin could exist.

  6. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of renal cystic diseases of the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renal cystic diseases of the fetus consist of variable types of multicystic dysplastic kidney, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney, obstructive cystic renal dysplasia, simple renal cyst, medullary cystic disease, and various syndromes with associated cystic renal diseases. Prenatal US findings of renal cystic diseases were compared and analyzed with the pathologic and postnatal US findings to establish the differential points of renal cystic diseases.

  7. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of renal cystic diseases of the fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Hong, Sung Ran [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The renal cystic diseases of the fetus consist of variable types of multicystic dysplastic kidney, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney, obstructive cystic renal dysplasia, simple renal cyst, medullary cystic disease, and various syndromes with associated cystic renal diseases. Prenatal US findings of renal cystic diseases were compared and analyzed with the pathologic and postnatal US findings to establish the differential points of renal cystic diseases.

  8. T cell recognition and immunity in the fetus and mother

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Cody A.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2007-01-01

    All multicellular organisms protect themselves from invasion by allogeneic organisms and cells by mounting immune responses. While protective, allogeneic immune responses present a threat to successful reproduction in eutherian mammals in which the maternal immune system is exposed to the semi-allogeneic fetus. Thus, successful reproduction in eutherian mammals depends on mechanisms that control the potentially hostile maternal immune system without hindering immune responses to potentially d...

  9. Sonographically determined anomalies and outcome in 170 chromosomally abnormal fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimiroff, Juriy; Bhaggoe, W.; Kristelijn, M. J E; Cohen-Overbeek, Titia; Hollander, Nicolette; Brandenburg, Helen; Los, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStructural pathology and outcome were studied in 170 chromosomally abnormal fetuses. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities were established in 158 (93 per cent) cases, of which 110 (71 per cent) represented trisomies, 30 (18 per cent) Turner syndrome, and 18 (11 per cent) triploidy. Structural chromosomal abnormalities were diagnosed in 12 (7 per cent) cases. Gestational age at referral was significantly shorter for pregnancies with Turner syndrome than for the other chromosomal abn...

  10. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses.

    OpenAIRE

    Loughna, S; P. Bennett; Gau, G; K. Nicolaides; Blunt, S; Moore, G

    1993-01-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses a...

  11. The use of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy against Campylobacter in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, A.; Vigre, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis represents an important economic and public health problem. Campylobacter originating from feces of infected chickens will contaminate chicken meat posing a risk to the consumer. Vaccination against Campylobacter in broilers is one probable measure to reduce consumers’ exposure to Campylobacter.In this presentation we focus on the development of a computerized decision support system to aid management decisions on Campylobacter vaccination of commercial broilers. Broi...

  12. Cell Wall Anchoring of the Campylobacter Antigens to Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A; Olech, Barbara; Książek, Monika; Derlatka, Katarzyna; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Paweł M; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein - CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type C. jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analyzed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered as an alternative vector to

  13. Prevalence of virulence genes and cytolethal distending toxin production in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukder, Kaisar A.; Aslam, Mohammad; Islam, Zhahirul; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Dutta, Dilip K.; Hossain, Sabir; Nur-E-Kamal, Alam; Nair, Gopinath B.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Sack, David A.; Endtz, Hubert P.

    2008-01-01

    From 300 stool samples, 58 Campylobacter strains were isolated by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Of these, 40 strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 5 as Campylobacter coli. The presence of flaA (100%), cadF (100%), racR (100%), dnaJ (100%), pldA (100%), ciaB (95%), v

  14. Chitosan supplementation reduces enteric colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens and down-regulates expression of colonization genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and poultry is considered as the most common source of human infections. Campylobacter is prevalent in most poultry flocks and a reduction of Campylobacter in poultry would greatly reduce the risk of campylo...

  15. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  16. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Amol D. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India); Shashidhar, Ravindranath [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.in [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kapadnis, Balu P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 {sup o}C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D{sub 10} values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: > Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. > Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. > No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. > First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  17. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 oC in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 105 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 oC up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: → Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. → Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. → No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. → First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  18. Right Ventricular Systolic-to-Diastolic Time Index: Hypoplastic Left Heart Fetuses Differ Significantly from Normal Fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaytou, HM; S. Peyvandi; Brook, MM; Silverman, N; Moon-Grady, AJ

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Background: A growing body of evidence indicates that right ventricular dysfunction in patients with palliated hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) originates in fetal life. In this study, the systolic-to-diastolic time index (SDI) was used to study the presence of ventricular dysfunction in single right ventricles in fetuses with HLHS or evolving HLHS and to assess whether this dysfunction is related to increase preload, myocardial performance, ...

  19. A waterborne Campylobacter jejuni outbreak on a Greek island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, I; Sideroglou, T; Gkolfinopoulou, K; Tsouri, A; Lampousaki, D; Velonakis, E N; Scoulica, E V; Mellou, K; Panagiotopoulos, T; Bonovas, S

    2010-12-01

    A case-control and a case-crossover study were performed to investigate a Campylobacter jejuni outbreak in Crete in 2009. Most cases originated from rural areas, served by a different water-supply system from that of the adjacent town. Thirty-seven cases and 79 controls were interviewed; cases were interviewed for two different time periods for the case-crossover study. Stool cultures, PFGE and MLST subtyping were run in human samples. Univariately, consumption of tap water was associated with C. jejuni infection. Stratified analysis revealed that water-supply system was an effect modifier of this association. In the multivariable analysis, the rural areas' water supplier and drinking tap water were risk factors. No risk factors were revealed in the case-crossover study. No Campylobacter were isolated in the tested water samples. There is strong epidemiological evidence that tap water was the vehicle of the outbreak. PMID:20836911

  20. Estimation of on-farm interventions to control Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Rosenquist, Hanne;

    2015-01-01

    individual interventions gave only a limited reduction in prevalence if the biosecurity was not accounted for. Furthermore, the effect of the interventions differed between countries, depending on current farm management practices and Campylobacter prevalence. The most effective interventions were “building......Before making risk management decisions to control Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, it is useful to identify effective interventions. A given risk factor may seem to have a large effect, but in practice interventions related to this risk factor may have only limited effect due to a...... relative small proportion of the farms that can actually be intervened for the given risk factors. We present a novel tool for risk assessors to obtain such estimates of the effect of interventions before it is implemented at the farms. A statistical method was developed in order to estimate the flock...

  1. Survival with a Helping Hand: Campylobacter and Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Indikova, Ivana; Humphrey, Tom J.; Hilbert, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especi...

  2. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  3. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. PMID:24210812

  4. Surveillance for action – managing foodborne Campylobacter in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Hathaway

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, information gathered by the human disease surveillance system has been used to inform its well-documented, science-based Food Safety Risk Management Framework and response to an increasing national public health problem–campylobacteriosis. This paper discusses the use of surveillance data in initial prioritization, goal setting, source attribution and monitoring and review for Campylobacter infection in New Zealand.

  5. Broiler Campylobacter Contamination and Human Campylobacteriosis in Iceland ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Callicott, Kenneth A.; Harðardóttir, Hjördís; Georgsson, Franklín; Reiersen, Jarle; Friðriksdóttir, Vala; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Michel, Pascal; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Kristinsson, Karl G; Briem, Haraldur; Hiett, Kelli L.; Needleman, David S.; Stern, Norman J.

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic broiler chicken carcasses and the incidence of human disease, 1,617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using the flaA short variable region [SVR[) to 289 isolates from cases of human campylobacteriosis whose onset was within approximately 2 weeks from the date of processing. When there was genetic identity between broiler is...

  6. Salmonella og Campylobacter i økologisk svineproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2005-01-01

    De mere ekstensive systemer i økologisk svineproduktion formodes at have en positiv effekt på dyrenes robusthed f.eks. over for infektioner. Der er dog ingen dokumentation for, at økologiske svin har et lavere indhold af de almindelige zoonotiske bakterier som f.eks. Salmonella og Campylobacter end...... konventionelle svin. Et forsøg med økologiske smågrise viste, at salmonellainfektioner kan overføres både mellem grisene men også via et salmonellasmittet miljø. Graden af den smitte grisene udsættes for synes væsentlig for etablering af en infektion. Campylobacter, som anses for at være en naturlig del af...... grisens tarmflora, blev fundet i alle smågrisene. Desuden var det muligt at påvise både den typisk svineassocierede Campylobacter art C. coli og arten C. jejuni vha. en ny metode....

  7. Prevalenza di Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italia, nel periodo 5 febbraio-15 dicembre 2008, in applicazione della Decisione 516/2007/CE, sono state eseguite le attività di campionamento e analisi previste dal relativo Piano di sorveglianza. Tra gli obiettivi, la rilevazione dell’entità di contaminazione da Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso allevato in Italia. Sono stati selezionati 48 mattatoi avicoli, distribuiti in undici regioni italiane, in cui sono stati prelevati intestini ciechi e carcasse di pollo da ingrasso appartenenti a 393 lotti di macellazione. In 284 lotti (72,3% è stato isolato Campylobacter spp.: il 52,1% è risultato contaminato da C. jejuni, il 55,6% da C. coli e l’1,1% da C. lari. Nel 13,0% di quelli positivi (37 lotti sono stati rilevati contemporaneamente C. jejuni e C. coli. Dall’esame degli intestini ciechi, Campylobacter spp. è risultato presente in 251 lotti di macellazione (63,9%, in particolare, C. jejuni nel 48,2%, C. coli nel 50,6% e C. lari nell’1,2%. Le carcasse appartenenti a 182 lotti (46,3% sono risultate contaminate da C. jejuni nel 40,7% e C. coli nel 57,7% dei lotti positivi, C. lari non è stato isolato. I livelli di contaminazione riscontrati nelle carcasse sono risultati compresi tra 10 e 1,6 × 107 UFC/g.

  8. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Chemaly, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria's main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens. PMID:27413761

  9. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage. PMID:24671947

  10. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Hirchaud, Edouard; Parra, Alberto; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria's main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens. PMID:27413761

  11. Clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Choi, Yukyung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Genus Campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. Human Campylobacter infections have caused more concern. Campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. The major zoonotic species are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, which mostly reside in the intestines of avian species and are transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated poultry products, thus causing human gastroenteritis and other diseases as sequelae. The other campylobacters, human oral species, include C. concisus, C. showae, C. gracilis, C. ureolyticus, C. curvus, and C. rectus. These species are isolated from the oral cavity, natural colonization site, but have potential clinical relevance in the periodontal region to varying extent. Two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are believed to be mainly associated with intestinal diseases, but recent studies suggested that oral Campylobacter species also play a significant role in intestinal diseases. This review offers an outline of the two Campylobacter groups (zoonotic and human oral), their virulence traits, and the associated illnesses including gastroenteritis. PMID:27350611

  12. Genomotyping and flaA Sequencing to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter Isolates from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human enteritis in the United States, accounting for an estimated 2.4 million cases per year. Different Campylobacter spp. isolates vary in their virulence properties and sequence analysis of the single locus of the flaA short variable region (SVR) of Camp...

  13. Temperature-Related Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...

  14. House-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be an important source of Campylobacter to broilers. Our objective was to identify broiler house characteristics and house-level management practices associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Icel...

  15. Establishing a campylobacter-free pig population through a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    Fattening pigs are often infected with campylobacter. To eliminate campylobacter from the pig population, a top-down approach, involving the breeding and reproduction farms, seems appropriate. In order to investigate the effectiveness of a top-down approach, sows' faeces from the following farms wer

  16. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved. Isol

  17. Comparison of polycarbonate and cellulose acetate membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter concisus from stool samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde Nielsen, Hans; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove;

    2013-01-01

    One thousand seven hundred ninety-one diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. We found a high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus with use of a polycarbonate filter (n = 114) compared to a cellulose acetate filter (n = 79) (P ... to the commonly used cellulose acetate filter for detection of C. concisus....

  18. Neonatal sepsis by Campylobacter jejuni : Genetically proven transmission from a household puppy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, TFW; Duim, B; Geelen, SPM; Rigter, A; Thomson-Carter, F; Fleer, A; Wagenaar, JA

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of neonatal Campylobacter jejuni sepsis in a 3-week-old infant who acquired the infection through transmission from a recently acquired household puppy. Genotyping of Campylobacter strains obtained from puppy and child resulted in highly homogenous findings. This represents the firs

  19. CAMPYLOBACTER INSULAENIGRAE ISOLATED FROM NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEALS (MIROUNGA ANGUSTIROSTRIS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of Campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov, from three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Scotland a...

  20. Campylobacter Colonization of the Turkey Intestine in the Context of Microbial Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relationships between development of the turkey intestinal microbiota and colonization by the food borne pathogen Campylobacter were examined. Every week of the 18 week production cycle, cecal bacterial communities and Campylobacter isolates were examined from five birds for each of two flocks. Mole...

  1. Improved toluidine blue-DNA agar for detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H; Patel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Our improved toluidine blue-DNA agar was compared with methyl green DNase test agar for the detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters. The toluidine blue-DNA agar gave clear-cut positive and negative reactions with campylobacter strains belonging to several species.

  2. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In order to comply with the demands of consumers for food free of bacterial pathogens, a mass screening program for Campylobacter in Danish broilers has been carried out based on conventional bacterial...

  3. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp.: A comparison toclassic culturing and enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Rahaoui, H.; Leer, R.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    The major disadvantage of the current gold standard for detection of the food pathogen Campylobacter, i.e. culturing, is the lengthy procedure. In this study we assessed the use of real-time PCR for detection of Campylobacter. To this end, 926 poultry samples, taken from transport containers and bro

  4. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095 bp.) harboring tet(O) was identified in...

