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Sample records for campylobacter emergence transmission

  1. Molecular evidence for zoonotic transmission of an emergent, highly pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni clone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Fitzgerald, Collette; Stroika, Steven; Zhao, Shaohua; Sippy, Rachel J; Kwan, Patrick; Plummer, Paul J; Han, Jing; Yaeger, Michael J; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen. A highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (clone SA) has recently emerged in ruminant reservoirs and has become the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States. To determine whether clone SA is associated with human disease, we compared the clinical isolates of clone SA from sheep abortions with the human isolates of the PulseNet National Campylobacter databases at the CDC and the FDA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and serotyping. The combined SmaI and KpnI PFGE pattern designations of clone SA from sheep were indistinguishable from those of 123 (9.03%) human C. jejuni isolates (total, 1,361) in the CDC database, among which 56 were associated with sporadic infections and 67 were associated with outbreaks that occurred in multiple states from 2003 to 2010. Most of the outbreaks were attributed to raw milk, while the sources for most of the sporadic cases were unknown. All clone SA isolates examined, including PFGE-matched human isolates, belong to sequence type 8 (ST-8) by MLST and serotype HS:1,8, further indicating the clonality of the related isolates from different host species. Additionally, C. jejuni clone SA was identified in raw milk, cattle feces, the feces and bile of healthy sheep, and abortion cases of cattle and goats, indicating the broad distribution of this pathogenic clone in ruminants. These results provide strong molecular and epidemiological evidence for zoonotic transmission of this emergent clone from ruminants to humans and indicate that C. jejuni clone SA is an important threat to public health.

  2. Campylobacter ureolyticus: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bullman, Susan

    2011-03-01

    A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen.

  3. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

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    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  4. Routes of transmission of salmonella and campylobacter in breeder turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are frequent colonizers of the intestinal tracts of poultry and have often been associated with human foodborne illness. The entry, transmission and prevalence of both pathogens have been extensively studied in chickens but little information is available for turkeys. ...

  5. Role of emerging Campylobacter species in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M; Man, Si Ming

    2014-11-01

    The gut microbiota is a central player in the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases. As such, there is intense scientific interest in elucidating the specific group/s of bacteria responsible for driving barrier damage and perpetuating the chronic inflammation that results in disease. Because of their ability to colonize close to the surface of the host intestinal epithelium, mucosa-associated bacteria are considered key players in the initiation and development of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The leading bacterial candidates include adherent and invasive Escherichia coli, Helicobacter, Fusobacteria, Mycobacteria, and Campylobacter species. Of these, a member of the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter concisus, has recently emerged as a putative player in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Current research indicates that this bacterium possesses extraordinarily diverse pathogenic capacities as well as unique genetic and functional signatures that are defined by their ability to adhere to and invade host cells, secrete toxins, and the presence of a virulence-associated restriction-modification system. These characteristics enable the potential classification of C. concisus into distinct pathotypes, which we have named adherent and invasive C. concisus and adherent and toxinogenic C. concisus. In this review, we evaluate evidence for the role of emerging Campylobacter species in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  6. Serotype and genotype diversity and hatchery transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial poultry flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Nielsen, E.M.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the genotype and serotype diversity of Campylobacter coli and C jejuni in two parent flocks of adult hens and their offspring over two rotations in order to evaluate the role of hatchery mediated transmission and/or vertical transmission of campylobacters in broiler flocks. In tot...

  7. Detection of airborne Campylobacter with three bioaerosol samplers for alarming bacteria transmission in broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Katsma, W.E.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In an airborne transmission experiment, Campylobacter in the air was sampled by three types of bioaerosol samplers (all-glass impinger AGI-30, Andersen six-stage impactor, and OMNI-3000) in four broiler rooms. In each room, five 14-day- old broilers inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni were kept in

  8. Neonatal sepsis by Campylobacter jejuni : Genetically proven transmission from a household puppy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, TFW; Duim, B; Geelen, SPM; Rigter, A; Thomson-Carter, F; Fleer, A; Wagenaar, JA

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of neonatal Campylobacter jejuni sepsis in a 3-week-old infant who acquired the infection through transmission from a recently acquired household puppy. Genotyping of Campylobacter strains obtained from puppy and child resulted in highly homogenous findings. This represents the firs

  9. Neonatal sepsis by campylobacter jejuni: a genetically proven transmission from a household puppy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, T.F.W.; Duim, B.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Rigter, A.; Thomson Carter, F.; Fleer, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of neonatal Campylobacter jejuni sepsis in a 3-week-old infant who acquired the infection through transmission from a recently acquired household puppy. Genotyping of Campylobacter strains obtained from puppy and child resulted in highly homogeneous findings. This represents the fir

  10. Quantifying Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in Commercial Broiler Flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Miflin, J.K.; Templeton, J.M.; Bouma, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    Since meat from poultry colonized with Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, human exposure should be reduced by, among other things, prevention of colonization of broiler flocks. To obtain more insight into possible sources of introduction of Campylobacter into broiler f

  11. Genomic evidence for the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences in the genus Campylobacter.

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    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-09-04

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology.

  12. Role of Rodents in transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Kijlstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are generally regarded as the most important food-borne pathogens in the world. Reduction or elimination of these pathogens in the first part of the food chain (on the farm) is important to prevent disease among consumers of animal products. In organic farming, eliminati

  13. A QMRA for the Transmission of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter from Poultry Farms to Humans Through Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Eric G; Blaak, Hetty; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; de Jonge, Rob; Schets, Franciska M

    2016-02-01

    The public health significance of transmission of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter from poultry farms to humans through flies was investigated using a worst-case risk model. Human exposure was modeled by the fraction of contaminated flies, the number of specific bacteria per fly, the number of flies leaving the poultry farm, and the number of positive poultry houses in the Netherlands. Simplified risk calculations for transmission through consumption of chicken fillet were used for comparison, in terms of the number of human exposures, the total human exposure, and, for Campylobacter only, the number of human cases of illness. Comparing estimates of the worst-case risk of transmission through flies with estimates of the real risk of chicken fillet consumption, the number of human exposures to ESBL-producing E. coli was higher for chicken fillet as compared with flies, but the total level of exposure was higher for flies. For Campylobacter, risk values were nearly consistently higher for transmission through flies than for chicken fillet consumption. This indicates that the public health risk of transmission of both ESBL-producing E. coli and Campylobacter to humans through flies might be of importance. It justifies further modeling of transmission through flies for which additional data (fly emigration, human exposure) are required. Similar analyses of other environmental transmission routes from poultry farms are suggested to precede further investigations into flies.

  14. Changing risk of environmental Campylobacter exposure with emerging poultry production systems in Ethiopia.

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    Brena, M C; Mekonnen, Y; Bettridge, J M; Williams, N J; Wigley, P; Sisay Tessema, T; Christley, R M

    2016-02-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of diarrhoea, and its presence in chickens is a significant risk for zoonotic infection. Poultry production is becoming increasingly intensive in Ethiopia and is incorporating more high-producing breeds into traditionally managed smallholdings, especially in peri-urban areas. This cross-sectional study sampled 219 household environments in one peri-urban and two rural areas of Ethiopia, and an additional 20 semi-intensive farms in the peri-urban district. Campylobacter was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-specific assays in 44 samples; 16 of which could be identified as C. jejuni. Flocks in the peri-urban area were at significantly greater odds of detection, including those which only kept indigenous birds under a scavenging system. It was also noted that scavenging flocks of exotic high-production birds (Rhode Island Red) were at slightly greater risk, perhaps as exotic birds are under more stress when kept under traditional management systems. We suggest that changes to the system of chicken production may alter the ecology and epidemiology of Campylobacter in the environment, chickens and people, which may drive emergence of new epidemiological patterns of disease. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which the current management intensification and the distribution programmes of exotic and/or improved indigenous birds may alter Campylobacter epidemiology, ecology and public health risk, before their widespread adoption.

  15. Enhanced biofilm formation and multi-host transmission evolve from divergent genetic backgrounds in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Ben; Méric, Guillaume; Murray, Susan; Yahara, Koji; Mageiros, Leonardos; Bowen, Ryan; Jones, Nathan H; Jeeves, Rose E; Lappin-Scott, Hilary M; Asakura, Hiroshi; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Multicellular biofilms are an ancient bacterial adaptation that offers a protective environment for survival in hostile habitats. In microaerophilic organisms such as Campylobacter, biofilms play a key role in transmission to humans as the bacteria are exposed to atmospheric oxygen concentrations when leaving the reservoir host gut. Genetic determinants of biofilm formation differ between species, but little is known about how strains of the same species achieve the biofilm phenotype with different genetic backgrounds. Our approach combines genome-wide association studies with traditional microbiology techniques to investigate the genetic basis of biofilm formation in 102 Campylobacter jejuni isolates. We quantified biofilm formation among the isolates and identified hotspots of genetic variation in homologous sequences that correspond to variation in biofilm phenotypes. Thirteen genes demonstrated a statistically robust association including those involved in adhesion, motility, glycosylation, capsule production and oxidative stress. The genes associated with biofilm formation were different in the host generalist ST-21 and ST-45 clonal complexes, which are frequently isolated from multiple host species and clinical samples. This suggests the evolution of enhanced biofilm from different genetic backgrounds and a possible role in colonization of multiple hosts and transmission to humans.

  16. Litter treatment with Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) produced an inconsistent reduction in horizontal transmission of Campylobacter in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacteriosis is a significant health problem worldwide and poultry products are considered as one of the main vehicles of transmission. Alum treatment of poultry litter was reported to decrease Campylobacter colonization frequency and population in the ceca in broilers. Little is known about h...

  17. Interaction effects between sender and receiver processes in indirect transmission of Campylobacter jejuni between broilers

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    van Bunnik Bram AD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases in plants, animals and humans are often transmitted indirectly between hosts (or between groups of hosts, i.e. via some route through the environment instead of via direct contacts between these hosts. Here we study indirect transmission experimentally, using transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni between spatially separated broilers as a model system. We distinguish three stages in the process of indirect transmission; (1 an infectious “sender” excretes the agent, after which (2 the agent is transported via some route to a susceptible “receiver”, and subsequently (3 the receiver becomes colonised by the agent. The role of the sender and receiver side (stage 1 and stage 3 was studied here by using acidification of the drinking water as a modulation mechanism. Results In the experiment one control group and three treatment groups were monitored for the presence of C. jejuni by taking daily cloacal swabs. The three treatments consisted of acidification of the drinking water of the inoculated animals (the senders, acidification of the drinking water of the susceptible animals (the receivers or acidification of the drinking water of both inoculated and susceptible animals. In the control group 12 animals got colonised out of a possible 40, in each treatment groups 3 animals out of a possible 40 were found colonised with C. jejuni. Conclusions The results of the experiments show a significant decrease in transmission rate (β between the control groups and treatment groups (p

  18. On-farm Campylobacter and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler chickens: Re-used bedding does not influence Campylobacter emergence and levels across sequential farming cycles.

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    Chinivasagam, H N; Estella, W; Rodrigues, H; Mayer, D G; Weyand, C; Tran, T; Onysk, A; Diallo, I

    2016-05-01

    Limitations in quality bedding material have resulted in the growing need to re-use litter during broiler farming in some countries, which can be of concern from a food-safety perspective. The aim of this study was to compare the Campylobacter levels in ceca and litter across three litter treatments under commercial farming conditions. The litter treatments were (a) the use of new litter after each farming cycle; (b) an Australian partial litter re-use practice; and (c) a full litter re-use practice. The study was carried out on two farms over two years (Farm 1, from 2009-2010 and Farm 2, from 2010-2011), across three sheds (35,000 to 40,000 chickens/shed) on each farm, adopting three different litter treatments across six commercial cycles. A random sampling design was adopted to test litter and ceca for Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, prior to commercial first thin-out and final pick-up. Campylobacter levels varied little across litter practices and farming cycles on each farm and were in the range of log 8.0-9.0 CFU/g in ceca and log 4.0-6.0 MPN/g for litter. Similarly the E. coli in ceca were ∼log 7.0 CFU/g. At first thin-out and final pick-up, the statistical analysis for both litter and ceca showed that the three-way interaction (treatments by farms by times) was highly significant (PCampylobacter emergence/presence across time vary between the farms, cycles and pickups. The emergence and levels of both organisms were not influenced by litter treatments across the six farming cycles on both farms. Either C. jejuni or C. coli could be the dominant species across litter and ceca, and this phenomenon could not be attributed to specific litter treatments. Irrespective of the litter treatments in place, cycle 2 on Farm 2 remained Campylobacter-free. These outcomes suggest that litter treatments did not directly influence the time of emergence and levels of Campylobacter and E. coli during commercial farming.

  19. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royden, A.; Wedley, A.; Merga, J. Y.;

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran...

  20. MONETARY POLICY TRANSMISSION MECHANISM IN EMERGING COUNTRIES

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    Andreea ROŞOIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The transmission channels of monetary policy are used by central banks to accomplish the main objective of price stability in the context of sustainable economic growth. The importance of interest rate and exchange rate channels for the emerging countries Romania, Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary is analyzed by using Bayesian VAR approach with Diffuse priors over 1998Q1-2012Q3. Main result of the empirical study is that both channels are effective for the monetary policy transmission mechanism in Hungary and Czech Republic. In Romania and Poland they do not exhibit puzzles, but the impact of the macroeconomic variables is not very significant and shows very high volatility. In the context of monetary integration, exchange rate channel will become irrelevant when these countries adopt Euro currency. This change will lead instead to a powerful interest rate channel.

  1. Interspecies transmission and chikungunya virus emergence.

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    Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Chen, Rubing; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe, debilitating, often chronic arthralgia with high attack rates, resulting in severe morbidity and economic costs to affected communities. Since its first well-documented emergence in Asia in the 1950s, CHIKV has infected millions and, since 2007, has spread widely, probably via viremic travelers, to initiate urban transmission in Europe, the South Pacific, and the Americas. Some spread has been facilitated by adaptive envelope glycoprotein substitutions that enhance transmission by the new vector, Aedes albopictus. Although epistatic constraints may prevent the impact of these mutations in Asian strains now circulating in the Americas, as well as in African CHIKV strains imported into Brazil last year, these constraints could eventually be overcome over time to increase the transmission by A. albopictus in rural and temperate regions. Another major determinant of CHIKV endemic stability in the Americas will be its ability to spill back into an enzootic cycle involving sylvatic vectors and nonhuman primates, an opportunity exploited by yellow fever virus but apparently not by dengue viruses.

  2. Molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolates involved in a neonatal outbreak indicates nosocomial transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovo, J.; Mateo, E.; Munoz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that two neonates in a neonatal ward were infected with the same Campylobacter jejuni strain. Isolates from the mother and brother of the index patient were identical to each other but distinct...

  3. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    to broiler houses may be counted in thousands per broiler rotation during summer periods, even a low prevalence of Campylobacter positive flies constitute a risk of introduction of Campylobacter to the chickens. M. domestica – the house fly is the most important vector fly for Campylobacter transmission...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  4. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed.

  5. Effects of fluoroquinolone treatment and group housing of pigs on the selection and spread of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

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    Usui, Masaru; Sakemi, Yoko; Uchida, Ikuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-06-04

    There are concerns that the use of fluoroquinolones (FQs) and group housing of food animals may contribute to the development of bacterial FQ resistance. Here, we studied the effects of administering FQ to pigs on the selection of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. Fifteen pigs were randomly allocated to either a group treated with FQs (enrofloxacin or norfloxacin), or an untreated control group. The number of FQ-resistant Campylobacter in feces was determined using appropriate selective agar containing enrofloxacin. FQ-resistant Campylobacter from samples of both groups were observed on days 3 and 4. These bacteria persisted for up to 21 days after treatment was discontinued. To evaluate the effect of group housing on the transmission of FQ-resistant Campylobacter, five pigs infected with FQ-sensitive Campylobacter pigs and one pig infected with FQ-resistant Campylobacter were housed together. On day 3, FQ-resistant Campylobacter were isolated from all six pigs. Moreover, FQ-resistant Campylobacter were isolated from environmental samples from the pen. These results indicate that the treatment of pigs with FQs selects for and spreads FQ-resistant Campylobacter among the pen. Therefore, responsible and prudent use of FQs at pig farms is required to prevent the emergence and transmission of FQ-resistant Campylobacter.

  6. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST methods for the emerging Campylobacter species C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus

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    William G Miller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST systems have been reported previously for multiple food- and food animal-associated Campylobacter species (e.g. C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus to both differentiate strains and identify clonal lineages. These MLST methods focused primarily on campylobacters of human clinical (e.g. C. jejuni or veterinary (e.g. C. fetus relevance. However, other, emerging, Campylobacter species have been isolated increasingly from environmental, food animal or human clinical samples. We describe herein MLST methods for five emerging Campylobacter species: C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus. The concisus/curvus method uses the loci aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, ilvD and pgm, whereas the other methods use the seven loci defined for C. jejuni (i.e., aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, pgm, and tkt. Multiple food animal and human clinical C. hyointestinalis (n=48, C. lanienae (n=34 and C. sputorum (n=24 isolates were typed, along with 86 human clinical C. concisus and C. curvus isolates. A large number of sequence types (STs were identified using all four MLST methods. Similar to Campylobacter MLST methods described previously, these novel MLST methods identified mixed isolates containing two or more strains of the same species. Additionally, these methods speciated unequivocally isolates that had been typed ambiguously using other molecular-based speciation methods, such as 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, the design of degenerate primer pairs for some methods permitted the typing of related species; for example, the C. hyointestinalis primer pairs could be used to type C. fetus strains. Therefore, these novel Campylobacter MLST methods will prove useful in speciating and differentiating strains of multiple, emerging Campylobacter species.

  7. Transmission techniques for emergent multicast and broadcast systems

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Mario Marques; Dinis, Rui; Souto, Nuno; Silva, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Describing efficient transmission schemes for broadband wireless systems, Transmission Techniques for Emergent Multicast and Broadcast Systems examines advances in transmission techniques and receiver designs capable of supporting the emergent wireless needs for multimedia broadcast and multicast service (MBMS) requirements. It summarizes the research and development taking place in wireless communications for multimedia MBMS and addresses the means to improved spectral efficiency to allow for increased user bit rate, as well as increased capacity of the digital cellular radio network.The text

  8. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  9. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the small intestine from a bacteria called Campylobacter jejuni . It is a type of food poisoning. Causes ... testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment The infection almost always goes away on ...

  10. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

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    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  11. A rural worker infected with a bovine-prevalent genotype of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus supports zoonotic transmission and inconsistency of MLST and whole-genome typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, G; Betancor, L; Calleros, L; Gadea, P; Algorta, G; Galeano, S; Muxi, P; Greif, G; Pérez, R

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome characterisation in clinical microbiology enables to detect trends in infection dynamics and disease transmission. Here, we report a case of bacteraemia due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in a rural worker under cancer treatment that was diagnosed with cellulitis; the patient was treated with antibiotics and recovered. The routine typing methods were not able to identify the microorganism causing the infection, so it was further analysed by molecular methods and whole-genome sequencing. The multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) revealed the presence of the bovine-associated ST-4 genotype. Whole-genome comparisons with other C. fetus strains revealed an inconsistent phylogenetic position based on the core genome, discordant with previous ST-4 strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first C. fetus subsp. fetus carrying the ST-4 isolated from humans and represents a probable case of zoonotic transmission from cattle.

  12. Emergence and transmission of arbovirus evolutionary intermediates with epidemic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleford, Kenneth A; Coffey, Lark L; Lay, Sreyrath; Bordería, Antonio V; Duong, Veasna; Isakov, Ofer; Rozen-Gagnon, Kathryn; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Blanc, Hervé; Beaucourt, Stéphanie; Haliloğlu, Türkan; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Ben-Tal, Nir; Shomron, Noam; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Buchy, Philippe; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2014-06-11

    The high replication and mutation rates of RNA viruses can result in the emergence of new epidemic variants. Thus, the ability to follow host-specific evolutionary trajectories of viruses is essential to predict and prevent epidemics. By studying the spatial and temporal evolution of chikungunya virus during natural transmission between mosquitoes and mammals, we have identified viral evolutionary intermediates prior to emergence. Analysis of virus populations at anatomical barriers revealed that the mosquito midgut and salivary gland pose population bottlenecks. By focusing on virus subpopulations in the saliva of multiple mosquito strains, we recapitulated the emergence of a recent epidemic strain of chikungunya and identified E1 glycoprotein mutations with potential to emerge in the future. These mutations confer fitness advantages in mosquito and mammalian hosts by altering virion stability and fusogenic activity. Thus, virus evolutionary trajectories can be predicted and studied in the short term before new variants displace currently circulating strains.

  13. Virological factors that increase the transmissibility of emerging human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Senior, Alistair M; Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Holmes, Edward C

    2016-04-12

    The early detection of pathogens with epidemic potential is of major importance to public health. Most emerging infections result in dead-end "spillover" events in which a pathogen is transmitted from an animal reservoir to a human but is unable to achieve the sustained human-to-human transmission necessary for a full-blown epidemic. It is therefore critical to determine why only some virus infections are efficiently transmitted among humans whereas others are not. We sought to determine which biological features best characterized those viruses that have achieved sustained human transmission. Accordingly, we compiled a database of 203 RNA and DNA human viruses and used an information theoretic approach to assess which of a set of key biological variables were the best predictors of human-to-human transmission. The variables analyzed were as follows: taxonomic classification; genome length, type, and segmentation; the presence or absence of an outer envelope; recombination frequency; duration of infection; host mortality; and whether or not a virus exhibits vector-borne transmission. This comparative analysis revealed multiple strong associations. In particular, we determined that viruses with low host mortality, that establish long-term chronic infections, and that are nonsegmented, nonenveloped, and, most importantly, not transmitted by vectors were more likely to be transmissible among humans. In contrast, variables including genome length, genome type, and recombination frequency had little predictive power. In sum, we have identified multiple biological features that seemingly determine the likelihood of interhuman viral transmissibility, in turn enabling general predictions of whether viruses of a particular type will successfully emerge in human populations.

  14. Wide-Area Emergency Control in Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard

    This thesis concerns the development of new emergency control algorithms for electric power transmission systems. Diminishing global resources and climate concerns forces operators to change production away from fossil fuels and towards distributed renewable energy sources. Along with the change...... on production side measures must be taken on the demand side to maintain power balance. Due to these changes, the operating point of the power system will be less predictable. Traditionally, emergency controls are designed off-line by extensive simulations. The future power system is expected to fluctuate more......, thus making the behaviour less predictable, suggesting the need for new intelligent wide-area emergency control algorithms. The fluctuating nature of the future power system calls for new methods of calculating remedial actions that are able to adapt to changing conditions. As part of this thesis...

  15. Biofilm spatial organization by the emerging pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: comparison between NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains under microaerobic and oxygen-enriched conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana eTuronova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne infections in developed countries. Described as an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter has puzzled scientists by surviving a wide range of environmental oxidative stresses on foods farm to retail, and thereafter intestinal transit and oxidative damage from macrophages to cause human infection. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to explore the biofilm development of two well-described Campylobacter jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176 prior to or during cultivation under oxygen-enriched conditions. Quantitative and qualitative appraisal indicated that C. jejuni formed finger-like biofilm structures with an open ultrastructure for 81-176 and a multilayer-like structure for NCTC 11168 under microaerobic conditions. The presence of motile cells within the biofilm confirmed the maturation of the C. jejuni 81-176 biofilm. Acclimation of cells to oxygen-enriched conditions led to significant enhancement of biofilm formation during the early stages of the process. Exposure to these conditions during biofilm cultivation induced an even greater biofilm development for both strains, indicating that oxygen demand for biofilm formation is higher than for planktonic growth counterparts. Overexpression of cosR in the poorer biofilm-forming strain, NCTC 11168, enhanced biofilm development dramatically by promoting an open ultrastructure similar to that observed for 81-176. Consequently, the regulator CosR is likely to be a key protein in the maturation of C. jejuni biofilm, although it is not linked to oxygen stimulation. These unexpected data advocate challenging studies by reconsidering the paradigm of fastidious requirements for C. jejuni growth when various subpopulations (from quiescent to motile cells coexist in biofilms. These findings constitute a clear example of a survival strategy used by this emerging human pathogen.

  16. Biofilm spatial organization by the emerging pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: comparison between NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains under microaerobic and oxygen-enriched conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turonova, Hana; Briandet, Romain; Rodrigues, Ramila; Hernould, Mathieu; Hayek, Nabil; Stintzi, Alain; Pazlarova, Jarmila; Tresse, Odile

    2015-01-01

    During the last years, Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne infections in developed countries. Described as an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter has puzzled scientists by surviving a wide range of environmental oxidative stresses on foods farm to retail, and thereafter intestinal transit and oxidative damage from macrophages to cause human infection. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to explore the biofilm development of two well-described Campylobacter jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176) prior to or during cultivation under oxygen-enriched conditions. Quantitative and qualitative appraisal indicated that C. jejuni formed finger-like biofilm structures with an open ultrastructure for 81-176 and a multilayer-like structure for NCTC 11168 under microaerobic conditions (MAC). The presence of motile cells within the biofilm confirmed the maturation of the C. jejuni 81-176 biofilm. Acclimation of cells to oxygen-enriched conditions led to significant enhancement of biofilm formation during the early stages of the process. Exposure to these conditions during biofilm cultivation induced an even greater biofilm development for both strains, indicating that oxygen demand for biofilm formation is higher than for planktonic growth counterparts. Overexpression of cosR in the poorer biofilm-forming strain, NCTC 11168, enhanced biofilm development dramatically by promoting an open ultrastructure similar to that observed for 81-176. Consequently, the regulator CosR is likely to be a key protein in the maturation of C. jejuni biofilm, although it is not linked to oxygen stimulation. These unexpected data advocate challenging studies by reconsidering the paradigm of fastidious requirements for C. jejuni growth when various subpopulations (from quiescent to motile cells) coexist in biofilms. These findings constitute a clear example of a survival strategy used by this emerging human pathogen. PMID:26217332

  17. Biofilm spatial organization by the emerging pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: comparison between NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains under microaerobic and oxygen-enriched conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turonova, Hana; Briandet, Romain; Rodrigues, Ramila; Hernould, Mathieu; Hayek, Nabil; Stintzi, Alain; Pazlarova, Jarmila; Tresse, Odile

    2015-01-01

    During the last years, Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne infections in developed countries. Described as an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter has puzzled scientists by surviving a wide range of environmental oxidative stresses on foods farm to retail, and thereafter intestinal transit and oxidative damage from macrophages to cause human infection. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to explore the biofilm development of two well-described Campylobacter jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176) prior to or during cultivation under oxygen-enriched conditions. Quantitative and qualitative appraisal indicated that C. jejuni formed finger-like biofilm structures with an open ultrastructure for 81-176 and a multilayer-like structure for NCTC 11168 under microaerobic conditions (MAC). The presence of motile cells within the biofilm confirmed the maturation of the C. jejuni 81-176 biofilm. Acclimation of cells to oxygen-enriched conditions led to significant enhancement of biofilm formation during the early stages of the process. Exposure to these conditions during biofilm cultivation induced an even greater biofilm development for both strains, indicating that oxygen demand for biofilm formation is higher than for planktonic growth counterparts. Overexpression of cosR in the poorer biofilm-forming strain, NCTC 11168, enhanced biofilm development dramatically by promoting an open ultrastructure similar to that observed for 81-176. Consequently, the regulator CosR is likely to be a key protein in the maturation of C. jejuni biofilm, although it is not linked to oxygen stimulation. These unexpected data advocate challenging studies by reconsidering the paradigm of fastidious requirements for C. jejuni growth when various subpopulations (from quiescent to motile cells) coexist in biofilms. These findings constitute a clear example of a survival strategy used by this emerging human pathogen.

  18. Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Maurício; Shoemaker, Lauren G; Cabral, Reniel B; Flores, César O; Varga, Melinda; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-09-08

    Multilevel societies, containing hierarchically nested social levels, are remarkable social structures whose origins are unclear. The social relationships of sperm whales are organized in a multilevel society with an upper level composed of clans of individuals communicating using similar patterns of clicks (codas). Using agent-based models informed by an 18-year empirical study, we show that clans are unlikely products of stochastic processes (genetic or cultural drift) but likely originate from cultural transmission via biased social learning of codas. Distinct clusters of individuals with similar acoustic repertoires, mirroring the empirical clans, emerge when whales learn preferentially the most common codas (conformism) from behaviourally similar individuals (homophily). Cultural transmission seems key in the partitioning of sperm whales into sympatric clans. These findings suggest that processes similar to those that generate complex human cultures could not only be at play in non-human societies but also create multilevel social structures in the wild.

  19. Campylobacter-Acanthamoeba interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana; Seddon, Alan M; Karlyshev, Andrey V

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen recognized as the major cause of human bacterial enteritis. Undercooked poultry products and contaminated water are considered as the most important sources of infection. Some studies suggest transmission and survival of this bacterial pathogen may be assisted by the free-living protozoa Acanthamoeba. The latter is known to play the role of a host for various pathogenic bacteria, protecting them from harsh environmental conditions. Importantly, there is a similarity between the mechanisms of bacterial survival within amoebae and macrophages, making the former a convenient tool for the investigation of the survival of pathogenic bacteria in the environment. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between Campylobacter and Acanthamoeba are not well understood. Whilst some studies suggest the ability of C. jejuni to survive within the protozoa, the other reports support an extracellular mode of survival only. In this review, we focus on the studies investigating the interaction between Campylobacter and Acanthamoeba, address some reasons for the contradictory results, and discuss possible implications of these results for epidemiology. Additionally, as the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown, we also suggest possible factors that may be involved in this process. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-protozoa interaction will assist in a better understanding of Campylobacter lifestyle and in the development of novel antibacterial drugs.

  20. The Effects of Temperature and Innate Immunity on Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) Between Life Stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Gill, C.; Lowenberger, C.

    2014-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter j...

  1. Campylobacter jejuni in Musca domestica: An examination of survival and transmission potential in light of the innate immune responses of the house flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Carson; Bahrndorff, Simon; Lowenberger, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica, has been implicated as a vector of Campylobacter spp., a major cause of human disease. Little is known whether house flies serve as biological amplifying hosts or mechanical vectors for Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated the period after C. jejuni had been inges...

  2. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time the skin is broken) Images Blood test Campylobacter jejuni organism References Allos BM. Campylobacter infections. In: Goldman ... chap 303. Allos BM, Iovine NM, Blaser MJ. Campylobacter jejuni and related species. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, ...

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...

  4. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  5. Molecular-based detection of the gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus in unpasteurized milk samples from two cattle farms in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koziel Monika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Campylobacter jejuni and coli are collectively regarded as the most prevalent cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide. An emerging species, Campylobacter ureolyticus has recently been detected in patients with gastroenteritis, however, the source of this organism has, until now, remained unclear. Herein, we describe the molecular-based detection of this pathogen in bovine faeces (1/20 and unpasteurized milk (6/47 but not in poultry (chicken wings and caeca. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the presence of this potential gastrointestinal pathogen in an animal source, possibly suggesting a route for its transmission to humans.

  6. Veiculação de Campylobacter spp. através de carne e miúdos de frangos comercializados no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil | Transmission of Campylobacter spp. through chicken meat and organs sold in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Martins Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O consumo da carne de frango é comum no Brasil por ser um alimento proteico de alto valor biológico e baixo custo, sendo acessível a toda população. Uma causa comum de infecções alimentares tem sido a ingestão de produtos avícolas contaminados, crus ou insuficientemente cozidos, fazendo da contaminação de cortes de frango fontes potenciais de Campylobacter spp. para o homem. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de Campylobacter e verificar a possível veiculação da campilobacteriose através de cortes e miúdos de frangos resfriados e comercializados para consumo em supermercados de grande porte no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para isso, foram coletadas 40 amostras resfriadas de frango, das quais 19 foram embaladas pela indústria e 21 manipuladas pelos supermercados, submetendo-as a três metodologias distintas denominadas: in natura, enriquecimento e incubação da água de lavagem. Os resultados obtidos revelaram a presença de espécies de Campylobacter zoonóticas resistentes a antimicrobianos em cortes de frango comercializados para consumo humano, indicando que pedaços e miúdos de frango crus ou insuficientemente cozidos são fontes potenciais de campilobacteriose para a população. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The consumption of chicken meat is common in Brazil because this protein-rich food is low cost, has high nutritional value, and is accessible to the entire population. A common cause of foodborne illness has been the ingestion of contaminated, raw, or undercooked poultry products, making contaminated chicken meat a potential source of Campylobacter spp. to humans. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of Campylobacter and assess the potential transmission of campylobacteriosis through refrigerated chicken meat and organs sold for consumption in large supermarkets in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this purpose, 40 samples of

  7. Zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni and Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) in peri-urban Quito, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco Aguas, Karla Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are common in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) such as Ecuador. In the present study, we investigated the presence of zoonotic enteropathogens in stool samples from 267 children and domestic animals of 62 households in a semi-rural community in Ecuador between June and August 2014. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used to assess C. jejuni and aEPEC zoonotic transmission, which were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in children and domestic animals (30.7% ...

  8. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  9. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Campylobacter species in Ireland and the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lucey, B

    2012-02-03

    Measurements were made of the susceptibility to six commonly prescribed antibiotics, including erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, of 130 isolates of Campylobacterjejuni and 15 isolates of Campylobacter coli cultured from human and poultry sources during 2000. The results were compared with the results from a collection of strains isolated between 1996 and 1998. The levels of resistance to erythromycin remained low, 2 per cent and 4.4 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline had increased to 31 per cent and 24.4 per cent from 13.9 per cent and 18.8 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. However, the resistance to ciprofloxacin of the strains isolated during 2000 had increased to 30 per cent, whereas between 1996 and 1998 there had been no resistance to this agent among human isolates, and only 3.1 per cent resistance among poultry isolates. The molecular basis for this resistance has been shown to be the result of a single amino acid substitution, Thr-86-Ile, in the gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase in Cjejuni. A subset of 59 isolates was tested by molecular methods and all of the 25 phenotypically resistant isolates possessed this substitution. None of the human isolates had been treated with ciprofloxacin before their laboratory isolation.

  10. A Review of Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  11. Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry—a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  12. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial causes ...

  13. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations.

  14. Epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter , causing human infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, is mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products.Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Campylobacter isolates were serotyped, using a modificati

  15. Volatility Transmission between Dow Jones Stock Index and Emerging Bond Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saadaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use a bivariate GARCH model to estimate simultaneously of the mean and the conditional variance between the Dow Jones stock index and some emerging bond indices. We used the DCC-GARCH model to graphically demonstrate the peaks of the volatility transmission. We examined this transmission using daily returns between July, 30, 2009 and January, 18, 2011 extracted from Datastream. Our results demonstrate that there is a significant transmission of shocks and volatility between the Dow Jones stock index and bond indices of the emerging countries. The results also confirm the idea that the crisis was transmitted from the United States to the emerging countries due to foreign investment made in these countries.

  16. Phylodynamic analysis of the emergence and epidemiological impact of transmissible defective dengue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Ruian; Aaskov, John; Holmes, Edward C; Lloyd-Smith, James O

    2013-02-01

    Intra-host sequence data from RNA viruses have revealed the ubiquity of defective viruses in natural viral populations, sometimes at surprisingly high frequency. Although defective viruses have long been known to laboratory virologists, their relevance in clinical and epidemiological settings has not been established. The discovery of long-term transmission of a defective lineage of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) in Myanmar, first seen in 2001, raised important questions about the emergence of transmissible defective viruses and their role in viral epidemiology. By combining phylogenetic analyses and dynamical modeling, we investigate how evolutionary and ecological processes at the intra-host and inter-host scales shaped the emergence and spread of the defective DENV-1 lineage. We show that this lineage of defective viruses emerged between June 1998 and February 2001, and that the defective virus was transmitted primarily through co-transmission with the functional virus to uninfected individuals. We provide evidence that, surprisingly, this co-transmission route has a higher transmission potential than transmission of functional dengue viruses alone. Consequently, we predict that the defective lineage should increase overall incidence of dengue infection, which could account for the historically high dengue incidence reported in Myanmar in 2001-2002. Our results show the unappreciated potential for defective viruses to impact the epidemiology of human pathogens, possibly by modifying the virulence-transmissibility trade-off, or to emerge as circulating infections in their own right. They also demonstrate that interactions between viral variants, such as complementation, can open new pathways to viral emergence.

  17. Climate variability and campylobacter infection: an international study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari Kovats, R.; Edwards, Sally J.; Charron, Dominique; Cowden, John; D'Souza, Rennie M.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Gauci, Charmaine; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Hajat, Shakoor; Hales, Simon; Hernández Pezzi, Gloria; Kriz, Bohumir; Kutsar, Kuulo; McKeown, Paul; Mellou, Kassiani; Menne, Bettina; O'Brien, Sarah; Pelt, Wilfrid; Schmid, Hans

    2005-03-01

    Campylobacter is among the most important agents of enteritis in developed countries. We have described the potential environmental determinants of the seasonal pattern of infection with campylobacter in Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Specifically, we investigated the role of climate variability on laboratory-confirmed cases of campylobacter infection from 15 populations. Regression analysis was used to quantify the associations between timing of seasonal peaks in infection in space and time. The short-term association between weekly weather and cases was also investigated using Poisson regression adapted for time series data. All countries in our study showed a distinct seasonality in campylobacter transmission, with many, but not all, populations showing a peak in spring. Countries with milder winters have peaks of infection earlier in the year. The timing of the peak of infection is weakly associated with high temperatures 3 months previously. Weekly variation in campylobacter infection in one region of the UK appeared to be little affected by short-term changes in weather patterns. The geographical variation in the timing of the seasonal peak suggests that climate may be a contributing factor to campylobacter transmission. The main driver of seasonality of campylobacter remains elusive and underscores the need to identify the major serotypes and routes of transmission for this disease.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter: prevalence and trends in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igimi, S; Okada, Y; Ishiwa, A; Yamasaki, M; Morisaki, N; Kubo, Y; Asakura, H; Yamamoto, S

    2008-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most frequently diagnosed bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis in Japan and throughout the world. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans has emerged in many countries during the past 15 years because fluoroquinolones are the drug of choice for the treatment of suspected bacterial gastroenteritis. Food contaminated with Campylobacter is the usual source of human infection; therefore, the presence of antimicrobial resistance strains in the food chain has raised concerns that the treatment of human infections will be compromised. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals and in veterinary medicine is suspected to be correlated with an increase in quinolone-resistant strains of Campylobacter in food animals, especially in poultry products. In contrast to macrolide resistance in C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans showing a stable low rate, resistant Campylobacter spp. to quinolones have emerged in Japan. The paper summarizes food-borne Campylobacter infection in Japan, and the prevalence and trends of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter from the authors' data and other Japanese papers which reported the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter.

  19. Volatility Transmission between Bond and Stock Markets: Case of Emerging Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saadaoui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the transmission of market volatility between the emerging stock and bond markets. In order to examine this relation between the bond and stock market, we use the BEKK GARCH model; a decomposition approach of the multivariate GARCH (1, 1 model. The outcome of this study displays a significant relation between bond and stock index and the incidence of the interest rate in this transmission. Besides, there is a transmission of volatility between the bond and stock index demonstrated by the DCC GARCH graph.

  20. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon V. R. Epps

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions.

