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Sample records for campylobacter fetus aislado

  1. [Campylobacter fetus endocarditis: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désidéri-Vaillant, Catherine; Guichon, Jean-Michel; Noyer, Vincent; Nedelec, Yolande; Galinat, Hubert; Sapin-Lory, Jeanne; Di Costanzo, Laurence; Le Guen, Patrick; Nicolas, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter are known to be a cause of enteritidic infections but Campylobacter fetus is more often a cause of systemic infections, mainly in fragilized patients. We report a C. fetus endocarditis. The prognosis seemstobe improved by a prolonged betalactam antibiotic treatment.

  2. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are...

  4. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  5. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided in

  6. Campylobacter fetus subespécie fetus: abortamento e natimortalidade em ovinos Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus: abortion and stillbirths in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Trevisan Gressler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria do gênero Campylobacter está comumente envolvida em surtos de abortos ovinos em muitos países. No Brasil, até o presente momento, ainda não houve relato sobre a ocorrência de aborto em ovinos causado pelo C. fetus, subespécie fetus (C. fetus ssp. fetus. No presente trabalho, relata-se a detecção deste agente em fetos e natimortos ovinos naturalmente infectados. Desse modo, alerta-se para a possibilidade de novos casos de aborto em ovinos causados por C. fetus ssp. fetus.The bacteria of genus Campylobacter spp, is commonly involved in outbreaks of ovine abortion in many countries. In Brazil, until now, there has been no report on the occurrence of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus. In this paper, we report the detection this bacteria in ovine fetuses naturally infected. Thus, alert for possible cases of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus.

  7. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated wi

  8. Clonal nature of Campylobacter fetus as defined by multilocus sequence typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, van M.A.P.; Dingle, K.E.; Maiden, M.C.; Newell, D.G.; Graaf, van der L.; Putten, van J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus can be divided into the subspecies C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis. C. fetus subsp. fetus causes sporadic infections in humans and abortion in cattle and sheep and has been isolated from a variety of sites in different hosts. C. fetus subsp. venerealis is hos

  9. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus

  10. Antigenic differences among Campylobacter fetus S-layer proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubreuil, J D; Kostrzynska, M; Austin, J W; Trust, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of S-layer proteins extracted from Campylobacter fetus strains by using acid glycine buffer showed that the predominant S-layer proteins of different strains had subunit molecular weights in the range of 90,000 to 140,000. Electron microscopy revealed oblique S-layer lattices with a spacing of approximately 5.6 nm (gamma = 75 degrees) on wild-type strains VC1, VC119, VC202, and VC203. Three variants of C. fetus VC119 producing a predom...

  11. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter fetus from reptiles and mammals reveals divergent evolution in host-associated lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. fetus subsp. venerealis, and C. fetus subsp. testudinum, which display a distinct host association. Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are associated with endothermic mammals, primar...

  12. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  13. Shift in S-layer protein expression responsible for antigenic variation in Campylobacter fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, E; Garcia, M M; Blake, M. S.; Pei, Z.; Blaser, M J

    1993-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus strains possess regular paracrystalline surface layers (S-layers) composed of high-molecular-weight proteins and can change the size and crystalline structure of the predominant protein expressed. Polyclonal antisera demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity among these proteins but suggest differences in epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies to the 97-kDa S-layer protein of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strain 82-40LP showed three different reactivities. Monoclonal antibody 1D1...

  14. Application of a multiplex PCR assay for Campylobacter fetus detection and subspecies differentiation in uncultured samples of aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Silveyra, Silvia; Velilla, Alejandra; Carretto, Luis; Rodríguez, Eliana; Pérez, Ruben

    2012-12-01

    Campylobacter (C.) fetus (epsilonproteobacteria) is an important veterinary pathogen. This species is currently divided into C. fetus subspecies (subsp.) fetus (Cff) and C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv). Cfv is the causative agent of bovine genital Campylobacteriosis, an infectious disease that leads to severe reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. Cff is a more general pathogen that causes reproductive problems mainly in sheep although cattle can also be affected. Here we describe a multiplex PCR method to detect C. fetus and differentiate between subspecies in a single step. The assay was standardized using cultured strains and successfully used to analyze the abomasal liquid of aborted bovine fetuses without any pre-enrichment step. Results of our assay were completely consistent with those of traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods. Furthermore, the multiplex PCR technique we developed may be easily adopted by any molecular diagnostic laboratory as a complementary tool for detecting C. fetus subspecies and obtaining epidemiological information about abortion events in cattle.

  15. First Closed Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Bono, James L; Rijnsburger, Martine; Campero, Carlos; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius is a variant of C. fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease associated with abortion and infertility in cattle. We report the first closed whole-genome sequence of this biovar.

  16. Campylobacter fetus subspecies: Comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Soares, Siomar C.; Santos, Anderson R.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter contains pathogens causing a wide range of diseases, targeting both humans and animals. Among them, the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis deserve special attention, as they are the etiological agents of human bacterial gastroenteritis and bovine genital...... in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The genomic variations and potential core and unique virulence factors characterized in this study would lead to better insight into the species virulence and to more efficient use of the candidates for antibiotic, drug and vaccine development....

  17. Genomic analysis of Campylobacter fetus subspecies: identification of candidate virulence determinants and diagnostic assay targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Daniel O

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, asymptomatic in bulls the disease is spread to female cattle causing extensive reproductive loss. The microbiological and molecular differentiation of C. fetus subsp. venerealis from C. fetus subsp. fetus is extremely difficult. This study describes the analysis of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain genome (~75–80% to identify elements exclusively found in C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains as potential diagnostic targets and the characterisation of subspecies virulence genes. Results Eighty Kb of genomic sequence (22 contigs was identified as unique to C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 and consisted of type IV secretory pathway components, putative plasmid genes and hypothetical proteins. Of the 9 PCR assays developed to target C. fetus subsp. venerealis type IV secretion system genes, 4 of these were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis and did not detect C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius. Two assays were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain, with a further single assay specific for the AZUL-94 strain and C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius (and not the remaining C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis strains tested. C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were found to share most common Campylobacter virulence factors such as SAP, chemotaxis, flagellar biosynthesis, 2-component systems and cytolethal distending toxin subunits (A, B, C. We did not however, identify in C. fetus the full complement of bacterial adherence candidates commonly found in other Campylobacter spp. Conclusion The comparison of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis genome sequence with the C. fetus subsp. fetus genome identified 80 kb of unique C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL94 sequence, with subsequent PCR confirmation demonstrating

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra; Gioffre, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce.

  19. Campylobacter fetus bacteremia with purulent pleurisy in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Keiko; Miyashita, Tomoko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Shirano, Michinori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kameda, Kazuaki; Nishijima, Masayoshi; Imanishi, Masahiro; Yang, Xi; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with fever and pleural effusion predominantly containing lymphocytes. Cultures of the pleural effusion and blood revealed Campylobacter fetus, and laboratory studies showed a low serum level of immunoglobulin. The patient was diagnosed with C. fetus pleuritis, bacteremia and primary hypogammaglobulinemia, and subsequent treatment with meropenem and immunoglobulin improved his condition. Although the underlying cause of the primary hypogammaglobulinemia remains unclear, the patient's status improved under immunoglobulin replacement therapy. C. fetus pleuritis is a rare infectious disease usually observed in immunocompromised hosts. We herein describe the first report of C. fetus pleuritis in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

  20. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Subspecies identification of C. fetus strains is crucial in the control of Bovine Genital C...

  1. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia in a Healthy Patient Returning from a Trip to the Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, A C; Barrera, S; Leon, A; Trueba, G

    2016-12-27

    Campylobacter fetus is an opportunistic pathogen which causes bacteremia and other invasive infections in immunocompromised patients who have been exposed to livestock or ingested animal products (uncooked meat or unpasteurized milk). The present report describes a C. fetus infection in a healthy adult (immunocompetent) who returned from a visit to the Ecuadorian Amazonia and who did not report exposure to the typical sources of infection.

  2. Campylobacter fetus subspecies contain conserved type IV secretion systems on multiple genomic islands and plasmids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2016-01-01

    The features contributing to differences in pathogenicity of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins, which

  3. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma M. Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Myeloma cells Sp2/0-Ag14 and spleen cells from BALB/c mouse immunized with sonicated Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 were fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG for the selection of clones producing antibodies. Clones were obtained by limiting dilution and screened for the production of specific antibodies to C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 by indirect ELISA and western blot against a panel of bacteria: C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354, C. fetus subsp fetus ADRI 1812, C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647, C. lari NCTC 11352, and Arcobacter skirrowii LMG 6621 for the ELISA and C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 and C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647 for the western blotting. Fifteen clones producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs anti-C. fetus subsp. venerealis of the IgM (1 and IgG (14 classes were further screened for species-specificity. Four clones of the 15 obtained were producers of species-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs: two were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and two were specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus. None of the clones were reactive against C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647. All clones recognized a protein with molecular mass of approximately 148 kDa from lysed C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354.

  4. Rotavirus y campylobacter fetus jejuni asociados a un brote de diarrea en terneros

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1984 Rotaviruses and Campylobacter fetus jejuni are ubiquitous agents of diarrheal disease in animals and humans. Under natural conditions they do not seem to cross inter-species barriers; a zoonosis has not been documented for man. However, animal rotaviruses might contribute to the emergence of new reassortment strains in view of their segmented genome, and thus, produce new antigenic variants. On the contrary,...

  5. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhoof, R.; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-01-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) wer...

  6. Inconsistency of phenotypic and genomic characteristics of Campylobacter fetus subspecies requires re-evaluation of current diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classification of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis was first described in 1959 and was based on the source of isolation (intestinal vs genital) and the ability of the strains to proliferate in cows. Two phenotypic assays (1% glycine tolerance and H2S production) were described...

  7. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia Revealed by Cellulitis without Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the Context of Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Brah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.

  8. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-07-02

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies.

  9. Trombosis venosa profunda asociada a bacteriemia por campylobacter fetus Deep vein thrombosis related to Campylobacter fetus bacteriemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Membrillo de Novales

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente que ingresa por un cuadro de desorientación, fiebre y deposiciones diarreicas. La exploración y pruebas complementarias mostraron una trombosis venosa profunda en la pierna izquierda, junto con hemocultivos positivos a C. fetus. Está descrita la asociación de C. fetus a fenómenos tromboembólicos, pero no hemos encontrado en nuestra revisión biliográfica casos en la literatura donde se confirme dicha asociación con el aislamiento del microorganismo en hemocultivos, salvo una trombosis séptica de vena ovárica.We present a patient who was admitted with symptoms of disorientation, fever, and diarrheal stools. Examination and laboratory tests showed a deep vein thrombosis in the left leg, and isolation of C. fetus in blood cultures taken during a fever peak. The association of C. fetus with thromboembolic events has been reported, but we haven't found any cases in our biliograpich search describing this association confirmed by the isolation of the organism in blood cultures, except for a ovaric vein thrombosis.

  10. In vitro development of murine embryos in presence of Campylobacter fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Catena, María; Teruel, Miriam; Morán, P.; Chiapparrone, María Laura; Echeverria, Hernan Eduardo; Soto, Pedro de (O.F.M.)

    2015-01-01

    Bovine campylobacteriosis caused by Campylobacter fetus is associated with reproductive losses. The knowledge about the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis is limited, then a murine experimental model is proposed. BALB/c females and males were used. Two-cell embryos were cultured in Ham-F10 as control group (CG). Treatment groups were constituted by the addition of Cfv 1 and 3, or Cff 2 and 5. Morulae were placed in Ham-F10 (CG); treatment groups were constituted by the addition of Cfv27, CF...

  11. Campylobacter fetus surface layer proteins are transported by a type I secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S A; Shedd, O L; Ray, K C; Beins, M H; Jorgensen, J P; Blaser, M J

    1998-12-01

    The virulence of Campylobacter fetus, a bacterial pathogen of ungulates and humans, is mediated in part by the presence of a paracrystalline surface layer (S-layer) that confers serum resistance. The subunits of the S-layer are S-layer proteins (SLPs) that are secreted in the absence of an N-terminal signal sequence and attach to either type A or B C. fetus lipopolysaccharide in a serospecific manner. Antigenic variation of multiple SLPs (encoded by sapA homologs) of type A strain 23D occurs by inversion of a promoter-containing DNA element flanked by two sapA homologs. Cloning and sequencing of the entire 6.2-kb invertible region from C. fetus 23D revealed a probable 5.6-kb operon of four overlapping genes (sapCDEF, with sizes of 1,035, 1,752, 1,284, and 1,302 bp, respectively) transcribed in the opposite direction from sapA. The four genes also were present in the invertible region of type B strain 84-107 and were virtually identical to their counterparts in the type A strain. Although SapC had no database homologies, SapD, SapE, and SapF had predicted amino acid homologies with type I protein secretion systems (typified by Escherichia coli HlyBD/TolC or Erwinia chrysanthemi PrtDEF) that utilize C-terminal secretion signals to mediate the secretion of hemolysins, leukotoxins, or proteases from other bacterial species. Analysis of the C termini of four C. fetus SLPs revealed conserved structures that are potential secretion signals. A C. fetus sapD mutant neither produced nor secreted SLPs. E. coli expressing C. fetus sapA and sapCDEF secreted SapA, indicating that the sapCDEF genes are sufficient for SLP secretion. C. fetus SLPs therefore are transported to the cell surface by a type I secretion system.

  12. A rural worker infected with a bovine-prevalent genotype of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus supports zoonotic transmission and inconsistency of MLST and whole-genome typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, G; Betancor, L; Calleros, L; Gadea, P; Algorta, G; Galeano, S; Muxi, P; Greif, G; Pérez, R

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome characterisation in clinical microbiology enables to detect trends in infection dynamics and disease transmission. Here, we report a case of bacteraemia due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in a rural worker under cancer treatment that was diagnosed with cellulitis; the patient was treated with antibiotics and recovered. The routine typing methods were not able to identify the microorganism causing the infection, so it was further analysed by molecular methods and whole-genome sequencing. The multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) revealed the presence of the bovine-associated ST-4 genotype. Whole-genome comparisons with other C. fetus strains revealed an inconsistent phylogenetic position based on the core genome, discordant with previous ST-4 strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first C. fetus subsp. fetus carrying the ST-4 isolated from humans and represents a probable case of zoonotic transmission from cattle.

  13. Assessing the intra-species genetic variability in the clonal pathogen Campylobacter fetus: CRISPRs are highly polymorphic DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleros, Lucía; Betancor, Laura; Iraola, Gregorio; Méndez, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Paolicchi, Fernando; Silveyra, Silvia; Velilla, Alejandra; Pérez, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that infects animals and humans. The subspecies Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (Cff) affects a broad range of vertebrate hosts and induces abortion in cows and sheep. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is restricted to cattle and causes the endemic disease bovine genital campylobacteriosis, which triggers reproductive problems and is responsible for major economic losses. Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) has been isolated mostly from apparently healthy reptiles belonging to different species but also from ill snakes and humans. Genotypic differentiation of Cff and Cfv is difficult, and epidemiological information is scarce because there are few methods to study the genetic diversity of the strains. We analyze the efficacy of MLST, ribosomal sequences (23S gene and internal spacer region), and CRISPRs to assess the genetic variability of C. fetus in bovine and human isolates. Sequences retrieved from complete genomes were included in the analysis for comparative purposes. MLST and ribosomal sequences had scarce or null variability, while the CRISPR-cas system structure and the sequence of CRISPR1 locus showed remarkable diversity. None of the sequences here analyzed provided evidence of a genetic differentiation of Cff and Cfv in bovine isolates. Comparison of bovine and human isolates with Cft strains showed a striking divergence. Inter-host differences raise the possibility of determining the original host of human infections using CRISPR sequences. CRISPRs are the most variable sequences analyzed in C. fetus so far, and constitute excellent representatives of a dynamic fraction of the genome. CRISPR typing is a promising tool to characterize isolates and to track the source and transmission route of C. fetus infections.

  14. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoof, R; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-07-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) were resistant to erythromycin. One strain (1.2%) was completely resistant to tobramycin. The tetracyclines (tetracyline, doxycycline, minocycline) were generally effective, but 8% of the strains were totally resistant to them. Minocycline was the most active. Chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and clindamycin had good activity. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal distributions for colistin, nalidixic acid, and metronidazole were broad.

  15. Evaluation of PCR assays for the detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial scrapings and the identification of subspecies in South African field isolates

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    T. Schmidt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the high lability and slow growth of Campylobacter fetus subspecies, the laboratory diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis has always been difficult. This is especially true under South African conditions, where farms are far apart, laboratories are only present in major centres and there are high ambient temperatures. In order to overcome the shortcomings associated with traditional diagnostic methods, the implementation of a molecular assay was sought. This work describes how a previously published PCR assay (MG3F / MG4R primers was adapted, optimised and applied in the diagnostic laboratory to test preputial samples directly for the presence of Campylobacter fetus. Field evaluation of the assay revealed an analytical sensitivity and specificity of 85.7 % and 99 %, respectively. Subsequent genotyping and phenotyping of a diverse collection of South African field isolates revealed that South Africa has an unexpected and previously unreported high incidence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. These strains were not identified correctly by the subspecies-specific primer set evaluated. Until such time that cost-effective genotyping methods are available to diagnostic laboratories in South Africa, and other countries with these atypical Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis strains, the need for bacterial culture will persist. Identification to subspecies level of isolates at present remains dependent upon a single phenotypic criterion, namely tolerance to 1 % glycine.

  16. Evaluation of a PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hum, S.; Quinn, K.; Brunner, J.

    1997-01-01

    and macrorestriction profiling using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Procedure The results of identification of 99 bacterial strains as determined by conventional phenotyping or by polymerase chain reaction were compared. Two of these were type strains of C fetus subsp fetus and C fetus subsp venerealis...... by traditional phenotypic methods and the PCR assay was found to be 80.8%. The polymerase chain reaction proved to be a reliable technique for the species and subspecies identification of C fetus; equivocal results were obtained in only two instances. Initial misidentifications by conventional phenotyping...... methods were attributed to methodological differences used in various laboratories. Conclusion Our results indicate that misidentification of C fetus in routine diagnostic laboratories may be relatively common. The PCR assay evaluated gave rapid and reproducible results and is thus a valuable adjunctive...

  17. Evaluation of numerical analysis of PFGE-DNA profiles for differentiating Campylobacter fetus subspecies by comparison with phenotypic, PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Harrington, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To assess the efficacy of numerical analysis of PFGE-DNA profiles for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies. Methods and Results: 31 Camp. fetus strains were examined by phenotypic, PCR- and PFGE-based methods, and the 16S rDNA sequences of 18 strains compared....... The remaining two strains were identified as Camp. fetus subsp. venerealis by either phenotypic or PCR methods, but not both. At higher similarity levels, clusters containing isolates from each of two countries were identified, suggesting that certain clones predominate in certain geographical regions....... Conclusions: Numerical analysis of PFGE-DNA profiles is an effective method for differentiating Camp. fetus subspecies. Significance and Impact of the Study: Critical comparison of PFGE, PCR, 16S rDNA sequencing and phenotypic methods for differentiation of Camp. fetus subspecies was attained. Novel...

  18. PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Kafi, Mojtaba; Pour-Teimouri, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34) and cows (n = 61) in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6%) were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran.

  19. Campylobacter fetus infection presenting with bacteremia and cellulitis in a 72-year-old man with an implanted pacemaker: a case report

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    Ledina Dragan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Campylobacter is an important causative agent of intestinal infections in humans. Bacteremia is detected in less than 1% of patients, mainly in immunocompromised patients and in extreme age groups. Cellulitis is a relatively common manifestation of Campylobacter infection, but concomitant bacteremia is a rare event. Infections of the pacemaker area are caused primarily by staphylococci, followed by fungi, streptococci and Gram-negative rods. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of pacemaker pocket infection and bacteremia caused by Campylobacter fetus. Case presentation A 72-year-old Croatian Caucasian man with myelodysplasia, impaired fasting glucose levels and a recently implanted permanent pacemaker was admitted to hospital after six days of fever, development of red swelling of the pacemaker pocket area and worsening of his general condition. No antibiotic therapy was introduced in the outpatient setting. He denied any recent gastrointestinal disturbances. With the exception of an elevated leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein and blood glucose levels, other laboratory findings were normal. Treatment with vancomycin plus netilmicin was introduced, and a surgical incision with drainage of the pacemaker pocket was performed. The entire pacemaker system was removed and a new one re-implanted after 14 days of antibiotic therapy. Transesophageal echocardiography showed no pathological findings. Three subsequent blood cultures obtained on admission as well as swab culture of the incised pacemaker area revealed Campylobacter fetus; stool and pacemaker lead cultures were negative. According to the microbiological results, antibiotic therapy was changed to ciprofloxacin plus netilmicin. A clinical examination and the results of a laboratory analysis performed after two weeks of therapy were within normal limits. Conclusion Myelodysplasia, impaired fasting glucose levels

  20. 滩羊胎儿弯曲杆菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and Identiifcation of Campylobacter fetus from Tan Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚文; 李莉娟; 赵燕; 张玉玲; 李志红; 王玉梅; 张雯; 王晓亮; 张和平; 张学军; 杨佳冰

    2016-01-01

    [目的]对一规模化养殖场滩羊流产的原因进行确诊,为流产羊的疫病诊断和防控提供建议。[方法]无菌采集流产胎儿血性腹水和流产母羊阴道分泌物进行细菌培养、分离和鉴定。[结果]分离到2株病原菌,经形态特性、培养特性及生理生化特性观察,鉴定为胎儿弯曲杆菌胎儿亚种;动物实验表明,其对小白鼠有很强的致病性。[结论]致病性胎儿弯曲杆菌胎儿亚种是造成该羊场发生大面积流产的主要病原。%Objective] To ascertain the cause of abortion in Tan sheep population so as to provide advice for diagno-sis,prevention and control of Campylobacter fetus infection. [Methods] Samples from fetal bloody ascites and aborted ewes vaginal secretions were aseptically collected for bacterial culture,isolation and identification of bacterial testing. [Results] Two strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated,which were determined as Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus by observing the morphological characteristics,cultural characteristics and physiological and biochemical char-acteristics. The isolates had strong pathogenicity for mice. [Conclusion] The main pathogens leading to many Tan sheep aborted were the pathogenic Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus.

  1. Campylobacter as a venereal disease in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Visser, I.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Pastoor, P.W.; Strampel, J.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of AI, venereal diseases caused by Tritrichomonas fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis haved been eradicated in The Netherlands. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus can cause sporadic abortion and early embryonic death. When natural breeding is practised, venereal dise

  2. Isolamento de Aerobacter (Campylobacter cryaerophila de fetos suínos abortados Isolation of Aerobacter (Campylobacter cryaerophila from aborted pig fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio José de Oliveira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 6 fetos suínos abortados no terço final da gestação, provenientes de duas granjas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os órgãos internos (rim e fígado de cada feto foram inoculados em meio semi-sólido de Tween 80/40 LH, visando o isolamento de leptospiras. Os tubos foram incubados a 30°C. Foi isolado de todos os materiais um microorganismo, classificado como Arcobacter cryaerophila. Estes foram os primeiros isolamentos desta bactéria no Brasil.Samples of liver and kidney from aborted pig fetuses from two different farms were examined. Samples were cultured in semi-solid leptospira isolation media and incubated at 30°C. Arcobacter cryaerophila was isolated from all the specimens. These were the first reports on the isolation of the microorganism from pigs in Brazil.

  3. Development of a real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR for detection of Campylobacter fetus%胎儿弯杆菌病TaqMan实时荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海玲; 刘慧芳; 杜艳芬; 司微; 王春来; 刘思国

    2009-01-01

    A real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was developed for the detection of Campylobacter fetus using a pair of primers and a TaqMan probe specific to the SapA gene of Campylobacter fetus. The assay is highly specific and showed no cross reactivity against other bacteria. It had a sensitivity of detecting 13 copies of bacterial DNA. This method was rapid, highly sensitive and specific. The assay could provide a powerful tool for quantification of Campylobacter fetus, and could be further developed into a commercial kit for rapid detection of Campylobacter fetus.%为建立胎儿弯杆菌(C.fetus)定量检测方法,本研究根据C.fetus毒力因子表面蛋白(SapA)基因序列设计引物和一条特异的TaqMan水解探针,建立了一种敏感、特异、重复性好的快速检测C.fetus的TaqMan荧光定量PCR方法.对该方法的特异性与敏感性研究,结果显示,该方法检测C.fetus结果均为阳性,而非C.fetus均为阴性;对带有SapA基因的阳性质粒的检测敏感性为10~8拷贝~10~2拷贝/μL范围内具有良好的线性关系,可敏感地检测到模板中13个拷贝的细菌DNA,其灵敏度是常规PCR方法的100倍.该方法具有简便、快速、特异性强、敏感性高等特点.该方法为C.fetus快速检测试剂盒的研制打下了良好的基础.

  4. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  5. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-01-01

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy

  6. Serotipos de Campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni aislado en carne de ave para consumo humano y en muestras de heces de niños con diarrea Campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni serotypes in avian meat for human consumption and in faecal samples of children with diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fernández

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a las aves de consumo como un importante reservorio de C. jejuni ssp jejuni y sus subproductos alimenticios como principal vehículo, fueron serotipificadas 50 cepas aisladas de carne de ave para consumo humano, correlacionándolas epidemiológicamente con los serotipos encontrados en 50 cepas aisladas de niños con diarrea. Las cepas de C.jejuni ssp jejuni fueron serotipificadas mediante la técnica de hemaglutinación pasiva descrita por Penner, utilizando un kit comercial (DENKA SEIKEN, conteniendo los 25 sueros tipificadores para los serotipos descritos como los más frecuentes. Los serotipos A, B, F, L, N e Y fueron aislados concomitantemente en ambos tipos de muestras. Los serotipos de mayor aislamiento en las muestras de origen humano fueron Z2 (16% y Z5 (12%, mientras que en las de origen aviar fueron los serotipos A (28%, C (10%, L (10% e Y (10%. Al no coexistir los serotipos Z y C, en ambos grupos muestrales, es posible inferir la existencia de otros reservorios y vehículos que estén actuando como agentes transmisores de esta bacteria al ser humano.Having in mind that fowl and avian byproducts for human consumption are important reservoirs and vehicles for C. jejuni ssp. jejuni, a serotyping study was conducted in 50 strains isolated from avian meat and 50 isolated from human diarrhoeic stools. C. jejuni ssp. jejuni serotyping was carried out using a commercial kit with 25 antisera (DENKA SEIKEN, based on the Penner’s passive haemagglutination technique. Serotypes A, B, F, L, N e Y were concomitantly found in both kinds of samples. Serotypes Z2 (16% and Z5 (12% were the most frequently found in human strains, whereas serotypes A (28%, C (10%, L (10% and Y (10% were the most frequently isolated from avian samples. However, serotypes Z and C did not coexist in both types of samples. The latter results suggest that additionally to fowl and avian meat, there might be other animal reservoirs and vehicles that could act as

  7. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  8. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the small intestine from a bacteria called Campylobacter jejuni . It is a type of food poisoning. Causes ... testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment The infection almost always goes away on ...

  9. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  10. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates.

  11. Campylobacter jejuni y Campylobacter coli en tres grupos de gallinas de diferente origen geográfico del sur de Chile Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in three groups of hens of different geographic origin in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FERNANDEZ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 300 muestras fecales de gallinas obtenidas en tres sitios geográficos del sur de Chile (comunas de Loncoche, Valdivia y Puerto Montt, para conocer la prevalencia de Campylobacter jejuni y de C. coli en estas aves consideradas como reservorio. La prevalencia de especies termotolerantes del género Campylobacter fue del 25,7%, siendo C. jejuni aislado con una frecuencia del 76,6% y la de C. coli del 23,4%. Fueron encontrados sólo 2 de los 4 biotipos de C. jejuni, siendo aislado el biotipo II con mayor frecuencia (68.8%. En C. coli fueron encontrados los 2 biotipos descritos para esta especie, siendo, también, el biotipo II el más frecuenteIn order to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, 300 fecal samples obtained from hens in three different geographical places (Loncoche, Valdivia and Puerto Montt cities from Southern Chile were studied. The prevalence of the thermotolerant species of Campylobacter was 25.7%, being Campylobacter jejuni isolated with a frequency of 76.6% and C. coli with 23.4%. Only two of the four biotypes of C. jejuni were found, being biotype II the most frequent one (68.8%. The two biotypes described for C. coli were isolated, and biotype II was also the most frequent (68.8%.

  12. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)).

  13. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time the skin is broken) Images Blood test Campylobacter jejuni organism References Allos BM. Campylobacter infections. In: Goldman ... chap 303. Allos BM, Iovine NM, Blaser MJ. Campylobacter jejuni and related species. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, ...

  14. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in salad vegetables in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lay Ching; Robin, Tunung; Ragavan, Usha Menon; Gunsalam, Jurin Wolmon; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohamad; Radu, Son; Kumar, Malakar Pradeep

    2007-06-10

    The main aim of this study was to combine the techniques of most probable number (MPN) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantifying the prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter spp. in ulam, a popular Malaysian salad dish, from a traditional wet market and two modern supermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 309 samples of raw vegetables which are used in ulam were examined in the study. The prevalences of campylobacters in raw vegetables were, for supermarket I, Campylobacter spp., 51.9%; Campylobacter jejuni, 40.7%; and Campylobacter coli, 35.2%: for supermarket II, Campylobacter spp., 67.7%; C. jejuni, 67.7%; and C. coli, 65.7%: and for the wet market, Campylobacter spp., 29.4%; C. jejuni, 25.5%; and C. coli, 22.6%. In addition Campylobacter fetus was detected in 1.9% of raw vegetables from supermarket I. The maximum numbers of Campylobacter spp. in raw vegetables from supermarkets and the wet market were >2400 and 460 MPN/g, respectively.

  15. EUCAST recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing applied to the three main Campylobacter species isolated in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifré, Elodie; Salha, Ben Amor; Ducournau, Astrid; Floch, Pauline; Chardon, Hubert; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter isolates is of great importance for treatment options especially in systemic diseases. The European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recently proposed epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) for a limited number of antimicrobial compounds and for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli only. In the present study, the EUCAST method was used after minor modifications to define antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for, 1997 C. jejuni, 419 C. coli and 100 Campylobacter fetus strains received at the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters. Our results show that the ECOFFs defined by EUCAST for tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can be used for C. jejuni and C. coli. The same ECOFF can be used for erythromycin for the three species. The C. jejuni and C. coli ECOFFs for ciprofloxacin however cannot be applied to C. fetus. We also provide data to categorise two 2 β-lactams of interest for systemic diseases, ampicillin and amoxicillin+clavulanate, for the three species.

  16. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial causes ...

  17. Divergent distribution of the sensor kinase CosS in non-thermotolerant campylobacter species and its functional incompatibility with the response regulator CosR of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung Hwang

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems are commonly composed of a sensor histidine kinase and a cognate response regulator, modulating gene expression in response to environmental changes through a phosphorylation-dependent process. CosR is an OmpR-type response regulator essential for the viability of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogenic species causing human gastroenteritis. Although CosR is a response regulator, its cognate sensor kinase has not been identified in C. jejuni. In this study, DNA sequence analysis of the cosR flanking regions revealed that a gene encoding a putative sensor kinase, which we named cosS, is prevalent in non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., but not in thermotolerant campylobacters. Phosphorylation assays indicated that C. fetus CosS rapidly autophosphorylates and then phosphorylates C. fetus CosR, suggesting that the CosRS system constitutes a paired two-component signal transduction system in C. fetus. However, C. fetus CosS does not phosphorylate C. jejuni CosR, suggesting that CosR may have different regulatory cascades between thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter species. Comparison of CosR homolog amino acid sequences showed that the conserved phosphorylation residue (D51, which is present in all non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., is absent from the CosR homologs of thermotolerant Campylobacter species. However, C. jejuni CosR was not phosphorylated by C. fetus CosS even after site-directed mutagenesis of N51D, implying that C. jejuni CosR may possibly function phosphorylation-independently. In addition, the results of cosS mutational analysis indicated that CosS is not associated with the temperature dependence of the Campylobacter spp. despite its unique divergent distribution only in non-thermotolerant campylobacters. The findings in this study strongly suggest that thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have different signal sensing mechanisms

  18. Epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter , causing human infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, is mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products.Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Campylobacter isolates were serotyped, using a modificati

  19. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  20. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    to broiler houses may be counted in thousands per broiler rotation during summer periods, even a low prevalence of Campylobacter positive flies constitute a risk of introduction of Campylobacter to the chickens. M. domestica – the house fly is the most important vector fly for Campylobacter transmission...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter Strains from Diarrheal Patients in Central and Suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Eampokalap, Bunchuay; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is increasingly recognized worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the Campylobacter strains associated with diarrheal patients in Thailand. In this study, we attempted to isolate Campylobacter strains from diarrheal patients in Thailand and to characterize the species using a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus-specific multiplex PCR assay. Campylobacter species were also confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and hipO gene detection. From 2,500 diarrheal stool specimens, 76 Campylobacter-like organisms were isolated and identified via conventional culture methods. Among these 76 organisms, 73 were identified as Campylobacter species (43 C. jejuni, 29 C. coli, and 1 C. fetus) via multiplex PCR, whereas 3 remained unidentified. Two Campylobacter-like organisms yielded 2 amplicons corresponding to cdt genes from C. jejuni and C. coli. Subsequently, C. jejuni and C. coli were reisolated from each sample. The third isolate was identified as C. hyointestinalis via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from a diarrheal patient in Thailand. These data indicate that C. jejuni (58%) and C. coli (40%) are prevalent among diarrheal patients in Thailand.

  2. Fathers and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, George W

    1986-04-01

    Harris postulates that in certain instances it would be morally impermissible for a woman to have an abortion because it would be a wrongful harm to the father and a violation of his autonomy. He constructs and analyzes five cases chosen to elucidate the moral issues involved and concludes that, for a man to lay claim to the fetus being his in a sense that the mother is obligated to respect, the fetus must be the result of his having pursued a legitimate interest in procreation in a morally legitimate way. When a man has satisfied the requirements of autonomy both for himself and for his sexual partner in regard to the interest in procreation, the woman has a prima facie obligation to him not to harm the fetus. Therefore, unless there is some contravening moral consideration that overrides this obligation, the abortion of the fetus is morally impermissible.

  3. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  4. Media for Campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite their recent elaboration and the many variations in antibiotic combinations designed to attain selectivity, highly selective liquid and solid culture media for Campylobacter jejuni have proved satisfactory provided they are incubated at about 42°C and in a microaerophilic atmosphere such as

  5. Development of a standardized susceptibility test for Campylobacter with quality control ranges for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and meropenem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, P. F.; Bodeis, S. M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2004-01-01

    antimicrobial agents tested at both temperatures, 95-100% of the QC MIC results fell within recommended QC ranges. Twenty-one Campylobacter clinical isolates, encompassing five species of Campylobacter (C. jejuni, C. coli, C. jejuni, subsp. doylei, C. fetus, and C. lari) were tested in conjunction with the C....... jejuni QC strain. While C. jejuni and C. coli could be reliably tested under both test conditions, growth of C. jejuni subsp. doylei, C. fetus, and C. lari isolates was inconsistent when incubated at 42degreesC. Therefore, it is recommended that these species only be tested at 36degreesC...