  5. Targeting motility properties of bacteria in the development of probiotic cultures against Campylobacter in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter is commonly present in the intestinal tract of poultry and one strategy to reduce enteric colonization is the use of probiotic cultures. This strategy has successfully reduced enteric colonization of Salmonella, but has...

  6. Potential Use of Fosfomycin-Tromethamine for Treatment of Recurrent Campylobacter Species Enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Company, Juan; Los-Arcos, Ibai; Pigrau, Carles; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Larrosa, María Nieves; Rodríguez-Garrido, Virginia; Sihuay-Diburga, Denisse; Almirante, Benito

    2016-07-01

    We report 2 cases of recurrent Campylobacter coli enteritis caused by macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains in 2 patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, successfully treated with a prolonged course of fosfomycin-tromethamine with no side effects. Fosfomycin-tromethamine may be a feasible alternative therapy for recurrent enteritis caused by Campylobacter species resistant to first-line drugs. PMID:27161640

  7. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from pigeon feces by a combined enrichment-filtration technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Mégraud, F

    1987-01-01

    A technique combining enrichment in Preston enrichment broth and direct filtration onto chocolate agar was used to isolate Campylobacter species from pigeon feces. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 106 of 200 samples tested; 105 strains were isolated by enrichment-filtration, and 84 strains were isolated by direct plating. Most of the strains grew after 48 h at 37 degrees C.

  8. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early...

  9. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  10. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni YH001 from beef liver which contains a novel plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and is commonly found in poultry and meat products. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Campylobacter jejuni strain recently isolated from retail beef liver. The genome size was 1,712,361 bp, ...

  11. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Giardia species in muskrat (Ondatra zibethica).

    OpenAIRE

    Pacha, R E; Clark, G. W.; Williams, E A

    1985-01-01

    A total of 189 muskrat fecal samples were surveyed for Campylobacter and Giardia species. Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 47.5% of these samples, and Giardia species were detected in 82.5%. These findings indicate that muskrat may be of importance to the health both of humans and of domestic animals.

  12. Survival of Campylobacter spp. in Darkling Beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and Their Larvae in Australia▿

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Jillian M.; De Jong, Amanda J.; Blackall, P. J.; Miflin, Jeanette K.

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is the most frequently reported notifiable food-borne disease in humans in Australia. Our studies investigated the persistence of Campylobacter spp. in or on darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae. Our results in analyses with chickens confirm that, unless very short turnaround times are used (

  13. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early colon...

  14. Taxonomy of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and related bacteria: current status, future prospects and immediate concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.

    2001-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Campylobacter has changed dramatically since its inception in 1963. At that time the genus comprised just two species. At present, taxa that were once assigned to Campylobacter may belong to one of over 50 species distributed among six genera. Most of these taxa belong t...... identification of the bacteria; and speculate on future prospects for campylobacterial taxonomy....

  15. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  16. Phenotypic and Genotypic Evidence for L-fucose Utilization by Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter remains among the leading causes of bacterial food-borne illness. The current understanding of Campylobacter physiology suggests that it is asaccharolytic and is unable to catabolize exogenous carbohydrates. Contrary to this paradigm, we provide evidence for L-fucose utilization by C....

  17. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible. PMID:26991032

  18. Comparison of selective media for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are known to be among the most common bacteria to cause diarrheal illness, with poultry being linked as the primary source of contamination related to foodborne illness. Enumeration and detection of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry pro...

  19. Resistencia y susceptibilidad de microorganismos aislados en pacientes atendidos en una institución hospitalaria de tercer nivel, Villavicencio-Colombia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alexander Gutiérrez Lesmes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La resistencia bacteriana es problema significativo de salud pública y está asociada al uso indiscriminado e irracional de antibióticos, lo que afecta la eficacia de los tratamientos. Objetivo: Estimar la resistencia antimicrobiana a los antibióticos resultado de las pruebas invitro de susceptibilidad en una institución hospitalaria de tercer nivel de Villavicencio, Colombia. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo, análisis univariado, calculando medias de las variables susceptibilidad, resistencia, antibiótico, microorganismos, y tipo de muestra resultados de las pruebas de susceptibilidad realizadas mediante técnica de Kirby-Bauer de 485 pruebas de susceptibilidad de la institución hospitalaria. Resultados y Discusión: Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados, fueron: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. Pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus ss. Aureus representando el 49% de total de microorganismos, los mayores reportes de resistencia en la pruebas invitro las presentaron Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus saprophyticus ss. Saprophytic, Enterobacter cloacae, presentan una resistencia media superior al 50%, y una susceptibilidad inferior 40%, la mayor resistencia media se presentó para los siguientes antibióticos, Cefalotina 72,2%, Cefazolina 59,9%, Nitrofurantoina 54,4%, Ceftriaxona 52,7%. Conclusiones: Antibióticos como la Cefalotina, Nitrofurantoina, Cefazolina y Ceftriaxona  pierden su utilidad terapéutica dada la elevada resistencia demostrada por los microorganismos aislados en las pruebas invitro, es necesario reforzar las medidas de uso adecuado de antibióticos para disminuir la posibilidad de adaptación y resistencia a los mismos,  el fenómeno de resistencia bacteriana ocurre fuera del ámbito hospitalario evidenciando la necesidad de iniciar también control y vigilancia en infecciones ocurridas en la comunidad.Cómo citar este

  20. Diseño de la Formulación de un Material de Empaque Flexible y Comestible a Base de Aislado Proteínico de Suero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Regalado González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad es muy común resguardar alimentos con empaques de plástico de naturaleza sintética. Actualmente alrededor de un 30% en peso de los desechos municipales corresponden a empaques sintéticos, lo que sugiere la necesidad de crear alternativas ecológicas de empaque, específicamente el diseño y elaboración de películas biodegradables. Dichas películas deben de tener características químicas y mecánicas apropiadas para que retarden la transferencia de masa en los sistemas de alimentos, prolonguen la vida del alimento empacado y mejoren la calidad del producto. Las películas elaboradas con aislado proteínico de suero representan una alternativa viable. Por ello el objetivo de este estudio es determinar la mejor formulación para dichas películas, a partir de los componentes básicos aislado de proteínico de suero (WPI, sorbitol no cristalizable, cera de abeja, cera de candelilla, extracto libre de células (ELC además de la medición de propiedades mecánicas de diferentes combinaciones y concentraciones de los ingredientes básicos. La metodología empleada fue preparar 21 tratamientos de películas biodegradables con aislado proteínico de suero. Posteriormente se realizaron pruebas mecánicas para la determinación del porcentaje de elongación (%E, resistencia a la tensión (RT y módulo de elasticidad (ME para la determinación de la mejor formulación. Se observó que los tratamientos que tienen 10% (w/v de sorbitol (tratamientos 5, 9,14 presentaron mejores propiedades mecánicas como un %E alto y ME alto además de una RT alta, ya que el sorbitol es el que le confiere mayor flexibilidad al empaque, en contraste con aquellas que fueron tratadas con 7% (w/v de sorbitol (tratamientos 2, 8, 12, 21 el cual muestra propiedades mecánicas indeseables, ya que se tornan quebradizas además de que presentan %E bajos así como ME altos

  1. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.;

    2009-01-01

    identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods: Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture....... The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been...... within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level...

  2. Biotyping of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry in and around Anand city, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Tayde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of different biotypes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the study area. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples comprising 90 chicken and 60 caecal content were collected from retail meat market and processed for isolation of Campylobacter spp. 52 Campylobacter isolates obtained from raw poultry meat (6 and caecal content (46 were subjected to biotyping using Lior's biotyping scheme. Results: Among the 52 Campylobacter isolates studied, 60.46 % isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni Biotype I and 39.53% were C. jejuni Biotype II, whereas 83.33 % were C. coli Biotype I and 16.66 % C. coli Biotype II. No other biotypes were identified. Conclusions: The present study revealed that C. jejuni Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II whereas in case of C. coli, Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II providing basis for further epidemiological study.

  3. Prevalence of Campylobacter Jejuni and Coli in Sheep Carcasses by Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 randomly sheep carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter analyzed using microbiological examinations. Results: Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 10.13% meat cultures samples examined. Among these 80% sample were C. jejuni and 20% sample were C. coli. Using PCR assays, the number of positive campylobacters increased to 11.48%. Of these positive samples, 82.35% were C. jejuni and 17.65% were C. coli. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p<0.05 were found in the meat samples taken in summer (47.05%. Conclusion: The PCR is a reliable and sensitive method which can be used as a diagnostic technique for the detection of campylobacter in lamb samples.

  4. Detection and typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and analysis of indicator organisms in three waterborne outbreaks in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Haajanen, H; Pummi, T; Wermundsen, K; Katila, M-L; Sarkkinen, H; Miettinen, I; Rautelin, H

    2003-03-01

    Waterborne outbreaks associated with contamination of drinking water by Campylobacter jejuni are rather common in the Nordic countries Sweden, Norway, and Finland, where in sparsely populated districts groundwater is commonly used without disinfection. Campylobacters, Escherichia coli, or other coliforms have rarely been detected in potential sources. We studied three waterborne outbreaks in Finland caused by C. jejuni and used sample volumes of 4,000 to 20,000 ml for analysis of campylobacters and sample volumes of 1 to 5,000 ml for analysis of coliforms and E. coli, depending on the sampling site. Multiple samples obtained from possible sources (water distribution systems and environmental water sources) and the use of large sample volumes (several liters) increased the chance of detecting the pathogen C. jejuni in water. Filtration of a large volume (1,000 to 2,000 ml) also increased the rate of detection of coliforms and E. coli. To confirm the association between drinking water contamination and illness, a combination of Penner serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (digestion with SmaI and KpnI) was found to be useful. This combination reliably verified similarity or dissimilarity of C. jejuni isolates from patient samples, from drinking water, and from other environmental sources, thus confirming the likely reservoir of an outbreak. PMID:12620821

  5. [A fetus is a person with a right to exist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, E

    1989-12-27

    This article is the contribution of a Jesuit priest, a teacher of medical ethics at Uppsala, to a debate inspired by a Swedish official report "The pregnant woman and fetus--2 individuals. On fetal diagnostics. On late abortions." In a society which depends upon a structured consensus as much as Sweden does, the report has been criticized for not making clearer recommendations. The author points out that the ethical dilemmas involved are so complex that they cannot be treated from a simple either/or point of view. Fetal diagnostics, for example, serve the cause of life when the aim is to avoid abortion of a healthy fetus and make it possible to cure, even at the fetal stage, or to strengthen prospective parents' readiness to accept a handicapped child. The use of fetal diagnostic for sorting out damaged and sick fetuses, however, is selective abortion and implies a violation of the principle that all human life is of equal value. The question is no longer if one will have a child or not, but which child will one have. This collision of values has inspired so many polemic statements that it is worthwhile recalling that there is always a tension between the ethically desirable and the politically possible, The report has succeeded in formulating the ethical principles in spite of the impossibility of seeing them presented as concrete recommendations. Even so, Thomas Aquinas wrote in 13th century that one cannot always apply ethical rules to laws of society. That can lead to more evil than good. PMID:2607863

  6. A fluoroquinolone resistance associated mutation in gyrA affects DNA supercoiling in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eHan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ-resistant Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of FQ-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand the impact of FQ resistance on the fitness of Campylobacter in its natural hosts as understanding fitness will help to determine and predict the persistence of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. Previously it was shown that acquisition of resistance to FQ antimicrobials enhanced the in vivo fitness of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. In this study, we confirmed the role of the Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA in modulating Campylobacter fitness by reverting the mutation to the wild-type allele, which resulted in the loss of the fitness advantage. Additionally, we determined if the resistance-conferring GyrA mutations alter the enzymatic function of the DNA gyrase. Recombinant wild-type gyrase and mutant gyrases with three different types of mutations (Thr-86-Ile, Thr-86-Lys, and Asp-90-Asn, which are associated with FQ resistance in Campylobacter, were generated in E. coli and compared for their supercoiling activities using an in vitro assay. The mutant gyrase with the Thr-86-Ile change showed a greatly reduced supercoiling activity compared with the wild-type gyrase, while other mutant gyrases did not show an altered supercoiling. Furthermore, we measured DNA supercoiling within Campylobacter cells using a reporter plasmid. Consistent with the results from the in vitro supercoiling assay, the FQ-resistant mutant carrying the Thr-86-Ile change in GyrA showed much less DNA supercoiling than the wild-type strain and the mutant strains carrying other mutations. Together, these results indicate that the Thr-86-Ile mutation, which is predominant in clinical FQ-resistant Campylobacter, modulates DNA supercoiling homeostasis in FQ-resistant Campylobacter.

  7. Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género Phytium aislado del "aliso", Alnus acuminata HBK Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género Phytium aislado del "aliso", Alnus acuminata HBK

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Orlando; Rodríguez Esperanza; Correa de Restrepo Marina

    1990-01-01

    Se estudio la biología de un hongo aislado de la parte externa de nódulos de raíces de aliso (Alnus acumi"ata HB K), el cual presento un alto poder de germinación a bajas temperaturas (entre QOC y 4QC), condición que le confiere gran agresividad para colonizar el suelo, de tal forma que se constituye en un factor importante en la ecofisiología de las poblaciones de aliso que crecen en los bosques secundarios del sub-paramo. A partir de cultivos puros se hicieron estudios para su iden...

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease in a male fetus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in any of four known NADPH-oxidase components lead to CGD. X-linked CGD (X-CGD) is caused by defects in CYBB, the gene that encodes gp91-phox. Autosomal recessive (AR) CGD is caused by defects in the genes for p47 phox, p22-phox or p67-phox. The aim of this study was to screen the molecular defect in the fetus of an X-CGD carrier mother and postnatal confirmation of the results. In a family whose first-born child died from X-CGD, fetal DNA was obtained from an ongoing pregnancy by c...