  1. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon V. R.; Harvey, Roger B.; Hume, Michael E.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Anderson, Robin C.; Nisbet, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions. PMID:24287853

  2. Patterns of parasite transmission in polar seas: Daily rhythms of cercarial emergence from intertidal snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.; Levakin, Ivan A.

    2016-07-01

    Trematodes are common parasites in intertidal ecosystems. Cercariae, their dispersive larvae, ensure transmission of infection from the first intermediate molluscan host to the second intermediate (invertebrates and fishes) or the final (fishes, marine birds and mammals) host. Trematode transmission in polar seas, while interesting in many respects, is poorly studied. This study aimed to elucidate the patterns of cercarial emergence from intertidal snails at the White Sea and Barents Sea. The study, involving cercariae of 12 species, has provided the most extensive material obtained so far in high latitude seas (66-69° N). The experiments were conducted in situ. Multichannel singular spectral analysis (MSSA) used for processing primary data made it possible to estimate the relative contribution of different oscillations into the analysed time series and to separate the daily component from the other oscillatory components and the noise. Cercarial emergence had pronounced daily rhythms, which did not depend on the daily tidal schedule but were regulated by thermo- and photoperiod. Daily emergence maximums coincided with periods favourable for infecting the second intermediate hosts. Cercarial daily emergence rhythms differed in species using the same molluscan hosts which can be explained by cercarial host searching behaviour. Daily cercarial output (DCO) correlated negatively with larval volume and positively with that of the molluscan host except in cercariae using ambuscade behaviour. In the Barents Sea cercariae emerged from their molluscan hosts at lower temperatures than in the warmer White Sea but the daily emergence period was prolonged. Thus, DCO of related species were similar in these two seas and comparable with DCO values reported for boreal seas. Local temperature adaptations in cercarial emergence suggests that in case of Arctic climate warming trematode transmission in coastal ecosystems is likely to be intensified not because of the increased

  3. Feline immunodeficiency virus cross-species transmission: Implications for emergence of new lentiviral infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin; Malmberg, Jennifer L.; Wood, Britta A.; Hladky, Sahaja; Troyer, Ryan; Roelke, Melody; Cunningham, Mark W.; McBride, Roy; Vickers, Winston; Boyce, Walter; Boydston, Erin E.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Riley, Seth P D; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of HIV emergence following human exposures to SIV, understanding processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We have previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- vs. intra-species transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analysis of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrates that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but did not detect selection among twenty PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus, which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in Florida following initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates.IMPORTANCE Cross-species transmission episodes can be singular, dead-end events or can result in viral replication and spread in the new species. The factors that determine which outcome will occur are complex, and the risk of new virus emergence is therefore difficult to predict. Here

  4. Emergence of Epidemic Zika Virus Transmission and Congenital Zika Syndrome: Are Recently Evolved Traits to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mechanisms responsible for the dramatic emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV), accompanied by congenital Zika syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), remain unclear. However, two hypotheses are prominent: (i) evolution for enhanced urban transmission via adaptation to mosquito vectors, or for enhanced human infection to increase amplification, or (ii) the stochastic introduction of ZIKV into large, naive human populations in regions with abundant Aedes aegypti populations, leading to enough rare, severe infection outcomes for their first recognition. Advances in animal models for human infection combined with improvements in serodiagnostics, better surveillance, and reverse genetic approaches should provide more conclusive evidence of whether mosquito transmission or human pathogenesis changed coincidentally with emergence in the South Pacific and the Americas. Ultimately, understanding the mechanisms of epidemic ZIKV emergence, and its associated syndromes, is critical to predict future risks as well as to target surveillance and control measures in key locations. PMID:28074023

  5. A Modeling and Experiment Framework for the Emergency Management in AHC Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency management is crucial to finding effective ways to minimize or even eliminate the damage of emergent events, but there still exists no quantified method to study the events by computation. Statistical algorithms, such as susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR models on epidemic transmission, ignore many details, thus always influencing the spread of emergent events. In this paper, we first propose an agent-based modeling and experiment framework to model the real world with the emergent events. The model of the real world is called artificial society, which is composed of agent model, agent activity model, and environment model, and it employs finite state automata (FSA as its modeling paradigm. An artificial campus, on which a series of experiments are done to analyze the key factors of the acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC transmission, is then constructed to illustrate how our method works on the emergency management. Intervention measures and optional configurations (such as the isolation period of them for the emergency management are also given through the evaluations in these experiments.

  6. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  7. Financial integration in emerging market economies: Effects on volatility transmission and contagion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Ben Rejeb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the volatility relationship that exists between emerging and developed markets in normal times and in times of financial crises. The Vector Autoregressive methodology and the Bai and Perron (2003a, 2003b's technique are used. The paper results lead to very interesting conclusions. First, it has been found that volatility spillovers are effective across financial markets. Second, it has been proven that geographical proximity is of great importance in amplifying the volatility transmission. Finally, it has been shown that financial liberalization contributes significantly in amplifying the international transmission of volatility and the risk of contagion.

  8. Emerging technologies for 3D video creation, coding, transmission and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Dufaux, Frederic; Cagnazzo, Marco

    2013-01-01

    With the expectation of greatly enhanced user experience, 3D video is widely perceived as the next major advancement in video technology. In order to fulfil the expectation of enhanced user experience, 3D video calls for new technologies addressing efficient content creation, representation/coding, transmission and display. Emerging Technologies for 3D Video will deal with all aspects involved in 3D video systems and services, including content acquisition and creation, data representation and coding, transmission, view synthesis, rendering, display technologies, human percepti

  9. Information Transmission in Emerging Markets: The Case of a Unique Financing Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Hammad

    2008-01-01

    Information flows are necessary for well-functioning financial markets. However, in many emerging markets, the legal and institutional preconditions for proper information flow are not met. How do such markets respond? We argue that they respond by developing innovative information transmission mechanisms. We identify one such mechanism associated with the evolution of equity markets in South Asia. The mechanism operates through a financing instrument unique to India and Pakistan, called badl...

  10. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  11. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved. Isol

  12. House-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be an important source of Campylobacter to broilers. Our objective was to identify broiler house characteristics and house-level management practices associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Icel...

  13. Applications and consequences of bacteriocins to control Campylobacter spp. in poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  14. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter.

  15. Media for Campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite their recent elaboration and the many variations in antibiotic combinations designed to attain selectivity, highly selective liquid and solid culture media for Campylobacter jejuni have proved satisfactory provided they are incubated at about 42°C and in a microaerophilic atmosphere such as

  16. Dynamic temperature estimation and real time emergency rating of transmission cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R. S.; Holboll, J.; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2012-01-01

    enables real time emergency ratings, such that the transmission system operator can make well-founded decisions during faults. Hereunder is included the capability of producing high resolution loadability vs. time schedules within few minutes, such that the TSO can safely control the system.......This paper is concerned with the development of a fast computational methodology for dynamical estimation of the temperature in transmission cables solely based on current measurements and an enhanced version of the lumped parameters model, also denoted thermo electric equivalents (TEE......). It is found that the calculated temperature estimations are fairly accurate — within 1.5oC of the finite element method (FEM) simulation to which it is compared — both when looking at the temperature profile (time dependent) and the temperature distribution (geometric dependent). The methodology moreover...

  17. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis.

  18. Role of multiple hosts in the cross-species transmission and emergence of a pandemic parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Andrew B; Harbison, Carole E; Pagan, Israel; Stucker, Karla M; Kaelber, Jason T; Brown, Justin D; Ruder, Mark G; Keel, M Kevin; Dubovi, Edward J; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus that has circulated undetected in raccoons for at least 24 years, with transfers to and from dogs. Raccoon virus capsids showed little binding to the canine TfR, showed little infection of canine cells, and had altered antigenic structures. Remarkably, in capsid protein (VP2) phylogenies, most raccoon viruses fell as evolutionary intermediates between the CPV-2 and CPV-2a strains, suggesting that passage through raccoons assisted in the evolution of CPV-2a. This highlights the potential role of alternative hosts in viral emergence.

  19. An On-Demand Emergency Packet Transmission Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2015-12-04

    The rapid developments of sensor devices that can actively monitor human activities have given rise to a new field called wireless body area network (BAN). A BAN can manage devices in, on and around the human body. Major requirements of such a network are energy efficiency, long lifetime, low delay, security, etc. Traffic in a BAN can be scheduled (normal) or event-driven (emergency). Traditional media access control (MAC) protocols use duty cycling to improve performance. A sleep-wake up cycle is employed to save energy. However, this mechanism lacks features to handle emergency traffic in a prompt and immediate manner. To deliver an emergency packet, a node has to wait until the receiver is awake. It also suffers from overheads, such as idle listening, overhearing and control packet handshakes. An external radio-triggered wake up mechanism is proposed to handle prompt communication. It can reduce the overheads and improve the performance through an on-demand scheme. In this work, we present a simple-to-implement on-demand packet transmission scheme by taking into considerations the requirements of a BAN. The major concern is handling the event-based emergency traffic. The performance analysis of the proposed scheme is presented. The results showed significant improvements in the overall performance of a BAN compared to state-of-the-art protocols in terms of energy consumption, delay and lifetime.

  20. An On-Demand Emergency Packet Transmission Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshaddique Al Ameen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid developments of sensor devices that can actively monitor human activities have given rise to a new field called wireless body area network (BAN. A BAN can manage devices in, on and around the human body. Major requirements of such a network are energy efficiency, long lifetime, low delay, security, etc. Traffic in a BAN can be scheduled (normal or event-driven (emergency. Traditional media access control (MAC protocols use duty cycling to improve performance. A sleep-wake up cycle is employed to save energy. However, this mechanism lacks features to handle emergency traffic in a prompt and immediate manner. To deliver an emergency packet, a node has to wait until the receiver is awake. It also suffers from overheads, such as idle listening, overhearing and control packet handshakes. An external radio-triggered wake up mechanism is proposed to handle prompt communication. It can reduce the overheads and improve the performance through an on-demand scheme. In this work, we present a simple-to-implement on-demand packet transmission scheme by taking into considerations the requirements of a BAN. The major concern is handling the event-based emergency traffic. The performance analysis of the proposed scheme is presented. The results showed significant improvements in the overall performance of a BAN compared to state-of-the-art protocols in terms of energy consumption, delay and lifetime.

  1. Changing dietary habits in a changing world: emerging drivers for the transmission of foodborne parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglia, A; Kapel, C

    2011-11-24

    Changing eating habits, population growth and movements, global trade of foodstuff, changes in food production systems, climate change, increased awareness and better diagnostic tools are some of the main drivers affecting the emergence or re-emergence of many foodborne parasitic diseases in recent years. In particular, the increasing demand for exotic and raw food is one of the reasons why reports of foodborne infections, and especially waterborne parasitosis, have increased in the last years. Moreover increasing global demand for protein of animal origin has led to certain farming practices (e.g. aquaculture) increasing in emerging or developing countries, where health monitoring may not be sufficiently implemented. Therefore, high quality epidemiological data are needed which together with biological, economic, social and cultural variables should be taken into account when setting control programs for these increasingly popular production systems in emerging economies. This review focuses on the dietary, social, economic and environmental changes that may cause an increase in human exposure to foodborne parasites. Some examples illustrating these new epidemiological dynamics of transmission foodborne parasitic disease are presented.

  2. Evidence of experimental vertical transmission of emerging novel ECSA genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Agarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has emerged as one of the most important arboviruses of public health significance in the past decade. The virus is mainly maintained through human-mosquito-human cycle. Other routes of transmission and the mechanism of maintenance of the virus in nature are not clearly known. Vertical transmission may be a mechanism of sustaining the virus during inter-epidemic periods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether Aedes aegypti, a principal vector, is capable of vertically transmitting CHIKV or not. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female Ae. aegypti were orally infected with a novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the 2nd gonotrophic cycle. On day 10 post infection, a non-infectious blood meal was provided to obtain another cycle of eggs. Larvae and adults developed from the eggs obtained following both infectious and non-infectious blood meal were tested for the presence of CHIKV specific RNA through real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the larvae and adults developed from eggs derived from the infectious blood meal (2nd gonotrophic cycle were negative for CHIKV RNA. However, the larvae and adults developed after subsequent non-infectious blood meal (3rd gonotrophic cycle were positive with minimum filial infection rates of 28.2 (1∶35.5 and 20.2 (1∶49.5 respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to confirm experimental vertical transmission of emerging novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti from India, indicating the possibilities of occurrence of this phenomenon in nature. This evidence may have important consequence for survival of CHIKV during adverse climatic conditions and inter-epidemic periods.

  3. Phenotyping of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by a quantitative antibiogram [MIC] typing scheme using Euclidean distances [QATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldsmith Colin E

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteropathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are presently the most common cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. An understanding of sources and means of transmission of Campylobacter is an essential factor in order to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter-related gastroenteritis in man. Consequently a reproducible, sensitive and well-standardised typing scheme is critical in the successful discrimination of strains and in the subsequent investigations of outbreaks. For this purpose, a phenotypic typing scheme based on quantitative antibiogram determination based on Euclidean distance (QATED, was developed. Results and Conclusion The results obtained with this typing scheme demonstrated that individual livers of colonized pigs could be infected with multiple strains of Campylobacter spp. and subspecies types. In conclusion, phenotyping of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli by QATED is a simple, inexpensive and discriminatory sub-species characterisation scheme, which may be useful in primary diagnostic clinical laboratories, where no specialist Campylobacter phenotyping or molecular genotyping schemes exist. It is especially suitable for food-bome outbreak investigations in the community, where a rapid and local response is required to aid with public health epidemiological investigations.

  4. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.

  5. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  6. Campylobacter Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    In several countries quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) have been performed for Campylobacter in chicken meat. The models constructed for this purpose provide a good example of the development of QMRA in general and illustrate the diversity of available methods. Despite...... in generating and testing hypotheses in food microbiology will be advocated....... the differences between the models, the most prominent conclusions of the QMRAs are similar. These conclusions for example relate to the large risk of highly contaminated meat products and the insignificance of contamination from Campylobacter positive flocks to negative flocks during slaughter and processing...

  7. Growth kinetics and transmission potential of existing and emerging field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Lee

    Full Text Available Attenuated live infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV vaccines are widely used in the poultry industry to control outbreaks of disease. Natural recombination between commercial ILTV vaccines has resulted in virulent recombinant viruses that cause severe disease, and that have now emerged as the dominant field strains in important poultry producing regions in Australia. Genotype analysis using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism has shown one recombinant virus (class 9 has largely replaced the previously dominant class 2 field strain. To examine potential reasons for this displacement we compared the growth kinetics and transmission potential of class 2 and class 9 viruses. The class 9 ILTV grew to higher titres in cell culture and embryonated eggs, but no differences were observed in entry kinetics or egress into the allantoic fluid from the chorioallantoic membrane. In vivo studies showed that birds inoculated with class 9 ILTV had more severe tracheal pathology and greater weight loss than those inoculated with the class 2 virus. Consistent with the predominance of class 9 field strains, birds inoculated with 10(2 or 10(3 plaque forming units of class 9 ILTV consistently transmitted virus to in-contact birds, whereas this could only be seen in birds inoculated with 10(4 PFU of the class 2 virus. Taken together, the improved growth kinetics and transmission potential of the class 9 virus is consistent with improved fitness of the recombinant virus over the previously dominant field strain.

  8. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  9. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production Chain in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Makela, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading course of food borne bacterial infections worldwide. It is believed that a decline in the occurrence of campylobacteriosis can be achieved by reducing the number of the bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Phage therapy using Campylobacter specific phages...... given to poultry prior to slaughter is a promising control measure. However, the reducing effect of most phages tested so far is rather limited due to the development of phage resistant Campylobacter. An increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of importance for development of phage resistant...... Campylobacter is therefore essential for implementation of this method. Recently, a collection of Campylobacter bacteriophages has been established. The phages were isolated from faeces from broilers and ducks and it was shown by transmission electron microscopy that they all belong to the family of Myoviridae...

  10. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te late

  11. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  12. Occurrence and molecular analysis of Campylobacter in wildlife on livestock farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippy, Rachel; Sandoval-Green, Claudette M J; Sahin, Orhan; Plummer, Paul; Fairbanks, W Sue; Zhang, Qijing; Blanchong, Julie A

    2012-06-15

    Wildlife harbor a variety of Campylobacter spp. and may play a significant role in the transmission of Campylobacter to livestock. Although studies have been conducted on wildlife-associated Campylobacter isolates from farms in other countries, there are little data available for livestock farms in the United States. In addition, the critical questions of whether wildlife harbor Campylobacter that is pathogenic to ruminants and/or antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter have yet to be addressed. We captured wild small mammals (n=142) and small birds (n=188) at livestock farms in central Iowa and sampled them for thermophilic Campylobacter during autumn 2009, spring 2010, and autumn 2010. Overall prevalence was 4.79%, with isolates found only in wild birds. Molecular typing revealed four multilocus sequence types (STs), three of which are novel. The remaining ST (ST-806) was found in two house sparrows and is an ST previously associated with ruminant abortion cases. Further analysis of ST-806 wild bird and ruminant abortion isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, resistance gene location, and antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the isolates are nearly identical. This is the first account of isolation of Campylobacter types from wild birds that are known to be pathogenic to ruminants. Furthermore, these same two wild bird isolates are resistant to the antibiotic fluoroquinolone. Our results indicate there is an overall low prevalence of Campylobacter in selected wildlife in Iowa, but suggest that wildlife may play a role in the epidemiology of pathogenic Campylobacter for domestic livestock, and may also serve as a reservoir for antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter.

  13. Volatility Transmission Between Dow Jones Stock Index And Emerging Islamic Stock Index: Case Of Subprime Financial Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saadaoui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the recent global crisis, the stock shocks are distributed and transmitted from their homes in the developed stock market to emerging stock markets. By supporting the development of emerging stock markets, this study aims to see the transmission of volatility between the Dow Jones stock index and the Dow Jones emerging Islamic stock indiex. In this study we have divided the period into three, periods, before, during and after this crisis to demonstrate the resilience of the Islamic market index in response to the global financial crisis. Another aim of this study is to provide a new guide line for investors in emerging stock market before making investment decisions. The data are daily, going from 02/01/2005 until 31/12/2012. To measure the transmission we used bivariate BEKK-GARCH and DCC-GARCH model. The result shows that there is a transmission mainly during the crisis period which means that the crisis affects all the financial assets whether Islamic or not. The same result also shows the preference to invest in both Islamic and classical stock indexes since they are less risky.

  14. Dynamical behavior of a rumor transmission model with Holling-type II functional response in emergency event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Liang'an; Jiang, Jiehui; Gong, Sixing; He, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Rumor transmission has become an important issue in emergency event. In this paper, a rumor transmission model with Holling-type II functional response was proposed, which provides excellent explanations of the scientific knowledge effect with rumor spreading. By a global analysis of the model and studying the stability of the rumor-free equilibrium and the rumor-endemic equilibrium, we found that the number of infective individuals equal to zero or positive integer as time went on. A numerical simulation is carried out to illustrate the feasibility of our main results. The results will provide the theoretical support to rumor control in emergency event and also provide decision makers references for the public opinions management.

  15. Spatial analysis of campylobacter infection in the Canadian province of Manitoba

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    Krause Dennis O

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study describes population level variations in campylobacter incidence within the Canadian province of Manitoba, and the relationship to sociodemographic and landscape related characteristics. Using data derived from the Manitoba Health Public Health Branch communicable disease surveillance database, the study applied a number of spatial and ecological techniques to visualize, explore and model campylobacter incidence for the years 1996 to 2004. Analytical techniques used in the study included spatial smoothing, the spatial scan statistic, the Gini coefficient, and Poisson regression analysis. Results The study demonstrated marked and statistically significant geographic variability in the rates of campylobacter incidence in Manitoba.. The incidence of campylobacter was observed to be significantly higher in populations living in rural and agricultural areas of the province, with the highest rates occurring in populations living in proximity to high densities of farm animals (cows, pigs, chickens. The study also observed that the age specific pattern of campylobacter incidence in rural Manitoba was very different than the urban pattern, with the incidence rate in the 0–4 year age group seven times higher in rural Manitoba than in the City of Winnipeg. Conclusion The study demonstrates the value of a deploying a diverse set of spatial techniques to better understand the dynamics of an enteric disease such as campylobacter infection. The study concludes that there may be three distinct mechanisms for the transmission of campylobacter in Manitoba which are operating simultaneously. These include broad population exposure to a centralized food system endemically infected with the campylobacter organism, exposure to local level factors such as farm animals or contaminated water, and exposure to campylobacter infection through foreign travel.

  16. Survival and resuscitation of ten strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveerach, P.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2003-01-01

    The culturability of 10 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was studied after the bacteria were exposed to acid conditions for various periods of time. Campylobacter cells could not survive 2 h under acid conditions (formic acid at pH 4). The 10 Campylobacter strains could not be

  17. Campylobacter bacteriophages and bacteriophage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerton, P L; Timms, A R; Connerton, I F

    2011-08-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease with occasionally very serious outcomes. Much of this disease burden is thought to arise from consumption of contaminated poultry products. More than 80% of poultry in the UK harbour Campylobacter as a part of their intestinal flora. To address this unacceptably high prevalence, various interventions have been suggested and evaluated. Among these is the novel approach of using Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages, which are natural predators of the pathogen. To optimize their use as therapeutic agents, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the bacteriophages that infect Campylobacter, and how they can affect their host bacteria. This review will focus on many aspects of Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages including: their first isolation in the 1960s, their use in bacteriophage typing schemes, their isolation from the different biological sources and genomic characterization. As well as their use as therapeutic agents to reduce Campylobacter in poultry their future potential, including their use in bio-sanitization of food, will be explored. The evolutionary consequences of naturally occurring bacteriophage infection that have come to light through investigations of bacteriophages in the poultry ecosystem will also be discussed.

  18. Use of phages to control Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janež, Nika; Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    The use of phages to control pathogenic bacteria has been investigated since they were first discovered in the beginning of the 1900s. Over the last century we have slowly gained an in-depth understanding of phage biology including which phage properties are desirable when considering phage as biocontrol agents and which phage characteristics to potentially avoid. Campylobacter infections are amongst the most frequently encountered foodborne bacterial infections around the world. Handling and consumption of raw or undercooked poultry products have been determined to be the main route of transmission. The ability to use phages to target these bacteria has been studied for more than a decade and although we have made progress towards deciphering how best to use phages to control Campylobacter associated with poultry production, there is still much work to be done. This review outlines methods to improve the isolation of these elusive phages, as well as methods to identify desirable characteristics needed for a successful outcome. It also highlights the body of research undertaken so far and what criteria to consider when doing in-vivo studies, especially because some in-vitro studies have not been found to translate into to phage efficacy in-vivo.

  19. Control of campylobacter in poultry industry from farm to poultry processing unit: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaraw, Pramila; Prajapati, A; Verma, Akhilesh K; Pathak, V; Singh, V P

    2017-03-04

    Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic bacterial threat in the poultry industry. Most of the human cases of campylobacteriosis recorded have revealed their poultry origins. Various control measures have been employed both at the farm and processing levels to combat with it. The antibiotic treatment, phage therapy, competitive exclusion, and vaccination have been adapted at the farm level to reduce colonization of Campylobacter in poultry gut. While prevention of intestinal spillage, scheduled slaughter, logistic slaughter, chemical decontamination of carcasses are recommended to reduce contamination during processing. The postharvest interventions such as heat treatment, freezing, irradiation of contaminated carcass can effectively reduce Campylobacter contamination. Thus, integrated approaches are required to tackle infection of Campylobacter in humans.

  20. Key role of Mfd in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter readily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes a transcription-repair coupling factor involved in strand-specific DNA repair. Mutation of the mfd gene resulted in an approximately 100-fold reduction in the rate of spontaneous mutation to ciprofloxacin resistance, while overexpression of mfd elevated the mutation frequency. In addition, loss of mfd in C. jejuni significantly reduced the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter in culture media or chickens treated with fluoroquinolones. These findings indicate that Mfd is important for the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter, reveal a previously unrecognized function of Mfd in promoting mutation frequencies, and identify a potential molecular target for reducing the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

  1. The potential role of Wolbachia in controlling the transmission of emerging human arboviral infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtchum-Tatuene, Joseph; Makepeace, Benjamin L.; Benjamin, Laura; Baylis, Matthew; Solomon, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Wolbachia is a genus of Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that is naturally found in more than half of all arthropod species. These bacteria cannot only reduce the fitness and the reproductive capacities of arthropod vectors, but also increase their resistance to arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). This article reviews the evidence supporting a Wolbachia-based strategy for controlling the transmission of dengue and other arboviral infections. Recent findings Studies conducted 1 year after the field release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in Australia have demonstrated the suppression of dengue virus (DENV) replication in and dissemination by mosquitoes. Recent mathematical models show that this strategy could reduce the transmission of DENV by 70%. Consequently, the WHO is encouraging countries to boost the development and implementation of Wolbachia-based prevention strategies against other arboviral infections. However, the evidence regarding the efficacy of Wolbachia to prevent the transmission of other arboviral infections is still limited to an experimental framework with conflicting results in some cases. There is a need to demonstrate the efficacy of such strategies in the field under various climatic conditions, to select the Wolbachia strain that has the best pathogen interference/spread trade-off, and to continue to build community acceptance. Summary Wolbachia represents a promising tool for controlling the transmission of arboviral infections that needs to be developed further. Long-term environmental monitoring will be necessary for timely detection of potential changes in Wolbachia/vector/virus interactions. PMID:27849636

  2. A Further Look at the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence: Witnessing Interparental Violence in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S.; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2010-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission (IGT) of violence has been a main theoretical consideration to explain the link between interparental aggression in the family of origin and intimate partner violence (IPV) in subsequent intimate relationships. Studies have examined this theoretical link based on self reports of interparental violence witnessed…

  3. Campylobacter sp in eggs from cloacal swab positive breeder hens Campylobacter sp em ovos provenientes de matrizes pesadas com swab cloacal positivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter sp is a microaerophilic, thermotolerating Gram negative bacterium, known to be one of the main causes of food-borne human infections. Among the foods that carry these microorganisms, the chicken is outstanding. In Brazil, a large chicken exporting country, few researches are conducted about their prevalence in breeder hens and the transmission through eggs. The aim of this research was to verify the presence of Campylobacter sp in the shells and within the eggs from positive cloacal swab breeder hens. Microbiological analyses were made on cloacal swabs of 140 weighed breeder hens. The positive breeder hens were set aside and in a total of 244 of their eggs, Campylobacter sp was present in macerated shells and yolk contents during 7 weeks. Out of the 140 researched breeder hens, 25 (17.8% were positive from cloacal swabs, however the eggs were not positive. The physiological characteristics of the birds, their eggs and Campylobacter sp favor the bacterium entering and surviving in the eggs, but in this study, no positive result was found in macerated shells or in the yolks, indicating that vertical transmission is probably an unusual event.Campylobacter sp é reconhecida como uma das principais causas de gastrenterite humana de origem alimentar. Dentre os alimentos veiculadores desses microrganismos, a carne de frango tem sido a mais implicada. Os estudos existentes sobre a transmissão vertical da Campylobacter são escassos e não conclusivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a presença de Campylobacter sp na casca e interior de ovos de matrizes positivas em swabs cloacais e a possibilidade de transmissão vertical. Foram analisados swabs cloacais de 140 matrizes pesadas e seus ovos colhidos para análise durante 7 semanas consecutivas. Dos 244 ovos colhidos, 129 foram fumigados e 115 analisados sem tratamento. Foram analisados o macerado da casca e a gema. Das 140 matrizes pesquisadas, 25 (17,8% foram positivas em swabs

  4. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  5. MLST Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Poultry in Grenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined whether multilocus sequence types (MLST of Campylobacter from poultry in 2 farms in Grenada, West Indies, differed by farm, antimicrobial resistance and farm antibiotic use. Farm A used fluoroquinolones in the water and Farm B used tetracyclines. The E-test was used to determine resistance of isolates to seven antibiotics. PCR of the IpxA gene confirmed species and MLST was used to characterize 38 isolates. All isolates were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Farm antibiotic use directly correlated with antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates. Almost 80% of the isolates from Farm A were fluoroquinolone resistant and 17.9% of the isolates from Farm B were fluoroquinolone resistant. All Campylobacter isolates from Farm A were tetracycline sensitive, whereas 35.7% of isolates from Farm B were tetracycline resistant. Six previously recognized sequence types (STs and 2 novel STs were identified. Previously recognized STs were those overwhelmingly reported from poultry and humans globally. Isolates with the same ST did not always have the same antibiotic resistance profile. There was little ST overlap between the farms suggesting that within-farm transmission of Campylobacter genotypes may dominate. MLST typing was useful for tracking Campylobacter spp. among poultry units and can help elucidate Campylobacter host-species population structure and its relevance to human health.

  6. Emerging mosquito-borne viruses: transmission and modulation of host defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two highly pathogenic arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses, West Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), recently (re-)emerged in both Europe and the Americas. This resulted in large-scale epidemics of severe encephalitic and arthritogenic human disease, respectively. Both

  7. Role of hospital surfaces in the transmission of emerging health care-associated pathogens: norovirus, Clostridium difficile, and Acinetobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A; Miller, Melissa B; Huslage, Kirk; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily

    2010-06-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAI) remain a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Although the main source of nosocomial pathogens is likely the patient's endogenous flora, an estimated 20% to 40% of HAI have been attributed to cross infection via the hands of health care personnel, who have become contaminated from direct contact with the patient or indirectly by touching contaminated environmental surfaces. Multiple studies strongly suggest that environmental contamination plays an important role in the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. More recently, evidence suggests that environmental contamination also plays a role in the nosocomial transmission of norovirus, Clostridium difficile, and Acinetobacter spp. All 3 pathogens survive for prolonged periods of time in the environment, and infections have been associated with frequent surface contamination in hospital rooms and health care worker hands. In some cases, the extent of patient-to-patient transmission has been found to be directly proportional to the level of environmental contamination. Improved cleaning/disinfection of environmental surfaces and hand hygiene have been shown to reduce the spread of all of these pathogens. Importantly, norovirus and C difficile are relatively resistant to the most common surface disinfectants and waterless alcohol-based antiseptics. Current hand hygiene guidelines and recommendations for surface cleaning/disinfection should be followed in managing outbreaks because of these emerging pathogens.

  8. Using the Pillars of Infection Prevention to Build an Effective Program for Reducing the Transmission of Emerging and Reemerging Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Savor Price, Connie; Bessesen, Mary T; Perl, Trish M

    2015-09-01

    Preventing transmission of emerging infectious diseases remains a challenge for infection prevention and occupational safety programs. The recent Ebola and measles outbreaks highlight the need for pre-epidemic planning, early identification, and appropriate isolation of infected individuals and health care personnel protection. To optimally allocate limited infection control resources, careful consideration of major modes of transmission, the relative infectiousness of the agent, and severity of the pathogen-specific disease are considered. A framework to strategically approach pathogens proposed for health care settings includes generic principles (1) elimination of potential exposure, (2) implementation of administrative controls, (3) facilitation of engineering and environmental controls, and (4) protection of the health care worker and patient using hand hygiene and personal protective equipment. Additional considerations are pre-epidemic vaccination and incremental costs and benefits of infection prevention interventions. Here, major strategies for preventing health-care-associated transmissions are reviewed, including reducing exposure; vaccination; administrative, engineering, and environmental controls; and personal protective equipment. Examples from recent outbreaks are used to highlight key infection prevention aspects and controversies.

  9. Transmission expansion for renewable energy scale-up emerging lessons and recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Madrigal, Marcelino

    2012-01-01

    In their efforts to increase the share of renewable in electricity grids to reducing emissions or increasing energy diversity, developed and developing countries are finding that a considerable scale-up of investments in transmission infrastructures will be necessary to achieve their goals. Renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, and hydro power, tend to be sited far from existing electricity grids and consumption centers. Achieving desired supply levels from these sources requires that networks be expanded to reach many sites and to ensuring the different supply variation patterns of

  10. Framing a socio-indexical basis for the emergence and cultural transmission of phonological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Andrew R.; Beckman, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Moulin-Frier et al. (2016) proffer a conceptual framework and computational modeling architecture for the investigation of the emergence of phonological universals for spoken languages. They validate the framework and architecture by testing to see whether universals such as the prevalence of triangular vowel systems that show adequate dispersion in the F1-F2-F3 space can fall out of simulations of referential communication between social agents, without building principles such as dispersion directly into the model. In this paper, we examine the assumptions underlying the framework, beginning with the assumption that it is such substantive universals that are in need of explanation rather than the rich diversity of phonological systems observed across human cultures and the compositional (“prosodic”) structure that characterizes signed as well as spoken languages. Also, when emergence is construed at the time-scales of the biological evolution of the species and of the cultural evolution of distinct speech communities, it is the affiliative or affective rather than the referential function that has the greater significance for our understanding of how phonological systems can emerge de novo in ontogeny. PMID:26834297

  11. Occurrence of fastidious Campylobacter spp. in fresh meat and poultry using an adapted cultural protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Orla A; Cagney, Claire; McDowell, David A; Duffy, Geraldine

    2011-11-01

    This study used an adapted cultural protocol for the recovery of fastidious species of Campylobacter, to gain a more accurate understanding of the diversity of Campylobacter populations in fresh meats. Chicken (n=185), pork (n=179) and beef (n=186) were collected from supermarkets and butchers throughout the Republic of Ireland. Samples were enriched in Campylobacter enrichment broth for 24h under an atmosphere of 2.5% O(2), 7% H(2), 10% CO(2), and 80.5% N(2). The enriched samples were then filtered onto non-selective Anaerobe Basal Agar supplemented with lysed horse blood using mixed ester filter membranes. Isolates were identified by both genus and species-specific PCR assays and biochemical testing. The incidence of campylobacters on beef (36%) was significantly higher than on pork (22%) or chicken (16%), and far exceeds previously reported prevalence levels. The method was successful in recovering 7 species of Campylobacter, including the fastidious spp. C. concisus and C. mucosalis, from chicken meat, and 10 species, including C. concisus, C. curvus, C. mucosalis, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis, from minced beef. The isolation of C. concisus and C. upsaliensis from meat in this study is of particular significance, due to their emerging clinical relevance. The results of this study confirm that the diversity of Campylobacter species on fresh meats is greater than previously reported and highlights the bias of cultural methods towards the recovery of C. jejuni.

  12. Re-emergence of the apicomplexan Theileria equi in the United States: elimination of persistent infection and transmission risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massaro W Ueti

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne apicomplexan pathogens that cause asymptomatic persistent infections present a significant challenge due to their life-long transmission potential. Although anti-microbials have been used to ameliorate acute disease in animals and humans, chemotherapeutic efficacy for apicomplexan pathogen elimination from a persistently infected host and removal of transmission risk is largely unconfirmed. The recent re-emergence of the apicomplexan Theileria equi in U.S. horses prompted testing whether imidocarb dipropionate was able to eliminate T. equi from naturally infected horses and remove transmission risk. Following imidocarb treatment, levels of T. equi declined from a mean of 10(4.9 organisms/ml of blood to undetectable by nested PCR in 24 of 25 naturally infected horses. Further, blood transfer from treated horses that became nested PCR negative failed to transmit to naïve splenectomized horses. Although these results were consistent with elimination of infection in 24 of 25 horses, T. equi-specific antibodies persisted in the majority of imidocarb treated horses. Imidocarb treatment was unsuccessful in one horse which remained infected as measured by nested PCR and retained the ability to infect a naïve recipient via intravenous blood transfer. However, a second round of treatment eliminated T. equi infection. These results support the utility of imidocarb chemotherapy for assistance in the control and eradication of this tick-borne pathogen. Successful imidocarb dipropionate treatment of persistently infected horses provides a tool to aid the global equine industry by removing transmission risk associated with infection and facilitating international movement of equids between endemic and non-endemic regions.

  13. Campylobacter bacteremia: A rare and under-reported event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.; Vliet, van A.H.M.; Belkum, van A.; Hays, J.P.; Endtz, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are asso

  14. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control.

  15. Real-Time Transmission and Storage of Video, Audio, and Health Data in Emergency and Home Care Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Stagnaro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the availability of bandwidth for wireless links, network integration, and the computational power on fixed and mobile platforms at affordable costs allows nowadays for the handling of audio and video data, their quality making them suitable for medical application. These information streams can support both continuous monitoring and emergency situations. According to this scenario, the authors have developed and implemented the mobile communication system which is described in this paper. The system is based on ITU-T H.323 multimedia terminal recommendation, suitable for real-time data/video/audio and telemedical applications. The audio and video codecs, respectively, H.264 and G723.1, were implemented and optimized in order to obtain high performance on the system target processors. Offline media streaming storage and retrieval functionalities were supported by integrating a relational database in the hospital central system. The system is based on low-cost consumer technologies such as general packet radio service (GPRS and wireless local area network (WLAN or WiFi for lowband data/video transmission. Implementation and testing were carried out for medical emergency and telemedicine application. In this paper, the emergency case study is described.

  16. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  17. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  18. Campylobacter hyoilei Alderton et al. 1995 and Campylobacter coli Veron and Chatelain 1973 are subjective synonyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, P.; VanDoorn, L.J.; AlRashid, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The taxonomic affiliation of Campylobacter hyoilei was reevaluated by examining a variety of phenotypic and genotypic criteria. Whole cell protein electrophoresis and a comparison of 66 phenotypic characters revealed that reference strains of C. hyoilei were indistinguishable from Campylobacter c...

  19. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vinni; Rosenquist, Hanne; Baggesen, Dorte Lau;

    2007-01-01

    Background: The predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is Campylobacter. Campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages) have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of Campylobacter in broilers. One concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host...... range often displayed by phages. To identify the potential of phages as a Campylobacter reducing agent we needed to determine their infectivity on a panel of isolates representing the Campylobacter strains found in broilers as well as humans. Results: In this study, Campylobacter phages were isolated...... from the intestines of broilers and ducks and from abattoir sewage. Twelve phages were investigated to determine their ability to infect the Campylobacter Penner serotypes commonly present in Danish poultry and patients with campylobacteriosis. A total of 89% of the Campylobacter jejuni strains and 14...