  6. The susceptibility of Campylobacter concisus to the bactericidal effects of normal human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Karina Frahm; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract that has been associated with Barrett's oesophagus, enteritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite having invasive potential in intestinal epithelial cells in-vitro, bacteraemic cases with C. concisus are extremely scarce, having only been reported once. Therefore, we conducted a serum resistance assay to investigate the bactericidal effects of human complement on C. concisus in comparison to some other Campylobacter species. In total, 22 Campylobacter strains were tested by incubation with normal human serum and subsequent cultivation in microaerobic conditions for 48 hours. Killing time was evaluated by decrease in total CFU over time for incubation with different serum concentrations. Faecal isolates of C. concisus showed inoculum reduction to less than 50% after 30 min. Campylobacter jejuni was sensitive to serum, but killing was delayed and a bacteraemic Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus isolate was completely serum resistant. Interestingly, sensitivity of enteric C. concisus to human serum was not associated to different faecal-calprotectin levels. We find that faecal isolates of C. concisus are sensitive to the bactericidal effects of serum, which may explain why C. concisus is not associated to bacteraemia.

  7. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  8. Campylobacter Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    In several countries quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) have been performed for Campylobacter in chicken meat. The models constructed for this purpose provide a good example of the development of QMRA in general and illustrate the diversity of available methods. Despite...... in generating and testing hypotheses in food microbiology will be advocated....... the differences between the models, the most prominent conclusions of the QMRAs are similar. These conclusions for example relate to the large risk of highly contaminated meat products and the insignificance of contamination from Campylobacter positive flocks to negative flocks during slaughter and processing...

  9. Campylobacter geochelonis sp. nov. isolated from the western Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni hermanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Alessandra; Niero, Giulia; Calleros, Lucía; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Iraola, Gregorio

    2016-09-01

    During a screening study to determine the presence of species of the genus Campylobacter in reptiles, three putative strains (RC7, RC11 and RC20T) were isolated from different individuals of the western Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni hermanni). Initially, these isolates were characterized as representing Campylobacterfetus subsp. fetus by multiplex PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Further whole- genome characterization revealed considerable differences compared to other Campylobacter species. A polyphasic study was then undertaken to determine the exact taxonomic position of the isolates. The three strains were characterized by conventional phenotypic tests and whole genome sequencing. We generated robust phylogenies that showed a distinct clade containing only these strains using the 16S rRNA and atpA genes and a set of 40 universal proteins. Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrates their designation as representing a novel species and this was further confirmed using whole- genome average nucleotide identity within the genus Campylobacter (~80 %). Compared to most Campylobacter species, these strains hydrolysed hippurate, and grew well at 25 °C but not at 42 °C. Phenotypic and genetic analyses demonstrate that the three Campylobacter strains isolated from the western Hermann's tortoise represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobactergeochelonis sp. nov. is proposed, with RC20T (=DSM 102159T=LMG 29375T) as the type strain.

  10. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te late

  11. Campylobacter-Acanthamoeba interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana; Seddon, Alan M; Karlyshev, Andrey V

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen recognized as the major cause of human bacterial enteritis. Undercooked poultry products and contaminated water are considered as the most important sources of infection. Some studies suggest transmission and survival of this bacterial pathogen may be assisted by the free-living protozoa Acanthamoeba. The latter is known to play the role of a host for various pathogenic bacteria, protecting them from harsh environmental conditions. Importantly, there is a similarity between the mechanisms of bacterial survival within amoebae and macrophages, making the former a convenient tool for the investigation of the survival of pathogenic bacteria in the environment. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between Campylobacter and Acanthamoeba are not well understood. Whilst some studies suggest the ability of C. jejuni to survive within the protozoa, the other reports support an extracellular mode of survival only. In this review, we focus on the studies investigating the interaction between Campylobacter and Acanthamoeba, address some reasons for the contradictory results, and discuss possible implications of these results for epidemiology. Additionally, as the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown, we also suggest possible factors that may be involved in this process. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-protozoa interaction will assist in a better understanding of Campylobacter lifestyle and in the development of novel antibacterial drugs.

  12. ACTIVIDAD FIBROLÍTICA DE HONGOS RUMINALES AISLADOS DE ECOSISTEMAS TROPICALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gualdrón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad de degradación de sustratos altamente Àbrosos por 18 aislados funga-les ruminales en fermentaciones de 120 horas utilizando como única fuente de carbono pasto colosuana (Bothriochloa pertusa. Dentro del ensayo se incluyeron aislados pertenecientes a los géneros Neocallimastix, Orpinomyces y Piromyces. De acuerdo con los parámetros del modelo de Gompertz, la fase de adaptación de los aislados fue de 23,8 horas (h ± 4,20, con una producción de gas promedio de 195 ml/g sustrato ± 7,52, con un tiempo en alcanzar la mitad de la producción de gas entre las 35 y 55 h. La mayor tasa máxima de producción de gas (TMPG fue de 5,7 ml/h, perteneciente a un aislado del género Orpinomyces. Se observó una degradación de la materia seca (MS de 58% ± 2, y de la Àbra en detergente neutro (FDN de 46% ± 2 en promedio para todos los aislados fungales. La producción total de ácidos grasos volátiles (AGV fue de 22,04 ± 1,5 mM, con una proporción molar de ácido acético de 0,93% ± 0,01 para el promedio de los 18 aislados. Los valores máximos de las actividades enzimática carboximetilcelulasa (CMCasa, celulasa microcristalina y xilanasa fueron 9,56, 1,39 y 303,12 UI respectivamente, conÀrmando la preferencia de los hongos ruminales hacia los sustratos hemicelulósicos. Se realizó un análisis de factores principales, y los aislados se agruparon por medio de un análisis de conglomerados. Fueron selecciona-dos cinco aislados fungales los cuales presentaron la mayor diversidad en los parámetros evaluados, principalmente en degradación de MS, FDN y las actividades enzimáticas. Se seleccionó un aislado del género Neocallimastix, dos del género Orpinomyces, y dos del género Piromyces.

  13. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  14. CARACTERIZACIÓN FENOTÍPICA DE AISLADOS DE RIZOBIOS PROCEDENTES DE LA LEGUMINOSA FORRAJERA Canavalia ensiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Hernández Forte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar fenotípicamente aislados de rizobios procedentes de la leguminosa forrajera Canavalia ensiformis. Se caracterizaron doce aislados, cinco posibles miembros del género Rhizobium/ Sinorhizobium, siete posibles integrantes del género Bradyrhizobium y dos cepas comerciales, BR 2001 y BR 2003a. Para la caracterización fenotípica de los aislados bacterianos se estudió su capacidad de utilizar seis fuentes de carbono, la tolerancia a condiciones de acidez y a diferentes niveles de cloruro de sodio (NaCl, la resistencia a seis antibióticos así como su crecimiento en tres temperaturas de incubación. Se determinó además la capacidad de estos aislados de producir polihidroxibutiratos (PHB. Todos los aislados estudiados utilizaron la lactosa, glucosa y manitol como fuentes de carbono. Uno de los aislados de rápido crecimiento resultó el más tolerante a pH 4.5. Los aislados posibles miembros del género Rhizobium/ Sinorhizobium toleraron una mayor concentración de NaCl que los posibles integrantes del género Bradyrhizobium. Tres de los aislados de rápido crecimiento fueron resistentes a los seis antibióticos utilizados. Cuando los aislados fueron incubados a 370C todos, con excepción del el aislado CP3 y la cepa comercial BR 2001, presentaron un crecimiento similar al control. El aislado CP10, de lento crecimiento, tuvo la capacidad de producir las mayores concentraciones de PHB (0.023 g.L-1.

  15. Dos casos de Enteritis con bacteriemia por Campylobacter jejuni Two cases of enteritis with bacteremia due to Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Borda

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter es un importante agente causante de enfermedad en el ser humano en nuestro medio. Los casos de bacteriemia ocurren principalmente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos y son debidos frecuentemente a C. fetus. Sin embargo la bacteriemia es un episodio que también se ha observado en pacientes con enteritis por C. jejuni. Referimos dos pacientes con enteritis grave y bacteriemia, ambos con enfermedades concomitantes compatibles con inmunodepresión: uno con síndrome nefrótico de larga data y otro con hepatopatía crónica con cirrosis. Destacamos que los dos casos presentaron hematemesis y uno de ellos, enterorragia. Sugerimos prestar atención a la coloración de Gram durante el subcultivo de los caldos con hemocultivos, en busca de formas características de esta especie, y en ese caso emplear medios de cultivo en microaerofilia a 37 y 42 °C.Campylobacter is an important agent of illness in human beings. Bacteremia occurs principally in the immunocompromissed host and is frequently due to C. fetus. Nevertheless bacteremia also has been observed in patients with enteritis due to C. jejuni. We refer two cases of patients with severe enteritis and bacteremia, both of them with immunosupressive concomitant diseases such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic cirrotic hepatopathy. Both patients presented hemathemesis.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves with and without diarrhea in Minas Gerais state, Brazil Susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras de Campylobacter sp isoladas de bezerros com e sem diarréia, no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Leite Miranda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility of 25 Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves with and without diarrhea - 7 C. coli, 16 C. fetus and 2 C. jejuni was studied by the disk diffusion method. Eleven antimicrobial agents were tested amikacin, ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, penicillin G, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. All Campylobacter sp strains were susceptible to amikacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin and nitrofurantoin. Three strains were moderately susceptible to kanamycin (2 C. coli and 1 C. fetus. All the strains were resistant to penicillin G. Two C. fetus strains were moderately susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and 1 C. coli, 9 C. fetus and 2 C. jejuni strains were resistant. Two C. fetus strains were moderately susceptible to tetracycline and 3 C. coli, 2 C. fetus and 1 C. jejuni strains were resistant. Eleven strains showed multidrug resistance (2 C. coli, 8 C. fetus and 1 C. jejuni. There was no correlation between resistance of Campylobacter sp strains to antimicrobials and the occurrence of diarrhea in calves. The frequency of resistance and, most importantly, multi drug resistance found among Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were high and the patterns of resistance observed are related to the antimicrobials agents most largely used in cattle in Brazil.Foi estudado o perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de 25 amostras de Campylobacter sp isoladas de bezerros com e sem diarréia (7 C. coli, 16 C. fetus e 2 C. jejuni. Foram testados pelo método de difusão 11 agentes antimicrobianos: amicacina, ampicilina, canamicina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina, gentamicina, neomicina, nitrofurantoína, penicilina G, tetraciclina e sulfametoxazole-trimetoprim. Todas as amostras de Campylobacter sp foram susceptíveis a amicacina, ampicilina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina

  17. FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Plazas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En el articulo "FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS" de Erika A. Plazas G., Luis E. Cuca S., Wilman A. Delgado A Rev Colomb. Quim., 2008, 37(2: 135-144 falto incluir lo siguiente.

  18. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST methods for the emerging Campylobacter species C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G Miller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST systems have been reported previously for multiple food- and food animal-associated Campylobacter species (e.g. C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus to both differentiate strains and identify clonal lineages. These MLST methods focused primarily on campylobacters of human clinical (e.g. C. jejuni or veterinary (e.g. C. fetus relevance. However, other, emerging, Campylobacter species have been isolated increasingly from environmental, food animal or human clinical samples. We describe herein MLST methods for five emerging Campylobacter species: C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus. The concisus/curvus method uses the loci aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, ilvD and pgm, whereas the other methods use the seven loci defined for C. jejuni (i.e., aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, pgm, and tkt. Multiple food animal and human clinical C. hyointestinalis (n=48, C. lanienae (n=34 and C. sputorum (n=24 isolates were typed, along with 86 human clinical C. concisus and C. curvus isolates. A large number of sequence types (STs were identified using all four MLST methods. Similar to Campylobacter MLST methods described previously, these novel MLST methods identified mixed isolates containing two or more strains of the same species. Additionally, these methods speciated unequivocally isolates that had been typed ambiguously using other molecular-based speciation methods, such as 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, the design of degenerate primer pairs for some methods permitted the typing of related species; for example, the C. hyointestinalis primer pairs could be used to type C. fetus strains. Therefore, these novel Campylobacter MLST methods will prove useful in speciating and differentiating strains of multiple, emerging Campylobacter species.

  19. Survival and resuscitation of ten strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveerach, P.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2003-01-01

    The culturability of 10 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was studied after the bacteria were exposed to acid conditions for various periods of time. Campylobacter cells could not survive 2 h under acid conditions (formic acid at pH 4). The 10 Campylobacter strains could not be

  20. Campylobacter bacteriophages and bacteriophage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerton, P L; Timms, A R; Connerton, I F

    2011-08-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease with occasionally very serious outcomes. Much of this disease burden is thought to arise from consumption of contaminated poultry products. More than 80% of poultry in the UK harbour Campylobacter as a part of their intestinal flora. To address this unacceptably high prevalence, various interventions have been suggested and evaluated. Among these is the novel approach of using Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages, which are natural predators of the pathogen. To optimize their use as therapeutic agents, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the bacteriophages that infect Campylobacter, and how they can affect their host bacteria. This review will focus on many aspects of Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages including: their first isolation in the 1960s, their use in bacteriophage typing schemes, their isolation from the different biological sources and genomic characterization. As well as their use as therapeutic agents to reduce Campylobacter in poultry their future potential, including their use in bio-sanitization of food, will be explored. The evolutionary consequences of naturally occurring bacteriophage infection that have come to light through investigations of bacteriophages in the poultry ecosystem will also be discussed.

  1. FETUS PAPYRACEOUS : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetus Papyraceous is a rare manifestation of discordant growth in twins . It is usually diagnosed during labour or after delivery of papyraceous . The main complication is that the normal twin and occasionally the mother may be adversely affected .

  2. Obtención y aplicaciones de concentrados y aislados protéicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán, Francisco

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A review on the production of protein concentrates and isolates and their use in human foods has been carried out. The three methods usually used in the obtent ion of protein concentrates are described: extraction with water, with thermic treatment or with hydroalcoholic solutions. Also the most common methods used for the obtention of protein isolates are described, including isoelectric precipitation or protein recovery by ultrafiltration. Applications of protein isolates in human foods, such as nutritionals or functionals, are also described.Se ha real izado una revisión sobre la obtención de concentrados y aislados proteicos vegetales y sus aplicaciones en alimentación humana. Se describen los tres métodos más comunes para la obtención de concentrados proteicos: extracción con agua, con tratamiento térmico o con soluciones hidroalcoholicas. También se describe los métodos más frecuentes de obtención de aislados proteicos, que incluyen en su segunda fase la precipitación isoelectrica de las proteínas o la recuperación mediante ultrafiltración de las mismas. Por último se citan las aplicaciones más importantes de los aislados en alimentación humana, como pueden ser nutricionales o funcionales.

  3. AISLADOS BACTERIANOS CON POTENCIAL BIOFERTILIZANTE PARA PLÁNTULAS DE TOMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Noh Medina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aislaron rizobacterias en diversos medios de cultivo y se resembraron en medios selectivos para estudiar su capacidad de solubilización de fosfato y de producción de ácido indolacético (AIA, con el fin de probarlas como promotoras del crecimiento vegetal en plántulas de tomate. Se obtuvieron 83 aislados bacterianos del rizoplano de plantas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq., maíz (Zea mays y calabaza (Cucurbita pepo, de los cuales 15 sintetizaron AIA con un rango de concentración de 0.17 a 12.51 µg L-1 y 33 solubilizaron fosfato inorgánico. El uso de los aislados KCH3 y TSACH2 inoculados a las semillas de tomate, y que solubilizaron fosfato in vitro, incrementaron significativamente la biomasa de la parte aérea de las plántulas de tomate (42 y 32% respectivamente, permitiendo obtener plántulas más vigorosas que las plántulas sin inoculación de rizobacterias. Ambos aislados mostraron potencial para ser utilizados como biofertilizantes en la producción de plántulas de tomate.

  4. Presence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in in-line milk filters of farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk and of a water buffalo dairy farm in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, A; Florio, D; Giacometti, F; Piva, S; Mion, D; Zanoni, R G

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. in dairy herds authorized for the production and sale of raw milk and in a water buffalo dairy farm, and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. A total of 196 in-line milk filters were collected from 14 dairy farms (13 bovine and 1 water buffalo) for detection of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. by microbiological culture. For each farm investigated, 1 isolate for each Campylobacter and Arcobacter species isolated was tested using the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) to evaluate the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. A total of 52 isolates were detected in 49 milk filters in 12 farms (85.7%) out of 14 and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni (6), Campylobacter hyointestinalis ssp. hyointestinalis (8), Campylobacter concisus (1), Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (1), Arcobacter butzleri (22), and Arcobacter cryaerophilus (14). The small number of isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility precludes any epidemiological consideration but highlights that all Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to macrolides, which are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of campylobacteriosis, and that resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline was detected; for Arcobacter isolates, resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol was detected. The sale of raw milk for human consumption by self-service automatic vending machines has been allowed in Italy since 2004 and the presence of C. jejuni in in-line milk filters confirms that raw milk consumption is a significant risk factor for human infection. The high occurrence of emerging Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. discovered in dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk represents an emerging hazard for human health.

  5. Environmental pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A child is a growing and developing human being early from conception throughout the end of adolescent period. Children at any stages of growth and development need to be protected from environmental health hazards. They need safe and health promoting environment to reach their optimum growth and development that they are capable genetically. However physical, chemical, biological and social environments have changed throughout decades and children of today are living in a very different environment than from their grandparents and parents. Today they are at most risk of being exposed to new chemicals that are mostly not tested for fetus and children. Since World War II, approximately 80,000 new synthetic chemicals have been manufactured and released into the environment in large amounts, with 10 new chemicals being introduced every day. The vast majority of these chemicals have not been studied adequately for their impacts on human health or their particular impacts on fetus. Many of these synthetic chemicals are persistent and bio-accumulative, remaining in the human body long after the exposure. Parental exposures occurred before the conception threatens the fetus both because the maternal or paternal reproductive organs are affected and because chemicals that can be accumulated in the mother’s body before pregnancy may be mobilized and cross over placental barrier during pregnancy. Many synthetic chemicals are already present in cord blood and we do not know how these multi-chemical exposures affect programmed development of fetus and studies are limited on long term effects of single chemical exposure. Some examples of health effects resulting from developmental exposures include those observed prenatally and at birth such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, birth defects. Establishing a causal links between specific environmental exposures and complex multifactorial health outcomes is difficult and challenging.

  6. [Campylobacter enteritis in 0-5-year-old children in the Eindhoven area - and epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lier, J A; Haverkorn, M J; Waelkens, J J

    1982-04-01

    In the region Eindhoven 36 children with Campylobacter-enteritis were examined from I January 1980 to 31 December 1980. Symptoms were studied and stools were cultured over a four-month period. Abdominal pain and/or diarrhea occurred in more than 90% of patients and were not infrequently of longer duration. Bloody stools were found in 58% of patients and disappeared relatively early during the time of illness, as well as fever and vomiting. After one month Campylobacter could only be cultured in 5% of children; 14 household contacts, who proved to have Campylobacter-enteritis, had also negative stool cultures after one month. Asymptomatic carriership was found in four cases among these household contracts. Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni could not be isolated in stools of a number of asymptomatic individuals, working in the meat industry, who were considered to have a higher risk of infection. This group could therefore not be determined as an endogenous human reservoir. On the other hand Campylobacter was isolated in a few domestic animals without symptoms of illness, as well as in some cattle stables and sites. In these places, where several contaminated animals are together, significant reservoirs for human infection may be present.

  7. Campylobacter bacteremia: A rare and under-reported event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.; Vliet, van A.H.M.; Belkum, van A.; Hays, J.P.; Endtz, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are asso

  8. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...

  10. Campylobacter hyoilei Alderton et al. 1995 and Campylobacter coli Veron and Chatelain 1973 are subjective synonyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, P.; VanDoorn, L.J.; AlRashid, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The taxonomic affiliation of Campylobacter hyoilei was reevaluated by examining a variety of phenotypic and genotypic criteria. Whole cell protein electrophoresis and a comparison of 66 phenotypic characters revealed that reference strains of C. hyoilei were indistinguishable from Campylobacter c...

  11. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vinni; Rosenquist, Hanne; Baggesen, Dorte Lau;

    2007-01-01

    Background: The predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is Campylobacter. Campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages) have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of Campylobacter in broilers. One concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host...... range often displayed by phages. To identify the potential of phages as a Campylobacter reducing agent we needed to determine their infectivity on a panel of isolates representing the Campylobacter strains found in broilers as well as humans. Results: In this study, Campylobacter phages were isolated...... from the intestines of broilers and ducks and from abattoir sewage. Twelve phages were investigated to determine their ability to infect the Campylobacter Penner serotypes commonly present in Danish poultry and patients with campylobacteriosis. A total of 89% of the Campylobacter jejuni strains and 14...

  12. Distribution and Polymorphism of the Flagellin Genes from Isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    American Society for Microbioloc% Distribution and Polymorphism of the Flagellin Genes from Isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni RICHARD...in Campylobacter jejuni . serogroups both the flaA and flaB genes are extremely Mol. M;crobiol. 5:1151-1158. z homologous. Within most LIO heat-labile...irllwn hungatei. J1. Bacteriol. 123:-28 proteins of Campylobacter jejuni 81116. Infect. Immun. 59: 42. Thomashow, L S., and S. C. Rittenberg. 198

  13. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...

  14. Protozoa: a novel Campylobacter reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous in vitro studies we found that Campylobacter jejuni remained viable for longer periods of time when they were cultivated in the presence of Tetrahymena pyriformis (ciliate) and Acanthamoeba castellanii (amoeba) than when they were in an independent planktonic state. Increased survival t...

  15. Inflammasome activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Lieneke I; de Zoete, Marcel R; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; Flavell, Richard A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. In this study, we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse macr

  16. Serotypes and typability of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Nielsen, Niels Ladefoged

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is one of the most common bacterial enteric pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections are mostly food- and waterborne and especially poultry is often assumed to be an important source. The heat-stable serotyping system (the 'Penner' scheme) was used...

  17. Evaluation of 11 PCR assays for species-level identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jordan, Penelope J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity and specificity of 11 PCR assays described for the species identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using 111 type, reference, and field strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and Campylobacter lari. For six assays, an additional 21 type strains...

  18. [Pain perception of the fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2010-11-07

    Author presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available information about fetal pain perception. In this context the article discusses the concept of pain sensation, its evolution during intrauterine life and its physical and biochemical signs. Only the last mentioned phenomena allow deduction with regard to the severity of pain related stress reaction, in the absence of objective yardstick for measuring the intensity of pain felt by the fetus. The discussion also involves pain associated with birthing process and extends to its possible alleviation.

  19. Occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Timmerman, Arjen J; Severs, Tim T; Kusters, Johannes G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these Epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. However, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. In this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large variety of reptiles. From 2011 to 2013, 444 cloacal swabs and fecal samples originating from 417 predominantly captive-held reptiles were screened for Epsilonproteobacteria. Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genus specific PCRs were performed directly on all samples. All samples were also cultured on selective media and screened for the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria. Using a tiered approach of AFLP, atpA, and 16S rRNA sequencing, 432 Epsilonproteobacteria isolates were characterized at the species level. Based on PCR, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter were detected in 69.3% of the reptiles; 82.5% of the chelonians, 63.8% of the lizards, and 58.0% of the snakes were positive for one or more of these genera. Epsilonproteobacteria were isolated from 22.1% of the reptiles and were isolated most frequently from chelonians (37.0%), followed by lizards (19.6%) and snakes (3.0%). The most commonly isolated taxa were Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, reptile-associated Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, and a putative novel Campylobacter taxon. Furthermore, a clade of seven related putative novel Helicobacter taxa was isolated from lizards and chelonians. This study shows that reptiles carry various intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria taxa, including several putative novel taxa.

  20. Occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter in reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J Gilbert

    Full Text Available Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these Epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. However, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. In this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large variety of reptiles. From 2011 to 2013, 444 cloacal swabs and fecal samples originating from 417 predominantly captive-held reptiles were screened for Epsilonproteobacteria. Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genus specific PCRs were performed directly on all samples. All samples were also cultured on selective media and screened for the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria. Using a tiered approach of AFLP, atpA, and 16S rRNA sequencing, 432 Epsilonproteobacteria isolates were characterized at the species level. Based on PCR, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter were detected in 69.3% of the reptiles; 82.5% of the chelonians, 63.8% of the lizards, and 58.0% of the snakes were positive for one or more of these genera. Epsilonproteobacteria were isolated from 22.1% of the reptiles and were isolated most frequently from chelonians (37.0%, followed by lizards (19.6% and snakes (3.0%. The most commonly isolated taxa were Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, reptile-associated Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, and a putative novel Campylobacter taxon. Furthermore, a clade of seven related putative novel Helicobacter taxa was isolated from lizards and chelonians. This study shows that reptiles carry various intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria taxa, including several putative novel taxa.

  1. Obtención y caracterización de aislados proteicos de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, N.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A method for the obtention of protein isolates from defatted rapeseed flour has been designed. The process includes a basic extraction followed by a precipitation at the isoelectric point of the proteins. The precipitate is washed with water (pH 4.5, ethanol and acetone, obtaining a protein isolate with 86% of protein and reducing the contents in polyphenols and soluble sugars in more than 90% with respect to the defatted flour. The final product have physico-chemical characteristics that make it atractive to be used as food and for the obtention of protein hydrolizates.

    Se ha diseñado un proceso de obtención de aislados proteicos a partir de harina de colza desengrasada. El método incluye la extracción básica de las proteínas solubles seguido de una precipitación acida en el punto isoeléctrico. El precipitado es lavado con agua (pH 4.5, etanol y acetona, obteniéndose un aislado proteico con un 86% de proteína y reduciéndose el contenido en polifenoles y azúcares solubles en más de un 90% respecto a la harina desengrasada. El aislado final presenta unas características físico-químicas que lo hacen atractivo para su uso en alimentación y obtención de hidrolizados proteicos.

  2. Substrate utilization by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, H.N.; Rollins, D.M.; Weiss, E.

    1986-10-01

    An attempt was made to elucidate in Campylobacter spp. some of the physiologic characteristics that are reflected in the kinetics of CO/sub 2/ formation from four /sup 14/C-labeled substrates. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were grown in a biphasic medium, and highly motile spiral cells were harvested at 12 h. The cells were incubated with 0.02 M glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, or formate, or with concentrations of these substrates ranging from 0.0032 to 0.125 M. All four substrates were metabolized very rapidly by both species. A feature of many of these reactions, particularly obvious with /sup 2/chemically bond-ketoglutarate, was an immediate burst of CO/sub 2/ production followed by CO/sub 2/ evolution at a more moderate rate. These diphasic kinetics of substrate utilization were not seen in comparable experiments with Escherichia coli grown and tested under identical conditions. With C. jejuni, CO/sub 2/ production from formate proceeded rapidly for the entire period of incubation. The rate of metabolism of glutamate, glutamine, and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate by both species was greatly enhanced by increased substrate concentration. The approach to the study of the metabolism of campylobacters here described may be useful in detecting subtle changes in the physiology of cells as they are maintained past their logarithmic growth phase.

  3. Integrated approach leads to less Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Hald, Birthe; Borck Høg, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information.......Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information....

  4. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong;

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  5. Campylobacter in zwemwater en mogelijke emissiebronnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, H.; Rijs, G.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Leenen, I.

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter vormt samen met Salmonella en Shigella één van de belangrijkste bacteriële ziekteverwekkers van het maagdarmkanaal bij de mens. De bacterie Campylobacter komt voor bij eenden, meeuwen, kippen en kalkoenen, maar is ook aanwezig in koeien, varkens en schapen. Al deze dieren zijn drager,

  6. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a modifi

  7. Campylobacter jejuni enteritis and reactive arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Short, C. D.; Klouda, P T; Smith, Lorna

    1982-01-01

    A further case of reactive arthritis following Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is reported. The interim results of a small prospective study are discussed. It may be desirable to do serological studies for campylobacter infection in the investigation of mono- or polyarthritis of acute onset.

  8. Bibliometric analysis of publications on Campylobacter: (2000–2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Sweileh, Waleed M.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Sawalha, Ansam F; AbuTaha, Adham S; Zyoud, Sa’ed H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. In order to better understand national and international research output on Campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on Campylobacter. This study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy ma...

  9. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  10. [Is fetus able to feel pain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosińska-Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2011-02-01

    On the basis of fetal hormonal and hemodynamic responses to pain related stimuli, neuroanatomy and observations of preterm babies, it was concluded that human fetus is able to feel pain after 24 weeks gestation. However it is possible that the fetus may feel pain even before that time. With the development of intrauterine diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, it is crucial to provide fetuses undergoing painful procedures not only with anesthesia but also analgesia. The article presents fetal pain research history and its implications for medicine.

  11. Campylobacter isolation from the feces of sheep with a history of reproductive disorders bred in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Rizzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are a significant cause of sheep abortion in most sheep-raising countries. The relationship between the presence of Campylobacter spp. in fecal samples and reproductive disorders was investigated in 274 sheep from 28 properties in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Biological samples from 16 aborted fetuses, one uterus, six placentas, five uterine secretion samples, five vaginal swabs, 17 semen samples, and three preputial swabs were also subjected to bacterial isolation. The bacteria were isolated from fecal samples of 14.9% (5/28 of the properties, affecting 3.65% (10/274 of the sheep, 3.5% (9/255 of females and 5.3% (1/19 of males. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species, present in 66.67% (7 of the positive samples, followed by Campylobacter coli, present in 22.22% (2, and one strain was identified as Campylobacter spp. The birth of “weak” lambs (p=0.06, OR=6.83 and CI=1.73 to 27.05 and neonatal death (p=0.087, OR=3.5 and CI=0.83 to 14.72 were associated with the fecal isolation of Campylobacter spp. Diarrhea was also associated with the bacteria (p=0.003, OR=9.83 and CI=2.19 to 44.18. The dissemination of Campylobacter spp. in Brazilian sheep is low and that, at present, the existing strains are not responsible for significant economic losses in sheep production, especially in adult animals.

  12. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  13. Campylobacter Enteritis among Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pourmand

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter enteritis is a common form of acute gastroenteritis. Among children, especially in developing countries, Campylobacter infections can cause sever life-threatening diarrheal disease. The incidence of Campylobacter infection among children is age related with a higher incidence among younger children in the developing world whereas in industrialized countries the incidence is highest in older children. In a study of American children, Campylobacter was isolated in 4.8% of diarrheal stools in aged 1-4 years. In 1985 the prevalence of Campylobacter diarrheal was 4.4%, whereas in current report 6% of stool samples from children aged<5 years with diarrhea grew Campylobacter jejuni. There were no significant differences between age groups of patients. All thirteen isolated strains of Campylobacter were resistance to Bactrim, Colistin and Polymyxin B and were sensitive to Neomycin, Erythromycin, Gentamicin and Nalidixic acid. The incidence of human campylobacteriosis is increasing worldwide. Thus, public health awareness about the problem is necessary, with a view towards setting up national surveillance programs.

  14. FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir del extracto etanólico de las inflorescencias de la especie Piper hispidum Kunth (Piperaceae fueron aislados tres flavonoides: 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona, 5-hidroxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona y 2’,4’,6’-trimetoxidihidrochalcona. De las flavanonas aisladas fueron obtenidos los  derivados acetilados: 5-acetoxi-7-metoxiflavanona y  5-acetoxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona. Las estructuras fueron elucidadas empleando técnicas espectroscópicas y por comparación con datos de literatura. Los compuestos naturales y sus derivados fueron sometidos al bioensayo de letalidad frente a Artemia salina. El flavonoide 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona presenta la mayor actividad tóxica frente a los microcrustaceos CL50 1.8 µg/ml.

  15. Campylobacter carcass contamination throughout the slaughter process of Campylobacter-positive broiler batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-02-02

    Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses of Campylobacter colonized flocks was quantified at seven sampling sites throughout the slaughter process. For this purpose, in four slaughterhouses samples were collected from twelve Campylobacter positive batches. Broilers from all visits carried high numbers of campylobacters in their caeca (≥7.9log10cfu/g). Campylobacter counts on feathers (up to 6.8log10cfu/g), positively associated with the breast skin contamination of incoming birds and carcasses after plucking, were identified as an additional source of carcass contamination. A high variability in Campylobacter carcass contamination on breast skin samples within batches and between batches in the same slaughterhouse and between slaughterhouses was observed. In slaughterhouses A, B, C and D Campylobacter counts exceeded a limit of 1000cfu/g on 50%, 56%, 78% and 11% of carcasses after chilling, respectively. This finding indicates that certain slaughterhouses are able to better control Campylobacter contamination than others. Overall, the present study focuses on the descriptive analysis of Campylobacter counts in different slaughterhouses, different batches within a slaughterhouse and within a batch at several sampling locations.

  16. Campylobacter ureolyticus: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bullman, Susan

    2011-03-01

    A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen.

  17. The role of radiology in Campylobacter enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Ponette, E.; Baert, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology); Lacquet, F.; Verbist, L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Microbiology); Rutgeerts, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    A series of 18 patients with diarrhoea and positive stool cultures for Campylobacter jejuni is presented. The most important radiological features were thickening of ileal mucosal folds, of interhaustral indentations and of the ileocaecal valve, lymphoid hyperplasia and microulcerations. Radiology, as well as endoscopy, are both non-specific in Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. The importance of radiology is to exclude more typical features of other causes of inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover, before the result of the stool culture is available, the radiological features should suggest the suspicion of an acute infectious enterocolitis by Campylobacter jejuni as possible diagnosis. (orig.).

  18. Risicobeheersing Campylobacter op het vleeskuikenbedrijf = Campylobacter control on the broiler farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Bokma-Bakker, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    In dit onderzoek werden de risico’s voor introductie en verspreiding van Campylobacter op het vleeskuikenbedrijf geïnventariseerd. Er worden mogelijkheden aangegeven hoe deze risico’s beheerst kunnen worden. Het blijkt dat er veel mogelijkheden zijn waardoor Campylobacter geïntroduceerd of verspreid

  19. Better Campylobacter Detection: Furthering our understanding of Campylobacter ecology in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing na...

  20. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The vector potential of flies (Diptera: Brachycera) for spread of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on 5 Danish broiler farms was evaluated in a longitudinal field study from April to November 2004. First, the prevalence of C. jejuni- and C. coli-positive flies was determined in 2...

  1. Presence of antibodies against campylobacter flagellar capping proteins versus campylobacter jejuni isolation in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human cases have been linked to consumption and/or handling of contaminated poultry products. Although Campylobacter jejuni is commonly regarded as a commensal in broiler cecal micro...

  2. An outbreak of infectious hepatitis in commercially reared ostriches associated with Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, C.P.; On, S.L.W.; Gibson, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    lesions resembled those of vibrionic hepatitis in other avian species. Campylobacter coli was isolated from the livers of affected ostriches from five of the six properties. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from birds from the remaining property. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based (PFGE...

  3. Ribosomal operon intergenic sequence region (ISR) heterogeneity in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are closely related species that can not be distinguished by their 16S or 23S rRNA gene sequences. However, the intergenic sequence region (ISR) that is between the 16S and 23S genes is markedly different and characteristic for each species. A peculiarit...

  4. The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, G; Fondacci, C; Tapia, S; Huten, Y; Blot, P; Nessmann, C

    1992-12-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) with partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 has been exceptionally diagnosed in fetuses. We report prenatal diagnosis of five cases of monosomy 4p. The fetuses were karyotyped for severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) diagnosed on routine ultrasound (US). In addition, cleft-lip and palate and diaphragmatic hernia respectively were found in two cases. The quantity of amniotic fluid was normal in all cases. At autopsy, the fetuses showed the typical craniofacial dysmorphy but without microcephaly. Major renal hypoplasia was the only constant visceral anomaly. Midline fusion defects were observed in all the fetuses, ranging from minor abnormalities such as scalp defect, hypertelorism, pulmonary isomerism, common mesentery, hypospadias and sacral dimple, to cleft palate, corpus callosum agenesis, ventricular septal defect, and diaphragmatic hernia. On post-mortem X-rays, a delayed bone age was always observed. All the placentae were hypotrophic, and two exhibited vascular lesions, although there was no maternal hypertension. Chromosomal studies showed that the breakpoints were within the 4p16 band in three cases, the 4p15 band in one case, and the 4p14 band in one case. The deletion was de novo in four cases, and resulted from a paternal translocation in one case. This study emphasizes the importance of karyotyping all fetuses with IUGR, especially when the quantity of amniotic fluid is normal, and suggests the possibility of recognizing on US the particular phenotype of WHS in utero.