  9. CAMPYLOBACTER-HYOINTESTINALIS SUBSP LAWSONII SUBSP-NOV, ISOLATED FROM THE PORCINE STOMACH, AND AN EMENDED DESCRIPTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER-HYOINTESTINALIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on, Stephen L.W.; Bloch, Buchardt; Holmes, B.;

    1995-01-01

    The taxonomic relationships of seven isolates obtained from porcine stomachs (the ''CHY'' group), which resembled (but were distinct from) the type strain and other reference strains of Campylobacter hyointestinalis, were examined by using phenotypic and genomic methods. The phenotypic...... could be clearly distinguished from reference strains representing 20 related taxa, principally species and subspecies belonging to the genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that the porcine stomach strains were genomically homogeneous (levels of...

  10. UTILIZACIÓN DE HAPLOTIPOS DE Pyricularia grisea Sacc. AISLADOS EN CUBA PARA LA SELECCIÓN DE CULTIVARES DE ARROZ RESISTENTES A LA PIRICULARIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida de J. Pérez León

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El principal problema fitopatológico que provoca los bajos rendimientos del cultivo del arroz en Cuba es la Piriculariosi, por tal motivo se evaluaron, en condiciones controladas y con inoculación artificial, tres haplotipos de P. grisea aislados en Cuba de plantas de arroz en dos zonas de producción. Estos fueron posteriormente utilizados en la selección de cultivares de arroz resistentes a la enfermedad. Los resultados permitieron la selección de los haplotipos A 18 y B 6 para la evaluación de cultivares en condiciones semicontroladas y, de esta forma, quedan representados dos linajes del patógeno y, entre ellos, el más agresivo y ampliamente distribuido. Se seleccionaron siete líneas resistentes frente a los haplotipos evaluados, las que constituyen una importante base germoplásmica para la obtención de cultivares resistentes.

  11. Determinación de la sensibilidad a amoxicilina y a clindamicina de staphylococcus spp aislado de cavidad oral de pacientes con alto riesgo de endocarditis infecciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Barrientos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura existen pocos estudios acerca de la distribución de Staphylococcus spp en boca y los que hay sobre estos microorganismos como residentes de la cavidad oral son controversiales.El género Staphylococcus spp conforma un importante grupo de patógenos en el ser humano y origina distintas enfermedades, entre ellas, la Endocarditis Infecciosa; de igual forma, la literatura reporta tasas de resistencia a amoxicilina y clindamicina antibióticos usados comúnmente para la profilaxis en odontología. Objetivo: Conocer la sensibilidad de Staphylococcus spp a amoxicilina y la clindamicina aislados de cavidad oral de pacientes con alto riesgo de Endocarditis Infecciosa.

  12. DENSIDAD POBLACIONAL Y ESTRUCTURA DE GRUPO DE Ateles hybridus brunneus (PRIMATES: ATELIDAE) EN UN FRAGMENTO DE BOSQUE AISLADO EN EL SURORIENTE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor J. Roncancio; Lina M. García; Amilvia Acosta

    2010-01-01

    Se encontró un grupo de Ateles hybridus brunneus en un fragmento de bosque aislado de 21 ha, con una densidad de 39 individuos/km2 (IC95% = 21.3-72.9). Esta área es la más pequeña donde se ha estimado alta densidad para Ateles. El grupo de A. h. brunneus estuvo compuesto por nueve individuos, grupo más pequeño que el registrado en otras investigaciones. Ateles tiene un sistema social fisión-fusión, donde los grupos se dividen en subgrupos. El tamaño promedio de subgrupo fue de cuatro individu...

  13. Liberación de endotelina-1 por angiotensina ll en miocitos cardíacos aislados Angiotensin II-induced endothelin-1 release in cardiac myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    María C. Villa-Abrille; Cingolani, Horacio E; Carolina D. Garciarena; Ennis, Irene L.; Aiello, Ernesto A.

    2006-01-01

    Muchos de los efectos de la angiotensina II (Ang II) son mediados en realidad por la acción de endotelina (ET) endógena liberada y/o producida en respuesta a la Ang II. En este trabajo evaluamos la interacción Ang II/ET-1, sus consecuencias en la contractilidad cardíaca y el papel de las especies reactivas del oxígeno (EROs). Se usaron cardiomiocitos aislados de gato. La Ang II, 1 nM, produjo un efecto inotrópico positivo (EIP) de 31.8±3.8% que fue cancelado por inhibición de los receptores A...

  14. Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the environmental whole-body and local exposure of a fetus in vertical position, head down or head up, in the 2100 MHz frequency band, we concluded that both whole-body and average brain exposures of the fetus decrease during the first pregnancy trimester, while they advance during the pregnancy due to the rapid weight gain of the fetus in these first stages. From the beginning of the second trimester, the whole-body and the average brain exposures are quite stable because the weight gains are quasi proportional to the absorbed power increases. The behavior of the fetus whole-body and local exposures during pregnancy for a fetus in the vertical position with the head up were found to be of a similar level, when compared to the position with the head down they were slightly higher, especially in the brain. (paper)

  15. The incorporation of plutonium by the embryo and fetus of rats and guinea-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 238Pu from the maternal circulation to the developing embryo and fetus was studied in rats and guinea-pigs to provide data for the development of dosimetric models for the human embryo and fetus. Measurements were also made of the 238Pu retention in neonates at birth. For administration at each stage of gestation, and particularly at early stages, transfer of 238Pu to the fetus continued throughout gestation but concentrations decreased due to fetal growth. (author)

  16. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our series comprised 35 fetuses and 58 boys with cryptorchidism, and 22 normal fetuses...... number of germ cells in undescended testes from week 28 of gestation and germ cell hypoplasia as a consequence of continued postnatal undescended testicular position. Cryptorchidism may result from abnormal development of the caudal developmental field....

  17. Selección de hongos aislados de bagazo de caña con actividad celulasa sobre celulosa cristalina para posibles aplicaciones industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoandy Ferrer-Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enzimas comerciales necesarias en procesos de producción de bioetanol celulósico y enriquecimiento de forrajes, son excesivamente caras. La mayoría provienen de mutantes B-glucosidasa, con la velocidad y extensión de la hidrólisis reducida, y débil acción sobre la celulosa cristalina. A partir de bagazo, se aislaron varios hongos filamentosos con capacidad de degradación de la celulosa cristalina, para ello se diseñó un medio selectivo de celulosa agar. Del total de aislados, solo 9 microorganismos mostraron un halo definido de degradación de celulosa. Se determinó el coeficiente de degradación de celulosa cristalina a través de la medición del halo formado por las colonias, y se pre-seleccionaron 5 aislados. Posteriormente, se eligieron los tres mejores productores del complejo celulasa (6, 13 y 21 mediante una fermentación sumergida por determinación de la actividad sobre papel de filtro. Se realizó una fermentación en estado sólido sobre bagazo pretratado para aumentar la actividad celulasa. Se estudió la estabilidad relativa de los extractos enzimáticos y se realizó una caracterización parcial de los mismos. Estos presentaron poca estabilidad relativa después de 48 horas, luego de un prensado simple. El mejor rango de pH de hidrólisis estuvo entre 5,5 y 6,2 y presentaron actividad enzimática a una temperatura de 40 ºC.

  18. Prenatal Diagnosis of Chronic Granulomatous Disease in a Male Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Köker m

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in any of four known NADPH-oxidase components lead to CGD. X-linked CGD (X-CGD is caused by defects in CYBB, the gene that encodes gp91-phox. Autosomal recessive (AR CGD is caused by defects in the genes for p47 phox, p22-phox or p67-phox. The aim of this study was to screen the molecular defect in the fetus of an X-CGD carrier mother and postnatal confirmation of the results. In a family whose first-born child died from X-CGD, fetal DNA was obtained from an ongoing pregnancy by chorionic villus sampling (CVS. Direct sequencing was used to detect the previously identified CYBB gene mutation. The NADPH oxidase activity in the neutrophils from the carrier mother and from the newborn was analyzed by the DHR assay. Our studies predicted that the fetus in question was not affected by chronic granulomatous disease, which was demonstrated to be correct at birth. For prenatal screening in a pregnant X-CGD carrier, direct sequencing is a good method for detecting the mutation in the fetal DNA. Postnatal confirmation of results with the DHR assay is more practical than mutation screening to show whether the newborn have normal NADPH oxidase activity or does not.

  19. On noninvasive assessment of acoustic fields acting on the fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonets, V. A.; Kazakov, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to verify a noninvasive technique for assessing the characteristics of acoustic fields in the audible range arising in the uterus under the action of maternal voice, external sounds, and vibrations. This problem is very important in view of actively developed methods for delivery of external sounds to the uterus: music, maternal voice recordings, sounds from outside the mother's body, etc., that supposedly support development of the fetus at the prenatal stage psychologically and cognitively. However, the parameters of acoustic signals have been neither measured nor normalized, which may be dangerous for the fetus and hinder actual assessment of their impact on fetal development. The authors show that at frequencies below 1 kHz, acoustic pressure in the uterus may be measured noninvasively using a hydrophone placed in a soft capsule filled with liquid. It was found that the acoustic field at frequencies up to 1 kHz arising in the uterus under the action of an external sound field has amplitude-frequency parameters close to those of the external field; i.e., the external field penetrates the uterus with hardly any difficulty.

  20. Freezing as an intervention to reduce the numbers of campylobacters isolated from chicken livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D; Corry, J E L; Tchórzewska, M A; Morris, V K; Hutchison, M L

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence and numbers of campylobacters in 63 samples of raw livers purchased at retail across the UK and (ii) to investigate whether the freezing of chicken livers contaminated with Campylobacter was a reliable method for decontamination. Chicken livers naturally contaminated with campylobacters were subjected to freezing at -15 and -25°C for one day and 7 days. Numbers of campylobacters on the livers were determined immediately before and after a 24-h or 7-days freeze treatment and daily during 3 days post-thaw refrigerated storage. Freezing for 24 h at -25°C can reduce numbers of Campylobacter by up to 2 log10 CFU g(-1). Freezing the livers for 24 h at -25°C, thawing overnight in a fridge set to 4°C and refreezing for another 24 h at -25°C reduced the numbers of campylobacters by up to three logs. Reduction in the numbers of campylobacters was significantly greater following a second freeze treatment compared with a single freeze treatment. PMID:23647008

  1. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 °C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 °C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat.

  2. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Modi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, 30 ice-cream and 30 paneer were collected from the different collection points in Anand city. The samples were processed by microbiological culture method, and presumptive isolates were further confirmed by genus and species-specific polymerase chain reaction using previously reported primer. The isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and virulence gene detection. Result: Campylobacter species were detected in 7 (2.91% raw milk samples whereas none of the milk product was positive. All the isolate identified were Campylobacter jejuni. Most of the isolates showed resistance against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin. All the isolates have three virulence genes cadF, cdtB and flgR whereas only one isolate was positive for iamA gene and 6 isolates were positive for fla gene. Conclusion: The presence of Campylobacter in raw milk indicates that raw milk consumption is hazardous for human being and proper pasteurization of milk and adaptation of hygienic condition will be necessary to protect the consumer from this zoonotic pathogen.

  3. Colonisation of a phage susceptible Campylobacter jejuni population in two phage positive broiler flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Kittler

    Full Text Available The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails.

  4. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry. PMID:26898102

  5. Evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Maurer, J J; Berrang, M E; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Byrd, J A; Lee, M D; Hofacre, C L; O'Kane, P M; Lammerding, A M; Clark, A G; Thayer, S G; Doyle, M P

    2012-10-01

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen, and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing national and international controversy about whether Campylobacter can pass from one generation of poultry to the next via the fertile egg. We recognize that there are numerous sources of Campylobacter entry into flocks of commercial poultry (including egg transmission), yet the environment is often cited as the only source. There has been an abundance of published research globally that refutes this contention, and this article lists and discusses many of them, along with other studies that support environment as the sole or primary source. One must remember that egg passage can mean more than vertical, transovarian transmission. Fecal bacteria, including Campylobacter, can contaminate the shell, shell membranes, and albumen of freshly laid fertile eggs. This contamination is drawn through the shell by temperature differential, aided by the presence of moisture (the "sweating" of the egg); then, when the chick emerges from the egg, it can ingest bacteria such as Campylobacter, become colonized, and spread this contamination to flock mates in the grow house. Improvements in cultural laboratory methods continue to advance our knowledge of the ecology of Campylobacter, and in the not-so-distant future, egg passage will not be a subject continuously debated but will be embraced, thus allowing the development and implementation of more effective intervention strategies. PMID:23043845

  6. Identification of risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses during the slaughter process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter carcass contamination was quantified across the slaughter line during processing of Campylobacter positive batches. These quantitative data were combined together with information describing slaughterhouse and batch related characteristics in order to identify risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The results revealed that Campylobacter counts are influenced by the contamination of incoming birds (both the initial external carcass contamination and the colonization level of caeca) and the duration of transport and holding time that can be linked with feed withdrawal period. In addition, technical aspects of the slaughter process such as a dump based unloading system, electrical stunning, lower scalding temperature, incorrect setting of plucking, vent cutter and evisceration machines were identified as risk factors associated with increased Campylobacter counts on processed carcasses. As such the study indicates possible improvements of the slaughter process that can result in better control of Campylobacter numbers under routine processing of Campylobacter positive batches without use of chemical or physical decontamination. Moreover, all investigated factors were existing variations of the routine processing practises and therefore proposed interventions are practically and economically achievable. PMID:27016637