  20. Puffy Skin Disease Is an Emerging Transmissible Condition in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cano

    Full Text Available The transmission of puffy skin disease (PSD to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum was tested in the laboratory by conducting co-habitation challenges with puffy skin (PS-affected fish (Trojans collected from the field. Two separate challenges were conducted using Trojans sourced from two different sites and diploid (first trial or triploid (second trial naïve fish. PSD-specific clinical signs were observed in both groups of naïve fish, with 66% of the fish sampled during the challenges showing signs of varying severity. The first clinical features of PSD were presented as white oval skin patches on one or both flanks 15-21 days post-challenge (dpc. The extent of the lesions ranged from 10 to 90% of the body surface, depending on the severity of the lesion. Both the severity and number of affected fish increased during the challenge. Macroscopically, oedema of the skin and multifocal petechial haemorrhaging were observed towards the end of the trials. Abnormal fish behaviour consisting of "flashing" and excessive mucous production was noted from 15 dpc onwards. Fish with severe PSD lesions also displayed inappetence and associated emaciation. Rodlet cells were observed in 41% of the fresh skin scrapes analysed from the second trial. Histologically epidermal oedema was observed in 31% of the naive fish showing gross pathology, with additional 12% displaying epidermal hyperplasia, mostly observed at the end of the challenge. Other concomitant features of the PSD lesions in challenged fish were epithelial erosion and sloughing, and occasionally mild or focal inflammation. No consistent pathology of internal organs was observed. The parasites Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Ichthyobodo necator were observed in skin samples of a proportion of naïve challenged fish and in Trojans but not in control fish. The presence of these and other known fish pathogens in the skin of PSD-fish was confirmed by high-throughput sequencing analysis. In

  1. Distribution and Polymorphism of the Flagellin Genes from Isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    American Society for Microbioloc% Distribution and Polymorphism of the Flagellin Genes from Isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni RICHARD...in Campylobacter jejuni . serogroups both the flaA and flaB genes are extremely Mol. M;crobiol. 5:1151-1158. z homologous. Within most LIO heat-labile...irllwn hungatei. J1. Bacteriol. 123:-28 proteins of Campylobacter jejuni 81116. Infect. Immun. 59: 42. Thomashow, L S., and S. C. Rittenberg. 198

  2. Campylobacter and Salmonella control in broilers and the role of fermented feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are undesirable pathogens on poultry. Therefore the effect of fermented feed on the colonization in the gastro-intestinal tract of the chicken, the introduction of both bacteria in a chicken flocks, and the transmission between chickens was studied. Broilers that were fe

  3. Cross-species transmission and emergence of novel viruses from birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-02-01

    Birds, the only living member of the Dinosauria clade, are flying warm-blooded vertebrates displaying high species biodiversity, roosting and migratory behavior, and a unique adaptive immune system. Birds provide the natural reservoir for numerous viral species and therefore gene source for evolution, emergence and dissemination of novel viruses. The intrusions of human into natural habitats of wild birds, the domestication of wild birds as pets or racing birds, and the increasing poultry consumption by human have facilitated avian viruses to cross species barriers to cause zoonosis. Recently, a novel adenovirus was exclusively found in birds causing an outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci infection among birds and humans. Instead of being the primary cause of an outbreak by jumping directly from bird to human, a novel avian virus can be an augmenter of another zoonotic agent causing the outbreak. A comprehensive avian virome will improve our understanding of birds' evolutionary dynamics.

  4. Sensory exploitation and cultural transmission: the late emergence of iconic representations in human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpooten, Jan; Nelissen, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Iconic representations (i.e., figurative imagery and realistic art) only started to appear consistently some 45,000 years ago, although humans have been anatomically modern since 200,000-160,000 years ago. What explains this? Some authors have suggested a neurocognitive change took place, leading to a creative explosion, although this has been contested. Here, we examine the hypothesis that demographic changes caused cultural "cumulative adaptive evolution" and as such the emergence of modern symbolic behavior. This approach usefully explains the evolution of utilitarian skills and tools, and the creation of symbols to identify groups. However, it does not equally effectively explain the evolution of behaviors that may not be directly adaptive, such as the production of iconic representations like figurines and rock art. In order to shed light on their emergence, we propose to combine the above-mentioned cultural hypothesis with the concept of sensory exploitation. The concept essentially states that behavioral traits (in this case iconic art production) which exploit pre-existing sensory sensitivities will evolve if not hindered by costs (i.e., natural selection). In this view, iconic art traditions are evolved by piggy-backing on cumulative adaptive evolution. Since it is to date uncertain whether art has served any adaptive function in human evolution, parsimony demands paying more attention to the primary and a functional mechanism of sensory exploitation as opposed to mechanisms of models based exclusively on secondary benefits (such as Miller's, for instance, in which art is proposed to evolve as a sexual display of fitness).

  5. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...

  6. Protozoa: a novel Campylobacter reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous in vitro studies we found that Campylobacter jejuni remained viable for longer periods of time when they were cultivated in the presence of Tetrahymena pyriformis (ciliate) and Acanthamoeba castellanii (amoeba) than when they were in an independent planktonic state. Increased survival t...

  7. Inflammasome activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Lieneke I; de Zoete, Marcel R; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; Flavell, Richard A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. In this study, we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse macr

  8. Serotypes and typability of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Nielsen, Niels Ladefoged

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is one of the most common bacterial enteric pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections are mostly food- and waterborne and especially poultry is often assumed to be an important source. The heat-stable serotyping system (the 'Penner' scheme) was used...

  9. Evaluation of 11 PCR assays for species-level identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jordan, Penelope J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity and specificity of 11 PCR assays described for the species identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using 111 type, reference, and field strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and Campylobacter lari. For six assays, an additional 21 type strains...

  10. Molecular tracing of the emergence, diversification, and transmission of S. aureus sequence type 8 in a New York community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Dordel, Janina; Knox, Justin R; Raven, Kathy E; Parkhill, Julian; Holden, Matthew T G; Peacock, Sharon J; Lowy, Franklin D

    2014-05-01

    During the last 2 decades, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have dramatically increased the global burden of S. aureus infections. The pandemic sequence type (ST)8/pulsed-field gel type USA300 is the dominant CA-MRSA clone in the United States, but its evolutionary history and basis for biological success are incompletely understood. Here, we use whole-genome sequencing of 387 ST8 isolates drawn from an epidemiological network of CA-MRSA infections and colonizations in northern Manhattan to explore short-term evolution and transmission patterns. Phylogenetic analysis predicted that USA300 diverged from a most common recent ancestor around 1993. We found evidence for multiple introductions of USA300 and reconstructed the phylogeographic spread of isolates across neighborhoods. Using pair-wise single-nucleotide polymorphism distances as a measure of genetic relatedness between isolates, we observed that most USA300 isolates had become endemic in households, indicating their critical role as reservoirs for transmission and diversification. Using the maximum single-nucleotide polymorphism variability of isolates from within households as a threshold, we identified several possible transmission networks beyond households. Our study also revealed the evolution of a fluoroquinolone-resistant subpopulation in the mid-1990s and its subsequent expansion at a time of high-frequency outpatient antibiotic use. This high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of ST8 has documented the genomic changes associated with USA300 evolution and how some of its recent evolution has been shaped by antibiotic use. By integrating whole-genome sequencing with detailed epidemiological analyses, our study provides an important framework for delineating the full diversity and spread of USA300 and other emerging pathogens in large urban community populations.

  11. The role of autophagy in the intracellular survival of Campylobacter concisus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Burgos-Portugal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen that has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases. Given the importance of autophagy for the elimination of intracellular bacteria and the subversion of this process by pathogenic bacteria, we investigated the role of autophagy in C. concisus intracellular survival. Gentamicin protection assays were employed to assess intracellular levels of C. concisus within Caco-2 cells, following autophagy induction and inhibition. To assess the interaction between C. concisus and autophagosomes, confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were employed. Expression levels of 84 genes involved in the autophagy process were measured using qPCR. Autophagy inhibition resulted in two- to four-fold increases in intracellular levels of C. concisus within Caco-2 cells, while autophagy induction resulted in a significant reduction in intracellular levels or bacterial clearance. C. concisus strains with low intracellular survival levels showed a dramatic increase in these levels upon autophagy inhibition. Confocal microscopy showed co-localization of the bacterium with autophagosomes, while transmission electron microscopy identified intracellular bacteria persisting within autophagic vesicles. Further, qPCR showed that following infection, 13 genes involved in the autophagy process were significantly regulated, and a further five showed borderline results, with an overall indication towards a dampening effect exerted by the bacterium on this process. Our data collectively indicates that while autophagy is important for the clearance of C. concisus, some strains may manipulate this process to benefit their intracellular survival.

  12. Cross-border sexual transmission of the newly emerging HIV-1 clade CRF51_01B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ting Cheong

    Full Text Available A novel HIV-1 recombinant clade (CRF51_01B was recently identified among men who have sex with men (MSM in Singapore. As cases of sexually transmitted HIV-1 infection increase concurrently in two socioeconomically intimate countries such as Malaysia and Singapore, cross transmission of HIV-1 between said countries is highly probable. In order to investigate the timeline for the emergence of HIV-1 CRF51_01B in Singapore and its possible introduction into Malaysia, 595 HIV-positive subjects recruited in Kuala Lumpur from 2008 to 2012 were screened. Phylogenetic relationship of 485 amplified polymerase gene sequences was determined through neighbour-joining method. Next, near-full length sequences were amplified for genomic sequences inferred to be CRF51_01B and subjected to further analysis implemented through Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC sampling and maximum likelihood methods. Based on the near full length genomes, two isolates formed a phylogenetic cluster with CRF51_01B sequences of Singapore origin, sharing identical recombination structure. Spatial and temporal information from Bayesian MCMC coalescent and maximum likelihood analysis of the protease, gp120 and gp41 genes suggest that Singapore is probably the country of origin of CRF51_01B (as early as in the mid-1990s and featured a Malaysian who acquired the infection through heterosexual contact as host for its ancestral lineages. CRF51_01B then spread rapidly among the MSM in Singapore and Malaysia. Although the importation of CRF51_01B from Singapore to Malaysia is supported by coalescence analysis, the narrow timeframe of the transmission event indicates a closely linked epidemic. Discrepancies in the estimated divergence times suggest that CRF51_01B may have arisen through multiple recombination events from more than one parental lineage. We report the cross transmission of a novel CRF51_01B lineage between countries that involved different sexual risk groups. Understanding

  13. Cross-border sexual transmission of the newly emerging HIV-1 clade CRF51_01B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Ng, Kim Tien; Ong, Lai Yee; Chook, Jack Bee; Chan, Kok Gan; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2014-01-01

    A novel HIV-1 recombinant clade (CRF51_01B) was recently identified among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. As cases of sexually transmitted HIV-1 infection increase concurrently in two socioeconomically intimate countries such as Malaysia and Singapore, cross transmission of HIV-1 between said countries is highly probable. In order to investigate the timeline for the emergence of HIV-1 CRF51_01B in Singapore and its possible introduction into Malaysia, 595 HIV-positive subjects recruited in Kuala Lumpur from 2008 to 2012 were screened. Phylogenetic relationship of 485 amplified polymerase gene sequences was determined through neighbour-joining method. Next, near-full length sequences were amplified for genomic sequences inferred to be CRF51_01B and subjected to further analysis implemented through Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and maximum likelihood methods. Based on the near full length genomes, two isolates formed a phylogenetic cluster with CRF51_01B sequences of Singapore origin, sharing identical recombination structure. Spatial and temporal information from Bayesian MCMC coalescent and maximum likelihood analysis of the protease, gp120 and gp41 genes suggest that Singapore is probably the country of origin of CRF51_01B (as early as in the mid-1990s) and featured a Malaysian who acquired the infection through heterosexual contact as host for its ancestral lineages. CRF51_01B then spread rapidly among the MSM in Singapore and Malaysia. Although the importation of CRF51_01B from Singapore to Malaysia is supported by coalescence analysis, the narrow timeframe of the transmission event indicates a closely linked epidemic. Discrepancies in the estimated divergence times suggest that CRF51_01B may have arisen through multiple recombination events from more than one parental lineage. We report the cross transmission of a novel CRF51_01B lineage between countries that involved different sexual risk groups. Understanding the cross

  14. Substrate utilization by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, H.N.; Rollins, D.M.; Weiss, E.

    1986-10-01

    An attempt was made to elucidate in Campylobacter spp. some of the physiologic characteristics that are reflected in the kinetics of CO/sub 2/ formation from four /sup 14/C-labeled substrates. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were grown in a biphasic medium, and highly motile spiral cells were harvested at 12 h. The cells were incubated with 0.02 M glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, or formate, or with concentrations of these substrates ranging from 0.0032 to 0.125 M. All four substrates were metabolized very rapidly by both species. A feature of many of these reactions, particularly obvious with /sup 2/chemically bond-ketoglutarate, was an immediate burst of CO/sub 2/ production followed by CO/sub 2/ evolution at a more moderate rate. These diphasic kinetics of substrate utilization were not seen in comparable experiments with Escherichia coli grown and tested under identical conditions. With C. jejuni, CO/sub 2/ production from formate proceeded rapidly for the entire period of incubation. The rate of metabolism of glutamate, glutamine, and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate by both species was greatly enhanced by increased substrate concentration. The approach to the study of the metabolism of campylobacters here described may be useful in detecting subtle changes in the physiology of cells as they are maintained past their logarithmic growth phase.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of the Campylobacter ureolyticus Clinical Isolate RIGS 9880

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; On, Stephen L W;

    2015-01-01

    The emerging pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus has been isolated from human and animal genital infections, human periodontal disease, domestic and food animals, and from cases of human gastroenteritis. We report the whole-genome sequence of the human clinical isolate RIGS 9880, which is the first...

  16. Emergence of minor drug-resistant HIV-1 variants after triple antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hauser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: WHO-guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings recommend complex maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis comprising antenatal zidovudine (AZT, nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD at labor onset and AZT/lamivudine (3TC during labor and one week postpartum. Data on resistance development selected by this regimen is not available. We therefore analyzed the emergence of minor drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in Tanzanian women following complex prophylaxis. METHOD: 1395 pregnant women were tested for HIV-1 at Kyela District Hospital, Tanzania. 87/202 HIV-positive women started complex prophylaxis. Blood samples were collected before start of prophylaxis, at birth and 1-2, 4-6 and 12-16 weeks postpartum. Allele-specific real-time PCR assays specific for HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D were developed and applied on samples of mothers and their vertically infected infants to quantify key resistance mutations of AZT (K70R/T215Y/T215F, NVP (K103N/Y181C and 3TC (M184V at detection limits of <1%. RESULTS: 50/87 HIV-infected women having started complex prophylaxis were eligible for the study. All women took AZT with a median duration of 53 days (IQR 39-64; all women ingested NVP-SD, 86% took 3TC. HIV-1 resistance mutations were detected in 20/50 (40% women, of which 70% displayed minority species. Variants with AZT-resistance mutations were found in 11/50 (22%, NVP-resistant variants in 9/50 (18% and 3TC-resistant variants in 4/50 women (8%. Three women harbored resistant HIV-1 against more than one drug. 49/50 infants, including the seven vertically HIV-infected were breastfed, 3/7 infants exhibited drug-resistant virus. CONCLUSION: Complex prophylaxis resulted in lower levels of NVP-selected resistance as compared to NVP-SD, but AZT-resistant HIV-1 emerged in a substantial proportion of women. Starting AZT in pregnancy week 14 instead of 28 as recommended by the current WHO-guidelines may further increase

  17. Integrated approach leads to less Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Hald, Birthe; Borck Høg, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information.......Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information....

  18. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong;

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  19. Campylobacter in zwemwater en mogelijke emissiebronnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, H.; Rijs, G.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Leenen, I.

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter vormt samen met Salmonella en Shigella één van de belangrijkste bacteriële ziekteverwekkers van het maagdarmkanaal bij de mens. De bacterie Campylobacter komt voor bij eenden, meeuwen, kippen en kalkoenen, maar is ook aanwezig in koeien, varkens en schapen. Al deze dieren zijn drager,

  20. [Campylobacter fetus endocarditis: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désidéri-Vaillant, Catherine; Guichon, Jean-Michel; Noyer, Vincent; Nedelec, Yolande; Galinat, Hubert; Sapin-Lory, Jeanne; Di Costanzo, Laurence; Le Guen, Patrick; Nicolas, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter are known to be a cause of enteritidic infections but Campylobacter fetus is more often a cause of systemic infections, mainly in fragilized patients. We report a C. fetus endocarditis. The prognosis seemstobe improved by a prolonged betalactam antibiotic treatment.

  1. Campylobacter as a venereal disease in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Visser, I.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Pastoor, P.W.; Strampel, J.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of AI, venereal diseases caused by Tritrichomonas fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis haved been eradicated in The Netherlands. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus can cause sporadic abortion and early embryonic death. When natural breeding is practised, venereal dise

  2. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a modifi

  3. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-01-01

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy

  4. Campylobacter jejuni enteritis and reactive arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Short, C. D.; Klouda, P T; Smith, Lorna

    1982-01-01

    A further case of reactive arthritis following Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is reported. The interim results of a small prospective study are discussed. It may be desirable to do serological studies for campylobacter infection in the investigation of mono- or polyarthritis of acute onset.

  5. The susceptibility of Campylobacter concisus to the bactericidal effects of normal human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Karina Frahm; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract that has been associated with Barrett's oesophagus, enteritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite having invasive potential in intestinal epithelial cells in-vitro, bacteraemic cases with C. concisus are extremely scarce, having only been reported once. Therefore, we conducted a serum resistance assay to investigate the bactericidal effects of human complement on C. concisus in comparison to some other Campylobacter species. In total, 22 Campylobacter strains were tested by incubation with normal human serum and subsequent cultivation in microaerobic conditions for 48 hours. Killing time was evaluated by decrease in total CFU over time for incubation with different serum concentrations. Faecal isolates of C. concisus showed inoculum reduction to less than 50% after 30 min. Campylobacter jejuni was sensitive to serum, but killing was delayed and a bacteraemic Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus isolate was completely serum resistant. Interestingly, sensitivity of enteric C. concisus to human serum was not associated to different faecal-calprotectin levels. We find that faecal isolates of C. concisus are sensitive to the bactericidal effects of serum, which may explain why C. concisus is not associated to bacteraemia.

  6. Bibliometric analysis of publications on Campylobacter: (2000–2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Sweileh, Waleed M.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Sawalha, Ansam F; AbuTaha, Adham S; Zyoud, Sa’ed H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. In order to better understand national and international research output on Campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on Campylobacter. This study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy ma...

  7. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  8. [Campylobacter and Salmonella control in chickens and the role of fermented food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres, Lourens

    2004-05-15

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are undesirable pathogens on poultry. Therefore the effect of fermented feed on the colonization in the gastro-intestinal tract of the chicken, the introduction of both bacteria in a chicken flocks, and the transmission between chickens was studied. Broilers that were fed with fermented feed were significantly less susceptible for Salmonella and Campylobacter than chickens on a standard chicken feed. The spread of Salmonella between broiler chickens was reduced. However, the results also showed, like for other known control measures, that this feed can not absolutely guarantee the absence of Salmonella and Campylobacter. Therefore fermented feed must be seen as one of the hurdles in a so called multiple hurdle strategy. The combination of different hurdles should prevent the introduction and transmission. The effect of fermented feed on Campylobacter and Salmonella is partially caused by the presence of high concentrations of organic acids. In chickens fed with liquid feed the acidic barrier in the first part of the GI-tract was clearly improved. Besides organic acids there are other changes in the GI-tract. Changes in colonization levels of indicator organisms, changes in levels of organic acids and an increased pH in ileum and ceacum. These changes indicate a stabilised GI-flora in fermented feed fed poultry. The research confirmed that by changes in the composition of the feed (carbohydrates, acids, or micro-organisms) the GI-health can be promoted and therewith can contribute to the control of food pathogens in farmed animals.

  9. SU-E-T-571: Newly Emerging Integrated Transmission Detector Systems Provide Online Quality Assurance of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D; Chung, E; Hess, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream

  10. Molecular identification of Campylobacter jejuni and coli from chicken, calves and dogs to determine its potential threat on human being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Sonuwara; Sekar, M.; Gunaseelan, L.; Gawande, Monica; Suganya, G.; Malar, P. Annal Selva; Karthikeyan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and one of the leading cause of foodborne infection worldwide and it has been isolated from a variety of animal species. The aim of this study was to identify Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from dogs, calves, and poultry using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methodology: A total of 104 number of samples comprising cloacal swab from poultry (38), a rectal swab from dogs (40), and calves (26) were collected for the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacters using conventional culture method. PCR was used for identification of mapA gene for C.jejuni and ceuE for C.coli. Results: The overall presence of Campylobacter was found to be 67(64.42%) from the samples, out of which 6 isolates belongs to C. jejuni species, were 5(18.51%) from chicken and 1(4.17%) from dog was recorded and about 17 isolates belongs to C. coli species were 9(33.33%), 6 (25%), and 1(9.09%) from chicken, dog and calves was recorded. Conclusion: Results suggested that Campylobacter reservoirs chicken, calves and pet dogs can play a role as the source of infection to human beings and PCR can be an ideal tool for molecular confirmation at the species level. PMID:27047055

  11. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  12. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)).

  13. Campylobacter Enteritis among Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pourmand

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter enteritis is a common form of acute gastroenteritis. Among children, especially in developing countries, Campylobacter infections can cause sever life-threatening diarrheal disease. The incidence of Campylobacter infection among children is age related with a higher incidence among younger children in the developing world whereas in industrialized countries the incidence is highest in older children. In a study of American children, Campylobacter was isolated in 4.8% of diarrheal stools in aged 1-4 years. In 1985 the prevalence of Campylobacter diarrheal was 4.4%, whereas in current report 6% of stool samples from children aged<5 years with diarrhea grew Campylobacter jejuni. There were no significant differences between age groups of patients. All thirteen isolated strains of Campylobacter were resistance to Bactrim, Colistin and Polymyxin B and were sensitive to Neomycin, Erythromycin, Gentamicin and Nalidixic acid. The incidence of human campylobacteriosis is increasing worldwide. Thus, public health awareness about the problem is necessary, with a view towards setting up national surveillance programs.

  14. Campylobacter carcass contamination throughout the slaughter process of Campylobacter-positive broiler batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-02-02

    Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses of Campylobacter colonized flocks was quantified at seven sampling sites throughout the slaughter process. For this purpose, in four slaughterhouses samples were collected from twelve Campylobacter positive batches. Broilers from all visits carried high numbers of campylobacters in their caeca (≥7.9log10cfu/g). Campylobacter counts on feathers (up to 6.8log10cfu/g), positively associated with the breast skin contamination of incoming birds and carcasses after plucking, were identified as an additional source of carcass contamination. A high variability in Campylobacter carcass contamination on breast skin samples within batches and between batches in the same slaughterhouse and between slaughterhouses was observed. In slaughterhouses A, B, C and D Campylobacter counts exceeded a limit of 1000cfu/g on 50%, 56%, 78% and 11% of carcasses after chilling, respectively. This finding indicates that certain slaughterhouses are able to better control Campylobacter contamination than others. Overall, the present study focuses on the descriptive analysis of Campylobacter counts in different slaughterhouses, different batches within a slaughterhouse and within a batch at several sampling locations.

  15. Complexity Quantification for Overhead Transmission Line Emergency Repair Scheme via a Graph Entropy Method Improved with Petri Net and AHP Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of emergency repair in overhead transmission line accidents, a complexity quantification method for emergency repair scheme is proposed based on the entropy method in software engineering, which is improved by using group AHP (analytical hierarchical process method and Petri net. Firstly, information structure chart model and process control flowchart model could be built by Petri net. Then impact factors on complexity of emergency repair scheme could be quantified into corresponding entropy values, respectively. Finally, by using group AHP method, weight coefficient of each entropy value would be given before calculating the overall entropy value for the whole emergency repair scheme. By comparing group AHP weighting method with average weighting method, experiment results for the former showed a stronger correlation between quantified entropy values of complexity and the actual consumed time in repair, which indicates that this new method is more valid.

  16. Comparison of Proteomics Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Strain Bf under Microaerobic and Aerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ramila C.; Haddad, Nabila; Chevret, Didier; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Tresse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni accounts for one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. Despite being considered an obligate microaerobic microorganism, C. jejuni is regularly exposed to oxidative stress. However, its adaptive strategies to survive the atmospheric oxygen level during transmission to humans remain unclear. Recently, the clinical C. jejuni strain Bf was singled out for its unexpected ability to grow under ambient atmosphere. Here, we aimed to understand better the biological mechanisms underlying its atypical aerotolerance trait using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, gene expression, and enzymatic activities. Forty-seven proteins were identified with a significantly different abundance between cultivation under microaerobic and aerobic conditions. The over-expressed proteins in aerobiosis belonged mainly to the oxidative stress response, enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, iron uptake, and regulation, and amino acid uptake when compared to microaerobic conditions. The higher abundance of proteins related to oxidative stress was correlated to dramatically higher transcript levels of the corresponding encoding genes in aerobic conditions compared to microaerobic conditions. In addition, a higher catalase-equivalent activity in strain Bf was observed. Despite the restricted catabolic capacities of C. jejuni, this study reveals that strain Bf is equipped to withstand oxidative stress. This ability could contribute to emergence and persistence of particular strains of C. jejuni throughout food processing or macrophage attack during human infection.

  17. The role of radiology in Campylobacter enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Ponette, E.; Baert, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology); Lacquet, F.; Verbist, L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Microbiology); Rutgeerts, A.L. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    A series of 18 patients with diarrhoea and positive stool cultures for Campylobacter jejuni is presented. The most important radiological features were thickening of ileal mucosal folds, of interhaustral indentations and of the ileocaecal valve, lymphoid hyperplasia and microulcerations. Radiology, as well as endoscopy, are both non-specific in Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. The importance of radiology is to exclude more typical features of other causes of inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover, before the result of the stool culture is available, the radiological features should suggest the suspicion of an acute infectious enterocolitis by Campylobacter jejuni as possible diagnosis. (orig.).

  18. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates.

  19. Assessment of the prevalence and diversity of emergent campylobacteria in human stool samples using a combination of traditional and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Luis; Gutiérrez, Magali; González, Mario; Fernández, Heriberto

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to assess the diversity of campylobacteria (Campylobacter and Arcobacter) in human fecal samples from patients with diarrhea (n = 140) and asymptomatic controls (n = 116) in Chile, using a combination of traditional culture and molecular methods. The culture methods detected campylobacteria in 10.7% of the patients with diarrhea and in 1.7% of the controls. In contrast, the molecular methods detected campylobacteria more often than the traditional culture, with a prevalence of 25.7% and 5.2%, respectively. The traditional methods only recovered the species Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Arcobacter butzleri, whereas the molecular methods additionally detected the emergent species Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus.

  20. Occurance and characteristics of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons in Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Smith, H.E.; Veldman, K.T.; Mevius, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the occurrence and transmission of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons in multidrug-resistant or sulfamethoxazole-resistant Salmonella from human and animal sources and in Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli from broilers isolated in the Netherlands in 2004. Methods: PCR, restric

  1. Isolation of a Campylobacter lanienae-like bacterium from laboratory chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, E E; Shen, Z; Ducore, R M; Parry, N M A; Kirega, A; Dewhirst, F E; Fox, J G

    2014-12-01

    Routine necropsies of 27 asymptomatic juvenile chinchillas revealed a high prevalence of gastric ulcers with microscopic lymphoplasmacytic gastroenteritis and typhlocolitis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using Campylobacter genus-specific partial 16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of Campylobacter spp. DNA in the faeces of 12 of 27 animals (44.4%). Species-specific partial 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing confirmed that these animals were colonized with Campylobacter lanienae, a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that was first identified on routine faecal screening of slaughterhouse employees and subsequently isolated from faeces of livestock. Campylobacter lanienae was isolated from the faeces of six PCR-positive animals and identified with species-specific PCR and full 16S rRNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates clustered with C. lanienae strain NCTC 13004. PCR analysis of DNA extracted from gastrointestinal tissues revealed the presence of C. lanienae DNA in the caecum and colon of these chinchillas. Gastrointestinal lesions were scored and compared between C. lanienae-positive and C. lanienae-negative animals. There was no correlation between colonization status and lesion severity in the stomach, liver, duodenum, or colon. Possible routes of C. lanienae infection in chinchillas could include waterborne transmission and faecal-oral transmission from wild mice and rats or livestock. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that C. lanienae colonizes the lower bowel of chinchillas in the absence of clinical disease. This is the first report of C. lanienae in any rodent species. Campylobacter lanienae isolates from different mammalian species demonstrate heterogeneity by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. Analysis using rpoB suggests that isolates and clones currently identified as C. lanienae may represent multiple species or subspecies.

  2. TRIM5 suppresses cross-species transmission of a primate immunodeficiency virus and selects for emergence of resistant variants in the new species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kirmaier

    Full Text Available Simian immunodeficiency viruses of sooty mangabeys (SIVsm are the source of multiple, successful cross-species transmissions, having given rise to HIV-2 in humans, SIVmac in rhesus macaques, and SIVstm in stump-tailed macaques. Cellular assays and phylogenetic comparisons indirectly support a role for TRIM5alpha, the product of the TRIM5 gene, in suppressing interspecies transmission and emergence of retroviruses in nature. Here, we investigate the in vivo role of TRIM5 directly, focusing on transmission of primate immunodeficiency viruses between outbred primate hosts. Specifically, we retrospectively analyzed experimental cross-species transmission of SIVsm in two cohorts of rhesus macaques and found a significant effect of TRIM5 genotype on viral replication levels. The effect was especially pronounced in a cohort of animals infected with SIVsmE543-3, where TRIM5 genotype correlated with approximately 100-fold to 1,000-fold differences in viral replication levels. Surprisingly, transmission occurred even in individuals bearing restrictive TRIM5 genotypes, resulting in attenuation of replication rather than an outright block to infection. In cell-culture assays, the same TRIM5 alleles associated with viral suppression in vivo blocked infectivity of two SIVsm strains, but not the macaque-adapted strain SIVmac239. Adaptations appeared in the viral capsid in animals with restrictive TRIM5 genotypes, and similar adaptations coincide with emergence of SIVmac in captive macaques in the 1970s. Thus, host TRIM5 can suppress viral replication in vivo, exerting selective pressure during the initial stages of cross-species transmission.

  3. Novel gastric helicobacters and oral campylobacters are present in captive and wild cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Cinthia G; Matteo, Mario J; Loureiro, Julio D; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Vay, Carlos; Catalano, Mariana; Heredia, Sergio Rodríguez; Mantero, Paula; Boccio, Jose R; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Cremaschi, Graciela A; Solnick, Jay V; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Blaser, Martin J

    2011-08-26

    The mammalian gastric and oral mucosa may be colonized by mixed Helicobacter and Campylobacter species, respectively, in individual animals. To better characterize the presence and distribution of Helicobacter and Campylobacter among marine mammals, we used PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis to examine gastric and oral samples from ten dolphins (Tursiops gephyreus), one killer whale (Orcinus orca), one false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), and three wild La Plata river dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei). Helicobacter spp. DNA was widely distributed in gastric and oral samples from both captive and wild cetaceans. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated two Helicobacter sequence clusters, one closely related to H. cetorum, a species isolated from dolphins and whales in North America. The second related cluster was to sequences obtained from dolphins in Australia and to gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters, and may represent a novel taxonomic group. Dental plaque sequences from four dolphins formed a third cluster within the Campylobacter genus that likely represents a novel species isolated from marine mammals. Identification of identical Helicobacter spp. DNA sequences from dental plaque, saliva and gastric fluids from the same hosts, suggests that the oral cavity may be involved in transmission. These results demonstrate that Helicobacter and Campylobacter species are commonly distributed in marine mammals, and identify taxonomic clusters that may represent novel species.

  4. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuser Jürg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes of antibiotics recommended for treatment of human campylobacteriosis are also used in veterinary medicine, in view of food safety, the resistance status of Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat is of special interest. Methods Raw poultry meat samples were collected throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein at retail level and examined for Campylobacter spp. One strain from each Campylobacter-positive sample was selected for susceptibility testing with the disc diffusion and the E-test method. Risk factors associated with resistance to the tested antibiotics were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results In total, 91 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 415 raw poultry meat samples. Fifty-one strains (59% were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Nineteen strains (22% were resistant to a single, nine strains to two antibiotics, and eight strains showed at least three antibiotic resistances. Resistance was observed most frequently to ciprofloxacin (28.7%, tetracycline (12.6%, sulphonamide (11.8%, and ampicillin (10.3%. One multiple resistant strain exhibited resistance to five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These are the most important antibiotics for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. A significant risk factor associated with multiple resistance in Campylobacter was foreign meat production compared to Swiss meat production (odds ratio = 5.7. Conclusion Compared to the situation in other

  5. Risicobeheersing Campylobacter op het vleeskuikenbedrijf = Campylobacter control on the broiler farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Bokma-Bakker, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    In dit onderzoek werden de risico’s voor introductie en verspreiding van Campylobacter op het vleeskuikenbedrijf geïnventariseerd. Er worden mogelijkheden aangegeven hoe deze risico’s beheerst kunnen worden. Het blijkt dat er veel mogelijkheden zijn waardoor Campylobacter geïntroduceerd of verspreid

  6. Better Campylobacter Detection: Furthering our understanding of Campylobacter ecology in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing na...

  7. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The vector potential of flies (Diptera: Brachycera) for spread of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on 5 Danish broiler farms was evaluated in a longitudinal field study from April to November 2004. First, the prevalence of C. jejuni- and C. coli-positive flies was determined in 2...

  8. Presence of antibodies against campylobacter flagellar capping proteins versus campylobacter jejuni isolation in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human cases have been linked to consumption and/or handling of contaminated poultry products. Although Campylobacter jejuni is commonly regarded as a commensal in broiler cecal micro...

  9. An outbreak of infectious hepatitis in commercially reared ostriches associated with Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, C.P.; On, S.L.W.; Gibson, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    lesions resembled those of vibrionic hepatitis in other avian species. Campylobacter coli was isolated from the livers of affected ostriches from five of the six properties. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from birds from the remaining property. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based (PFGE...

  10. Ribosomal operon intergenic sequence region (ISR) heterogeneity in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are closely related species that can not be distinguished by their 16S or 23S rRNA gene sequences. However, the intergenic sequence region (ISR) that is between the 16S and 23S genes is markedly different and characteristic for each species. A peculiarit...

  11. Intergenerational transmission of occupational status: The role of voluntary association membership as an emerging compensatory strategy of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, J.M.A. van; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we raised the question as to what extent members from higher status groups effectuated social resources, more specifically voluntary association membership, as a possible new compensatory strategy to guarantee a successful intergenerational transmission of their occupational status.

  12. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares.

  13. High-resolution genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; On, Stephen L.W.

    1999-01-01

    A method for high-resolution genomic fingerprinting of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, based on the determination of amplified fragment length polymorphism, is described. The potential of this method for molecular epidemiological studies of these species...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are...

  15. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  16. The globins of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Shepherd, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is exposed to reactive nitrogen species, such as nitric oxide, from a variety of sources. To combat the toxic effects of this nitrosative stress, C. jejuni upregulates a small regulon under the control of the transcriptional activator NssR, which positively regulates the expression of a single-domain globin protein (Cgb) and a truncated globin protein (Ctb). Cgb has previously been shown to detoxify nitric oxide, but the role of Ctb remains contentious. As C. jejuni is amenable to genetic manipulation, and its globin proteins are easily expressed and purified, a combination of mutagenesis, complementation, transcriptomics, spectroscopic characterisation and structural analyses has been used to probe the regulation, function and structure of Cgb and Ctb. This ability to study Cgb and Ctb with such a multi-pronged approach is a valuable asset, especially since only a small fraction of known globin proteins have been functionally characterised.

  17. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  18. Wild griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus as a source of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Eastern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Marin

    Full Text Available The existence of Campylobacter and Salmonella reservoirs in wildlife is a potential hazard to animal and human health; however, the prevalence of these species is largely unknown. Until now, only a few studies have evaluated the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures and based on a small number of birds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures (n = 97 during the normal ringing programme at the Cinctorres Observatory in Eastern Spain. In addition, the effect of ages of individuals (juveniles, subadult and adult on the presence were compared. Campylobacter was isolated from 1 of 97 (1.0% griffon vultures and identified as C. jejuni. Salmonella was isolated from 51 of 97 (52.6% griffon vultures. No significant differences were found between the ages of individuals for the presence of Salmonella. Serotyping revealed 6 different serovars among two Salmonella enterica subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 49, 96.1% and S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2, 3.9%. No more than one serovar was isolated per individual. The serovars isolated were S. Typhimurium (n = 42, 82.3%, S. Rissen (n = 4, 7.8%, S. Senftenberg (n = 3, 5.9% and S. 4,12:b[-] (n = 2, 3.9%. Our results imply that wild griffon vultures are a risk factor for Salmonella transmission, but do not seem to be a reservoir for Campylobacter. We therefore rule out vultures as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. Nevertheless, further studies should be undertaken in other countries to confirm these results.

  19. Infection of lymphoid tissues in the macaque upper respiratory tract contributes to the emergence of transmissible measles virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ludlow (Martin); R. de Vries (René); K. Lemon (Ken); S. McQuaid (Stephen); E.L. Millar (Emma); G. van Amerongen (Geert); S. Yüksel (Selma); R.J. Verbugh (Joyce); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.L. de Swart (Rik); W.P. Duprex (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMeasles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. MV is spread by aerosols but the mechanism(s) responsible for the high transmissibility of MV are largely unknown. We previously infected macaques with en

  20. Re-emergence of the apicomplexan theileria equi in the United States: Elimination of persistent infection and transmission risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthropod-borne apicomplexan pathogens that cause asymptomatic persistent infections present a significant challenge due to their life-long transmission potential. Although anti-microbials have been used to ameliorate acute disease in animals and humans, chemotherapeutic efficacy for apicomplexan pa...

  1. The impact of environmental conditions on Campylobacter jejuni survival in broiler faeces and litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Smith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. Materials and methods: Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates. Samples were confirmed as Campylobacter negative according to modified ISO methods for veterinary samples. Both sample matrices were inoculated with 9 log10 CFU/ml C. jejuni and incubated under high (≥85% and low (≤70% relative humidity conditions at three different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C under both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres. Inoculated litter samples were then tested for Campylobacter concentrations at time zero and every 2 hours for 12 hours, while faecal samples were examined at time zero and every 24 hours for 120 hours. A two-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance was used to compare mean Campylobacter concentrations in samples under the various temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. Results and discussion: C. jejuni survived significantly longer (P≤0.01 in faeces, with a minimum survival time of 48 hours, compared with 4 hours in used broiler litter. C. jejuni survival was significantly enhanced at 20°C in all environmental conditions in both sample matrices tested compared with survival at 25°C and 30°C. In general, survival was greater in microaerophilic compared with aerobic conditions in both sample matrices. Humidity, at the levels examined, did not appear to significantly impact C. jejuni survival in any sample matrix. The persistence of Campylobacter

  2. Research on the Mechanism of Information Transmission of Emergency Management Organization%应急管理组织信息传递机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦浩

    2015-01-01

    Information transmission mechanism is the key to the emergency management, which affects the information transmission ability of the emergency organization. Taking the earthquake relief headquarters of the State Council as an example, we abstracted the information transmission mechanism as hierarchical network. Firstly, by establishing a model for the information receiving probability of top-level, we concluded that the more the sub sectors and the less the levels of the network, the more information receiving probability of top-level it got, under the condition of certain total number of departments. Therefore, improving the functional coverage can increase the information receiving probability of top floor. Secondly, by establishing a model for information loss rate, we concluded that reducing the average time of information transmission and the connection degree of nodes can reduce the probability of information loss.%信息传递机制影响应急组织的信息传递能力,是应急管理的关键。本文以国务院抗震救灾指挥部为例,将其信息传递机制抽象为分层网络,通过建立顶层接收信息概率模型,得出在部门总数一定时,子部门数越多网络的层级越少,顶层接收到信息的概率越大,因此提高职能覆盖范围可增加顶层接收信息的概率;通过建立分层网络信息丢失率模型,说明降低信息传递的平均时间和节点的连接度数能够减少信息丢失的概率。

  3. Rotavirus y campylobacter fetus jejuni asociados a un brote de diarrea en terneros

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1984 Rotaviruses and Campylobacter fetus jejuni are ubiquitous agents of diarrheal disease in animals and humans. Under natural conditions they do not seem to cross inter-species barriers; a zoonosis has not been documented for man. However, animal rotaviruses might contribute to the emergence of new reassortment strains in view of their segmented genome, and thus, produce new antigenic variants. On the contrary,...