  5. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares.

  6. High-resolution genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; On, Stephen L.W.

    1999-01-01

    A method for high-resolution genomic fingerprinting of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, based on the determination of amplified fragment length polymorphism, is described. The potential of this method for molecular epidemiological studies of these species...

  7. Determinación de aislados nativos de pseudomonas desulfurizadoras mediante el estudio del perfil de ácidos grasos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Silva Gómez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando CGAR se determinó el contenido de ácidos grasos celulares de doce aislados colombianos, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 y 103, Pseudomonas sp 23, 24, 25, 26 y 27 con capacidad desulfurizadora, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 y 10145, Pseudomonas sp ATCC 39327 y Pseudomonas flúores cens. Se encontraron 53 ácidos grasos diferentes, entre saturados e insaturados de cadena lineal, y principalmente hidroxiácidos y ramificados.

  8. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  9. The globins of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Shepherd, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is exposed to reactive nitrogen species, such as nitric oxide, from a variety of sources. To combat the toxic effects of this nitrosative stress, C. jejuni upregulates a small regulon under the control of the transcriptional activator NssR, which positively regulates the expression of a single-domain globin protein (Cgb) and a truncated globin protein (Ctb). Cgb has previously been shown to detoxify nitric oxide, but the role of Ctb remains contentious. As C. jejuni is amenable to genetic manipulation, and its globin proteins are easily expressed and purified, a combination of mutagenesis, complementation, transcriptomics, spectroscopic characterisation and structural analyses has been used to probe the regulation, function and structure of Cgb and Ctb. This ability to study Cgb and Ctb with such a multi-pronged approach is a valuable asset, especially since only a small fraction of known globin proteins have been functionally characterised.

  10. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  11. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome with Harlequin Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin fetus, a severe variant of ichthyosis, occurs rarely, and these babies die within the first few days of life. Early retinoid therapy may improve the disorder and help increase survival rates. The exact cause of the sudden infant death syndrome of the suckling is not known and the incidence approximately is 0.1-0.3 %. In general, these babies looked well and healthy at the time of the sleeping but were found dead in their bed in the morning. We report a harlequin fetus with sudden infant death syndrome.

  12. Mundos aislados: segregación urbana y desigualdad en la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONZALO A SARAVÍ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available De qué nos habla la segregación urbana en México y cuáles son sus implicaciones en este contexto en particular, son las dos preguntas centrales que guían el análisis desarrollado en este artículo. El argumento que responde a estas dos preguntas se estructura en torno a la hipótesis de una "coexistencia de mundos aislados". Para sustentar dicha hipótesis, el autor analiza teórica y empíricamente la relación entre las dimensiones objetiva y simbólica de la segregación urbana. El análisis se basa en datos secundarios y en información obtenida a partir de entrevistas semi-estructuradas con jóvenes residentes en colonias populares y estigmatizadas de la Ciudad de México.What does urban segregation mean in México and what are its implications for this particular context? This article poses these two questions. Our response is based on the hypothesis of the "co-existence of isolated worlds." In order to support and develop this hypothesis, the author analyses the relationship between the objective and symbolic dimensions of urban segregation. The analysis is based on secondary data and semi-structured interviews with young people from poor and stigmatized neighborhoods in México City.

  13. Lignanos diarildimetilbutanos y otros constituyentes aislados de Nectandra turbacensis (kunth nees (lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Macías Villamizar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocho compuestos conocidos fueron aislados del extracto etanólico de corteza de Nectandra turbacensis (Kunth Nees (Lauraceae. Estos fueron identificados como ácido meso-dihidroguayarético 1, ácido treo-dihidroguayarético 2, sauriol B 3, y treo-austrobailignano-6 4; vitexina (8-C-β-D-glucopiranosil-5,7,4’-trihidroxiflavona 5; estigmast-4-en-3-ona 6 y la mezcla sitosterol 7 / estigmasterol 8. Las estructuras de los compuestos fueron elucidadas por métodos espectroscópicos, que incluyeron técnicas de RMN en 1D y 2D, CG/EM y por comparación de los datos espectroscópicos, reportados en la literatura de compuestos relacionados. Este es el primer reporte de la presencia de este tipo de compuestos en la especie. Se describen también las implicaciones quimiotaxonómicas; relacionadas con la presencia frecuente de lignanos en especies del género Nectandra.

  14. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos Quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans and from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.Eight quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans with diarrheal disease were compared with 23 isolates from chicken and from laying hens. Samples were cultured on selective agar in microaerophilia, identified by conventional tests, and conserved in 17% glycerol at -70 °C. Clones were determined by RAPD-PCR employing the 1254 primer (Stern NJ. Five patterns were obtained. Patterns I, II, and V were found in both poultry and human isolates. Pattern I was obtained from poultry in a domestic henhouse. Pattern III was only obtained from humans whereas pattern IV was only obtained from poultry. A 95.3% of clones were found in both, humans and poultry. According to these

  15. Fetus in fetu: A very rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Choudhuri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Fetus in fetu” is a condition seen rarely in the literature, less than 200 cases reported till now. It is a calcified mass or an encapsulated pendunculated tumor thought to be due to unequal division of totipotent cells of a blastocyst, resulting in a small cellular mass in a more mature embryo thus forming a monozygotic, diamniotic twin pregnancy.

  16. Skeletal malformations in fetuses with Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Fischer Hansen, B; Keeling, J W;

    1999-01-01

    In six fetuses with Meckel syndrome (gestational age 16-23 weeks, crown-rump length 130-170 mm) the skeleton was examined as part of the autopsy procedure using whole body radiography and special radiographic techniques. In the upper and lower limbs we found similar types of polydactyly. We noted...

  17. Cortical overgrowth in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulou, Vanessa; Vatansever, Deniz; Elkommos, Samia; Dawson, Sarah; McGuinness, Amy; Allsop, Joanna; Molnár, Zoltán; Hajnal, Joseph; Rutherford, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Mild cerebral ventricular enlargement is associated with schizophrenia, autism, epilepsy, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Fetal ventriculomegaly is the most common central nervous system (CNS) abnormality affecting 1% of fetuses and is associated with cognitive, language, and behavioral impairments in childhood. Neurodevelopmental outcome is partially predictable by the 2-dimensional size of the ventricles in the absence of other abnormalities. We hypothesized that isolated fetal ventriculomegaly is a marker of altered brain development characterized by relative overgrowth and aimed to quantify brain growth using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly. Fetal brain MRI (1.5 T) was performed in 60 normal fetuses and 65 with isolated ventriculomegaly, across a gestational age range of 22-38 weeks. Volumetric analysis of the ventricles and supratentorial brain structures was performed on 3-dimensional reconstructed datasets. Fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly had increased brain parenchyma volumes when compared with the control cohort (9.6%, P ventriculomegaly may represent the neurobiological substrate for cognitive, language, and behavioral deficits in these children.

  18. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; Thurik, F. F.; Koelewijn, J. M.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases ar

  19. Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weakened from medications or other illnesses. Azithromycin and fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are commonly used for treatment of these infections, but resistance to fluoroquinolones is common. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing can help guide ...

  20. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon V. R. Epps

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions.

  1. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon V. R.; Harvey, Roger B.; Hume, Michael E.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Anderson, Robin C.; Nisbet, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions. PMID:24287853

  2. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  3. NUEVOS AISLADOS DE Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus EN CULTIVOS DE IMPORTANCIA ECONÓMICA PARA CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dibut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, un llamado importante para los microbiólogos del suelo ha sido el estudio de microorganismos endófitos que se asocian con plantas superiores, con el consiguiente beneficio sobre los cultivos. En este trabajo, se ofrecen los resultados sobre el aislamiento y la distribución de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus en cultivos de importancia económica para Cuba. La bacteria se aisló a partir de filtrados y secciones de diferentes órganos del vegetal dispuestos sobre medios de cultivo LGI-P, donde se comprobó el crecimiento característico a las 96 h de incubación a 320C de temperatura, obteniéndose finalmente 22 aislados a partir de diez especies cultivables. Experimentos de dinámica poblacional desarrollados en condiciones de invernadero mediante diseño completamente aleatorizado permitieron cuantificar el microorganismo en hojas, tallos y raíces de maíz, boniato, yuca, malanga y caña de azúcar, con poblaciones que oscilan entre 1.8 x 102-2.3 x 107 células por gramo de tejido fresco. Las poblaciones celulares más altas se detectaron en las hojas, seguido de los tallos y por último las raíces o tubérculos. La respuesta favorable de ocho cultivos a la inoculación de la bacteria, esta vez crecida en medio de cultivo SG e incubada a 320C durante 72 h, permite plantear la potencialidad que este microorganismo presenta como biofertilizante. Se informa por primera vez la presencia de la Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus en cinco especies de plantas pertenecientes cada una a diferentes familias botánicas.

  4. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    Living in a household with a dog or cat has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for acquiring campylobacteriosis, in particular, with reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis infection. In a cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark between August and December 1996, 72 healthy...... puppies and 42 healthy kittens, aged between 11 and 17 weeks, were sampled for fecal campylobacter shedding by culture of rectal swab specimens on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 32 mg/liter and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter and on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 8 mg/liter, teicoplanin...... for Campylobacter spp., with a species distribution of 76% C. jejuni, 5% C. coli, and 19% C. upsaliensis, Of the kittens examined, two (5%) excreted campylobacters; both strains were C. upsaliensis, None of the chicken samples examined were found to be positive for C. upsaliensis. We concluded that young puppies...

  5. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  6. Effects of fluorine on the human fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, W.Q. [Huaxi Medical University, Huaxi (China)

    2008-10-15

    In an endemic fluorosis area, 16 fetuses that were delivered during their sixth to eighth month of gestation by means of artificial abortion were collected and studied. The results (compared to 10 control fetuses from a non-endemic area) show that fluorine levels in tissues are obviously high, especially in brain, calvarium, and femur. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in femur and kidney was raised. By observation of the ultrastructure of samples, the number of mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosome in neurons of cerebral cortex were reduced, and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was obviously dilated. These findings indicate that the neurons of the cerebral cortex in the developing brain may be one of the targets of fluorine.

  7. Significación clínica y determinantes de patogenicidad de "Staphylococcus" coagulasa negativos aislados en hemocultivos

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Orozco, María del Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Los Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa (SCN) son los microorganismos aislados con mayor frecuencia en hemocultivos. Suelen ser contaminantes en la mayoría de las ocasiones, ya que son parte de la flora habitual de la piel, aunque también está demostrado que son causantes de bacteriemias. Son muchos los autores que han propuesto una serie de factores clínicos y de laboratorio que sirvan de ayuda en la determinación de la significación clínica de los SCN. En la práctica clínica, si solo un hem...

  8. Sensibilidad a azitromicina y otros antibióticos en aislados recientes de Salmonella, Shigella y Yersinia

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Pozo, Ángeles; Arana, David M.; Fuentes, Miriam; Alós Cortés, Juan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    La azitromicina constituye una alternativa antibiótica en la diarrea bacteriana. Existen pocos datos en España de sensibilidad a azitromicina de enteropatógenos. Se determinaron las CMI de azitromicina por E-test en aislados de Salmonella no typhi (SNT), Shigella y Yersinia de los últimos 3 años (2010-2012). También se estudió la sensibilidad a los antibióticos habitualmente utilizados en la clínica diarreica mediante un método de microdilución. De las 139 cepas de SNT, Shigella y Yer...

  9. Teratogenic effects of silymarin on mouse fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mahbobe; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Afshar, Mohammad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Etemad, Leila; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Silybum marianum has been used for centuries in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases. Currently, there is no data available on the possible effects of silymarin on fetal development. This study aimed to investigate the teratogenic effect of silymarin on BALB/c mice fetuses. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 pregnant mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 mice each. Three groups received silymarin at three different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day during gestational days (GDs). The control group received normal saline and tween (solvent). Dams were sacrificed on GD 18 and all fetuses were examined for gross malformations, size and body weight. Malformed fetuses were double stained with alizarin red and alcian blue. Results: Silymarin administration at all doses resulted in reduction of the mean fetal body weights. The abnormalities included limb, vertebral column and craniofacial malformations. Craniofacial malformations were the most common abnormalities, but they were not observed in a dose-dependent manner. The percentage of fetal resorption significantly increased (up to 15%) in all treatment groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, silymarin, especially at high doses can lead to fetal resorption, intrauterine growth retardation and limb, vertebral column and craniofacial abnormalities. More precise studies should be conducted about the teratogenic effects of herbal medicine investigating the underlying mechanisms. Thus, caution should be taken when administering S. marianum to pregnant woman. PMID:27761424

  10. Studies on the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Oosterom (Johannes)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractOver the last few years the bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as an important cause of acute enteritis in man. Investigations in several countries have shown that infections caused by C. jejuni may be as serious as those due to Salmonella spp., both in prevalence

  11. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G.; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2015-01-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence an

  12. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection.

  13. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (US) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established Campylobacter taxa, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was unde...

  14. [Evaluation of usefulness of commercial recomwell Campylobacter enzyme--linked immunosorbent assays for routine serodiagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Jagielski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    The commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA recomWell Campylobacter) from Mikrogen was evaluated for the diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections. Serum samples from 20 healthy controls, 44 persons with symptoms of primary Campylobacter infection and 24 serum samples from patients with Yersinia enterocolitica or Salmonella infections were tested. This ELISA assay detects IgA and IgG antibodies against three recombinant antigens of the Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli: OMP 18 (18 kDa), PEB4 (31 kDa) and P39 (39 kDa). The healthy controls showed significantly lower antibody titers in all two immunoglobulin classes. The IgA antibodies were diagnosed only in 2 (18.2%) serum samples obtained from patients with bacteriologically confirmed campylobacteriosis. The presence of IgG antibodies was confirmed in 82% of serum samples. Furthermore, we showed that 66.7% of the 33 serum samples obtained from the patients suspected for campylobacteriosis not confirmed by isolation, were positive for IgG and 15.2% for IgA antibodies. We observed also not specific reactions in ELISA recom Well Campylobacter with sera obtained form patients with yersiniosis and salmonelosis. This study demonstrates the usefulness of commercially available assay for the routine diagnosis of Campylobacter infection but with some limitations.

  15. Detección y caracterización de aislados de "escherichia coli" de origen clínico y fecal en gallinas ponedoras

    OpenAIRE

    Gibert Perelló, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis ha sido realizar la caracterización de aislados de E. coli clínicos (responsables de cuadros de colibacilosis en gallinas ponedoras) y fecales. Tras llevar a cabo el aislamiento e identificación bioquímica de los aislados, se ha procedido a la determinación del serogrupo, patotipo (detección de factores de virulencia por PCR), sensibilidad a antimicrobianos y pulsotipo (mediante la técnica de Pulsed Field-Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE). Además, se ha realizado un estudio...

  16. Estudio del efecto de los fructooligosacáridos en la producción de bacteriocinas por aislados nativos de Lactobacillus spp

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de los fructooligosacáridos (FOS) sobre e crecimiento y producción de bacteriocinas por cepas nativas de Lactobacillus aisladas de ensilaje de maíz y melaza. Se obtuvo un total de 28 aislados nativos que presentaron características bioquímicas comparables a especies comerciales de Lactobacillus. La presencia de FOS en el medio de cultivo mostró un efecto prebiótico frente a todos los aislados y cepas comerciales favoreciendo el aumento de la població...

  17. Recovery of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from inoculated foods by selective enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M P; Roman, D J

    1982-06-01

    A direct enrichment procedure was developed to selectively recover small numbers of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and nalidixic acid-resistant thermophilic Campylobacter from foods. The procedure includes an enrichment medium composed of brucella broth, 7% lysed horse blood, 0.3% sodium succinate, 0.01% cysteine hydrochloride, vancomycin (15 micrograms/ml), trimethoprim (5 micrograms/ml), polymyxin B (20 IU/ml), and cycloheximide (50 micrograms/ml) that is inoculated with 10 or 25 g of food and incubated with agitation under microaerophilic conditions at 42 degrees C for 16 to 18 h. After incubation, the medium is plated directly onto Campy-BAP agar plates (M. J. Blaser et al., Ann. Intern. Med. 91:179-185, 1979), and resulting colonies that resemble Campylobacter are identified by conventional tests. The foods evaluated included raw milk, hamburger, and chicken skin which had aerobic plate counts of 10(5) to 10(9) bacteria/g. The procedure was effective in recovering as few as 0.1 cell of Campylobacter per g of food. Of the 50 isolates of Campylobacter evaluated, all were recovered from raw milk and hamburger at a level of 1 to 4 cells/g, and 41 and 40 isolaes were recovered from the hamburger and milk, respectively, at 0.1 to 0.4 cell/g. The enrichment was least effective for recovering campylobacters from chicken skin, as 7 and 26 of 50 isolates were not recovered at 1 to 4 and 0.1 to 0.4 cell/g, respectively. This new procedure is more rapid, direct, and effective than other enrichment or direct plating procedures for recovering small numbers of campylobacters from foods.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; SANTOS Luciana Ruschel dos; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; Anderlise BORSOI; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The ...

  19. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.

  20. Nuevo alcaloide oxoaporfínico y otros constituyentes químicos aislados de Pleurothyrium cinereum (Lauraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericsson Coy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico de las hojas de Pleurothyrium cinereum (Lauraceae fue aislado el nuevo alcaloide oxoaporfínico oxiprenilado 1,2-metilendioxi-9,10-dimetoxi-3-isopreniloxi-7H-dibenzo[de,g]quinolin-7-ona (Pleurotirina 1, el cual fue purificado por  métodos cromatográficos y cuya elucidación estructural se realizó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (RMN-1H, RMN-13C, RMN-2D y EM. Junto al alcaloide 1 fueron aislados los compuestos thalicminina 2, ácido ent-kaurenóico 3, alloxantoxiletina 4, xantiletina 5, dihydroflavokawina B 6, 3’-metoxi-3,4-metilendioxi-4’,7-epoxi-nor-8.5’-neolignan-7.8’-dieno 7 y friedelina 8, los cuales se reportan por primera vez para la especie y para el género.

  1. Caracterización bioquímica y molecular de aislados de Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a antimicrobianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita Castañeda

    2000-02-01

    diferentes aislados bacterianos resistentes a antibióticos, son insuficientes para discriminar un posible brote de infección nosocomial, siendo necesaria la utilización de técnicas basadas en el estudio genotípico, que logren establecer diferencias entre los aislados.

    El análisis del perfil de plásmidos es de mucha aplicabilidad, ya que permite una evaluación epidemiológica útil para determinar la diferencia o la semejanza entre los aislados sometidos a estudio. Sin embargo, no es suficiente para determinar el origen clonal de un brote y se requiere un método que permita una caracterización mas precisa de las cepas. Para este fin, se utiliza el análisis del DNA genómico, cortado con endonucleasas de restricción con baja frecuencia de corte, por medio de la electroforesis de campo pulsado (PFGE, que ha mostrado ser una buena herramienta epidemiológica, debido a su alta reproducibilidad y a su poder discriminatorio para determinar el origen clonal en varias especies bacterianas incluyendo Klebsiella pneunoniae, Este proyecto pretende determinar y caracterizar el comportamiento genético de esta resistencia en las cepas de Klebsiella pneumoniae circulantes en nuestro medio, lo que permitirá plantear estrategias epidemiológicas en el manejo y prevención de las diferentes infecciones debidas a este microorganismo.

    Objetivo general: Caracterizar bioquímica y molecularmente aislados de Klebsiella pneumoniae resistentes a antimicrobianos.

    Objetivos específicos: 1. Biotipificar los aislados de Klebsiella pneumoniae. 2. Determinar la susceptibilidad de los aislados, incluyendo la detección de la producci

  2. Novel Campylobacter lari-like bacteria from humans and molluscs: description of Campylobacter peloridis sp. nov., Campylobacter lari subsp. concheus subsp. nov. and Campylobacter lari subsp. lari subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Lies; On, Stephen L W; De Brandt, Evie; Vandamme, Peter

    2009-05-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to clarify the taxonomic position of Campylobacter lari-like strains isolated from shellfish and humans. The diversity within the strain collection was initially screened by means of fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and whole-cell protein electrophoresis, revealing the existence of two clusters distinct from C. lari and other Campylobacter species. The divergence of these clusters was confirmed by phenotypic analysis and by 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis identified C. lari, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter insulaenigrae as the closest phylogenetic neighbours of both taxa. DNA-DNA hybridizations revealed that one cluster, comprising 10 strains, represented a novel Campylobacter species, for which the name Campylobacter peloridis sp. nov. is proposed, with 2314BVA(T) (=LMG 23910(T) =CCUG 55787(T)) as the type strain. The second cluster, comprising six strains, represents a novel subspecies within the species C. lari, for which the name Campylobacter lari subsp. concheus subsp. nov. is proposed, with 2897R(T) (=LMG 21009(T) =CCUG 55786(T)) as the type strain. The description of C. lari subsp. concheus has the effect of automatically creating the subspecies Campylobacter lari subsp. lari subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 8846(T)=NCTC 11352(T)).

  3. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of rat fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Yo; Kawanishi, Hiroaki (Imamichi Institute for Animal Reproduction, Ibaraki (Japan)); Hasegawa, Kenichi; Otsu, Shinichi

    1993-06-01

    The internal structures of rat fetuses on day 18.0 of pregnancy were studied by magnetic resonance imaging in 1-mm sagittal slices. Each organ was represented as white to gray images different in tone according to the [sup 1]H proton content and the relaxation time. In solid organs, portions with high cell density were seen as white areas and those with low cell density as gray areas. In the tubular organs, the margins were imaged as white and the lumina as gray. (author).

  5. Skeletal malformations in fetuses with Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Fischer Hansen, B; Keeling, J W;

    1999-01-01

    four types, based on the number and morphology of metacarpals and metatarsals. In the individual fetus there was more often similarity in the pattern of malformation in the two hands or in the two feet than there was between the pattern of malformation seen in the hands and that seen in the feet. Only...... one foot was normal. Malformations of the cranial base (the basilar part of the occipital bone or the postsphenoid bone) occurred in five cases, and the vertebral bodies in the lumbar region of the spine were malformed (cleft) in three cases. It is proposed that a skeletal analysis be included...

  6. Pain assessment in human fetus and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio

    2012-09-01

    In humans, painful stimuli can arrive to the brain at 20-22 weeks of gestation. Therefore several researchers have devoted their efforts to study fetal analgesia during prenatal surgery, and during painful procedures in premature babies. Aim of this paper is to gather from scientific literature the available data on the signals that the human fetus and newborns produce, and that can be interpreted as signals of pain. Several signs can be interpreted as signals of pain. We will describe them in the text. In infants, these signs can be combined to create specific and sensible pain assessment tools, called pain scales, used to rate the level of pain.

  7. Sequence variability of Campylobacter temperate bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Lai-King

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophages integrated within the chromosomes of Campylobacter jejuni isolates have been demonstrated very recently. Prior work with Campylobacter temperate bacteriophages, as well as evidence from prophages in other enteric bacteria, suggests these prophages might have a role in the biology and virulence of the organism. However, very little is known about the genetic variability of Campylobacter prophages which, if present, could lead to differential phenotypes in isolates carrying the phages versus those that do not. As a first step in the characterization of C. jejuni prophages, we investigated the distribution of prophage DNA within a C. jejuni population assessed the DNA and protein sequence variability within a subset of the putative prophages found. Results Southern blotting of C. jejuni DNA using probes from genes within the three putative prophages of the C. jejuni sequenced strain RM 1221 demonstrated the presence of at least one prophage gene in a large proportion (27/35 of isolates tested. Of these, 15 were positive for 5 or more of the 7 Campylobacter Mu-like phage 1 (CMLP 1, also designated Campylobacter jejuni integrated element 1, or CJIE 1 genes tested. Twelve of these putative prophages were chosen for further analysis. DNA sequencing of a 9,000 to 11,000 nucleotide region of each prophage demonstrated a close homology with CMLP 1 in both gene order and nucleotide sequence. Structural and sequence variability, including short insertions, deletions, and allele replacements, were found within the prophage genomes, some of which would alter the protein products of the ORFs involved. No insertions of novel genes were detected within the sequenced regions. The 12 prophages and RM 1221 had a % G+C very similar to C. jejuni sequenced strains, as well as promoter regions characteristic of C. jejuni. None of the putative prophages were successfully induced and propagated, so it is not known if they were functional or

  8. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    .7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100...

  9. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results......: The highest Campylobacter spp. prevalence was seen in 110 out of 178 thrushes (61.8 %), of which the majority were Common Blackbird (Turdus merula), and in 131 out of 616 sparrows (21.3 %), a guild made up of House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus). In general, birds.......54), and between the prevalence (%) of C. coli in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. coli in manure on pig farms (R-2 = 0.62).Conclusions: The ecological guild of wild birds influences the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. through the behavioural patterns of the birds. More specifically, wild birds eating...

  10. Dosimetry of radioiodine for embryo and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovski, V.; Eckerman, K.F.; Phipps, A.W.; Nosske, D

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the biokinetic and dosimetric models adopted in ICRP Publication 88 for the evaluation of fetal doses resulting from maternal intakes of radioiodine. The biokinetic model is used to simulate the behaviour of iodine in both the mother and the fetus. Such simulations provide the basis for the estimation of the dose to the embryo and determine the distribution of maternal iodine at the beginning of the fetal period. The model considers iodine to accumulate in the fetal thyroid from the 11th week. The dose to the fetus delivered following birth is evaluated with the biokinetic and dosimetric models described in ICRP Publication 67. Although a substantial fraction of the emitted energy of electrons and photons is less than 10 keV, conventionally assumed to be non-penetrating radiation, these emissions can escape the small fetal thyroid. Absorbed fractions for both self-dose and crossfire were evaluated for the requirements of radioiodine dosimetry in ICRP Publication 88. (author)

  11. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  12. Ammonium nitrogen in fetuses of urea-treated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelverton, C C; Roller, M H; Swanson, R N

    1975-02-01

    Eight pregnant Southdown ewes were treated (by drench) with 12.5 ml of 3.3 M urea solution per kilogram of body weight, and ammonium nitrogen concentrations of blood and tissues of these ewes and their fetuses were measured and compared with those of control ewes (given water by drench) and their fetuses. Blood ammonium nitrogen (BAN) and tissue ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations for liver, kidney, spleen, and muscle of ewes and fetuses were determined by an ion-exchange procedure. Samples of blood were collected before treatment, at 30, 90 and 150 minutes after treatment, and at death of the dam. The principal ewes had increasing BAN concentrations with time after drench, and their fetuses had significantly greater (P less than 0.01) BAN concentrations than fetuses from control ewes. All fetuses were alive after death of the dams and had lower TAN values than their dams. The differences in ammonia concentrations between ewes and fetuses were larger in the principal group than in the control group. Except for ewe muscle and fetal liver, all tissues of principals had significantly greater (P less than 0.01) TAN concentrations than those of controls. Muscle of principal ewes and hepatic tissues of their fetuses had greater (P less than 0.05) TAN concentrations than those of control ewes and their fetuses.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis and management in fetuses with cystic hygromata colli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gembruch, U; Hansmann, M; Bald, R; Zerres, K; Schwanitz, G; Födisch, H J

    1988-12-01

    We report on 45 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed bilateral cystic hygromata colli by ultrasound. Two of the 45 cases involved a twin pregnancy with only one fetus showing hygromata colli. In 2 cases there was only isolated hygromata colli. The other 43 cases showed the signs of non-immune hydrops fetalis. The cytogenetic findings were: 9 fetuses with Turner syndrome, 1 fetus with Turner mosaicism, 1 fetus with trisomy 18, 6 fetuses with trisomy 21, 12 fetuses with normal karyotype, and 16 fetuses with a failed chromosome culture. In fetuses with Turner syndrome and normal karyotype the sonographic findings were similar: massive bilateral hygromata colli, substantial fluid accumulations in skin and body cavities, oligohydramnios and intra-uterine growth retardation. In the cases with trisomy 21, the relative size of the hygromata colli was smaller. Intra-uterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios were not observed. The sole survivor of our group (elective pregnancy interruption: 30 cases; intra-uterine death: 14 cases) (karyotype: 46,XY) presented sonographically with massive ascites, a moderate cystic hygroma, and appropriate fetal development, and a normal amniotic fluid quantity. These findings are analysed in order to provide recommendations for prenatal diagnosis, prenatal management and genetic counselling of the couples concerned.

  14. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Campylobacter spp. are Gram-negative bacilli enteric pathogens that pose a major public health problem worldwide. In this genus, the most important species is Campylobacter jejuni. This bacterium causes diarrhea as its main symptom, which its intensity varies from mild to severe. Patients’ stools may be watery or bloody. Objectives In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of the species of Campylobacter. jejuni in Zahedan, a major city in southeastern Iran. Patients and Methods Fecal samples from 164 patients with acute diarrhea from Zahedan hospitals were collected from 2011 to 2013. Then the samples were streaked onto a campylobacter selective agar containing supplement and 7% defibrinated sheep blood. Conventional bacteriological tests (such as culture and biochemical tests were performed to confirm the genus and differentiate at the species level. Finally, disk diffusion method was performed according to the recommendation of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI to determine the susceptibility of isolates to antibacterial agents. Results Out of 164 samples, 19 (11.6% were reported positive by culture which confirmed by biochemical tests. Fifteen (78.9% patients, whose samples were positive, hospitalized in infant ward. Two (10.5% patients treated as outpatients. Two remaining (10.5% patients were admitted in internal medicine ward. All of isolated strains were susceptible or moderately susceptible to erythromycin as the drug of choice. Conclusions In this study, the prevalence of the disease (11.6% is found to be more than other parts of Iran. The symptomatic infection mainly affects children younger than 5 years.

  15. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in raw meat

    OpenAIRE

    Z Noori; SH Saadati; A. Mirsalehian; SH Shoeibi; N Rahimifard; Mehrangiz Mehdizadeh; M Pirali- Hamedani

    2009-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram negative, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming and a small"ncurved bacillus which is able to cause foodborne infection in human. In this study the occurrence of C. jejuni in poultry and"nbeef meat was investigated."nMaterials & Methods: Forty raw meat samples including 22 poultry samples and 18 beef samples were investigated for the"npresence of C. jejuni. To isolate the bacterium, the samples were initially enriched in Preston Bro...

  16. Isolation of Campylobacter from human stool samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Salim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Campylobacter is an undetected cause of diarrhoea especially under 5 years of age in most of the countries. Isolation of this organism is difficult, expensive and cumbersome. Aims: Our objective of this study was to isolate this pathogen from the stool specimens on routinely available blood containing laboratory media using the candle jar for creating the microaerophilic atmosphere in our setup. Settings and Designs: A descriptive study. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 stool samples were inoculated onto selective and non-selective media with and without filtration using a 0.45 μm membrane. The inoculated media were simultaneously incubated in microaerophilic conditions using the Anoxomat as well as in candle jars at temperatures 37°C and 42°C. The culture isolates were confirmed by standard phenotypic tests. A simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid of Campylobacter was performed on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA of the culture isolates as well as on the DNA extracted from the stool filtrates. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as a proportion. Results: Campylobacter could be isolated in 5 out of 50 stool samples using both the Anoxomat as well as the candle jar. Furthermore, we did not find any difference between the isolation using the selective and blood containing media as well as the different incubation temperatures. All the five were confirmed phenotypically and genotypically to be Campylobacter jejuni. The PCR results corroborated with that of the culture. Conclusions: Isolation by culture was as sensitive as that of the PCR.

  17. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in raw meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Noori

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram negative, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming and a small"ncurved bacillus which is able to cause foodborne infection in human. In this study the occurrence of C. jejuni in poultry and"nbeef meat was investigated."nMaterials & Methods: Forty raw meat samples including 22 poultry samples and 18 beef samples were investigated for the"npresence of C. jejuni. To isolate the bacterium, the samples were initially enriched in Preston Broth medium and subsequently"ntransferred to Campylobacter selective Agar containing defibrinated sheep blood and antibiotics. The biochemical tests were"nused for identification of isolated bacteria at species level."nResults: Three poultry samples were positive for C. jejuni."nConclusion: Alimentary tract of chickens contain high numbers of C. jejuni therefore, this bacterium can be easily found in"ntheir feces. It is recommended to use chlorinated water in birds’ feed and to perform slaughtering, skinning and evisceration"nunder aseptic conditions to prevent campylobacteriosis in human from poultry meat. None of the beef samples yielded any"nCampylobacter, this may be due to limited number of samples of beef meat analyzed in this study.

  18. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  19. Efficacy of natural cranberry extracts against campylobacter colonization in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. has been identified as one of the leading causative agents of food borne diarrheal illness. Epi-demiological evidence has shown that poultry is the main source for human infection. Currently there are no consistently effective treatments to eliminate Campylobacter from poultry flo...

  20. Effect of Noradrenaline on the Virulence Properties of Campylobacter Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree V. Aroori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species cause a spectrum of illnesses in humans. The type of illness and the outcome is dependent on the virulence of the infecting pathogen strain and host immune status. Acute stress can seriously compromise host immunity and increase susceptibility to infection. Noradrenaline (NA is a stress hormone. Several studies have shown that it stimulated growth and increased the pathogenicity of organisms including E. coli and Campylobacter jejuni. However, the effect of NA on other Campylobacter species is unknown. We have examined the effect of NA on growth rate, motility, invasion of T84 epithelial cells, and colonisation of chickens by diverse Campylobacter species. Campylobacter cultures grown with NA had reduced lag phases, increased growth rates, and higher final optical densities than controls. The motility of Campylobacter was also significantly increased in the presence of noradrenaline. Some of the Campylobacter strains tested also showed increased invasion of T84 epithelial cells, greater breakdown of tight junctions, and an enhanced potential to colonise chickens. Our results show that noradrenaline-induced enhancement of virulence of Campylobacter can influence the outcome of infection.

  1. Quantifying Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in Commercial Broiler Flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Miflin, J.K.; Templeton, J.M.; Bouma, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    Since meat from poultry colonized with Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, human exposure should be reduced by, among other things, prevention of colonization of broiler flocks. To obtain more insight into possible sources of introduction of Campylobacter into broiler f

  2. Vaccination of poultry against Campylobacter in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen in the European Union (EU) since 2005. Reportedly, 212,064 humans have been confirmed ill in 2010 due to a Campylobacter infection in the EU. The major source of infection, among sporadic human cases is to be found in...

  3. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Controlling Campylobacter on Broiler Chicken Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, A.H.; Mangen, M.J.J.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Bogaardt, M.J.; Evers, E.G.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Wit, de G.A.; Zee, van der H.; Nauta, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of foodborne infections. We estimated the potential costs and benefits of a large number of possible interventions to decrease human exposure to Campylobacter by consumption of chicken meat, which accounts for 20¿40% of all cases of human campylobacterio

  4. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt...

  5. Cellular response of Campylobacter jejuni to trisodium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Cohn, M. T.; Stabler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The highly alkaline compound trisodium phosphate (TSP) is used as an intervention to reduce the load of Campylobacter on poultry meat in U.S. poultry slaughter plants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular responses of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 when exposed to sublethal...

  6. A Review of Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  7. Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry—a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  8. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  9. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denm...

  10. Glucose Metabolism via the Entner-Doudoroff Pathway in Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina S; Jansen van Rensburg, Melissa J; Rasmussen, Janus J;

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter are generally considered to be unable to metabolize glucose due to lack of key glycolytic enzymes. However, the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway has been identified in Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei and a few C. coli isolates. A systematic search f...