  7. The in vivo efficacy of two administration routes of a phage cocktail to reduce numbers of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Carla M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, an acute bacterial enteritis which is a major problem worldwide. Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are the most common Campylobacter species associated with this disease. These pathogens live in the intestinal tract of most avian species and under commercial conditions they spread rapidly to infect a high proportion of the flock, which makes their treatment and prevention very difficult. Bacteriophages (phages are naturally occurring predators of bacteria with high specificity and also the capacity to evolve to overcome bacterial resistance. Therefore phage therapy is a promising alternative to antibiotics in animal production. This study tested the efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of three phages for the control of poultry infected with C. coli and C. jejuni. Moreover, it evaluated the effectiveness of two routes of phage administration (by oral gavage and in feed in order to provide additional information regarding their future use in a poultry unit. Results The results indicate that experimental colonisation of chicks was successful and that the birds showed no signs of disease even at the highest dose of Campylobacter administered. The phage cocktail was able to reduce the titre of both C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces by approximately 2 log10 cfu/g when administered by oral gavage and in feed. This reduction persisted throughout the experimental period and neither pathogen regained their former numbers. The reduction in Campylobacter titre was achieved earlier (2 days post-phage administration when the phage cocktail was incorporated in the birds' feed. Campylobacter strains resistant to phage infection were recovered from phage-treated chickens at a frequency of 13%. These resistant phenotypes did not exhibit a reduced ability to colonize the chicken guts and did not revert to sensitive types. Conclusions Our findings provide

  8. Campylobacter infection as a trigger for Guillain-Barre syndrome in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Wierzba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies of Campylobacter infection triggering Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS are conducted in western nations were Campylobacter infection and immunity is relatively rare. In this study, we explored Campylobacter infections, Campylobacter serotypes, autoantibodies to gangliosides, and GBS in Egypt, a country where Campylobacter exposure is common. METHODS: GBS cases (n = 133 were compared to age- and hospital-matched patient controls (n = 374. A nerve conduction study was performed on cases and a clinical history, serum sample, and stool specimen obtained for all subjects. RESULTS: Most (63.3% cases were demyelinating type; median age four years. Cases were more likely than controls to have diarrhea (29.5% vs. 22.5%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa = 1.69, P = 0.03, to have higher geometric mean IgM anti-Campylobacter antibody titers (8.18 vs. 7.25 P<0.001, and to produce antiganglioside antibodies (e.g., anti-Gd1a, 35.3 vs. 11.5, ORa = 4.39, P<0.0001. Of 26 Penner:Lior Campylobacter serotypes isolated, only one (41:27, C. jejuni, P = 0.02 was associated with GBS. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike results from western nations, data suggested that GBS cases were primarily in the young and cases and many controls had a history of infection to a variety of Campylobacter serotypes. Still, the higher rates of diarrhea and greater antibody production against Campylobacter and gangliosides in GBS patients were consistent with findings from western countries.

  9. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products. PMID:27237112

  10. Quantitative Proteomics of Intracellular Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Liu

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the USA and Europe. An important virulence attribute of this bacterial pathogen is its ability to enter and survive within host cells. Here we show through a quantitative proteomic analysis that upon entry into host cells, C. jejuni undergoes a significant metabolic downshift. Furthermore, our results indicate that intracellular C. jejuni reprograms its respiration, favoring the respiration of fumarate. These results explain the poor ability of C. jejuni obtained from infected cells to grow under standard laboratory conditions and provide the bases for the development of novel anti microbial strategies that would target relevant metabolic pathways.

  11. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe; Saadbye, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution with a...... significant proportion of metronidazole-resistant isolates among C. jejuni from raw broiler and turkey meat. Metronidazole resistance occurred most frequently among turkey meat isolates (P <0.005). This is the first report of foodborne bacteria carrying metronidazole resistance....

  12. Campylobacter gastritis simulating Menetrier's disease by upper gastrointestinal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this decade it has been determined that primary gastritis in both children and adults is frequently associated with infection of the gastric mucosa with Campylobacter pylori. It is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process in which the mucosa of the gastric antrum is typically most severely involved. Other regions of the stomach may be involved and associated peptic ulcers of the stomach and duodenal bulb are frequent. A case of C. pylori gastritis is reported in which involvement of the gastric fundus and body produced severe rugal hypertrophy that resembled Menetrier's disease. (orig.)

  13. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Williams, N.;

    2015-01-01

    This study was part of the EU financed project CamCon. The objective of the study was to identify on-farm risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks based on comparable data from six European countries. The data included explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning...... backwards elimination and forward selection. Due to the structure of the data, several models were explored, by applying different strategies for categorizing explanatory variables and for selection and elimination of variables in the model. The risk of broiler flocks becoming colonized with Campylobacter...... of drinker systems were found to affect the risk of the broiler flocks becoming colonized by Campylobacter....

  14. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start of the...... batch depletion of broiler houses increased the prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-infected broilers in the flocks, that the introduction occurred a hen catching the first batch, and that campylobacter spreads through the entire flock within a week. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results from...

  15. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    , the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive. In marinated poultry products, Campylobacter was detected at a prevalence of 21.1% and 9.5% in turkey......During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products...

  16. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  17. Early diagnosis of hygroma cervicis in a fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fetus was diagnosed as having hygroma cervicis (HC) with sonography. Sonographic features at 23 weeks of gestation were symmetrical echo free spaces of the head suggestive of a giant solid tumor (HC) and single umbilical artery. When umbilical circulation of the single umbilical artery was examined using pulsed Doppler echography, high S/D ratios were seen. MRI clearly visualized a mass surrounding the head as an abnormal signal intensity. Pregnancy was terminated in the second trimester. A male stillborn baby weighing 1,440 g had multiple anomalies associated with cervical lymphangioma. Elevated amniotic and intracystic levels of AFP were not seen. A review of the literature shows the relationship between HC and Turner syndrome. However, because the present case was a male baby, hereditary disease may be related to the occurrence of HC. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  19. The surfactant system protects both fetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant complex and its individual components decrease surface tension, silence inflammatory responses, bind and destroy air-borne microbes, facilitate phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages and bind endogenous and exogenous molecules. Surfactant components generally decrease harmful inflammatory responses. New exogenous surfactants and new indications for surfactant therapy remain to be studied. At term the pool of human surfactant from developing airways extends to the amniotic cavity and to the gastrointestinal tract. Preterm labor-inducing inflammatory ligands (interleukin-1 or lipopolysaccharide) cause a robust induction of surfactant complex and lower the risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The effect of antenatal glucocorticoid therapy is complementary. According to transgenic experiments or genetic evidence in humans, surfactant proteins A, D or C (SP-A, SP-D, SP-C), expressed in fetal tissue, influence the onset of term or preterm labor. After birth, the surface tension-reducing and the inflammation-silencing effects of exogenous and endogenous surfactant are complementary. Surfactant proteins influence the genetic predisposition of RDS, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and airway infections in early infancy. Moderate to severe BPD has a strong genetic predisposition. Deleterious mutations of SP-B, ABCA3 or SP-C cause congenital interstitial lung disease that mimics the phenotype of established severe BPD. I propose that lung surfactant protects both the fetus and the newborn. Surfactant ameliorates inflammatory responses that are harmful to the mother, fetus and infant. In chorioamnionitis, inflammatory ligands are carried from the fetal membranes to the alveolar space via amniotic fluid and developing airways. They induce surfactant synthesis and secretion. Surfactant ameliorates severe inflammatory responses in fetal compartments and promotes spontaneous preterm birth. PMID:23736009

  20. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  1. Thyroid blockade in fetuses and infants in a chimpanzee model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident large populations might be exposed to fallout. The main internal radiation dose is received from radioiodine which enters the body with air, food or through the skin. A large fraction of the iodide in the circulation is concentrated by the cells of the thyroid, which have an iodide pump in their cell membrane. Radiation damage will occur mainly in the thyroid. Protection of the thyroid is achieved by preventing ingestion of radioiodine (shielding, food- and water control) and by stopping the thyroid from concentrating circulating radioiodine. Blockade of the thyroidal iodide pump by high levels of circulating iodide is responsible for the reduction of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid. For pregnant women no specific recommendations regarding the administration of stable iodide have been made. For infants younger than one year half the dose is recommended (2,4,5), though data to support this advice do not exist. Fetuses and infants might be more vulnerable to irradiation of the thyroid and therefore require effective protection. Efficiency of thyroid protection with stable iodide, however, was never assessed for these groups in the population. Nineteen infants and thirteen pregnant chimpanzees have been tested. The results demonstrate the efficiency of thyroid blockade with stable iodide in pregnancy and infancy, in chimpanzees. We feel that these data can be safely applied to the human situation. The main risk when fetuses and children are exposed to massive amounts of stable iodide is the induction of hypothyroidism. In the infant chimpanzees this didn't occur. 9 tabs

  2. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated in the region of Niš, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli represent one of the main causes of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. Although the disease is usually mild and self-limiting, severe chronic sequelae may occur, such as reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. Serotyping is used as an epidemiological marker, while post-infective polyneuropathies are associated with several O serotypes. Objective. Strains of C. jejuni and C. coli were serotyped based on heat stable (HS and heat labile (HL antigens, as well as biotypes to determine strain diversity. Methods. Campylobacter spp. was isolated using selective blood media with antibiotics. Differentiation to the species level was done by a combination of biotyping tests and by a PCR-based RFLP test. The isolates were characterised by Penner and Lior serotyping methods. Results. The serotypes showed diversity without predominant serotypes. 24 HS serotypes were detected among 29 C. jejuni strains, and seven serotypes among nine C. coli strains. HL serotyping method successfully typed 62.5% of strains. Among 16 C. jejuni strains 14 serotypes were detected, and three among four C. coli strains. A C. jejuni strain associated with a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome was typed as biotype II, O:19. Conclusion. The biotyping and serotyping results have indicated that C. jejuni and C. coli strains in the region of Niš, Serbia are diverse and could be probably of unrelated sources of origin or reservoirs. The strain associated with the Guillain-Barré syndrome patient was serotype O:19, one of the most common in this post-infective complication.

  3. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC RESPONSES OF RAT FETUSES WITH CLAMPED OR INTACT UMBILICAL CORDS TO ACUTE MATERNAL UTERINE ISCHEMIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uterine ischemia results in severe cardiac disturbances in the fetus. It has been postulated that these effects are due to interaction with the ischemic uterus or placenta and not due to hypoxia or build up of metabolites in the fetus. The fetal cardiac responses to uterine clamp...

  4. Doppler Assessment of the Aortic Isthmus in Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ruhat; Ozgu-Erdinc, Ayse Seval; Esercan, Alev; Dogan, Muammer Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association of fetal aortic isthmus (AoI) Doppler flow measurements in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses with fetal outcome. The data presented in this prospective cohort study were obtained from 74 IUGR and 71 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) fetuses of singleton pregnancies with normal medical and obstetric histories that were between 26 and 40 weeks of gestation. All AoI Doppler scans were performed by the same observer. There were no statistical differences in maternal characteristics and gestational age or between AGA and IUGR fetuses at the inclusion time. No cases of reversed flow during diastole were detected. Aortic isthmus flow index was increased in growth-restricted fetuses. Absolute end-diastolic (EDV) and time-averaged maximum velocities were decreased in the IUGR fetuses. There was an association between AoI Doppler EDV measurements and prediction of neonatal intensive care unit requirement as well as AoI Doppler isthmic flow index and resistance index measurements and low 5-minute Apgar values. Aortic isthmus EDV was found to be independently associated with IUGR status. Because the AoI Doppler flow measurements of the IUGR fetuses were different from the AGA fetuses and predicted neonatal adverse outcome, Doppler imaging of the AoI could be used as a screening tool in the clinical surveillance of fetuses with IUGR after confirmation in larger prospective studies. PMID:25364963

  5. Aberrant lymphatic development in euploid fetuses with increased nuchal translucency including Noonan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Y.M. de; Akker, N.M. van den; Bekker, M.N.; Bartelings, M.M.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Gittenberger-de Groot, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased nuchal translucency in the human fetus is associated with aneuploidy, structural malformations and several syndromes such as Noonan syndrome. In 60-70% of the Noonan syndrome cases, a gene mutation can be demonstrated. Previous research showed that aneuploid fetuses with increas

  6. Transfer of Ga-67 from hamster dam to fetus and offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of Ga-67 from the hamster dam to the fetus and to the postpartum offspring has been studied. During gestation the concentration of Ga-67 in the mammary glands increased by approximately 20-fold, and Ga-67 was transferred across the placenta into the fetus. The concentration of Ga-67 in the fetus decreased during the terminal stages of gestation, partly due to a decreased transfer of Ga-67 itself and partly as the result of the rapid growth of the fetus. One-day-old offspring were able to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract the Ga-67 contained in ingested dam's milk, whereas 9-day-old offspring excreted essentially all such ingested Ga-67. The Ga-67 radiation hazards to the fetus during gestation and that resulting from the transfer of Ga-67 to the newborn through ingestion of the mother's milk should receive further investigation

  7. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1995-01-01

    normal in the first year of life but decreased at age 1 to 3 years. Malformations or dysplasia of the kidneys, ureter or T10 to S5 vertebrae were present in 34% of the cryptorchid fetuses and 18% of the cryptorchid boys without a symptomatic inguinal hernia. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests a reduced......PURPOSE: We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our series comprised 35 fetuses and 58 boys with cryptorchidism, and 22 normal fetuses...... and 25 normal boys. Age ranged from 28 weeks of gestation to 3 years. RESULTS: Cryptorchid fetuses had reduced germ cells per tubular cross section values and lower testicular weights. Values were reduced in cryptorchid boys without a symptomatic inguinal hernia. If a hernia was present, values were...

  8. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  9. New operational technology of intrauterine ventilation the fetus lungs by breathing gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakov, A. L.; Nikityuk, D. B.; Urakova, N. A.; Kasankin, A. A.; Chernova, L. V.; Dementiev, V. B.