  4. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings.

  5. New emerging recombinant HIV-1 strains and close transmission linkage of HIV-1 strains in the Chinese MSM population indicate a new epidemic risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wu

    Full Text Available In recent years, the population of men who have sex with men (MSM have become the most significant increasing group of HIV-1 transmission in China. To identify new recombinant strains and transmission patterns of HIV-1 in Chinese MSM population, a cross-sectional investigation of MSM in Anhui Province (in south-eastern China was performed in 2011. The diagnosed AIDS case rate, CD4 T-cell counts, HIV subtypes, and origin of the recombinant strains were investigated in 138 collected samples. The phylogenetic and bootscan analyses demonstrated that, apart from three previously reported circulating strains (CRF07_BC, CRF01_AE, subtype B, various recombinant strains among subtype B, subtype C, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC were simultaneously identified in Chinese MSM for the first time. The introducing time of B subtype in Chinese MSM populations was estimated in 1985, CRF01_AE in 2000, and CRF07_BC in 2003; the latter two account for more than 85% of MSM infections. Notably, in comparison with B subtype infections in Anhui MSM, CRF01_AE, with the highest prevalence rate, may accelerate AIDS progression. Over half of patients (56% infected with new recombinant strains infection are diagnosed as progression into AIDS. Both Bayes and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there was active HIV transmission among MSM nationwide, which may facilitate the transmission of the new 01B recombinant strains in MSM. In conclusion, new recombinant strains and active transmission were identified in the Chinese MSM population, which may lead to a new alarming HIV pandemic in this population due to the increased pathogenesis of the newly emerging strains.

  6. Prevalence and Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni in Small-Scale Broiler Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkham, Wannee; Janes, Marlene; LeMieux, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne bacterial illnesses in humans. Previous studies have focused on the transmission routes of C. jejuni from commercial flock farms to the final retail product. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter spp. in eggshells, live birds, feed, drinking water, and the rearing environment in a small-scale broiler operation. Broilers were raised under two different production systems: (i) environmentally controlled housing and (ii) open-air housing with two replications. Each week, samples were collected from eggshells, bird feces, feed, drinking water, enclosures (vertical walls of bird housing), and feed troughs for enumeration and isolation testing. All samples were plated on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar to determine the log CFU per gram and percent prevalence of Campylobacter spp. Isolation of C. jejuni was verified with latex agglutination and hippurate hydrolysis tests. The results from this study suggest that vertical transmission of these bacteria from egg surfaces to newly hatched chicks is not a significant risk factor. The results also suggest that the prevalence of C. jejuni at time of harvest (week 6) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the open-air housing broilers than in those in the environmentally controlled housing. Elevated levels of cross-contaminants, especially water and feed, may have played a role in this outcome.

  7. Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weakened from medications or other illnesses. Azithromycin and fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are commonly used for treatment of these infections, but resistance to fluoroquinolones is common. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing can help guide ...

  8. A systematic review characterizing on-farm sources of Campylobacter spp. for broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Agunos

    Full Text Available Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95 conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32, animals (n = 57, humans (n = 26, environment (n = 54, and water (n = 63. Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping

  9. The impact of biosecurity and partial depopulation on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broiler flocks with differing levels of hygiene and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union (EU, and poultry meat is the primary route for transmission to humans. Material and methods: This study examined the impact of partial depopulation (thinning, season, and farm performance (economic, hygiene, and biosecurity on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers over a 13-month period. Ten caecal samples were taken per flock, for a total of 211 flocks from 23 farms during the duration of the study. Campylobacter was isolated and enumerated according to modified published ISO methods for veterinary samples. Biosecurity was evaluated through a questionnaire based on risk factors for Campylobacter identified in previous studies. Hygiene compliance was assessed from audit records taken over the course of 1 year. All information relating to biosecurity and hygiene was obtained directly from the processing company. This was done to ensure farmers were unaware they were being monitored for Campylobacter prevalence and prevent changes to their behaviour. Results and discussion: Farms with high performance were found to have significantly lower Campylobacter prevalence at first depopulation compared with low-performance farms across all seasons (P≤0.01. Peak Campylobacter levels were observed during the summer season at first thin in both the high- and low-performance groups. Campylobacter prevalence was found to increase to ≥85% in both high- and low-performance farms across all seasons at final depopulation, suggesting that Campylobacter was introduced during the first depopulation. On low-performance farms, four biosecurity interventions were found to significantly reduce the odds of a flock being Campylobacter positive (physical step-over barrier OR=0.17, house-specific footwear OR=0.13, absence of water body within 0.5 km OR=0.13, two or more broiler houses on a farm OR=0.16, compared with farms without these interventions. For high

  10. Restoring the selectivity of modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar for the isolation of Campylobacter species using tazobactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; McGill, Kevina; Gibbons, James; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli have emerged as a contaminant on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) when attempting to selectively isolate Campylobacter spp. from poultry. E. coli are particularly problematic given their ability to grow under microaerophilic conditions and have been shown to outcompete Campylobacter species making Campylobacter detection or enumeration difficult. This paper recommends a novel method for restoring the selectivity of mCCDA using tazobactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor. The method significantly inhibited ESBL E. coli growth in spiked or naturally contaminated broiler caecal samples (p≤0.01) when compared to conventional mCCDA. This effect was seen at concentrations as low as 1mg/L tazobactam. TmCCDA(1) was found to inhibit up to 8 log10 CFU/mL of ESBL E. coli in mixed pure cultures and 7.5 log10 CFU/mL in caecal samples. Furthermore TmCCDA concentrations up to 10 mg/L had no statistically significant inhibitory effect (p≥0.05) on the recovery of a panel of 27 Campylobacter jejuni and 5 Campylobacter coli isolates when compared to conventional mCCDA. From this study it is suggested that tazobactam, which is more chemically stable than clavulanic acid or sulbactam, is more suitable for restoring the selectivity of mCCDA for the detection or isolation of campylobacters.

  11. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  12. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    Living in a household with a dog or cat has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for acquiring campylobacteriosis, in particular, with reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis infection. In a cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark between August and December 1996, 72 healthy...... puppies and 42 healthy kittens, aged between 11 and 17 weeks, were sampled for fecal campylobacter shedding by culture of rectal swab specimens on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 32 mg/liter and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter and on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 8 mg/liter, teicoplanin...... for Campylobacter spp., with a species distribution of 76% C. jejuni, 5% C. coli, and 19% C. upsaliensis, Of the kittens examined, two (5%) excreted campylobacters; both strains were C. upsaliensis, None of the chicken samples examined were found to be positive for C. upsaliensis. We concluded that young puppies...

  13. Rapid host switching in generalist Campylobacter strains erodes the signal for tracing human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearlove, Bethany L; Cody, Alison J; Pascoe, Ben; Méric, Guillaume; Wilson, Daniel J; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2016-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the biggest causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world, with human infections typically arising from zoonotic transmission associated with infected meat. Because Campylobacter is not thought to survive well outside the gut, host-associated populations are genetically isolated to varying degrees. Therefore, the likely origin of most strains can be determined by host-associated variation in the genome. This is instructive for characterizing the source of human infection. However, some common strains, notably isolates belonging to the ST-21, ST-45 and ST-828 clonal complexes, appear to have broad host ranges, hindering source attribution. Here whole-genome sequencing has the potential to reveal fine-scale genetic structure associated with host specificity. We found that rates of zoonotic transmission among animal host species in these clonal complexes were so high that the signal of host association is all but obliterated, estimating one zoonotic transmission event every 1.6, 1.8 and 12 years in the ST-21, ST-45 and ST828 complexes, respectively. We attributed 89% of clinical cases to a chicken source, 10% to cattle and 1% to pig. Our results reveal that common strains of C. jejuni and C. coli infectious to humans are adapted to a generalist lifestyle, permitting rapid transmission between different hosts. Furthermore, they show that the weak signal of host association within these complexes presents a challenge for pinpointing the source of clinical infections, underlining the view that whole-genome sequencing, powerful though it is, cannot substitute for intensive sampling of suspected transmission reservoirs.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  15. Presence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in in-line milk filters of farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk and of a water buffalo dairy farm in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, A; Florio, D; Giacometti, F; Piva, S; Mion, D; Zanoni, R G

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. in dairy herds authorized for the production and sale of raw milk and in a water buffalo dairy farm, and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. A total of 196 in-line milk filters were collected from 14 dairy farms (13 bovine and 1 water buffalo) for detection of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. by microbiological culture. For each farm investigated, 1 isolate for each Campylobacter and Arcobacter species isolated was tested using the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) to evaluate the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. A total of 52 isolates were detected in 49 milk filters in 12 farms (85.7%) out of 14 and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni (6), Campylobacter hyointestinalis ssp. hyointestinalis (8), Campylobacter concisus (1), Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (1), Arcobacter butzleri (22), and Arcobacter cryaerophilus (14). The small number of isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility precludes any epidemiological consideration but highlights that all Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to macrolides, which are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of campylobacteriosis, and that resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline was detected; for Arcobacter isolates, resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol was detected. The sale of raw milk for human consumption by self-service automatic vending machines has been allowed in Italy since 2004 and the presence of C. jejuni in in-line milk filters confirms that raw milk consumption is a significant risk factor for human infection. The high occurrence of emerging Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. discovered in dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk represents an emerging hazard for human health.

  16. Prehospital digital photography and automated image transmission in an emergency medical service – an ancillary retrospective analysis of a prospective controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergrath Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Still picture transmission was performed using a telemedicine system in an Emergency Medical Service (EMS during a prospective, controlled trial. In this ancillary, retrospective study the quality and content of the transmitted pictures and the possible influences of this application on prehospital time requirements were investigated. Methods A digital camera was used with a telemedicine system enabling encrypted audio and data transmission between an ambulance and a remotely located physician. By default, images were compressed (jpeg, 640 x 480 pixels. On occasion, this compression was deactivated (3648 x 2736 pixels. Two independent investigators assessed all transmitted pictures according to predefined criteria. In cases of different ratings, a third investigator had final decision competence. Patient characteristics and time intervals were extracted from the EMS protocol sheets and dispatch centre reports. Results Overall 314 pictures (mean 2.77 ± 2.42 pictures/mission were transmitted during 113 missions (group 1. Pictures were not taken for 151 missions (group 2. Regarding picture quality, the content of 240 (76.4% pictures was clearly identifiable; 45 (14.3% pictures were considered “limited quality” and 29 (9.2% pictures were deemed “not useful” due to not/hardly identifiable content. For pictures with file compression (n = 84 missions and without (n = 17 missions, the content was clearly identifiable in 74% and 97% of the pictures, respectively (p = 0.003. Medical reports (n = 98, 32.8%, medication lists (n = 49, 16.4% and 12-lead ECGs (n = 28, 9.4% were most frequently photographed. The patient characteristics of group 1 vs. 2 were as follows: median age – 72.5 vs. 56.5 years, p = 0.001; frequency of acute coronary syndrome – 24/113 vs. 15/151, p = 0.014. The NACA scores and gender distribution were comparable. Median on-scene times were longer with picture

  17. A rigorous approach to investigating common assumptions about disease transmission: Process algebra as an emerging modelling methodology for epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaig, Chris; Begon, Mike; Norman, Rachel; Shankland, Carron

    2011-03-01

    Changing scale, for example, the ability to move seamlessly from an individual-based model to a population-based model, is an important problem in many fields. In this paper, we introduce process algebra as a novel solution to this problem in the context of models of infectious disease spread. Process algebra allows us to describe a system in terms of the stochastic behaviour of individuals, and is a technique from computer science. We review the use of process algebra in biological systems, and the variety of quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques available. The analysis illustrated here solves the changing scale problem: from the individual behaviour we can rigorously derive equations to describe the mean behaviour of the system at the level of the population. The biological problem investigated is the transmission of infection, and how this relates to individual interactions.

  18. Clustered local transmission and asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria infections in a recently emerged, hypoendemic Peruvian Amazon community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Eugenia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a low incidence of malaria in Iquitos, Peru, suburbs detected by passive case-detection. This low incidence might be attributable to infections clustered in some households/regions and/or undetected asymptomatic infections. Methods Passive case-detection (PCD during the malaria season (February-July and an active case-detection (ACD community-wide survey (March surveyed 1,907 persons. Each month, April-July, 100-metre at-risk zones were defined by location of Plasmodium falciparum infections in the previous month. Longitudinal ACD and PCD (ACP+PCD occurred within at-risk zones, where 137 houses (573 persons were randomly selected as sentinels, each with one month of weekly active sampling. Entomological captures were conducted in the sentinel houses. Results The PCD incidence was 0.03 P. falciparum and 0.22 Plasmodium vivax infections/person/malaria-season. However, the ACD+PCD prevalence was 0.13 and 0.39, respectively. One explanation for this 4.33 and 1.77-fold increase, respectively, was infection clustering within at-risk zones and contiguous households. Clustering makes PCD, generalized to the entire population, artificially low. Another attributable-factor was that only 41% and 24% of the P. falciparum and P. vivax infections were associated with fever and 80% of the asymptomatic infections had low-density or absent parasitaemias the following week. After accounting for asymptomatic infections, a 2.6-fold increase in ACD+PCD versus PCD was attributable to clustered transmission in at-risk zones. Conclusion Even in low transmission, there are frequent highly-clustered asymptomatic infections, making PCD an inadequate measure of incidence. These findings support a strategy of concentrating ACD and insecticide campaigns in houses adjacent to houses were malaria was detected one month prior.

  19. Studies on the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Oosterom (Johannes)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractOver the last few years the bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as an important cause of acute enteritis in man. Investigations in several countries have shown that infections caused by C. jejuni may be as serious as those due to Salmonella spp., both in prevalence

  20. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G.; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2015-01-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence an

  1. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection.

  2. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkola, Satu; Kovanen, Sara; Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4 mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans.

  3. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (US) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established Campylobacter taxa, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was unde...

  4. [Evaluation of usefulness of commercial recomwell Campylobacter enzyme--linked immunosorbent assays for routine serodiagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Jagielski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    The commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA recomWell Campylobacter) from Mikrogen was evaluated for the diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections. Serum samples from 20 healthy controls, 44 persons with symptoms of primary Campylobacter infection and 24 serum samples from patients with Yersinia enterocolitica or Salmonella infections were tested. This ELISA assay detects IgA and IgG antibodies against three recombinant antigens of the Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli: OMP 18 (18 kDa), PEB4 (31 kDa) and P39 (39 kDa). The healthy controls showed significantly lower antibody titers in all two immunoglobulin classes. The IgA antibodies were diagnosed only in 2 (18.2%) serum samples obtained from patients with bacteriologically confirmed campylobacteriosis. The presence of IgG antibodies was confirmed in 82% of serum samples. Furthermore, we showed that 66.7% of the 33 serum samples obtained from the patients suspected for campylobacteriosis not confirmed by isolation, were positive for IgG and 15.2% for IgA antibodies. We observed also not specific reactions in ELISA recom Well Campylobacter with sera obtained form patients with yersiniosis and salmonelosis. This study demonstrates the usefulness of commercially available assay for the routine diagnosis of Campylobacter infection but with some limitations.

  5. Recovery of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from inoculated foods by selective enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M P; Roman, D J

    1982-06-01

    A direct enrichment procedure was developed to selectively recover small numbers of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and nalidixic acid-resistant thermophilic Campylobacter from foods. The procedure includes an enrichment medium composed of brucella broth, 7% lysed horse blood, 0.3% sodium succinate, 0.01% cysteine hydrochloride, vancomycin (15 micrograms/ml), trimethoprim (5 micrograms/ml), polymyxin B (20 IU/ml), and cycloheximide (50 micrograms/ml) that is inoculated with 10 or 25 g of food and incubated with agitation under microaerophilic conditions at 42 degrees C for 16 to 18 h. After incubation, the medium is plated directly onto Campy-BAP agar plates (M. J. Blaser et al., Ann. Intern. Med. 91:179-185, 1979), and resulting colonies that resemble Campylobacter are identified by conventional tests. The foods evaluated included raw milk, hamburger, and chicken skin which had aerobic plate counts of 10(5) to 10(9) bacteria/g. The procedure was effective in recovering as few as 0.1 cell of Campylobacter per g of food. Of the 50 isolates of Campylobacter evaluated, all were recovered from raw milk and hamburger at a level of 1 to 4 cells/g, and 41 and 40 isolaes were recovered from the hamburger and milk, respectively, at 0.1 to 0.4 cell/g. The enrichment was least effective for recovering campylobacters from chicken skin, as 7 and 26 of 50 isolates were not recovered at 1 to 4 and 0.1 to 0.4 cell/g, respectively. This new procedure is more rapid, direct, and effective than other enrichment or direct plating procedures for recovering small numbers of campylobacters from foods.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; SANTOS Luciana Ruschel dos; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; Anderlise BORSOI; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The ...

  7. Measurement and Prediction of Field Transmission Loss as a Diagnostic Tool in Evaluation of Emergency Evacuation Signal Propagation in a Dormitory Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donald Arthur

    1984-06-01

    A method is presented to predict airborne and barrier transmission loss of an audible signal as it travels from a corridor based octave band sound source to a room based receiver location. Flanking pathways are not considered in the prediction model. Although the central focus of the research is on the propagation of the signal, a comprehensive review of the source, path and receiver are presented as related to emergency audible signal propagation. Linear attenuation of the signal and end wall reflection is applied along the corridor path incorporating research conducted by T. L. Redmore of Essex, England. Classical room acoustics are applied to establish the onset of linear attenuation beyond the near field. The "coincidence effect" is applied to the transmission loss through the room door barrier. A constant barrier door transmission loss from corridor-to-room is applied throughout the 250 - 8000 Hertz octave bands. In situ measurements were conducted in two separate dormitories on the University of Massachusetts Amherst campus to verify the validity of the approach. All of the experimental data points follow the corresponding points predicted by the model with all correlations exceeding 0.9. The 95 percent confidence intervals for the absolute difference between predicted and measured values ranged from 0.76 dB to 4.5 dB based on five Leq dB levels taken at each octave band along the length of the corridor. For the corridor to room attenuation in the six test rooms, with the door closed and edge sealed, the predicted minus measured levels ranged from an interval of 0.54 to 2.90 dB Leq at octave bands from 250 to 8000 Hertz. Given the inherent difficulty of in situ tests compared to laboratory or modeling approaches the confidence intervals obtained confirm the usefulness of the prediction model presented.

  8. Using Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli data and Bayesian microbial risk assessment to examine public health risks in agricultural watersheds under tile drainage management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P J; Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A M; Flemming, C A; Lanthier, M; Laprade, N; Sunohara, M D; Simhon, A; Thomas, J L; Topp, E; Wilkes, G; Lapen, D R

    2013-06-15

    Human campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal illness in Canada; environmental transmission has been implicated in addition to transmission via consumption of contaminated food. Information about Campylobacter spp. occurrence at the watershed scale will enhance our understanding of the associated public health risks and the efficacy of source water protection strategies. The overriding purpose of this study is to provide a quantitative framework to assess and compare the relative public health significance of watershed microbial water quality associated with agricultural BMPs. A microbial monitoring program was expanded from fecal indicator analyses and Campylobacter spp. presence/absence tests to the development of a novel, 11-tube most probable number (MPN) method that targeted Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. These three types of data were used to make inferences about theoretical risks in a watershed in which controlled tile drainage is widely practiced, an adjacent watershed with conventional (uncontrolled) tile drainage, and reference sites elsewhere in the same river basin. E. coli concentrations (MPN and plate count) in the controlled tile drainage watershed were statistically higher (2008-11), relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but yearly variation was high as well. Escherichia coli loading for years 2008-11 combined were statistically higher in the controlled watershed, relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but Campylobacter spp. loads for 2010-11 were generally higher for the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (but not statistically significant). Using MPN data and a Bayesian modelling approach, higher mean Campylobacter spp. concentrations were found in the controlled tile drainage watershed relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (2010, 2011). A second-order quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used, in a relative way, to identify

  9. Novel Campylobacter lari-like bacteria from humans and molluscs: description of Campylobacter peloridis sp. nov., Campylobacter lari subsp. concheus subsp. nov. and Campylobacter lari subsp. lari subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Lies; On, Stephen L W; De Brandt, Evie; Vandamme, Peter

    2009-05-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to clarify the taxonomic position of Campylobacter lari-like strains isolated from shellfish and humans. The diversity within the strain collection was initially screened by means of fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and whole-cell protein electrophoresis, revealing the existence of two clusters distinct from C. lari and other Campylobacter species. The divergence of these clusters was confirmed by phenotypic analysis and by 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis identified C. lari, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter insulaenigrae as the closest phylogenetic neighbours of both taxa. DNA-DNA hybridizations revealed that one cluster, comprising 10 strains, represented a novel Campylobacter species, for which the name Campylobacter peloridis sp. nov. is proposed, with 2314BVA(T) (=LMG 23910(T) =CCUG 55787(T)) as the type strain. The second cluster, comprising six strains, represents a novel subspecies within the species C. lari, for which the name Campylobacter lari subsp. concheus subsp. nov. is proposed, with 2897R(T) (=LMG 21009(T) =CCUG 55786(T)) as the type strain. The description of C. lari subsp. concheus has the effect of automatically creating the subspecies Campylobacter lari subsp. lari subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 8846(T)=NCTC 11352(T)).

  10. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in salad vegetables in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lay Ching; Robin, Tunung; Ragavan, Usha Menon; Gunsalam, Jurin Wolmon; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohamad; Radu, Son; Kumar, Malakar Pradeep

    2007-06-10

    The main aim of this study was to combine the techniques of most probable number (MPN) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantifying the prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter spp. in ulam, a popular Malaysian salad dish, from a traditional wet market and two modern supermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 309 samples of raw vegetables which are used in ulam were examined in the study. The prevalences of campylobacters in raw vegetables were, for supermarket I, Campylobacter spp., 51.9%; Campylobacter jejuni, 40.7%; and Campylobacter coli, 35.2%: for supermarket II, Campylobacter spp., 67.7%; C. jejuni, 67.7%; and C. coli, 65.7%: and for the wet market, Campylobacter spp., 29.4%; C. jejuni, 25.5%; and C. coli, 22.6%. In addition Campylobacter fetus was detected in 1.9% of raw vegetables from supermarket I. The maximum numbers of Campylobacter spp. in raw vegetables from supermarkets and the wet market were >2400 and 460 MPN/g, respectively.

  11. Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT program data in India: an emerging data set for appraising the HIV epidemic.

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    Sema K Sgaier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence based resource allocation and decentralized planning of an effective HIV/AIDS response requires reliable information on levels and trends of HIV at national and sub-national geographic levels. HIV sentinel surveillance data from antenatal clinics (HSS-ANC has been an important data source to assess the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, but has a number of limitations. We assess the value of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT programme data to appraise the HIV epidemic in India. METHODS/FINDINGS: HIV data from PPTCT sites were compared to HSS-ANC and general population level surveys at various geographic levels in the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Chi-square tests were used to ascertain statistical significance. PPTCT HIV prevalence was significantly lower than HSS-ANC HIV prevalence (0.92% vs. 1.22% in Andhra Pradesh, 0.65% vs. 0.89% in Karnataka, 0.52% vs. 0.60% in Maharashtra, p<0.001 for all three states. In all three states, HIV prevalence from PPTCT centres that were part of the sentinel surveillance was comparable to HSS-ANC prevalence but significantly higher than PPTCT centres that were not part of the sentinel surveillance. HIV prevalence from PPTCT data was comparable to that from general population surveys. In all three states, significant declines in HIV prevalence between 2007 and 2010 were observed with the PPTCT data set. District level analyses of HIV trends and sub-district level analysis of HIV prevalence were possible using the PPTCT and not the HSS-ANC data sets. CONCLUSION: HIV prevalence from PPTCT may be a better proxy for general population prevalence than HSS-ANC. PPTCT data allow for analysis of HIV prevalence and trends at smaller geographic units, which is important for decentralized planning of HIV/AIDS programming. With further improvements to the system, India could replace its HSS-ANC with PPTCT programme data for surveillance.

  12. Campylobacter concisus - a new player in intestinal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Omar Kaakoush

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade Campylobacter concisus, a highly fastidious member of the Campylobacter genus has been described as an emergent pathogen of the human intestinal tract. Historically, C. concisus was associated with the human oral cavity and has been linked with periodontal lesions, including gingivitis and periodontitis, although currently its role as an oral pathogen remains contentious. Evidence to support the role of C. concisus in acute intestinal disease has come from studies that have detected or isolated C. concisus as sole pathogen in fecal samples from diarrheic patients. C. concisus has also been associated with chronic intestinal disease, its prevalence being significantly higher in children with newly diagnosed Crohn’s disease and adults with ulcerative colitis than in controls. Further C. concisus has been isolated from biopsy specimens of patients with Crohn’s disease. While such studies support the role of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, its isolation from healthy individuals, and failure of some studies to show a significant difference in C. concisus prevalence in subjects with diarrhea and healthy controls has raised contention as to its role in intestinal disease. Such findings could argue against the role of C. concisus in intestinal disease, however, the fact that C. concisus strains are genetically diverse raises the possibility that differences exist in their pathogenic potential. Evidence to support this view comes from studies showing strain specific differences in the ability of C. concisus to attach to and invade cells and produce virulence factors, including toxins and hemolytic phospholipase A. Further, sequencing of the genome of a C. concisus strain isolated from a child with Crohn’s disease (UNSWCD and comparison of this with the only other fully sequenced strain (BAA-1457 would suggest that major differences exist in the genetic make-up of this species which could explain different outcomes of C

  13. Predominant Campylobacter jejuni sequence types persist in Finnish chicken production.

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    Ann-Katrin Llarena

    Full Text Available Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%], and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST, but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3% delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks.

  14. Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Sozzi

    Full Text Available The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease. The research presented here evaluated the design and operation of a novel treatment system, successfully used by Médecins Sans Frontières in Haiti to disinfect CTC wastewaters in situ, eliminating the need for road haulage and disposal of the waste to a poorly-managed hazardous waste facility, thereby providing an effective barrier to disease transmission through a novel but simple sanitary intervention. The physico-chemical protocols eventually successfully treated over 600 m3 of wastewater, achieving coagulation/flocculation and disinfection by exposure to high pH (Protocol A and low pH (Protocol B environments, using thermotolerant coliforms as a disinfection efficacy index. In Protocol A, the addition of hydrated lime resulted in wastewater disinfection and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids. In Protocol B, disinfection was achieved by the addition of hydrochloric acid, followed by pH neutralization and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids using aluminum sulfate. Removal rates achieved were: COD >99%; suspended solids >90%; turbidity >90% and thermotolerant coliforms >99.9%. The proposed approach is the first known successful attempt to disinfect wastewater in a disease outbreak setting without resorting to the alternative, untested, approach of 'super chlorination' which, it has been suggested, may not consistently achieve adequate disinfection. A basic analysis of costs demonstrated a significant saving in reagent costs compared with the less reliable approach of super-chlorination. The proposed approach to in situ sanitation in cholera treatment centers and other disease outbreak settings represents a timely response to a UN call for onsite disinfection of wastewaters generated in such

  15. Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, Emanuele; Fabre, Kerline; Fesselet, Jean-François; Ebdon, James E; Taylor, Huw

    2015-01-01

    The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease. The research presented here evaluated the design and operation of a novel treatment system, successfully used by Médecins Sans Frontières in Haiti to disinfect CTC wastewaters in situ, eliminating the need for road haulage and disposal of the waste to a poorly-managed hazardous waste facility, thereby providing an effective barrier to disease transmission through a novel but simple sanitary intervention. The physico-chemical protocols eventually successfully treated over 600 m3 of wastewater, achieving coagulation/flocculation and disinfection by exposure to high pH (Protocol A) and low pH (Protocol B) environments, using thermotolerant coliforms as a disinfection efficacy index. In Protocol A, the addition of hydrated lime resulted in wastewater disinfection and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids. In Protocol B, disinfection was achieved by the addition of hydrochloric acid, followed by pH neutralization and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids using aluminum sulfate. Removal rates achieved were: COD >99%; suspended solids >90%; turbidity >90% and thermotolerant coliforms >99.9%. The proposed approach is the first known successful attempt to disinfect wastewater in a disease outbreak setting without resorting to the alternative, untested, approach of 'super chlorination' which, it has been suggested, may not consistently achieve adequate disinfection. A basic analysis of costs demonstrated a significant saving in reagent costs compared with the less reliable approach of super-chlorination. The proposed approach to in situ sanitation in cholera treatment centers and other disease outbreak settings represents a timely response to a UN call for onsite disinfection of wastewaters generated in such emergencies, and the

  16. Sequence variability of Campylobacter temperate bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Lai-King

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophages integrated within the chromosomes of Campylobacter jejuni isolates have been demonstrated very recently. Prior work with Campylobacter temperate bacteriophages, as well as evidence from prophages in other enteric bacteria, suggests these prophages might have a role in the biology and virulence of the organism. However, very little is known about the genetic variability of Campylobacter prophages which, if present, could lead to differential phenotypes in isolates carrying the phages versus those that do not. As a first step in the characterization of C. jejuni prophages, we investigated the distribution of prophage DNA within a C. jejuni population assessed the DNA and protein sequence variability within a subset of the putative prophages found. Results Southern blotting of C. jejuni DNA using probes from genes within the three putative prophages of the C. jejuni sequenced strain RM 1221 demonstrated the presence of at least one prophage gene in a large proportion (27/35 of isolates tested. Of these, 15 were positive for 5 or more of the 7 Campylobacter Mu-like phage 1 (CMLP 1, also designated Campylobacter jejuni integrated element 1, or CJIE 1 genes tested. Twelve of these putative prophages were chosen for further analysis. DNA sequencing of a 9,000 to 11,000 nucleotide region of each prophage demonstrated a close homology with CMLP 1 in both gene order and nucleotide sequence. Structural and sequence variability, including short insertions, deletions, and allele replacements, were found within the prophage genomes, some of which would alter the protein products of the ORFs involved. No insertions of novel genes were detected within the sequenced regions. The 12 prophages and RM 1221 had a % G+C very similar to C. jejuni sequenced strains, as well as promoter regions characteristic of C. jejuni. None of the putative prophages were successfully induced and propagated, so it is not known if they were functional or

  17. Stress and the Emerging Roles of Chromatin Remodeling in Signal Integration and Stable Transmission of Reversible Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ian C. G.; Korgan, Austin C.; Lee, Kristen; Wheeler, Ryan V.; Hundert, Amos S.; Goguen, Donna

    2017-01-01

    The influence of early life experience and degree of parental-infant attachment on emotional development in children and adolescents has been comprehensively studied. Structural and mechanistic insight into the biological foundation and maintenance of mammalian defensive systems (metabolic, immune, nervous and behavioral) is slowly advancing through the emerging field of developmental molecular (epi)genetics. Initial evidence revealed that differential nurture early in life generates stable differences in offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation, in part, through chromatin remodeling and changes in DNA methylation of specific genes expressed in the brain, revealing physical, biochemical and molecular paths for the epidemiological concept of gene-environment interactions. Herein, a primary molecular mechanism underpinning the early developmental programming and lifelong maintenance of defensive (emotional) responses in the offspring is the alteration of chromatin domains of specific genomic regions from a condensed state (heterochromatin) to a transcriptionally accessible state (euchromatin). Conversely, DNA methylation promotes the formation of heterochromatin, which is essential for gene silencing, genomic integrity and chromosome segregation. Therefore, inter-individual differences in chromatin modifications and DNA methylation marks hold great potential for assessing the impact of both early life experience and effectiveness of intervention programs—from guided psychosocial strategies focused on changing behavior to pharmacological treatments that target chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation enzymes to dietary approaches that alter cellular pools of metabolic intermediates and methyl donors to affect nutrient bioavailability and metabolism. In this review article, we discuss the potential molecular mechanism(s) of gene regulation associated with chromatin modeling and programming of endocrine (e.g., HPA and metabolic or cardiovascular) and

  18. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    .7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100...

  19. Untargeted metabolomic profiling of amphenicol-resistant Campylobacter jejuni by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Xia, Xi; Li, Xiaowei; Naren, Gaowa; Fu, Qin; Wang, Yang; Wu, Congming; Ding, Shuangyang; Zhang, Suxia; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jiancheng; Shen, Jianzhong

    2015-02-06

    Campylobacter jejuni, an important foodborne microorganism, poses severe and emergent threats to human health as antibiotic resistance becomes increasingly prevalent. The mechanisms of drug resistance are hard to decipher, and little is known at the metabolic level. Here we apply metabolomic profiling to discover metabolic changes associated with amphenicol (chloramphenicol and florfenicol) resistance mutations of Campylobacter jejuni. An optimized sample preparation method was combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF/MS) and pattern recognition for the analysis of small-molecule biomarkers of drug resistance. UHPLC-triple quadrupole MS operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for quantitative analysis of metabolic features from UHPLC-TOF/MS profiling. Up to 41 differential metabolites involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism were observed in a chloramphenicol-resistant mutant strain of Campylobacter jejuni. A panel of 40 features was identified in florfenicol-resistant mutants, demonstrating changes in glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. This study shows that the UHPLC-MS-based metabolomics platform is a promising and valuable tool to generate new insights into the drug-resistant mechanism of Campylobacter jejuni.

  20. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results......: The highest Campylobacter spp. prevalence was seen in 110 out of 178 thrushes (61.8 %), of which the majority were Common Blackbird (Turdus merula), and in 131 out of 616 sparrows (21.3 %), a guild made up of House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus). In general, birds.......54), and between the prevalence (%) of C. coli in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. coli in manure on pig farms (R-2 = 0.62).Conclusions: The ecological guild of wild birds influences the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. through the behavioural patterns of the birds. More specifically, wild birds eating...

  1. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  2. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni

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    Salehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Campylobacter spp. are Gram-negative bacilli enteric pathogens that pose a major public health problem worldwide. In this genus, the most important species is Campylobacter jejuni. This bacterium causes diarrhea as its main symptom, which its intensity varies from mild to severe. Patients’ stools may be watery or bloody. Objectives In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of the species of Campylobacter. jejuni in Zahedan, a major city in southeastern Iran. Patients and Methods Fecal samples from 164 patients with acute diarrhea from Zahedan hospitals were collected from 2011 to 2013. Then the samples were streaked onto a campylobacter selective agar containing supplement and 7% defibrinated sheep blood. Conventional bacteriological tests (such as culture and biochemical tests were performed to confirm the genus and differentiate at the species level. Finally, disk diffusion method was performed according to the recommendation of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI to determine the susceptibility of isolates to antibacterial agents. Results Out of 164 samples, 19 (11.6% were reported positive by culture which confirmed by biochemical tests. Fifteen (78.9% patients, whose samples were positive, hospitalized in infant ward. Two (10.5% patients treated as outpatients. Two remaining (10.5% patients were admitted in internal medicine ward. All of isolated strains were susceptible or moderately susceptible to erythromycin as the drug of choice. Conclusions In this study, the prevalence of the disease (11.6% is found to be more than other parts of Iran. The symptomatic infection mainly affects children younger than 5 years.

  3. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in raw meat

    OpenAIRE

    Z Noori; SH Saadati; A. Mirsalehian; SH Shoeibi; N Rahimifard; Mehrangiz Mehdizadeh; M Pirali- Hamedani

    2009-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram negative, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming and a small"ncurved bacillus which is able to cause foodborne infection in human. In this study the occurrence of C. jejuni in poultry and"nbeef meat was investigated."nMaterials & Methods: Forty raw meat samples including 22 poultry samples and 18 beef samples were investigated for the"npresence of C. jejuni. To isolate the bacterium, the samples were initially enriched in Preston Bro...

  4. Isolation of Campylobacter from human stool samples

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    S M Salim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Campylobacter is an undetected cause of diarrhoea especially under 5 years of age in most of the countries. Isolation of this organism is difficult, expensive and cumbersome. Aims: Our objective of this study was to isolate this pathogen from the stool specimens on routinely available blood containing laboratory media using the candle jar for creating the microaerophilic atmosphere in our setup. Settings and Designs: A descriptive study. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 stool samples were inoculated onto selective and non-selective media with and without filtration using a 0.45 μm membrane. The inoculated media were simultaneously incubated in microaerophilic conditions using the Anoxomat as well as in candle jars at temperatures 37°C and 42°C. The culture isolates were confirmed by standard phenotypic tests. A simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid of Campylobacter was performed on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA of the culture isolates as well as on the DNA extracted from the stool filtrates. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as a proportion. Results: Campylobacter could be isolated in 5 out of 50 stool samples using both the Anoxomat as well as the candle jar. Furthermore, we did not find any difference between the isolation using the selective and blood containing media as well as the different incubation temperatures. All the five were confirmed phenotypically and genotypically to be Campylobacter jejuni. The PCR results corroborated with that of the culture. Conclusions: Isolation by culture was as sensitive as that of the PCR.

  5. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in raw meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Noori

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram negative, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming and a small"ncurved bacillus which is able to cause foodborne infection in human. In this study the occurrence of C. jejuni in poultry and"nbeef meat was investigated."nMaterials & Methods: Forty raw meat samples including 22 poultry samples and 18 beef samples were investigated for the"npresence of C. jejuni. To isolate the bacterium, the samples were initially enriched in Preston Broth medium and subsequently"ntransferred to Campylobacter selective Agar containing defibrinated sheep blood and antibiotics. The biochemical tests were"nused for identification of isolated bacteria at species level."nResults: Three poultry samples were positive for C. jejuni."nConclusion: Alimentary tract of chickens contain high numbers of C. jejuni therefore, this bacterium can be easily found in"ntheir feces. It is recommended to use chlorinated water in birds’ feed and to perform slaughtering, skinning and evisceration"nunder aseptic conditions to prevent campylobacteriosis in human from poultry meat. None of the beef samples yielded any"nCampylobacter, this may be due to limited number of samples of beef meat analyzed in this study.

  6. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  7. Efficacy of natural cranberry extracts against campylobacter colonization in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. has been identified as one of the leading causative agents of food borne diarrheal illness. Epi-demiological evidence has shown that poultry is the main source for human infection. Currently there are no consistently effective treatments to eliminate Campylobacter from poultry flo...

  8. Effect of Noradrenaline on the Virulence Properties of Campylobacter Species

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    Sree V. Aroori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species cause a spectrum of illnesses in humans. The type of illness and the outcome is dependent on the virulence of the infecting pathogen strain and host immune status. Acute stress can seriously compromise host immunity and increase susceptibility to infection. Noradrenaline (NA is a stress hormone. Several studies have shown that it stimulated growth and increased the pathogenicity of organisms including E. coli and Campylobacter jejuni. However, the effect of NA on other Campylobacter species is unknown. We have examined the effect of NA on growth rate, motility, invasion of T84 epithelial cells, and colonisation of chickens by diverse Campylobacter species. Campylobacter cultures grown with NA had reduced lag phases, increased growth rates, and higher final optical densities than controls. The motility of Campylobacter was also significantly increased in the presence of noradrenaline. Some of the Campylobacter strains tested also showed increased invasion of T84 epithelial cells, greater breakdown of tight junctions, and an enhanced potential to colonise chickens. Our results show that noradrenaline-induced enhancement of virulence of Campylobacter can influence the outcome of infection.

  9. Vaccination of poultry against Campylobacter in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen in the European Union (EU) since 2005. Reportedly, 212,064 humans have been confirmed ill in 2010 due to a Campylobacter infection in the EU. The major source of infection, among sporadic human cases is to be found in...