  11. Campylobacter and Toll-like receptors : implications for vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative highly motile bacterium that colonizes the intestinal tract of humans, leading to inflammation of the intestinal mucosal layer. Campylobacter-induced enteritis causes (bloody) diarrhea, cramps, malaise and fever, which resolves within two weeks. In a small num

  12. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter: prevalence and trends in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igimi, S; Okada, Y; Ishiwa, A; Yamasaki, M; Morisaki, N; Kubo, Y; Asakura, H; Yamamoto, S

    2008-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most frequently diagnosed bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis in Japan and throughout the world. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans has emerged in many countries during the past 15 years because fluoroquinolones are the drug of choice for the treatment of suspected bacterial gastroenteritis. Food contaminated with Campylobacter is the usual source of human infection; therefore, the presence of antimicrobial resistance strains in the food chain has raised concerns that the treatment of human infections will be compromised. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals and in veterinary medicine is suspected to be correlated with an increase in quinolone-resistant strains of Campylobacter in food animals, especially in poultry products. In contrast to macrolide resistance in C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans showing a stable low rate, resistant Campylobacter spp. to quinolones have emerged in Japan. The paper summarizes food-borne Campylobacter infection in Japan, and the prevalence and trends of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter from the authors' data and other Japanese papers which reported the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter.

  13. Relationship between Presence of Anti-Campylobacter FliD Protein Antibodies and Campylobacter jejuni Isolation from Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Poultry products are regarded as a major source of this bacterium for human infection. Although this bacterium is a commensal in chicken cecal microbiome, Campylobacte...

  14. Fetus Amorphous Acardious – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kamakeri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetus amorphous acardious is a rare fetal malformation lacking a functional heart and bearing no resemblance to human embryos. The main differential diagnosis is with placental teratoma and is based on the degree of skeletal organization and umbilical cord formation. A 26 year old woman delivered a healthy newborn at 38 weeks of gestation by caesarian section. An amorphous mass covered with healthy looking skin was connected to the placenta with a short pedicle. Xray examination of the mass revealed the presence of vertebral column associated with ribs and pelvic bones and axial skeleton. Histopathological examination demonstrates the presence of cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, skin with adnexal structures and neural tissue.

  15. Pathohistological changes in fetuses with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đolai Matilda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystic fibrosis or mucoviscidosis is a genetically caused disease. The intensity of disease and histopathological changes grow throughout the life. According to the literature, pathological changes characteristic of cystic fibrosis become noticeable around the sixth month of life. Case Report. After amniocentesis of a 5-lunar month-old fetus had been done, which confirmed cystic fibrosis, the Ethics Commission approved the preterm labor. The autopsy and histopathological analysis demonstrated the existence of typical histopathological changes in the pancreas and intestines. Discussion. In the late fetal period or during the period around the delivery, cystic fibrosis is usually manifested as meconial cap with or without obstruction of the intestinal lumen. Morphological changes in the exocrine glands usually develop only after birth. In this case, the existence of meconial obstruction, as well as the typical acidofil content in the secretory ducts and acini of the pancreas was confirmed, which is unusual for the fetal age of five months.

  16. Aplasia Cutis Congenita Association with Fetus Papyraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özdemir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC is a rare malformation characterized by localized or a wide area absence of tissue. The disease may involve any site of the body, although usually seen on the scalp. Observed one in 10.000 births, it can occur as the ACC as an isolated lesion and may be associated with cleft palate/lip, syndactyly, absence of fingers, eye abnormalities and congenital heart disease. ACC’s a rare form due to intrauterine twin, which is a form of ex. Large lesions that require surgical repair small defects heal spontaneously with re-epithelialization. We present a rare case of newborn male with truncal ACC associated with fetus papyraceus.

  17. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M.; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Boer, de Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; Pelt, Van Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contam

  18. Toename Salmonella en Campylobacter bij slacht : Campylobacter in pluimveesector constant, Salmonella sterk gedaald

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2009-01-01

    In vrijwel alle schakels van de pluimveevleesketen is de besmetting met Salmonella in de periode van 2002 tot 2005 gedaald. Campylobacter werd in diezelfde periode juist vaker in slachthuizen aangetroffen. Tijdens het slachten nam de besmetting met beide pathogenen toe, voor Salmonella gold dit voor

  19. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection. In this

  20. Computer-assisted analysis and epidemiological value of genotyping methods for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Duim, B.; Rigter, A.; Plas, J. van der; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    For epidemiological tracing of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli, reliable and highly discriminatory typing techniques are necessary. In this study the genotyping techniques of flagellin typing (flaA typing), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated ribotyping,

  1. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp...

  2. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. ...

  3. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

  4. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion in the United States and Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuowei; Sippy, Rachel; Sahin, Orhan; Plummer, Paul; Vidal, Ana; Newell, Diane; Zhang, Qijing

    2014-06-01

    Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuni isolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion during 2002 to 2008 in Great Britain, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Although clone SA (ST-8) was present in the early U.S. isolates, it was not as tetracycline resistant (19% versus 100%) or predominant (66% versus 91%) as it was in the late U.S isolates. In contrast, C. jejuni isolates from Great Britain were genetically diverse, comprising 19 STs and lacking ST-8. PFGE and CGH analyses of representative strains further confirmed the population structure of the abortion isolates. Notably, the Great Britain isolates were essentially susceptible to most tested antibiotics, including tetracycline, while the late U.S. isolates were universally resistant to this antibiotic, which could be explained by the common use of tetracyclines for control of sheep abortions in the United States but not in Great Britain. These results suggest that the dominance of clone SA in sheep abortions is unique to the United States, and the use of tetracyclines may have facilitated selection of this highly pathogenic clone.

  5. Fetus in fetu: molecular analysis of a fetiform mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, A; Corteville, J; Foglia, R P; Bliss, D P; Donis-Keller, H; Dowton, S B

    1993-09-01

    Fetus-in-fetu is a rare condition presenting as a calcified intra-abdominal mass in the newborn infant. Over 50 cases of fetus-in-fetu have been reported since 1800. Karyotype analysis in 8 cases and protein polymorphisms in 4 documented identical findings in the host and fetiform mass. We report a case of fetus-in-fetu in a newborn female including cytogenetic and molecular studies of both the host and mass. Genotypic information from 7 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays representing 4 chromosomes demonstrates heterozygous and identical alleles in the infant and fetus-in-fetu at all loci studied. A review of the literature is provided including a discussion regarding the impact of molecular data on present hypotheses of fetus-in-fetu pathogenesis.

  6. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  7. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Fakhr

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL, arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL. A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (512–2,048 μg/mL, and arsenate (128–1,024 μg/mL, but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4–16 μg/mL. Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3, 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR. The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates.

  8. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL), arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL) and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL). A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli) were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB) by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512–2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (512–2,048 μg/mL), and arsenate (128–1,024 μg/mL), but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4–16 μg/mL). Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3), 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR). The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates. PMID:23965921

  9. Arsenic resistance and prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from retail meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2013-08-07

    Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4-2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (4-2048 μg/mL), arsenate (16-8,192 μg/mL) and arsenite (4-2,048 μg/mL). A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli) were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB) by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512-2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (512-2,048 μg/mL), and arsenate (128-1,024 μg/mL), but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4-16 μg/mL). Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3), 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR). The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates.

  10. Climate variability and campylobacter infection: an international study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari Kovats, R.; Edwards, Sally J.; Charron, Dominique; Cowden, John; D'Souza, Rennie M.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Gauci, Charmaine; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Hajat, Shakoor; Hales, Simon; Hernández Pezzi, Gloria; Kriz, Bohumir; Kutsar, Kuulo; McKeown, Paul; Mellou, Kassiani; Menne, Bettina; O'Brien, Sarah; Pelt, Wilfrid; Schmid, Hans

    2005-03-01

    Campylobacter is among the most important agents of enteritis in developed countries. We have described the potential environmental determinants of the seasonal pattern of infection with campylobacter in Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Specifically, we investigated the role of climate variability on laboratory-confirmed cases of campylobacter infection from 15 populations. Regression analysis was used to quantify the associations between timing of seasonal peaks in infection in space and time. The short-term association between weekly weather and cases was also investigated using Poisson regression adapted for time series data. All countries in our study showed a distinct seasonality in campylobacter transmission, with many, but not all, populations showing a peak in spring. Countries with milder winters have peaks of infection earlier in the year. The timing of the peak of infection is weakly associated with high temperatures 3 months previously. Weekly variation in campylobacter infection in one region of the UK appeared to be little affected by short-term changes in weather patterns. The geographical variation in the timing of the seasonal peak suggests that climate may be a contributing factor to campylobacter transmission. The main driver of seasonality of campylobacter remains elusive and underscores the need to identify the major serotypes and routes of transmission for this disease.

  11. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  12. Prevalence of Campylobacter concisus in diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Permin, Henrik; On, Stephen L.W.;

    2002-01-01

    The importance of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni/coli in diarrhoeal disease is largely unknown. We wished to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of C. concisus infection in patients with enteric disease in a tertiary hospital. Stool specimens were routinely tested...... for the presence of Campylobacter species, by use of the filter isolation method. The medical records of the C. concisus-positive patients were reviewed. Of 224 Campylobacter isolates obtained, 110 were identified as C. concisus. Concomitant infection occurred in only 27% of cases. 13 means of protein profiling we...

  13. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M;

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain...... a better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of Campylobacter in the Danish broiler population. In this study, we observed a non-random temporal occurrence of Campylobacter, with high prevalence during summer and low during winter. Significant spatio-temporal clusters were identified...

  14. Chronic diarrhea associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Claps, M; Beaucage, C M

    1986-08-15

    Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from a cat with chronic diarrhea. The diarrheic cat and another cat (which previously had diarrhea) in the same household had bactericidal antibody titers to the C jejuni. Clinical response to antibiotic therapy and not recovering Campylobacter sp from normal feces after treatment also supported the diagnosis of Campylobacter-associated diarrhea. Although the owner had a protracted episode of diarrhea, C jejuni was not isolated from the owner's feces, nor was a bactericidal antibody detected in the owner's serum.

  15. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  16. Quantitative microbiological data analysis of a Campylobacter vaccination trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Bahrndorff, Simon; Hald, Birthe

    Campylobacter jejuni is considered the main pathogen causing human campylobacteriosis and poultry has been identified as one of the main risk factors. Strategies that aim to control Campylobacter in poultry such as vaccination strategies could reduce the incidence of human campylobacteriosis....... The objective of the present trial was to assess whether or not a vaccine candidate could give a 2 logs reduction of the numbers of Campylobacter in broilers. Sample size calculations indicated the use of 400 animals (200 vaccinated and 200 controls). The experiment was conducted in four different rotations...

  17. Framing the fetus in medical work: rituals and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clare

    2005-05-01

    What does it mean to investigate the fetus, and what might be the potential consequences? Although a number of feminists have engaged with the debate around the status of the fetus in terms of the possible implications for women, discussion of fetuses has been avoided by many feminists, in response to the politics around the abortion debate. However, there has recently been a move to explore the ways in which the meanings and significance of the fetus can be socially constructed. Set within a United Kingdom context, this paper focuses on two areas which are arguably changing perceptions of the fetus: the recent 'discovery' of fetal 'pain'; and the growing recognition of the fetus as a patient. One of the key concerns of those who support the autonomy of women is that any increasing discourse around the concept of fetal patienthood may promote the notion of fetal personhood, which in turn may affect the status of pregnant women. In exploring perceptions of the fetus, this article firstly cites some of the key policy documents and medical articles which were published during the 1990s, looking at apparent shifts in the ways in which the fetus is discussed in terms of pain and patienthood. It then explores how practitioners from different disciplines talked about fetal pain and patienthood in relation to the clinical setting. Although this paper does not provide conclusive evidence of a wholesale shift in terms of how the fetus is perceived by practitioners, it does point to subtle shifts occurring, which may or may not be significant. It is important to track such shifts closely, primarily because of the potential impact on women, but also for others involved, including practitioners. Such tracking needs to be set within specific cultural and policy contexts.

  18. Oral Campylobacter species: Initiators of a subgroup of inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2015-08-21

    In recent years, a number of studies detected a significantly higher prevalence of Campylobacter species such as Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) in intestinal biopsies and fecal samples collected from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to controls. Most of these Campylobacter species are not of zoonotic origin but are human oral Campylobacter species. Bacterial species usually cause diseases in the location where they colonize. However, C. concisus and other oral Campylobacter species are associated with IBD occurring at the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that these Campylobacter species may have unique virulence factors that are expressed in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile Ocorrência de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos em bovinos de corte e de leite no sul do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Fernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9% than among dairy cattle (21.3%, being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated.Foi estabelecida a prevalência de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos, em bovinos de corte e de leite do sul do Chile. Campylobacter foi estatisticamente mais prevalente nos bovinos de corte (35,9% do que nos bovinos de leite (21,3%, sendo C. jejuni a espécie mais frequentemente isolada.

  20. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  1. Acardiac Parabiotic Fetus: A Rare Complication of Twin Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acardiac parabiotic fetus is sequelae of complication of monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy also known as Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion Sequence (TRAP. It is rare affecting 1 in 35,000 births and 1 % of monozygotic twins. Acardiac parabiotic twin commonly known as parasite occurs rarely and may lead to high output cardiac failure, hydrops or premature delivery in the pump fetus. In this report, we present a 23 years old primigravida with twin pregnancy, with twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence with one of the twins being acardiac anceps and the other normal pump fetus. This association is relatively uncommon and therefore rarely documented.

  2. Parámetros cinéticos como herramienta para la caracterización de aislados de Aspergillus sección Nigri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvina Sobrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de Aspergillus dentro de la sección Nigri son importantes en procesos biotecnológicos, así como en el biodeterioro. Bajos condiciones de cultivo controladas, la velocidad de crecimiento es una característica de las especies de hongos y algunos autores utilizan la medida del diámetro de las colonias como herramienta de identificación. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la velocidad de crecimiento obtenida por la Microbiología Predictiva puede ser utilizada como herramienta para la caracterización de aspergilos negros. Se construyeron las curvas de crecimiento de 5 aislados de aspergilos negros obtenidos de alimentos y ambiente de industria láctea. Estos aislados, también fueron estudiados por sus características morfológicas y estudios de microscopía electrónica. Se identificaron como A. awamori, A. niger (2 aislados, A. foetidus y A. carbonarius. Las velocidades máximas de crecimiento en medio Agar Extracto de Malta a 25 ºC fueron: 3,51; 4,85; 4,52; 12,73; y 5,84 mm/día, respectivamente. A foetidus fue el único que presentó fase de latencia y alcanzó el mayor radio. Con la ayuda de la Microbiología Predictiva se pudieron separar A. awamori de A. foetidus, perolas diferencias no fueron significativas (p > 0,05 para los otros aislados. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron diferenciar a A. carbonarius. Los datos cinéticos por sí solos no fueron suficientes para diferenciar especies cercanas.

  3. Parámetros cinéticos como herramienta para la caracterización de aislados de Aspergillus sección Nigri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvina Sobrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de Aspergillus dentro de la sección Nigri son importantes en procesos biotecnológicos, así como en el biodeterioro. Bajos condiciones de cultivo controladas, la velocidad de crecimiento es una característica de las especies de hongos y algunos autores utilizan la medida del diámetro de las colonias como herramienta de identificación. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la velocidad de crecimiento obtenida por la Microbiología Predictiva puede ser utilizada como herramienta para la caracterización de aspergilos negros. Se construyeron las curvas de crecimiento de 5 aislados de aspergilos negros obtenidos de alimentos y ambiente de industria láctea. Estos aislados, también fueron estudiados por sus características morfológicas y estudios de microscopía electrónica. Se identificaron como A. awamori, A. niger (2 aislados, A. foetidus y A. carbonarius. Las velocidades máximas de crecimiento en medio Agar Extracto de Malta a 25 ºC fueron: 3,51; 4,85; 4,52; 12,73; y 5,84 mm/día, respectivamente. A foetidus fue el único que presentó fase de latencia y alcanzó el mayor radio. Con la ayuda de la Microbiología Predictiva se pudieron separar A. awamori de A. foetidus, pero las diferencias no fueron significativas (p > 0,05 para los otros aislados. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron diferenciar a A. carbonarius. Los datos cinéticos por sí solos no fueron suficientes para diferenciar especies cercanas.

  4. Estabilidad a la congelación descongelación de emulsiones o/w preparadas con aislados de soja nativos y desnaturalizados con diferente solubilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Palazolo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó la estabilidad a la congelación de emulsiones modelo aceite en agua (o/w preparadas con cuatro aislados de soja: dos nativos (ASN-1 y ASN-2, de similar composición pero diferente solubilidad, >90% y ~75%, respectivamente y dos desnaturalizados (ASD-1 y ASD-2, resultantes de calentar los respectivos aislados nativos (90 ‹C, 5 minutos. Las emulsiones preparadas con dispersiones acuosas al 2% p/v de ASN o ASD y aceite de girasol refinado (ƒ³ =0,25, se congelaron a -20 ‹C por 24 horas y luego se descongelaron a 20 ‹C. La estabilidad se evaluo a partir de medidas de distribución de tamano de partícula (difraccion laser y aceite liberado (AL, metodo de dilucion del colorante. Las emulsiones preparadas con ASN-2 y ASD-2 resultaron muy inestables despues de ser congeladas y descongeladas, resultadoque se evidenció por el aumento del tamano de partícula y un AL>25%. Al usar el aislado ASN-1 de mayor solubilidad, las emulsiones fueron mas estables y se observó un marcado incremento de la estabilidad cuando sus proteínas eran desnaturalizadas (ASD-1, no observándose prácticamente coalescencia ni aceite separado. En conclusión, la solubilidad y la desnaturalización proteíca de los aislados de soja son factores decisivos en la estabilidad de emulsiones frente a la congelación-descongelación.

  5. Filamentation of Campylobacter in broth cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacheervan M Ghaffar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition from rod to filamentous cell morphology has been identified as a response to stressful conditions in many bacterial species and has been ascribed to confer certain survival advantages. Filamentation of Campylobacter jejuni was demonstrated to occur spontaneously on entry in to stationary phase distinguishing it from many other bacteria where a reduction in size is more common. The aim of this study was to investigate the cues that give rise to filamentation of C. jejuni and C. coli and gain insights into the process. Using minimal medium, augmentation of filamentation occurred and it was observed that this morphological change was wide spread amongst C. jejuni strains tested but was not universal in C. coli strains. Filamentation did not appear to be due to release of diffusible molecules, toxic metabolites, or be in response to oxidative stress in the medium. Separated filaments exhibited greater intracellular ATP contents (2.66 to 17.4 fg than spiral forms (0.99 to 1.7 fg and showed enhanced survival in water at 4oC and 37oC compared to spiral cells. These observations support the conclusion that the filaments are adapted to survive extra-intestinal environments. Differences in cell morphology and physiology need to be considered in the context of the design of experimental studies and the methods adopted for the isolation of campylobacters from food, clinical and environmental sources.

  6. Use of phages to control Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janež, Nika; Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    The use of phages to control pathogenic bacteria has been investigated since they were first discovered in the beginning of the 1900s. Over the last century we have slowly gained an in-depth understanding of phage biology including which phage properties are desirable when considering phage as biocontrol agents and which phage characteristics to potentially avoid. Campylobacter infections are amongst the most frequently encountered foodborne bacterial infections around the world. Handling and consumption of raw or undercooked poultry products have been determined to be the main route of transmission. The ability to use phages to target these bacteria has been studied for more than a decade and although we have made progress towards deciphering how best to use phages to control Campylobacter associated with poultry production, there is still much work to be done. This review outlines methods to improve the isolation of these elusive phages, as well as methods to identify desirable characteristics needed for a successful outcome. It also highlights the body of research undertaken so far and what criteria to consider when doing in-vivo studies, especially because some in-vitro studies have not been found to translate into to phage efficacy in-vivo.

  7. Semi-quantitative method to estimate levels of Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Research projects utilizing live animals and/or systems often require reliable, accurate quantification of Campylobacter following treatments. Even with marker strains, conventional methods designed to quantify are labor and material intensive requiring either serial dilutions or MPN ...

  8. Campylobacter coli infection in pet birds in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pace, Antonino; Romano, Violante; D'Orazio, Stefano; Varriale, Lorena; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2017-01-06

    Avian species are considered as the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, few data are available on the presence of this microorganism in pet birds. This study was therefore performed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pet birds bred in southern Italy. Faecal samples were collected from 88 cages housing different species of pet birds and examined by bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 13.6% of the cage samples were positive for Campylobacter coli. Other Campylobacter spp. were not found. The study shows that C. coli can be isolated from the cages of apparently healthy pet birds, which should therefore be considered as potential carriers of C. coli and a possible source of infection for humans and companion animals.

  9. Campylobacter concisus: an evaluation of certain phenotypic and genotypic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; Bang, D. D.; Aabenhus, R.;

    2005-01-01

    The clinical relevance of Campylobacter concisus in gastrointestinal disease has not been determined definitively. This study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 39 C. concisus isolates from Danish patients with diarrhoea, three isolates from healthy individuals and the t...

  10. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been perf

  11. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Danish broilers at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wedderkopp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims : To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli isolates from Danish poultry at the farm level, as well as for the whole country. Methods and Results : Data and isolates were collected from a national surveillance of Campylobacter in poultry....... Quinolone resistance was investigated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Among Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli combined, 7.5% were resistant to nalidixic acid. Quinolone resistance varied considerably from farm to farm, with 0% on some farms and almost...... 100% on others, but the resistance was evenly distributed geographically. With respect to isolates from farms where resistance was detected, quinolone resistance was higher among Camp. coli (28.7%) than among Camp. jejuni (11.3%). PFGE typing of quinolone-resistant and quinolone-susceptible isolates...

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with anencephaly and thumb agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Chiara; Bartoloni, Giovanni; Cataliotti, Antonella; Indaco, Lara; Pappalardo, Elisa; Barrano, Barbara; Ettore, Giuseppe; Bianca, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    Severe anomalies of the forebrain together with reduction limb anomalies are a rare congenital anomalies association. We report a prenatal diagnosis of acalvaria, anencephaly and thumb agenesis in a voluntary terminated fetus and discuss the role of genetic counseling.

  13. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip ... the NICHD, describes the study’s findings. Read the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) Interview text alternative . The ...

  14. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... defect, myelomeningocele, is the most serious form of spina bifida, a condition in which the spinal column fails ...

  15. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... defect, myelomeningocele, is the most serious form of spina bifida, a condition in which the spinal column fails ...

  16. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Scientific databases, models, datasets & repositories ... Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: NICHD Archive Note: Information ...

  17. a Biokinetic Model for CESIUM-137 in the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karen Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Previously, there was no method to determine the dose to the embryo, fetus, fetal organs or placenta from radionuclides within the embryo, fetus, or placenta. In the past, the dose to the fetus was assumed to be equivalent to the dose to the uterus. Watson estimated specific absorbed fractions from various maternal organs to the uterine contents which included the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and Sikov estimated the absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus after assuming 1 uCi of radioactivity was made available to the maternal blood.^{1,2} However, this method did not allow for the calculation of a dose to individual fetal organs or the placenta. The radiation dose to the embryo or fetus from Cs-137 in the fetus and placenta due to a chronic ingestion by the mother was determined. The fraction of Cs-137 in the maternal plasma crossing the placenta to the fetal plasma was estimated. The absorbed dose from Cs-137 in each modelled fetal organ was estimated. Since there has been more research regarding potassium in the human body, and particularly in the pregnant woman, a biokinetic model for potassium was developed first and used as a basis and confirmation of the cesium model. Available pertinent information in physiology, embryology, biokinetics, and radiation dosimetry was utilized. Due to the rapid growth of the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy was divided into four gestational periods. The numerous physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy were considered and an appropriate biokinetic model was developed for each of the gestational periods. The amount of cesium in the placenta, embryo, and fetus was estimated for each period. The dose to the fetus from cesium deposited in the embryo or fetus and in the placenta was determined for each period using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to account for the variability of the parameters in the biokinetic model based on the experimental data

  18. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Hirchaud, Edouard; Parra, Alberto; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for thi...

  19. [Evaluation of antigenic properties of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli proteins in a western-immunoblot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Waldemar, Rastawicki; Jagielski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial cause for acute diarrheal illnesses in developed countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenic properties of Campylobacterjejuni and Campylobacter coli proteins in western-blot assay. Whole-cell components of Campulobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electroforesis. Using this method we detected in all seven C. jejuni strains 21 peptides migrating between 180-29 kDa. All three Ccoli strains had a 17 bands migrating with the same molecular weight range. Proteins were transferred electrophoretically to nitrocellulose paper for immunoblotting experiments. The 74 kDa protein reacted strongly in all classes ofimmmunoglobulin with all tested human serum samples. We observed that this protein reacted also with human immunoglobulins for Salmonella and Yersinia sp. This cross-reaction observed for this protein could give false positive results in routine diagnosis of C. jejuni infections. The proteins with molecular weight of: 92, 62, 56, 52, 45-43, 29 kDa were most recognized in the 20 human serum samples. The other proteins of Cljejuni and C. coli, particularly in the 68-50 kDa and 45-31 kDa regions, were recognized occasionally and the response to these in reconvalescent sera was usually weak. The result of this study showed that the proteins with molecular weight: 92, 62, 56, 52, 45-43 and 29 kDa can be use in routine serological diagnostic of campylobacteriosis.

  20. Prediction and prevention of the macrosomic fetus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2012-06-01

    Fetal macrosomia is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. In the long term, infants who are large for gestational age are more likely than other infants to be obese in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and are inherently at higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications in adulthood. With over one billion adults in the world now overweight and more than 600 million clinically obese, preventing the vicious cycle effect of fetal macrosomia and childhood obesity is an increasingly pertinent issue. Fetal growth is determined by a complex interplay of various genetic and environmental influences. Consequently the prediction of pregnancies at risk of pathological overgrowth is difficult. Many risk factors for fetal macrosomia, such as maternal obesity and advanced maternal age, are also conversely associated with intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic detection of fetal macrosomia is notoriously fraught with difficulties, with dozens of formulas for estimated fetal weight proposed but few with sufficient sensitivity to alter clinical practice. This calls into question policies of elective delivery based on projected estimated fetal weight cut-offs alone. More recently the identification of markers of fetal adiposity and maternal serum biomarkers are being investigated to improve the antenatal detection of the large for gestational age fetus. Prevention of fetal macrosomia is entirely dependent upon correct identification of those at risk. Maternal weight, gestational weight gain and glycaemic control are the risk factors for fetal macrosomia that are most amenable to intervention, and have potential maternal health benefits beyond pregnancy and childbirth. The ideal method of optimising maternal weight and glucose homeostasis is yet to be elucidated, though a number of promising advances are recently being reported. In this review we outline the contemporary evidence for the prediction and prevention of fetal macrosomia

  1. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  2. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni for Food Safety and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cakmak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are microorganisms that can be found in nature in the entire domestic and wild animal’s intestinal flora including the poultry and the sea animals. Campylobacter can better colonize in the poultry than the other animals. Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen among the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. whose growth temperature’s are different than the other Campylobacter spp. and can cause serious gastroenteritis in human beings which in some cases ended up with death. Human beings are generally infected with C. jejuni mainly because of the poultry meat and products and rarely because of the red meat which are contaminated during preparation and serving stages. Inadequate cooking, consumption of poorly chlorinated drinking water or unpasteurized milk are other infection sources of C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis especially affect children under 5 years of age and reported to be a zoonotic illness that cause acute gastroenteritis in human. In many countries, food sourced C. jejuni infections were reported to occur more frequently than Salmonella spp. infections. In order to avoid Campylobacter infections, it is very important to enforce food security programmes and HACCP like systems during growth, slaughterhouses and point of sales stages. Also adequate cooking of the products, hygiene of the kitchen and personnel are important. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 157-166

  3. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude...... that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions...... of particles in the 0.5- to 2-mu m-diameter range and high proportions in the 2- to 5-mu m-diameter range. Campylobacter could also be detected by PCR in air samples collected at the hanging stage during the slaughter process but not at the other stages tested at the slaughterhouse. The exploitation...

  4. Use of culture, PCR analysis, and DNA microarrays for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from chicken feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    . detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. By PCR and capillary electrophoresis, 95% of the samples were positive...... for Campylobacter spp., whereas with DNA microarrays all samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. By application of DNA microarray analysis, the isolates in 4 samples (6%) could not be identified to the species level, whereas by PCR-capillary electrophoresis, the isolates in 12 samples (19%) remained...... unidentified. Interestingly, PCR-capillary electrophoresis analysis revealed that two (3%) of the samples were positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli, while DNA microarray analysis revealed that nine (14%) of the samples were positive for both species. Of 65 samples, 2 samples were identified to contain C...

  5. Variation in Campylobacter Mulilocus Sequence Typing Subtypes Detected on Three Different Plating Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: There are multiple selective plating media available for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter. Campylobacter produce colonies with differing morphology and characteristics depending on the plating medium used. It is unclear if choice of plating medium can a...

  6. Isolation method (direct plating or enrichment) does not affect antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter from chicken carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if Campylobacter isolation method influenced antimicrobial susceptibility results, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of nine antimicrobials were compared for 291 pairs of Campylobacter isolates recovered from chicken carcass rinse samples using direct plating and an enrichment...

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.;

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To determine the flock prevalence and to estimate the within flock prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks from different rearing systems, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to selected antimicrobial substances. Methods and Results: One hundred...

  8. Eugenol wash and chitosan based coating reduces Campylobacter jejuni counts on poultry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne illness globally in humans, is strongly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Unfortunately, current strategies to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry have had limited success. Our study investigated the efficacy of eugenol ...

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from ducks in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bai; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Kang, Min; Roh, Jae-Hee; Seo, Hye-Suk; Yoon, Ran-Hee; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2014-12-01

    Campylobacter is a food-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter bacteria are commensal in the intestines of many food production animals, including ducks and chickens. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter species in domestic ducks, and the agar dilution method was used to determine resistance of the isolates to eight antibiotics. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to determine the sequence types (STs) of selected Campylobacter isolates. Between May and September 2012, 58 duck farms were analyzed, and 56 (96.6%) were positive for Campylobacter. Among the isolates, 82.1% were Campylobacter jejuni, 16.1% were C. coli, and one was unidentified by PCR. Of the 46 C. jejuni isolates, 87.0%, 10.9%, and 21.7% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and azithromycin, respectively. Among the C. coli isolates, all 9 strains were resistant to ampicillin, and 77.8% and 33.3% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, respectively. The majority of the Campylobacter isolates were classified as multidrug resistant. Twenty-eight STs were identified, including 20 STs for C. jejuni and 8 STs for C. coli. The most common clonal complexes in C. jejuni were the ST-21 complex and the ST-45 complex, while the ST-828 complex predominated in C. coli. The majority of isolates were of STs noted in ducks and humans from earlier studies, along with seven STs previously associated only with human disease. These STs overlapped between duck and human isolates, indicating that Campylobacter isolates from ducks should be considered potential sources of human infection.

  10. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  11. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  12. Occurrence of Campylobacter in the genitals of teaser bulls maintained at an embryo transfer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modolo J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Em central de transferência de embriões, após os procedimentos de reconhecimento do cio em 37 vacas receptoras, através de quatro rufiões vasectomizados, observou-se que 83% delas apresentavam retorno ao cio e algum corrimento serofibrinoso. Nos exames bacteriológicos realizados nos lavados prepuciais dos rufiões foi isolado o Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis em todos, fato que, analisado associadamente com o retorno ao cio das vacas receptoras, é indicativo da ocorrência de campilobacteriose no plantel. Essa ocorrência demonstra a necessidade de medidas eficazes de planejamento de saúde animal, pela utilização de rufiões com desvio lateral do pênis. Uma vez impossibilitado o contato sexual, seria impedida a transmissão do agente durante o coito. Torna-se imperioso consignar que a prática da prevenção racional de enfermidades continua sendo o procedimento mais econômico para uma produtividade animal mais rentável.

  13. Phenotyping of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by a quantitative antibiogram [MIC] typing scheme using Euclidean distances [QATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldsmith Colin E

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteropathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are presently the most common cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. An understanding of sources and means of transmission of Campylobacter is an essential factor in order to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter-related gastroenteritis in man. Consequently a reproducible, sensitive and well-standardised typing scheme is critical in the successful discrimination of strains and in the subsequent investigations of outbreaks. For this purpose, a phenotypic typing scheme based on quantitative antibiogram determination based on Euclidean distance (QATED, was developed. Results and Conclusion The results obtained with this typing scheme demonstrated that individual livers of colonized pigs could be infected with multiple strains of Campylobacter spp. and subspecies types. In conclusion, phenotyping of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli by QATED is a simple, inexpensive and discriminatory sub-species characterisation scheme, which may be useful in primary diagnostic clinical laboratories, where no specialist Campylobacter phenotyping or molecular genotyping schemes exist. It is especially suitable for food-bome outbreak investigations in the community, where a rapid and local response is required to aid with public health epidemiological investigations.

  14. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.;

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...

  15. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  16. Beta-resorcylic acid reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading food borne illnesses globally, has been linked with high prevalence of this bacterium in retail chicken meat. Reduction of Campylobacter in poultry will greatly reduce the risk of this disease. Unfortunately, strategies employed to reduce Campylobacter in li...

  17. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...

  18. Presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Wild Small Mammals on Organic Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kijlstra, A.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in rodents and insectivores (n = 282) was investigated on organic farms. Infections were encountered in house mice (8 of 83 Campylobacter positive and 1 of 83 Salmonella sp. strain Livingstone positive) and brown rats (1 of 8 Campylobacter positive)

  19. Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenberg, C.P.A.; van Horne, P.L.M.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2016-01-01

    Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter interven...

  20. Detection of Campylobacter species and Arcobacter butzleri in stool samples by use of real-time multiplex PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. de Boer (Richard); A. Ott (Alewijn); P. Güren (Pinar); E. van Zanten; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); A.M.D. Kooistra-Smid

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of Campylobacter (or Campylobacter-like) species in stools from patients suspected of infectious gastroenteritis (n = 493) was investigated using real-time PCR for detection of Arcobacter butzleri (hsp60 gene), Campylobacter coli (ceuE gene), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA), fiv

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on Campylobacter jejuni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, J.D.; Maxcy, R.B.

    Radiation resistance of Campylobacter jejuni in broth, ground beef, and ground turkey meat was determined using dose levels from 0-200 Krad at -30 +/- 10/sup 0/C, at 0-5/sup 0/C, and at 30 +/- 10/sup 0/C. Irradiation at -30/sup 0/C increased radiation resistance of cultures in ground meats; broth cultures were not greatly influenced by temperature. The effect of culture age on radiation resistance was also evaluated using cells in various physiological phases. Age did not have a pronounced effect on radiation resistance. The largest D/sub 10/ value for C. jejuni was 32 Krad, which was less than D/sub 10/ values commonly reported for salmonellae. 20 references, 4 figures.

  2. Elevated amniotic fluid amino acid levels in fetuses with gastroschisis

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    A. Kale

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to measure maternal plasma and amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations in pregnant women diagnosed as having fetuses with gastroschisis in the second trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-one pregnant women who had fetuses with gastroschisis detected by ultrasonography (gastroschisis group in the second trimester and 32 women who had abnormal triple screenings indicating an increased risk for Down syndrome but had healthy fetuses (control group were enrolled in the study. Amniotic fluid was obtained by amniocentesis, and maternal plasma samples were taken simultaneously. The chromosomal analysis of the study and control groups was normal. Levels of free amino acids and non-essential amino acids were measured in plasma and amniotic fluid samples using EZ:fast kits (EZ:fast GC/FID free (physiological amino acid kit by gas chromatography (Focus GC AI 3000 Thermo Finnigan analyzer. The mean levels of essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine and non-essential amino acids (alanine, glycine, proline, and tyrosine in amniotic fluid were found to be significantly higher in fetuses with gastroschisis than in the control group (P < 0.05. A significant positive correlation between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid concentrations of essential and nonessential amino acids was found only in the gastroschisis group (P < 0.05. The detection of significantly higher amino acid concentrations in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with a gastroschisis defect than in healthy fetuses suggests the occurrence of amino acid malabsorption or of amino acid leakage from the fetus into amniotic fluid.