    2015-11-01

    New operational technology for elimination intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia of the fetus using endoscopic artificial ventilation lungs by respiratory gas was developed. For intrauterine ventilation of fetal lung it is proposed to enter into the uterus a special breathing mask and wear it on the head of the fetus using the original endoscopic technology. The breathing mask, developed by us is connected with external breathing apparatus with a hose. The device is called "intrauterine aqualung". Intrauterine aqualung includes a ventilator and breathing circuit with a special fold-out breathing mask that is put on inside the uterus on the head of fetus like a mesh hat. Controlled by ultrasound the technology of the introduction of the mask inside of the uterus through the natural opening in the cervix and technology of putting on the respiratory mask on the head of the fetus with its head previa were developed. The technology intrauterine ventilation of the fetus lungs by respiratory gas was developed.

  10. Integration of Epidemiological Evidence in a Decision Support Model for the Control of Campylobacter in Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, Anders L.; Vigre, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    decision support systems are constructed as probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) which integrate knowledge and use Bayesian methods to deal with uncertainty. This paper presents a specific model designed to integrate epidemiological knowledge from the United Kingdom (UK model) in order to assist poultry...... were no or only small financial gains when using a hypothetical vaccine B (able to decrease Campylobacter numbers from two to six logs in 20% of the chickens with a cost of 0.025 £/chicken) and reward system 1 (based on similar gross profits in relation to Campylobacter levels) under the specific...... more than one reward system and consequently, diverse potential solutions for the control of Campylobacter may be considered. Cost-effective Campylobacter control strategies that can significantly reduce the probability of Campylobacter introduction into a flock and/or the numbers of Campylobacter in...

  11. Campylobacter intestinal carriage among stray and pet dogs Disseminação de Campylobacter entre cães vadios e de estimação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Fernández

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural distribution of thermotolerant Campylobacter sp. in dogs (150 stray animals and 64 pets was studied. Campylobacters were more frequently isolated (pFoi estudada a distribuição natural de espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter em 159 cães vadios e em 64 cães de companhia em confinamento permanente. Espécies de Campylobacter foram isoladas mais freqüentemente (p<0,01 dos cães vadios (51,3% do que dos cães de companhia (21,9%. Todos os biotipos descritos por Lior para C. jejuni e C. coli foram encontrados entre as amostras isoladas dos cães vadios. Nas amostras isoladas dos cães mantidos em confmamento permanente somente foram encontrados os biotipos I e II de C. jejuni e o biotipo II do C. coli. Salienta-se a necessidade de realizar outros estudos para estabelecer a relação entre as condições de saneamento ambiental e a disseminação das espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter.

  12. Does age acquired immunity confer selective protection to common serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Iain D

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter infection is a major cause of bacterial gastrointestinal disease. Exposure to Campylobacter is known to produce an immune response in humans that can prevent future symptomatic infections. Further, studies of the general population have shown that seroprevalence to Campylobacter increases with age. Methods A large collection of serotyped Campylobacter isolates, obtained from human clinical faecal samples, were analysed by comparing the ratio of uncommon to common serotypes by different age groups, using χ2 tests. Results We have identified that older age groups, as well as having generally lower incidence, are significantly less likely to be infected by the more common serotypes. Conclusion These results are indicative of acquired immunity, however, further studies are needed to rule out the confounding effects of the variations in exposure pathways experienced by different age groups.

  13. Quantitative risk assessment of human campylobacteriosis associated with thermophilic Campylobacter species in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Nielsen, N. L.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard;

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment comprising the elements hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization has been prepared to assess the effect of different mitigation strategies on the number of human cases in Denmark associated with thermophilic...... Campylobacter spp. in chickens. To estimate the human exposure to Campylobacter from a chicken meal and the number of human cases associated with this exposure, a mathematical risk model was developed. The model details the spread and transfer of Campylobacter in chickens from slaughter to consumption and the...... covers the transfer of Campylobacter during food handling in private kitchens. The age and sex of consumers were included in this module to introduce variable hygiene levels during food preparation and variable sizes and compositions of meals. Finally, the outcome of the exposure assessment modules was...

  14. Cloning and alignment of WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Cong-cong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To clone the WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni, and analyse its relationship with WaaF genetic evolution. Methods Amplified WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei by PCR, and constructed pGEM-T-WaaF cloning plasmid. Downloaded five WaaF associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and one WaaF not associated with GBS, and then constructed phylogenetic tree. Results pGEM-T-WaaF cloning plasmid was constructed successfully. WaaF presented cluster phenomenon in Campylobacter jejuni associated with GBS. Conclusion WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei is the fragment of 807 bp, and has the nearest relationship with the genetic evolution of Lichang.

  15. Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flocks: a 2-year study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Gradel, K.O.; Jorgensen, J.C.;

    2001-01-01

    In national surveillance programmes of broiler flocks carried out in Denmark during 1998 and 1999, 89,110 samples for Campylobacter representing 8911 broiler flocks were taken at 10 different abattoirs, and 44,550 samples for Salmonella were taken from the same flocks in the broiler houses at the...... farms. Of the swabs, 42.5% were Campylobacter positive. Most positive samples were found during July, August and September, while the lowest number of positive samples were found during January, February, March and April. Of the flocks, 5.5% were Salmonella positive, but no seasonal variation was...... observed. For each flock, the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella was recorded in order to estimate the possible correlation between colonisation with the two pathogens. In conclusion, no significant effects on intensive cleaning and disinfection procedures on Campylobacter occurrence could be...

  16. Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Malin E.; Chriél, Mariann; Norström, Madelaine;

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. in Norwegian broiler flocks and factors related to the climate and the farm environment. Data from 18,488 broiler flocks from 623 different farms during 2002–2007 were included in the study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted where Campylobacter spp. status of a broiler flock at the...... time of slaughter was defined as the dependent variable and farm was modelled as a random effect. The following factors were found to increase the probability for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp.: daily mean temperature above 6°C during the rearing period, private water supply......, presence of other livestock farms within a distance of 2km, presence of other broiler farms within a distance of 4km with flocks positive for Campylobacter spp. within 30 days prior to slaughter, heavy rainfall 11–30 days prior to slaughter, region and year. Daily mean temperature below 0°C reduced the...

  17. Study of the infectivity of saline-stored Campylobacter jejuni for day-old chicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter;

    2001-01-01

    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became noncultu......The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became......-campylobacter outer membrane protein serum antibodies in day-old chicks did not protect the chicks from campylobacter colonization....

  18. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in mineral bottled water according to difference in mineral content: Application of the Weibull model

    OpenAIRE

    Guillou, Sandrine; Leguérinel, Ivan; Garrec, N.; Renard, M. A.; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Federighi, Michel

    2008-01-01

    International audience The aim of the study was to examine the hypothesis proposed by Evans et al. [2003. Hazards of healthy living: bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9(10), 1219–1225] that mineral bottled water accidentally contaminated by Campylobacter jejuni would represent a risk factor for Campylobacter infection. Culturability of C. jejuni cells inoculated in low- and high-mineral bottled water during storage at 4 1C i...

  19. The Prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a Free-Range Broiler Breeder Flock Was Primarily Affected by Flock Age

    OpenAIRE

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D.; Ruth Layton; Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter successfully colonizes broiler chickens, but little is known about the longer term natural history of colonization, since most flocks are slaughtered at an immature age. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter colonizing a single free-range broiler breeder flock was investigated over the course of a year. The age of the flock was the most important factor in determining both the prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter over time. There was no correl...

  20. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C-coli: Resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Taylor, D. E.;

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections has increased markedly in many parts of the world in the last decade as has the number of quinolone-resistant and, to a lesser extent, macrolide-resistant Campylobacter strains causing infections. We review macrolide and quinolone...... maintained, but fluoroquinolones may now be of limited use in the empiric treatment of Campylobacter infections in many regions....

  1. Prevalence and Subtypes of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Commercial Poultry Flocks before, during, and after Treatment with Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Tom J. Humphrey; Jørgensen, Frieda; Frost, Jennifer A.; Wadda, Haddy; Domingue, Gil; Elviss, Nicola C.; Griggs, Deborah J.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Five commercial broiler chicken flocks were treated with either difloxacin or enrofloxacin for a clinically relevant infection, as instructed by a veterinarian. Campylobacters were isolated from individual fecal samples and from samples associated with the broiler environment before, during, and after treatment. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and/or C. coli strains were detected pretreatment in four flocks, but they constituted a very small proportion of the campylobacters prese...

  2. Reducing the risk of food borne pathogens (Campylobacter) in pre-slaughter pigs via short-time feeding with prebiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, A.N.; Hansen, L L; Baggesen, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the presence of human pathogens like Campylobacter and Salmonella (zoonoses) in their animal hosts is important to enhance food safety of products of animal origin. Campylobacter is considered to be a commensal in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs due to its typically high prevalence. Consequently, it is difficult to control Campylobacter in pigs at farm level by usual hygienic measures, especially in open systems of organic pig production (Jensen et al 2006). However, another poten...

  3. Salmonella and campylobacter in organic egg production - with special reference to the Finnish situation

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    In Finland, an ongoing (2003-2005) research project on organic egg production, animal welfare and food safety is examining campylobacter and salmonella contamination of approximately 20 organic layer farms. Adequate biosecurity levels, lowering the number of potential zoonotic infection sources in the vicinity of hen houses and vaccination of hens against S. Enteritidis are available tools to decrease contamination of organic laying hens by campylobacters or salmonella.

  4. Detection of airborne Campylobacter with three bioaerosol samplers for alarming bacteria transmission in broilers.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Katsma, W.E.A.; Jong, de, Franciska

    2011-01-01

    In an airborne transmission experiment, Campylobacter in the air was sampled by three types of bioaerosol samplers (all-glass impinger AGI-30, Andersen six-stage impactor, and OMNI-3000) in four broiler rooms. In each room, five 14-day- old broilers inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni were kept in a central cage located in the middle of the room. Another ten broilers, as susceptible animals, were kept individually in ten cages surrounding the central cage at a distance of approximately 75 cm...

  5. Western blot analysis of the human antibody response to Campylobacter jejuni cellular antigens during gastrointestinal infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Nachamkin, I; Hart, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Western blot analysis was used to identify antigenic components of Campylobacter jejuni whole cells and outer membranes that elicit antibody responses in patients with campylobacter enteritis. Acute- and convalescent-phase sera from eight patients were analyzed for antibody activity against their homologous infecting strains and heterologous clinical isolates. Whole-cell and Sarkosyl-insoluble membrane components were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ...

  6. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Euna; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane pe...

  7. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter. PMID:24490929

  8. Growth capacity of thermotolerant campylobacters in culture media supplemented with pig and cow blood

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Tresierra-Ayala; Manuel Navas; Josué Flores; Ramsés Perea; Juan Huanaquiri; María Bendayán; Heriberto Fernández

    2010-01-01

    In this work 60 thermotolerant Campylobacter strains (37 C. jejuni and 23 C. coli) isolated from the cows, pigs, chickens and ducks (15 strains of each type of animal) were used to establish their growth capacity on media containing cow or swine blood as potential substitutes of sheep or horse blood. The growth capacity was assessed by viable counts on cow and swine blood media, using the modified Miles and Misra method. Campylobacter strains showed better growth in the media supplemented wit...

  9. A study of the oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements of thermophilic campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, F J; Coates, D.

    1983-01-01

    The oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements of different biotypes of thermophilic campylobacters were investigated by means of (a) quantitative studies, and (b) total growth studies. Oxygen tolerance of the five test organisms differed markedly and varied with the carbon dioxide concentration. At most carbon dioxide concentrations tested, Campylobacter jejuni strains NCTC 11168 and NCTC 11392 tolerated 21% oxygen (growth reduced), C coli NCTC 11353 tolerated 15% oxygen (growth reduced), and C ...

  10. Characterization of the Structurally Diverse N-Linked Glycans of Campylobacter Species

    OpenAIRE

    Jervis, Adrian J.; Butler, Jonathan A.; Lawson, Andrew J.; Langdon, Rebecca; Wren, Brendan W.; Linton, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni encodes an extensively characterized N-linked protein glycosylation system that modifies many surface proteins with a heptasaccharide glycan. In C. jejuni, the genes that encode the enzymes required for glycan biosynthesis and transfer to protein are located at a single pgl gene locus. Similar loci are also present in the genome sequences of all other Campylobacter species, although variations in gene content and organization are evident. In th...

  11. Rapid Evolution and the Importance of Recombination to the Gastroenteric Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Daniel J.; Gabriel, Edith; Leatherbarrow, Andrew J. H.; Cheesbrough, John; Gee, Steven; Bolton, Eric; Fox, Andrew; Hart, C. Anthony; Diggle, Peter J; Fearnhead, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Responsible for the majority of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world, Campylobacter jejuni is a pervasive pathogen of humans and animals, but its evolution is obscure. In this paper, we exploit contemporary genetic diversity and empirical evidence to piece together the evolutionary history of C. jejuni and quantify its evolutionary potential. Our combined population genetics-phylogenetics approach reveals a surprising picture. Campylobacter jejuni is a rapidly evolving species, su...

  12. Significance of flagella in colonization resistance of rabbits immunized with Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovskis, O R; Rollins, D M; Haberberger, R L; Green, A. E.; Habash, L; Strocko, S; Walker, R I

    1991-01-01

    Cross-protection among different Lior and Penner serogroups of Campylobacter spp. was studied. Rabbits were orally immunized by gastric feeding with Campylobacter spp., and 27 to 30 days later, they were challenged with matched or unmatched serogroups by the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea (RITARD) procedure. When immunized animals were challenged with different Lior serotypes, no protection against colonization was seen; however, when challenged with homologous Lior serogroups...