  10. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Controlling Campylobacter on Broiler Chicken Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, A.H.; Mangen, M.J.J.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Bogaardt, M.J.; Evers, E.G.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Wit, de G.A.; Zee, van der H.; Nauta, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of foodborne infections. We estimated the potential costs and benefits of a large number of possible interventions to decrease human exposure to Campylobacter by consumption of chicken meat, which accounts for 20¿40% of all cases of human campylobacterio

  11. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt...

  12. Cellular response of Campylobacter jejuni to trisodium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Cohn, M. T.; Stabler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The highly alkaline compound trisodium phosphate (TSP) is used as an intervention to reduce the load of Campylobacter on poultry meat in U.S. poultry slaughter plants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular responses of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 when exposed to sublethal...

  13. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  14. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denm...

  15. Glucose Metabolism via the Entner-Doudoroff Pathway in Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina S; Jansen van Rensburg, Melissa J; Rasmussen, Janus J;

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter are generally considered to be unable to metabolize glucose due to lack of key glycolytic enzymes. However, the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway has been identified in Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei and a few C. coli isolates. A systematic search f...

  16. Campylobacter and Toll-like receptors : implications for vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative highly motile bacterium that colonizes the intestinal tract of humans, leading to inflammation of the intestinal mucosal layer. Campylobacter-induced enteritis causes (bloody) diarrhea, cramps, malaise and fever, which resolves within two weeks. In a small num

  17. Transcending Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Trittin, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication...... in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores the implications of switching from an instrumental...

  18. Relationship between Presence of Anti-Campylobacter FliD Protein Antibodies and Campylobacter jejuni Isolation from Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Poultry products are regarded as a major source of this bacterium for human infection. Although this bacterium is a commensal in chicken cecal microbiome, Campylobacte...

  19. Unique properties of the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy strain and its emergence from H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy substantiated by VM transmission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencsik, Anna; Leboidre, Mikael; Debeer, Sabine; Aufauvre, Claire; Baron, Thierry

    2013-03-01

    In addition to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), which is recognized as being at the origin of the human variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 2 rare phenotypes of BSE (H-type BSE [H-BSE] and L-type BSE [L-BSE]) were identified in 2004. H-type BSE and L-BSE are considered to be sporadic forms of prion disease in cattle because they differ from C-BSE with respect to incubation period, vacuolar pathology in the brain, and biochemical properties of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP) in natural hosts and in some mouse models that have been tested. Recently, we showed that H-BSE transmitted to C57Bl/6 mice resulted in a dissociation of the phenotypic features, that is, some mice showed an H-BSE phenotype, whereas others had a C-BSE phenotype. Here, these 2 phenotypes were further studied in VM mice and compared with cattle C-BSE, H-BSE, and L-BSE. Serial passages from the C-BSE-like phenotype on VM mice retained similarities with C-BSE. Moreover, our results indicate that strains 301V and 301C derived from C-BSE transmitted to VM and C57Bl/6 mice, respectively, are fundamentally the same strain. These VM transmission studies confirm the unique properties of the C-BSE strain and support the emergence of a strain that resembles C-BSE from H-BSE.

  20. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M.; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Boer, de Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; Pelt, Van Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contam

  1. Toename Salmonella en Campylobacter bij slacht : Campylobacter in pluimveesector constant, Salmonella sterk gedaald

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2009-01-01

    In vrijwel alle schakels van de pluimveevleesketen is de besmetting met Salmonella in de periode van 2002 tot 2005 gedaald. Campylobacter werd in diezelfde periode juist vaker in slachthuizen aangetroffen. Tijdens het slachten nam de besmetting met beide pathogenen toe, voor Salmonella gold dit voor

  2. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection. In this

  3. Computer-assisted analysis and epidemiological value of genotyping methods for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Duim, B.; Rigter, A.; Plas, J. van der; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    For epidemiological tracing of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli, reliable and highly discriminatory typing techniques are necessary. In this study the genotyping techniques of flagellin typing (flaA typing), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated ribotyping,

  4. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp...

  5. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. ...

  6. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

  7. Genomic characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strain M1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Friis

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni strain M1 (laboratory designation 99/308 is a rarely documented case of direct transmission of C. jejuni from chicken to a person, resulting in enteritis. We have sequenced the genome of C. jejuni strain M1, and compared this to 12 other C. jejuni sequenced genomes currently publicly available. Compared to these, M1 is closest to strain 81116. Based on the 13 genome sequences, we have identified the C. jejuni pan-genome, as well as the core genome, the auxiliary genes, and genes unique between strains M1 and 81116. The pan-genome contains 2,427 gene families, whilst the core genome comprised 1,295 gene families, or about two-thirds of the gene content of the average of the sequenced C. jejuni genomes. Various comparison and visualization tools were applied to the 13 C. jejuni genome sequences, including a species pan- and core genome plot, a BLAST Matrix and a BLAST Atlas. Trees based on 16S rRNA sequences and on the total gene families in each genome are presented. The findings are discussed in the background of the proven virulence potential of M1.

  8. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Fakhr

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL, arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL. A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (512–2,048 μg/mL, and arsenate (128–1,024 μg/mL, but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4–16 μg/mL. Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3, 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR. The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates.

  9. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL), arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL) and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL). A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli) were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB) by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512–2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (512–2,048 μg/mL), and arsenate (128–1,024 μg/mL), but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4–16 μg/mL). Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3), 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR). The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates. PMID:23965921

  10. Arsenic resistance and prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from retail meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2013-08-07

    Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4-2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (4-2048 μg/mL), arsenate (16-8,192 μg/mL) and arsenite (4-2,048 μg/mL). A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli) were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB) by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512-2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (512-2,048 μg/mL), and arsenate (128-1,024 μg/mL), but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4-16 μg/mL). Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3), 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR). The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates.

  11. Prevalence of Campylobacter concisus in diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Permin, Henrik; On, Stephen L.W.;

    2002-01-01

    The importance of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni/coli in diarrhoeal disease is largely unknown. We wished to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of C. concisus infection in patients with enteric disease in a tertiary hospital. Stool specimens were routinely tested...... for the presence of Campylobacter species, by use of the filter isolation method. The medical records of the C. concisus-positive patients were reviewed. Of 224 Campylobacter isolates obtained, 110 were identified as C. concisus. Concomitant infection occurred in only 27% of cases. 13 means of protein profiling we...

  12. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M;

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain...... a better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of Campylobacter in the Danish broiler population. In this study, we observed a non-random temporal occurrence of Campylobacter, with high prevalence during summer and low during winter. Significant spatio-temporal clusters were identified...

  13. Chronic diarrhea associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Claps, M; Beaucage, C M

    1986-08-15

    Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from a cat with chronic diarrhea. The diarrheic cat and another cat (which previously had diarrhea) in the same household had bactericidal antibody titers to the C jejuni. Clinical response to antibiotic therapy and not recovering Campylobacter sp from normal feces after treatment also supported the diagnosis of Campylobacter-associated diarrhea. Although the owner had a protracted episode of diarrhea, C jejuni was not isolated from the owner's feces, nor was a bactericidal antibody detected in the owner's serum.

  14. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  15. Quantitative microbiological data analysis of a Campylobacter vaccination trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Bahrndorff, Simon; Hald, Birthe

    Campylobacter jejuni is considered the main pathogen causing human campylobacteriosis and poultry has been identified as one of the main risk factors. Strategies that aim to control Campylobacter in poultry such as vaccination strategies could reduce the incidence of human campylobacteriosis....... The objective of the present trial was to assess whether or not a vaccine candidate could give a 2 logs reduction of the numbers of Campylobacter in broilers. Sample size calculations indicated the use of 400 animals (200 vaccinated and 200 controls). The experiment was conducted in four different rotations...

  16. Avian Cholera emergence in Arctic-nesting northern Common Eiders: using community-based, participatory surveillance to delineate disease outbreak patterns and predict transmission risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Iverson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are a growing concern in wildlife conservation. Documenting outbreak patterns and determining the ecological drivers of transmission risk are fundamental to predicting disease spread and assessing potential impacts on population viability. However, evaluating disease in wildlife populations requires expansive surveillance networks that often do not exist in remote and developing areas. Here, we describe the results of a community-based research initiative conducted in collaboration with indigenous harvesters, the Inuit, in response to a new series of Avian Cholera outbreaks affecting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima and other comingling species in the Canadian Arctic. Avian Cholera is a virulent disease of birds caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Common Eiders are a valuable subsistence resource for Inuit, who hunt the birds for meat and visit breeding colonies during the summer to collect eggs and feather down for use in clothing and blankets. We compiled the observations of harvesters about the growing epidemic and with their assistance undertook field investigation of 131 colonies distributed over >1200 km of coastline in the affected region. Thirteen locations were identified where Avian Cholera outbreaks have occurred since 2004. Mortality rates ranged from 1% to 43% of the local breeding population at these locations. Using a species-habitat model (Maxent, we determined that the distribution of outbreak events has not been random within the study area and that colony size, vegetation cover, and a measure of host crowding in shared wetlands were significantly correlated to outbreak risk. In addition, outbreak locations have been spatially structured with respect to hypothesized introduction foci and clustered along the migration corridor linking Arctic breeding areas with wintering areas in Atlantic Canada. At present, Avian Cholera remains a localized threat to Common Eider populations in the

  17. Oral Campylobacter species: Initiators of a subgroup of inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2015-08-21

    In recent years, a number of studies detected a significantly higher prevalence of Campylobacter species such as Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) in intestinal biopsies and fecal samples collected from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to controls. Most of these Campylobacter species are not of zoonotic origin but are human oral Campylobacter species. Bacterial species usually cause diseases in the location where they colonize. However, C. concisus and other oral Campylobacter species are associated with IBD occurring at the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that these Campylobacter species may have unique virulence factors that are expressed in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile Ocorrência de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos em bovinos de corte e de leite no sul do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Fernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9% than among dairy cattle (21.3%, being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated.Foi estabelecida a prevalência de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos, em bovinos de corte e de leite do sul do Chile. Campylobacter foi estatisticamente mais prevalente nos bovinos de corte (35,9% do que nos bovinos de leite (21,3%, sendo C. jejuni a espécie mais frequentemente isolada.

  19. Campylobacter spp. from a season-long “farm-to-fork” study of all natural, antibiotic-free, pasture-raised broiler flocks in the southeastern united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transmission of Campylobacter spp. and baseline level of antimicrobial resistance associated with these organisms has significant implications for environmental, animal, and human health. One focus is the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the effects on antibiotic resistant bacterial ...

  20. Immunoglobulin G response in patients with Campylobacter concisus diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M; Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    Limited information is available on the systemic immunoglobulin response in patients infected with the emerging pathogen Campylobacter concisus. The aim of the present study was to detect anti-C. concisus antibodies in serum of 88 patients with C. concisus gastroenteritis. Specific IgG antibodies to C. concisus were measured in serum using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and pooled donor serum was used as a control. The mean optical density was 0.135 (SEM: 0.020) for the 88 adult patients and 0.100 (SEM: 0.011) in controls. When using an optical density value equal to the mean +3 SEM for the control serum, 22 (25%) C. concisus-positive patients had increased IgG antibodies. Patients with high IgG levels more often reported headache, and they had a trend toward more mucus in stools, whereas IgG levels were unrelated to age, duration of diarrhea, number of stools per day, and weight loss.

  1. House-level risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berke Olaf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent rise in consumption of fresh chicken meat and human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's in Iceland led to a longitudinal study of the poultry industry to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Because horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be the most likely source of Campylobacter to broilers, we aimed to identify broiler house characteristics and management practices associated with flock colonization. Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Logistic regression models with a farm random effect were used to analyse the association between flock Campylobacter status and house-level risk factors. A two-stage process was carried out. Variables were initially screened within major subsets: ventilation; roof and floor drainage; building quality, materials and repair; house structure; pest proofing; biosecurity; sanitation; and house size. Variables with p ≤ 0.15 were then offered to a comprehensive model. Multivariable analyses were used in both the screening stage (i.e. within each subset and in the comprehensive model. Results 217 out of 792 flocks (27.4% tested positive. Four significant risk factors were identified. Campylobacter colonization was predicted to increase when the flock was raised in a house with vertical (OR = 2.7, or vertical and horizontal (OR = 3.2 ventilation shafts, when the producer's boots were cleaned and disinfected prior to entering the broiler house (OR = 2.2, and when the house was cleaned with geothermal water (OR = 3.3. Conclusion The increased risk associated with vertical ventilation shafts might be related to the height of the vents and the potential for vectors

  2. Filamentation of Campylobacter in broth cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacheervan M Ghaffar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition from rod to filamentous cell morphology has been identified as a response to stressful conditions in many bacterial species and has been ascribed to confer certain survival advantages. Filamentation of Campylobacter jejuni was demonstrated to occur spontaneously on entry in to stationary phase distinguishing it from many other bacteria where a reduction in size is more common. The aim of this study was to investigate the cues that give rise to filamentation of C. jejuni and C. coli and gain insights into the process. Using minimal medium, augmentation of filamentation occurred and it was observed that this morphological change was wide spread amongst C. jejuni strains tested but was not universal in C. coli strains. Filamentation did not appear to be due to release of diffusible molecules, toxic metabolites, or be in response to oxidative stress in the medium. Separated filaments exhibited greater intracellular ATP contents (2.66 to 17.4 fg than spiral forms (0.99 to 1.7 fg and showed enhanced survival in water at 4oC and 37oC compared to spiral cells. These observations support the conclusion that the filaments are adapted to survive extra-intestinal environments. Differences in cell morphology and physiology need to be considered in the context of the design of experimental studies and the methods adopted for the isolation of campylobacters from food, clinical and environmental sources.

  3. Prevalence and seasonality of campylobacter infections in the Primorsko - Goranska County (Croatia during 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Tićac

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the prevalence of campylobacter infections in the Primorsko-Goranska County(Croatia and find out possible connection between the prevalence and environmental factors (the averagemonthly temperature and rainfall.Methods The data (number of stool samples examined, age and sex of the patients, monthly distributionof isolates and distribution of isolates according to the species from the Laboratory for Diagnostics ofEnteric Infections of the Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-Goranska County for theyear 2007 were analysed retrospectively. Meteorological data were obtained from the Croatian Meteorologicaland Hydrological Service and demographical data from the Republic of Croatia - CentralBureau of Statistics.Results During that year 7,105 stool samples were examined for Campylobacter spp. Campylobacterswere found in 561 samples (7.89% but first isolates were identified in 310 cases and among themCampylobacter jejuni was found in 279 (90% and C. coli in 31 (10% cases. The patients were mostlychildren under four years of age (with the incidence of 669.21 cases/100,000 and young adults (20 - 29years what resulted in the incidence of 116.24 cases/100,000. The highest numbers of Campylobacterspp. isolates were seen in July and August but the isolations were still frequent in September and October,which was in a positive correlation with the average monthly temperature (p=0.028, but there wasno correlation with the rainfall (p=0.61.Conclusions Our findings show bimodal age distribution of patients typical for developed countries.Seasonal variation is also noticed but it is not completely consistent with climate factors. Further investigationsof the incidence of campylobacteriosis and connection with the routes of transmission inhumans as well as the causes of seasonality are necessary.

  4. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided in

  5. Semi-quantitative method to estimate levels of Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Research projects utilizing live animals and/or systems often require reliable, accurate quantification of Campylobacter following treatments. Even with marker strains, conventional methods designed to quantify are labor and material intensive requiring either serial dilutions or MPN ...

  6. Campylobacter coli infection in pet birds in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pace, Antonino; Romano, Violante; D'Orazio, Stefano; Varriale, Lorena; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2017-01-06

    Avian species are considered as the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, few data are available on the presence of this microorganism in pet birds. This study was therefore performed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pet birds bred in southern Italy. Faecal samples were collected from 88 cages housing different species of pet birds and examined by bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 13.6% of the cage samples were positive for Campylobacter coli. Other Campylobacter spp. were not found. The study shows that C. coli can be isolated from the cages of apparently healthy pet birds, which should therefore be considered as potential carriers of C. coli and a possible source of infection for humans and companion animals.

  7. Campylobacter concisus: an evaluation of certain phenotypic and genotypic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; Bang, D. D.; Aabenhus, R.;

    2005-01-01

    The clinical relevance of Campylobacter concisus in gastrointestinal disease has not been determined definitively. This study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 39 C. concisus isolates from Danish patients with diarrhoea, three isolates from healthy individuals and the t...

  8. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been perf

  9. Evaluation of Various Campylobacter-Specific Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assays for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacteraceae in Irrigation Water and Wastewater via a Miniaturized Most-Probable-Number–qPCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Scott, Candis; Kim, Jinyong; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Ruecker, Norma; Tymensen, Lisa; Charest, Jollin; Pintar, Katarina; Checkley, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and water is increasingly seen as a risk factor in transmission. Here we describe a most-probable-number (MPN)–quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay in which water samples are centrifuged and aliquoted into microtiter plates and the bacteria are enumerated by qPCR. We observed that commonly used Campylobacter molecular assays produced vastly different detection rates. In irrigation water samples, detection rates varied depending upon the PCR assay and culture method used, as follows: 0% by the de Boer Lv1-16S qPCR assay, 2.5% by the Van Dyke 16S and Jensen glyA qPCR assays, and 75% by the Linton 16S endpoint PCR when cultured at 37°C. Primer/probe specificity was the major confounder, with Arcobacter spp. routinely yielding false-positive results. The primers and PCR conditions described by Van Dyke et al. (M. I. Van Dyke, V. K. Morton, N. L. McLellan, and P. M. Huck, J Appl Microbiol 109:1053–1066, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04730.x) proved to be the most sensitive and specific for Campylobacter detection in water. Campylobacter occurrence in irrigation water was found to be very low (arcobacters. Overall, when Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration in water is reported using molecular methods, considerable validation is recommended when adapting methods largely developed for clinical applications. Furthermore, combining MPN methods with molecular biology-based detection algorithms allows for the detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp. in environmental samples and is potentially suited to quantitative microbial risk assessment for improved public health disease prevention related to food and water exposures. IMPORTANCE The results of this study demonstrate the importance of assay validation upon data interpretation of environmental monitoring for Campylobacter when using molecular biology-based assays. Previous studies describing

  10. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Danish broilers at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wedderkopp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims : To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli isolates from Danish poultry at the farm level, as well as for the whole country. Methods and Results : Data and isolates were collected from a national surveillance of Campylobacter in poultry....... Quinolone resistance was investigated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Among Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli combined, 7.5% were resistant to nalidixic acid. Quinolone resistance varied considerably from farm to farm, with 0% on some farms and almost...... 100% on others, but the resistance was evenly distributed geographically. With respect to isolates from farms where resistance was detected, quinolone resistance was higher among Camp. coli (28.7%) than among Camp. jejuni (11.3%). PFGE typing of quinolone-resistant and quinolone-susceptible isolates...

  11. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Hirchaud, Edouard; Parra, Alberto; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for thi...

  12. [Evaluation of antigenic properties of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli proteins in a western-immunoblot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Waldemar, Rastawicki; Jagielski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial cause for acute diarrheal illnesses in developed countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenic properties of Campylobacterjejuni and Campylobacter coli proteins in western-blot assay. Whole-cell components of Campulobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electroforesis. Using this method we detected in all seven C. jejuni strains 21 peptides migrating between 180-29 kDa. All three Ccoli strains had a 17 bands migrating with the same molecular weight range. Proteins were transferred electrophoretically to nitrocellulose paper for immunoblotting experiments. The 74 kDa protein reacted strongly in all classes ofimmmunoglobulin with all tested human serum samples. We observed that this protein reacted also with human immunoglobulins for Salmonella and Yersinia sp. This cross-reaction observed for this protein could give false positive results in routine diagnosis of C. jejuni infections. The proteins with molecular weight of: 92, 62, 56, 52, 45-43, 29 kDa were most recognized in the 20 human serum samples. The other proteins of Cljejuni and C. coli, particularly in the 68-50 kDa and 45-31 kDa regions, were recognized occasionally and the response to these in reconvalescent sera was usually weak. The result of this study showed that the proteins with molecular weight: 92, 62, 56, 52, 45-43 and 29 kDa can be use in routine serological diagnostic of campylobacteriosis.

  13. Compliance/non-compliance with biosecurity rules specified in the Danish Quality Assurance system (KIK) and Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, M; Dahl, J; Lindegaard, L L; Pedersen, J R

    2017-01-01

    One source for Campylobacter jejuni infections in humans could be consumption of broiler meat. Transmission of Campylobacter into broiler houses/flocks occurs via many routes. A number of biosecurity rules is specified in the Quality Assurance System in Danish Chicken Production (KIK) - for which the broiler producers annually are audited for compliance with, by bureau Veritas. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigated the association between Compliance/non-compliance with biosecurity rules and Campylobacter-positive flocks - on KIK data from 2012 and 2013. Month and before after audit period were also included in the models. KIK rules important to comply with were: no vegetation around houses, closed systems for feed storage and distribution, and division between clean and unclean zones within broiler houses. A Campylobacter-reducing effect was observed of audit visits (in itself), indicating that there is more focus on compliance with KIK at the time of an audit visit, and that adequate daily biosecurity behavior is important.

  14. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  15. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  16. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni for Food Safety and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cakmak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are microorganisms that can be found in nature in the entire domestic and wild animal’s intestinal flora including the poultry and the sea animals. Campylobacter can better colonize in the poultry than the other animals. Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen among the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. whose growth temperature’s are different than the other Campylobacter spp. and can cause serious gastroenteritis in human beings which in some cases ended up with death. Human beings are generally infected with C. jejuni mainly because of the poultry meat and products and rarely because of the red meat which are contaminated during preparation and serving stages. Inadequate cooking, consumption of poorly chlorinated drinking water or unpasteurized milk are other infection sources of C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis especially affect children under 5 years of age and reported to be a zoonotic illness that cause acute gastroenteritis in human. In many countries, food sourced C. jejuni infections were reported to occur more frequently than Salmonella spp. infections. In order to avoid Campylobacter infections, it is very important to enforce food security programmes and HACCP like systems during growth, slaughterhouses and point of sales stages. Also adequate cooking of the products, hygiene of the kitchen and personnel are important. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 157-166

  17. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude...... that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions...... of particles in the 0.5- to 2-mu m-diameter range and high proportions in the 2- to 5-mu m-diameter range. Campylobacter could also be detected by PCR in air samples collected at the hanging stage during the slaughter process but not at the other stages tested at the slaughterhouse. The exploitation...

  18. Use of culture, PCR analysis, and DNA microarrays for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from chicken feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    . detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. By PCR and capillary electrophoresis, 95% of the samples were positive...... for Campylobacter spp., whereas with DNA microarrays all samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. By application of DNA microarray analysis, the isolates in 4 samples (6%) could not be identified to the species level, whereas by PCR-capillary electrophoresis, the isolates in 12 samples (19%) remained...... unidentified. Interestingly, PCR-capillary electrophoresis analysis revealed that two (3%) of the samples were positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli, while DNA microarray analysis revealed that nine (14%) of the samples were positive for both species. Of 65 samples, 2 samples were identified to contain C...

  19. Variation in Campylobacter Mulilocus Sequence Typing Subtypes Detected on Three Different Plating Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: There are multiple selective plating media available for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter. Campylobacter produce colonies with differing morphology and characteristics depending on the plating medium used. It is unclear if choice of plating medium can a...

  20. Isolation method (direct plating or enrichment) does not affect antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter from chicken carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if Campylobacter isolation method influenced antimicrobial susceptibility results, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of nine antimicrobials were compared for 291 pairs of Campylobacter isolates recovered from chicken carcass rinse samples using direct plating and an enrichment...

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.;

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To determine the flock prevalence and to estimate the within flock prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks from different rearing systems, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to selected antimicrobial substances. Methods and Results: One hundred...

  2. Eugenol wash and chitosan based coating reduces Campylobacter jejuni counts on poultry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne illness globally in humans, is strongly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Unfortunately, current strategies to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry have had limited success. Our study investigated the efficacy of eugenol ...

  3. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  4. Assessing the intra-species genetic variability in the clonal pathogen Campylobacter fetus: CRISPRs are highly polymorphic DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleros, Lucía; Betancor, Laura; Iraola, Gregorio; Méndez, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Paolicchi, Fernando; Silveyra, Silvia; Velilla, Alejandra; Pérez, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that infects animals and humans. The subspecies Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (Cff) affects a broad range of vertebrate hosts and induces abortion in cows and sheep. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is restricted to cattle and causes the endemic disease bovine genital campylobacteriosis, which triggers reproductive problems and is responsible for major economic losses. Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) has been isolated mostly from apparently healthy reptiles belonging to different species but also from ill snakes and humans. Genotypic differentiation of Cff and Cfv is difficult, and epidemiological information is scarce because there are few methods to study the genetic diversity of the strains. We analyze the efficacy of MLST, ribosomal sequences (23S gene and internal spacer region), and CRISPRs to assess the genetic variability of C. fetus in bovine and human isolates. Sequences retrieved from complete genomes were included in the analysis for comparative purposes. MLST and ribosomal sequences had scarce or null variability, while the CRISPR-cas system structure and the sequence of CRISPR1 locus showed remarkable diversity. None of the sequences here analyzed provided evidence of a genetic differentiation of Cff and Cfv in bovine isolates. Comparison of bovine and human isolates with Cft strains showed a striking divergence. Inter-host differences raise the possibility of determining the original host of human infections using CRISPR sequences. CRISPRs are the most variable sequences analyzed in C. fetus so far, and constitute excellent representatives of a dynamic fraction of the genome. CRISPR typing is a promising tool to characterize isolates and to track the source and transmission route of C. fetus infections.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from ducks in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bai; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Kang, Min; Roh, Jae-Hee; Seo, Hye-Suk; Yoon, Ran-Hee; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2014-12-01

    Campylobacter is a food-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter bacteria are commensal in the intestines of many food production animals, including ducks and chickens. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter species in domestic ducks, and the agar dilution method was used to determine resistance of the isolates to eight antibiotics. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to determine the sequence types (STs) of selected Campylobacter isolates. Between May and September 2012, 58 duck farms were analyzed, and 56 (96.6%) were positive for Campylobacter. Among the isolates, 82.1% were Campylobacter jejuni, 16.1% were C. coli, and one was unidentified by PCR. Of the 46 C. jejuni isolates, 87.0%, 10.9%, and 21.7% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and azithromycin, respectively. Among the C. coli isolates, all 9 strains were resistant to ampicillin, and 77.8% and 33.3% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, respectively. The majority of the Campylobacter isolates were classified as multidrug resistant. Twenty-eight STs were identified, including 20 STs for C. jejuni and 8 STs for C. coli. The most common clonal complexes in C. jejuni were the ST-21 complex and the ST-45 complex, while the ST-828 complex predominated in C. coli. The majority of isolates were of STs noted in ducks and humans from earlier studies, along with seven STs previously associated only with human disease. These STs overlapped between duck and human isolates, indicating that Campylobacter isolates from ducks should be considered potential sources of human infection.

  6. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  7. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  8. Free-living turtles are a reservoir for Salmonella but not for Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Clara; Ingresa-Capaccioni, Sofia; González-Bodi, Sara; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Vega, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Different studies have reported the prevalence of Salmonella in turtles and its role in reptile-associated salmonellosis in humans, but there is a lack of scientific literature related with the epidemiology of Campylobacter in turtles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in free-living native (Emys orbicularis, n=83) and exotic (Trachemysscripta elegans, n=117) turtles from 11 natural ponds in Eastern Spain. In addition, different types of samples (cloacal swabs, intestinal content and water from Turtle containers) were compared. Regardless of the turtle species, natural ponds where individuals were captured and the type of sample taken, Campylobacter was not detected. Salmonella was isolated in similar proportions in native (8.0 ± 3.1%) and exotic (15.0 ± 3.3%) turtles (p=0.189). The prevalence of Salmonella positive turtles was associated with the natural ponds where animals were captured. Captured turtles from 8 of the 11 natural ponds were positive, ranged between 3.0 ± 3.1% and 60.0 ± 11.0%. Serotyping revealed 8 different serovars among four Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 21), S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2), S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (n = 3), and S. enterica subsp. houtenae (n = 1). Two serovars were predominant: S. Thompson (n=16) and S. typhimurium (n=3). In addition, there was an effect of sample type on Salmonella detection. The highest isolation of Salmonella was obtained from intestinal content samples (12.0 ± 3.0%), while lower percentages were found for water from the containers and cloacal swabs (8.0 ± 2.5% and 3.0 ± 1.5%, respectively). Our results imply that free-living turtles are a risk factor for Salmonella transmission, but do not seem to be a reservoir for Campylobacter. We therefore rule out turtles as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. Nevertheless, further studies should be undertaken in other countries to confirm these results.

  9. The evidence for clonal spreading of quinolone resistance with a particular clonal complex of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, J; Cadež, N; Lušicky, M; Nielsen, E Møller; Ocepek, M; Raspor, P; Možina, S Smole

    2014-12-01

    Campylobacter is the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and it represents a significant public health risk of increasing severity due to its escalating resistance to clinically important quinolone and macrolide antibiotics. As a zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter is transmitted along the food chain and naturally cycles from environmental waters, feedstuff, animals and food to humans. We determined antibiotic resistance profiles, as well as multilocus sequence types and flaA-SVR types for 52 C. jejuni isolated in Slovenia from human, animal, raw and cured chicken meat and water samples. Twenty-eight different sequence types, arranged in ten clonal complexes, three new allele types and five new sequence types were identified, indicating the relatively high diversity in a small group of strains. The assignment of strains from different sources to the same clonal complexes indicates their transmission along the food supply chain. The most prevalent clonal complex was CC21, which was also the genetic group with 95% of quinolone-resistant strains. Based on the genetic relatedness of these quinolone-resistant strains identified by polymerase chain reaction with a mismatch amplification mutation assay and sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene, we conclude that the high resistance prevalence observed indicates the local clonal spread of quinolone resistance with CC21.

  10. Campylobacter infections in children exposed to infected backyard poultry in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tras, W F; Holt, H R; Tayel, A A; El-Kady, N N

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease which has a worldwide public health impact. The disease is endemic in Egypt; however, the epidemiology in animals and humans has not been fully characterized. The objective of this study was to compare the risk of Campylobacter faecal carriage in children exposed to Campylobacter-infected vs. non-infected backyard poultry and to identify risk factors for a backyard being classified as infected. A total of 103 households which owned backyard poultry were sampled from a rural community in Egypt. Within these households 379 poultry and 106 children were tested for C. jejuni and C. coli; 23·5% and 5·5% of poultry were positive for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. In the studied households; 12·3% of children were positive for C. jejuni, and 2·8% were positive for C. coli. Using logistic regression, households with poultry positive for C. jejuni had 3·86 (95% confidence interval 1·0-15·0) times the odds of having children positive for C. jejuni compared to those housed with poultry which all tested negative. Backyard poultry may present a transmission route of C. jejuni to children. Backyards with poor cleaning and disinfection, wet litter and manure disposed of within the backyard had increased odds of being positive for C. jejuni. Enhancing biosecurity and management in poultry backyards may reduce the risk of the disease.

  11. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  12. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.;

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...

  13. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  14. Beta-resorcylic acid reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading food borne illnesses globally, has been linked with high prevalence of this bacterium in retail chicken meat. Reduction of Campylobacter in poultry will greatly reduce the risk of this disease. Unfortunately, strategies employed to reduce Campylobacter in li...

  15. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...

  16. Presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Wild Small Mammals on Organic Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kijlstra, A.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in rodents and insectivores (n = 282) was investigated on organic farms. Infections were encountered in house mice (8 of 83 Campylobacter positive and 1 of 83 Salmonella sp. strain Livingstone positive) and brown rats (1 of 8 Campylobacter positive)

  17. Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenberg, C.P.A.; van Horne, P.L.M.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2016-01-01

    Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter interven...

  18. Detection of Campylobacter species and Arcobacter butzleri in stool samples by use of real-time multiplex PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. de Boer (Richard); A. Ott (Alewijn); P. Güren (Pinar); E. van Zanten; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); A.M.D. Kooistra-Smid

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of Campylobacter (or Campylobacter-like) species in stools from patients suspected of infectious gastroenteritis (n = 493) was investigated using real-time PCR for detection of Arcobacter butzleri (hsp60 gene), Campylobacter coli (ceuE gene), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA), fiv

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on Campylobacter jejuni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, J.D.; Maxcy, R.B.

    Radiation resistance of Campylobacter jejuni in broth, ground beef, and ground turkey meat was determined using dose levels from 0-200 Krad at -30 +/- 10/sup 0/C, at 0-5/sup 0/C, and at 30 +/- 10/sup 0/C. Irradiation at -30/sup 0/C increased radiation resistance of cultures in ground meats; broth cultures were not greatly influenced by temperature. The effect of culture age on radiation resistance was also evaluated using cells in various physiological phases. Age did not have a pronounced effect on radiation resistance. The largest D/sub 10/ value for C. jejuni was 32 Krad, which was less than D/sub 10/ values commonly reported for salmonellae. 20 references, 4 figures.

  20. Method-dependent variability in determination of prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Canadian retail poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Catherine D; Plante, Daniel; Iugovaz, Irène; Kenwell, Robyn; Bélanger, Ghislaine; Boucher, Francine; Poulin, Nathalie; Trottier, Yvon-Louis

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter is the most frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Canada, and the illness is commonly associated with poultry consumption. Whereas Canadian retail poultry is often contaminated with campylobacters, studies on the prevalence of this organism are inconsistent due to variability in sampling and microbiological methodology. To determine the current microbiological status of Canadian poultry, and to evaluate two commonly used microbiological methods, 348 raw poultry samples were collected at retail across Canada over a period of 3 years (2007 to 2010) and were analyzed for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found to be 42.8% by a combination of the two testing methods, with 33.9% of the samples positive for C. jejuni, 3.7% of the samples positive for C. coli, and 5.2% of the samples positive for both. Variability in Campylobacter spp. prevalence was observed in samples obtained from different regions across Canada and from poultry with or without skin, but this was not statistically significant. In co-contaminated samples, C. jejuni was preferentially recovered from Preston agar compared with mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar, with an increase in recovery of C. coli on all selective media after 48 h of enrichment. A subset of 214 of the poultry rinses were analyzed by both Health Canada's standard method, MFLP-46 (enrichment in Park and Sanders broth), and a second method requiring enrichment in Bolton broth. Significantly more positive samples were obtained with the MFLP-46 method (40.6%) than with the alternate method (35.0%). This improved recovery with MFLP-46 may be due to the omission of cycloheximide from this method. These results demonstrate that determination of prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on poultry products may be significantly impacted by the choice of microbiological methods used. Canadian poultry continues to be a source of exposure to Campylobacter spp.

  1. Campylobacter jejuni y Campylobacter coli en tres grupos de gallinas de diferente origen geográfico del sur de Chile Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in three groups of hens of different geographic origin in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FERNANDEZ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 300 muestras fecales de gallinas obtenidas en tres sitios geográficos del sur de Chile (comunas de Loncoche, Valdivia y Puerto Montt, para conocer la prevalencia de Campylobacter jejuni y de C. coli en estas aves consideradas como reservorio. La prevalencia de especies termotolerantes del género Campylobacter fue del 25,7%, siendo C. jejuni aislado con una frecuencia del 76,6% y la de C. coli del 23,4%. Fueron encontrados sólo 2 de los 4 biotipos de C. jejuni, siendo aislado el biotipo II con mayor frecuencia (68.8%. En C. coli fueron encontrados los 2 biotipos descritos para esta especie, siendo, también, el biotipo II el más frecuenteIn order to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, 300 fecal samples obtained from hens in three different geographical places (Loncoche, Valdivia and Puerto Montt cities from Southern Chile were studied. The prevalence of the thermotolerant species of Campylobacter was 25.7%, being Campylobacter jejuni isolated with a frequency of 76.6% and C. coli with 23.4%. Only two of the four biotypes of C. jejuni were found, being biotype II the most frequent one (68.8%. The two biotypes described for C. coli were isolated, and biotype II was also the most frequent (68.8%.

  2. Survival with a helping hand: Campylobacter and microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eIndikova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulphur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain.

  3. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  4. Acid stress response and protein induction in Campylobacter jejuni isolates with different acid tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Wik, Monica Takamiya; Lametsch, René

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the transmission route from poultry to the human host, the major foodborne pathogen C. jejuni may experience many types of stresses, including low pH caused by different acids. However, not all strains are equally sensitive to the stresses. The aim of this study was to investig...... (Cj0706), molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein (MogA), and bacterioferritin (Dps). Strain and acid type dependent differences in the level of response were observed. For strain NCTC 11168, the induced proteins and the regulator fur were analysed at the transcriptomic level using q......RT-PCR. In this transcriptomic analysis, only up-regulation of trxB and p19 was observed. CONCLUSIONS: A defined medium that supports the growth of a range of Campylobacter strains and suitable for proteomic analysis was developed. Mainly proteins normally involved in iron control and oxidative stress defence were induced...

  5. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in ground water in Sokoto, Sokoto state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha N. Ugboma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the presence and prevalence of Campylobacter species in ground water in Sokoto, Sokoto State. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of Campylobacter species was determined by collecting a total of 74 water samples from wells in Sokoto over a period of four months from May to August 2011 and analyzed using cultural isolation techniques and biochemical characterization. Results: Totally 39 (52.70% water samples were Campylobacter positive. The species identified were Campylobacter jejuni 23 (58.97%, Campylobacter coli 11 (28.21% and Campylobacter hyointestinalis 5 (12.82%. Conclusion: Based on this study, the isolation of Campylobacter species from ground water (wells in this study is of serious public health importance as untreated water has been implicated as the cause of sporadic infections and outbreaks of Campylobacteriosis worldwide. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 285-287

  6. Campylobacter shared between free-ranging cattle and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Porrero, M C; Zamora, L; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Lavín, S; Domínguez, L

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter infections are a public health concern and an increasingly common cause of food-borne zoonoses in the European Union. However, little is known about their spill-over from free-ranging livestock to sympatric wild ungulates, especially in regards to uncommon Campylobacter species. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and other C. spp. in game ungulates (wild boar Sus scrofa and Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica) and free-ranging sympatric cattle in a National Game Reserve in NE Spain. Furthermore, we explore the extent to which Campylobacter species are shared among these co-habiting hosts. Faecal samples from Iberian ibex (n = 181) were negative for C. spp. By direct plating, two wild boars out of 150 were positive for C. coli (1.3%, 95% CI 0.16-4.73), and one was positive for C. jejuni (0.67%, 95% CI 0.02-3.66). The latter was predominant in cattle: 5.45% (n = 55, 95% CI 1.14-5.12), while C. coli was not isolated from this host. C. lanienae was the most frequent species in wild boar at 10% (95% CI 5.7-15.96), and one cow cohabiting with positive wild boars in the same canyon also carried C. lanienae. Four enrichment protocols (using Bolton or Preston broth combined with either mCCDA or CFA) were added for 172 samples (57 from wild boars, 55 cattle and 60 Iberian ibexes) to increase the number of isolates obtained allowing the detection of statistically significant differences. The prevalence of C. lanienae was statistically significantly higher in wild boar than in cattle (P < 0.01), but the prevalence of C. jejuni was higher in the latter (P = 0.045). These results suggest that wild boar and cattle carry their own predominant Campylobacter species, while Iberian ibex do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter. However, there is a potential spill-over of C. spp., and thus, further research is needed to elucidate the factors determining inter-species transmission.