  3. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis.

  4. Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa de Fabricio: Relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: antigenic interrelationships between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Noda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa (EIB sigue afectando la industria avícola por la aparición de variantes patogénicas y antigénicas del virus, originadas en la permanente evolución del virus producto de la presión inmunológica por el uso intensivo de vacunas. La caracterización antigénica de los virus de campo resulta esencial para la aplicación de vacunas más adecuadas en el control de la enfermedad. En este trabajo se determinaron las relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos, obtenidos de poblaciones de pollos vacunados con el virus de la EIB. Los aislados virales se adaptaron a cultivos celulares y se obtuvieron antisueros monoespecíficos de cada uno de ellos y de una cepa de referencia. Las relaciones se establecieron por virusneu-tralización cruzada utilizando nueve aislados cubanos (BD, BL, 35/95, 29/96, 118/96, BF2, BF8, BF9 y 70/98, tres chilenos (G1, G2 y G4 y una cepa de referencia del serotipo 1 (Lukert. Los aislados cubanos y chilenos se adaptaron eficientemente a cultivos de fibroblastos de embrión de pollo (con excepción de BF3 y G3. Además, los aislados cubanos se adaptaron a células VERO, presentando mayores títulos infectivos en fibroblastos de embrión de pollo que en esta línea celular. Los resultados de la seroneutralización cruzada mostraron entre los aislados cubanos una relación mayor a un 80% y entre éstos y la cepa de referencia mayor de un 70%, de igual modo con los aislados chilenos G1 y G4 (mayor de 77%. El aislado G2 presentó diferencias antigénicas consideradas menores con los aislados cubanos BL, 35/95 y 29/96 (­ 69%. Ninguno de los aislados mostró relaciones antigénicas inferiores al 30% con la cepa de referencia del serotipo 1, por lo tanto no corresponden a cepas variantesInfectious Bursal Disease (IBD is still affecting the poultry industry through the appearance of pathogenic and antigenic variations of the virus. This is due to its permanent evolution as a

  5. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Jirón T.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa, evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad durante 14 días, lesiones anatomopatológicas macroscópicas y microscópicas mediante tinción con hematoxilina-eosina y tinción de Warthyn Starryn. Resultados. Todas las cepas presentaron alta mortalidad, mostrando un cuadro tanto clínico, como lesional característico de la infección experimental. Además, causaron la muerte al 100% de los animales entre el tercer y décimo día postinfección. En el estudio anatomopatológico la cepa del serogrupo Ballum y la del serogrupo Pomona produjeron focos de hemorragias específicamente en el riñón y pulmones. De forma similar ocurrió una congestión hepática y renal, mientras que la hemorragia renal fue observada con mayor frecuencia en la cepa del serogrupo Pomona, diferenciándose del resto de las cepas que mostraron esta lesión con menos frecuencia. Conclusiones. Este trabajo permitió una mayor caracterización de estas cepas siendo utilizadas como futuras candidatas vacunales frente a una nueva epidemia de Leptospirosis en Nicaragua.

  6. ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OF THE FETUS AS A PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Chervenak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient and identify its implications for the deliberative practice of perinatal medicine.Methods: We describe secular medical ethics and its two fundamental principles, beneficence and respect for autonomy. We articulate the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient on the basis of the ethical principle of beneficence.Results: In the deliberative practice of perinatal medicine guided by the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient, the perinatologist should always identify and balance beneficence-based obligations to the fetal patient and beneficence-based and autonomy-based obligations to the pregnant patient. Directive counseling is appropriate when the fetus is a patient. Non-directive counseling is appropriate when the fetus is not a patient.Conclusion: Counseling pregnant women about the clinical management of their pregnancies should always identify and balance beneficence-based obligations to the fetal patient and beneficence-based and autonomy-based obligations to the pregnant patient.

  7. Method-dependent variability in determination of prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Canadian retail poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Catherine D; Plante, Daniel; Iugovaz, Irène; Kenwell, Robyn; Bélanger, Ghislaine; Boucher, Francine; Poulin, Nathalie; Trottier, Yvon-Louis

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter is the most frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Canada, and the illness is commonly associated with poultry consumption. Whereas Canadian retail poultry is often contaminated with campylobacters, studies on the prevalence of this organism are inconsistent due to variability in sampling and microbiological methodology. To determine the current microbiological status of Canadian poultry, and to evaluate two commonly used microbiological methods, 348 raw poultry samples were collected at retail across Canada over a period of 3 years (2007 to 2010) and were analyzed for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found to be 42.8% by a combination of the two testing methods, with 33.9% of the samples positive for C. jejuni, 3.7% of the samples positive for C. coli, and 5.2% of the samples positive for both. Variability in Campylobacter spp. prevalence was observed in samples obtained from different regions across Canada and from poultry with or without skin, but this was not statistically significant. In co-contaminated samples, C. jejuni was preferentially recovered from Preston agar compared with mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar, with an increase in recovery of C. coli on all selective media after 48 h of enrichment. A subset of 214 of the poultry rinses were analyzed by both Health Canada's standard method, MFLP-46 (enrichment in Park and Sanders broth), and a second method requiring enrichment in Bolton broth. Significantly more positive samples were obtained with the MFLP-46 method (40.6%) than with the alternate method (35.0%). This improved recovery with MFLP-46 may be due to the omission of cycloheximide from this method. These results demonstrate that determination of prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on poultry products may be significantly impacted by the choice of microbiological methods used. Canadian poultry continues to be a source of exposure to Campylobacter spp.

  8. Survival with a helping hand: Campylobacter and microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eIndikova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulphur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain.

  9. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

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    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  10. Chromosome abnormality incidence in fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, C; Ekin, A; Ozeren, M; Taner, C E; Ozer, O; Koc, A; Bilgin, M; Gezer, N S

    2014-07-01

    Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a marker of aneuploidy and warrants a detailed examination of fetal anatomy. Chromosomal abnormalities worsen the fetal and neonatal prognosis significantly and karyotyping of fetuses is critically important when accompanying anomalies are detected. Here, we report the genetic results of 140 fetuses with isolated and non-isolated VM detected during a second trimester ultrasound examination followed by invasive in utero diagnostic procedures for karyotyping. VM was diagnosed in seven (5%) fetuses with abnormal karyotype and the chromosomal abnormality incidence was higher in severe VM (6.8%) than mild (4.2%). Higher chromosomal abnormality rates were detected when VM was isolated (8.6%), rather than associated with any anomaly (3.8%). These results suggest that karyotype analysis should be offered to all patients with any degree of VM, regardless of its association with structural anomalies.

  11. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. (Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London (United Kingdom)); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. (Cytogenetics Lab., London (United Kingdom)); Nicolaides, K. (King' s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Gérmenes patógenos aislados en niños con infecciones respiratorias a repetición

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    Yoenny Peña García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones respiratorias agudas son la causa más frecuente de morbilidad y de elevada mortalidad en el mundo, particularmente en los países en desarrollo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, para caracterizar a los niños con infecciones respiratorias a repetición, según los gérmenes patógenos aislados, en el círculo infantil “Flores de la Vida” del municipio de Puerto Padre, en el período de abril a mayo de 2014. Se trabajó con los niños de los salones de segundo, tercero y cuarto año de vida, distribuidos según edad y sexo, a los que se les identificaron los gérmenes patógenos aislados en exudados nasofaríngeos. La información se obtuvo del departamento de microbiología del Centro Municipal de Higiene y Epidemiología. Se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados: el grupo de edad más frecuente fue el de dos años, que representó el 45 % de la muestra y se correspondió con la media de la edad. El 62,5 % de la muestra de estudio correspondió al sexo masculino. Los gérmenes patógenos aislados con mayor frecuencia fueron: el Streptococcus pneumoneae, para un 83,9 %, el Streptococcus B hemolítico, para un 7,1 % y el Haemophillus inflienzae para un 5,4 %

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in ground water in Sokoto, Sokoto state, Nigeria

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    Agatha N. Ugboma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the presence and prevalence of Campylobacter species in ground water in Sokoto, Sokoto State. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of Campylobacter species was determined by collecting a total of 74 water samples from wells in Sokoto over a period of four months from May to August 2011 and analyzed using cultural isolation techniques and biochemical characterization. Results: Totally 39 (52.70% water samples were Campylobacter positive. The species identified were Campylobacter jejuni 23 (58.97%, Campylobacter coli 11 (28.21% and Campylobacter hyointestinalis 5 (12.82%. Conclusion: Based on this study, the isolation of Campylobacter species from ground water (wells in this study is of serious public health importance as untreated water has been implicated as the cause of sporadic infections and outbreaks of Campylobacteriosis worldwide. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 285-287

  14. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed.

  15. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  16. Teratogenic effects of Gentamicin on skeletal system of rat fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzban H

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin was evaluated for developmental toxicity in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat. Gentamicin was administered subcutaneously on days 6-15 gestation at dose of 100 mg/kg. On gestation day 21, all live fetuses were examined for external and skeletal malformations and variations. Increased resorptions and dead fetuses, and reduced fetal body weight were observed at dose of 100 mg/kg. Gentamicin caused severe skeletal anomalies, such as: wavy ribs, incomplete ossification of sternebrae, tail vertebra, metacarpus, metatarsus and calvaria. These results indicate the nature and extent of embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of gentamicin in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  17. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    of these several factors as well as responses to acute or sustained hypoxia has been explored in the sheep model. In addition, much has been learned in the context of hypobaric hypoxia by studying human populations that have resided at high altitude for varying periods of time. Embryonic development occurs under...... anaerobic conditions and even the fetus is adapted to a low oxygen environment. Nevertheless, there is a reserve capacity, and during acute hypoxia the fetus can counter a 50% reduction in oxygen delivery by increasing fractional extraction. During sustained hypoxia, on the other hand, fetal growth...

  18. Fetus-in-fetu presenting as acute intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sunita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu is a rare condition in which a fetiform calcified mass is often present in the abdomen of its host; a newborn or infant. We present the case of a three-month-old male baby with acute intestinal obstruction and abdominal mass. X-ray abdomen and ultrasonogram revealed a cystic mass with calcification. On laparotomy, a well encapsulated retroperitoneal mass causing high intestinal obstruction was identified. Total excision of the mass was done. Diagnosis of fetus-in-fetu was confirmed on histopathology. Postoperative recovery was uneventful.

  19. Primer registro de Allomyces neomoniliformis (Chytridiomycota y Dictyuchus missouriensis (Oomycota aislados de un suelo agrícola (Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica M. Steciow

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Allomyces neomoniliformis y Dictyuchus missouriensis fueron aislados de un suelo agrícola conteniendo materia orgánica (hojas, raíces y tallos en Argentina. Ambas especies son citadas por primera vez para la Argentina y por segunda vez para Sudamérica, siendo el hallazgo más austral para el hemisferio occidental. Constituye el segundo aislamiento en Argentina de especies del género Allomyces y Dictyuchus. Se realizan consideraciones acerca de la distribucion de ambas especies

  20. Evaluación de microorganismos aislados de gallinaza por su potencial para el biocontrol de fusarium (f. oxysporum) en plántulas de uchuva (physalis peruviana).

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Amézquita, Jorge Enrique; Velandia Monsalve, Jorge; Viteri Rosero, Silvio Edgar

    2011-01-01

    En Colombia, las pérdidas económicas ocasionadas por Fusarium oxysporum en el cultivo de uchuva son considerables. Se evaluaron hongos y bacterias aislados de 2 fuentes de gallinaza, su potencial como agentes de biocontrol de este patógeno. La evaluación se realizó en cajas de Petri con PDA para lo cual se colocó en el centro de las mismas, un disco de 5 mm de diámetro colonizado por el patógeno y a 3 cm del centro, sobre los ejes horizontal y vertical, cada uno de los aislamientos de la gall...

  1. Agentes bacterianos asociados a brotes de Enfermedades Trasmitidas por Alimentos (ETA) aislados de coprocultivos - Bacterial agents associated to foodborne outbreaks isolated from foods and faecal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Sedrés Cabrera, Martha; Barreto Argilagos, Guillermo; Guevara Viera, Guillermo; Rodríguez Torrens, Herlinda

    2010-01-01

    ResumenEl trabajo aborda la incidencia de agentes bacterianos, aislados decoprocultivos realizados a pacientes con diarreas agudas. Todos involucrados en 72 brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA) estudiados por el Centro Provincial de Higiene, Epidemiología y Microbiología “Mártires de Pino Tres” de la ciudad de Camagüey. A tal fin se procesó la información recogida en su Sección de Coprocultivos.Este estudio generó un total de 722 muestras de las cuales 279 (38,64%)posibilit...

  2. Detection of Campylobacter bacteria in air samples for continuous real-time monitoring of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Katja N; Lund, Marianne; Skov, Julia; Christensen, Laurids S; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2009-04-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions of particles in the 0.5- to 2-microm-diameter range and high proportions in the 2- to 5-microm-diameter range. Campylobacter could also be detected by PCR in air samples collected at the hanging stage during the slaughter process but not at the other stages tested at the slaughterhouse. The exploitation of airborne dust in poultry houses as a sample material for the detection of Campylobacter and other pathogens provides an intriguing possibility, in conjunction with new detection technologies, for allowing continuous or semicontinuous monitoring of colonization status.

  3. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts.

  4. Isolation of Campylobacter from Brazilian broiler flocks using different culturing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; Pozza, J S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2014-11-01

    Conventional culturing methods enable the detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. However, laboratory culture of Campylobacter is laborious because of its fastidious behavior and the presence of competing nontarget bacteria. This study evaluated different protocols to isolate Campylobacter from broiler litter, feces, and cloacal and drag swabs. Samples taken from commercial Brazilian broiler flocks were directly streaked onto Preston agar (PA), Campy-Line agar (CLA), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and also enriched in blood-free Bolton broth (bfBB) for 24 and 48 h followed by plating onto the different selective media. Higher numbers of Campylobacter-positive cloacal and drag swab samples were observed using either direct plating or enrichment for 24 h before plating onto PA, compared with enrichment for 48 h (P Campylobacter in broiler litter and feces samples. Analysis of directly plated samples revealed that higher Campylobacter levels were detected in feces streaked onto PA (88.8%), cloacal swabs plated onto mCCDA (72.2%), drag swabs streaked onto CLA or mCCDA (69.4%), and litter samples inoculated onto PA (63.8%). Preston agar was the best agar to isolate Campylobacter from directly plated litter samples (P Campylobacter in other samples. The isolated Campylobacter strains were phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The predominant contaminant observed in the Campylobacter cultures was Proteus mirabilis, which was resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents in selective media. Together, these data showed that direct plating onto PA and onto either CLA or mCCDA as the second selective agar enabled the reliable isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter species from broiler samples. Finally, Campylobacter was detected in all broiler flocks sampled.

  5. Time-series analysis of Campylobacter incidence in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Schüpbach, G; Held, L

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacteriosis has been the most common food-associated notifiable infectious disease in Switzerland since 1995. Contact with and ingestion of raw or undercooked broilers are considered the dominant risk factors for infection. In this study, we investigated the temporal relationship between the disease incidence in humans and the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers in Switzerland from 2008 to 2012. We use a time-series approach to describe the pattern of the disease by incorporating seasonal effects and autocorrelation. The analysis shows that prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers, with a 2-week lag, has a significant impact on disease incidence in humans. Therefore Campylobacter cases in humans can be partly explained by contagion through broiler meat. We also found a strong autoregressive effect in human illness, and a significant increase of illness during Christmas and New Year's holidays. In a final analysis, we corrected for the sampling error of prevalence in broilers and the results gave similar conclusions.

  6. Estimation of on-farm interventions to control Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Rosenquist, Hanne;

    2015-01-01

    Before making risk management decisions to control Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, it is useful to identify effective interventions. A given risk factor may seem to have a large effect, but in practice interventions related to this risk factor may have only limited effect due to a rel......Before making risk management decisions to control Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, it is useful to identify effective interventions. A given risk factor may seem to have a large effect, but in practice interventions related to this risk factor may have only limited effect due...... individual interventions gave only a limited reduction in prevalence if the biosecurity was not accounted for. Furthermore, the effect of the interventions differed between countries, depending on current farm management practices and Campylobacter prevalence. The most effective interventions were “building...

  7. Clinical Manifestations of Campylobacter concisus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. METHODS:: A study was performed during a two-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient...... with Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection. RESULTS:: Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two diarrheic stool samples from 1,867 children were cultured for pathogenic enteric bacteria during the study period, and 85 and 109 children with C. concisus and C. jejuni/coli, respectively, were identified. Comparison...... for more than two weeks and two-thirds of all children with C. concisus reported loose stools after six month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:: Campylobacter concisus infection in children seems to have a milder course of acute gastroenteritis compared with C. jejuni/coli infection, but is associated with more...

  8. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  9. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Sandberg, M; Themudo, G E;

    2012-01-01

    Data from the Quality Assurance System in Danish Broiler Production (KIK system) were analyzed to identify within farm biosecurity- and management-related risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler flocks. In the study, data from 2,835 flocks originating from 187 farms in the time...... period of December 2009 to November 2010 were included. The PCR test results of fecal samples collected on socks revealed that 14% of the Danish broiler flocks were positive to Campylobacter during the study period. Of the positive flocks, 55% were positive during summer time and the positive flocks...

  10. Survival and Virulence of Campylobacter spp. in the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan

    of Campylobacter. In the second part of my PhD project, I have investigated the mechanisms involved in the interactions of Campylobacter and two protozoa: Acanthamoeba castellanii and Cercomonas sp. which are commonly found in soil and water. I have found that C. jejuni can survive intracellularly within A....... Interestingly, I identified the depletion of dissolved oxygen by A. castellanii as the major contributor for the observed amoeba-mediated growth enhancement. To test whether another protozoan rather than Acanthamoeba has similar impacts on survival of C. jejuni as well as other food-borne pathogens S...

  11. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  12. Enterite da Campylobacter upsaliensis: un paradigma della microbiologia clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia D’Annibale

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Authors describe a case of acute enteritis in a adult woman with severe hepatitis C infection caused by a strain of Campylobacter upsaliensis.The clinical isolate was obtained only on blood agar because filter membrane technique was performed. In fact for this strain it was no growth on selective Campy agar, which include cephalotin too; C. upsaliensis is sensitive to this antibiotic molecule. So, the use of filter membrane on blood agar or charcoal agar at 37°C in microaerophilic atmosphere is recommended for isolation of all campylobacters responsible of human enteritis.

  13. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli genotypes in poultry flocks by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Ana Cláudia; Cunha, Mónica V

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple, rapid, and discriminatory methodology that allows the routine molecular characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates. The proposed approach is built on one of the earliest and simplest molecular typing methods ever, consisting on the analysis of the fragments of different lengths generated by digestion of homologous DNA sequences with specific restriction endonucleases, a process known as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The strategy underneath the workflow reported here is meant to explore the polymorphisms of Campylobacter spp. flaA gene (flaA-RFLP) that allows the local investigation of the genetic diversity and distribution of C. coli and C. jejuni isolates from different sources, namely, chickens' caeca. Although not appropriate for global and long-term epidemiological studies as a single approach, flaA-RFLP analysis can be very useful in surveys limited in space and time and, for specific epidemiological settings, an alternative to more modern and resource-demanding techniques.

  14. Vagal tone during quiet sleep in normal human term fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groome, L J; Mooney, D M; Bentz, L S; Wilson, J D

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this paper was to calculate vagal tone (V) for 17 normal human fetuses in quiet sleep (QS) between 36 and 40 weeks gestation. The fetal cardiac electrical signal was captured transabdominally in 3-min blocks at a rate of 833 times per second and fetal R-waves were extracted using adaptive signal processing techniques. Fetal R-wave interbeat intervals were converted to equally spaced, time-based data, and the low-frequency component was removed using a 21-point third-order moving polynomial. The parameter V was calculated by taking the natural logarithm of the sum of the power densities between 0.3 Hz and 1.3 Hz. We found that fetal breathing was associated with an approximately 25% increase in V as compared to nonbreathing, 3.33 +/- 0.48 versus 2.57 +/- 0.47, p < 0.0001. Furthermore, there was a significant linear relationship between the mean single-fetus V during spontaneous respiration and the mean single-fetus V during normally occurring apneic periods, r = 0.772, p < 0.002. We conclude that respiratory activity is associated with a significant increase in vagal tone for normal human fetuses in QS.

  15. Near-Term Fetuses Process Temporal Features of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier-Deferre, Carolyn; Ribeiro, Aurelie; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Bassereau, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The perception of speech and music requires processing of variations in spectra and amplitude over different time intervals. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, but whether they can process complex auditory streams, such as speech sequences and more specifically their temporal variations, fast or…

  16. Mutations of connexin43 in fetuses with congenital heart malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ping; XIE Li-jian; HUANG Guo-ying; ZHAO Xiao-qing; CHANG Cai

    2005-01-01

    Background Gap junction channels formed by connexin43 (Cx43) protein are important in cardiac morphogenesis, and Cx43 gene is thought to be associated with congenital heart malformation (CHM). This study was undertaken to detect the mutations of Cx43 in fetuses with CHM.Methods Cx43 extron DNA was amplified by PCR from 16 fetuses with a variety of CHM. The PCR products were analyzed by SSCP and DNA sequencing. Thirty children who had no CHM were selected as controls. Results Eight homozygous mutations of Cx43 were observed in a fetus with double outlet right ventricule (DORV), five of the 8 mutations were missense mutations including Arg239Trp, Ser251Thr, Ala253Pro, Pro283Leu and Thr290Asn, and the remaining 3 were silent polymorphisms including Gly252Gly, Pro256Pro and Thr275Thr. No mutations were found in other fetuses and the control group.Conclusions Mutations of Cx43 may be associated with congenital conotruncal anomalies. PCR-SSCP is an effective method for screening the mutations of Cx43.

  17. INTRACRANIAL TERATOMA WITH MULTIPLE FETUSES - PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL APPEARANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENCATE, LN; VERMEIJKEERS, C; SMIT, DA; COHENOVERBEEK, TE; GERSSENSCHOORL, KBJ; DIJKHUIZEN, T

    1995-01-01

    An intracranial teratoma in which six distinct dysmorphic fetuses were included was studied at autopsy. Karyotopic studies showed a normal chromosomal number in the child and the same karyotype in the three tumoral parts that were examined. This is the second tumor of this type reported. Copyripht (

  18. Prenatal Development of Interlimb Motor Learning in the Rat Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Scott R.; Kleven, Gale A.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of sensory feedback in the early ontogeny of motor coordination remains a topic of speculation and debate. On E20 of gestation (the 20th day after conception, 2 days before birth), rat fetuses can alter interlimb coordination after a period of training with an interlimb yoke, which constrains limb movement and promotes synchronized,…

  19. Development of forelimb bones in indigenous sheep fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included detection of the sites of ossification centers and their sequence of appearance in the forelimb bones of indigenous sheep fetuses by using double staining method with younger specimens and radiography or maceration methods with old specimens, as well as, histological study with some ages. The results showed that the primary ossification centers of the forelimb in indigenous sheep fetuses appeared firstly in the diaphyses of radius and ulna, humerus, scapula, metacarpus, phalanges and lastly in the carpal bone at an estimated age of 43, 45, 46, 47, 49 - 56 and 90-118 days old respectively. The results of statistical analysis of the total lengths of scapula, humerus, radius, ulna and metacarpus with the lengths of their ossified parts through the 7th – 15th weeks of fetus age, showed presence of significant differences in the average of these measurements among most of studied weeks. Also there was a significant differences in the average of relative increase in the total length and length of ossified part of diaphysis of studied bones during the 7th week in comparison to the same average in the other studied weeks (8th-15th week of indigenous sheep fetuses age.

  20. Doppler velocity assessment of venous return in the human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W.A. Huisman (Tjeerd)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractStudies in the human fetus are limited by the methods available for investigation. Pressure and volume flow measurements in the fetal cardiovascular system require invasive techniques that are not performed at present. However, information on fetal circulatory performance may be helpful

  1. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  2. Nutrient Acquisition and Metabolism by Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eStahl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is able to colonize numerous different hosts and compete against the gut microbiota. To do this, it must be able to efficiently acquire sufficient nutrients from its environment to support its survival and rapid growth in the intestine. However, despite almost 50 years of research, many aspects as to how C. jejuni accomplishes this feat remain poorly understood. C. jejuni lacks many of the common metabolic pathways necessary for the use of glucose, galactose, or other carbohydrates upon which most other microbes thrive. It does however make efficient use of citric acid cycle intermediates and various amino acids. C. jejuni readily uses the amino acids aspartate, glutamate, serine, and proline, with certain strains also possessing additional pathways allowing for the use of glutamine and asparagine. More recent work has revealed that some C. jejuni strains can metabolize the sugar L-fucose. This finding has upset years of dogma that C. jejuni is an asaccharolytic organism. C. jejuni also possesses diverse mechanisms for the acquisition of various transition metals that are required for metabolic activities. In particular, iron acquisition is critical for the formation of iron-sulphur complexes. C. jejuni is also unique in possessing both molybdate and tungsten cofactored proteins and thus has an unusual regulatory scheme for these metals. Together these various metabolic and acquisition pathways help C. jejuni to compete and thrive in wide variety of hosts and environments.

  3. Soursop Leaves (Annona muricata Folium on Mice (Mus musculus Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Suryani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soursop leaf ethanol extract (Annona muricata (L Folium contains acetogenins which are cytotoxic and have the ability to halt cell growth. This study aimed to understand whether acetogenins have teratogenic effects on mice fetus (Mus musculus. Methods: This study was performed at the Pharmacology and Therapy Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, between October and November 2012. The study was an experimental laboratory study utilizing 27 pregnant mice which were divided into 3 groups. The first group was the negative control, the second was given soursop leaf ethanol extract at pre-implantation phase (day 1 to 5 and the third had the extract provided in the organogenesis phase (day 6 to 15. Laparotomy was performed on the 19th day of pregnancy. The parameters used were the number of implantation, the number of live and dead or resorbed fetus, the weight and length of the fetus, as well as the macroscopic external morphology abnormalities. The data gained from test subjects were compared to those of the control group. The statistical test used was the normality tes with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov method which was then followed by T-test or Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Results: The experiment exhibited significant differences in the weight and length of the fetus (p-value 0.000, proving that soursop leaf ethanol extract could inhibit intrauterine growth. Aside from that, external morphological abnormalities such as hemorrhage on the head, face, neck, back, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and microcephaly were also found. Conclusion: The soursop leaf ethanol extract (Annona muricata (L Folium has a teratogenic effect on mouse (Mus musculus fetus. [AMJ.2014;1(1:48–53

  4. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Oebele F

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation may trigger cerebral pathology. In fetuses with MMC, little is known about neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and the initiating pathological events. The objective of this study was to investigate whether neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation occurs in human fetuses and neonates with MMC, and if so, whether it is associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. Methods Seven fetuses and 1 neonate (16–40 week gestational age, GA with MMC and 6 fetuses with normal cerebral development (22–41 week GA were included in the study. Identification of fetal MMC and clinical surveillance of fetal head circumference and ventricular width was performed by ultrasound (US. After birth, MMC was confirmed by histology. We characterized hydrocephalus by increased head circumference in association with ventriculomegaly. The median time interval between fetal cerebral ultrasound and fixing tissue for histology was four days. Results At 16 weeks GA, we observed neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the aqueduct and telencephalon together with sub-cortical heterotopias in absence of hydrocephalus and/or Chiari II malformation. At 21–34 weeks GA, we observed concurrence of aqueductal neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and progenitor cell loss with the Chiari II malformation, whereas hydrocephalus was absent. At 37–40 weeks GA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation coincided with Chiari II malformation and hydrocephalus. Sub-arachnoidal fibrosis at the convexity was absent in all fetuses but present in the neonate. Conclusion In fetal SBA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the telencephalon and the aqueduct can occur before Chiari II malformation

  5. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benefit to the pregnant woman, the prospect of a direct benefit both to the pregnant woman and the fetus... the fetus then the consent of the pregnant woman and the father is obtained in accord with...

  6. 10 CFR 835.206 - Limits for the embryo/fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits for the embryo/fetus. 835.206 Section 835.206... Exposure § 835.206 Limits for the embryo/fetus. (a) The equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the... provided in § 835.206(a) shall be avoided. (c) If the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni 11168H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Sarah E.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Dorrell, Nick; Wren, Brendan W.; Blake, Damer

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world. The reference and original sequenced strain C. jejuni NCTC11168 has low levels of motility compared to clinical isolates. Here, we describe the draft genome of the laboratory derived hypermotile variant named 11168H. PMID:28153902

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to consumption of contamina

  9. First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Stenram, U.; Andersen, L.P.;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C. concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize...

  10. Specific pathogen-free pig herds also free from Campylobacter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstoe, E M; Iversen, T; Østensvik, Ø; Abdelghani, A; Secic, I; Nesbakken, T

    2015-03-01

    As Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) pig herds are designed and managed to prevent specific pig diseases, it might be feasible to expand the list of micro-organisms also including zoonotic pathogens such as Campylobacter coli as this agent has its origin in pigs. In a previous survey, 15 of 16 of SPF herds were found free from human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Accordingly, three nucleus and seven multiplying herds were surveyed for Campylobacter to investigate whether the Norwegian SPF pig pyramid also might be free from this agent. In conclusion, the intervention of Campylobacter at the herd level might be possible as four of 10 SPF herds tested negative in two sets of samples from both autumn 2008 and summer/early autumn 2010. The four negative herds were all located in remote areas several kilometres away from conventional pig farming while the positive SPF farms were all situated in neighbourhoods with conventional pig production. It seems more difficult to control Campylobacter than some specific animal disease agents and another significant zoonotic agent, Y. enterocolitica, in pig herds.

  11. Maatschappelijke acceptatie van maatregelen tegen Campylobacter in kippenvlees in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, M.J.; Sengers, H.H.W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt ingegaan op de acceptatie bij vleeskuikenhouders, pluimveeslachterijen en consumenten van elf mogelijk te nemen maatregelen waarmee de besmetting van kippenvlees met Campylobacter kan worden verminderd in Nederland. Uit het enquêteonderzoek blijkt dat bij vleeskuikenhouders en p

  12. Routes of transmission of salmonella and campylobacter in breeder turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are frequent colonizers of the intestinal tracts of poultry and have often been associated with human foodborne illness. The entry, transmission and prevalence of both pathogens have been extensively studied in chickens but little information is available for turkeys. ...

  13. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to compare typing methods, individually and combined, to use in the routine surveillance of Campylobacter in broiler carcasses. C. jejuni (n=94) and C. coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler carcasses were characterized using different typing methods: multilocus sequen...

  14. Role of emerging Campylobacter species in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M; Man, Si Ming

    2014-11-01

    The gut microbiota is a central player in the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases. As such, there is intense scientific interest in elucidating the specific group/s of bacteria responsible for driving barrier damage and perpetuating the chronic inflammation that results in disease. Because of their ability to colonize close to the surface of the host intestinal epithelium, mucosa-associated bacteria are considered key players in the initiation and development of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The leading bacterial candidates include adherent and invasive Escherichia coli, Helicobacter, Fusobacteria, Mycobacteria, and Campylobacter species. Of these, a member of the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter concisus, has recently emerged as a putative player in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Current research indicates that this bacterium possesses extraordinarily diverse pathogenic capacities as well as unique genetic and functional signatures that are defined by their ability to adhere to and invade host cells, secrete toxins, and the presence of a virulence-associated restriction-modification system. These characteristics enable the potential classification of C. concisus into distinct pathotypes, which we have named adherent and invasive C. concisus and adherent and toxinogenic C. concisus. In this review, we evaluate evidence for the role of emerging Campylobacter species in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  15. Host adaptation mechanisms and transcriptional regulation in Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, A.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness causing >100 million human cases each year worldwide. In contrast to other important enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni appears to lack a set of classical virulence traits, like adhesins, type I

  16. Role of Rodents in transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Kijlstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are generally regarded as the most important food-borne pathogens in the world. Reduction or elimination of these pathogens in the first part of the food chain (on the farm) is important to prevent disease among consumers of animal products. In organic farming, eliminati

  17. Colonization of broilers by Campylobacter jejuni internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the first report that Campylobacter jejuni, internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii, colonized broilers. After 1, 3, 7 and 14 days post challenge none of the broilers challenged with negative controls were colonized, but were with internalized C. jejuni. The biology of protozoa-Cam...

  18. Arsenic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Amy R; Price, Lance B; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2006-04-01

    Organoarsenicals are commonly used for growth promotion in U.S. poultry production. Susceptibilities to arsenite, arsenate, and the organoarsenical roxarsone were measured in 251 Campylobacter isolates from conventional and antimicrobial-free retail poultry products. Isolates from conventional poultry products had significantly higher roxarsone MICs (z = 8.22; P < 0.0001).

  19. Phage therapy reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Mueller, M.A.; Wassenaar, T.M.; Carlton, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phage therapy in the control of Campylobacter jejuni colonization in young broilers, either as a preventive or a therapeutic measure, was tested. A prevention group was infected with C. jejuni at day 4 of a 10-day phage treatment. A therapeutic group was phage treated for 6 days, start

  20. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    , an isolation strategy was developed employing initial non-selective membrane filtration onto fastidious anaerobe agar. Campylobacters were then isolated from the resulting mixed microbial flora by a dilution strategy and/or by immunomagnetic separation with genus-specific polyclonal antibody. Isolates were...

  1. Identification of possible virulence marker from Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, James W; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Siddiqui, Fariha; Korbrisate, Sunee; Bukhari, Habib; Tra, My Phan Vu; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Bryant, Juliet; Campbell, James I; Studholme, David J; Wren, Brendan W; Baker, Stephen; Titball, Richard W; Champion, Olivia L

    2014-06-01

    A novel protein translocation system, the type-6 secretion system (T6SS), may play a role in virulence of Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated 181 C. jejuni isolates from humans, chickens, and environmental sources in Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom for T6SS. The marker was most prevalent in human and chicken isolates from Vietnam.

  2. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...

  3. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in different gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Knochel, Susanne; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni in fresh chilled chicken meat is known to be a major risk factor for human gastrointestinal disease. In the present study, the survival under chilled conditions of different C. jejuni strains exposed to different gas mixtures usually used for gas packaging of food was examined...

  4. Reactions of Chicken Sera to Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative rod bacterium and is the leading but under-reported bacterial food-borne pathogen that causes human campylobacteriosis worldwide. Raw or undercooked poultry products are regarded as a major source for human infection. C. jejuni flagella have been implicated ...

  5. Clonal distribution and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolates in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feodoroff, Benjamin; de Haan, Caroline P A; Ellström, Patrik; Sarna, Seppo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2013-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni bacteria are highly diverse enteropathogens. Seventy-three C. jejuni isolates from blood collected in Finland were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and serum resistance. Approximately half of the isolates belonged to the otherwise uncommon sequence type 677 clonal complex. Isolates of this clonal complex were more resistant than other isolates to human serum.

  6. Milk modulates campylobacter invasion into caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Neerven, van R.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campyl

  7. Campylobacter Prevalence in the Broiler Supply Chain in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Brakel, van R.P.; Voet, van der H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2008-01-01

    After a national control program, data on Campylobacter prevalence in the broiler supply chain in the Netherlands were gathered for 3 sampling points: departure of broiler farm and arrival and departure of the slaughterhouse. Monitoring data from this control program for 2002 to 2005 were analyzed t

  8. Genomic Rearrangements Associated with Antigenic Variation in Campylobacter coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    AU’rHORS) P. Guerrv, S.M. Logan, and T.J. Trust. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Journal article ...level. Olsen, N. R. Pace, and D. A. Stahl. 1987. Campylohacterpylori. the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis , is not a true Campylobacter

  9. Development and stability of bacteriocin resistance 1 in Campylobacter spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Several bacteriocins (BCNs) identified from chicken commensal bacteria dramatically reduced Campylobacter colonization in poultry and aredirected toward on farm control of this important food-borne human pathogen. BCN resistance in C. jejuni is very difficult to develop in vitro. In this study...

  10. Prevalence, development, and molecular mechanisms of bacteriocin resistance in Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriocins (BCNs) are antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with narrow or broad spectra of antimicrobial activity. Recently, several unique anti-Campylobacter BCNs have been identified from commensal LAB isolated from chicken intestines. These BCNs dramatically reduced C. ...

  11. Case of acute pancreatitis associated with Campylobacter enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Rumiko; Matsumoto, Satohiro; Yoshida, Yukio

    2014-06-21

    A 25-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaints of right flank pain, watery diarrhea, and fever. Blood tests revealed high levels of inflammatory markers, and infectious enteritis was diagnosed. A stool culture obtained on admission revealed no growth of any significant pathogens. Conservative therapy was undertaken with fasting and fluid replacement. On day 2 of admission, the fever resolved, the frequency of defecation reduced, the right flank pain began to subside, and the white blood cell count started to decrease. On hospital day 4, the frequency of diarrhea decreased to approximately 5 times per day, and the right flank pain resolved. However, the patient developed epigastric pain and increased blood levels of the pancreatic enzymes. Abdominal computed tomography revealed mild pancreatic enlargement. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed, and conservative therapy with fasting and fluid replacement was continued. A day later, the blood levels of the pancreatic enzymes peaked out. On hospital day 7, the patient passed stools with fresh blood, and Campylobacter jejuni/coli was detected by culture. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy performed on hospital day 8 revealed diffuse aphthae extending from the terminal ileum to the entire colon. Based on the findings, pancreatitis associated with Campylobacter enteritis was diagnosed. In the present case, a possible mechanism of onset of pancreatitis was invasion of the pancreatic duct by Campylobacter and the host immune responses to Campylobacter.

  12. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Hald, Anna Bodil;

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish...

  13. Salmonella og Campylobacter i økologisk svineproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2005-01-01

    De mere ekstensive systemer i økologisk svineproduktion formodes at have en positiv effekt på dyrenes robusthed f.eks. over for infektioner. Der er dog ingen dokumentation for, at økologiske svin har et lavere indhold af de almindelige zoonotiske bakterier som f.eks. Salmonella og Campylobacter end...

  14. Myocardial tissue Doppler velocities in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himesh V Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI is a sensitive index of myocardial function. Its role in the fetus has not been extensively evaluated. Objective: To compare myocardial tissue Doppler velocities in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS to those of normal fetuses (matched for gestational age. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study conducted at 2 large perinatal centers (2003-2007. Fetuses with HLHS ( n = 13 were compared with normal fetuses ( n = 207 in 5 gestational age groups. TDI data included peak systolic (s′, peak early (e′, and late diastolic velocities (a′. Linear regression was used to compare TDI parameters in fetuses with HLHS to normal fetuses matched for gestational age. Results: Fetuses with HLHS had significantly reduced lateral tricuspid annular e′ as compared to normal fetuses. Both normal fetuses and those with HLHS had linear increase in TDI velocities with advancing gestational age. Conclusions: TDI velocities are abnormal in fetuses with HLHS. TDI can be useful in serial follow-up of cardiac function in fetuses with HLHS.

  15. 10 CFR 20.1208 - Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. 20.1208 Section 20... Limits § 20.1208 Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. (a) The licensee shall ensure that the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a...

  16. Towards a New Study on Associative Learning in Human Fetuses: Fetal Associative Learning in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed that fetuses can learn from events in their environment. The most convincing evidence for fetal learning is habituation to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in human fetuses and classical conditioning in rat fetuses. However, these two research areas have been independent of each other. There have been few attempts at classical…

  17. PCR detection of seven virulence and toxin genes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from Danish pigs and cattle and cytolethal distending toxin production of the isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Nielsen, E.M.; Scheutz, F.

    2003-01-01

    demonstrated that these putative pathogenic determinants are widespread among Campylobacter isolates from pigs and cattle. Campylobacter coli isolates from pigs produced much higher CDT titres compared with C. coli isolates from other sources suggesting that C. coli may be particularly adapted to or associated...

  18. Cell wall anchoring of the Campylobacter antigens to Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Kobierecka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type Campylobacter jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analysed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered

  19. Study of the ureter structure in anencephalic fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of this paper is to analyze the structure of the ureter in normal and anencephalic human fetuses. Materials and Methods We studied 16 ureters from 8 human fetuses without congenital anomalies aged 16 to 27 weeks post-conception (WPC and 14 ureters from 7 anencephalic fetuses aged 19 to 33 WPC. The ureters were dissected and embedded in paraffin, from which 5 µm thick sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome, to quantify smooth muscle cells (SMC and to determine the ureteral lumen area, thickness and ureteral diameter. The samples were also stained with Weigert Resorcin Fucsin (to study elastic fibers and Picro-Sirius Red with polarization and immunohistochemistry analysis of the collagen type III fibers to study collagen. Stereological analysis of collagen, elastic system fibers and SMC were performed on the sections. Data were expressed as volumetric density (Vv-%. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done using the Image Pro and Image J programs. For biochemical analysis, samples were fixed in acetone, and collagen concentrations were expressed as micrograms of hydroxyproline per mg of dry tissue. Means were statistically compared using the unpaired t-test (p < 0.05. Results The ureteral epithelium was well preserved in the anencephalic and control groups. We did not observe differences in the transitional epithelium in the anencephalic and control groups. There was no difference in elastic fibers and total collagen distribution in normal and anencephalic fetuses. SMC concentration did not differ significantly (p = 0.1215 in the anencephalic and control group. The ureteral lumen area (p = 0.0047, diameter (p = 0.0024 and thickness (p = 0.0144 were significantly smaller in anencephalic fetuses. Conclusions Fetuses with anencephaly showed smaller diameter, area and thickness. These differences could indicate that anencephalic fetal

  20. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter.

  1. Sewage effluent as a source of Campylobacter sp. in a surface water catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Campylobacter sp. can regularly be found in wastewater-affected surface waters. The occurrence of Campylobacter sp. in rivers, treated sewage and combined sewer overflows was analysed in a catchment with sparse annual precipitation. During regular treatment the reduction efficacy for Campylobacter sp. varies between 1.75 and 3.5 log(10). However, Campylobacter sp. concentrations do not increase downstream in the river as more sewage treatment plants discharge into it. During rain events, the Campylobacter sp. concentration in the river upstream of any sewage plant rises and in the sewer overflow water it is more than 150-fold higher than the average concentration in the river water at the river mouth. The highest Campylobacter sp. loads and the highest risk of infection occur during summertime after heavy rainfall. Risk management strategies should focus on problems regarding water scarcity, reuse of sewage effluent and the impact of heavy rain events.

  2. Molecular diagnosis of Arcobacter and Campylobacter in diarrhoeal samples among Portuguese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Júlio, Cláudia; Queiroz, João A; Domingues, Fernanda C; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter and Campylobacter spp. in 298 stool samples of patients with diarrhoea, collected from 22 Portuguese hospitals, between September and November 2012. Detection of Arcobacter and Campylobacter spp. was performed using molecular-based detection techniques, such as real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR, species-specific PCR, and sequencing of amplified PCR products. Overall, 1.3% of the samples were positive for Arcobacter butzleri and 0.3% for Arcobacter cryaerophilus. Campylobacter spp. were found in 31.9% of diarrhoeic faeces. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter concisus were the most prevalent species (13.7% and 8.0%, respectively). The prevalence of Arcobacter and Campylobacter spp. was significantly different between children and adults (39.7% versus 22.8%, P = 0.003). We underline the high prevalence of these pathogens in diarrhoeal samples among Portuguese patients, with particular relevance in the paediatric age group.

  3. Description and sources of contamination by Campylobacter spp. of river water destined for human consumption in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; M Tanguy; Chidaine, B; Laisney, M-J; Mégraud, F; Fravalo, P

    2011-10-01

    Presence or absence of Campylobacter spp. in water of five rivers upstream from an intake point for drinking water production was investigated, and isolates genetically compared with human, pig and poultry isolates in order to determine their source. River water and drinking water obtained from these rivers were sampled one time per month, over a period of one year, and tested for Campylobacter. Isolates were typed by PFGE. Campylobacter was not detected in treated drinking water, but 50% of the river samples were contaminated. Contamination was observed on the four seasons. In total, 297 Campylobacter isolates were collected and generated 46 PFGE profiles. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently detected species in samples (74.1% of the isolates), followed by Campylobacter coli (17.8%) and Campylobacter lari (8.1%). Forty-two of the 46 PFGE profiles were unique. Only one genotype was detected three times in a river during the year and four genotypes in two different rivers. When compared to animal and human Campylobacter PFGE profiles, 14, 11 and one Campylobacter genotypes from water were genetically closed to human, poultry, and pig Campylobacter genotypes, respectively. The Campylobacter population displayed a high level of genetic diversity, suggesting that contamination originated from various origins. Human, poultry and pig were sources of contamination of the river by Campylobacter. Finally, no Campylobacter were detected in drinking water, indicating that the risk of outbreaks due to consumption of drinking water is low.

  4. Bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad A; Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Arutyunov, Denis; Evoy, Stephane; Szymanski, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. Most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. Bacteriophages bind to their host specifically through their receptor binding proteins (RBPs), which can be exploited for pathogen detection. We recently sequenced the genome of C. jejuni phage NCTC12673 and identified its putative host receptor binding protein, Gp047. In the current study, we localized the receptor binding domain to the C-terminal quarter of Gp047. CC-Gp047 could be produced recombinantly and was capable of agglutinating both C. jejuni and C. coli cells unlike the host range of the parent phage which is limited to a subset of C. jejuni isolates. The agglutination procedure could be performed within minutes on a glass slide at room temperature and was not hindered by the presence of buffers or nutrient media. This agglutination assay showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity was 95% for C. jejuni (n = 40) and 90% for C. coli (n = 19). CC-Gp047 was also expressed as a fusion with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Chimeric EGFP_CC-Gp047 was able to specifically label C. jejuni and C. coli cells in mixed cultures allowing for the detection of these pathogens by fluorescent microscopy. This study describes a simple and rapid method for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli using engineered phage RBPs and offers a promising new diagnostics platform for healthcare and surveillance laboratories.

  5. Bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Javed

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. Most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. Bacteriophages bind to their host specifically through their receptor binding proteins (RBPs, which can be exploited for pathogen detection. We recently sequenced the genome of C. jejuni phage NCTC12673 and identified its putative host receptor binding protein, Gp047. In the current study, we localized the receptor binding domain to the C-terminal quarter of Gp047. CC-Gp047 could be produced recombinantly and was capable of agglutinating both C. jejuni and C. coli cells unlike the host range of the parent phage which is limited to a subset of C. jejuni isolates. The agglutination procedure could be performed within minutes on a glass slide at room temperature and was not hindered by the presence of buffers or nutrient media. This agglutination assay showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity was 95% for C. jejuni (n = 40 and 90% for C. coli (n = 19. CC-Gp047 was also expressed as a fusion with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. Chimeric EGFP_CC-Gp047 was able to specifically label C. jejuni and C. coli cells in mixed cultures allowing for the detection of these pathogens by fluorescent microscopy. This study describes a simple and rapid method for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli using engineered phage RBPs and offers a promising new diagnostics platform for healthcare and surveillance laboratories.

  6. Complete genome sequences of Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis strain LMG9260 and Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strain LMG15993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis is isolated primarily from ruminants and swine, but is also occasionally isolated from humans. C. hyointestinalis is currently divided into two subspecies: subsps. hyointestinalis and lawsonii. This study describes the first closed whole-genome sequences of the subsp. h...

  7. 23S rRNA gene mutations contributing to macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operon specific 23S rRNA mutations affecting minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of macrolides (erythromycin [ERY], azithromycin [AZM], tylosin [TYL]) and a lincosamide (clindamycin [CLI]) were examined in a collection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates. The three copies of the Campy...

  8. Affinity Probe Capillary Electrophoresis Evaluation of Aptamer Binding to Campylobacter jejuni Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Affinity Probe Capillary Electrophoresis Evaluation of Aptamer Binding to Campylobacter jejuni Bacteria by Dimitra N. Stratis-Cullum, Sun...Aptamer Binding to Campylobacter jejuni Bacteria Dimitra N. Stratis-Cullum, Sun McMasters, and Paul M. Pellegrino Sensors and Electron Devices...To) 2007–2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Affinity Probe Capillary Electrophoresis Evaluation of Aptamer Binding to Campylobacter jejuni Bacteria 5a

  9. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.

  10. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänninen Marja-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456 were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143 were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of

  11. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki; Isohanni, Pauliina; Katzav, Marianne; Lund, Marianne; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143) were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of Campylobacter in the

  12. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Thermophilic Campylobacter Species in Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Murat; İSTANBULLUOĞLU, Ersin; AYVALI, Burcu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in broiler chicken faecal samples and on their carcasses. The possible routes of carcass contamination were assessed from slaughterhouse to market. Furthermore, the study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates from broilers. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 393 (91.8%) of 428 samples examined. A total of 53 out of 57 rectal swab samples wa...

  13. Serologic Evidence of Previous Campylobacter jejuni Infection in Patients with the Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-15

    Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Acccsiccn For rNTIS CRA&I... Campylobacter jejuni may tigation of 106 patients with the Guillain-Barre syn- play a role in the initiation of the Guillain-Barr6 syn- drome, C. jejuni...C. jejuni infection also lain-Barr6 syndrome were 5.3 times more likely to have Table 2. Campylobacter jejuni Antibodies in Patients with Culture

  14. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in ground water in Sokoto, Sokoto state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Agatha N. Ugboma; Muhammed D. Salihu; Abdullahi A. Magaji; Abubakar, Mikail B.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the presence and prevalence of Campylobacter species in ground water in Sokoto, Sokoto State. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of Campylobacter species was determined by collecting a total of 74 water samples from wells in Sokoto over a period of four months from May to August 2011 and analyzed using cultural isolation techniques and biochemical characterization. Results: Totally 39 (52.70%) water samples were Campylobacter positive. The ...

  15. Embryonic thymic development in fetuses of domestic cats (Felis domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Agreste

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During fetal life, and during the neonatal period, the thymus is a very important immune organ, and is the largest lymphatic organ, which exhibits high lymphopoietic activity as a precursor of lymphopoiesis. Morphological studies on the development of the thymus are rare and only include general information. Given the above, this study aimed to characterize the morphological development of the thymus of embryos and fetuses of domestic cats (Felis domesticus, from natural pregnancy, using macroscopic dissection techniques and light microscopy. The thymus of the cats was pale pink and was resting in the region of the cranial mediastinum, medially to the lungs and dorsally to the base of the heart. Histologically, two distinct regions were observed (cortical and medullar. The medullary region had reticular epithelial cells with large nuclei and dendritic extensions. The fetuses had exponential growth and were more pronounced starting on the 35th day of gestation.

  16. Misdiagnosis of fetus-in-fetu as meconium peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Joo Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu (FIF is a rare congenital condition in which a fetiform mass is detected in the host abdomen and also in other sites such as the intracranium, thorax, head, and neck. This condition has been rarely reported in the literature. Herein, we report the case of a fetus presenting with abdominal cystic mass and ascites and prenatally diagnosed as meconium pseudocyst. Explorative laparotomy revealed an irregular fetiform mass in the retroperitoneum within a fluid-filled cyst. The mass contained intestinal tract, liver, pancreas, and finger. Fetal abdominal cystic mass has been identified in a broad spectrum of diseases. However, as in our case, FIF is often overlooked during differential diagnosis. FIF should also be differentiated from other conditions associated with fetal abdominal masses.

  17. Fetus In Fetu — A Mystery in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Majhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus in Fetu (FIF is a rare condition where a monozygotic diamnionic parasitic twin is incorporated into the body of its fellow twin and grows inside it. FIF is differentiated from teratoma by the presence of vertebral column. An eight year old girl presented with an abdominal swelling which by X-ray, ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a fetiform mass containing long bones and vertebral bodies surrounded by soft tissue situated on right lumber region. On laparotomy, a retroperitoneal mass resembling a fetus of 585 gm was removed. It had a trunk and four limbs with fingers and toes, umbilical stump, intestinal loops and abundant scalp hairs but was devoid of brain and heart. Histology showed various well-differentiated tissues in respective sites. FIF is a mystery in reproduction and it is scarce in literature in such well-developed stage.

  18. Morphometric analysis of the hip joint in fetuses and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, Dariusz; Popko, Janusz

    2003-12-30

    Background. Information's about prenatal development of hip joint are necessary for full understanding of it's neonatal abnormalities. Material and methods. Our research was carried out during autopsies on 43 cadavers of 20-40 week old fetuses and 7 cadavers of newborns which died before twelfth week. Observation of development of hip in the second half of the prenatal growth and the neonatal period was based on morphometric analysis. Results and Conclusions. In the hips of 20 to 40 weeks old fetuses, 3 cases of dysplasia were found. Morphometric analysis of hips in this age group, showed very complex developmental processes. The most important of them seems to be the decreasing overlay of acetabulum over femoral head in the last few weeks before the birth. This physiological process is an result of the relative decrease in acetabulum depth and simultaneous faster increase of femoral head diameter in two last weeks of prenatal development.

  19. Diseño de la Formulación de un Material de Empaque Flexible y Comestible a Base de Aislado Proteínico de Suero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Regalado González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad es muy común resguardar alimentos con empaques de plástico de naturaleza sintética. Actualmente alrededor de un 30% en peso de los desechos municipales corresponden a empaques sintéticos, lo que sugiere la necesidad de crear alternativas ecológicas de empaque, específicamente el diseño y elaboración de películas biodegradables. Dichas películas deben de tener características químicas y mecánicas apropiadas para que retarden la transferencia de masa en los sistemas de alimentos, prolonguen la vida del alimento empacado y mejoren la calidad del producto. Las películas elaboradas con aislado proteínico de suero representan una alternativa viable. Por ello el objetivo de este estudio es determinar la mejor formulación para dichas películas, a partir de los componentes básicos aislado de proteínico de suero (WPI, sorbitol no cristalizable, cera de abeja, cera de candelilla, extracto libre de células (ELC además de la medición de propiedades mecánicas de diferentes combinaciones y concentraciones de los ingredientes básicos. La metodología empleada fue preparar 21 tratamientos de películas biodegradables con aislado proteínico de suero. Posteriormente se realizaron pruebas mecánicas para la determinación del porcentaje de elongación (%E, resistencia a la tensión (RT y módulo de elasticidad (ME para la determinación de la mejor formulación. Se observó que los tratamientos que tienen 10% (w/v de sorbitol (tratamientos 5, 9,14 presentaron mejores propiedades mecánicas como un %E alto y ME alto además de una RT alta, ya que el sorbitol es el que le confiere mayor flexibilidad al empaque, en contraste con aquellas que fueron tratadas con 7% (w/v de sorbitol (tratamientos 2, 8, 12, 21 el cual muestra propiedades mecánicas indeseables, ya que se tornan quebradizas además de que presentan %E bajos así como ME altos

  20. Resistencia y susceptibilidad de microorganismos aislados en pacientes atendidos en una institución hospitalaria de tercer nivel, Villavicencio-Colombia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alexander Gutiérrez Lesmes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La resistencia bacteriana es problema significativo de salud pública y está asociada al uso indiscriminado e irracional de antibióticos, lo que afecta la eficacia de los tratamientos. Objetivo: Estimar la resistencia antimicrobiana a los antibióticos resultado de las pruebas invitro de susceptibilidad en una institución hospitalaria de tercer nivel de Villavicencio, Colombia. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo, análisis univariado, calculando medias de las variables susceptibilidad, resistencia, antibiótico, microorganismos, y tipo de muestra resultados de las pruebas de susceptibilidad realizadas mediante técnica de Kirby-Bauer de 485 pruebas de susceptibilidad de la institución hospitalaria. Resultados y Discusión: Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados, fueron: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. Pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus ss. Aureus representando el 49% de total de microorganismos, los mayores reportes de resistencia en la pruebas invitro las presentaron Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus saprophyticus ss. Saprophytic, Enterobacter cloacae, presentan una resistencia media superior al 50%, y una susceptibilidad inferior 40%, la mayor resistencia media se presentó para los siguientes antibióticos, Cefalotina 72,2%, Cefazolina 59,9%, Nitrofurantoina 54,4%, Ceftriaxona 52,7%. Conclusiones: Antibióticos como la Cefalotina, Nitrofurantoina, Cefazolina y Ceftriaxona  pierden su utilidad terapéutica dada la elevada resistencia demostrada por los microorganismos aislados en las pruebas invitro, es necesario reforzar las medidas de uso adecuado de antibióticos para disminuir la posibilidad de adaptación y resistencia a los mismos,  el fenómeno de resistencia bacteriana ocurre fuera del ámbito hospitalario evidenciando la necesidad de iniciar también control y vigilancia en infecciones ocurridas en la comunidad.Cómo citar este

  1. Fetus In Fetu — A Mystery in Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Majhi, A. K.; Saha, K.; M. Karmakar; Sinha Karmakar, K.; Sen, A; Das, S

    2007-01-01

    Fetus in Fetu (FIF) is a rare condition where a monozygotic diamnionic parasitic twin is incorporated into the body of its fellow twin and grows inside it. FIF is differentiated from teratoma by the presence of vertebral column. An eight year old girl presented with an abdominal swelling which by X-ray, ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a fetiform mass containing long bones and vertebral bodies surrounded by soft tissue situated on right lumber region. On laparotomy, a retroperitoneal mass...

  2. Anatomohistological characteristics of Meckel's diverticulum in human fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meckel's diverticulum (MD is the most frequent anomaly of the small intestine. It appears after incomplete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric or viteline duct which normally obliterates and disappears by the 9th week of gestation. The majority of MD do not give rise to any clinical symptoms and are encounted either incidentally, at examination or intervention, or due to complications which may occur (obstruction, hemorrhagy, rupture, and are described in many clinical reports. The aim of the study was to find out the incidence of MD in fetuses when the development of the alimentary tract is already finished. Methods. The investigation was performed on 150 human fetuses of different sex and gastational age, using microdissection method. The cases with MD were photographed, described, their positions and dimensions were registered. The samples of MD taken for histological investigation were dyed with hematoksilin eosin method. Results. Meckel's diverticulum was found in five fetuses (three male and two female; in one case the fibrous band was found. All of them were located on animesenteric margine of the small intestine at the average distance of 92.5 mm from the ileocecal junction. They were of different shape and dimensions, but of the normal constitution of the small intestine. Conclusion. The incidence of MD was 3.3%, and 4% of all the anomalies of the intestines connected to the disappearance of the viteline duct. It was more frequent in the male, located on antimesenteric margine of the small intestine, at the destination which highly correlated to the age of the fetus. Meckel's diverticule were of different shapes and dimensions but of the typical constitution of the small intestine. .

  3. Duration of gestation in pregnant dogs carrying cloned fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gestation duration and the physiologic characteristics of pregnant dogs bearing cloned fetuses, especially in the prepartum period. A retrospective study was performed to compare gestation duration in females pregnant with cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) fetuses (cloned group) with those bearing noncloned fetuses (control group), and effects of litter size, birth weight, and breed of somatic cell donors on gestation duration in the cloned group were evaluated. Clinical delivery onset signs associated with serum progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were also compared in both groups. The gestation duration calculated from day of ovulation was significantly longer in the cloned (62.8 ± 0.3 days) versus the control group (60.9 ± 0.5 days; P cell donors and gestation duration in the cloned group. Even though the basal rectal temperature in the prepartum period was not different between control and cloned groups (36.9 ± 0.1 °C and 37.2 ± 0.1 °C, respectively), serum progesterone concentration on delivery day was significantly higher in the cloned group (2.2 ± 0.4 ng/ml) compared with the control group (0.5 ± 0.1 ng/ml; P dogs bearing cloned fetuses might be because of the smaller litter size in this group. Also, the weaker drop in serum progesterone levels in the prepartum period in cloned dog pregnancies indicates that the parturition signaling process might be altered resulting in longer gestation periods.

  4. Prenatal smokeless tobacco effects on the rat fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R B; Shanfeld, J; Mullet, D; Cole, J; Paulson, J O

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (ST) on the development and bone ossification of the Sprague Dawley rat fetus at known nicotine blood levels. Dams were intubated with the ST extract three times daily on gestational days (GD) 6-18 with one of the following: ST equivalent to either 1.33 mg nicotine/kg body weight (STD-1), 6 mg nicotine/kg body weight (STD-2), or equal amounts of distilled water (sham-treated controls). Parallel groups of rats were used for nicotine-blood-level determinations. Dams were killed on GD 19, fetuses and placentas were weighed, and resorptions, deaths, and/or malformations were noted. Two thirds of the fetuses were further examined by Wilson's method, and the remaining one third was stained and cleared for skeletal examinations. Mean plasma nicotine levels, determined in a parallel group of nonpregnant/pregnant rats, were 220.4/283.3 ng/ml in the STD-1 group and 869.1/846.3 ng/ml in the STD-2 group. At these ST dosages, weight gain of dams was reduced in comparison with sham-treated controls (P effects of ST at the low dose are minimal, whereas the high ST dose resulted in significant growth retardation and decreased ossification levels (P < .05).

  5. Associations between Campylobacter levels on chicken skin, underlying muscle, caecum and packaged fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, I; Nyman, A; Lahti, E; Gustafsson, P; Olsson Engvall, E

    2015-06-01

    A study was performed with the aim to investigate associations between Campylobacter in chicken caecum, carcass skin, underlying breast muscle and packaged breast fillets. Samples were taken from 285 chickens from 57 flocks and analysed according to ISO 10272. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from caecal samples from 41 flocks. From birds of the same 41 flocks Campylobacter could be detected and quantified in 194 (68%) skin samples. Moreover, Campylobacter spp. were enumerated in 13 (5%) underlying muscle samples originating from 9 of the 41 flocks. The mean number of Campylobacter spp. in the 194 skin samples which could be counted was 2.3 log cfu/g and for the 13 underlying muscle samples 1.3 log cfu/g. Campylobacter could only be quantified in those breast muscle samples with a finding in corresponding skin sample. Five packaged chicken fillets were taken from each 25 of the 57 flocks and analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In qualitative analysis Campylobacter was detected in 79 (63%) fillets from 16 flocks and quantified in 24 (19%) samples from 11 flocks. The results showed a significant association (P Campylobacter on carcass skin (log cfu/g) and the proportion of Campylobacter positive breast muscle samples.

  6. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    culture techniques since 1998. However, using conventional culture methods is time consuming and laborious, and therefore a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Campylobacter detection assay suitable for mass screening of cloacal swab samples from broilers was developed. By comparing the PCR detection...... with conventional culture methods, significantly more samples were found positive for Campylobacter with the PCR method. The PCR method is rapid, sensitive and suitable for mass screening for Campylobacter in poultry. Using this PCR method Campylobacter can be detected within 15 h. Notably, the method can...

  7. Campylobacter MLST Subtypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Broiler Cecal Isolates: A Two Year Study from 142 Commercial Flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are recognized as important agents of human foodborne gastroenteritis. To monitor trends in food safety and public health, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter derived from poultry products and infected patients has become common practice in both r...

  8. Determinación de la sensibilidad a amoxicilina y a clindamicina de staphylococcus spp aislado de cavidad oral de pacientes con alto riesgo de endocarditis infecciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Barrientos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura existen pocos estudios acerca de la distribución de Staphylococcus spp en boca y los que hay sobre estos microorganismos como residentes de la cavidad oral son controversiales.El género Staphylococcus spp conforma un importante grupo de patógenos en el ser humano y origina distintas enfermedades, entre ellas, la Endocarditis Infecciosa; de igual forma, la literatura reporta tasas de resistencia a amoxicilina y clindamicina antibióticos usados comúnmente para la profilaxis en odontología. Objetivo: Conocer la sensibilidad de Staphylococcus spp a amoxicilina y la clindamicina aislados de cavidad oral de pacientes con alto riesgo de Endocarditis Infecciosa.

  9. Resistencia a antimicrobianos de uropatógenos aislados de pacientes ambulatorios atendidos en un laboratorio clínico de tercer nivel de complejidad de Bucaramanga, Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Orduz-Pérez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la resistencia a antimicrobianos de uropatógenos aislados de pacientes ambulatorios atendidos en el Laboratorio Clínico de Especialidades Bolívar S.A. de Bucaramanga, Santander. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo (de Enero a Julio de 2009 a 1394 pacientes ambulatorios atendidos en el Laboratorio Clínico de Especialidades Bolívar S.A. de Bucaramanga Santander, con evidencia clínica o no de infecciones de tracto urinario (ITU y orden médica de Gram, urocultivo y antibiograma. Resultados: De los 1394 urocultivos realizados, se obtuvieron 589 pacientes con urocultivos positivos (42,3%; la mayoría correspondieron a uropatógenos Gram negativos; donde Eschericha coli fue el microorganismo más frecuente. Con respecto a los agentes utilizados en el tratamiento, el perfil de susceptibilidad encontrado para Eschericha coli como para otros microorganismos, mostró elevadas tasas de resistencia para Amoxacilina (59,1%, Ácido Nalidixico (52,1%, Cotrimoxazol (42,2% y Ciprofloxacina (40,7%. Las tasas de resistencia más bajas se observaron para antibióticos como Imipinem (0,8% y Fosfomicina (3,1%. Conclusiones: Eschericha coli sigue siendo el microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado a nivel mundial y el que ha presentado en los últimos años mayor resistencia a antibióticos. Con respecto al género más afectado el femenino sigue siendo el más vulnerable para estas infecciones por presentar mayores factores de riesgo.

  10. Selección de hongos aislados de bagazo de caña con actividad celulasa sobre celulosa cristalina para posibles aplicaciones industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoandy Ferrer-Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enzimas comerciales necesarias en procesos de producción de bioetanol celulósico y enriquecimiento de forrajes, son excesivamente caras. La mayoría provienen de mutantes B-glucosidasa, con la velocidad y extensión de la hidrólisis reducida, y débil acción sobre la celulosa cristalina. A partir de bagazo, se aislaron varios hongos filamentosos con capacidad de degradación de la celulosa cristalina, para ello se diseñó un medio selectivo de celulosa agar. Del total de aislados, solo 9 microorganismos mostraron un halo definido de degradación de celulosa. Se determinó el coeficiente de degradación de celulosa cristalina a través de la medición del halo formado por las colonias, y se pre-seleccionaron 5 aislados. Posteriormente, se eligieron los tres mejores productores del complejo celulasa (6, 13 y 21 mediante una fermentación sumergida por determinación de la actividad sobre papel de filtro. Se realizó una fermentación en estado sólido sobre bagazo pretratado para aumentar la actividad celulasa. Se estudió la estabilidad relativa de los extractos enzimáticos y se realizó una caracterización parcial de los mismos. Estos presentaron poca estabilidad relativa después de 48 horas, luego de un prensado simple. El mejor rango de pH de hidrólisis estuvo entre 5,5 y 6,2 y presentaron actividad enzimática a una temperatura de 40 ºC.

  11. Estudio del efecto de los esteroles aislados de la planta solanum nudum en la membrana del glóbulo rojo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blair Trujillo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available

    En el mundo existen pocas alternativas terapéuticas para malaria. El Grupo Malaria ha aislado esteroides de la planta Solanum nudum, usada para el tratamiento de fiebres por la edicina tradicional colombiana, y ha encontrado que tienen ctividad antimalárica in vitro e in vivo contra P. falciparum, P. vivax y P. berghei. Los compuestos aislados de S. nudum son de tipo esteroidal y se conoce que los esteroles pueden afectar la elación colesterol/fosfolípidos en la membrana del eritrocito 1, igualmente, pueden cambiar su permeabilidad para Na+ y + (2. En los eritrocitos parasitados con Plasmodium la edistribución del colesterol en la membrana y la presencia de roteínas del parásito aumentan la permeabilidad. En la membrana el eritrocito se presentan microdominios: arreglos de ípidos y colesterol a los cuales se anclan las proteínas a través el glicosilfosfatidilinositol. Se ha observado como la extracción el colesterol de los microdominios del eritrocito interfiere en la invasión del glóbulo rojo por Plasmodium (3, sugiriendo que pueden ser aprovechados funcionalmente como blanco erapéutico. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el efecto de los esteroles de la planta Solanum nudum en la membrana el eritrocito humano normal e infectado con P. falciparum, mediante el análisis de permeabilidad y de microdominios.

     

     

  12. Campylobacter species isolated from extra-oro-intestinal abscesses : a report of four cases and literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J. J. C.; Arents, N. L. A.; Manson, W. L.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter species are frequently isolated from fecal specimens of patients with diarrheal illness. Several Campylobacter species are commonly isolated from the oral cavity. In contrast, Campylobacter species are rarely isolated from extra-oro-intestinal abscesses. Reported here are four cases of

  13. Chitosan supplementation reduces enteric colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens and down-regulates expression of colonization genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and poultry is considered as the most common source of human infections. Campylobacter is prevalent in most poultry flocks and a reduction of Campylobacter in poultry would greatly reduce the risk of campylo...

  14. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  15. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Amol D. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India); Shashidhar, Ravindranath [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.in [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kapadnis, Balu P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 {sup o}C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D{sub 10} values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: > Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. > Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. > No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. > First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter, and Sutterella spp. in human fecal samples as estimated by a reevaluation of isolation methods for Campylobacters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Harrington, C.S.;

    2000-01-01

    CCDA recovered significantly more thermophilic Campylobacter spp. than Skirrow's medium (P = 0.0034). No significant difference between Skirrow's medium and CAT agar was observed in this study. Another six taxa were identified, namely, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter curvus-like bacteria, Arcobacter...... butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, Helicobacter cinaedi, and Sutterella wadsworthensis. Most of these strains were isolated after 5 to 6 days of incubation by use of the filter technique. This paper pro,ides evidence for the existence of S. wadsworthensis in human feces from clinical cases...

  17. Analysis of putative chemoreceptor proteins of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Bang, Dang D.

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. A very important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized efficiently and commensally by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract...... are being analyzed in adherence and invasion assays with both human and chicken cells to explore the possibility that these membrane spanning proteins interact with host cells rather than operating as chemoreceptors....

  18. [A fetus is a person with a right to exist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, E

    1989-12-27

    This article is the contribution of a Jesuit priest, a teacher of medical ethics at Uppsala, to a debate inspired by a Swedish official report "The pregnant woman and fetus--2 individuals. On fetal diagnostics. On late abortions." In a society which depends upon a structured consensus as much as Sweden does, the report has been criticized for not making clearer recommendations. The author points out that the ethical dilemmas involved are so complex that they cannot be treated from a simple either/or point of view. Fetal diagnostics, for example, serve the cause of life when the aim is to avoid abortion of a healthy fetus and make it possible to cure, even at the fetal stage, or to strengthen prospective parents' readiness to accept a handicapped child. The use of fetal diagnostic for sorting out damaged and sick fetuses, however, is selective abortion and implies a violation of the principle that all human life is of equal value. The question is no longer if one will have a child or not, but which child will one have. This collision of values has inspired so many polemic statements that it is worthwhile recalling that there is always a tension between the ethically desirable and the politically possible, The report has succeeded in formulating the ethical principles in spite of the impossibility of seeing them presented as concrete recommendations. Even so, Thomas Aquinas wrote in 13th century that one cannot always apply ethical rules to laws of society. That can lead to more evil than good.

  19. Sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni using nanoparticles enhanced QCM sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdor, Noor Azlina; Altintas, Zeynep; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-04-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor platform was used to develop an immunosensor for the detection of food pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies and commercially available mouse monoclonal antibodies against C. jejuni were investigated to construct direct, sandwich and gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) amplified sandwich assays. The performance of the QCM immunosensor developed using sandwich assay by utilising the rabbit polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and conjugated to AuNPs as the detection antibody gave the highest sensitivity. This sensor achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 colony forming unit (CFU)mL(-1) of C. jejuni in solution. The QCM sensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for Campylobacter detection with low cross reactivity for other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, (7%) Listeria monocytogenes (3%) and Escherichia coli (0%). The development of this biosensor would help in the sensitive detection of Campylobacter which can result in reducing pre-enrichment steps; hence, reducing assay time. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for C. jejuni.

  20. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-03-26

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage.

  1. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens.

  2. Variation in Campylobacter MLST Subtypes Detected from Chickens on Three Different Plating Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni and coli detected on three discreet selective Campylobacter plating media to determine if different media select for different subtypes. Fifty ceca and fifty carcasses (n=100, representing 50 flocks) were collected from the...

  3. Clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Choi, Yukyung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Genus Campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. Human Campylobacter infections have caused more concern. Campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. The major zoonotic species are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, which mostly reside in the intestines of avian species and are transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated poultry products, thus causing human gastroenteritis and other diseases as sequelae. The other campylobacters, human oral species, include C. concisus, C. showae, C. gracilis, C. ureolyticus, C. curvus, and C. rectus. These species are isolated from the oral cavity, natural colonization site, but have potential clinical relevance in the periodontal region to varying extent. Two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are believed to be mainly associated with intestinal diseases, but recent studies suggested that oral Campylobacter species also play a significant role in intestinal diseases. This review offers an outline of the two Campylobacter groups (zoonotic and human oral), their virulence traits, and the associated illnesses including gastroenteritis.

  4. Campylobacter detection in broiler ceca at processing - a three year 211 flock survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is associated with live broilers and chicken meat products. There is some discussion in the literature about the possibility that Campylobacter prevalence in broilers could be affected by season or weather conditions. The objective of this study was to measure the flock prevalence of...

  5. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible.

  6. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved. Isol

  7. Establishing a campylobacter-free pig population through a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    Fattening pigs are often infected with campylobacter. To eliminate campylobacter from the pig population, a top-down approach, involving the breeding and reproduction farms, seems appropriate. In order to investigate the effectiveness of a top-down approach, sows' faeces from the following farms wer

  8. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  9. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  10. Campylobacter Infection and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Bangladesh: Clinical epidemiology and comparative microbial genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Islam (Zhahirul)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Campylobacter spp. are small motile, microaerophilic, S-shaped or spiral rods (0.2-0.5 μm wide by 0.5-5 μm long), gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter was first described in 1886 by Theodore Escherich (1) in the colon of children who had died of ‘cholera infantum’. The

  11. House-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be an important source of Campylobacter to broilers. Our objective was to identify broiler house characteristics and house-level management practices associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Icel...

  12. Temperature-Related Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...

  13. Risk factors for Campylobacter colonization in Danish broiler flocks, 2010 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, M; Sørensen, L L; Steenberg, B;

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the two studies presented were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive farms and flocks and to acquire updated knowledge about risk factors for the introduction of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. In the first study, from September 2010 to September 2011...

  14. Detection of airborne Campylobacter with three bioaerosol samplers for alarming bacteria transmission in broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Katsma, W.E.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In an airborne transmission experiment, Campylobacter in the air was sampled by three types of bioaerosol samplers (all-glass impinger AGI-30, Andersen six-stage impactor, and OMNI-3000) in four broiler rooms. In each room, five 14-day- old broilers inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni were kept in

  15. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royden, A.; Wedley, A.; Merga, J. Y.;

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran...

  16. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp.: A comparison toclassic culturing and enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Rahaoui, H.; Leer, R.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    The major disadvantage of the current gold standard for detection of the food pathogen Campylobacter, i.e. culturing, is the lengthy procedure. In this study we assessed the use of real-time PCR for detection of Campylobacter. To this end, 926 poultry samples, taken from transport containers and bro

  17. Improved toluidine blue-DNA agar for detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H.; Patel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Our improved toluidine blue-DNA agar was compared with methyl green DNase test agar for the detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters. The toluidine blue-DNA agar gave clear-cut positive and negative reactions with campylobacter strains belonging to several species.

  18. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  19. 75 FR 27288 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young... performance standards for the pathogenic micro-organisms Salmonella and Campylobacter for use in young chicken... posted on its Web site the third edition of the compliance guide for controlling Salmonella...

  20. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095 bp.) harboring tet(O) was identified in...

  1. Beta-resorcylic acid, a phytophenolic compound, reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this s...

  2. Neonatal sepsis by Campylobacter jejuni : Genetically proven transmission from a household puppy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, TFW; Duim, B; Geelen, SPM; Rigter, A; Thomson-Carter, F; Fleer, A; Wagenaar, JA

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of neonatal Campylobacter jejuni sepsis in a 3-week-old infant who acquired the infection through transmission from a recently acquired household puppy. Genotyping of Campylobacter strains obtained from puppy and child resulted in highly homogenous findings. This represents the firs

  3. Evidence that certain clones of Campylobacter jejuni persist during successive broiler flock rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Wedderkopp, A.

    2001-01-01

    Through the national surveillance program for Campylobacter spp,, nine broiler chicken farms that were infected with Campylobacter jejuni in at least five rotations in 1998 were identified. One additional farm, located at the island of Bornholm where divided slaughter is used extensively, was also...

  4. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni YH001 from beef liver which contains a novel plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and is commonly found in poultry and meat products. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Campylobacter jejuni strain recently isolated from retail beef liver. The genome size was 1,712,361 bp, ...

  5. Serotype and genotype diversity and hatchery transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial poultry flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Nielsen, E.M.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the genotype and serotype diversity of Campylobacter coli and C jejuni in two parent flocks of adult hens and their offspring over two rotations in order to evaluate the role of hatchery mediated transmission and/or vertical transmission of campylobacters in broiler flocks. In tot...

  6. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship.

  7. Processing practices contributing to Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Habib, Ihab; Berkvens, Dirk; Dumoulin, Ann; Zutter, Lieven De; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2008-12-10

    The aim of this study was to obtain insight into processing practices in the poultry sector contributing to the variability in Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations. This was achieved by company profiling of eleven food business operators, in order to evaluate variation of processing management, in addition to statistical modelling of microbiological testing results for Campylobacter spp. contamination in 656 end product samples. Almost half (48%) of chicken meat preparation samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. Results revealed a statistically significant variation in Campylobacter contamination between 11 chicken meat producers across Belgium at both quantitative and qualitative detection levels. All producers provided Campylobacter-positive samples, but prevalence ranged from 9% up to 85% at single producer level. The presence or addition of skin during production of chicken meat preparations resulted in almost 2.2-fold increase in the probability of a sample being positive for Campylobacter, while chicken meat preparations made from frozen meat, or partly containing pre-frozen meat, had a significant (Odds Ratio=0.41; CI 95% 0.18:0.98) lower probability of being positive for Campylobacter. However, the quantitative results indicated that the positive freezing effect on Campylobacter count was compromised by the presence and/or adding of skin.

  8. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early colon...

  9. Rapid and sensitive detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken products by using the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Quint, W G; Henkens, M H; Stegeman, H; Huf, F A; Niesters, H G

    1992-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after a short enrichment culture was used to detect Campylobacter spp. in chicken products. After the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Campylobacter jejuni was determined and compared with known sequences from other enterobacteria, a primer and probe combination was sele

  10. Comparison of polycarbonate and cellulose acetate membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter concisus from stool samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde Nielsen, Hans; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove;

    2013-01-01

    One thousand seven hundred ninety-one diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. We found a high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus with use of a polycarbonate filter (n = 114) compared to a cellulose acetate filter (n = 79) (P ... to the commonly used cellulose acetate filter for detection of C. concisus....

  11. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  12. Phenotypic and Genotypic Evidence for L-fucose Utilization by Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter remains among the leading causes of bacterial food-borne illness. The current understanding of Campylobacter physiology suggests that it is asaccharolytic and is unable to catabolize exogenous carbohydrates. Contrary to this paradigm, we provide evidence for L-fucose utilization by C....

  13. Retention of Campylobacter (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgard, H.; Kristensen, K.; Hald, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) may transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We assessed the retention lime of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni at five temperatures and three doses. Flies were inoculated individually at their proboscis with 1.6 x 10(7) CFU (colony forming units) of C...

  14. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  15. Applications and consequences of bacteriocins to control Campylobacter spp. in poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  16. Detection of Campylobacter in 100 commercial flocks - evaluation of plating media and filtration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a natural member of the gut microflora in many commercial broilers and as such can become a contaminant on edible surfaces during processing. Culturing gut contents or feces can be a means to determine flock status prior to live-haul. The wide variety of non-Campylobacter backgrou...

  17. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Fels, van der H.J.; Thissen, J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages

  18. Effect of acidified feed on suscebtibility of broiler chickens to intestinal infection by Campylobacter and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Engel, B.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is associated with human Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. One way to control the presence of these bacteria in broiler flocks is to make chickens less susceptible for colonisation. Acidification of feed may be a tool to reduce the Campylobacter and Salmonella carr

  19. Most Campylobacter subtypes from sporadic infections can be found in retail poultry products and food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.; Fussing, V.; Engberg, J.;

    2006-01-01

    The subtypes of Campylobacter isolates from human infections in two Danish counties were compared to isolates from retail food samples and faecal samples from chickens, pigs and cattle. During a 1-year period, 1285 Campylobacter isolates from these sources were typed by two methods: 'Penner' heat...

  20. Neonatal sepsis by campylobacter jejuni: a genetically proven transmission from a household puppy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, T.F.W.; Duim, B.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Rigter, A.; Thomson Carter, F.; Fleer, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of neonatal Campylobacter jejuni sepsis in a 3-week-old infant who acquired the infection through transmission from a recently acquired household puppy. Genotyping of Campylobacter strains obtained from puppy and child resulted in highly homogeneous findings. This represents the fir

  1. Identification of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations in fetuses with increased

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leung, Tak Yeung; Vogel, Ida; Lau, Tze Kin;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Fetal nuchal translucency (NT) is assessed by ultrasound as a screening tool for aneuploidy at 11-13+6 weeks’ gestation. Fetuses with increased NT but apparently normal karyotyping result are still at higher risk of structural abnormality and a range of genetic syndromes, which may...... found to have increased NT >3.5mm during first trimester screening. These samples were examined by microarray based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using a 44K oligonucleotide array specifically constructed for prenatal screening. Variations in copy number (CNVs) were reported after excluding...

  2. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Szpinda; Waldemar Siedlaczek; Anna Szpinda; Alina Woźniak; Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska; Mateusz Badura

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagit...

  3. Ectopia cordis in a fetus with trisomy 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sheng-Wen; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chueh, Ho-Yen; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Soong, Yung-Kuei

    2006-02-01

    Trisomy 18 is the second-most common autosomal trisomy and represents one third of the chromosomal trisomies identified prenatally. We present a case of a fetus with trisomy 18 in which thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis was detected prenatally; it was noted as a dominant defect on a sonographic examination performed at 19 weeks' gestation. Furthermore, our case exhibits a rare type of multiple-marker screening result with increased maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. This case demonstrates the need for thorough sonographic evaluation of the fetal thoracoabdominal wall as early as possible, because fetal ectopia cordis can be the major abnormality of trisomy 18.

  4. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari in Fresh Chicken Meat and By-Products in Bangkok, Thailand, Using Modified Multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, S; Phusri, K; Buates, S

    2015-07-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari was developed and validated to assess the occurrence of these bacteria in fresh chicken meat and by-products in Bangkok, Thailand, by using a new combination of four previously published PCR primers for C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and a universal 16S rDNA gene as an internal control. The specificity was determined by using 13 strains of other bacteria. With pure culture DNA, the detection limit was 0.017 ng/PCR for C. jejuni and C. coli and was 0.016 ng/PCR for C. lari. It can detect 10 CFU of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in 2 g of chicken meat within a 16-h enrichment time. Our multiplex PCR assay was applied for identification of Campylobacter spp. in 122 supermarket samples and 108 fresh market samples. Of the 230 samples evaluated by multiplex PCR, 54.0, 3.3, and 10.7% of supermarket samples were positive for C. jejuni, C. coli, and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, and 56.5 and 33.3% of fresh market samples were positive for C. jejuni and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. No sample was positive for C. lari. Fresh market samples had significantly higher C. jejuni and C. coli contamination than those from supermarkets (relative risk: 1.3; P = 0.0001). Compared with the culture method (a gold standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of multiplex PCR were 97.7, 86.8, 96.1, 92.0, and 95.2%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between results from two methods (P = 0.55). Therefore, the established multiplex PCR was not only rapid and easy to perform but had a high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, even in samples containing mixed contamination. Our study indicated that fresh chicken meat and by-products from fresh markets were significantly less hygienic than those

  5. Effect of putative efflux pump inhibitors and inducers on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Minna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2008-07-01

    The CmeABC efflux pump plays an important role in the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of putative efflux pump inhibitors, phenyl-arginine-beta-naphthylamide (PAbetaN) and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP), as well as the effect of putative efflux pump inducers, sodium salicylate and sodium deoxycholate, on the MIC levels of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, tetracycline and rifampicin for C. jejuni and C. coli. Our results indicated that susceptibility to erythromycin and rifampicin increased, respectively, 8- to 32- and 8- to 64-fold in the presence of PAbetaN and to a lesser extent in the presence of NMP. Salicylate produced a 2- to 4-fold increase in ciprofloxacin MIC values, whereas little effect was observed in the presence of deoxycholate.

  6. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production Chain in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Makela, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading course of food borne bacterial infections worldwide. It is believed that a decline in the occurrence of campylobacteriosis can be achieved by reducing the number of the bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Phage therapy using Campylobacter specific phages...... given to poultry prior to slaughter is a promising control measure. However, the reducing effect of most phages tested so far is rather limited due to the development of phage resistant Campylobacter. An increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of importance for development of phage resistant...... Campylobacter is therefore essential for implementation of this method. Recently, a collection of Campylobacter bacteriophages has been established. The phages were isolated from faeces from broilers and ducks and it was shown by transmission electron microscopy that they all belong to the family of Myoviridae...

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter Jejuni and Coli in Sheep Carcasses by Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 randomly sheep carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter analyzed using microbiological examinations. Results: Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 10.13% meat cultures samples examined. Among these 80% sample were C. jejuni and 20% sample were C. coli. Using PCR assays, the number of positive campylobacters increased to 11.48%. Of these positive samples, 82.35% were C. jejuni and 17.65% were C. coli. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p<0.05 were found in the meat samples taken in summer (47.05%. Conclusion: The PCR is a reliable and sensitive method which can be used as a diagnostic technique for the detection of campylobacter in lamb samples.

  8. Biotyping of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry in and around Anand city, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Tayde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of different biotypes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the study area. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples comprising 90 chicken and 60 caecal content were collected from retail meat market and processed for isolation of Campylobacter spp. 52 Campylobacter isolates obtained from raw poultry meat (6 and caecal content (46 were subjected to biotyping using Lior's biotyping scheme. Results: Among the 52 Campylobacter isolates studied, 60.46 % isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni Biotype I and 39.53% were C. jejuni Biotype II, whereas 83.33 % were C. coli Biotype I and 16.66 % C. coli Biotype II. No other biotypes were identified. Conclusions: The present study revealed that C. jejuni Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II whereas in case of C. coli, Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II providing basis for further epidemiological study.

  9. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne;

    2008-01-01

    During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products......, the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive. In marinated poultry products, Campylobacter was detected at a prevalence of 21.1% and 9.5% in turkey...... and chicken products, respectively. In August, there was a peak with 28.9% positive Campylobacter samples. Campylobacter inoculation tests were carried out to test the detection limit of both methods. The PCR method used is faster than microbiological analyses. However, enrichment of the samples is necessary...

  10. 1st and 2nd Trimester Headsize in Fetuses with Congenital Heart Disease: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Høj; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Vestergaard, Else Marie;

    2014-01-01

    and screening for fetal malformations is carried out. Our cohort includes all fetuses in Western Denmark (2.9 million inhabitants) screened in between January 1st 2012 and December 31st 2013, diagnosed with any structural, non-syndromic congenital heart disease either during pregnancy or up to 6 months after...... birth. Results 276 fetuses with CHD were identified. 114 (41%) were genetically screened primarily by chromosomal microarray analysis (n=82). Fetuses with identified chromosomal abnormalities were excluded as were multiple gestation fetuses and fetuses with major extra cardiac malformations. Data from...... 208 fetuses (75%) with presumed non-syndromic CHD were included, 85 (41%) with minor and 123 (59%) with major CHD. Z-scores for head size were analysed. Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that Bi-parietal-diameter in children with CHD is within the normal range in the 1st trimester...

  11. Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsier, N.; Dahdouh, S.; Serrurier, A.; De la Plata, J.-P.; Anquez, J.; Angelini, E. D.; Bloch, I.; Wiart, J.

    2014-09-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the environmental whole-body and local exposure of a fetus in vertical position, head down or head up, in the 2100 MHz frequency band, we concluded that both whole-body and average brain exposures of the fetus decrease during the first pregnancy trimester, while they advance during the pregnancy due to the rapid weight gain of the fetus in these first stages. From the beginning of the second trimester, the whole-body and the average brain exposures are quite stable because the weight gains are quasi proportional to the absorbed power increases. The behavior of the fetus whole-body and local exposures during pregnancy for a fetus in the vertical position with the head up were found to be of a similar level, when compared to the position with the head down they were slightly higher, especially in the brain.

  12. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our series comprised 35 fetuses and 58 boys with cryptorchidism, and 22 normal fetuses...... number of germ cells in undescended testes from week 28 of gestation and germ cell hypoplasia as a consequence of continued postnatal undescended testicular position. Cryptorchidism may result from abnormal development of the caudal developmental field....

  13. Quantitative effects of in-line operations on Campylobacter and Escherichia coli through two Australian broiler processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Blackall, Patrick J; Cobbold, Rowland N; Fegan, Narelle

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter is an important food borne pathogen, mainly associated with poultry. A lack of through-chain quantitative Campylobacter data has been highlighted within quantitative risk assessments. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively measure Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentration on chicken carcasses through poultry slaughter. Chickens (n=240) were sampled from each of four flocks along the processing chain, before scald, after scald, before chill, after chill, after packaging and from individual caeca. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter after packaging was 83% with a median concentration of 0.8log10CFU/mL. The processing points of scalding and chilling had significant mean reductions of both Campylobacter (1.8 and 2.9log10CFU/carcase) and E. coli (1.3 and 2.5log10CFU/carcase). The concentration of E. coli and Campylobacter was significantly correlated throughout processing indicating that E. coli may be a useful indicator organism for reductions in Campylobacter concentration. The carriage of species varied between flocks, with two flocks dominated by Campylobacter coli and two flocks dominated by Campylobacter jejuni. Current processing practices can lead to significant reductions in the concentration of Campylobacter on carcasses. Further understanding of the variable effect of processing on Campylobacter and the survival of specific genotypes may enable more targeted interventions to reduce the concentration of this poultry associated pathogen.

  14. Occurrence and molecular analysis of Campylobacter in wildlife on livestock farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippy, Rachel; Sandoval-Green, Claudette M J; Sahin, Orhan; Plummer, Paul; Fairbanks, W Sue; Zhang, Qijing; Blanchong, Julie A

    2012-06-15

    Wildlife harbor a variety of Campylobacter spp. and may play a significant role in the transmission of Campylobacter to livestock. Although studies have been conducted on wildlife-associated Campylobacter isolates from farms in other countries, there are little data available for livestock farms in the United States. In addition, the critical questions of whether wildlife harbor Campylobacter that is pathogenic to ruminants and/or antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter have yet to be addressed. We captured wild small mammals (n=142) and small birds (n=188) at livestock farms in central Iowa and sampled them for thermophilic Campylobacter during autumn 2009, spring 2010, and autumn 2010. Overall prevalence was 4.79%, with isolates found only in wild birds. Molecular typing revealed four multilocus sequence types (STs), three of which are novel. The remaining ST (ST-806) was found in two house sparrows and is an ST previously associated with ruminant abortion cases. Further analysis of ST-806 wild bird and ruminant abortion isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, resistance gene location, and antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the isolates are nearly identical. This is the first account of isolation of Campylobacter types from wild birds that are known to be pathogenic to ruminants. Furthermore, these same two wild bird isolates are resistant to the antibiotic fluoroquinolone. Our results indicate there is an overall low prevalence of Campylobacter in selected wildlife in Iowa, but suggest that wildlife may play a role in the epidemiology of pathogenic Campylobacter for domestic livestock, and may also serve as a reservoir for antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter.

  15. CAMPYLOBACTER-HYOINTESTINALIS SUBSP LAWSONII SUBSP-NOV, ISOLATED FROM THE PORCINE STOMACH, AND AN EMENDED DESCRIPTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER-HYOINTESTINALIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on, Stephen L.W.; Bloch, Buchardt; Holmes, B.;

    1995-01-01

    .1% and could be clearly distinguished from reference strains representing 20 related taxa, principally species and subspecies belonging to the genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that the porcine stomach strains were genomically homogeneous (levels...

  16. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  17. Regulation of the pulmonary circulation in the fetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuansheng; Raj, J Usha

    2010-10-01

    During the development of the pulmonary vasculature in the fetus, many structural and functional changes occur to prepare the lung for the transition to air breathing. The development of the pulmonary circulation is genetically controlled by an array of mitogenic factors in a temporo-spatial order. With advancing gestation, pulmonary vessels acquire increased vasoreactivity. The fetal pulmonary vasculature is exposed to a low oxygen tension environment that promotes high intrinsic myogenic tone and high vasocontractility. At birth, a dramatic reduction in pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance occurs with an increase in oxygen tension and blood flow. The striking hemodynamic differences in the pulmonary circulation of the fetus and newborn are regulated by various factors and vasoactive agents. Among them, nitric oxide, endothelin-1, and prostaglandin I(2) are mainly derived from endothelial cells and exert their effects via cGMP, cAMP, and Rho kinase signaling pathways. Alterations in these signaling pathways may lead to vascular remodeling, high vasocontractility, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

  18. Chlorella suppresses methylmercury transfer to the fetus in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Kumamoto, Shoichiro; Ando, Yotaro; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effects of chlorella on methylmercury (MeHg) transfer to the fetus during pregnancy, female C57BL/6N mice (aged 10 weeks) were housed for 7 to 8 weeks, from 4 weeks before mating to birth, with diets containing 0% or 10% chlorella powder (CP) and MeHg-containing drinking water (2 µg Hg/ml). The consumption volume of the MeHg-containing water was limited to 15 ml/mouse/week throughout the experiment. Distilled water and a basal diet (0% CP) was given to control mice. Except for the mating period, during the 5(th) week, mice were housed individually until parturition. Two neonates were randomly selected from each mother mouse within 24 hr after parturition for Hg analysis of the blood, brain, liver, and kidneys. Mother mice were sacrificed on the same day as neonates to obtain tissue samples for Hg analysis. The blood and brain Hg levels of both neonates and mothers in the CP diet group were significantly lower than those in the basal diet group. Although the hepatic and renal Hg levels were not significant in mothers between the two dietary groups, in neonates, the CP diet group showed significantly lower Hg levels in these tissues than the basal diet group. The results obtained here revealed that continuous CP intake suppressed MeHg transfer to the fetus, in addition to effective suppressing MeHg accumulation in brains of the mothers.

  19. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Szpinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56±0.08 and 0.52±0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74±0.09 to 0.92±0.08 and from 0.56±0.07 to 0.79±0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41±0.23 to 1.66±0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27±0.17 to 1.48±0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia.

  20. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Siedlaczek, Waldemar; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16-25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74 ± 0.09 to 0.92 ± 0.08 and from 0.56 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41 ± 0.23 to 1.66 ± 0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27 ± 0.17 to 1.48 ± 0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia.

  1. Gene therapy for the fetus: is there a future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anna L; Peebles, Donald

    2008-02-01

    Gene therapy uses the intracellular delivery of genetic material for the treatment of disease. A wide range of diseases - including cancer, vascular and neurodegenerative disorders and inherited genetic diseases - are being considered as targets for this therapy in adults. There are particular reasons why fetal application might prove better than application in the adult for treatment, or even prevention of early-onset genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Research shows that gene transfer to the developing fetus targets rapidly expanding populations of stem cells, which are inaccessible after birth, and indicates that the use of integrating vector systems results in permanent gene transfer. In animal models of congenital disease such as haemophilia, studies show that the functionally immature fetal immune system does not respond to the product of the introduced gene, and therefore immune tolerance can be induced. This means that treatment could be repeated after birth, if that was necessary to continue to correct the disease. For clinicians and parents, fetal gene therapy would give a third choice following prenatal diagnosis of inherited disease, where termination of pregnancy or acceptance of an affected child are currently the only options. Application of this therapy in the fetus must be safe, reliable and cost-effective. Recent developments in the understanding of genetic disease, vector design, and minimally invasive delivery techniques have brought fetal gene therapy closer to clinical practice. However more research needs to be done in before it can be introduced as a therapy.

  2. Prenatal Diagnosis of Chronic Granulomatous Disease in a Male Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Köker m

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in any of four known NADPH-oxidase components lead to CGD. X-linked CGD (X-CGD is caused by defects in CYBB, the gene that encodes gp91-phox. Autosomal recessive (AR CGD is caused by defects in the genes for p47 phox, p22-phox or p67-phox. The aim of this study was to screen the molecular defect in the fetus of an X-CGD carrier mother and postnatal confirmation of the results. In a family whose first-born child died from X-CGD, fetal DNA was obtained from an ongoing pregnancy by chorionic villus sampling (CVS. Direct sequencing was used to detect the previously identified CYBB gene mutation. The NADPH oxidase activity in the neutrophils from the carrier mother and from the newborn was analyzed by the DHR assay. Our studies predicted that the fetus in question was not affected by chronic granulomatous disease, which was demonstrated to be correct at birth. For prenatal screening in a pregnant X-CGD carrier, direct sequencing is a good method for detecting the mutation in the fetal DNA. Postnatal confirmation of results with the DHR assay is more practical than mutation screening to show whether the newborn have normal NADPH oxidase activity or does not.

  3. Maternal enrichment during pregnancy accelerates retinal development of the fetus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sale

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal environment on fetal development is largely unexplored, the available evidence concerns only the deleterious effects elicited by prenatal stress. Here we investigated the influence of prenatal enrichment on the early development of the visual system in the fetus. We studied the anatomical development of the rat retina, by analyzing the migration of neural progenitors and the process of retinal ganglion cell death, which exerts a key role in sculpturing the developing retinal system at perinatal ages. The number of apoptotic cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer was analyzed using two distinct methods: the presence of pyknotic nuclei stained for cresyl violet and the appearance of DNA fragmentation (Tunel method. We report that environmental enrichment of the mother during pregnancy affects the structural maturation of the retina, accelerating the migration of neural progenitors and the dynamics of natural cell death. These effects seem to be under the control of insulin-like growth factor-I: its levels, higher in enriched pregnant rats and in their milk, are increased also in their offspring, its neutralization abolishes the action of maternal enrichment on retinal development and chronic insulin-like growth factor-I injection to standard-reared females mimics the effects of enrichment in the fetuses. Thus, the development of the visual system is sensitive to environmental stimulation during prenatal life. These findings could have a bearing in orienting clinical research in the field of prenatal therapy.

  4. On noninvasive assessment of acoustic fields acting on the fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonets, V. A.; Kazakov, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to verify a noninvasive technique for assessing the characteristics of acoustic fields in the audible range arising in the uterus under the action of maternal voice, external sounds, and vibrations. This problem is very important in view of actively developed methods for delivery of external sounds to the uterus: music, maternal voice recordings, sounds from outside the mother's body, etc., that supposedly support development of the fetus at the prenatal stage psychologically and cognitively. However, the parameters of acoustic signals have been neither measured nor normalized, which may be dangerous for the fetus and hinder actual assessment of their impact on fetal development. The authors show that at frequencies below 1 kHz, acoustic pressure in the uterus may be measured noninvasively using a hydrophone placed in a soft capsule filled with liquid. It was found that the acoustic field at frequencies up to 1 kHz arising in the uterus under the action of an external sound field has amplitude-frequency parameters close to those of the external field; i.e., the external field penetrates the uterus with hardly any difficulty.

  5. Interaction between Campylobacter and intestinal epithelial cells leads to a different proinflammatory response in human and porcine host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Carmen; Jiménez-Marín, Ángeles; Martins, Rodrigo Prado; Garrido, Juan J

    2014-11-15

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the leading causes of human diarrheal disease throughout the development world. Unlike human beings, gastrointestinal tract of pigs are frequently colonized by Campylobacter to a high level in a commensal manner. The aim of this study was to identify the differences underlying the divergent outcome following Campylobacter challenge in porcine versus human host. In order to address this, a comparative in vitro infection model was combined with microscopy, gentamicin protection assay, ELISA and quantitative PCR techniques. Invasion assays revealed that Campylobacter invaded human cells up to 10-fold more than porcine cells (pCampylobacter in human epithelial cell at early times of infection, whereas a very reduced cytokine gene expression was detected in porcine epithelial cells. These data indicate that Campylobacter fails to invade porcine cells compared to human cells, and this leads to a lack of proinflammatory response induction, probably due to its pathogenic or commensal behavior in human and porcine host, respectively.

  6. An enhanced technique combining pre-enrichment and passive filtration increases the isolation efficiency of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from water and animal fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Cassandra C; Koot, Jacqueline M; Carrillo, Catherine D; Gannon, Victor P J; Jardine, Claire M; Mutschall, Steven K; Topp, Edward; Taboada, Eduardo N

    2012-12-01

    Improved isolation techniques from environmental water and animal samples are vital to understanding Campylobacter epidemiology. In this study, the efficiency of selective enrichment in Bolton Broth (BB) followed by plating on charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (CCDA) (conventional method) was compared with an approach combining BB enrichment and passive filtration (membrane method) adapted from a method previously developed for testing of broiler meat, in the isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from surface water and animal fecal samples. The conventional method led to recoveries of Campylobacter from 36.7% of the water samples and 78.0% of the fecal samples and similar numbers, 38.3% and 76.0%, respectively, were obtained with the membrane method. To investigate the genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli obtained by these two methods, isolates were analyzed using Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting, a high-resolution subtyping technique. The conventional and membrane methods yielded similar numbers of Campylobacter subtypes from water (25 and 28, respectively) and fecal (15 and 17, respectively) samples. Although there was no significant difference in recovery rates between the conventional and membrane methods, a significant improvement in isolation efficiency was obtained by using the membrane method, with a false-positive rate of 1.6% compared with 30.7% obtained using the conventional method. In conclusion, although the two methods are comparable in sensitivity, the membrane method had higher specificity, making it a cost-effective procedure for the enhanced isolation of C. jejuni and C. coli from water and animal fecal samples.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, A B; Colles, F M; Rodgers, J D; McCarthy, N D; Davies, R H; Maiden, M C J; Clifton-Hadley, F A

    2016-04-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coliisolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645C. jejuniand 106C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuniisolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. ForC. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms forC. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% forC. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacterin broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical.

  8. Increased risk for Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infection of pet origin in dog owners and evidence for genetic association between strains causing infection in humans and their pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini Gras, L; Smid, J H; Wagenaar, J A; Koene, M G J; Havelaar, A H; Friesema, I H M; French, N P; Flemming, C; Galson, J D; Graziani, C; Busani, L; VAN Pelt, W

    2013-12-01

    We compared Campylobacter jejuni/coli multilocus sequence types (STs) from pets (dogs/cats) and their owners and investigated risk factors for pet-associated human campylobacteriosis using a combined source-attribution and case-control analysis. In total, 132/687 pet stools were Campylobacter-positive, resulting in 499 strains isolated (320 C. upsaliensis/helveticus, 100 C. jejuni, 33 C. hyointestinalis/fetus, 10 C. lari, 4 C. coli, 32 unidentified). There were 737 human and 104 pet C. jejuni/coli strains assigned to 154 and 49 STs, respectively. Dog, particularly puppy, owners were at increased risk of infection with pet-associated STs. In 2/68 cases vs. 0.134/68 expected by chance, a pet and its owner were infected with an identical ST (ST45, ST658). Although common sources of infection and directionality of transmission between pets and humans were unknown, dog ownership significantly increased the risk for pet-associated human C. jejuni/coli infection and isolation of identical strains in humans and their pets occurred significantly more often than expected.

  9. Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis Chilean Isolates to Difenoconazole, Fenarimol, Mancozeb, and Pyrimethanil Sensibilidad de Aislados Chilenos de Venturia inaequalis a Difenoconazole, Fenarimol, Mancozeb y Pyrimethanil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Henríquez S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis is the most important disease in Chilean apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards where fungicide management is the main tool to control disease. Sensitivity tests to difenoconazole, fenarimol, mancozeb, and pyrimethanil fungicides were conducted on V. inaequalis wild isolates to construct local baseline sensitivity distributions, and compare them with a collection of isolates from seven different commercial orchards with no evidence of practical resistance. In vitro assays were conducted and sensitivity was measured as inhibition of mycelial growth (difenoconazole, fenarimol, pyrimethanil or conidial germination (mancozeb. Departure from the baseline distribution to less sensitivity was found for difenoconazole, fenarimol, and mancozeb with resistance factors of 4.7, 5.8, and 2.1, respectively. The highest difference between baseline and orchard populations was observed for fenarimol which showed the highest shift to less sensitivity. Discriminatory doses of 0.04, 1.0, 0.6, and 0.2 µg mL-1 are proposed for in vitro monitoring of sensitivity to difenoconazole, fenarimol, mancozeb, and pyrimethanil, respectively.La sarna del manzano (Venturia inaequalis es la principal enfermedad del cultivo en Chile y es controlada principalmente con el uso de fungicidas. Se realizaron pruebas de sensibilidad a los fungicidas difenoconazole, fenarimol, mancozeb y pyrimethanil en aislados monoconidiales de cepas silvestres de V. inaequalis con el fin de elaborar curvas basales de sensibilidad y compararlas con la sensibilidad de una colección de aislados monoconidiales provenientes de siete huertos comerciales sin evidencias de resistencia práctica. Se realizaron pruebas in vitro donde la sensibilidad se midió como la inhibición del crecimiento miceliar (difenoconazole, fenarimol y pyrimethanil o la inhibición de la germinación de conidias (mancozeb. La población de huertos comerciales estudiada presentó una menor

  10. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 °C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 °C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat.

  11. Genomic evidence for the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences in the genus Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-09-04

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology.

  12. Survival after cryogenic freezing of Campylobacter species in ground Turkey patties treated with polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther Iv, Nereus W; Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Campylobacter species within a ground turkey product subjected to cryogenic freezing. Ground turkey patties with two different polyphosphate formulations added in two different concentrations were artificially contaminated with known concentrations of Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The patties were cryogenically frozen at -80°F (-62.2°C) with liquid nitrogen vapor and held at -20°C for 7 or 33 days, after which the number of Campylobacter surviving in the patties was determined. On average the cryogenic freezing resulted in a 2.5-log decrease in the survival of C. jejuni cells and a 2.9-log decrease in C. coli cells present in the turkey patties. Additionally, the presence of polyphosphates in the turkey patties had no effect on Campylobacter survival up to the maximum allowed concentration (0.5%) for polyphosphates in poultry marinades. Finally, it was determined that the added polyphosphates had little effect on the pH of the ground turkey meat; an effect which previously had been implicated in the enhancement of Campylobacter survival due to the presence of polyphosphates.

  13. Relevance of Campylobacter to public health--the need for a One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölz, Greta; Rosner, Bettina; Hofreuter, Dirk; Josenhans, Christine; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Löwenstein, Anna; Schielke, Anika; Stark, Klaus; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Wieler, Lothar H; Alter, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter species belong to the most important foodborne bacteria which cause gastroenteritis in humans in both developed and developing countries. With increasing reporting rates, the public awareness towards Campylobacter infections is growing continuously. This strengthens the necessity to establish intervention measures for prevention and control of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. along the food chain, as in particular poultry and poultry meat represent a major source of human infections. An interdisciplinary One Health approach and a combined effort of all stakeholders are necessary to ultimately reduce the burden of campylobacteriosis cases in humans. Numerous studies point out, however, that at present a complete elimination of Campylobacter in the food chain is not feasible. The present aim should therefore be to establish control measures and intervention strategies to minimize the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in livestock (e.g. poultry flocks) and to reduce the quantitative Campylobacter burden in animals and foods. To this end, a combination of intervention methods at different stages of the food chain appears most promising. That has to be accompanied by targeted consumer advice and education campaigns to raise the awareness towards Campylobacter infections.

  14. Identification of risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses during the slaughter process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-02

    Campylobacter carcass contamination was quantified across the slaughter line during processing of Campylobacter positive batches. These quantitative data were combined together with information describing slaughterhouse and batch related characteristics in order to identify risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The results revealed that Campylobacter counts are influenced by the contamination of incoming birds (both the initial external carcass contamination and the colonization level of caeca) and the duration of transport and holding time that can be linked with feed withdrawal period. In addition, technical aspects of the slaughter process such as a dump based unloading system, electrical stunning, lower scalding temperature, incorrect setting of plucking, vent cutter and evisceration machines were identified as risk factors associated with increased Campylobacter counts on processed carcasses. As such the study indicates possible improvements of the slaughter process that can result in better control of Campylobacter numbers under routine processing of Campylobacter positive batches without use of chemical or physical decontamination. Moreover, all investigated factors were existing variations of the routine processing practises and therefore proposed interventions are practically and economically achievable.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility in thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from pigs and chickens in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jonker

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of sporadic food-borne bacterial disease in humans. In intensive poultry and pig rearing systems the use of oral antibiotics is essential to maintain health. Consequently, there is a high risk for the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli resident in the intestinal tract of food animals to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Contamination of meat or eggs with pathogenic strains of resistant Campylobacter could, therefore, result in a form of campylobacteriosis in humans that is difficult to treat. The aim of this investigation was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from pigs and poultry by the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC test. A total of 482 samples from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces was collected and analysed. Thirty-eight Campylobacter isolates were obtained. Analysis of data revealed that C. jejuni strains mainly of poultry origin were more resistant to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines and the C. coli strains were more resistant to the macrolides and lincosamides. Multiresistance was also detected in 4 Campylobacter strains from the Western Cape. With the exception of tetracyclines, strains from high health Gauteng broiler farms were susceptible to antibiotics used to treat Campylobacter infections.

  16. Colonisation of a phage susceptible Campylobacter jejuni population in two phage positive broiler flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Kittler

    Full Text Available The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails.

  17. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry.

  18. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Modi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, 30 ice-cream and 30 paneer were collected from the different collection points in Anand city. The samples were processed by microbiological culture method, and presumptive isolates were further confirmed by genus and species-specific polymerase chain reaction using previously reported primer. The isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and virulence gene detection. Result: Campylobacter species were detected in 7 (2.91% raw milk samples whereas none of the milk product was positive. All the isolate identified were Campylobacter jejuni. Most of the isolates showed resistance against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin. All the isolates have three virulence genes cadF, cdtB and flgR whereas only one isolate was positive for iamA gene and 6 isolates were positive for fla gene. Conclusion: The presence of Campylobacter in raw milk indicates that raw milk consumption is hazardous for human being and proper pasteurization of milk and adaptation of hygienic condition will be necessary to protect the consumer from this zoonotic pathogen.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility in thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from pigs and chickens in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, A; Picard, J A

    2010-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of sporadic food-borne bacterial disease in humans. In intensive poultry and pig rearing systems the use of oral antibiotics is essential to maintain health. Consequently, there is a high risk for the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli resident in the intestinal tract of food animals to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Contamination of meat or eggs with pathogenic strains of resistant Campylobacter could, therefore, result in a form of campylobacteriosis in humans that is difficult to treat. The aim of this investigation was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from pigs and poultry by the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. A total of 482 samples from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces was collected and analysed. Thirty-eight Campylobacter isolates were obtained. Analysis of data revealed that C. jejuni strains mainly of poultry origin were more resistant to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines and the C. coli strains were more resistant to the macrolides and lincosamides. Multi-resistance was also detected in 4 Campylobacter strains from the Western Cape. With the exception of tetracyclines, strains from high health Gauteng broiler farms were susceptible to antibiotics used to treat Campylobacter infections.

  20. Effect of bacteriophage application on Campylobacter jejuni loads in commercial broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Sophie; Fischer, Samuel; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Glünder, Gerhard; Klein, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent food-borne human enteritis. The major source for infection with Campylobacter spp. is broiler meat. Risk assessments consider the reduction of Campylobacter in primary production to be most beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a bacteriophage application under commercial conditions which had proved to be effective in previous noncommercial studies under controlled experimental conditions. A phage cocktail for Campylobacter reduction was tested on three commercial broiler farms each with a control and an experimental group. Colonization of Campylobacter was confirmed prior to phage application in fecal samples. Subsequently, a phage cocktail was applied via drinking water in the experimental group (log10 5.8 to 7.5 PFU/bird). One day after phage application, Campylobacter counts of one experimental group were reduced under the detection limit (log10 3.2 CFU/g cecal content compared to the control was still detected (P=0.0011). No significant reduction was observed in the experimental groups of the other trials. However, a significant drop in cecal Campylobacter counts occurred in a phage-contaminated control. These results suggest that maximum reduction of Campylobacter at the slaughterhouse might be achieved by phage application 1 to 4 days prior to slaughter.

  1. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Thissen, J; van Asselt, E D

    2012-09-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages of the broiler supply chain. Three different sampling points were considered: departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, and the end of the slaughterline. Strong associations were found between Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence at a particular sampling point and their prevalence at the preceding point of the chain. Statistical analyses showed that the country of origin of the broiler farm had a significant effect on the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter at slaughterhouse arrival. The feeding company delivering to the farm also showed a significant effect on the occurrence of both pathogens at departure from the broiler farm. The prevalence of Campylobacter decreased with an increasing number of birds per flock, whereas the prevalence of Salmonella increased with an increasing number of birds per flock. The number of flocks processed within a specific slaughterhouse was not associated with an increased or decreased prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. The results provide more insight into factors related to the occurrence of both pathogens and in understanding their epidemiology. The results can be supportive in decision making on measures to reduce the contamination of broiler products with Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  2. The in vivo efficacy of two administration routes of a phage cocktail to reduce numbers of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Carla M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, an acute bacterial enteritis which is a major problem worldwide. Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are the most common Campylobacter species associated with this disease. These pathogens live in the intestinal tract of most avian species and under commercial conditions they spread rapidly to infect a high proportion of the flock, which makes their treatment and prevention very difficult. Bacteriophages (phages are naturally occurring predators of bacteria with high specificity and also the capacity to evolve to overcome bacterial resistance. Therefore phage therapy is a promising alternative to antibiotics in animal production. This study tested the efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of three phages for the control of poultry infected with C. coli and C. jejuni. Moreover, it evaluated the effectiveness of two routes of phage administration (by oral gavage and in feed in order to provide additional information regarding their future use in a poultry unit. Results The results indicate that experimental colonisation of chicks was successful and that the birds showed no signs of disease even at the highest dose of Campylobacter administered. The phage cocktail was able to reduce the titre of both C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces by approximately 2 log10 cfu/g when administered by oral gavage and in feed. This reduction persisted throughout the experimental period and neither pathogen regained their former numbers. The reduction in Campylobacter titre was achieved earlier (2 days post-phage administration when the phage cocktail was incorporated in the birds' feed. Campylobacter strains resistant to phage infection were recovered from phage-treated chickens at a frequency of 13%. These resistant phenotypes did not exhibit a reduced ability to colonize the chicken guts and did not revert to sensitive types. Conclusions Our findings provide

  3. The pelvis of fetuses in the exstrophy complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakim, A; Barbet, J P; Lair-Milan, F; Dubousset, J

    1997-01-01

    By using a three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scanner, we compared the anatomic features of the pelvis of three fetuses of same gestational age, one with a normal pelvis representing the reference model, one with classic bladder exstrophy, and one with cloacal exstrophy. The tomography slices were selected at the same levels for each case. Three angles expressing external opening of the pelvis were defined. Comparing normal and abnormal pelvises allowed definition of three criteria for the correction of the malformation: (a) the sum of the differential angles gives the amplitude of the correction needed; (b) a supraacetabular osteotomy appears to allow best closure of the pelvic ring; (c) only three slices of a CT scan are needed, which cannot be harmful, especially for neonates. Therefore, we believe that a CT scan of the pelvis should be performed whenever an osteotomy is planned in the surgical reconstruction of bladder and cloacal exstrophy.

  4. Temperature increase in the fetus exposed to UHF RFID readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Liorni, Ilaria; Samaras, Theodoros; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has prominently increased during the last decades due to the rapid development of new technologies. Among the various devices emitting EMFs, those based on Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies are used in all aspects of everyday life, and expose people unselectively. This scenario could pose a potential risk for some groups of the general population, such as pregnant women, who are expected to be possibly more sensitive to the thermal effects produced by EMF exposure. This is the first paper that addresses the estimation of temperature rise in two pregnant women models exposed to ultrahigh frequency RFID by computational techniques. Results show that the maximum temperature increase of the fetus and of the pregnancy-related tissues is relatively high (even about 0.7 °C), not too far from the known threshold of biological effects. However, this increase is confined to a small volume in the tissues.

  5. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  6. A Fetus with Iniencephaly Delivered at the Third Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Cinar Tanriverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iniencephaly is an uncommon neural tube defect, having retroflexion of the head without a neck and severe distortion of the spine. Iniencephaly is classified into two groups, iniencephaly apertus (with encephalocele and iniencephaly clausus (without encephalocele. Incidence ranges from 0.1 to 10 in 10.000 pregnancies and it is seen more frequently in girls. Most of the fetuses with this defect die before birth or soon after birth, while those with the milder forms may live through childhood. Recurrence risk is around 1–5%. Family should be offered termination to reduce maternal risks and counseled for folic acid supplementation before the next planned pregnancy. Here we present a rare case of iniencephaly clausus which was diagnosed at 18th week of gestation by ultrasonography and delivered in the third trimester of pregnancy due to rejection of termination.

  7. Stem cell and genetic therapies for the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Erik G; Flake, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    The prenatal diagnosis and management of congenital disease has made significant progress over the previous decade. Currently, fetal therapy (including open surgery and fetoscopic intervention) provides therapeutic options for a range of congenital anomalies; however, it is restricted to the treatment of fetal pathophysiology. Improvements in prenatal screening and the early diagnosis of genetic disease allow for preemptive treatment of anticipated postnatal disease by stem cell or genetic therapy. While currently awaiting clinical application, in utero stem cell therapy has made significant advances in overcoming the engraftment and immunologic barriers in both murine and pre-clinical large animal models. Likewise, proof in principle for fetal gene therapy has been demonstrated in rodent and large animal systems as a method to prevent the onset of inherited genetic disease; however, safety and ethical risks still need to be addressed prior to human application. In this review, we examine the current status and future direction of stem cell and genetic therapy for the fetus.

  8. The effects of maternal labour analgesia on the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Felicity

    2010-06-01

    Maternal labour pain and stress are associated with progressive fetal metabolic acidosis. Systemic opioid analgesia does little to mitigate this stress, but opioids readily cross the placenta and cause fetal-neonatal depression and impair breast feeding. Pethidine remains the most widely used, but alternatives, with the possible exception of remifentanil, have little more to offer. Inhalational analgesia using Entonox is more effective and, being rapidly exhaled by the newborn, is less likely to produce lasting depression. Neuraxial analgesia has maternal physiological and biochemical effects, some of which are potentially detrimental and some favourable to the fetus. Actual neonatal outcome, however, suggests that benefits outweigh detrimental influences. Meta-analysis demonstrates that Apgar score is better after epidural than systemic opioid analgesia, while neonatal acid-base balance is improved by epidural compared to systemic analgesia and even compared to no analgesia. Successful breast feeding is dependent on many factors, therefore randomized trials are required to elucidate the effect of labour analgesia.

  9. Oral fetus-in-fetu: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudeen Toyin Abdulraheem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu is a rare condition, less than 200 cases have been reported. Its embryopathogenesis is linked to a monozygotic, diamniotic parasitic twin. The presence of a calcified vertebral column and other body parts are key to the diagnosis, and differentiate it from a teratoma. We report a case of a neonate who was admitted immediately after delivery by Caesarian section following a prolonged obstructed labor caused by a huge mass projecting from the hard palate. The mass had identifiable malformed body parts but was anencephalic. Intraoperative findings were a short stalk and cleft of the soft palate. He had excision of the mass and did well post operatively. Persistent mouth breathing and difficult nasal cannulation lead to request for post operative magnetic resonance imaging which showed patent nostrils and absent residual mass. Prompt and skillful anesthesia and surgical intervention assisted in the survival of this patient.

  10. MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, Robin; Grabar, Sophie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [Paris V, Faculte de Medecine, Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Fallet-Bianco, Catherine [Hopital Sainte-Anne, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)

    2006-02-01

    There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T. The results were compared both with the commonly used neuropathological data in the literature and with personal neuropathological data. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were performed. One case of olfactory agenesis associated with CHARGE syndrome was identified. T2-weighted coronal sequences were the most sensitive for detecting olfactory bulbs and sulci. Olfactory sulci were significantly better detected from 30 weeks onwards (90.9-100%; P<0.001). MRI showed a posteroanterior development of these sulci. Olfactory bulbs were better detected from 30 to 34 weeks (80-90.9%; P<0.002). Comparison with neuropathological data confirmed the posteroanterior development of the sulci and showed an important delay in detection of the olfactory structures (bulbs and sulci). No difference was observed between the two centres involved. To date, fetal MRI can depict olfactory sulci from 30 weeks gestational age onwards and olfactory bulbs from 30 to 34 weeks gestational age. This preliminary reference standard is useful to assess the normality of the olfactory system and to diagnose olfactory agenesis. (orig.)

  11. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters.

  12. Spatial analysis of campylobacter infection in the Canadian province of Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Dennis O

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study describes population level variations in campylobacter incidence within the Canadian province of Manitoba, and the relationship to sociodemographic and landscape related characteristics. Using data derived from the Manitoba Health Public Health Branch communicable disease surveillance database, the study applied a number of spatial and ecological techniques to visualize, explore and model campylobacter incidence for the years 1996 to 2004. Analytical techniques used in the study included spatial smoothing, the spatial scan statistic, the Gini coefficient, and Poisson regression analysis. Results The study demonstrated marked and statistically significant geographic variability in the rates of campylobacter incidence in Manitoba.. The incidence of campylobacter was observed to be significantly higher in populations living in rural and agricultural areas of the province, with the highest rates occurring in populations living in proximity to high densities of farm animals (cows, pigs, chickens. The study also observed that the age specific pattern of campylobacter incidence in rural Manitoba was very different than the urban pattern, with the incidence rate in the 0–4 year age group seven times higher in rural Manitoba than in the City of Winnipeg. Conclusion The study demonstrates the value of a deploying a diverse set of spatial techniques to better understand the dynamics of an enteric disease such as campylobacter infection. The study concludes that there may be three distinct mechanisms for the transmission of campylobacter in Manitoba which are operating simultaneously. These include broad population exposure to a centralized food system endemically infected with the campylobacter organism, exposure to local level factors such as farm animals or contaminated water, and exposure to campylobacter infection through foreign travel.

  13. Campylobacter infection as a trigger for Guillain-Barre syndrome in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Wierzba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies of Campylobacter infection triggering Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS are conducted in western nations were Campylobacter infection and immunity is relatively rare. In this study, we explored Campylobacter infections, Campylobacter serotypes, autoantibodies to gangliosides, and GBS in Egypt, a country where Campylobacter exposure is common. METHODS: GBS cases (n = 133 were compared to age- and hospital-matched patient controls (n = 374. A nerve conduction study was performed on cases and a clinical history, serum sample, and stool specimen obtained for all subjects. RESULTS: Most (63.3% cases were demyelinating type; median age four years. Cases were more likely than controls to have diarrhea (29.5% vs. 22.5%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa = 1.69, P = 0.03, to have higher geometric mean IgM anti-Campylobacter antibody titers (8.18 vs. 7.25 P<0.001, and to produce antiganglioside antibodies (e.g., anti-Gd1a, 35.3 vs. 11.5, ORa = 4.39, P<0.0001. Of 26 Penner:Lior Campylobacter serotypes isolated, only one (41:27, C. jejuni, P = 0.02 was associated with GBS. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike results from western nations, data suggested that GBS cases were primarily in the young and cases and many controls had a history of infection to a variety of Campylobacter serotypes. Still, the higher rates of diarrhea and greater antibody production against Campylobacter and gangliosides in GBS patients were consistent with findings from western countries.

  14. Longitudinal prevalence, faecal shedding and molecular characterisation of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-11-01

    Faecal excretion of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep in Australia was determined using a quantitative multiplex PCR (qPCR) targeting the Campylobacter spp. purine biosynthesis gene (PurA) and the S. enterica outer membrane protein (ompF). The mutiplex qPCR was specific and Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were each detected with a sensitivity of 5 organisms/µL faecal DNA extract. This multiplex qPCR was used to determine the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica in 3412 faecal samples collected from 1189 lambs on eight farms across South Australia (n = 2 farms), New South Wales (n = 1), Victoria (n = 2) and Western Australia (n = 3) at three sampling periods (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter). The overall prevalences of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were 13.3% and 5.0%, respectively, with the highest prevalence for Campylobacter spp. in South Australia and the highest prevalence for S. enterica in New South Wales. Campylobacter jejuni was the only Campylobacter sp. identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the 16S locus. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was the only serovar of S. enterica identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the ompF locus. Across all states, Campylobacter spp. had the highest median bacterial concentration in faeces at weaning and post-weaning (medians of 3.4 × 10(6) and 1.1 × 10(5), respectively), whereas S. enterica had the highest median bacterial concentration at pre-slaughter (1.8 × 10(5)/g faeces).

  15. Hepatic artery Doppler in trisomy 21 and euploid fetuses at 11-13 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvanca, Mona; Gielchinsky, Yuval; Abdeljawad, Firas; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Nicolaides, Kypros H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine possible differences in hepatic artery flow between trisomy 21 and euploid fetuses at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Methods Hepatic artery pulsatility index (PI) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) were measured in fetuses at low risk of aneuploidies (n = 350) and another group at high

  16. Transient early preeclampsia in twin pregnancy with a triploid fetus : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, C.; Schukken, T.; van Pampus, M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Triploid pregnancies have an increased risk of early preeclampsia. Twin pregnancies consisting of one healthy fetus and one complete or partial molar, with or without a triploid fetus, are rare and management is complex. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a

  17. Effects of fluoroquinolone treatment and group housing of pigs on the selection and spread of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Masaru; Sakemi, Yoko; Uchida, Ikuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-06-04

    There are concerns that the use of fluoroquinolones (FQs) and group housing of food animals may contribute to the development of bacterial FQ resistance. Here, we studied the effects of administering FQ to pigs on the selection of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. Fifteen pigs were randomly allocated to either a group treated with FQs (enrofloxacin or norfloxacin), or an untreated control group. The number of FQ-resistant Campylobacter in feces was determined using appropriate selective agar containing enrofloxacin. FQ-resistant Campylobacter from samples of both groups were observed on days 3 and 4. These bacteria persisted for up to 21 days after treatment was discontinued. To evaluate the effect of group housing on the transmission of FQ-resistant Campylobacter, five pigs infected with FQ-sensitive Campylobacter pigs and one pig infected with FQ-resistant Campylobacter were housed together. On day 3, FQ-resistant Campylobacter were isolated from all six pigs. Moreover, FQ-resistant Campylobacter were isolated from environmental samples from the pen. These results indicate that the treatment of pigs with FQs selects for and spreads FQ-resistant Campylobacter among the pen. Therefore, responsible and prudent use of FQs at pig farms is required to prevent the emergence and transmission of FQ-resistant Campylobacter.

  18. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products.

  19. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection.

  20. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cristina Gonsalves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples. Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products.

  1. Mortality following Campylobacter infection: a registry-based linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson Åke

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacteriosis is one of the most commonly identified causes of bacterial diarrheal disease and a common cause of gastroenteritis in travellers from developed nations. Despite the widespread occurrence, there is little information on Campylobacter mortality. Methods Mortality among a cohort of Campylobacter cases were compared with the general population 0–1, 1–3, 3–12 and more than 12 month after the onset of the illness. The cases were sub-grouped according to if they had been infected domestically or abroad. Results The standardized mortality ratio for cases infected domestically was 2.9 (95% CI: 1.9–4.0 within the first month following the illness. The risk then gradually diminished and approached 1.0 after one year or more have passed since the illness. This initial excess risk was not attributable to any particular age group (such as the oldest. In contrast, for those infected abroad, a lower standardized mortality ratio 0.3 (95% CI: 0.04–0.8 was shown for the first month after diagnosis compared to what would be expected in the general population. Conclusion Infection with Campylobacter is associated with an increased short-term risk of death among those who were infected domestically. On the contrary, for those infected abroad a lower than expected risk of death was evident. We suggest that the explanation behind this is a "healthy traveler effect" among imported cases, and effects of a more frail than average population among domestic cases.

  2. Degradación de tiocianato por hongos aislados de ambientes mineros y evaluación de su capacidad degradativa

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    Susan Medina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El Perú es uno de los principales países en la extracción de minerales como el oro, zinc, plomo y estaño. En la producción de oro se utiliza cianuro, el cual es tóxico para el medio ambiente, y que por reacción natural con el azufre se convierte en tiocianato (-SCN. En el presente trabajo se aislan hongos con capacidad de degradar tiocianato procedentes de aguas y suelos de zonas mineras de Junín y Tumbes. Estas cepas se sometieron a ensayos con concentraciones de tiocianato entre 5 y 600 mM. Asimismo, se evaluó la cinética de degradación de tiocianato en medio Kwon partiendo de 1,2 g.L-1 de KSCN y luego se realizó la identificación morfológica. De un total de 58 mohos aislados, obtuvimos 4 mohos con excelentes capacidades de degradar tiocianato y que pueden ser utilizados en biorremediación. La capacidad degradativa de estas cepas fue en promedio 10,05 mg.L-1 de -SCN con una velocidad de 28,77 mg.L-1.h-1. Dos cepas fueron identificadas fenotípica y molecularmente como Fusarium trincictum usando el marcador ITS del gen rDNA.

  3. Caracterización de hongos aislados de mapas conservados en el Archivo Nacional de la República de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alian Molina Veloso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los microorganismos, principalmente los hongos filamentosos (mohos, generan problemas en archivos, bibliotecas y museos provocando el biodeterioro de las colecciones. Estos efectos son más acusados en países de clima tropical debido a la influenciade las altas temperaturas y humedad relativa. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron caracterizar la concentración fúngica en cinco mapas conservados en la Mapoteca del Archivo Nacional de Cuba y determinar el potencial biodeteriorante de los hongos aislados. La toma de muestra se realizó mediante la técnica del hisopado en forma aséptica. Se determinó cualitativamente la actividad celulolítica, amilolítica, proteolítica así como la excreción de pigmentos y de ácidos orgánicos. Se detectó una concentración fúngica media de 622 ufc.cm-2, además de especies que constituyeron nuevos hallazgos en soportes documentales para el Archivo Nacional de Cuba. Los hongos degradaron la celulosa, el almidón y la gelatina además de excretar ácidos orgánicos y pigmentos.

  4. Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 327, a strain isolated from a turkey slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis and has a high prevalence in poultry. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni 327 is a subspecies of the genus Campylobacter of the family Campylobacteraceae in the phylum Proteobacteria. The microaerophilic, spiral shaped, catal...... shotgun sequence of 1,618,613 bp long consists of 1,740 protein-coding genes, 46 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA operons. A protein based BLAST analysis places the turkey isolate 327 close to the human clinical strain 81116 (NCTC 11828)....

  5. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle...... samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion: During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination...

  6. May Organically Farmed Animals Pose a Risk for Campylobacter Infections in Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engvall Anders

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming of meat producing poultry like broilers, means that the animals should be kept outdoors as much as possible. This pose a risk that they get infected with Campylobacter. At slaughter, carcasses may be contaminated with campylobacter. If cross contamination occurs in the kitchen or if the meat is undercooked people may ingest the bacteria and suffer from enteritis. It seems possible that close to 100 percent of organically farmed flocks may be infected with campylobacter while under Swedish conditions only 10 percent of conventionally reared flocks are infected.

  7. Campylobacter in healthy slaughter pigs: a possible source of infection for man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticht-Groh, V

    1982-01-30

    Campylobacter were isolated from 103 of 173 (59 per cent) specimens of healthy slaughter pig faeces, washed intestines and water samples collected from a slaughterhouse and butcher's shop in West Germany. As most cases of human campylobacter enteritis are caused by Campylobacter jejuni, an attempt was made to find this organism among the isolates. Twenty-five out of the 103 strains (24 per cent) were identified as C jejuni. C jejuni was also isolated from salted water samples after overnight bowel storage in the butcher's shop, indicating that the customary salt preparation of the intestines did not eliminate all organisms present.

  8. Novel Campylobacter isolation method using hydrophobic grid membrane filter and semisolid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso-Garcia, Alfonso; Harris, Kathleen; Riche, Edward; Campbell, Stephanie; Jarvie, Anne; Popa, Maria; Deckert, Anne; Reid-Smith, Richard; Rahn, Kris

    2007-02-01

    Culture procedures for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from food matrices are complex, labor intensive, and time-consuming. Most available methods include the use of antibiotics as selective agents to prevent the growth of competing microflora. A simple procedure for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters after enrichment in Rosef's enrichment broth was developed using a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) on semisolid medium (SSM). SSM contains no antibiotics, and the HGMF physically separates Campylobacter from the enrichment broth, allowing isolation based on differential motility. The HGMF-SSM method was compared to the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Food Safety Procedures Manual (FSPM-10) method (Isolation of Thermophilic Campylobacters from Fresh Pork, Beef Veal, Poultry and Ready-to-Eat Meat Products), which includes the use of selective antibiotics. During the initial study, after enrichment the HGMF-SSM method yielded pure cultures of campylobacters after 16 to 18 h (overnight) compared with 48 h for the FSPM-10 method. Ninety-four turkey samples collected at local retail stores and 38 frozen pig fecal samples were processed by both methods. Thirty-five samples (26.5%) were positive by the HGMF-SSM method; 24 (18.2%) of these positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni and 11 (8.3%) contained Campylobacter coli. With the FSPM-10 method, 25 samples (18.9%) were positive: 21 (15.9%) with C. jejuni and 4 (3%) with C. coli. For a subsequent field study, only the HGMF-SSM method was used to isolate Campylobacter from 1,200 chicken samples and 454 turkey samples sold at retail. Analysis of five subisolates from various samples indicated that only one type of Campylobacter was recovered by the HGMF-SSM method, as ascertained by MICs for 10 antimicrobials, sequencing of the short variable region of the flaA gene, and fingerprinting based on amplified fragment length polymorphism. The absence of antibiotics in the SSM may explain the higher

  9. Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flocks: a 2-year study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Gradel, K.O.; Jorgensen, J.C.;

    2001-01-01

    at the farms. Of the swabs, 42.5% were Campylobacter positive. Most positive samples were found during July, August and September, while the lowest number of positive samples were found during January, February, March and April. Of the flocks, 5.5% were Salmonella positive, but no seasonal variation...... was observed. For each flock, the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella was recorded in order to estimate the possible correlation between colonisation with the two pathogens. In conclusion, no significant effects on intensive cleaning and disinfection procedures on Campylobacter occurrence could...

  10. Protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga as a potential reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Waldenström, Jonas; Broman, Tina; Olsen, Björn; Holmberg, Martin

    2005-02-01

    We showed by a laboratory experiment that four different Campylobacter jejuni strains are able to infect the protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga. C. jejuni cells survived for longer periods when cocultured with amoebae than when grown in culture alone. The infecting C. jejuni cells aggregated in amoebic vacuoles, in which they were seen to be actively moving. Furthermore, a resuscitation of bacterial cultures that were previously negative in culturability tests was observed after reinoculation into fresh amoeba cultures. After spontaneous rupture of the amoebae, C. jejuni could be detected by microscopy and culturability tests. Our results indicate that amoebae may serve as a nonvertebrate reservoir for C. jejuni in the environment.

  11. Quantitative Proteomics of Intracellular Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming.

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    Xiaoyun Liu

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the USA and Europe. An important virulence attribute of this bacterial pathogen is its ability to enter and survive within host cells. Here we show through a quantitative proteomic analysis that upon entry into host cells, C. jejuni undergoes a significant metabolic downshift. Furthermore, our results indicate that intracellular C. jejuni reprograms its respiration, favoring the respiration of fumarate. These results explain the poor ability of C. jejuni obtained from infected cells to grow under standard laboratory conditions and provide the bases for the development of novel anti microbial strategies that would target relevant metabolic pathways.

  12. The Cj0588 protein is a Campylobacter jejuni RNA methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałamaszyńska-Guz, Agnieszka; Taciak, Bartłomiej; Kwiatek, Agnieszka; Klimuszko, Danuta

    2014-06-06

    TlyA proteins belong to 2'-O-methyltransferases. Methylation is a common posttranscriptional RNA modification. The Campylobacter jejuni Cj0588 protein belongs to the TlyA(I) protein family and is a rRNA methyltransferase. Methylation of ribosomal RNA catalyzed by Cj0588 appears to have an impact on the biology of the cell. Presence of the cj0588 gene in bacteria appears to be important for ribosome stability and virulence properties. Absence of the Cj0588 protein causes accumulation of the 50S ribosomal subunits, reduction in the amount of functional 70S ribosomes and confers increase resistance to capreomycin.

  13. Sacroiliitis and Septicemia Caused by Campylobacter rectus and Actinomyces odontolyticus

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    Pierre Harvey

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter rectus, formerly known as Wolinella recta, is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus, generally recognized as an agent responsible for severe periodontitis; only two cases of extra-oral infections have been reported. The first case of septicemia with C rectus and Actinomyces odontolyticus is described in a 37-year-old farmer who suffered from severe sacroiliitis. Also presented are a review of C rectus in human pathology, and a brief review of pyogenic sacroiliitis, a rather rare disease.

  14. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant...... providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers....... Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from...

  15. Exploring the chemotactic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract....... These mutants will be analyzed for their chemotatic capacity in order to investigate the chemoreceptor function and to identify matching chemoeffectors. Furthermore, selected mutants will be investigated for their ability to colonize chickens with focus on establishment, level, and persistence. Special emphasis...

  16. Aortic intima-media thickness and aortic diameter in small for gestational age and growth restricted fetuses.

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    M Dolores Gomez-Roig

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to measure aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT and aortic diameter (AD in appropriate for gestational age (AGA fetuses, small for gestational age (SGA fetuses, and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR fetuses.Case-control study performed between June 2011 and June 2012. Forty-nine AGA fetuses, 40 SGA fetuses, and 35 IUGR fetuses underwent concomitant measurement of aIMT and AD at a mean gestational age of 34.4 weeks.Median aIMT was higher in fetuses with IUGR (0.504 mm [95%CI: 0.477-0.530 mm], than in SGA fetuses (0.466 mm [95% CI: 0.447-0.485 mm], and AGA fetuses (0.471 mm [95% CI: 0.454-0.488 mm] (p = 0.023. Mean AD was significantly lower in fetuses with IUGR (4.451 mm [95% CI: 4.258-4.655 mm], than in AGA fetuses (4.74 mm [95% CI: 4.63-4.843 mm] (p = 0.028.Growth restricted fetuses have a thicker aortic wall than AGA and SGA fetuses, which possibly represents preclinical atherosclerosis and a predisposition to later cardiovascular disease.

  17. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

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    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  18. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated in the region of Niš, Serbia

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    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli represent one of the main causes of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. Although the disease is usually mild and self-limiting, severe chronic sequelae may occur, such as reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. Serotyping is used as an epidemiological marker, while post-infective polyneuropathies are associated with several O serotypes. Objective. Strains of C. jejuni and C. coli were serotyped based on heat stable (HS and heat labile (HL antigens, as well as biotypes to determine strain diversity. Methods. Campylobacter spp. was isolated using selective blood media with antibiotics. Differentiation to the species level was done by a combination of biotyping tests and by a PCR-based RFLP test. The isolates were characterised by Penner and Lior serotyping methods. Results. The serotypes showed diversity without predominant serotypes. 24 HS serotypes were detected among 29 C. jejuni strains, and seven serotypes among nine C. coli strains. HL serotyping method successfully typed 62.5% of strains. Among 16 C. jejuni strains 14 serotypes were detected, and three among four C. coli strains. A C. jejuni strain associated with a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome was typed as biotype II, O:19. Conclusion. The biotyping and serotyping results have indicated that C. jejuni and C. coli strains in the region of Niš, Serbia are diverse and could be probably of unrelated sources of origin or reservoirs. The strain associated with the Guillain-Barré syndrome patient was serotype O:19, one of the most common in this post-infective complication.

  19. Variables that affect the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in fetuses with anemia and intrauterine growth restriction.

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    Hanif, Farhan; Drennan, Kathrin; Mari, Giancarlo

    2007-09-01

    We have previously reported that the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) increases in anemic fetuses and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We hypothesized that the pathophysiology for the increased MCA PSV is different in anemic and IUGR fetuses. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the factor(s) among fetal umbilical vein blood pH, Po2, Pco2, and hemoglobin that might affect the MCA PSV in fetuses with anemia and IUGR. This study included two groups of fetuses. The first group included fetuses at risk for anemia because of red cell alloimmunization, whereas the second group included IUGR fetuses. For both groups of fetuses, we determined hemoglobin, umbilical vein blood gases -- at cordocentesis in anemic fetuses and immediately after cesarean delivery in IUGR fetuses -- and MCA PSV before cordocentesis, or before delivery. The relationship between MCA PSV and the hemoglobin, Po2, Pco2, and pH values for the anemic and the IUGR fetuses were assessed by regression analysis using multiples of the mean. There were 14 fetuses in the first group and 22 fetuses in the second group. In the first group, the only parameter that was related to MCA PSV was the fetal hemoglobin (R2 = 0.34; p < 0.05); in fetuses with IUGR, the Pco2 (R2 = 0.36; p < 0.01) and the PO2 (R2 = 0.30; p < 0.01) correlated well with the MCA PSV, whereas no relationship was found between the MCA PSV and the hemoglobin. The data indicate that the mechanism of high MCA PSV is different in anemic and nonanemic IUGR fetuses, and suggest that the process of cerebral autoregulation is present in the preterm IUGR fetus.

  20. Was the increase in culture-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Denmark during the 1990s a surveillance artefact?

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    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Teunis, Peter; Simonsen, Jacob; Krogfelt, Karen A; Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Takkinen, Johanna; Mølbak, Kåre

    2015-01-01

    In 1991, 1999 and 2006, randomly selected individuals from the Danish Central Personal Register provided a serum sample. From individuals aged 30 years and above, 500 samples from each year were analysed for Campylobacter IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies using a direct ELISA method. We applied a seroincidence calculator available from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control to perform a mathematical back-calculation to estimate the annual Campylobacter seroincidence in the Danish population. The estimated Campylobacter seroincidence did not differ significantly between the 1991, 1999 and 2006 studies although the reported number of culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection increased 2.5 fold from 1993 to 1999 among individuals aged 30 years and above. This suggests that Campylobacter was widely present in the Danish population before the increase in poultry-associated clinical Campylobacter infections observed from 1993 to 2001 among individuals of this age groups.