  13. Molecular Subtype Analyses of Campylobacter spp. from Arkansas and California Poultry Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Hiett, K. L; Stern, N. J.; Fedorka-Cray, P.; Cox, N. A.; Musgrove, M. T.; Ladely, S.

    2002-01-01

    Campylobacter isolates from diverse samples within broiler production and processing environments were typed by using flaA short variable region DNA sequence analysis. Sixteen flocks from four different farms representing two broiler producers in Arkansas and California were analyzed. Fourteen of the flocks (87.5%) were Campylobacter-positive; two remained negative throughout the 6-week rearing period. In general, multiple clones were present within a flock. Additionally, clones found within ...

  14. Novel gastric helicobacters and oral campylobacters are present in captive and wild cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Cinthia G.; Matteo, Mario J; Loureiro, Julio D.; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Vay, Carlos; Catalano, Mariana; Heredia, Sergio Rodríguez; Mantero, Paula; Boccio, Jose R.; Zubillaga, Marcela B.; Cremaschi, Graciela A.; Solnick, Jay V.; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian gastric and oral mucosa may be colonized by mixed Helicobacter and Campylobacter species, respectively, in individual animals. To better characterize the presence and distribution of Helicobacter and Campylobacter among marine mammals, we used PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis to examine gastric and oral samples from ten dolphins (Tursiops gephyreus), one killer whale (Orcinus orca), one false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), and three wild La Plata river dolphins (Pontopor...

  15. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta;

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of......-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry...

  16. Controlling Campylobacter in the chicken meat chain - Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mangen MJJ; Havelaar AH; Nauta MJ; de Koeijer AA; de Wit GA; LEI; Animal Sciences Group (ASG); PZO; MGB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the estimation of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of various interventions to control Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat. The relative risk, the intervention costs, the disease burden (expressed in Disability Adjusted Live Years (DALYs)) and the costs-of-illness for the various interventions were all estimated in previous studies within the CARMA (CAmpylobacter Risk Management and Assessment) project, and were inputs for the current calculations. The cos...

  17. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Ledergerber, U; Regula, G; Stephan, R; Danuser, J; Bissig, B; Stärk, K.D.C.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes...

  18. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Ledergerber, Ursula; Regula, Gertraud; Stephan, Roger; Danuser, Jürg; Bissig, Béatrice; Stärk, Katharina DC

    2003-01-01

    Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes ...

  19. Gastric metaplasia and Campylobacter pylori infection of duodenum in patients with chronic renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Shousha, S; Keen, C; Parkins, R A

    1989-01-01

    Duodenal biopsy specimens from 80 patients with chronic renal failure, who were undergoing haemodialysis, were examined by light microscopy for evidence of inflammation, gastric metaplasia, and Campylobacter pylori infection. Chronic duodenitis was present in 47 (59%) of patients, of whom only seven (9%) showed evidence of active inflammation. Gastric metaplasia was present in 50 (62.5%) of patients, yet Campylobacter pylori was identified in only two patients (2.5%). It is suggested that the...

  20. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J.; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  1. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Williams, N.; Merga, Y.; Cerda Cuellar, M.; Dolz, R.; Wieczorek, K.; Osek, J; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Wagenaar, J.; Bolder, N. M.; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This study was part of the EU financed project CamCon. The objective of the study was to identify on-farm risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks based on comparable data from six European countries. The data included explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning production, farm management procedures and conditions, climate data on mean temperature, sunshine hours, precipitation, as well as data on Campylobacter status of broiler flocks. Overall, the study...

  2. Survey of thermophilic Campylobacter species in cats and dogs in north-western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adewale Kolawale; Junaidu U. Abdulkadir; Abdullahi A. Magaji; Mohammed D. Salihu

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in north-western Nigeria to investigate the role of cats and dogs as potential reservoirs of thermophilic Campylobacter species. Faecal samples were analysed from 104 cats and 141 dogs between March 2007 and March 2009. The samples were collected from animals in households, those presented to veterinary premises and feline colonies. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 (27.7%) and 19 (18.3%) dogs and cats, respectively. There was no significant difference in isola...

  3. Fate and survival of Campylobacter coli in swine manure at various temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Wolff, Anders; Madsen, Mogens;

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter coli is the most common Campylobacter species found in pig(95%),but the ability of this bacterium to survive in swine manure as well as the potential for causing human illness are poorly understood. We present here laboratory-scale experiments to investigate the effect of temperature......-qPCRmethodwereconsistentwiththedatafromthebacterialculturemethod, indicating that it detected only viable C.colicells,thus eliminating false-positive resulting from DNA from dead C.coli cells....

  4. Hazards of Healthy Living: Bottled Water and Salad Vegetables as Risk Factors for Campylobacter Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Meirion R.; Ribeiro, C. Donald; Salmon, Roland L

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, yet the etiology of this infection remains only partly explained. In a retrospective cohort study, we compared 213 sporadic campylobacter case-patients with 1,144 patients with negative fecal samples. Information was obtained on food history, animal contact, foreign travel, leisure activities, medical conditions, and medication use. Eating chicken, eating food from a fried chicken outlet, eating salad vegetables, d...

  5. Non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter infections among HIV-positive patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, I.K.; Gradel, Kim Oren; Helms, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter are common causes of diarrhoea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. To investigate if incidence has changed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we combined data from The Danish Surveillance Re...... population. Moreover our study suggests that there is an increased incidence of Campylobacter-related illness among homosexual men in the HIV-positive population....

  6. Campylobacter jejuni is not merely a commensal in commercial broiler chickens and affects bird welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Humphrey, S; Chaloner, G; Kemmett, K; Davidson, N; Williams, N.; Kipar, A.; Humphrey, T.; Wigley, P.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animal...

  7. Phenotypic and Genotypic Evidence for l-Fucose Utilization by Campylobacter jejuni▿

    OpenAIRE

    Muraoka, Wayne T.; Zhang, Qijing

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains among the leading causes of bacterial food-borne illness. The current understanding of Campylobacter physiology suggests that it is asaccharolytic and is unable to catabolize exogenous carbohydrates. Contrary to this paradigm, we provide evidence for l-fucose utilization by C. jejuni. The fucose phenotype, shown in chemically defined medium, is strain specific and linked to an 11-open reading frame (ORF) plasticity region of the bacterial chromosome. By constructi...

  8. Multicenter Evaluation of Clinical Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Patrick, Mary; Gonzalez, Anthony; Akin, Joshua; Polage, Christopher R; Wymore, Kate; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Xavier, Karen; Sadlowski, Jennifer; Monahan, Jan; Hurd, Sharon; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Jerris, Robert; Watson, Renee; Santovenia, Monica; Mitchell, David; Harrison, Cassandra; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; DeMartino, Mary; Pentella, Michael; Razeq, Jafar; Leonard, Celere; Jung, Carrianne; Achong-Bowe, Ria; Evans, Yaaqobah; Jain, Damini; Juni, Billie; Leano, Fe; Robinson, Trisha; Smith, Kirk; Gittelman, Rachel M; Garrigan, Charles; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-05-01

    The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of Campylobacter in stool is increasing. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen CIDTs compared to culture and PCR for Campylobacter detection. Between July and October 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of Campylobacter selective media, four commercial stool antigen assays, and a commercial PCR assay. Illnesses from which specimens were positive by one or more culture media or at least one CIDT and PCR were designated "cases." A total of 95 specimens (3.4%) met the case definition. The stool antigen CIDTs ranged from 79.6% to 87.6% in sensitivity, 95.9 to 99.5% in specificity, and 41.3 to 84.3% in positive predictive value. Culture alone detected 80/89 (89.9% sensitivity) Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli-positive cases. Of the 209 noncases that were positive by at least one CIDT, only one (0.48%) was positive by all four stool antigen tests, and 73% were positive by just one stool antigen test. The questionable relevance of unconfirmed positive stool antigen CIDT results was supported by the finding that noncases were less likely than cases to have gastrointestinal symptoms. Thus, while the tests were convenient to use, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Campylobacter stool antigen tests were highly variable. Given the relatively low incidence of Campylobacter disease and the generally poor diagnostic test characteristics, this study calls into question the use of commercially available stool antigen CIDTs as standalone tests for direct detection of Campylobacter in stool. PMID:26962088

  9. Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis Chilean Isolates to Difenoconazole, Fenarimol, Mancozeb, and Pyrimethanil Sensibilidad de Aislados Chilenos de Venturia inaequalis a Difenoconazole, Fenarimol, Mancozeb y Pyrimethanil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Henríquez S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis is the most important disease in Chilean apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards where fungicide management is the main tool to control disease. Sensitivity tests to difenoconazole, fenarimol, mancozeb, and pyrimethanil fungicides were conducted on V. inaequalis wild isolates to construct local baseline sensitivity distributions, and compare them with a collection of isolates from seven different commercial orchards with no evidence of practical resistance. In vitro assays were conducted and sensitivity was measured as inhibition of mycelial growth (difenoconazole, fenarimol, pyrimethanil or conidial germination (mancozeb. Departure from the baseline distribution to less sensitivity was found for difenoconazole, fenarimol, and mancozeb with resistance factors of 4.7, 5.8, and 2.1, respectively. The highest difference between baseline and orchard populations was observed for fenarimol which showed the highest shift to less sensitivity. Discriminatory doses of 0.04, 1.0, 0.6, and 0.2 µg mL-1 are proposed for in vitro monitoring of sensitivity to difenoconazole, fenarimol, mancozeb, and pyrimethanil, respectively.La sarna del manzano (Venturia inaequalis es la principal enfermedad del cultivo en Chile y es controlada principalmente con el uso de fungicidas. Se realizaron pruebas de sensibilidad a los fungicidas difenoconazole, fenarimol, mancozeb y pyrimethanil en aislados monoconidiales de cepas silvestres de V. inaequalis con el fin de elaborar curvas basales de sensibilidad y compararlas con la sensibilidad de una colección de aislados monoconidiales provenientes de siete huertos comerciales sin evidencias de resistencia práctica. Se realizaron pruebas in vitro donde la sensibilidad se midió como la inhibición del crecimiento miceliar (difenoconazole, fenarimol y pyrimethanil o la inhibición de la germinación de conidias (mancozeb. La población de huertos comerciales estudiada presentó una menor

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Turkey, Pork, and Beef Meat in Poland between 2009 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsak, Dorota; Maćkiw, Elżbieta; Rożynek, Elżbieta; Żyłowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in poultry, pork, and beef meat at the retail level and to identify the main categories of meat representing the most significant reservoirs of Campylobacter. A monitoring study was conducted throughout Poland from 2009 to 2013. A total of 1,700 fresh meat samples were collected from supermarkets, large retail outlets, and smaller stores. Thermophilic Campylobacter species were detected in 690 (49.3%) of 1,400 poultry samples collected from retail trade. Strains were isolated from 50.2 and 41.1% of raw chicken and turkey meat samples, respectively, and from 50.1 and 42.6% of raw chicken and turkey giblets. The incidence of Campylobacter spp. on pork (10.6%) and beef (10.1%) was significantly lower than on poultry. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species in chicken (46.6%), pork (68.6%), and beef (66.7%), and Campylobacter coli was the most frequently isolated Campylobacter species in turkey meat (71.2%). This study revealed that retail raw meats are often contaminated with Campylobacter; however, the prevalence of these pathogens is markedly different in different meats. Raw retail meats are potential vehicles for transmitting foodborne diseases, and our findings stress the need for increased implementation of hazard analysis critical control point programs and consumer food safety education efforts. PMID:25951401

  11. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A

    2016-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. PMID:26841300

  12. Effect of refrigeration and frozen storage on the Campylobacter jejuni recovery from naturally contaminated broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike T. Maziero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common thermophilic Campylobacter associated with human enteritis in many countries. Broilers and their by-products are the main sources for human enteritis. Refrigeration and freezing are used to control bacterial growth in foods. The effect of these interventions on survival of Campylobacter jejuni is yet not quite understood. This study evaluated the effect of storage temperature on the survival of C. jejuni in chicken meat stored for seven days at 4ºC and for 28 days at -20ºC. The influence of selective enrichment on recovery of Campylobacter was also evaluated. Thirty fresh chicken meat samples were analyzed and 93.3% was contaminated with termotolerant Campylobacter spp. with average count of 3.08 Log10 CFU/g on direct plating. After refrigeration, 53.3% of the analyzed samples tested positive for Campylobacter and the average count was 1.19 Log10 CFU/g. After storage at -20ºC, 36.6% of the samples were positive with a verage count of 0.75 Log10 CFU/g. C. jejuni was detected after enrichment, respectively, in 50% of the fresh, 36.7% of the refrigerated and 33.3% of the frozen meat samples analyzed. No difference was detected for the recovery of C. jejuni from fresh, refrigerated or frozen samples after selective enrichment, showing that this microorganism can survive under the tested storage conditions.

  13. Survey of thermophilic Campylobacter species in cats and dogs in north-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Kolawale

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in north-western Nigeria to investigate the role of cats and dogs as potential reservoirs of thermophilic Campylobacter species. Faecal samples were analysed from 104 cats and 141 dogs between March 2007 and March 2009. The samples were collected from animals in households, those presented to veterinary premises and feline colonies. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 (27.7% and 19 (18.3% dogs and cats, respectively. There was no significant difference in isolation rate observed between dogs (27.7% and cats (18.3% and there was also no significance difference between younger and older dogs; 23.1% (young compared to 30.3% (older dogs, but a significant difference was seen between young (4.3% and older (29.3% cats. Campylobacter upsaliensis predominated in the isolates, accounting for 89.5% and 74.4% of the positive samples in cats and dogs, respectively, C. jejuni constituted 21.1% and 23.1% of the positive samples from cats and dogs, respectively. This finding is an indication that dogs and cats frequently shed thermophilic Campylobacter spp. which could be of public health importance. To establish the zoonotic significance of canine and feline Campylobacter, isolates need to be further characterised and compared. This is the first study on the prevalence of campylobacter in cats and dogs in the region.