  7. Evidence of land-sea transfer of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter to a wildlife marine sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Johanna L; Méric, Guillaume; Bayliss, Sion; Foster, Geoffrey; Moss, Simon E; Watson, Eleanor; Pascoe, Ben; Mikhail, Jane; Pizzi, Romain; Goldstone, Robert J; Smith, David G E; Willoughby, Kim; Hall, Ailsa J; Sheppard, Samuel K; Dagleish, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution often accompanies the expansion and urbanization of human populations where sewage and wastewaters commonly have an impact on the marine environments. Here, we explored the potential for faecal bacterial pathogens, of anthropic origin, to spread to marine wildlife in coastal areas. The common zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter was isolated from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), an important sentinel species for environmental pollution, and compared to isolates from wild birds, agricultural sources and clinical samples to characterize possible transmission routes. Campylobacter jejuni was present in half of all grey seal pups sampled (24/50 dead and 46/90 live pups) in the breeding colony on the Isle of May (Scotland), where it was frequently associated with histological evidence of disease. Returning yearling animals (19/19) were negative for C. jejuni suggesting clearance of infection while away from the localized colony infection source. The genomes of 90 isolates from seals were sequenced and characterized using a whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach and compared to 192 published genomes from multiple sources using population genetic approaches and a probabilistic genetic attribution model to infer the source of infection from MLST data. The strong genotype-host association has enabled the application of source attribution models in epidemiological studies of human campylobacteriosis, and here assignment analyses consistently grouped seal isolates with those from human clinical samples. These findings are consistent with either a common infection source or direct transmission of human campylobacter to grey seals, raising concerns about the spread of human pathogens to wildlife marine sentinel species in coastal areas.

  8. Campylobacter fetus infection presenting with bacteremia and cellulitis in a 72-year-old man with an implanted pacemaker: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledina Dragan

    2012-11-01

    and older age could be contributing factors for the development of bacteremic Campylobacter fetus cellulitis. Emergent surgical and antibiotic treatment are mandatory and provide the optimal outcome for such types of pacemaker pocket infection.

  9. Detection of Campylobacter bacteria in air samples for continuous real-time monitoring of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Katja N; Lund, Marianne; Skov, Julia; Christensen, Laurids S; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2009-04-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions of particles in the 0.5- to 2-microm-diameter range and high proportions in the 2- to 5-microm-diameter range. Campylobacter could also be detected by PCR in air samples collected at the hanging stage during the slaughter process but not at the other stages tested at the slaughterhouse. The exploitation of airborne dust in poultry houses as a sample material for the detection of Campylobacter and other pathogens provides an intriguing possibility, in conjunction with new detection technologies, for allowing continuous or semicontinuous monitoring of colonization status.

  10. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts.

  11. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  12. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-08-24

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV.

  13. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Concentration in Household Pets and Petting Zoo Animals for Use in Exposure Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Katarina D M; Christidis, Tanya; Thomas, M Kate; Anderson, Maureen; Nesbitt, Andrea; Keithlin, Jessica; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Animal contact is a potential transmission route for campylobacteriosis, and both domestic household pet and petting zoo exposures have been identified as potential sources of exposure. Research has typically focussed on the prevalence, concentration, and transmission of zoonoses from farm animals to humans, yet there are gaps in our understanding of these factors among animals in contact with the public who don't live on or visit farms. This study aims to quantify, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter carriage in household pets and petting zoo animals. Four databases were accessed for the systematic review (PubMed, CAB direct, ProQuest, and Web of Science) for papers published in English from 1992-2012, and studies were included if they examined the animal population of interest, assessed prevalence or concentration with fecal, hair coat, oral, or urine exposure routes (although only articles that examined fecal routes were found), and if the research was based in Canada, USA, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Studies were reviewed for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis by two reviewers, compiled into a database, and relevant studies were used to create a weighted mean prevalence value. There were insufficient data to run a meta-analysis of concentration values, a noted study limitation. The mean prevalence of Campylobacter in petting zoo animals is 6.5% based on 7 studies, and in household pets the mean is 24.7% based on 34 studies. Our estimated concentration values were: 7.65x103cfu/g for petting zoo animals, and 2.9x105cfu/g for household pets. These results indicate that Campylobacter prevalence and concentration are lower in petting zoo animals compared with household pets and that both of these animal sources have a lower prevalence compared with farm animals that do not come into contact with the public. There is a lack of studies on Campylobacter in petting zoos and/or fair animals in

  14. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Concentration in Household Pets and Petting Zoo Animals for Use in Exposure Assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina D M Pintar

    Full Text Available Animal contact is a potential transmission route for campylobacteriosis, and both domestic household pet and petting zoo exposures have been identified as potential sources of exposure. Research has typically focussed on the prevalence, concentration, and transmission of zoonoses from farm animals to humans, yet there are gaps in our understanding of these factors among animals in contact with the public who don't live on or visit farms. This study aims to quantify, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter carriage in household pets and petting zoo animals. Four databases were accessed for the systematic review (PubMed, CAB direct, ProQuest, and Web of Science for papers published in English from 1992-2012, and studies were included if they examined the animal population of interest, assessed prevalence or concentration with fecal, hair coat, oral, or urine exposure routes (although only articles that examined fecal routes were found, and if the research was based in Canada, USA, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Studies were reviewed for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis by two reviewers, compiled into a database, and relevant studies were used to create a weighted mean prevalence value. There were insufficient data to run a meta-analysis of concentration values, a noted study limitation. The mean prevalence of Campylobacter in petting zoo animals is 6.5% based on 7 studies, and in household pets the mean is 24.7% based on 34 studies. Our estimated concentration values were: 7.65x103cfu/g for petting zoo animals, and 2.9x105cfu/g for household pets. These results indicate that Campylobacter prevalence and concentration are lower in petting zoo animals compared with household pets and that both of these animal sources have a lower prevalence compared with farm animals that do not come into contact with the public. There is a lack of studies on Campylobacter in petting zoos and

  15. Isolation of Campylobacter from Brazilian broiler flocks using different culturing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; Pozza, J S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2014-11-01

    Conventional culturing methods enable the detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. However, laboratory culture of Campylobacter is laborious because of its fastidious behavior and the presence of competing nontarget bacteria. This study evaluated different protocols to isolate Campylobacter from broiler litter, feces, and cloacal and drag swabs. Samples taken from commercial Brazilian broiler flocks were directly streaked onto Preston agar (PA), Campy-Line agar (CLA), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and also enriched in blood-free Bolton broth (bfBB) for 24 and 48 h followed by plating onto the different selective media. Higher numbers of Campylobacter-positive cloacal and drag swab samples were observed using either direct plating or enrichment for 24 h before plating onto PA, compared with enrichment for 48 h (P Campylobacter in broiler litter and feces samples. Analysis of directly plated samples revealed that higher Campylobacter levels were detected in feces streaked onto PA (88.8%), cloacal swabs plated onto mCCDA (72.2%), drag swabs streaked onto CLA or mCCDA (69.4%), and litter samples inoculated onto PA (63.8%). Preston agar was the best agar to isolate Campylobacter from directly plated litter samples (P Campylobacter in other samples. The isolated Campylobacter strains were phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The predominant contaminant observed in the Campylobacter cultures was Proteus mirabilis, which was resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents in selective media. Together, these data showed that direct plating onto PA and onto either CLA or mCCDA as the second selective agar enabled the reliable isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter species from broiler samples. Finally, Campylobacter was detected in all broiler flocks sampled.

  16. Time-series analysis of Campylobacter incidence in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Schüpbach, G; Held, L

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacteriosis has been the most common food-associated notifiable infectious disease in Switzerland since 1995. Contact with and ingestion of raw or undercooked broilers are considered the dominant risk factors for infection. In this study, we investigated the temporal relationship between the disease incidence in humans and the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers in Switzerland from 2008 to 2012. We use a time-series approach to describe the pattern of the disease by incorporating seasonal effects and autocorrelation. The analysis shows that prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers, with a 2-week lag, has a significant impact on disease incidence in humans. Therefore Campylobacter cases in humans can be partly explained by contagion through broiler meat. We also found a strong autoregressive effect in human illness, and a significant increase of illness during Christmas and New Year's holidays. In a final analysis, we corrected for the sampling error of prevalence in broilers and the results gave similar conclusions.

  17. Estimation of on-farm interventions to control Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Rosenquist, Hanne;

    2015-01-01

    Before making risk management decisions to control Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, it is useful to identify effective interventions. A given risk factor may seem to have a large effect, but in practice interventions related to this risk factor may have only limited effect due to a rel......Before making risk management decisions to control Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, it is useful to identify effective interventions. A given risk factor may seem to have a large effect, but in practice interventions related to this risk factor may have only limited effect due...... individual interventions gave only a limited reduction in prevalence if the biosecurity was not accounted for. Furthermore, the effect of the interventions differed between countries, depending on current farm management practices and Campylobacter prevalence. The most effective interventions were “building...

  18. Clinical Manifestations of Campylobacter concisus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. METHODS:: A study was performed during a two-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient...... with Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection. RESULTS:: Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two diarrheic stool samples from 1,867 children were cultured for pathogenic enteric bacteria during the study period, and 85 and 109 children with C. concisus and C. jejuni/coli, respectively, were identified. Comparison...... for more than two weeks and two-thirds of all children with C. concisus reported loose stools after six month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:: Campylobacter concisus infection in children seems to have a milder course of acute gastroenteritis compared with C. jejuni/coli infection, but is associated with more...

  19. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  20. Intestinal carriage of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among cattle from South-western Norway and comparative genotyping of bovine and human isolates by amplified-fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardund T

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a survey conducted in 1999–2001, the carriage of thermotolerant Campylobacters in cattle was investigated, and the genetic diversity of C. jejuni within one herd was examined and compared with human isolates. C. jejuni, C. coli and other thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from intestinal contents from 26%, 3% and 2% of 804 cattle, respectively. The carriage rate was higher in calves (46% than in adults (29%. Twenty-nine C. jejuni isolates from one herd and 31 human isolates from the study area were genotyped with amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. Eighty-three % of the bovine isolates fell into three distinct clusters with 95–100% similarity, persistent in the herd for 5–10 months. Among human isolates, 58% showed >90% similarity with bovine isolates. The results show that cattle are a significant and stable reservoir for C. jejuni in the study area. Transmission between individuals within the herd may be sufficient to maintain a steady C. jejuni population independent of environmental influx. The results of this study have provided new information on C. jejuni and C. coli transmission, and also on the carriage in cattle, genotypes stability and similarity between bovine and human isolates.

  1. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Sandberg, M; Themudo, G E;

    2012-01-01

    Data from the Quality Assurance System in Danish Broiler Production (KIK system) were analyzed to identify within farm biosecurity- and management-related risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler flocks. In the study, data from 2,835 flocks originating from 187 farms in the time...... period of December 2009 to November 2010 were included. The PCR test results of fecal samples collected on socks revealed that 14% of the Danish broiler flocks were positive to Campylobacter during the study period. Of the positive flocks, 55% were positive during summer time and the positive flocks...

  2. Survival and Virulence of Campylobacter spp. in the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan

    of Campylobacter. In the second part of my PhD project, I have investigated the mechanisms involved in the interactions of Campylobacter and two protozoa: Acanthamoeba castellanii and Cercomonas sp. which are commonly found in soil and water. I have found that C. jejuni can survive intracellularly within A....... Interestingly, I identified the depletion of dissolved oxygen by A. castellanii as the major contributor for the observed amoeba-mediated growth enhancement. To test whether another protozoan rather than Acanthamoeba has similar impacts on survival of C. jejuni as well as other food-borne pathogens S...

  3. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  4. Enterite da Campylobacter upsaliensis: un paradigma della microbiologia clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia D’Annibale

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Authors describe a case of acute enteritis in a adult woman with severe hepatitis C infection caused by a strain of Campylobacter upsaliensis.The clinical isolate was obtained only on blood agar because filter membrane technique was performed. In fact for this strain it was no growth on selective Campy agar, which include cephalotin too; C. upsaliensis is sensitive to this antibiotic molecule. So, the use of filter membrane on blood agar or charcoal agar at 37°C in microaerophilic atmosphere is recommended for isolation of all campylobacters responsible of human enteritis.

  5. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli genotypes in poultry flocks by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Ana Cláudia; Cunha, Mónica V

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple, rapid, and discriminatory methodology that allows the routine molecular characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates. The proposed approach is built on one of the earliest and simplest molecular typing methods ever, consisting on the analysis of the fragments of different lengths generated by digestion of homologous DNA sequences with specific restriction endonucleases, a process known as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The strategy underneath the workflow reported here is meant to explore the polymorphisms of Campylobacter spp. flaA gene (flaA-RFLP) that allows the local investigation of the genetic diversity and distribution of C. coli and C. jejuni isolates from different sources, namely, chickens' caeca. Although not appropriate for global and long-term epidemiological studies as a single approach, flaA-RFLP analysis can be very useful in surveys limited in space and time and, for specific epidemiological settings, an alternative to more modern and resource-demanding techniques.

  6. Nutrient Acquisition and Metabolism by Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eStahl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is able to colonize numerous different hosts and compete against the gut microbiota. To do this, it must be able to efficiently acquire sufficient nutrients from its environment to support its survival and rapid growth in the intestine. However, despite almost 50 years of research, many aspects as to how C. jejuni accomplishes this feat remain poorly understood. C. jejuni lacks many of the common metabolic pathways necessary for the use of glucose, galactose, or other carbohydrates upon which most other microbes thrive. It does however make efficient use of citric acid cycle intermediates and various amino acids. C. jejuni readily uses the amino acids aspartate, glutamate, serine, and proline, with certain strains also possessing additional pathways allowing for the use of glutamine and asparagine. More recent work has revealed that some C. jejuni strains can metabolize the sugar L-fucose. This finding has upset years of dogma that C. jejuni is an asaccharolytic organism. C. jejuni also possesses diverse mechanisms for the acquisition of various transition metals that are required for metabolic activities. In particular, iron acquisition is critical for the formation of iron-sulphur complexes. C. jejuni is also unique in possessing both molybdate and tungsten cofactored proteins and thus has an unusual regulatory scheme for these metals. Together these various metabolic and acquisition pathways help C. jejuni to compete and thrive in wide variety of hosts and environments.

  7. Defense and adaptation: The complex inter-relationship between Campylobacter jejuni and mucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abofu eAlemka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucus colonization is the first step towards the establishment of infection and disease by mucosal pathogens. There is an emerging literature implicating specific mucin subtypes and mucin modifications in protecting the host from Campylobacter jejuni infection. However, mucosal pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to breach the mucus layer and C. jejuni in particular appears to harbor specific adaptations to better colonize intestinal mucus. For example, components of mucus are chemotactic for C. jejuni and the rheological properties of mucus promote motility of the organism. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrate that mucins modulate the pathogenicity of C. jejuni in a species-specific manner and likely help determine whether these bacteria become pathogenic (as in humans, or adopt a commensal mode of existence (as in chickens and other animals. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the complex interplay between C. jejuni and components of the mucus layer.

  8. On Public Opinion Transmission and Guidance of Campus Emergency via New Media%新媒体环境下高校突发事件的舆情传播与舆论引导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阿娜

    2012-01-01

    New media represented by network, mobile phones, micro blog and etc, are changing the way of information transmission and playing a more and more important role in the public sentiment trarismission of emergency. The transmission of campus emergency via network is featured by subject diversity, high transmitting efficiency and destructive effect, to which great "importance should be attached by college ideological and political educators. College and universities should build a sound system of emergency alarm, information release, public opinion, credibility and guidance and reinforce the control of network so as to release authoritative information via official organization and gain the initiative of public sentiment transmission and guidance after the outbreak of campus emergency.%以网络、手机和微博等为代表的新媒体,悄然改变着信息传播的方式,在突发事件的舆情传播中扮演着越来越重要的角色。新媒体环境下高校突发事件的网络传播具有传播主体多样、速度快捷、后果具破坏性等特征。对此,高校思想政治教育工作者应予以高度重视。高校应建立健全突发事件预警机制、信息发布机制、舆论引导机制、公信力机制、教育机制,在突发事件发生后应通过官方机构及时发布权威信息,从而掌握校园突发事件网络舆情传播和引导的主动权.增强网络舆情传播的可控性。

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  10. Simian foamy virus in non-human primates and cross-species transmission to humans in Gabon: an emerging zoonotic disease in central Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2013-06-19

    It is now known that all human retroviruses have a non-human primate counterpart. It has been reported that the presence of these retroviruses in humans is the result of interspecies transmission. Several authors have described the passage of a simian retrovirus, simian foamy virus (SFV), from primates to humans. To better understand this retroviral "zoonosis" in natural settings, we evaluated the presence of SFV in both captive and wild non-human primates and in humans at high risk, such as hunters and people bitten by a non-human primate, in Gabon, central Africa. A high prevalence of SFV was found in blood samples from non-human primates and in bush meat collected across the country. Mandrills were found to be highly infected with two distinct strains of SFV, depending on their geographical location. Furthermore, samples collected from hunters and non-human primate laboratory workers showed clear, extensive cross-species transmission of SFV. People who had been bitten by mandrills, gorillas and chimpanzees had persistent SFV infection with low genetic drift. Thus, SFV is presumed to be transmitted from non-human primates mainly through severe bites, involving contact between infected saliva and blood. In this review, we summarize and discuss our five-year observations on the prevalence and dissemination of SFV in humans and non-human primates in Gabon.

  11. Migratory movements of waterfowl in Central Asia and avian influenza emergence: sporadic transmission of H5N1 from east to west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A.; Gavrilov, Andrei; Katzner, Todd E.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miller, Tricia A.; Hagemeijer, Ward; Mundkur, Taej; Sivananinthaperumal, Balachandran; DeMattos, Carlos C.; Ahmed, Lu'ay S.; Newman, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl in the genera Anas and Tadorna are suspected as vectors in the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. The former Soviet Republics of Central Asia are situated at an important migratory crossroads for these and other species of birds that bridges regions where the disease is prevalent. However, waterfowl movements through Central Asia are poorly quantified. In this study, historical data derived from over 80 years of bird ringing are combined with recent satellite tracking data to delineate migration routes, movement chronology and habitat use patterns of waterfowl in relation to H5N1 outbreak locations. Results confirm migratory linkage between breeding and moulting areas in northern Kazakhstan and southern Siberia, with nonbreeding areas in the Caspian, Black and eastern Mediterranean Sea basins, as well as with South Asia. However, unlike the situation in neighbouring regions, most notably western China, H5N1 outbreaks have not been recurrent in Central Asia after they were first reported during summer 2005 and spring 2006. These findings have implications in relation to potential sampling biases, species-specific variation in migratory behaviour and continuing regional H5N1 transmission risks.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni 11168H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Sarah E.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Dorrell, Nick; Wren, Brendan W.; Blake, Damer

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world. The reference and original sequenced strain C. jejuni NCTC11168 has low levels of motility compared to clinical isolates. Here, we describe the draft genome of the laboratory derived hypermotile variant named 11168H. PMID:28153902

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to consumption of contamina

  14. First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Stenram, U.; Andersen, L.P.;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C. concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize...

  15. Specific pathogen-free pig herds also free from Campylobacter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstoe, E M; Iversen, T; Østensvik, Ø; Abdelghani, A; Secic, I; Nesbakken, T

    2015-03-01

    As Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) pig herds are designed and managed to prevent specific pig diseases, it might be feasible to expand the list of micro-organisms also including zoonotic pathogens such as Campylobacter coli as this agent has its origin in pigs. In a previous survey, 15 of 16 of SPF herds were found free from human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Accordingly, three nucleus and seven multiplying herds were surveyed for Campylobacter to investigate whether the Norwegian SPF pig pyramid also might be free from this agent. In conclusion, the intervention of Campylobacter at the herd level might be possible as four of 10 SPF herds tested negative in two sets of samples from both autumn 2008 and summer/early autumn 2010. The four negative herds were all located in remote areas several kilometres away from conventional pig farming while the positive SPF farms were all situated in neighbourhoods with conventional pig production. It seems more difficult to control Campylobacter than some specific animal disease agents and another significant zoonotic agent, Y. enterocolitica, in pig herds.

  16. Maatschappelijke acceptatie van maatregelen tegen Campylobacter in kippenvlees in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, M.J.; Sengers, H.H.W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt ingegaan op de acceptatie bij vleeskuikenhouders, pluimveeslachterijen en consumenten van elf mogelijk te nemen maatregelen waarmee de besmetting van kippenvlees met Campylobacter kan worden verminderd in Nederland. Uit het enquêteonderzoek blijkt dat bij vleeskuikenhouders en p

  17. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to compare typing methods, individually and combined, to use in the routine surveillance of Campylobacter in broiler carcasses. C. jejuni (n=94) and C. coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler carcasses were characterized using different typing methods: multilocus sequen...

  18. Host adaptation mechanisms and transcriptional regulation in Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, A.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness causing >100 million human cases each year worldwide. In contrast to other important enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni appears to lack a set of classical virulence traits, like adhesins, type I

  19. Colonization of broilers by Campylobacter jejuni internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the first report that Campylobacter jejuni, internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii, colonized broilers. After 1, 3, 7 and 14 days post challenge none of the broilers challenged with negative controls were colonized, but were with internalized C. jejuni. The biology of protozoa-Cam...

  20. Arsenic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Amy R; Price, Lance B; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2006-04-01

    Organoarsenicals are commonly used for growth promotion in U.S. poultry production. Susceptibilities to arsenite, arsenate, and the organoarsenical roxarsone were measured in 251 Campylobacter isolates from conventional and antimicrobial-free retail poultry products. Isolates from conventional poultry products had significantly higher roxarsone MICs (z = 8.22; P < 0.0001).

  1. Phage therapy reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Mueller, M.A.; Wassenaar, T.M.; Carlton, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phage therapy in the control of Campylobacter jejuni colonization in young broilers, either as a preventive or a therapeutic measure, was tested. A prevention group was infected with C. jejuni at day 4 of a 10-day phage treatment. A therapeutic group was phage treated for 6 days, start

  2. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    , an isolation strategy was developed employing initial non-selective membrane filtration onto fastidious anaerobe agar. Campylobacters were then isolated from the resulting mixed microbial flora by a dilution strategy and/or by immunomagnetic separation with genus-specific polyclonal antibody. Isolates were...

  3. Identification of possible virulence marker from Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, James W; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Siddiqui, Fariha; Korbrisate, Sunee; Bukhari, Habib; Tra, My Phan Vu; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Bryant, Juliet; Campbell, James I; Studholme, David J; Wren, Brendan W; Baker, Stephen; Titball, Richard W; Champion, Olivia L

    2014-06-01

    A novel protein translocation system, the type-6 secretion system (T6SS), may play a role in virulence of Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated 181 C. jejuni isolates from humans, chickens, and environmental sources in Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom for T6SS. The marker was most prevalent in human and chicken isolates from Vietnam.

  4. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...

  5. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in different gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Knochel, Susanne; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni in fresh chilled chicken meat is known to be a major risk factor for human gastrointestinal disease. In the present study, the survival under chilled conditions of different C. jejuni strains exposed to different gas mixtures usually used for gas packaging of food was examined...

  6. Reactions of Chicken Sera to Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative rod bacterium and is the leading but under-reported bacterial food-borne pathogen that causes human campylobacteriosis worldwide. Raw or undercooked poultry products are regarded as a major source for human infection. C. jejuni flagella have been implicated ...

  7. Clonal distribution and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolates in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feodoroff, Benjamin; de Haan, Caroline P A; Ellström, Patrik; Sarna, Seppo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2013-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni bacteria are highly diverse enteropathogens. Seventy-three C. jejuni isolates from blood collected in Finland were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and serum resistance. Approximately half of the isolates belonged to the otherwise uncommon sequence type 677 clonal complex. Isolates of this clonal complex were more resistant than other isolates to human serum.

  8. Milk modulates campylobacter invasion into caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Neerven, van R.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campyl

  9. Campylobacter Prevalence in the Broiler Supply Chain in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Brakel, van R.P.; Voet, van der H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2008-01-01

    After a national control program, data on Campylobacter prevalence in the broiler supply chain in the Netherlands were gathered for 3 sampling points: departure of broiler farm and arrival and departure of the slaughterhouse. Monitoring data from this control program for 2002 to 2005 were analyzed t

  10. Genomic Rearrangements Associated with Antigenic Variation in Campylobacter coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    AU’rHORS) P. Guerrv, S.M. Logan, and T.J. Trust. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Journal article ...level. Olsen, N. R. Pace, and D. A. Stahl. 1987. Campylohacterpylori. the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis , is not a true Campylobacter

  11. Development and stability of bacteriocin resistance 1 in Campylobacter spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Several bacteriocins (BCNs) identified from chicken commensal bacteria dramatically reduced Campylobacter colonization in poultry and aredirected toward on farm control of this important food-borne human pathogen. BCN resistance in C. jejuni is very difficult to develop in vitro. In this study...

  12. Prevalence, development, and molecular mechanisms of bacteriocin resistance in Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriocins (BCNs) are antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with narrow or broad spectra of antimicrobial activity. Recently, several unique anti-Campylobacter BCNs have been identified from commensal LAB isolated from chicken intestines. These BCNs dramatically reduced C. ...

  13. Case of acute pancreatitis associated with Campylobacter enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Rumiko; Matsumoto, Satohiro; Yoshida, Yukio

    2014-06-21

    A 25-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaints of right flank pain, watery diarrhea, and fever. Blood tests revealed high levels of inflammatory markers, and infectious enteritis was diagnosed. A stool culture obtained on admission revealed no growth of any significant pathogens. Conservative therapy was undertaken with fasting and fluid replacement. On day 2 of admission, the fever resolved, the frequency of defecation reduced, the right flank pain began to subside, and the white blood cell count started to decrease. On hospital day 4, the frequency of diarrhea decreased to approximately 5 times per day, and the right flank pain resolved. However, the patient developed epigastric pain and increased blood levels of the pancreatic enzymes. Abdominal computed tomography revealed mild pancreatic enlargement. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed, and conservative therapy with fasting and fluid replacement was continued. A day later, the blood levels of the pancreatic enzymes peaked out. On hospital day 7, the patient passed stools with fresh blood, and Campylobacter jejuni/coli was detected by culture. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy performed on hospital day 8 revealed diffuse aphthae extending from the terminal ileum to the entire colon. Based on the findings, pancreatitis associated with Campylobacter enteritis was diagnosed. In the present case, a possible mechanism of onset of pancreatitis was invasion of the pancreatic duct by Campylobacter and the host immune responses to Campylobacter.

  14. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Hald, Anna Bodil;

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish...

  15. Salmonella og Campylobacter i økologisk svineproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2005-01-01

    De mere ekstensive systemer i økologisk svineproduktion formodes at have en positiv effekt på dyrenes robusthed f.eks. over for infektioner. Der er dog ingen dokumentation for, at økologiske svin har et lavere indhold af de almindelige zoonotiske bakterier som f.eks. Salmonella og Campylobacter end...

  16. PCR detection of seven virulence and toxin genes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from Danish pigs and cattle and cytolethal distending toxin production of the isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Nielsen, E.M.; Scheutz, F.

    2003-01-01

    demonstrated that these putative pathogenic determinants are widespread among Campylobacter isolates from pigs and cattle. Campylobacter coli isolates from pigs produced much higher CDT titres compared with C. coli isolates from other sources suggesting that C. coli may be particularly adapted to or associated...

  17. Cell wall anchoring of the Campylobacter antigens to Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Kobierecka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type Campylobacter jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analysed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered

  18. Sewage effluent as a source of Campylobacter sp. in a surface water catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Campylobacter sp. can regularly be found in wastewater-affected surface waters. The occurrence of Campylobacter sp. in rivers, treated sewage and combined sewer overflows was analysed in a catchment with sparse annual precipitation. During regular treatment the reduction efficacy for Campylobacter sp. varies between 1.75 and 3.5 log(10). However, Campylobacter sp. concentrations do not increase downstream in the river as more sewage treatment plants discharge into it. During rain events, the Campylobacter sp. concentration in the river upstream of any sewage plant rises and in the sewer overflow water it is more than 150-fold higher than the average concentration in the river water at the river mouth. The highest Campylobacter sp. loads and the highest risk of infection occur during summertime after heavy rainfall. Risk management strategies should focus on problems regarding water scarcity, reuse of sewage effluent and the impact of heavy rain events.

  19. Molecular diagnosis of Arcobacter and Campylobacter in diarrhoeal samples among Portuguese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Júlio, Cláudia; Queiroz, João A; Domingues, Fernanda C; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter and Campylobacter spp. in 298 stool samples of patients with diarrhoea, collected from 22 Portuguese hospitals, between September and November 2012. Detection of Arcobacter and Campylobacter spp. was performed using molecular-based detection techniques, such as real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR, species-specific PCR, and sequencing of amplified PCR products. Overall, 1.3% of the samples were positive for Arcobacter butzleri and 0.3% for Arcobacter cryaerophilus. Campylobacter spp. were found in 31.9% of diarrhoeic faeces. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter concisus were the most prevalent species (13.7% and 8.0%, respectively). The prevalence of Arcobacter and Campylobacter spp. was significantly different between children and adults (39.7% versus 22.8%, P = 0.003). We underline the high prevalence of these pathogens in diarrhoeal samples among Portuguese patients, with particular relevance in the paediatric age group.

  20. Experimental infection of weaned piglets with Campylobacter coli--excretion and translocation in a pig colonisation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratz, Katharina; Bücker, Roland; Gölz, Greta; Zakrzewski, Silke S; Janczyk, Pawel; Nöckler, Karsten; Alter, Thomas

    2013-02-22

    Campylobacter (C.) is one of the most common food-borne pathogen causing bacterial enteric infections in humans. Consumption of meat and meat products that have been contaminated with Campylobacter are the major source of infection. Pigs are a natural reservoir of Campylobacter spp. with C. coli as the dominant species. Even though some studies focussed on transmission of C. coli in pig herds and the excretion in faeces, little is known about the colonisation and excretion dynamics of C. coli in a complex gut microbiota present in weaned piglets and the translocation to different tissues. Therefore, an experimental trial was conducted to evaluate the colonisation and translocation ability of the porcine strain C. coli 5981 in weaned pigs. Thus, ten 35 days old piglets were intragastrically inoculated with strain C. coli 5981 (7 × 10(7)CFU/animal) encoding resistances against erythromycin and neomycin. Faecal samples were taken and C. coli levels were enumerated over 28 days. All piglets were naturally colonised with C. coli before experimental inoculation, and excretion levels ranged from 10(4) to 10(7)CFU/g faeces. However, no strain showed resistances against the additional antimicrobials used. Excretion of C. coli 5981 was seen for all piglets seven days after inoculation and highest counts were detectable ten days after inoculation with 10(6)CFU/g faeces. Post-mortem, translocation and subsequent invasion of luminal C. coli was observed for gut tissues of the small intestine and for the gut associated lymphatic tissues, such as jejunal mesenteric lymph nodes and tonsils as well as for spleen and gall bladder. In conclusion, this pig colonisation trial offers the opportunity to study C. coli colonisation in weaned piglets using the porcine strain C. coli 5981 without the need for gnotobiotic or specific pathogen-free animals.

  1. Description and sources of contamination by Campylobacter spp. of river water destined for human consumption in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; M Tanguy; Chidaine, B; Laisney, M-J; Mégraud, F; Fravalo, P

    2011-10-01

    Presence or absence of Campylobacter spp. in water of five rivers upstream from an intake point for drinking water production was investigated, and isolates genetically compared with human, pig and poultry isolates in order to determine their source. River water and drinking water obtained from these rivers were sampled one time per month, over a period of one year, and tested for Campylobacter. Isolates were typed by PFGE. Campylobacter was not detected in treated drinking water, but 50% of the river samples were contaminated. Contamination was observed on the four seasons. In total, 297 Campylobacter isolates were collected and generated 46 PFGE profiles. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently detected species in samples (74.1% of the isolates), followed by Campylobacter coli (17.8%) and Campylobacter lari (8.1%). Forty-two of the 46 PFGE profiles were unique. Only one genotype was detected three times in a river during the year and four genotypes in two different rivers. When compared to animal and human Campylobacter PFGE profiles, 14, 11 and one Campylobacter genotypes from water were genetically closed to human, poultry, and pig Campylobacter genotypes, respectively. The Campylobacter population displayed a high level of genetic diversity, suggesting that contamination originated from various origins. Human, poultry and pig were sources of contamination of the river by Campylobacter. Finally, no Campylobacter were detected in drinking water, indicating that the risk of outbreaks due to consumption of drinking water is low.

  2. Bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad A; Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Arutyunov, Denis; Evoy, Stephane; Szymanski, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. Most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. Bacteriophages bind to their host specifically through their receptor binding proteins (RBPs), which can be exploited for pathogen detection. We recently sequenced the genome of C. jejuni phage NCTC12673 and identified its putative host receptor binding protein, Gp047. In the current study, we localized the receptor binding domain to the C-terminal quarter of Gp047. CC-Gp047 could be produced recombinantly and was capable of agglutinating both C. jejuni and C. coli cells unlike the host range of the parent phage which is limited to a subset of C. jejuni isolates. The agglutination procedure could be performed within minutes on a glass slide at room temperature and was not hindered by the presence of buffers or nutrient media. This agglutination assay showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity was 95% for C. jejuni (n = 40) and 90% for C. coli (n = 19). CC-Gp047 was also expressed as a fusion with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Chimeric EGFP_CC-Gp047 was able to specifically label C. jejuni and C. coli cells in mixed cultures allowing for the detection of these pathogens by fluorescent microscopy. This study describes a simple and rapid method for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli using engineered phage RBPs and offers a promising new diagnostics platform for healthcare and surveillance laboratories.

  3. Bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Javed

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. Most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. Bacteriophages bind to their host specifically through their receptor binding proteins (RBPs, which can be exploited for pathogen detection. We recently sequenced the genome of C. jejuni phage NCTC12673 and identified its putative host receptor binding protein, Gp047. In the current study, we localized the receptor binding domain to the C-terminal quarter of Gp047. CC-Gp047 could be produced recombinantly and was capable of agglutinating both C. jejuni and C. coli cells unlike the host range of the parent phage which is limited to a subset of C. jejuni isolates. The agglutination procedure could be performed within minutes on a glass slide at room temperature and was not hindered by the presence of buffers or nutrient media. This agglutination assay showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity was 95% for C. jejuni (n = 40 and 90% for C. coli (n = 19. CC-Gp047 was also expressed as a fusion with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. Chimeric EGFP_CC-Gp047 was able to specifically label C. jejuni and C. coli cells in mixed cultures allowing for the detection of these pathogens by fluorescent microscopy. This study describes a simple and rapid method for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli using engineered phage RBPs and offers a promising new diagnostics platform for healthcare and surveillance laboratories.

  4. Comparative population structure analysis of Campylobacter jejuni from human and poultry origin in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Z; van Belkum, A; Wagenaar, J A; Cody, A J; de Boer, A G; Sarker, S K; Jacobs, B C; Talukder, K A; Endtz, H P

    2014-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of antecedent infections leading to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The objective of the present study was to define the genetic diversity, population structure, and potential role of poultry in the transmission of Campylobacter to humans in Bangladesh. We determined the population structure of C. jejuni isolated from poultry (n = 66) and patients with enteritis (n = 39) or GBS (n = 10). Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) typing showed that 50/66 (76 %) C. jejuni strains isolated from poultry could be assigned to one of five LOS locus classes (A-E). The distribution of neuropathy-associated LOS locus classes A, B, and C were 30/50 (60 %) among the typable strains isolated from poultry. The LOS locus classes A, B, and C were significantly associated with GBS and enteritis-related C. jejuni strains more than for the poultry strains [(31/38 (82 %) vs. 30/50 (60 %), p < 0.05]. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) defined 15 sequence types (STs) and six clonal complexes (CCs) among poultry isolates, including one ST-3740 not previously documented. The most commonly identified type, ST-5 (13/66), in chicken was seen only once among human isolates (1/49) (p < 0.001). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) revealed three major clusters (A, B, and C) among C. jejuni isolated from humans and poultry. There seems to be a lack of overlap between the major human and chicken clones, which suggests that there may be additional sources for campylobacteriosis other than poultry in Bangladesh.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infection in Israel-a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, M; Moran-Gilad, J; Rokney, A; Davidov, Y; Agmon, V; Peretz, C; Valinsky, L

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of Campylobacter infection in Israel, particularly among children Campylobacter jejuni in Israel over a decade (2003-2012) using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) combined with demographic metadata. Representative clinical isolates (438) from a large national repository together with selected veterinary isolates (74) were subject to MLST. The distribution of age groups, ethnicity and clinical source across various genotypes was evaluated using Poisson modelling. The 512 studied isolates were assigned 126 distinct sequence types (STs) (18.8% novel STs) grouped into 21 clonal complexes (CCs). Most human, poultry and bovine STs clustered together in the leading CCs. Three dominant STs (ST21, ST6608, ST4766) were detected only since 2006. Patients infected with the leading CCs were similarly distributed along densely populated areas. The frequency of blood isolates was higher in patients infected with CC353 (relative rate (RR)=2.0, 95% CI 1.03-3.9, adjusted p value (adj.p) 0.047) and CC42 (RR=4.4, 95% CI 1.7-11.6, adj.p 0.018) and lower with CC257 (RR=0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9, adj. p 0.047). The distribution of age groups and ethnicity also varied across the leading CCs. In conclusion, C. jejuni isolates in a national sample appeared highly diverse with a high proportion of new STs. Phylogenic analysis was compatible with poultry and cattle as possible food sources of clinical infection. Demographic characteristics of the infected patients coupled with strain invasiveness across different genotypes revealed a complex epidemiology of C. jejuni transmission in Israel.

  6. Multilocus sequence types of Finnish bovine Campylobacter jejuni isolates and their attribution to human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corander Jukka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to the sporadic nature of infection, sources often remain unknown. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has been successfully applied to population genetics of Campylobacter jejuni and mathematical modelling can be applied to the sequence data. Here, we analysed the population structure of a total of 250 Finnish C. jejuni isolates from bovines, poultry meat and humans collected in 2003 using a combination of Bayesian clustering (BAPS software and phylogenetic analysis. Results In the first phase we analysed sequence types (STs of 102 Finnish bovine C. jejuni isolates by MLST and found a high diversity totalling 50 STs of which nearly half were novel. In the second phase we included MLST data from domestic human isolates as well as poultry C. jejuni isolates from the same time period. Between the human and bovine isolates we found an overlap of 72.2%, while 69% of the human isolates were overlapping with the chicken isolates. In the BAPS analysis 44.3% of the human isolates were found in bovine-associated BAPS clusters and 45.4% of the human isolates were found in the poultry-associated BAPS cluster. BAPS reflected the phylogeny of our data very well. Conclusions These findings suggest that bovines and poultry were equally important as reservoirs for human C. jejuni infections in Finland in 2003. Our results differ from those obtained in other countries where poultry has been identified as the most important source for human infections. The low prevalence of C. jejuni in poultry flocks in Finland could explain the lower attribution of human infection to poultry. Of the human isolates 10.3% were found in clusters not associated with any host which warrants further investigation, with particular focus on waterborne transmission routes and companion animals.

  7. Complete genome sequences of Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis strain LMG9260 and Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strain LMG15993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis is isolated primarily from ruminants and swine, but is also occasionally isolated from humans. C. hyointestinalis is currently divided into two subspecies: subsps. hyointestinalis and lawsonii. This study describes the first closed whole-genome sequences of the subsp. h...

  8. 23S rRNA gene mutations contributing to macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operon specific 23S rRNA mutations affecting minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of macrolides (erythromycin [ERY], azithromycin [AZM], tylosin [TYL]) and a lincosamide (clindamycin [CLI]) were examined in a collection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates. The three copies of the Campy...

  9. Affinity Probe Capillary Electrophoresis Evaluation of Aptamer Binding to Campylobacter jejuni Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Affinity Probe Capillary Electrophoresis Evaluation of Aptamer Binding to Campylobacter jejuni Bacteria by Dimitra N. Stratis-Cullum, Sun...Aptamer Binding to Campylobacter jejuni Bacteria Dimitra N. Stratis-Cullum, Sun McMasters, and Paul M. Pellegrino Sensors and Electron Devices...To) 2007–2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Affinity Probe Capillary Electrophoresis Evaluation of Aptamer Binding to Campylobacter jejuni Bacteria 5a

  10. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänninen Marja-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456 were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143 were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of

  11. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki; Isohanni, Pauliina; Katzav, Marianne; Lund, Marianne; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143) were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of Campylobacter in the

  12. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Thermophilic Campylobacter Species in Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Murat; İSTANBULLUOĞLU, Ersin; AYVALI, Burcu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in broiler chicken faecal samples and on their carcasses. The possible routes of carcass contamination were assessed from slaughterhouse to market. Furthermore, the study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates from broilers. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 393 (91.8%) of 428 samples examined. A total of 53 out of 57 rectal swab samples wa...

  13. Serologic Evidence of Previous Campylobacter jejuni Infection in Patients with the Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-15

    Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Acccsiccn For rNTIS CRA&I... Campylobacter jejuni may tigation of 106 patients with the Guillain-Barre syn- play a role in the initiation of the Guillain-Barr6 syn- drome, C. jejuni...C. jejuni infection also lain-Barr6 syndrome were 5.3 times more likely to have Table 2. Campylobacter jejuni Antibodies in Patients with Culture

  14. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in ground water in Sokoto, Sokoto state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Agatha N. Ugboma; Muhammed D. Salihu; Abdullahi A. Magaji; Abubakar, Mikail B.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the presence and prevalence of Campylobacter species in ground water in Sokoto, Sokoto State. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of Campylobacter species was determined by collecting a total of 74 water samples from wells in Sokoto over a period of four months from May to August 2011 and analyzed using cultural isolation techniques and biochemical characterization. Results: Totally 39 (52.70%) water samples were Campylobacter positive. The ...

  15. A Review of the Current Status of Relevant Zoonotic Pathogens in Wild Swine (Sus scrofa) Populations: Changes Modulating the Risk of Transmission to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fons, F

    2017-02-01

    Many wild swine populations in different parts of the World have experienced an unprecedented demographic explosion that may result in increased exposure of humans to wild swine zoonotic pathogens. Interactions between humans and wild swine leading to pathogen transmission could come from different ways, being hunters and game professionals the most exposed to acquiring infections from wild swine. However, increasing human settlements in semi-natural areas, outdoor activities, socio-economic changes and food habits may increase the rate of exposure to wild swine zoonotic pathogens and to potentially emerging pathogens from wild swine. Frequent and increasing contact rate between humans and wild swine points to an increasing chance of zoonotic pathogens arising from wild swine to be transmitted to humans. Whether this frequent contact could lead to new zoonotic pathogens emerging from wild swine to cause human epidemics or emerging disease outbreaks is difficult to predict, and assessment should be based on thorough epidemiologic surveillance. Additionally, several gaps in knowledge on wild swine global population dynamics trends and wild swine-zoonotic pathogen interactions should be addressed to correctly assess the potential role of wild swine in the emergence of diseases in humans. In this work, viruses such as hepatitis E virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Influenza virus and Nipah virus, and bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. and Leptospira spp. have been identified as the most prone to be transmitted from wild swine to humans on the basis of geographic spread in wild swine populations worldwide, pathogen circulation rates in wild swine populations, wild swine population trends in endemic areas, susceptibility of humans to infection, transmissibility from wild swine to humans and existing evidence of wild swine-human transmission events.

  16. Associations between Campylobacter levels on chicken skin, underlying muscle, caecum and packaged fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, I; Nyman, A; Lahti, E; Gustafsson, P; Olsson Engvall, E

    2015-06-01

    A study was performed with the aim to investigate associations between Campylobacter in chicken caecum, carcass skin, underlying breast muscle and packaged breast fillets. Samples were taken from 285 chickens from 57 flocks and analysed according to ISO 10272. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from caecal samples from 41 flocks. From birds of the same 41 flocks Campylobacter could be detected and quantified in 194 (68%) skin samples. Moreover, Campylobacter spp. were enumerated in 13 (5%) underlying muscle samples originating from 9 of the 41 flocks. The mean number of Campylobacter spp. in the 194 skin samples which could be counted was 2.3 log cfu/g and for the 13 underlying muscle samples 1.3 log cfu/g. Campylobacter could only be quantified in those breast muscle samples with a finding in corresponding skin sample. Five packaged chicken fillets were taken from each 25 of the 57 flocks and analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In qualitative analysis Campylobacter was detected in 79 (63%) fillets from 16 flocks and quantified in 24 (19%) samples from 11 flocks. The results showed a significant association (P Campylobacter on carcass skin (log cfu/g) and the proportion of Campylobacter positive breast muscle samples.

  17. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    culture techniques since 1998. However, using conventional culture methods is time consuming and laborious, and therefore a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Campylobacter detection assay suitable for mass screening of cloacal swab samples from broilers was developed. By comparing the PCR detection...... with conventional culture methods, significantly more samples were found positive for Campylobacter with the PCR method. The PCR method is rapid, sensitive and suitable for mass screening for Campylobacter in poultry. Using this PCR method Campylobacter can be detected within 15 h. Notably, the method can...

  18. Campylobacter MLST Subtypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Broiler Cecal Isolates: A Two Year Study from 142 Commercial Flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are recognized as important agents of human foodborne gastroenteritis. To monitor trends in food safety and public health, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter derived from poultry products and infected patients has become common practice in both r...

  19. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated wi

  20. Emergence and transmission pathways of rapidly evolving evolutionary branch C4a strains of human enterovirus 71 in the Central Plain of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD occurred repeatedly in the Central Plain of China (Shandong, Anhui, and Henan provinces from 2007 until now. These epidemics have increased in size and severity each year and are a major public health concern in mainland China. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo tree was constructed based on the complete VP1 sequences of HEV71 isolates. These analyses showed that the HFMD epidemic in the Central Plain of China was caused by at least 5 chains of HEV71 transmission and that the virus continued to circulate and evolve over the winter seasons between outbreaks. Between 1998 and 2010, there were 2 stages of HEV71 circulation in mainland China, with a shift from evolutionary branch C4b to C4a in 2003-2004. The evolution rate of C4a HEV71 was 4.99×10(-3 substitutions per site per year, faster than the mean of all HEV71 genotypes. The most recent common ancestor estimates for the Chinese clusters dated to October 1994 and November 1993 for the C4a and C4b evolutionary branches, respectively. Compared with all C4a HEV71 strains, a nucleotide substitution in all C4b HEV71 genome (A to C reversion at nt2503 in the VP1 coding region, which caused amino acid substitution of VP1-10: Gln to His had reverted. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that C4a HEV71 strains introduced into the Central Plain of China are responsible for the recent outbreaks. The relationships among HEV71 isolates determined from the combined sequence and epidemiological data reveal the underlying seasonal dynamics of HEV71 circulation. At least 5 HEV71 lineages circulated in the Central Plain of China from 2007 to 2009, and the Shandong and Anhui lineages were found to have passed through a genetic bottleneck during the low-transmission winter season.

  1. Risk analysis and emergency management of natural gas transmission station%天然气输气站场风险分析和应急管理探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩

    2015-01-01

    目前,天然气已被世界各国普遍使用,我国也逐步进入煤气向天然气转变的新阶段.对天然气需求量的增大,也让社会各界开始关注天然气输气站场的风险分析和应急管理状况,以确保天然气的安全高效的输气传送.%The natural gas has been widely used around the world,China also steps into a new era of natural gas from coal gas.The risk analysis and emergency management of gas transmission station,which can keep the gas transportation efficiently and safely,have drawn attention from all works of life thanks to the increasing demand of natural gas.

  2. A PCR-RFLP assay to detect and type cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes in Campylobacter hyointestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    HATANAKA, Noritoshi; KAMEI, Kazumasa; SOMROOP, Srinuan; AWASTHI, Sharda Prasad; ASAKURA, Masahiro; MISAWA, Naoaki; HINENOYA, Atsushi; YAMASAKI, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis is considered as an emerging zoonotic pathogen. We have recently identified two types of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene in C. hyointestinalis and designated them as Chcdt-I and Chcdt-II. In this study, we developed a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay that can differentiate Chcdt-I from Chcdt-II. When the PCR-RFLP assay was applied to 17 other Campylobacter strains and 25 non-Campylobacter strains, PCR products were not obtained irrespective of their cdt gene-possession, indicating that the specificity of the PCR-RFLP assay was 100%. In contrast, when the PCR-RFLP assay was applied to 35 C. hyointestinalis strains including 23 analyzed in the previous study and 12 newly isolated from pigs and bovines, all of them showed the presence of cdt genes. Furthermore, a restriction digest by EcoT14-I revealed that 29 strains contained both Chcdt-I and Chcdt-II and 6 strains contained only Chcdt-II, showing 100% sensitivity. Unexpectedly, however, PCR products obtained from 7 C. hyointestinalis strains were not completely digested by EcoT14-I. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the undigested PCR product was homologous to cdtB but not to Chcdt-IB or Chcdt-IIB, indicating the presence of another cdt gene-variant. Then, we further digested the PCR products with DdeI in addition to EcoT14-I, showing that all three cdt genes, including a possible new Chcdt variant, could be clearly differentiated. Thus, the PCR-RFLP assay developed in this study is a valuable tool for evaluating the Chcdt gene-profile of bacteria. PMID:27916784

  3. Hyperendemic Campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of Quito, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P.; Vasco, Karla; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the Andean region of South America, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples from domestic animals of 59 households in a semi-rural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Of the twelve animal species studied, guinea pigs showed the highest prevalence of C. jejuni (n = 39/40; 97.5%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic relationship of C. jejuni from domestic animals and 21 sequence types (STs) were identified. The majority of STs from guinea pigs appeared to form new clonal complexes that were not related to STs of C. jejuni isolated from other animal species and shared only a few alleles with other C. jejuni previously characterized. The study identifies guinea pigs as a major reservoir of C. jejuni and suggests that some C. jejuni strains are adapted to this animal species. PMID:27043446

  4. Hyperendemic Campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of Quito, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Vasco, Karla; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the Andean region of South America, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples from domestic animals of 59 households in a semi-rural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Of the twelve animal species studied, guinea pigs showed the highest prevalence of C. jejuni (n = 39/40; 97.5%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic relationship of C. jejuni from domestic animals and 21 sequence types (STs) were identified. The majority of STs from guinea pigs appeared to form new clonal complexes that were not related to STs of C. jejuni isolated from other animal species and shared only a few alleles with other C. jejuni previously characterized. The study identifies guinea pigs as a major reservoir of C. jejuni and suggests that some C. jejuni strains are adapted to this animal species.

  5. On the Path to SunShot - Emerging Issues and Challenges in Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Electrical Generation and Transmission System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the use of grid-flexibility options (improved grid management, demand response, and energy storage) could enable 25% or higher penetration of PV at low costs (see Denholm et al. 2016). Considering the large-scale integration of solar into electric-power systems complicates the calculation of the value of solar. In fact a comprehensive examination reveals that the value of solar technologies—or any other power-system technology or operating strategy—can only be understood in the context of the generation system as a whole. This is well illustrated by analysis of curtailment at high PV penetrations within the bulk power and transmission systems. As the deployment of PV increases, it is possible that during some sunny midday periods due to limited flexibility of conventional generators, system operators would need to reduce (curtail) PV output in order to maintain the crucial balance between electric supply and demand. As a result, PV’s value and cost competitiveness would degrade. For example, for utility-scale PV with a baseline SunShot LCOE of 6¢/kWh, increasing the annual energy demand met by solar energy from 10% to 20% would increase the marginal LCOE of PV from 6¢/kWh to almost 11¢/kWh in a California grid system with limited flexibility. However, this loss of value could be stemmed by increasing system flexibility via enhanced control of variable-generation resources, added energy storage, and the ability to motivate more electricity consumers to shift consumption to lower-demand periods. The combination of these measures would minimize solar curtailment and keep PV cost-competitive at penetrations at least as high as 25%. Efficient deployment of the grid-flexibility options needed to maintain solar’s value will require various innovations, from the development of communication, control, and energy storage technologies to the implementation of new market rules and operating procedures.

  6. On the Path to SunShot. Emerging Issues and Challenges in Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Electrical Generation and Transmission System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report examines how the bulk power system may need to evolve to accommodate the increased photovoltaic (PV) penetration resulting from achievement of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot cost targets. The variable and uncertain nature of PV-generated electricity presents grid-integration challenges. For example, the changing net load associated with high midday PV generation and low electricity demand can create 'overgeneration' that requires curtailment of PV output and reduces PV's value and cost-competitiveness. Accommodating the changes in net load resulting from increased variable generation requires enhancements to a power system's 'flexibility,' or ability to balance supply and demand over multiple time scales through options including changes in system operation, flexible generation, reserves from solar, demand response, energy storage, and enhanced transmission and regional coordination. For utility-scale PV with a baseline SunShot levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh, increasing the annual energy demand met by solar energy from 10% to 20% would increase the marginal LCOE of PV from 6 cents/kWh to almost 11 cents/kWh in a California grid system with limited flexibility. However, increasing system flexibility could minimize solar curtailment and keep PV cost-competitive at penetrations at least as high as 25%. In the longer term, energy storage technologies--such as concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage--could facilitate the cost-effective integration of even higher PV penetration. Efficient deployment of the grid-flexibility options needed to maintain solar's value will require various innovations, from the development of communication, control, and energy storage technologies to the implementation of new market rules and operating procedures.

  7. Campylobacter species isolated from extra-oro-intestinal abscesses : a report of four cases and literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J. J. C.; Arents, N. L. A.; Manson, W. L.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter species are frequently isolated from fecal specimens of patients with diarrheal illness. Several Campylobacter species are commonly isolated from the oral cavity. In contrast, Campylobacter species are rarely isolated from extra-oro-intestinal abscesses. Reported here are four cases of

  8. Chitosan supplementation reduces enteric colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens and down-regulates expression of colonization genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and poultry is considered as the most common source of human infections. Campylobacter is prevalent in most poultry flocks and a reduction of Campylobacter in poultry would greatly reduce the risk of campylo...

  9. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  10. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Amol D. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India); Shashidhar, Ravindranath [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.in [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kapadnis, Balu P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 {sup o}C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D{sub 10} values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: > Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. > Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. > No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. > First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  11. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter, and Sutterella spp. in human fecal samples as estimated by a reevaluation of isolation methods for Campylobacters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Harrington, C.S.;

    2000-01-01

    CCDA recovered significantly more thermophilic Campylobacter spp. than Skirrow's medium (P = 0.0034). No significant difference between Skirrow's medium and CAT agar was observed in this study. Another six taxa were identified, namely, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter curvus-like bacteria, Arcobacter...... butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, Helicobacter cinaedi, and Sutterella wadsworthensis. Most of these strains were isolated after 5 to 6 days of incubation by use of the filter technique. This paper pro,ides evidence for the existence of S. wadsworthensis in human feces from clinical cases...

  12. 浅谈图传系统在消防应急通信中的作用%Discussion on the Role of Image Transmission System in Emergency Communication of Fire Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2013-01-01

      各类灾害事故不断发生,快速高效处理这些灾害事故是消防官兵当前面临的重要任务,消防部队在抢险救援过程中,可通过图像传输系统将现场图像、声音实时传输至各级指挥中心,从而指挥人员能及时了解现场实况,并作出准确的分析判断,进而有效地辅助指挥现场的应急响应。介绍了消防部队常用的图像传输系统,阐述了这些系统各自的优缺点,根据实际经验对系统协同作战提出了自己的观点,保证火场指挥快速有效,提高突发灾害事故的应急处置能力。%For the frequent occurrence of various disasters, emergency and effective handling of these disasters becomes an important task faced by the fire-control officers and men. In the process of rescue, the scene image and real-time audio should be transferred to all levels of command center through the image transmission systems, thus the command personnel could timely know the actual on-spot situation, make accurate analysis and judgement, and effectively assist the on-spot emergency response and command. This paper describes the commonly-used image transmission systems, expounds their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the author, based on her actual experience, gives her own views on the cooperative operation of these systems. And it is hoped that these could ensure the quick and efficient fire command and improve the emergency response ability when the disasters happen.

  13. Analysis of putative chemoreceptor proteins of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Bang, Dang D.

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. A very important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized efficiently and commensally by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract...... are being analyzed in adherence and invasion assays with both human and chicken cells to explore the possibility that these membrane spanning proteins interact with host cells rather than operating as chemoreceptors....

  14. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad, but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection.

  15. Sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni using nanoparticles enhanced QCM sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdor, Noor Azlina; Altintas, Zeynep; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-04-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor platform was used to develop an immunosensor for the detection of food pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies and commercially available mouse monoclonal antibodies against C. jejuni were investigated to construct direct, sandwich and gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) amplified sandwich assays. The performance of the QCM immunosensor developed using sandwich assay by utilising the rabbit polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and conjugated to AuNPs as the detection antibody gave the highest sensitivity. This sensor achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 colony forming unit (CFU)mL(-1) of C. jejuni in solution. The QCM sensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for Campylobacter detection with low cross reactivity for other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, (7%) Listeria monocytogenes (3%) and Escherichia coli (0%). The development of this biosensor would help in the sensitive detection of Campylobacter which can result in reducing pre-enrichment steps; hence, reducing assay time. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for C. jejuni.

  16. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-03-26

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage.

  17. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens.

  18. Variation in Campylobacter MLST Subtypes Detected from Chickens on Three Different Plating Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni and coli detected on three discreet selective Campylobacter plating media to determine if different media select for different subtypes. Fifty ceca and fifty carcasses (n=100, representing 50 flocks) were collected from the...

  19. Clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Choi, Yukyung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Genus Campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. Human Campylobacter infections have caused more concern. Campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. The major zoonotic species are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, which mostly reside in the intestines of avian species and are transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated poultry products, thus causing human gastroenteritis and other diseases as sequelae. The other campylobacters, human oral species, include C. concisus, C. showae, C. gracilis, C. ureolyticus, C. curvus, and C. rectus. These species are isolated from the oral cavity, natural colonization site, but have potential clinical relevance in the periodontal region to varying extent. Two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are believed to be mainly associated with intestinal diseases, but recent studies suggested that oral Campylobacter species also play a significant role in intestinal diseases. This review offers an outline of the two Campylobacter groups (zoonotic and human oral), their virulence traits, and the associated illnesses including gastroenteritis.

  20. Campylobacter detection in broiler ceca at processing - a three year 211 flock survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is associated with live broilers and chicken meat products. There is some discussion in the literature about the possibility that Campylobacter prevalence in broilers could be affected by season or weather conditions. The objective of this study was to measure the flock prevalence of...

  1. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible.

  2. Establishing a campylobacter-free pig population through a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    Fattening pigs are often infected with campylobacter. To eliminate campylobacter from the pig population, a top-down approach, involving the breeding and reproduction farms, seems appropriate. In order to investigate the effectiveness of a top-down approach, sows' faeces from the following farms wer

  3. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  4. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  5. Campylobacter Infection and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Bangladesh: Clinical epidemiology and comparative microbial genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Islam (Zhahirul)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Campylobacter spp. are small motile, microaerophilic, S-shaped or spiral rods (0.2-0.5 μm wide by 0.5-5 μm long), gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter was first described in 1886 by Theodore Escherich (1) in the colon of children who had died of ‘cholera infantum’. The

  6. Temperature-Related Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...

  7. Risk factors for Campylobacter colonization in Danish broiler flocks, 2010 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, M; Sørensen, L L; Steenberg, B;

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the two studies presented were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive farms and flocks and to acquire updated knowledge about risk factors for the introduction of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. In the first study, from September 2010 to September 2011...

  8. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp.: A comparison toclassic culturing and enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Rahaoui, H.; Leer, R.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    The major disadvantage of the current gold standard for detection of the food pathogen Campylobacter, i.e. culturing, is the lengthy procedure. In this study we assessed the use of real-time PCR for detection of Campylobacter. To this end, 926 poultry samples, taken from transport containers and bro

  9. Improved toluidine blue-DNA agar for detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H.; Patel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Our improved toluidine blue-DNA agar was compared with methyl green DNase test agar for the detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters. The toluidine blue-DNA agar gave clear-cut positive and negative reactions with campylobacter strains belonging to several species.

  10. 75 FR 27288 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young... performance standards for the pathogenic micro-organisms Salmonella and Campylobacter for use in young chicken... posted on its Web site the third edition of the compliance guide for controlling Salmonella...

  11. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095 bp.) harboring tet(O) was identified in...

  12. Beta-resorcylic acid, a phytophenolic compound, reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this s...

  13. Evidence that certain clones of Campylobacter jejuni persist during successive broiler flock rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Wedderkopp, A.

    2001-01-01

    Through the national surveillance program for Campylobacter spp,, nine broiler chicken farms that were infected with Campylobacter jejuni in at least five rotations in 1998 were identified. One additional farm, located at the island of Bornholm where divided slaughter is used extensively, was also...

  14. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni YH001 from beef liver which contains a novel plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and is commonly found in poultry and meat products. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Campylobacter jejuni strain recently isolated from retail beef liver. The genome size was 1,712,361 bp, ...

  15. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship.

  16. Processing practices contributing to Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Habib, Ihab; Berkvens, Dirk; Dumoulin, Ann; Zutter, Lieven De; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2008-12-10

    The aim of this study was to obtain insight into processing practices in the poultry sector contributing to the variability in Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations. This was achieved by company profiling of eleven food business operators, in order to evaluate variation of processing management, in addition to statistical modelling of microbiological testing results for Campylobacter spp. contamination in 656 end product samples. Almost half (48%) of chicken meat preparation samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. Results revealed a statistically significant variation in Campylobacter contamination between 11 chicken meat producers across Belgium at both quantitative and qualitative detection levels. All producers provided Campylobacter-positive samples, but prevalence ranged from 9% up to 85% at single producer level. The presence or addition of skin during production of chicken meat preparations resulted in almost 2.2-fold increase in the probability of a sample being positive for Campylobacter, while chicken meat preparations made from frozen meat, or partly containing pre-frozen meat, had a significant (Odds Ratio=0.41; CI 95% 0.18:0.98) lower probability of being positive for Campylobacter. However, the quantitative results indicated that the positive freezing effect on Campylobacter count was compromised by the presence and/or adding of skin.

  17. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early colon...

  18. Rapid and sensitive detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken products by using the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Quint, W G; Henkens, M H; Stegeman, H; Huf, F A; Niesters, H G

    1992-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after a short enrichment culture was used to detect Campylobacter spp. in chicken products. After the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Campylobacter jejuni was determined and compared with known sequences from other enterobacteria, a primer and probe combination was sele

  19. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  20. Comparison of polycarbonate and cellulose acetate membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter concisus from stool samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde Nielsen, Hans; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove;

    2013-01-01

    One thousand seven hundred ninety-one diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. We found a high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus with use of a polycarbonate filter (n = 114) compared to a cellulose acetate filter (n = 79) (P ... to the commonly used cellulose acetate filter for detection of C. concisus....

  1. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  2. Phenotypic and Genotypic Evidence for L-fucose Utilization by Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter remains among the leading causes of bacterial food-borne illness. The current understanding of Campylobacter physiology suggests that it is asaccharolytic and is unable to catabolize exogenous carbohydrates. Contrary to this paradigm, we provide evidence for L-fucose utilization by C....

  3. Retention of Campylobacter (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgard, H.; Kristensen, K.; Hald, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) may transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We assessed the retention lime of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni at five temperatures and three doses. Flies were inoculated individually at their proboscis with 1.6 x 10(7) CFU (colony forming units) of C...

  4. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  5. Detection of Campylobacter in 100 commercial flocks - evaluation of plating media and filtration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a natural member of the gut microflora in many commercial broilers and as such can become a contaminant on edible surfaces during processing. Culturing gut contents or feces can be a means to determine flock status prior to live-haul. The wide variety of non-Campylobacter backgrou...

  6. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Fels, van der H.J.; Thissen, J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages

  7. Effect of acidified feed on suscebtibility of broiler chickens to intestinal infection by Campylobacter and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Engel, B.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is associated with human Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. One way to control the presence of these bacteria in broiler flocks is to make chickens less susceptible for colonisation. Acidification of feed may be a tool to reduce the Campylobacter and Salmonella carr

  8. Most Campylobacter subtypes from sporadic infections can be found in retail poultry products and food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.; Fussing, V.; Engberg, J.;

    2006-01-01

    The subtypes of Campylobacter isolates from human infections in two Danish counties were compared to isolates from retail food samples and faecal samples from chickens, pigs and cattle. During a 1-year period, 1285 Campylobacter isolates from these sources were typed by two methods: 'Penner' heat...

  9. Emergency Medical Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Lewis Research Center helped design the complex EMS Communication System, originating from space operated telemetry, including the telemetry link between ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services. In emergency medical use telemetry links ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services and allows transmission of physiological data -- an electrocardiogram from an ambulance to a hospital emergency room where a physician reads the telemetered message and prescribes emergency procedures to ambulance attendants.

  10. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari in Fresh Chicken Meat and By-Products in Bangkok, Thailand, Using Modified Multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, S; Phusri, K; Buates, S

    2015-07-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari was developed and validated to assess the occurrence of these bacteria in fresh chicken meat and by-products in Bangkok, Thailand, by using a new combination of four previously published PCR primers for C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and a universal 16S rDNA gene as an internal control. The specificity was determined by using 13 strains of other bacteria. With pure culture DNA, the detection limit was 0.017 ng/PCR for C. jejuni and C. coli and was 0.016 ng/PCR for C. lari. It can detect 10 CFU of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in 2 g of chicken meat within a 16-h enrichment time. Our multiplex PCR assay was applied for identification of Campylobacter spp. in 122 supermarket samples and 108 fresh market samples. Of the 230 samples evaluated by multiplex PCR, 54.0, 3.3, and 10.7% of supermarket samples were positive for C. jejuni, C. coli, and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, and 56.5 and 33.3% of fresh market samples were positive for C. jejuni and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. No sample was positive for C. lari. Fresh market samples had significantly higher C. jejuni and C. coli contamination than those from supermarkets (relative risk: 1.3; P = 0.0001). Compared with the culture method (a gold standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of multiplex PCR were 97.7, 86.8, 96.1, 92.0, and 95.2%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between results from two methods (P = 0.55). Therefore, the established multiplex PCR was not only rapid and easy to perform but had a high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, even in samples containing mixed contamination. Our study indicated that fresh chicken meat and by-products from fresh markets were significantly less hygienic than those

  11. Effect of putative efflux pump inhibitors and inducers on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Minna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2008-07-01

    The CmeABC efflux pump plays an important role in the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of putative efflux pump inhibitors, phenyl-arginine-beta-naphthylamide (PAbetaN) and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP), as well as the effect of putative efflux pump inducers, sodium salicylate and sodium deoxycholate, on the MIC levels of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, tetracycline and rifampicin for C. jejuni and C. coli. Our results indicated that susceptibility to erythromycin and rifampicin increased, respectively, 8- to 32- and 8- to 64-fold in the presence of PAbetaN and to a lesser extent in the presence of NMP. Salicylate produced a 2- to 4-fold increase in ciprofloxacin MIC values, whereas little effect was observed in the presence of deoxycholate.

  12. EUCAST recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing applied to the three main Campylobacter species isolated in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifré, Elodie; Salha, Ben Amor; Ducournau, Astrid; Floch, Pauline; Chardon, Hubert; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter isolates is of great importance for treatment options especially in systemic diseases. The European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recently proposed epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) for a limited number of antimicrobial compounds and for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli only. In the present study, the EUCAST method was used after minor modifications to define antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for, 1997 C. jejuni, 419 C. coli and 100 Campylobacter fetus strains received at the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters. Our results show that the ECOFFs defined by EUCAST for tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can be used for C. jejuni and C. coli. The same ECOFF can be used for erythromycin for the three species. The C. jejuni and C. coli ECOFFs for ciprofloxacin however cannot be applied to C. fetus. We also provide data to categorise two 2 β-lactams of interest for systemic diseases, ampicillin and amoxicillin+clavulanate, for the three species.

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter Jejuni and Coli in Sheep Carcasses by Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 randomly sheep carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter analyzed using microbiological examinations. Results: Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 10.13% meat cultures samples examined. Among these 80% sample were C. jejuni and 20% sample were C. coli. Using PCR assays, the number of positive campylobacters increased to 11.48%. Of these positive samples, 82.35% were C. jejuni and 17.65% were C. coli. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p<0.05 were found in the meat samples taken in summer (47.05%. Conclusion: The PCR is a reliable and sensitive method which can be used as a diagnostic technique for the detection of campylobacter in lamb samples.

  14. Biotyping of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry in and around Anand city, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Tayde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of different biotypes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the study area. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples comprising 90 chicken and 60 caecal content were collected from retail meat market and processed for isolation of Campylobacter spp. 52 Campylobacter isolates obtained from raw poultry meat (6 and caecal content (46 were subjected to biotyping using Lior's biotyping scheme. Results: Among the 52 Campylobacter isolates studied, 60.46 % isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni Biotype I and 39.53% were C. jejuni Biotype II, whereas 83.33 % were C. coli Biotype I and 16.66 % C. coli Biotype II. No other biotypes were identified. Conclusions: The present study revealed that C. jejuni Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II whereas in case of C. coli, Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II providing basis for further epidemiological study.

  15. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne;

    2008-01-01

    During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products......, the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive. In marinated poultry products, Campylobacter was detected at a prevalence of 21.1% and 9.5% in turkey...... and chicken products, respectively. In August, there was a peak with 28.9% positive Campylobacter samples. Campylobacter inoculation tests were carried out to test the detection limit of both methods. The PCR method used is faster than microbiological analyses. However, enrichment of the samples is necessary...

  16. Pancreatic amylase is an environmental signal for regulation of biofilm formation and host interaction in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowiya, Waheed; Brunner, Katja; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Hussain, Haitham A; Nair, Sean P; Sadiq, Sohaib; Williams, Lisa K; Trantham, Emma K; Stephenson, Holly; Wren, Brendan W; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Cogan, Tristan A; Laws, Andrew P; Wade, Jim; Dorrell, Nick; Allan, Elaine

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a commensal bacterium in the intestines of animals and birds and a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Here we show that exposure to pancreatic amylase leads to secretion of an α-dextran by C. jejuni and that a secreted protease, Cj0511, is required. Exposure of C. jejuni to pancreatic amylase promotes biofilm formation in vitro, increases interaction with human epithelial cell lines, increases virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model, and promotes colonization of the chicken ileum. We also show that exposure to pancreatic amylase protects C. jejuni from stress conditions in vitro, suggesting that the induced α-dextran may be important during transmission between hosts. This is the first evidence that pancreatic amylase functions as an interkingdom signal in an enteric microorganism.

  17. Quantitative effects of in-line operations on Campylobacter and Escherichia coli through two Australian broiler processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Blackall, Patrick J; Cobbold, Rowland N; Fegan, Narelle

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter is an important food borne pathogen, mainly associated with poultry. A lack of through-chain quantitative Campylobacter data has been highlighted within quantitative risk assessments. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively measure Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentration on chicken carcasses through poultry slaughter. Chickens (n=240) were sampled from each of four flocks along the processing chain, before scald, after scald, before chill, after chill, after packaging and from individual caeca. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter after packaging was 83% with a median concentration of 0.8log10CFU/mL. The processing points of scalding and chilling had significant mean reductions of both Campylobacter (1.8 and 2.9log10CFU/carcase) and E. coli (1.3 and 2.5log10CFU/carcase). The concentration of E. coli and Campylobacter was significantly correlated throughout processing indicating that E. coli may be a useful indicator organism for reductions in Campylobacter concentration. The carriage of species varied between flocks, with two flocks dominated by Campylobacter coli and two flocks dominated by Campylobacter jejuni. Current processing practices can lead to significant reductions in the concentration of Campylobacter on carcasses. Further understanding of the variable effect of processing on Campylobacter and the survival of specific genotypes may enable more targeted interventions to reduce the concentration of this poultry associated pathogen.

  18. CAMPYLOBACTER-HYOINTESTINALIS SUBSP LAWSONII SUBSP-NOV, ISOLATED FROM THE PORCINE STOMACH, AND AN EMENDED DESCRIPTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER-HYOINTESTINALIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on, Stephen L.W.; Bloch, Buchardt; Holmes, B.;

    1995-01-01

    .1% and could be clearly distinguished from reference strains representing 20 related taxa, principally species and subspecies belonging to the genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that the porcine stomach strains were genomically homogeneous (levels...

  19. Interaction between Campylobacter and intestinal epithelial cells leads to a different proinflammatory response in human and porcine host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Carmen; Jiménez-Marín, Ángeles; Martins, Rodrigo Prado; Garrido, Juan J

    2014-11-15

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the leading causes of human diarrheal disease throughout the development world. Unlike human beings, gastrointestinal tract of pigs are frequently colonized by Campylobacter to a high level in a commensal manner. The aim of this study was to identify the differences underlying the divergent outcome following Campylobacter challenge in porcine versus human host. In order to address this, a comparative in vitro infection model was combined with microscopy, gentamicin protection assay, ELISA and quantitative PCR techniques. Invasion assays revealed that Campylobacter invaded human cells up to 10-fold more than porcine cells (pCampylobacter in human epithelial cell at early times of infection, whereas a very reduced cytokine gene expression was detected in porcine epithelial cells. These data indicate that Campylobacter fails to invade porcine cells compared to human cells, and this leads to a lack of proinflammatory response induction, probably due to its pathogenic or commensal behavior in human and porcine host, respectively.

  20. An enhanced technique combining pre-enrichment and passive filtration increases the isolation efficiency of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from water and animal fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Cassandra C; Koot, Jacqueline M; Carrillo, Catherine D; Gannon, Victor P J; Jardine, Claire M; Mutschall, Steven K; Topp, Edward; Taboada, Eduardo N

    2012-12-01

    Improved isolation techniques from environmental water and animal samples are vital to understanding Campylobacter epidemiology. In this study, the efficiency of selective enrichment in Bolton Broth (BB) followed by plating on charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (CCDA) (conventional method) was compared with an approach combining BB enrichment and passive filtration (membrane method) adapted from a method previously developed for testing of broiler meat, in the isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from surface water and animal fecal samples. The conventional method led to recoveries of Campylobacter from 36.7% of the water samples and 78.0% of the fecal samples and similar numbers, 38.3% and 76.0%, respectively, were obtained with the membrane method. To investigate the genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli obtained by these two methods, isolates were analyzed using Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting, a high-resolution subtyping technique. The conventional and membrane methods yielded similar numbers of Campylobacter subtypes from water (25 and 28, respectively) and fecal (15 and 17, respectively) samples. Although there was no significant difference in recovery rates between the conventional and membrane methods, a significant improvement in isolation efficiency was obtained by using the membrane method, with a false-positive rate of 1.6% compared with 30.7% obtained using the conventional method. In conclusion, although the two methods are comparable in sensitivity, the membrane method had higher specificity, making it a cost-effective procedure for the enhanced isolation of C. jejuni and C. coli from water and animal fecal samples.

  1. Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, A B; Colles, F M; Rodgers, J D; McCarthy, N D; Davies, R H; Maiden, M C J; Clifton-Hadley, F A

    2016-04-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coliisolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645C. jejuniand 106C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuniisolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. ForC. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms forC. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% forC. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacterin broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical.

  2. Occurrence of Campylobacter in the genitals of teaser bulls maintained at an embryo transfer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modolo J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Em central de transferência de embriões, após os procedimentos de reconhecimento do cio em 37 vacas receptoras, através de quatro rufiões vasectomizados, observou-se que 83% delas apresentavam retorno ao cio e algum corrimento serofibrinoso. Nos exames bacteriológicos realizados nos lavados prepuciais dos rufiões foi isolado o Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis em todos, fato que, analisado associadamente com o retorno ao cio das vacas receptoras, é indicativo da ocorrência de campilobacteriose no plantel. Essa ocorrência demonstra a necessidade de medidas eficazes de planejamento de saúde animal, pela utilização de rufiões com desvio lateral do pênis. Uma vez impossibilitado o contato sexual, seria impedida a transmissão do agente durante o coito. Torna-se imperioso consignar que a prática da prevenção racional de enfermidades continua sendo o procedimento mais econômico para uma produtividade animal mais rentável.

  3. Chicken juice enhances surface attachment and biofilm formation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen L; Reuter, Mark; Salt, Louise J; Cross, Kathryn L; Betts, Roy P; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2014-11-01

    The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is primarily transmitted via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, especially poultry meat. In food processing environments, C. jejuni is required to survive a multitude of stresses and requires the use of specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms. An initial step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to a surface. Here, we investigated the effects of a chicken meat exudate (chicken juice) on C. jejuni surface attachment and biofilm formation. Supplementation of brucella broth with ≥5% chicken juice resulted in increased biofilm formation on glass, polystyrene, and stainless steel surfaces with four C. jejuni isolates and one C. coli isolate in both microaerobic and aerobic conditions. When incubated with chicken juice, C. jejuni was both able to grow and form biofilms in static cultures in aerobic conditions. Electron microscopy showed that C. jejuni cells were associated with chicken juice particulates attached to the abiotic surface rather than the surface itself. This suggests that chicken juice contributes to C. jejuni biofilm formation by covering and conditioning the abiotic surface and is a source of nutrients. Chicken juice was able to complement the reduction in biofilm formation of an aflagellated mutant of C. jejuni, indicating that chicken juice may support food chain transmission of isolates with lowered motility. We provide here a useful model for studying the interaction of C. jejuni biofilms in food chain-relevant conditions and also show a possible mechanism for C. jejuni cell attachment and biofilm initiation on abiotic surfaces within the food chain.

  4. Campylobacter jejuni motility is required for infection of the flagellotropic bacteriophage F341.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldvinsson, Signe Berg; Sørensen, Martine C Holst; Vegge, Christina S; Clokie, Martha R J; Brøndsted, Lone

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies have identified a specific modification of the capsular polysaccharide as receptor for phages that infect Campylobacter jejuni. Using acapsular kpsM mutants of C. jejuni strains NCTC11168 and NCTC12658, we found that bacteriophage F341 infects C. jejuni independently of the capsule. In contrast, phage F341 does not infect C. jejuni NCTC11168 mutants that either lack the flagellar filaments (ΔflaAB) or that have paralyzed, i.e., nonrotating, flagella (ΔmotA and ΔflgP). Complementing flgP confirmed that phage F341 requires rotating flagella for successful infection. Furthermore, adsorption assays demonstrated that phage F341 does not adsorb to these nonmotile C. jejuni NCTC11168 mutants. Taken together, we propose that phage F341 uses the flagellum as a receptor. Phage-host interactions were investigated using fluorescence confocal and transmission electron microscopy. These data demonstrate that F341 binds to the flagellum by perpendicular attachment with visible phage tail fibers interacting directly with the flagellum. Our data are consistent with the movement of the C. jejuni flagellum being required for F341 to travel along the filament to reach the basal body of the bacterium. The initial binding to the flagellum may cause a conformational change of the phage tail that enables DNA injection after binding to a secondary receptor.