  14. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Campylobacter species in foods of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence and evaluation of antibiotic resistance pattern and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Campylobacter species isolated from foods of animal origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 samples (comprising 150 chicken meat, 50 chevon and 80 milk were collected from retail meat markets, slaughter houses and dairy farms and analyzed for isolation of Campylobacter species. A total of 29 isolates comprising 23 Campylobacter jejuni and 6 Campylobacter coli were recovered, characterized biochemically and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. These isolates were then tested for antibiotic resistance pattern through disc diffusion method, and MIC was assessed by MIC strips. The antibiotic resistance assessment was performed against 8 antibiotics viz. ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and norfloxacin. Results: The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat, chevon and milk samples were observed 17.33%, 6% and 0%, respectively. All the isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole but sensitive to erythromycin. All the isolates showed different resistance pattern for the rest of the antibiotics. MIC results revealed that all the isolates were within prescribed concentrations for sensitivity for the antibiotics tested. Conclusions: The foods of animal origin are source of Campylobacter infections to human beings. Thus, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains emphasizes the requirement of better surveillance and monitoring of the foods of animal origin and the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine require careful regulation.

  15. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli on the external packaging of raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, F; Little, C L; Allen, G; Williamson, K; Mitchelli, R T

    2005-03-01

    During September and October 2002, 3,662 prepackaged raw meat samples were collected to evaluate the extent and nature of microbiological contamination on external surfaces of the packaging, which could potentially cross-contaminate ready-to-eat foods during and after purchase. Salmonella was detected on two (turkey (0.8%), pork (0.2%), and beef (0.1%); Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli accounted for 59% (24 of 41) and 24% (10 of 41) of the contaminating Campylobacter species, respectively. C. coli isolates from the external packaging were more multiresistant to antimicrobial drugs, including quinolones such as ciprofloxacin, than was C. jejuni. Escherichia coli (an indicator of fecal contamination) was isolated from the external packaging on 4% of the raw meat samples at levels of 40 to 10(5) CFU per swab. The external packaging of raw meats is a vehicle for potential cross-contamination by Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli in retail premises and consumers' homes. The external surface of heat-sealed packaging was less frequently contaminated with Campylobacter and E. coli compared with other types of packaging (e.g., overwrapping, bag, and tie tape) (P < 0.0001 to 0.01). In addition, external packaging of raw meats was contaminated less frequently with Campylobacter and E. coli when packaging was intact, packaging and display areas were visually clean, display temperatures were below 8 degrees C, and hazard analysis systems were in place. PMID:15771168

  16. Ganglioside GM1 mimicry in Campylobacter strains from sporadic infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachamkin, I; Ung, H; Moran, A P; Yoo, D; Prendergast, M M; Nicholson, M A; Sheikh, K; Ho, T; Asbury, A K; McKhann, G M; Griffin, J W

    1999-05-01

    To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 random enteritis-associated isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were analyzed. To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 enteritis-associated isolates, randomly collected in the United States, were analyzed using a cholera-toxin binding assay [corrected]. Overall, 26.2% of the isolates were positive for the GM1-like epitope. Of the 36 different O serotypes in the sample, 21 (58.3%) contained no strains positive for GM1, whereas in 6 serotypes (16.7%), >50% of isolates were positive for GM1. GBS-associated serotypes were more likely to contain strains positive for GM1 than were non-GBS-associated serotypes (37.8% vs. 15.1%, P=.0116). The results suggest that humans are frequently exposed to strains exhibiting GM1-like mimicry and, while certain serotypes may be more likely to possess GM1-like epitopes, the presence of GM1-like epitopes on Campylobacter strains does not itself trigger GBS. PMID:10191221

  17. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  18. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  19. THE EFFECTS OF MATERNAL HYPEROXIA ON FETAL BREATHING MOVEMENTS, BODY MOVEMENTS AND HEART-RATE VARIATION IN GROWTH RETARDED FETUSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEKEDAM, DJ; MULDER, EJH; SNIJDERS, RJM; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    In hypoxemic intrauterine growth-retarded fetuses (IUGR) there is a reduction in the incidence of fetal movements and in fetal heart rate variation. A causal relationship with the impairment of fetal oxygenation has been suggested. In 16 IUGR fetuses and in 13 normally grown fetuses maternal hyperox

  20. Screening and Rapid Identification of Campylobacter Spp. DNA by FlaA PCR Based Method on Chicken and Human Fecal Samples in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a foodborne pathogen which has a potential public health concern worldwide. Due to discriminatory problems encountered by conventional isolation of Campylobacter spp. and its genetic similarities, rapid molecular techniques for its genetic characterization are useful. In this study,...

  1. Mechanisms underlying zoonotic success of Campylobacter jejuni: the CprRS two-component regulatory system influences essential processes, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of food- and waterbourne bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Although illness is usually self-limiting, immunocompromised individuals are at risk for infections recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, and prior campylobacter infection correlates wi...

  2. Hybrid 3D pregnant woman and fetus modeling from medical imaging for dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations studying the interactions between radiations and biological tissues require the use of three-dimensional models of the human anatomy at various ages and in various positions. Several detailed and flexible models exist for adults and children and have been extensively used for dosimetry. On the other hand, progress of simulation studies focusing on pregnant women and the fetus have been limited by the fact that only a small number of models exist with rather coarse anatomical details and a poor representation of the anatomical variability of the fetus shape and its position over the entire gestation. In this paper, we propose a new computational framework to generate 3D hybrid models of pregnant women, composed of fetus shapes segmented from medical images and a generic maternal body envelope representing a synthetic woman scaled to the dimension of the uterus. The computational framework includes the following tasks: image segmentation, contour regularization, mesh-based surface reconstruction, and model integration. A series of models was created to represent pregnant women at different gestational stages and with the fetus in different positions, all including detailed tissues of the fetus and the utero-fetal unit, which play an important role in dosimetry. These models were anatomically validated by clinical obstetricians and radiologists who verified the accuracy and representativeness of the anatomical details, and the positioning of the fetus inside the maternal body. The computational framework enables the creation of detailed, realistic, and representative fetus models from medical images, directly exploitable for dosimetry simulations. (orig.)

  3. Fetus dose estimation in thyroid cancer post-surgical radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unrecognised pregnancy during radioisotope therapy of thyroid cancer results in hardly definable embryo/fetus exposures, particularly when the thyroid gland is already removed. Sources of such difficulty include uncertainty in data like pregnancy commencing time, amount and distribution of metastasized thyroid cells in body, effect of the thyroidectomy on the fetus dose coefficient etc. Despite all these uncertainties, estimation of the order of the fetus dose in most cases is enough for medical and legal decision-making purposes. A model for adapting the dose coefficients recommended by the well-known methods to the problem of fetus dose assessment in athyrotic patients is proposed. The model defines a correction factor for the problem and ensures that the fetus dose in athyrotic pregnant patients is less than the normal patients. A case of pregnant patient undergone post-surgical therapy by I-131 is then studied for quantitative comparison of the methods. The results draw a range for the fetus dose in athyrotic patients using the derived factor. This reduces the concerns on under- or over-estimation of the embryo/fetus dose and is helpful for personal and/or legal decision-making on abortion. (authors)

  4. Prenatal MRI Findings of Fetuses with Congenital High Airway Obstruction Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carolina V. A.; Linam, Leann E.; Kline-Fath, Beth M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    To define the MRI findings of congenital high airway obstruction sequence (CHAOS) in a series of fetuses. Prenatal fetal MR images were reviewed in seven fetuses with CHAOS at 21 to 27 weeks of gestation. The MRI findings were reviewed. The MRI parameters evaluated included the appearance of the lungs and diaphragm, presence or absence of hydrops, amount of amniotic fluid, airway appearance, predicted level of airway obstruction, and any additional findings or suspected genetic syndromes. All the fetuses viewed (7 of 7) demonstrated the following MRI findings: dilated airway below the level of obstruction, increased lung signal, markedly increased lung volumes with flattened or inverted hemidiaphragms, massive ascites, centrally positioned and compressed heart, as well as placentomegaly. Other frequent findings were anasarca (6 of 7) and polyhydramnios (3 of 7). MRI identified the level of obstruction as laryngeal in five cases and tracheal in two cases. In four of the patients, surgery or autopsy confirmed the MRI predicted level of obstruction. Associated abnormalities were found in 4 of 7 (genetic syndromes in 2). Postnatal radiography (n = 3) showed markedly hyperinflated lungs with inverted or flattened hemidiaphragms, strandy perihilar opacities, pneumothoraces and tracheotomy. Two fetuses were terminated and one fetus demised in utero. Four fetuses were delivered via ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. MRI shows a consistent pattern of abnormalities in fetuses with CHAOS, accurately identifies the level of airway obstruction, and helps differentiate from other lung abnormalities such as bilateral congenital pulmonary airway malformation by demonstrating an abnormally dilated airway distal to the obstruction.

  5. Application of the multitracer technique. Transport of various elements in the pregnant rats and the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The placenta functions as a barrier between fetus and mother, providing regulation of heat exchange, respiration, nutrition, and excretion for the fetus. There is limited information on the transport of trace elements from the mother to the fetus. Transfer of trace elements via the placenta to the fetus rats was examined by the multitracer technique, which can be used to evaluate the behavior of many elements under the same experimental condition. In this experiment, the multitracer solution contained the following elements: Be, Na, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Tc and Ru. We examined the time courses of uptake of various elements in the placenta and the fetus. From these results, we observed a significant difference in time dependency between each element. The elements were divided into three groups. Based on the results, it was considered that the placenta is highly selective because essential elements are readily transported across placenta/membranes to the growing fetus, whereas nonessential metals hardly penetrated the placental barrier that protects the fetus from toxic effects. (author)

  6. Prenatal MRI Findings of Fetuses with Congenital High Airway Obstruction Sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define the MRI findings of congenital high airway obstruction sequence (CHAOS) in a series of fetuses. Prenatal fetal MR images were reviewed in seven fetuses with CHAOS at 21 to 27 weeks of gestation. The MRI findings were reviewed. The MRI parameters evaluated included the appearance of the lungs and diaphragm, presence or absence of hydrops, amount of amniotic fluid, airway appearance, predicted level of airway obstruction, and any additional findings or suspected genetic syndromes. All the fetuses viewed (7 of 7) demonstrated the following MRI findings: dilated airway below the level of obstruction, increased lung signal, markedly increased lung volumes with flattened or inverted hemidiaphragms, massive ascites, centrally positioned and compressed heart, as well as placentomegaly. Other frequent findings were anasarca (6 of 7) and polyhydramnios (3 of 7). MRI identified the level of obstruction as laryngeal in five cases and tracheal in two cases. In four of the patients, surgery or autopsy confirmed the MRI predicted level of obstruction. Associated abnormalities were found in 4 of 7 (genetic syndromes in 2). Postnatal radiography (n = 3) showed markedly hyperinflated lungs with inverted or flattened hemidiaphragms, strandy perihilar opacities, pneumothoraces and tracheotomy. Two fetuses were terminated and one fetus demised in utero. Four fetuses were delivered via ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. MRI shows a consistent pattern of abnormalities in fetuses with CHAOS, accurately identifies the level of airway obstruction, and helps differentiate from other lung abnormalities such as bilateral congenital pulmonary airway malformation by demonstrating an abnormally dilated airway distal to the obstruction

  7. Adherence Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Strains to HEp-2 Cells by Mannan Oligosaccharides and a High-Molecular-Weight Component of Cranberry Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Hernandez, Alejandra; Rupnow, John; Hutkins, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    Campylobacter infections are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are a major cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world. Colonization and subsequent infection and invasion of Campylobacter require that the bacteria adhere to the surface of host cells. Agents that inhibit adherence could be used prophylactically to reduce Campylobacter carriage and infection. Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) have been used as a feed supplement in livestock animals to improve performance and to replace growth-promoting antibiotics. However, MOS and other nondigestible oligosaccharides may also prevent pathogen colonization by inhibiting adherence in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, plant extracts, including those derived from cranberries, have been shown to have antiadherence activity against pathogens. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of MOS and cranberry fractions to serve as antiadherence agents against strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Adherence experiments were performed using HEp-2 cells. Significant reductions in adherence of C. jejuni 29438, C. jejuni 700819, C. jejuni 3329, and C. coli 43485 were observed in the presence of MOS (up to 40 mg/ml) and with a high-molecular-weight fraction of cranberry extract (up to 3 mg/ml). However, none of the tested materials reduced adherence of C. coli BAA-1061. No additive effect in adherence inhibition was observed for an MOS-cranberry blend. These results suggest that both components, MOS and cranberry, could be used to reduce Campylobacter colonization and carriage in livestock animals and potentially limit human exposure to this pathogen. PMID:26219363

  8. Approaches to assessing doses to the embryo and fetus (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of the required information input for embryo/fetus dosimetry due to internal emitters is far from satisfactory. A variety of anthropometric standards for reference both for national and international agencies have been proposed for assessing healthy in utero growth of the embryo/fetus. Numerous attempts have been made to define computational models of the pregnant woman, embryo/fetus and the placenta for obtaining S factors and SEE values. Human biokinetic information that enables estimation of the time integral of radioactivity in the embryo/fetus is rather scanty and available only for a few radionuclides. However, a number of organisations are working intensively to arrive at doses or dose coefficients due to internal emitters for formulating recommendations that could be adopted by national and international regulatory agencies. The present paper is an attempt to review the different approaches used in embryo/fetus dosimetry. The review includes a comparison of different national standards of anthropometric measurements of the embryo/fetus as a function of gestational period; the modelling of pregnant women, embryo/fetus and the placenta; use of this information for computation of photon-specific absorbed fractions, S factors and SEE values; a brief description of processes involved at placental level that allow or disallow placental transfer of specific materials such as nutrients, micronutrients, trace elements and their subsequent transfer to the embryo/fetus; biokinetic information on either stable or radionuclides and its applicability for computation of radioactivity in the embryo/fetus as well as in its associated component structures or for estimating fetal to maternal activity concentration ratios. A case of an inadvertent administration of therapeutic radioiodine to a pregnant woman is also presented. (author)

  9. Campylobacter sp in eggs from cloacal swab positive breeder hens Campylobacter sp em ovos provenientes de matrizes pesadas com swab cloacal positivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter sp is a microaerophilic, thermotolerating Gram negative bacterium, known to be one of the main causes of food-borne human infections. Among the foods that carry these microorganisms, the chicken is outstanding. In Brazil, a large chicken exporting country, few researches are conducted about their prevalence in breeder hens and the transmission through eggs. The aim of this research was to verify the presence of Campylobacter sp in the shells and within the eggs from positive cloacal swab breeder hens. Microbiological analyses were made on cloacal swabs of 140 weighed breeder hens. The positive breeder hens were set aside and in a total of 244 of their eggs, Campylobacter sp was present in macerated shells and yolk contents during 7 weeks. Out of the 140 researched breeder hens, 25 (17.8% were positive from cloacal swabs, however the eggs were not positive. The physiological characteristics of the birds, their eggs and Campylobacter sp favor the bacterium entering and surviving in the eggs, but in this study, no positive result was found in macerated shells or in the yolks, indicating that vertical transmission is probably an unusual event.Campylobacter sp é reconhecida como uma das principais causas de gastrenterite humana de origem alimentar. Dentre os alimentos veiculadores desses microrganismos, a carne de frango tem sido a mais implicada. Os estudos existentes sobre a transmissão vertical da Campylobacter são escassos e não conclusivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a presença de Campylobacter sp na casca e interior de ovos de matrizes positivas em swabs cloacais e a possibilidade de transmissão vertical. Foram analisados swabs cloacais de 140 matrizes pesadas e seus ovos colhidos para análise durante 7 semanas consecutivas. Dos 244 ovos colhidos, 129 foram fumigados e 115 analisados sem tratamento. Foram analisados o macerado da casca e a gema. Das 140 matrizes pesquisadas, 25 (17,8% foram positivas em swabs

  10. Survival rate of campylobacter coli strains in sterile buffalo and bovine milk Tasas de sobrevida de Campylobacter coli en leche de búfalo y de bovino

    OpenAIRE

    A. TRESIERRA-AYALA; Guzmán, A.; H Fernández

    2001-01-01

    The survival rate of five Campylobacter coli strains, isolated from bovine faeces (3) and from buffalo faeces (2), was studied in sterile buffalo and bovine milk kept at 4°C under aerobic conditions. All strains lost their viability substantially more rapidly in buffalo milk than in bovine milkSe determinó, en leche de bovino y de búfalo autoclavadas y mantenidas a 4ºC bajo condiciones de aerobiosis, la sobrevida de cinco cepas de Campylobacter coli aisladas de fecas de bovino (3) y ...

  11. Fetus absorbed dose evaluation in head and neck radiotherapy procedures of pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the head and neck cancer treatment of a pregnant patient was experimentally simulated. A female anthropomorphic Alderson phantom was used and the absorbed dose to the fetus was evaluated protecting the patient's abdomen with a 7 cm lead layer and using no abdomen shielding. The target volume dose was 50 Gy. The fetus doses evaluated with and without the lead shielding were, respectively, 0.52±0.039 and 0.88±0.052 cGy. - Highlights: • Head and neck radiotherapy simulation. • Head and neck radiotherapy procedures for pregnant patients. • Shielded and unshielded fetus absorbed dose evaluation

  12. Counseling patients when abortion is legal and the fetus is viable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, H; Powderly, K E

    2000-01-01

    In the wake of the 1973 US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, many states instituted laws allowing voluntary termination of pregnancy up to 24 weeks. Improvements in neonatal medicine since then mean that some fetuses may be viable at gestational ages less than 24 weeks. Thus clinicians and patients may confront the dilemma of the fetus that is both legally "abortable" and potentially viable. If the obstetrical team automatically (without considering all reproductive options) attempts to salvage the fetus, they abrogate the woman's right not to deliver an extremely premature infant. In this clinical opinion, we review the ethical issues that should be considered in the management of these situations. PMID:11070642

  13. Prenatal diagnostic testing of the Noonan syndrome genes in fetuses with abnormal ultrasound findings

    OpenAIRE

    Croonen, Ellen A; Nillesen, Willy M.; Stuurman, Kyra E; Oudesluijs, Gretel; van de Laar, Ingrid M B M; Martens, Liesbeth; Ockeloen, Charlotte; Mathijssen, Inge B.; Schepens, Marga; Ruiterkamp-Versteeg, Martina; Scheffer, Hans; Faas, Brigitte H. W.; Van Der Burgt, Ineke; Helger G Yntema

    2013-01-01

    In recent studies on prenatal testing for Noonan syndrome (NS) in fetuses with an increased nuchal translucency (NT) and a normal karyotype, mutations have been reported in 9–16% of cases. In this study, DNA of 75 fetuses with a normal karyotype and abnormal ultrasound findings was tested in a diagnostic setting for mutations in (a subset of) the four most commonly mutated NS genes. A de novo mutation in either PTPN11, KRAS or RAF1 was detected in 13 fetuses (17.3%). Ultrasound findings were ...

  14. Degradación de tiocianato por hongos aislados de ambientes mineros y evaluación de su capacidad degradativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Medina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El Perú es uno de los principales países en la extracción de minerales como el oro, zinc, plomo y estaño. En la producción de oro se utiliza cianuro, el cual es tóxico para el medio ambiente, y que por reacción natural con el azufre se convierte en tiocianato (-SCN. En el presente trabajo se aislan hongos con capacidad de degradar tiocianato procedentes de aguas y suelos de zonas mineras de Junín y Tumbes. Estas cepas se sometieron a ensayos con concentraciones de tiocianato entre 5 y 600 mM. Asimismo, se evaluó la cinética de degradación de tiocianato en medio Kwon partiendo de 1,2 g.L-1 de KSCN y luego se realizó la identificación morfológica. De un total de 58 mohos aislados, obtuvimos 4 mohos con excelentes capacidades de degradar tiocianato y que pueden ser utilizados en biorremediación. La capacidad degradativa de estas cepas fue en promedio 10,05 mg.L-1 de -SCN con una velocidad de 28,77 mg.L-1.h-1. Dos cepas fueron identificadas fenotípica y molecularmente como Fusarium trincictum usando el marcador ITS del gen rDNA.

  15. The Effect of Ecstasy Administration during Pregnancy on Mice Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mostafavi Pour-Manshadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ecstasy or 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine(MDMA is a psychotropic and addictive substance that young people tend to use it to reduce their psychological and social tensions. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of ecstasy consumption on the fetus of pregnant mice during the second and third weeks of pregnancy. Methods: 20 adult female mice were randomly selected(5 for control group and 15 for experimental group. Two intraperitoneal injections of ecstasy(5mg/Kg was used in the experimental group, on 7th and 14th days of pregnancy, while, in the control group, only distilled water was injected intraperitoneally. On 18th day of pregnancy, mice were placed in separate cages. The condition of palate, skull, external ear, eye, fingers and toes and sindactily, weight, and fertility potentials of newborn mice were studied using stereo microscope. Results: From 163 newborn mice in two groups, no abnormalities were observed in the skull and the external ear. There wasn’t any significant difference between male and female sex ratio between two groups (p=.08. Hypoplasia of the fingers was significantly different between the two groups(p<0.001. The frequency of sindactily was not significantly different between two groups(p=0. 11. Female fertility potential was significantly different between two groups(p<0.001. Conclusion: Adminstration of ecstasy during pregnancy may affect the organogenesis and fertility potential of newborn mice. Therefore, more studies are needed in this regard.

  16. Fetus Sound Stimulation: Cilia Memristor Effect of Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Jankovic-Raznatovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This experimental study evaluates fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA circulation after the defined prenatal acoustical stimulation (PAS and the role of cilia in hearing and memory and could explain signal transduction and memory according to cilia optical-acoustical properties. Methods. PAS was performed twice on 119 no-risk term pregnancies. We analyzed fetal MCA circulation before, after first and second PAS. Results. Analysis of the Pulsatility index basic (PIB and before PAS and Pulsatility index reactive after the first PAS (PIR 1 shows high statistical difference, representing high influence on the brain circulation. Analysis of PIB and Pulsatility index reactive after the second PAS (PIR 2 shows no statistical difference. Cilia as nanoscale structure possess magnetic flux linkage that depends on the amount of charge that has passed between two-terminal variable resistors of cilia. Microtubule resistance, as a function of the current through and voltage across the structure, leads to appearance of cilia memory with the “memristor” property. Conclusion. Acoustical and optical cilia properties play crucial role in hearing and memory processes. We suggest that fetuses are getting used to sound, developing a kind of memory patterns, considering acoustical and electromagnetically waves and involving cilia and microtubules and try to explain signal transduction.

  17. Echobiometrics kidney and renal artery triplex doppler of canine fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the sogographic parameters and biometry of canine fetal kidneys using the B mode, and to determinate the vascular index of the fetal renal arteries using the Doppler Triplex. Twenty four Shi-tzu and Pug, weighting between 4 and 10kg, aging between 4 and 6 years old were evaluated. The B mode, the fetal renal echobiometry and regularity of the renal surface, echotexture and cortex:medular ratio were evaluated during the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th weeks of pregnancy. At the same time point of the B mode evaluation, the Doppler Triplex was carried out to assess the sistolic peak velocity (SPV, end diastolic velocity (EDV, vascular resistive (RI and pulsatility index (PI. B mode revealed no fetal renal abnormalities and echobiometry showed important measurements during fetal development (P0.05. B mode and Doppler Triplex were important tools for the assessment of fetal renal development, using echobiometry and renal arterial index in canie fetuses.

  18. Specific transcriptional changes in human fetuses with autosomal trisomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altug-Teber, O; Bonin, M; Walter, M; Mau-Holzmann, U A; Dufke, A; Stappert, H; Tekesin, I; Heilbronner, H; Nieselt, K; Riess, O

    2007-01-01

    Among full autosomal trisomies, only trisomies of chromosome 21 (Down syndrome), 18 (Edwards syndrome) and 13 (Patau syndrome) are compatible with postnatal survival. But the mechanisms, how a supernumerary chromosome disrupts the normal development and causes specific phenotypes, are still not fully explained. As an alternative to gene dosage effect due to the trisomic chromosome a genome-wide transcriptional dysregulation has been postulated. The aim of this study was to define the transcriptional changes in trisomy 13, 18, and 21 during early fetal development in order to obtain more insights into the molecular etiopathology of aneuploidy. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we analyzed whole genome expression profiles in cultured amniocytes (AC) and chorionic villus cells (CV) from pregnancies with a normal karyotype and with trisomies of human chromosomes 13, 18 and 21. We observed a low to moderate up-regulation for a subset of genes of the trisomic chromosomes. Transcriptional levels of most of the genes on the supernumerary chromosome appeared similar to the respective chromosomal pair in normal karyotypes. A subset of chromosome 21 genes including the DSCR1 gene involved in fetal heart development was consistently up-regulated in different prenatal tissues (AC, CV) of trisomy 21 fetuses whereas only minor changes were found for genes of all other chromosomes. In contrast, in trisomy 18 vigorous downstream transcriptional changes were found. Global transcriptome analysis for autosomal trisomies 13, 18, and 21 supported a combination of the two major hypotheses. PMID:18253026

  19. Survey report about campylobacter in cooked chicken%肉鸡弯曲菌带菌调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国胜; 张正尧; 刘国中

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate situaton of campylobacter carried by cooked chicken, and evalutate risk influence of campylobacter in cooked chicken to food safety, providing scientific basis for assessment of food safety risk. Methods:Chicken, which would be slaughtered for food soon, were randomly selected from June to October, campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and campylobacter laridis in their cloacas were detected. Results; Campylobacter positive rate was 30% , in which 12. 2% was tested positive for campylobacter jejuni, 13.3% for campylobacter coli and 4.4% for campylobacter laridis, dominant species of campylobacter showed a punctuate distribution,detection rate in October was the highest. Conclusion; Campylobacter in cooked chicken showing the highest positive rate, it has serious risk for food safety.%目的:调查肉鸡携带弯曲菌情况,评价肉鸡中弯曲菌对食品安全的风险影响,为食品安全风险评估提供科学依据.方法:在7月-11月份随机抽取5个大型养殖场将出栏食用的肉鸡,检测泄殖腔中空肠弯曲菌、结肠弯曲菌、海鸥弯曲菌.结果:弯曲菌检出率为30%,其中空肠弯曲菌为12.2%,结肠弯曲菌为13.3%、海鸥弯曲菌为4.4%,优势类型弯曲菌呈点状分布,10月份检出率最高.结论:肉鸡中弯曲菌携带率较高,存在较高的食品安全风险.

  20. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne;

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168...... chlorhexidine diacetate salt hydrate (1%). The most effective compounds were cetylpyridinium chloride (0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride (1%) (>4.2 log). However, when these treated samples were stored for 24 h at 5°C, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, and grapefruit seed extract were less...... effective, indicating that some cells may recover after a 1-min treatment with these chemicals. An increase in treatment time to 15 min resulted in higher effectiveness of trisodium phosphate and formic acid. Interestingly, when reduction of the C. jejuni population was compared on chicken skin and meat...