  5. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 °C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 °C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat.

  6. Survival after cryogenic freezing of Campylobacter species in ground Turkey patties treated with polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther Iv, Nereus W; Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Campylobacter species within a ground turkey product subjected to cryogenic freezing. Ground turkey patties with two different polyphosphate formulations added in two different concentrations were artificially contaminated with known concentrations of Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The patties were cryogenically frozen at -80°F (-62.2°C) with liquid nitrogen vapor and held at -20°C for 7 or 33 days, after which the number of Campylobacter surviving in the patties was determined. On average the cryogenic freezing resulted in a 2.5-log decrease in the survival of C. jejuni cells and a 2.9-log decrease in C. coli cells present in the turkey patties. Additionally, the presence of polyphosphates in the turkey patties had no effect on Campylobacter survival up to the maximum allowed concentration (0.5%) for polyphosphates in poultry marinades. Finally, it was determined that the added polyphosphates had little effect on the pH of the ground turkey meat; an effect which previously had been implicated in the enhancement of Campylobacter survival due to the presence of polyphosphates.

  7. Relevance of Campylobacter to public health--the need for a One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölz, Greta; Rosner, Bettina; Hofreuter, Dirk; Josenhans, Christine; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Löwenstein, Anna; Schielke, Anika; Stark, Klaus; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Wieler, Lothar H; Alter, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter species belong to the most important foodborne bacteria which cause gastroenteritis in humans in both developed and developing countries. With increasing reporting rates, the public awareness towards Campylobacter infections is growing continuously. This strengthens the necessity to establish intervention measures for prevention and control of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. along the food chain, as in particular poultry and poultry meat represent a major source of human infections. An interdisciplinary One Health approach and a combined effort of all stakeholders are necessary to ultimately reduce the burden of campylobacteriosis cases in humans. Numerous studies point out, however, that at present a complete elimination of Campylobacter in the food chain is not feasible. The present aim should therefore be to establish control measures and intervention strategies to minimize the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in livestock (e.g. poultry flocks) and to reduce the quantitative Campylobacter burden in animals and foods. To this end, a combination of intervention methods at different stages of the food chain appears most promising. That has to be accompanied by targeted consumer advice and education campaigns to raise the awareness towards Campylobacter infections.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter Strains from Diarrheal Patients in Central and Suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Eampokalap, Bunchuay; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is increasingly recognized worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the Campylobacter strains associated with diarrheal patients in Thailand. In this study, we attempted to isolate Campylobacter strains from diarrheal patients in Thailand and to characterize the species using a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus-specific multiplex PCR assay. Campylobacter species were also confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and hipO gene detection. From 2,500 diarrheal stool specimens, 76 Campylobacter-like organisms were isolated and identified via conventional culture methods. Among these 76 organisms, 73 were identified as Campylobacter species (43 C. jejuni, 29 C. coli, and 1 C. fetus) via multiplex PCR, whereas 3 remained unidentified. Two Campylobacter-like organisms yielded 2 amplicons corresponding to cdt genes from C. jejuni and C. coli. Subsequently, C. jejuni and C. coli were reisolated from each sample. The third isolate was identified as C. hyointestinalis via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from a diarrheal patient in Thailand. These data indicate that C. jejuni (58%) and C. coli (40%) are prevalent among diarrheal patients in Thailand.

  9. Identification of risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses during the slaughter process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-02

    Campylobacter carcass contamination was quantified across the slaughter line during processing of Campylobacter positive batches. These quantitative data were combined together with information describing slaughterhouse and batch related characteristics in order to identify risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The results revealed that Campylobacter counts are influenced by the contamination of incoming birds (both the initial external carcass contamination and the colonization level of caeca) and the duration of transport and holding time that can be linked with feed withdrawal period. In addition, technical aspects of the slaughter process such as a dump based unloading system, electrical stunning, lower scalding temperature, incorrect setting of plucking, vent cutter and evisceration machines were identified as risk factors associated with increased Campylobacter counts on processed carcasses. As such the study indicates possible improvements of the slaughter process that can result in better control of Campylobacter numbers under routine processing of Campylobacter positive batches without use of chemical or physical decontamination. Moreover, all investigated factors were existing variations of the routine processing practises and therefore proposed interventions are practically and economically achievable.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility in thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from pigs and chickens in South Africa

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    A. Jonker

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of sporadic food-borne bacterial disease in humans. In intensive poultry and pig rearing systems the use of oral antibiotics is essential to maintain health. Consequently, there is a high risk for the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli resident in the intestinal tract of food animals to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Contamination of meat or eggs with pathogenic strains of resistant Campylobacter could, therefore, result in a form of campylobacteriosis in humans that is difficult to treat. The aim of this investigation was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from pigs and poultry by the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC test. A total of 482 samples from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces was collected and analysed. Thirty-eight Campylobacter isolates were obtained. Analysis of data revealed that C. jejuni strains mainly of poultry origin were more resistant to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines and the C. coli strains were more resistant to the macrolides and lincosamides. Multiresistance was also detected in 4 Campylobacter strains from the Western Cape. With the exception of tetracyclines, strains from high health Gauteng broiler farms were susceptible to antibiotics used to treat Campylobacter infections.

  11. Colonisation of a phage susceptible Campylobacter jejuni population in two phage positive broiler flocks.

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    Sophie Kittler

    Full Text Available The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails.

  12. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry.

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and antibiogram

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    Shivani Modi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, 30 ice-cream and 30 paneer were collected from the different collection points in Anand city. The samples were processed by microbiological culture method, and presumptive isolates were further confirmed by genus and species-specific polymerase chain reaction using previously reported primer. The isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and virulence gene detection. Result: Campylobacter species were detected in 7 (2.91% raw milk samples whereas none of the milk product was positive. All the isolate identified were Campylobacter jejuni. Most of the isolates showed resistance against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin. All the isolates have three virulence genes cadF, cdtB and flgR whereas only one isolate was positive for iamA gene and 6 isolates were positive for fla gene. Conclusion: The presence of Campylobacter in raw milk indicates that raw milk consumption is hazardous for human being and proper pasteurization of milk and adaptation of hygienic condition will be necessary to protect the consumer from this zoonotic pathogen.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility in thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from pigs and chickens in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, A; Picard, J A

    2010-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of sporadic food-borne bacterial disease in humans. In intensive poultry and pig rearing systems the use of oral antibiotics is essential to maintain health. Consequently, there is a high risk for the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli resident in the intestinal tract of food animals to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Contamination of meat or eggs with pathogenic strains of resistant Campylobacter could, therefore, result in a form of campylobacteriosis in humans that is difficult to treat. The aim of this investigation was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from pigs and poultry by the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. A total of 482 samples from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces was collected and analysed. Thirty-eight Campylobacter isolates were obtained. Analysis of data revealed that C. jejuni strains mainly of poultry origin were more resistant to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines and the C. coli strains were more resistant to the macrolides and lincosamides. Multi-resistance was also detected in 4 Campylobacter strains from the Western Cape. With the exception of tetracyclines, strains from high health Gauteng broiler farms were susceptible to antibiotics used to treat Campylobacter infections.

  15. Effect of bacteriophage application on Campylobacter jejuni loads in commercial broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Sophie; Fischer, Samuel; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Glünder, Gerhard; Klein, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent food-borne human enteritis. The major source for infection with Campylobacter spp. is broiler meat. Risk assessments consider the reduction of Campylobacter in primary production to be most beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a bacteriophage application under commercial conditions which had proved to be effective in previous noncommercial studies under controlled experimental conditions. A phage cocktail for Campylobacter reduction was tested on three commercial broiler farms each with a control and an experimental group. Colonization of Campylobacter was confirmed prior to phage application in fecal samples. Subsequently, a phage cocktail was applied via drinking water in the experimental group (log10 5.8 to 7.5 PFU/bird). One day after phage application, Campylobacter counts of one experimental group were reduced under the detection limit (log10 3.2 CFU/g cecal content compared to the control was still detected (P=0.0011). No significant reduction was observed in the experimental groups of the other trials. However, a significant drop in cecal Campylobacter counts occurred in a phage-contaminated control. These results suggest that maximum reduction of Campylobacter at the slaughterhouse might be achieved by phage application 1 to 4 days prior to slaughter.

  16. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Thissen, J; van Asselt, E D

    2012-09-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages of the broiler supply chain. Three different sampling points were considered: departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, and the end of the slaughterline. Strong associations were found between Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence at a particular sampling point and their prevalence at the preceding point of the chain. Statistical analyses showed that the country of origin of the broiler farm had a significant effect on the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter at slaughterhouse arrival. The feeding company delivering to the farm also showed a significant effect on the occurrence of both pathogens at departure from the broiler farm. The prevalence of Campylobacter decreased with an increasing number of birds per flock, whereas the prevalence of Salmonella increased with an increasing number of birds per flock. The number of flocks processed within a specific slaughterhouse was not associated with an increased or decreased prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. The results provide more insight into factors related to the occurrence of both pathogens and in understanding their epidemiology. The results can be supportive in decision making on measures to reduce the contamination of broiler products with Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  17. The in vivo efficacy of two administration routes of a phage cocktail to reduce numbers of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

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    Carvalho Carla M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, an acute bacterial enteritis which is a major problem worldwide. Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are the most common Campylobacter species associated with this disease. These pathogens live in the intestinal tract of most avian species and under commercial conditions they spread rapidly to infect a high proportion of the flock, which makes their treatment and prevention very difficult. Bacteriophages (phages are naturally occurring predators of bacteria with high specificity and also the capacity to evolve to overcome bacterial resistance. Therefore phage therapy is a promising alternative to antibiotics in animal production. This study tested the efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of three phages for the control of poultry infected with C. coli and C. jejuni. Moreover, it evaluated the effectiveness of two routes of phage administration (by oral gavage and in feed in order to provide additional information regarding their future use in a poultry unit. Results The results indicate that experimental colonisation of chicks was successful and that the birds showed no signs of disease even at the highest dose of Campylobacter administered. The phage cocktail was able to reduce the titre of both C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces by approximately 2 log10 cfu/g when administered by oral gavage and in feed. This reduction persisted throughout the experimental period and neither pathogen regained their former numbers. The reduction in Campylobacter titre was achieved earlier (2 days post-phage administration when the phage cocktail was incorporated in the birds' feed. Campylobacter strains resistant to phage infection were recovered from phage-treated chickens at a frequency of 13%. These resistant phenotypes did not exhibit a reduced ability to colonize the chicken guts and did not revert to sensitive types. Conclusions Our findings provide

  18. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters.

  19. Campylobacter infection as a trigger for Guillain-Barre syndrome in Egypt.

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    Thomas F Wierzba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies of Campylobacter infection triggering Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS are conducted in western nations were Campylobacter infection and immunity is relatively rare. In this study, we explored Campylobacter infections, Campylobacter serotypes, autoantibodies to gangliosides, and GBS in Egypt, a country where Campylobacter exposure is common. METHODS: GBS cases (n = 133 were compared to age- and hospital-matched patient controls (n = 374. A nerve conduction study was performed on cases and a clinical history, serum sample, and stool specimen obtained for all subjects. RESULTS: Most (63.3% cases were demyelinating type; median age four years. Cases were more likely than controls to have diarrhea (29.5% vs. 22.5%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa = 1.69, P = 0.03, to have higher geometric mean IgM anti-Campylobacter antibody titers (8.18 vs. 7.25 P<0.001, and to produce antiganglioside antibodies (e.g., anti-Gd1a, 35.3 vs. 11.5, ORa = 4.39, P<0.0001. Of 26 Penner:Lior Campylobacter serotypes isolated, only one (41:27, C. jejuni, P = 0.02 was associated with GBS. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike results from western nations, data suggested that GBS cases were primarily in the young and cases and many controls had a history of infection to a variety of Campylobacter serotypes. Still, the higher rates of diarrhea and greater antibody production against Campylobacter and gangliosides in GBS patients were consistent with findings from western countries.

  20. Longitudinal prevalence, faecal shedding and molecular characterisation of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-11-01

    Faecal excretion of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep in Australia was determined using a quantitative multiplex PCR (qPCR) targeting the Campylobacter spp. purine biosynthesis gene (PurA) and the S. enterica outer membrane protein (ompF). The mutiplex qPCR was specific and Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were each detected with a sensitivity of 5 organisms/µL faecal DNA extract. This multiplex qPCR was used to determine the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica in 3412 faecal samples collected from 1189 lambs on eight farms across South Australia (n = 2 farms), New South Wales (n = 1), Victoria (n = 2) and Western Australia (n = 3) at three sampling periods (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter). The overall prevalences of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were 13.3% and 5.0%, respectively, with the highest prevalence for Campylobacter spp. in South Australia and the highest prevalence for S. enterica in New South Wales. Campylobacter jejuni was the only Campylobacter sp. identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the 16S locus. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was the only serovar of S. enterica identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the ompF locus. Across all states, Campylobacter spp. had the highest median bacterial concentration in faeces at weaning and post-weaning (medians of 3.4 × 10(6) and 1.1 × 10(5), respectively), whereas S. enterica had the highest median bacterial concentration at pre-slaughter (1.8 × 10(5)/g faeces).

  1. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products.

  2. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection.

  3. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar

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    Camila Cristina Gonsalves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples. Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products.

  4. Mortality following Campylobacter infection: a registry-based linkage study

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    Svensson Åke

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacteriosis is one of the most commonly identified causes of bacterial diarrheal disease and a common cause of gastroenteritis in travellers from developed nations. Despite the widespread occurrence, there is little information on Campylobacter mortality. Methods Mortality among a cohort of Campylobacter cases were compared with the general population 0–1, 1–3, 3–12 and more than 12 month after the onset of the illness. The cases were sub-grouped according to if they had been infected domestically or abroad. Results The standardized mortality ratio for cases infected domestically was 2.9 (95% CI: 1.9–4.0 within the first month following the illness. The risk then gradually diminished and approached 1.0 after one year or more have passed since the illness. This initial excess risk was not attributable to any particular age group (such as the oldest. In contrast, for those infected abroad, a lower standardized mortality ratio 0.3 (95% CI: 0.04–0.8 was shown for the first month after diagnosis compared to what would be expected in the general population. Conclusion Infection with Campylobacter is associated with an increased short-term risk of death among those who were infected domestically. On the contrary, for those infected abroad a lower than expected risk of death was evident. We suggest that the explanation behind this is a "healthy traveler effect" among imported cases, and effects of a more frail than average population among domestic cases.

  5. Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 327, a strain isolated from a turkey slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis and has a high prevalence in poultry. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni 327 is a subspecies of the genus Campylobacter of the family Campylobacteraceae in the phylum Proteobacteria. The microaerophilic, spiral shaped, catal...... shotgun sequence of 1,618,613 bp long consists of 1,740 protein-coding genes, 46 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA operons. A protein based BLAST analysis places the turkey isolate 327 close to the human clinical strain 81116 (NCTC 11828)....

  6. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle...... samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion: During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination...

  7. May Organically Farmed Animals Pose a Risk for Campylobacter Infections in Humans?

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    Engvall Anders

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming of meat producing poultry like broilers, means that the animals should be kept outdoors as much as possible. This pose a risk that they get infected with Campylobacter. At slaughter, carcasses may be contaminated with campylobacter. If cross contamination occurs in the kitchen or if the meat is undercooked people may ingest the bacteria and suffer from enteritis. It seems possible that close to 100 percent of organically farmed flocks may be infected with campylobacter while under Swedish conditions only 10 percent of conventionally reared flocks are infected.

  8. Campylobacter in healthy slaughter pigs: a possible source of infection for man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticht-Groh, V

    1982-01-30

    Campylobacter were isolated from 103 of 173 (59 per cent) specimens of healthy slaughter pig faeces, washed intestines and water samples collected from a slaughterhouse and butcher's shop in West Germany. As most cases of human campylobacter enteritis are caused by Campylobacter jejuni, an attempt was made to find this organism among the isolates. Twenty-five out of the 103 strains (24 per cent) were identified as C jejuni. C jejuni was also isolated from salted water samples after overnight bowel storage in the butcher's shop, indicating that the customary salt preparation of the intestines did not eliminate all organisms present.

  9. Novel Campylobacter isolation method using hydrophobic grid membrane filter and semisolid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso-Garcia, Alfonso; Harris, Kathleen; Riche, Edward; Campbell, Stephanie; Jarvie, Anne; Popa, Maria; Deckert, Anne; Reid-Smith, Richard; Rahn, Kris

    2007-02-01

    Culture procedures for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from food matrices are complex, labor intensive, and time-consuming. Most available methods include the use of antibiotics as selective agents to prevent the growth of competing microflora. A simple procedure for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters after enrichment in Rosef's enrichment broth was developed using a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) on semisolid medium (SSM). SSM contains no antibiotics, and the HGMF physically separates Campylobacter from the enrichment broth, allowing isolation based on differential motility. The HGMF-SSM method was compared to the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Food Safety Procedures Manual (FSPM-10) method (Isolation of Thermophilic Campylobacters from Fresh Pork, Beef Veal, Poultry and Ready-to-Eat Meat Products), which includes the use of selective antibiotics. During the initial study, after enrichment the HGMF-SSM method yielded pure cultures of campylobacters after 16 to 18 h (overnight) compared with 48 h for the FSPM-10 method. Ninety-four turkey samples collected at local retail stores and 38 frozen pig fecal samples were processed by both methods. Thirty-five samples (26.5%) were positive by the HGMF-SSM method; 24 (18.2%) of these positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni and 11 (8.3%) contained Campylobacter coli. With the FSPM-10 method, 25 samples (18.9%) were positive: 21 (15.9%) with C. jejuni and 4 (3%) with C. coli. For a subsequent field study, only the HGMF-SSM method was used to isolate Campylobacter from 1,200 chicken samples and 454 turkey samples sold at retail. Analysis of five subisolates from various samples indicated that only one type of Campylobacter was recovered by the HGMF-SSM method, as ascertained by MICs for 10 antimicrobials, sequencing of the short variable region of the flaA gene, and fingerprinting based on amplified fragment length polymorphism. The absence of antibiotics in the SSM may explain the higher

  10. Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flocks: a 2-year study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Gradel, K.O.; Jorgensen, J.C.;

    2001-01-01

    at the farms. Of the swabs, 42.5% were Campylobacter positive. Most positive samples were found during July, August and September, while the lowest number of positive samples were found during January, February, March and April. Of the flocks, 5.5% were Salmonella positive, but no seasonal variation...... was observed. For each flock, the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella was recorded in order to estimate the possible correlation between colonisation with the two pathogens. In conclusion, no significant effects on intensive cleaning and disinfection procedures on Campylobacter occurrence could...

  11. Antigenic differences among Campylobacter fetus S-layer proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubreuil, J D; Kostrzynska, M; Austin, J W; Trust, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of S-layer proteins extracted from Campylobacter fetus strains by using acid glycine buffer showed that the predominant S-layer proteins of different strains had subunit molecular weights in the range of 90,000 to 140,000. Electron microscopy revealed oblique S-layer lattices with a spacing of approximately 5.6 nm (gamma = 75 degrees) on wild-type strains VC1, VC119, VC202, and VC203. Three variants of C. fetus VC119 producing a predom...

  12. Protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga as a potential reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Waldenström, Jonas; Broman, Tina; Olsen, Björn; Holmberg, Martin

    2005-02-01

    We showed by a laboratory experiment that four different Campylobacter jejuni strains are able to infect the protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga. C. jejuni cells survived for longer periods when cocultured with amoebae than when grown in culture alone. The infecting C. jejuni cells aggregated in amoebic vacuoles, in which they were seen to be actively moving. Furthermore, a resuscitation of bacterial cultures that were previously negative in culturability tests was observed after reinoculation into fresh amoeba cultures. After spontaneous rupture of the amoebae, C. jejuni could be detected by microscopy and culturability tests. Our results indicate that amoebae may serve as a nonvertebrate reservoir for C. jejuni in the environment.

  13. Quantitative Proteomics of Intracellular Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Liu

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the USA and Europe. An important virulence attribute of this bacterial pathogen is its ability to enter and survive within host cells. Here we show through a quantitative proteomic analysis that upon entry into host cells, C. jejuni undergoes a significant metabolic downshift. Furthermore, our results indicate that intracellular C. jejuni reprograms its respiration, favoring the respiration of fumarate. These results explain the poor ability of C. jejuni obtained from infected cells to grow under standard laboratory conditions and provide the bases for the development of novel anti microbial strategies that would target relevant metabolic pathways.

  14. The Cj0588 protein is a Campylobacter jejuni RNA methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałamaszyńska-Guz, Agnieszka; Taciak, Bartłomiej; Kwiatek, Agnieszka; Klimuszko, Danuta

    2014-06-06

    TlyA proteins belong to 2'-O-methyltransferases. Methylation is a common posttranscriptional RNA modification. The Campylobacter jejuni Cj0588 protein belongs to the TlyA(I) protein family and is a rRNA methyltransferase. Methylation of ribosomal RNA catalyzed by Cj0588 appears to have an impact on the biology of the cell. Presence of the cj0588 gene in bacteria appears to be important for ribosome stability and virulence properties. Absence of the Cj0588 protein causes accumulation of the 50S ribosomal subunits, reduction in the amount of functional 70S ribosomes and confers increase resistance to capreomycin.

  15. Sacroiliitis and Septicemia Caused by Campylobacter rectus and Actinomyces odontolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Harvey

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter rectus, formerly known as Wolinella recta, is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus, generally recognized as an agent responsible for severe periodontitis; only two cases of extra-oral infections have been reported. The first case of septicemia with C rectus and Actinomyces odontolyticus is described in a 37-year-old farmer who suffered from severe sacroiliitis. Also presented are a review of C rectus in human pathology, and a brief review of pyogenic sacroiliitis, a rather rare disease.

  16. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant...... providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers....... Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from...

  17. Exploring the chemotactic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract....... These mutants will be analyzed for their chemotatic capacity in order to investigate the chemoreceptor function and to identify matching chemoeffectors. Furthermore, selected mutants will be investigated for their ability to colonize chickens with focus on establishment, level, and persistence. Special emphasis...

  18. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated in the region of Niš, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli represent one of the main causes of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. Although the disease is usually mild and self-limiting, severe chronic sequelae may occur, such as reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. Serotyping is used as an epidemiological marker, while post-infective polyneuropathies are associated with several O serotypes. Objective. Strains of C. jejuni and C. coli were serotyped based on heat stable (HS and heat labile (HL antigens, as well as biotypes to determine strain diversity. Methods. Campylobacter spp. was isolated using selective blood media with antibiotics. Differentiation to the species level was done by a combination of biotyping tests and by a PCR-based RFLP test. The isolates were characterised by Penner and Lior serotyping methods. Results. The serotypes showed diversity without predominant serotypes. 24 HS serotypes were detected among 29 C. jejuni strains, and seven serotypes among nine C. coli strains. HL serotyping method successfully typed 62.5% of strains. Among 16 C. jejuni strains 14 serotypes were detected, and three among four C. coli strains. A C. jejuni strain associated with a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome was typed as biotype II, O:19. Conclusion. The biotyping and serotyping results have indicated that C. jejuni and C. coli strains in the region of Niš, Serbia are diverse and could be probably of unrelated sources of origin or reservoirs. The strain associated with the Guillain-Barré syndrome patient was serotype O:19, one of the most common in this post-infective complication.

  19. Virulence and genomic feature of multidrug resistant Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in multidrug resistance and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens. The virulence of six multidrug resistant C. jejuni was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the multidrug resistance and virulence of a selected isolate (C. jejuni 1655. The comparative genomic analyses revealed a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in C. jejuni 1655 compared to reference C. jejuni genomes. The co-emergence of Thr-86-Ile mutation in gyrA gene, A2075G mutation in 23S rRNA gene, tetO, aphA and aadE genes and pTet plasmid in C. jejuni 1655 contributed its multidrug resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracycline and aminoglycosides. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in C. jejuni 1655. The co-existence of mobile gene elements (e.g. pTet and CRISPR-Cas system in C. jejuni 1655 may play an important role in the gene transfer and immune defense. The present study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of C. jejuni 1655, a strain recently isolated from a chicken displaying multidrug resistance and relatively high level of virulence.

  20. Virulence and Genomic Feature of Multidrug Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Broiler Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Ren, Ni; Han, Jing; Foley, Steven L.; Iqbal, Zahid; Cheng, Guyue; Kuang, Xiuhua; Liu, Jie; Liu, Zhenli; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in multidrug resistance and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens. The virulence of six multidrug resistant C. jejuni was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the multidrug resistance and virulence of a selected isolate (C. jejuni 1655). The comparative genomic analyses revealed a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in C. jejuni 1655 compared to reference C. jejuni genomes. The co-emergence of Thr-86-Ile mutation in gyrA gene, A2075G mutation in 23S rRNA gene, tetO, aphA and aadE genes and pTet plasmid in C. jejuni 1655 contributed its multidrug resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in C. jejuni 1655. The co-existence of mobile gene elements (e.g., pTet) and CRISPR-Cas system in C. jejuni 1655 may play an important role in the gene transfer and immune defense. The present study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of C. jejuni 1655, a strain recently isolated from a chicken displaying multidrug resistance and relatively high level of virulence. PMID:27790202

  1. Was the increase in culture-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Denmark during the 1990s a surveillance artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Teunis, Peter; Simonsen, Jacob; Krogfelt, Karen A; Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Takkinen, Johanna; Mølbak, Kåre

    2015-01-01

    In 1991, 1999 and 2006, randomly selected individuals from the Danish Central Personal Register provided a serum sample. From individuals aged 30 years and above, 500 samples from each year were analysed for Campylobacter IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies using a direct ELISA method. We applied a seroincidence calculator available from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control to perform a mathematical back-calculation to estimate the annual Campylobacter seroincidence in the Danish population. The estimated Campylobacter seroincidence did not differ significantly between the 1991, 1999 and 2006 studies although the reported number of culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection increased 2.5 fold from 1993 to 1999 among individuals aged 30 years and above. This suggests that Campylobacter was widely present in the Danish population before the increase in poultry-associated clinical Campylobacter infections observed from 1993 to 2001 among individuals of this age groups.

  2. The use of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy against Campylobacter in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, A.; Vigre, Håkan

    , epidemiological and economic factors (cost-reward functions) have been included in the models. The final outcome of the models is presented in probabilities of expected level of Campylobacter and financial terms influenced by the decision on vaccination. For example, if the best decision seems to be to vaccinate......Human campylobacteriosis represents an important economic and public health problem. Campylobacter originating from feces of infected chickens will contaminate chicken meat posing a risk to the consumer. Vaccination against Campylobacter in broilers is one probable measure to reduce consumers......’ exposure to Campylobacter.In this presentation we focus on the development of a computerized decision support system to aid management decisions on Campylobacter vaccination of commercial broilers. Broilers should be vaccinated against Campylobacter in the first 2 weeks of age. Therefore, the decision...

  3. First reported case of Campylobacter lanienae enteritis in a human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Frédéric; Bekal, Sadjia; Frost, Eric H.; Michaud, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Campylobacters are the most frequently identified bacteria causing diarrhoea in humans worldwide. Campylobacter lanienae was isolated for the first time in 2000 from faecal samples of two asymptomatic abattoir workers in Switzerland during a routine hygiene screen, but has never been associated with human disease. Case presentation: At hospital admission, the patient reported diarrhoea, lower abdominal cramps, nausea, one episode of bilious vomiting and low-grade fever of 38 °C. The patient was having 10 or more diarrheic stools per day as well as during the night, and had noticed blood mixed with the stools on several occasions. Stool cultures were negative for species of Salmonella and Shigella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica, but were positive for C. lanienae. Identification was made by classical biochemical testing, as well as 16S rRNA gene and cpn60 sequencing. The patient slowly improved without antibiotic treatment and was discharged nine days after admission with complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: On the whole it seems very likely that C. lanienae was the causative agent. Clinical microbiologists should be aware of this micro-organism which can be identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The real burden of C. lanienae infection in humans might be underestimated and should be further investigated as a potential cause of human diarrhoea disease.

  4. LuxS and quorum-sensing in Campylobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul ePlummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several intercellular bacterial communication mechanisms have been identified in a broad range of bacterial species. These systems, collectively termed quorum-sensing systems, have been demonstrated to play significant roles in a variety of bacterial processes including motility, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes and animal colonization. Campylobacter jejuni is known to poses a LuxS/ autoinducer-2 mediated system that has been partially characterized over the last decade. AI-2 is formed as a byproduct of the activated methyl recycling pathway, specifically by the LuxS enzyme. Previous work in our laboratory and that of others has demonstrated that this gene is involved in a variety of physiologic pathways of C. jejuni including motility, autoagglutination, CDT expression, flagellar expression, oxidative stress and animal colonization. This review article will summarize the current research associated with LuxS in C. jejuni and will provide insights into the role of this system in the metabolism and intercellular communication of this organism. Additionally, the evidence for other quorum sensing pathways in Campylobacter will be discussed.

  5. Screening of Australian plants for antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurekci, Cemil; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Vercoe, Philip E; Durmic, Zoey; Al Jassim, Rafat A M; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2012-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of acute enteritis in humans, with symptoms such as diarrhoea, fever and abdominal cramps. In this study, 115 extracts from 109 Australian plant species were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against two C. jejuni strains using an in vitro broth microdilution assay. Among the plants tested, 107 (93%) extracts showed activity at a concentration between 32 and 1024 µg/mL against at least one C. jejuni strain. Seventeen plant extracts were selected for further testing against another six C. jejuni strains, as well as Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Proteus mirabilis and Enterococcus faecalis. The extract from Eucalyptus occidentalis demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity, with an inhibitory concentration of 32 µg/mL against C. jejuni and B. cereus. This study has shown that extracts of selected Australian plants possess antimicrobial activity against C. jejuni and thus may have application in the control of this organism in live poultry and retail poultry products.

  6. Does Campylobacter jejuni form biofilms in food-related environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Amy Huei Teen; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most frequent causes of bacterial gastrointestinal food-borne infection worldwide. This species is part of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tracts of animals used for food production, including poultry, which is regarded as the primary source of human Campylobacter infections. The survival and persistence of C. jejuni in food processing environments, especially in poultry processing plants, represent significant risk factors that contribute to the spread of this pathogen through the food chain. Compared to other food-borne pathogens, C. jejuni is more fastidious in its growth requirements and is very susceptible to various environmental stressors. Biofilm formation is suggested to play a significant role in the survival of C. jejuni in the food production and processing environment. The aims of this minireview were (i) to examine the evidence that C. jejuni forms biofilms and (ii) to establish the extent to which reported and largely laboratory-based studies of C. jejuni biofilms provide evidence for biofilm formation by this pathogen in food processing environments. Overall existing studies do not provide strong evidence for biofilm formation (as usually defined) by most C. jejuni strains in food-related environments under the combined conditions of atmosphere, temperature, and shear that they are likely to encounter. Simple attachment to and survival on surfaces and in existing biofilms of other species are far more likely to contribute to C. jejuni survival in food-related environments based on our current understanding of this species.

  7. Host adaption to the bacteriophage carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Kelly J; Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Connerton, Ian F

    2015-01-01

    The carrier state of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni represents an alternative life cycle whereby virulent bacteriophages can persist in association with host bacteria without commitment to lysogeny. Host bacteria exhibit significant phenotypic changes that improve their ability to survive extra-intestinal environments, but exhibit growth-phase-dependent impairment in motility. We demonstrate that early exponential phase cultures become synchronised with respect to the non-motile phenotype, which corresponds with a reduction in their ability to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. Comparative transcriptome analyses (RNA-seq) identify changes in gene expression that account for the observed phenotypes: downregulation of stress response genes hrcA, hspR and per and downregulation of the major flagellin flaA with the chemotactic response signalling genes cheV, cheA and cheW. These changes present mechanisms by which the host and bacteriophage can remain associated without lysis, and the cultures survive extra-intestinal transit. These data provide a basis for understanding a critical link in the ecology of the Campylobacter bacteriophage.

  8. Campylobacter intestinal carriage among stray and pet dogs Disseminação de Campylobacter entre cães vadios e de estimação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Fernández

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural distribution of thermotolerant Campylobacter sp. in dogs (150 stray animals and 64 pets was studied. Campylobacters were more frequently isolated (pFoi estudada a distribuição natural de espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter em 159 cães vadios e em 64 cães de companhia em confinamento permanente. Espécies de Campylobacter foram isoladas mais freqüentemente (p<0,01 dos cães vadios (51,3% do que dos cães de companhia (21,9%. Todos os biotipos descritos por Lior para C. jejuni e C. coli foram encontrados entre as amostras isoladas dos cães vadios. Nas amostras isoladas dos cães mantidos em confmamento permanente somente foram encontrados os biotipos I e II de C. jejuni e o biotipo II do C. coli. Salienta-se a necessidade de realizar outros estudos para estabelecer a relação entre as condições de saneamento ambiental e a disseminação das espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter.

  9. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli on broiler carcasses after chilling in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Perdoncini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli have been associated with gastrointestinal disorders in human beings, due mainly to the consumption of chicken meat. Despite control measures for reducing contamination by these bacteria, the detection of Campylobacter in carcasses after chilling remains high. A total of 105 carcasses were assessed by the horizontal detection method in five federally inspected slaughterhouses in southern Brazil in 2012 and in the first three months of 2013. Campylobacterwas isolated in 37.1% of the carcasses, of which 97.5% contained C. jejuni and 2.5% were infected by C. coli. The rate of positive carcasses across the slaughterhouses ranged from 0 to 71.4%. Determining the occurrence of Campylobacter among flocks is crucial for estimating the microbial load at specific points along the slaughtering process and for minimizing the risk of contamination of end products by Campylobacter.

  10. The complete genome sequence and analysis of the human pathogen Campylobacter lari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, WG; Wang, G; Binnewies, Tim Terence;

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter lari is a member of the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant Campylobacter group, a clade that includes the human pathogen C. jejuni. Here we present the complete genome sequence of the human clinical isolate, C. lari RM2100. The genome of strain...... RM2100 is approximately 1.53 Mb and includes the 46 kb megaplasmid pCL2100. Also present within the strain RM2100 genome is a 36 kb putative prophage, termed CLIE1, which is similar to CJIE4, a putative prophage present within the C. jejuni RM1221 genome. Nearly all (90%) of the gene content...... in strain RM2100 is similar to genes present in the genomes of other characterized thermotolerant campylobacters. However, several genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and energy metabolism, identified previously in other Campylobacter genomes, are absent from the C. lari RM2100 genome. Therefore, C...

  11. SURVEY ON CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. PREVALENCE IN BROILER CHICKENS SLAUGHTERED IN EMILIA-ROMAGNA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tamba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne infections in many countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases of human campylobacteriosis. An European baseline study (Dec. 516/07/UE was carried out in the year 2008 with the aim of determining the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and the contamination level on the broiler carcasses. One hundred broiler flocks were sampled in 4 poultry slaughterhouses in Emilia Romagna and 52% (IC 95%: 41,8%-62,1% were positive for Campylobacter jejuni/coli. The prevalence of thermophylic Campylobacter on carcasses was 26,0% (IC 95%: 17,7%- 35,7% and it was correlated to finding of these bacteria in the broilers’ gut (O.R.: 3,8; I.C. 95%: 1,4-9,9.

  12. High frequency genetic variation of purine biosynthesis genes is a mechanism of success in Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenotypic variation is prevalent among progeny of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, the leading agent of enterocolitis in the developed world. Heterogeneity bestows increased survival to bacterial populations because variable phenotypes ensure some cells will be protected against future s...

  13. Cloning and alignment of WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Cong-cong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To clone the WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni, and analyse its relationship with WaaF genetic evolution. Methods Amplified WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei by PCR, and constructed pGEM-T-WaaF cloning plasmid. Downloaded five WaaF associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and one WaaF not associated with GBS, and then constructed phylogenetic tree. Results pGEM-T-WaaF cloning plasmid was constructed successfully. WaaF presented cluster phenomenon in Campylobacter jejuni associated with GBS. Conclusion WaaF gene of Campylobacter jejuni Lulei is the fragment of 807 bp, and has the nearest relationship with the genetic evolution of Lichang.

  14. Monitoring Campylobacter in the poultry production chain - From culture to genes and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Bhunia, Arun; Engvall, Eva Olsson

    2015-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in poultry production. Standardized reference culture methods issued by national and international standardization organizations are time-consuming, cumbersome and not amenable to automation for screening of large n...

  15. Quantitative risk assessment of human campylobacteriosis associated with thermophilic Campylobacter species in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Nielsen, N. L.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment comprising the elements hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization has been prepared to assess the effect of different mitigation strategies on the number of human cases in Denmark associated with thermophilic...... covers the transfer of Campylobacter during food handling in private kitchens. The age and sex of consumers were included in this module to introduce variable hygiene levels during food preparation and variable sizes and compositions of meals. Finally, the outcome of the exposure assessment modules...... Campylobacter spp. in chickens. To estimate the human exposure to Campylobacter from a chicken meal and the number of human cases associated with this exposure, a mathematical risk model was developed. The model details the spread and transfer of Campylobacter in chickens from slaughter to consumption...

  16. Does age acquired immunity confer selective protection to common serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Iain D

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter infection is a major cause of bacterial gastrointestinal disease. Exposure to Campylobacter is known to produce an immune response in humans that can prevent future symptomatic infections. Further, studies of the general population have shown that seroprevalence to Campylobacter increases with age. Methods A large collection of serotyped Campylobacter isolates, obtained from human clinical faecal samples, were analysed by comparing the ratio of uncommon to common serotypes by different age groups, using χ2 tests. Results We have identified that older age groups, as well as having generally lower incidence, are significantly less likely to be infected by the more common serotypes. Conclusion These results are indicative of acquired immunity, however, further studies are needed to rule out the confounding effects of the variations in exposure pathways experienced by different age groups.

  17. Diabetic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  18. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency physicians. They receive comprehensive training in treating childhood emergencies and have more training in pediatric emergencies than other physicians, including pediatricians. Does Your Child's School Know About Food Allergies? - 8/10/2015 The nation's emergency physician ...

  19. Heterogeneity of Campylobacter species isolated from serial stool specimens of Egyptian children using pulsed field gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Atef M. El-Gendy; Wasfy, Momtaz O.; Adel M. Mansour; Buhari T. Oyofo; Marwa M. Yousry; John D Klena

    2013-01-01

    Background: The genus Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of human acute bacteria lenteritis and travellers’ diarrhoea worldwide.Objective: To determine whether multiple serial isolations of Campylobacter spp., when obtained from a single child, represented the same or a different organism.Methods: In a birth cohort study conducted in Egypt, numerous children showed serial isolations of Campylobacter spp. Of these, 13 children were selected from different households based on the successive i...

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter.