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Sample records for campion silene latifolia

  1. Identification of white campion (Silene latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of veratrole, a key volatile for pollinator attraction

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    Gupta Alok K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silene latifolia and its pollinator, the noctuid moth Hadena bicruris, represent an open nursery pollination system wherein floral volatiles, especially veratrole (1, 2-dimethoxybenzene, lilac aldehydes, and phenylacetaldehyde are of key importance for floral signaling. Despite the important role of floral scent in ensuring reproductive success in S. latifolia, the molecular basis of scent biosynthesis in this species has not yet been investigated. Results We isolated two full-length cDNAs from S. latifolia that show similarity to rose orcinol O-methyltransferase. Biochemical analysis showed that both S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase1 (SlGOMT1 &S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase2 (SlGOMT2 encode proteins that catalyze the methylation of guaiacol to form veratrole. A large Km value difference between SlGOMT1 (~10 μM and SlGOMT2 (~501 μM resulted that SlGOMT1 is 31-fold more catalytically efficient than SlGOMT2. qRT-PCR expression analysis showed that the SlGOMT genes are specifically expressed in flowers and male S. latifolia flowers had 3- to 4-folds higher level of GOMT gene transcripts than female flower tissues. Two related cDNAs, S. dioica O-methyltransferase1 (SdOMT1 and S. dioica O-methyltransferase2 (SdOMT2, were also obtained from the sister species Silene dioica, but the proteins they encode did not methylate guaiacol, consistent with the lack of veratrole emission in the flowers of this species. Our evolutionary analysis uncovered that SlGOMT1 and SlGOMT2 genes evolved under positive selection, whereas SdOMT1 and SdOMT2 genes show no evidence for selection. Conclusions Altogether, we report the identification and functional characterization of the gene, SlGOMT1 that efficiently catalyzes veratrole formation, whereas another copy of this gene with only one amino acid difference, SlGOMT2 was found to be less efficient for veratrole synthesis in S. latifolia.

  2. Identification of a Novel Retrotransposon with Sex Chromosome-Specific Distribution in Silene latifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králová, Tereza; Čegan, Radim; Kubát, Zdeněk; Vrána, Jan; Vyskot, Boris; Vogel, Ivan; Kejnovský, Eduard; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 143, 1-3 (2014), s. 87-95. ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0102; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2220; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/10/0930; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/0083; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Microdissection * Sex chromosomes * Silene latifolia (white campion) Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 1.561, year: 2014

  3. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  4. Investigation of sex chromosome structure and evolution in Silene latifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráček, Jaroslav; Kejnovský, Eduard; Kubát, Zdeněk; Čermák, Tomáš; Vyskot, Boris

    Budapest, 2006. s. 188-188. [XIXth International Congress on Sexual Plant Reproduction, From gametes to genes. 11.07.2006-15.07.2006, Budapest] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/06/0056; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/2097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : sex chromosome s * Silene latifolia * FISH Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  5. Next Generation Sequencing-Based Analysis of Repetitive DNA in the Model Dioceous Plant Silene latifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macas, Jiří; Kejnovský, Eduard; Neumann, Pavel; Novák, Petr; Koblížková, Andrea; Vyskot, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2011), e27335. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10037; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11058; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0102; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/10/0930 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Plant genome * Sequencing-Based Analyses * Repetitive DNA * Silene latifolia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  6. Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome

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    Blavet Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX and males heterogametic (XY. While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR. In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a > 100 kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes.

  7. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: Variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea.

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    Jose Carlos Del Valle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes and vegetative organs (leaves from 18 populations representing the species’ geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of

  8. FAST-FISH with laser beam microdissected DOP-PCR probe distinguishes the sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Roman; Lengerova, Martina; Cernohorska, Halina; Rubes, Jiri; Vyskot, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We present an improved FISH strategy for differentiating the sex chromosomes of the dioecious model plant, Silene latifolia. Fixed mitotic protoplasts were dropped on a polyethylene naphthalate membrane, the X or Y chromosomes were isolated using nitrogen laser beam microdissection, catapulted by laser pressure, and amplified by DOP-PCR. A modified FAST-FISH protocol based on a short hybridization time combined with a low concentration of probe was used. The success of this approach is demonstrated by the differential labeling of the X and Y chromosomes and it could represent a quick method for comparing organization of plant genomes. PMID:15125638

  9. Structure and evolution of Apetala3, a sex-linked gene in Silene latifolia

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    Cegan Radim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of sex chromosomes is often accompanied by gene or chromosome rearrangements. Recently, the gene AP3 was characterized in the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia. It was suggested that this gene had been transferred from an autosome to the Y chromosome. Results In the present study we provide evidence for the existence of an X linked copy of the AP3 gene. We further show that the Y copy is probably located in a chromosomal region where recombination restriction occurred during the first steps of sex chromosome evolution. A comparison of X and Y copies did not reveal any clear signs of degenerative processes in exon regions. Instead, both X and Y copies show evidence for relaxed selection compared to the autosomal orthologues in S. vulgaris and S. conica. We further found that promoter sequences differ significantly. Comparison of the genic region of AP3 between the X and Y alleles and the corresponding autosomal copies in the gynodioecious species S. vulgaris revealed a massive accumulation of retrotransposons within one intron of the Y copy of AP3. Analysis of the genomic distribution of these repetitive elements does not indicate that these elements played an important role in the size increase characteristic of the Y chromosome. However, in silico expression analysis shows biased expression of individual domains of the identified retroelements in male plants. Conclusions We characterized the structure and evolution of AP3, a sex linked gene with copies on the X and Y chromosomes in the dioecious plant S. latifolia. These copies showed complementary expression patterns and relaxed evolution at protein level compared to autosomal orthologues, which suggests subfunctionalization. One intron of the Y-linked allele was invaded by retrotransposons that display sex-specific expression patterns that are similar to the expression pattern of the corresponding allele, which suggests that these transposable elements

  10. Rapid De Novo Evolution of X Chromosome Dosage Compensation in Silene latifolia, a Plant with Young Sex Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Clothilde; Mousset, Sylvain; Widmer, Alex; Marais, Gabriel A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ∼10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S. latifolia XY chromosomes have gradually stopped recombining and the Y chromosome is undergoing degeneration as in animal sex chromosomes. However, this work has been limited by the paucity of sex-linked genes available. Here, we used 35 Gb of RNA-seq data from multiple males (XY) and females (XX) of an S. latifolia inbred line to detect sex-linked SNPs and identified more than 1,700 sex-linked contigs (with X-linked and Y-linked alleles). Analyses using known sex-linked and autosomal genes, together with simulations indicate that these newly identified sex-linked contigs are reliable. Using read numbers, we then estimated expression levels of X-linked and Y-linked alleles in males and found an overall trend of reduced expression of Y-linked alleles, consistent with a widespread ongoing degeneration of the S. latifolia Y chromosome. By comparing expression intensities of X-linked alleles in males and females, we found that X-linked allele expression increases as Y-linked allele expression decreases in males, which makes expression of sex-linked contigs similar in both sexes. This phenomenon is known as dosage compensation and has so far only been observed in evolutionary old animal sex chromosome systems. Our results suggest that dosage compensation has evolved in plants and that it can quickly evolve de novo after the origin of sex chromosomes. PMID:22529744

  11. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

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    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  12. Early events in the evolution of the Silene latifolia Y chromosome: Male specialization and recombination arrest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žlůvová, Jitka; Georgiev, S.; Janoušek, Bohuslav; Charlesworth, D.; Vyskot, Boris; Negrutiu, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 177, č. 1 (2007), s. 375-386. ISSN 0016-6731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : evolution * Silene * Y chromosome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2007

  13. Semi-automatic laser beam microdissection of the Y chromosome and analysis of Y chromosome DNA in a dioecious plant, Silene latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silene latifolia has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the X and Y chromosomes. The Y chromosome, which is thought to carry the male determining gene, was isolated by UV laser microdissection and amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR. In situ chromosome suppression of the amplified Y chromosome DNA in the presence of female genomic DNA as a competitor showed that the microdissected Y chromosome DNA did not specifically hybridize to the Y chromosome, but-hybridized to all chromosomes. This result suggests that the Y chromosome does not contain Y chromosome-enriched repetitive sequences. A repetitive sequence in the microdissected Y chromosome, RMY1, was isolated while screening repetitive sequences in the amplified Y chromosome. Part of the nucleotide sequence shared a similarity to that of X-43.1, which was isolated from microdissected X chromosomes. Since fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with RMY1 demonstrated that RMY1 was localized at the ends of the chromosome, RMY1 may be a subtelomeric repetitive sequence. Regarding the sex chromosomes, RMY1 was detected at both ends of the X chromosome and at one end near the pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome. The different localization of RMY1 on the sex chromosomes provides a clue to the problem of how the sex chromosomes arose from autosomes

  14. Genomic diversity in two related plant species with and without sex chromosomes - Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovský, Eduard; Kubát, Zdeněk; Blavet, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Blavet, N.; Hobza, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2012), e31898. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600040901; GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/10/P483; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0102; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/10/0930; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/0083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Silene * repetitive DNA * genome size Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  15. The large-X effect in plants: increased species divergence and reduced gene flow on the Silene X-chromosome.

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    Hu, Xin-Sheng; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2016-06-01

    The disproportionately large involvement of the X-chromosome in the isolation of closely related species (the large-X effect) has been reported for many animals, where X-linked genes are mostly hemizygous in the heterogametic sex. The expression of deleterious recessive mutations is thought to drive the frequent involvement of the X-chromosome in hybrid sterility, as well as to reduce interspecific gene flow for X-linked genes. Here, we evaluate the role of the X-chromosome in the speciation of two closely related plant species - the white and red campions (Silene latifolia and S. dioica) - that hybridize widely across Europe. The two species evolved separate sexes and sex chromosomes relatively recently (~10(7)  years), and unlike most animal species, most X-linked genes have intact Y-linked homologs. We demonstrate that the X-linked genes show a very small and insignificant amount of interspecific gene flow, while gene flow involving autosomal loci is significant and sufficient to homogenize the gene pools of the two species. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the large-X effect in Silene and comprise the first report of this effect in plants. Nonhemizygosity of many X-linked genes in Silene males indicates that exposure of recessive mutations to selection may not be essential for the occurrence of the large-X effect. Several possible causes of the large-X effect in Silene are discussed. PMID:26479725

  16. Genetic diversity in Silene sennenii Pau (Caryophyllaceae assayed through DNA-based techniques

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    Blanché, C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silene sennenii is a narrow endemic species from the NE of the Iberian Peninsula. It is considered as EN (“Endangered” according to the IUCN criteria and is under legal protection in Catalonia. In the present work we report an assay using three different approaches for surveying the genetic diversity in this rare, endangered campion: analysis of chloroplast haplotypes, AFLPs and transferability of microsatellites previously developed for Silene latifolia. None of the nine chloroplast regions sequenced showed any variability. Five out of the 21 microsatellite loci tested were polymorphic although more loci are required in order to perform a robust population genetics study. Regarding the AFLP analysis, five out of the 26 pairs of primers tested exhibited moderate levels of variability and therefore they could be useful for further investigating the genetic structure of S. sennenii. Although preliminary, our results based on three different genetic markers are in agreement with the low values of genetic variation already reported for this species employing allozymes.Silene sennenii es una especie endémica, circunscrita a un área extremadamente reducida al NE de la Península Ibérica. Está catalogada como EN («En Peligro» según criterios UICN y se encuentra legalmente protegida en Cataluña. En el presente trabajo se expone el ensayo de tres aproximaciones diferentes al estudio de su diversidad genética: análisis de haplotipos cloroplásticos, AFLPs y transferibilidad de microsatélites diseñados previamente para Silene latifolia. Ninguna de las nueve regiones cloroplásticas secuenciadas ha presentado variabilidad. Se han obtenido cinco loci microsatélites polimórficos de los 21 ensayados, cantidad insuficiente para llevar a cabo un estudio robusto sobre genética poblacional. En cuanto a AFLPs, cinco combinaciones de cebadores de las 26 probadas han mostrado niveles moderados de variabilidad siendo así útiles para posteriores

  17. Sexual dimorphism in white campion: complex control of carpel number is revealed by Y chromosome deletions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexual dimorphism in the dioecious plant white campion (Silene latifolia = Melandrium album) is under the control of two main regions on the Y chromosome. One such region, encoding the gynoecium-suppressing function (GSF), is responsible for the arrest of carpel initiation in male flowers. To generate chromosomal deletions, we used pollen irradiation in male plants to produce hermaphroditic mutants (bsx mutants) in which carpel development was restored. The mutants resulted from alterations in at least two GSF chromosomal regions, one autosomal and one located on the distal half of the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome. The two mutations affected carpel development independently, each mutation showing incomplete penetrance and variegation, albeit at significantly different levels. During successive meiotic generations, a progressive increase in penetrance and a reduction in variegation levels were observed and quantified at the level of the Y-linked GSF (GSF-Y). Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the behavior of the bsx mutations: epigenetic regulation or/and second-site mutation of modifier genes. In addition, studies on the inheritance of the hermaphroditic trait showed that, unlike wild-type Y chromosomes, deleted Y chromosomes can be transmitted through both the male and the female lines. Altogether, these findings bring experimental support, on the one hand, to the existence on the Y chromosome of genic meiotic drive function(s) and, on the other hand, to models that consider that dioecy evolved through multiple mutation events. As such, the GSF is actually a system containing more than one locus and whose primary component is located on the Y chromosome

  18. Patterns of molecular evolution in dioecious and non-dioecious Silene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaefer, J.; Talianová, Martina; Bigot, T.; Michu, Elleni; Gueguen, L.; Widmer, A.; Žlůvová, Jitka; Glemin, S.; Marais, G.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2013), s. 335-346. ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/08/0932; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002; GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : purifying selection * reproductive system s * Silene latifolia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.483, year: 2013

  19. Inbreeding and oubreeding effects on pollen fitness and zygote survival in Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Siegismund, H.R.

    inbreeding depression, oubreeding effects, outcrossing, pollen fitness, selfing, Silene nutans, zygote survival......inbreeding depression, oubreeding effects, outcrossing, pollen fitness, selfing, Silene nutans, zygote survival...

  20. History of the invasion of the anther smut pathogen on Silene latifolia in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, Michael C; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the routes of pathogen introduction contributes greatly to efforts to protect against future disease emergence. Here, we investigated the history of the invasion in North America by the fungal pathogen Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, which causes the anther smut disease on the white ca

  1. Identifying new sex-linked genes through BAC sequencing in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blavet, Nicolas; Blavet, Hana; Muyle, A.; Käfer, J.; Cegan, R.; Deschamps, C.; Zemp, N.; Mousset, S.; Aubourg, S.; Bergero, R.; Charlesworth, D.; Hobza, Roman; Widmer, A.; Marais, G.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, JUL 25 (2015), s. 546. ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/12/2220 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Sex chromosomes * Sex-linked genes * Plant Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2014

  2. Identifying new sex-linked genes through BAC sequencing in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blavet, N.; Blavet, Hana; Muyle, A.; Kaefer, J.; Čegan, Radim; Deschamps, C.; Zemp, N.; Mousset, S.; Aubourg, S.; Bergero, R.; Charlesworth, D.; Hobza, Roman; Widmer, A.; Marais, G.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, JUL 2015 (2015). ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2220 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Y-CHROMOSOME * EVOLUTION * REARRANGEMENTS Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2014

  3. Molecular and Quantitative Genetic Differentiation in European Populations of Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jolivet, Céline; Bernasconi, Giorgina

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: Among-population differentiation in phenotypic traits and allelic variation is expected as a consequence of isolation, drift, founder effects and local selection. Therefore, investigating molecular and quantitative genetic divergence is a pre-requisite for studies of local adaptation in response to selection under variable environmental conditions. Methods: Among- and within-population variation were investigated in six geographically separated European populations of t...

  4. Analisi di un campione significativo di Learning Objects.

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    Luigi Guerra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro analizza sul piano pedagogico e didattico il concetto di Learning Object (LO a partire dalla rilevazione diretta dei modelli formativi sottostanti, in forma esplicita o implicita, un campione significativo di Learning Objects identificato all’interno di rilevanti esperienze di e-learning universitarie e non universitarie prodotte in diverse nazioni, allo scopo di giungere alla messa a punto di una modellistica problematica di tipo didattico dei Learning Objects, funzionale alla costruzione di algoritmi differenziati di progettazione, realizzazione, erogazione e valutazione di LO, anche nella prospettiva dei Learning Artifacts.

  5. A CONTlRUBUTION TO THE FLORA OF TURKEY: Silene fabaroides

    OpenAIRE

    F. DANE, G. DALGIÇ

    2015-01-01

    Silene fabaroides Hausskn. is added to the flora of Turkey with the specimenscollected from European Turkey (A1 (E) Edirne). Description of the species with illustration is given.Key words: Flora of Turkey, Silene fabaroides.

  6. Assets and irradiation performance of the silene reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to study the behavior and the consequences of a criticality accident led the Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute in 1974 to design and build an experimental facility called Silene at the site of Valduc, France. The reactor is in the form of a small annular vessel in which a fissile solution of uranyl nitrate is designed to open-quotes divergeclose quotes by withdrawing a control rod. This intense source of neutron and gamma radiation soon proved to be an exceptional research tool, whose scope largely exceeded that of criticality. The reasons for this success and SILENE's extended polyvalence result from its main assets, which are presented here

  7. An accumulation of tandem DNA repeats on the Y chromosome in Silene latifolia during early stages of sex chromosome evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Roman; Lengerová, Martina; Svoboda, J.; Kubeková, H.; Kejnovský, Eduard; Vyskot, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 5 (2006), s. 376-382. ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/06/0056; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/2097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : plant melandrium-album * dioecious plant * X-chromosome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.065, year: 2006

  8. MK17, a specific marker closely linked to the gynoecium suppression region on the Y chromosome in Silene latifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Roman; Hrušáková, P.; Šafář, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Janoušek, Bohuslav; Žlůvová, Jitka; Michu, Elleni; Doležel, Jaroslav; Vyskot, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2006), s. 280-287. ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/06/0056; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/05/H505; GA ČR(CZ) GA521/05/2076; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : sex chromosomes * melandrium-album * evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2006

  9. A new isoflavone from the fruits of Madhuca latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Khan, Shazia; Nadeem Kardar, M

    2010-01-01

    A new isoflavone, 3',4'-dihydroxy-5,2'-dimethoxy-6,7-methylendioxy isoflavone, was isolated from the Madhuca latifolia fruit coatings. The structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:20013476

  10. Pharmacognostic standardisation of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isaac Kingsley Amponsah; AbrahamYeboah Mensah; Antonia Otoo; Merlin Lincoln Kwao Mensah; Jato Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    To establish the pharmacognostic characters for the correct identification and quality control of Hilleria latifolia (H. latifolia), an important herb in Ghanaian folklore medicine, for the treatment of infections, pain and inflammation. Methods: The macro-morphological, qualitative and quantitative microscopic features, physicochemical and phytochemical features of the medicinally used parts of H. latifolia were evaluated using standard methods. Results: The plant has simple, alternate leaves with entire margin. The lamina is ovate to broadly lanceolate with an acuminate apex. It is hypostomatic with anomocytic stomata. The plant contains abundant prismatic crystals in all parts. Starch grains abound in the roots. The quantitative indices of the leaf and physicochemical parameters have also been established. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic features established in this study may be used as part of the pharmacopoeial standard for the correct identification and quality control of H. latifolia.

  11. International intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry system. SILENE 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty laboratories issued from 29 countries participated in an international intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry systems, which took place in France in June 2002, at the SILENE reactor and at a pure gamma source. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) and the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) with the help of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the different aspects of this intercomparison. The dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared to the reference values. (author)

  12. Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for ''male dimorphism'' (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state

  13. Variabilità craniometrica in un campione di Tursiops truncatus italiani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Manfrini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Una ricerca è stata avviata per determinare le caratteristiche craniometriche dei popolamenti di Tursiops truncatus dell'Adriatico centrosettentrionale e quelli del Tirreno settentrionale. Grazie alla collaborazione dei Musei di Storia Naturale di Genova e di Firenze, dell?Accademia dei Fisiocritici di Siena, del Comando del Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Stazione di Bosco Mesola (Fe si sono potuti confrontare gli esemplari della collezione della Fondazione Cetacea raggiungendo così 34 unità. Le variabili considerate sono 39, misurate o descritte per ogni cranio quando disponibili, oltre al sesso e alla lunghezza totale, per un totale di 1326 informazioni. I crani utilizzati appartengono tutti a esemplari adulti la cui lunghezza condilobasale dev'essere compresa tra 500 e 580 mm. L'analisi statistica ha considerato, per il calcolo dei parametri della statistica descrittiva, le misure dirette e si è poi proceduto a normalizzare il dataset mediante la lunghezza totale. Mediante analisi bivariata si è poi ricercata la correlazione lineare tra alcune variabili e la lunghezza condilobasale, così come un prima analisi delle componenti principali è stata utilizzata per ulteriori verifiche. Un importante risultato conseguito risulta l?aver raccolto in modo sistematico un campione iniziale sufficientemente consistente. Inoltre le medie e le variabilità del campione, rientrano negli intervalli riportati in letteratura in ambito mediterraneo. Non sono emerse differenze significativa tra le variabili utilizzate e il sesso, se non per la larghezza del rostro a 60 mm dalla base. Considerando la differente provenienza sono 11 le variabili significative evidenziando soprattutto i parametri di maggior larghezza per il contesto adriatico. Anche le altre metodologie implementate sottolineano come l'aspetto predominante dell'insieme dei dati sia la larghezza e una tendenziale differenza tra l'Adriatico centrosettentrionale e il Tirreno settentrionale

  14. "Initial investigation into computer scoring of candidate essays for personnel selection": Correction to Campion et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Initial Investigation Into Computer Scoring of Candidate Essays for Personnel Selection" by Michael C. Campion, Michael A. Campion, Emily D. Campion and Matthew H. Reider (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Apr 14, 2016, np). In the article the affiliations for Emily D. Campion and Matthew H. Reider were originally incorrect. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-18130-001.) Emerging advancements including the exponentially growing availability of computer-collected data and increasingly sophisticated statistical software have led to a "Big Data Movement" wherein organizations have begun attempting to use large-scale data analysis to improve their effectiveness. Yet, little is known regarding how organizations can leverage these advancements to develop more effective personnel selection procedures, especially when the data are unstructured (text-based). Drawing on literature on natural language processing, we critically examine the possibility of leveraging advances in text mining and predictive modeling computer software programs as a surrogate for human raters in a selection context. We explain how to "train" a computer program to emulate a human rater when scoring accomplishment records. We then examine the reliability of the computer's scores, provide preliminary evidence of their construct validity, demonstrate that this practice does not produce scores that disadvantage minority groups, illustrate the positive financial impact of adopting this practice in an organization (N ∼ 46,000 candidates), and discuss implementation issues. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of using computer scoring to address the adverse impact-validity dilemma. We suggest that it may provide a cost-effective means of using predictors that have comparable validity but have previously been too expensive for large-scale screening. (Psyc

  15. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) a...

  16. Constructive applications of composite gypsum reinforced with Typha Latifolia fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Santos, A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research analyses the possibility to reinforce gypsum using enea fibres (Typha Latifolia creating a compound material in wich the fibres contribute to increase mechanical resistance, producing as well a reduction of the weight and a possible regulation of the set time.

    La investigación presente analiza la posibilidad de reforzar los morteros de escayola mediante la utilización dé fibras de Typha Latifolia, creando un material compuesto en el que las fibras contribuyen al aumento de resistencia mecánica, a la vez que se produce una reducción del peso y una regulación de los tiempos de fraguado. Las propiedades de estos materiales hacen que, en determinadas aplicaciones, su utilización resulte ventajosa con respecto a materiales tradicionales.

  17. Arbutin derivatives from the seeds of Madhuca latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shazia; Kardar, M Nadeem; Siddiqui, Bina S

    2011-11-01

    A new arbutin derivative, madhuglucoside (1), along with three known arbutin derivatives were isolated from the seeds of Madhuca latifolia in addition to seven other known constituents. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis. Compounds 1a, 2a and 3a were obtained in a pure state after acetylation of the mother fraction and characterized as their acetyl derivatives. PMID:22224283

  18. Abnormal Seedlings in Madhuca latifolia-An important biodiesel tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sangram bhanudas chavan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mahua is one of the most important tree species for tribals in parts of central India for their livelihood security. It is promising oil yielding tree species for biodiesel production having properties that replaces diesel fuel. During the germination study of Madhuca latifolia conducted at NRCAF nursery, abnormalities in the form of twin and triplet seedlings were recorded. Reporting of this type of occurrence will be helpful for management of seedlings in nursery as well as for future breeding program.

  19. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  20. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  1. Studies on the terpene metabolism in Lavandula latifolia Medicus

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Poudereux, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Resumen en castellano Estudio del metabolismo de los terpenos en Lavandula latifolia Medicus Justificación y objetivos La biosíntesis de los dos precursores universales de los terpenos vegetales, el isopentenildifosfato (IPP) y el dimetilalildifosfato (DMAPP), es un proceso complejo en el que intervienen dos rutas metabólicas independientes (Rodríguez-Concepción y Boronat, 2002; Lange y Ahkami, 2013): La ruta del mevalonato (MVA) que opera en el citosol, retículo endoplasmático y ...

  2. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  3. Analysis of Chromosome Number in Some Allium and Silene Wild Species with Ornamental Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia DRAGHIA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyses the number of somatic chromosomes in plant species with ornamental value, in Romanian indigenous flora, Allium (A. flavum L., A. saxatile Bieb. and Silene (S. compacta Fischer., S. supina M.Bieb.. The biological material was identified and harvested in the South-Eastern part of Dobrogea (Tulcea and Constanţa counties, area in the South-Eastern part of Romania, situated between the Danube and the Black Sea. Individuals from two populations of Allium flavum and Allium saxatile, respectively from Tulcea county (Turcoaia town and Constanţa county (from Cheile Dobrogei were analyzed. In the case of Silene compacta and Silene supina, plants of one population in Tulcea county, Turcoaia town, were used. The aim of the analysis was the quantification and comparison of the somatic chromosomes of plants from the same species but different populations, as is the case of the two Allium species, but also to relate them to results from specialty literature, reported by others. The chromosome number was determined in the roots of the small plants that were obtained from seeds collected in their natural habitat. Except the case of Silene supina species, where only diploid forms were identified (2n=24, when in specific literature tetraploid forms are mentioned (2n=48, found in other areas, all other analyzed taxa register similar data to that reported in other geographic regions. Respectively, 2n= 16 in the case of Allium flavum and Allium saxatile and 2n= 24 in the case of Silene compacta.

  4. Abitudini alimentari di un campione di popolazione giovanile siciliana e calabrese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Calisto

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivo: valutare le abitudini alimentari, igieniche e la percezione di sé in un campione di studenti siciliani e calabresi.

    Materiali e Metodi: è stato condotto uno studio basato sulla compilazione in classe di un questionario, somministrato a 933 studenti dalla quarta elementare all’ultima classe di scuola superiore. Le schede con domande di tipo aperto e chiuso, a risposta singola o multipla, hanno fornito notizie di carattere antropometrico e sociofamiliare, sulle abitudini igienico alimentari e sulla percezione di sé.

    Risultati: dai dati emerge che l’ 85,6% dei ragazzi effettua la prima colazione consumando latte (43,9%, latte e caffè (30,3%, biscotti (31,8% e cereali (18,9%. L’ 89,7% fa uno spuntino a metà mattinata per lo più con panino e salumi (51,6%. Nel pomeriggio l’ 89,5% fa la merenda consumando soprattutto merendine (37,3% e succhi di frutta (28,3%.

    Circa la frequenza di assunzione di alimenti, carne, salumi, formaggi e patate sono consumati più volte a settimana; uova e pesce una volta a settimana; pasta una volta al giorno; pane e frutta fresca tutti i giorni a pranzo e a cena. Meno consumati verdura e legumi, con una preferenza per lenticchie e piselli. Il 54,6% consuma cioccolata ed il 53,4% chewing-gum. Il 78,2% consuma i pasti in compagnia dei familiari, guardando la televisione (69,8%. Dall’indagine si evince che i ragazzi non sempre hanno una visione corretta del loro corpo, infatti il 68,9% di essi, nonostante sia normopeso vorrebbe essere più magro.

    Conclusioni: si rendono necessari interventi educativi per migliorare le abitudini alimentari, favorendo la scelta di cibi sani. Occorre incrementare il consumo di verdure, legumi e frutta riducendo quello dei dolciumi che favoriscono sovrappeso e obesità. Inoltre bisogna realizzare una maggiore collaborazione tra scuola e sanità per educare i ragazzi ad una

  5. Recent Acceleration of Plastid Sequence and Structural Evolution Coincides with Extreme Mitochondrial Divergence in the Angiosperm Genus Silene

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, Daniel B; Alverson, Andrew J; Wu, Martin; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Taylor, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    The angiosperm genus Silene exhibits some of the most extreme and rapid divergence ever identified in mitochondrial genome architecture and nucleotide substitution rates. These patterns have been considered mitochondrial specific based on the absence of correlated changes in the small number of available nuclear and plastid gene sequences. To better assess the relationship between mitochondrial and plastid evolution, we sequenced the plastid genomes from four Silene species with fully sequenc...

  6. Conservation Strategies for Anogeissus Latifolia in The Srinagar Valley of Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Singh RAJWAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article focuses on the various disturbance agents such as fire, grazing and browsing, over-exploitation of resources, dam constructions, road constructions etc., affecting the growth of Anogeissus latifolia in the Srinagar valley of Uttarakhand. A. latifolia is the prominent tree species of this valley and is an important source of fuel, fodder, timber and other basic uses for the local villagers. The inevitable pressure on the A. latifolia is leading to severe destruction of the species and may create the scarcity of that species in the near future. Therefore, joint efforts need to be implemented by the local villagers with government agencies for conservation and sustainable use of A. latifolia. The government may also take a initiative by allotting demarcated forests areas to the villagers as village forest, thus motivating the villagers to take special care for its protection and rehabilitation and for a sustainable output.

  7. Pharmacognostic standardisation of Hilleria latifolia(Lam.) H.Walt.(Phytolaccaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isaac; Kingsley; Amponsah; Abraham; Yeboah; Mensah; Antonia; Otoo; Merlin; Lincoln; Kwao; Mensah; Jato; Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To establish the pharmacognostic characters for the correct identification and quality control of Hilleria latifolia(H.latifolia),an important herb in Ghanaian folklore medicine,for the treatment of infections,pain and inflammation.Methods:The macro-morphological,qualitative and quantitative microscopic features,physicochemical and phytochemical features of the medicinally used parts of H.latifolia were evaluated using standard methods.Results:The plant has simple,alternate leaves with entire margin.The lamina is ovate to broadly lanceolate with an acuminate apex.It is hypostomatic with anomocytie stomata.The plant contains abundant prismatic crystals in all parts.Starch grains abound in the roots.The quantitative indices of the leaf and physicochemical parameters have also been established.Conclusions:The pharmacognostic features established in this study may be used as part of the pharmacopoeia! standard for the correct identification and quality control of H.latifolia.

  8. Toxicological evaluation of mowrah (Madhuca latifolia Macbride) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, K M; Gandhi, V M; Mulky, M J

    1996-01-01

    Mowrah (M. latifolia) seeds yield 40-50% edible fat and the meal contains saponins besides protein and high level of carbohydrates. The toxicity of the meal was evaluated as it has a potential for use in animal feedstuffs. The meal was fed to young and adult rats at levels of 10 to 40% in diet. The animals showed marked inhibition of feed intake and loss of body weight resulting in mortalities. Histopathological examination revealed a gradation of damage from slight erosion of the tip of villi of intestinal mucous membrane to complete necrosis and destruction of it, with increasing amounts of mowrah seed meal in diets. The other significant change was a severe vacuolar degeneration of kidney tubular cells. Detoxification or complete removal of the toxins is necessary for utilization of the meal as animal feedingstuff. PMID:8698410

  9. EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA LEAVES IN ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Arutla Rajender; A. Suresh; V. Suresh; G. Saker; N. Varaprasad

    2011-01-01

    Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) has been reported to be used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and skin diseases. We studied the antiulcer potential of the methanolic extract in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in the above-mentioned disorders. Gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extract of Anogeissus latifolia (ALE) (200 and 400 mg/kg/body weight) was studied on aspirin, and ethanol-induc...

  10. Uso di stimatori per la valutazione dell'abbondanza di popolazioni campionate con metodi CMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Canova

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La stima dell'abbondanza di popolazione rappresenta un aspetto di fondamentale importanza ed elevata complessità nell'ecologia delle popolazioni animali. I metodi applicabili agli studi che prevedono cattura, marcatura e ricattura (CMR sono stati analizzati criticamente da Nichols e Pollock, i quali raccomandano l'adozione di stimatori basati su modelli probabilistici anziché i più diffusi metodi enumerativi. Scopo del presente lavoro è di confrontare le stime di abbondanza di popolazioni di Apodemus sylvaticus e Clethrionomys glareolus desunte da modelli probabilistici e relativi estimatori rispetto a metodi enumerativi quali il Minimum Number Alive (MNA. Fra il mese di aprile 2002 e febbraio 2003 le popolazioni di topo selvatico e arvicola rossastra sono state campionate mediante metodi CMR. L'area di studio è rappresentata dalla RN "Monticchie" di Somaglia (LO; la griglia di cattura era costituita da 98 trappole disposte a 10 m. Le trappole erano innescate con semi di girasole e controllate giornalmente. Gli individui catturati marcati e rilasciati dopo la raccolta di dati biometrici. I dati di popolazione sono stati elaborati adottando il "robust design" di Pollock. Il periodo di cattura è stato diviso in sessioni primarie (mesi e secondarie (settimane; Φ (sopravvivenza e N (abbondanza sono stati calcolati rispettivamente sulla base dei dati delle sessioni primarie e secondarie utilizzando i software Jolly e Capture. Stime indipendenti di N sono state ricavate da Jolly e applicando il MNA. L'analisi dei dati mostra che la precondizione di chiusura demografica delle popolazioni durante le sessioni secondarie di cattura è soddisfatta nell'82% dei casi. I modelli selezionati da Capture, e i relativi estimatori dell'abbondanza sono in prevalenza, per entrambe le specie, Mo (null e Mh (jackknife. Il confronto fra i modelli di tipo enumerativo e di tipo probabilistico dimostra che le stime di N ottenute mediante il primo

  11. Analytical evaluation of dose measurement of critical accident at SILENE (Contract research)

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T; Tonoike, K

    2003-01-01

    Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) jointly organized SILENE Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise to intercompare the dose measurement systems of participating countries. Each participating country carried out dose measurements in the same irradiation field, and the measurement results were mutually compared. The participated in the exercise to measure the doses of gamma rays and neutron from SILENE by using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's) and an alanine dosimeter. In this examination, the derived evaluation formulae for obtaining a tissue-absorbed dose from measured value (ambient dose equivalent) of TLD for neutron. We reported the tissue-absorbed dose computed using this evaluation formula to OECD/NEA. TLD's for neutron were irradiated in the TRACY facility to verify the evaluation formulae. The results of TLD's were compared with the calculations of MCNP and measurements with alanine dose meter. We found that the ratio of the dose b...

  12. Seed germination characteristics of Phillyrea angustifolia L. and P. latifolia L. (Oleaceae), two Mediterranean shrub species having lignified endocarp

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mira; Luciana Veiga-Barbosa; Félix Pérez-García

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the germination characteristics of Phillyrea angustifolia L. and P. latifolia L. seeds in order to develop an optimized propagation protocol for Phillyrea species. Seeds of P. angustifolia and P. latifolia were collected from wild plants growing in Cáceres province (CW Spain) and Andalucía (S Spain), respectively. Percentage of water uptake for P. latifolia seeds was calculated. Seeds with and without endocarp were germinated at different constant and al...

  13. Evolution of gynodioecy-gynomonoecy : experimental approaches in Silene nutans & theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garraud, Claire

    2011-01-01

    In flowering plants, gynodioecy -- a system in which females and hermaphrodites coexist within populations -- is the most common sexual system after hermaphroditism. The evolution and maintenance of gynodiocy and its underlying polymorphism have puzzled evolutionary biologists since the 19th century. The main principles of its evolution are well known but some points remain vague. During my PhD, I explored three aspects of gynodioecy using an experimental approach in the species Silene nutans...

  14. Reproductive toxicology and nutritional studies on mahua oil (Madhuca latifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukmini, C

    1990-09-01

    Mahua (Madhuca latifolia, Sapotaceae) seed oil is a common ingredient of hydrogenated fat in India. It is obtained from the seed kernels (which contain 45% oil, w/w), and is a pale yellow, semi-solid fat at room temperature. It has palmitic (19%), stearic (15%), oleic (42%) and linoleic (24%) as a major fatty acids. The physicochemical parameters of the oil are similar to those of other edible oils. The unsaponifiable fraction contains several unidentified polyenes. Nutritional studies were carried out in groups of 15 weanling albino rats of each sex, fed for 14 wk on a 20% protein diet, adequate in all vitamins and minerals, containing 10% mahua oil. A similar (control) group was simultaneously maintained on the same basic diet containing 10% groundnut oil. The growth, fat absorption, and retention of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus were similar in the two groups, as were the lipid profiles of the serum, liver and heart. Multigeneration reproduction studies in groups of 15 rats of each sex, fed a diet containing 10% mahua oil, as used in the above study, indicated poor reproductive performance in the second generation. All the male rats became sterile. Histological studies indicated bilateral testicular atrophy with degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules in the affected animals. On withdrawal of mahua oil from the diet and rehabilitation, the male animals regained their fertility. These results indicate temporary male sterility on feeding mahua oil to rats. No other adverse toxicological effects were found. PMID:2272556

  15. Antidiabetic Effect of Nauclea latifolia Leaf Ethanolic Extract in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

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    Gidado Abubakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and possible toxicity of ethanolic extract of the leaf of Nauclea latifolia was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight were given orally to the STZ-induced diabetic rats daily for 45 days. All the doses showed significant hypoglycaemic effect. The effect is however not dose dependent. Indices of liver and kidney functions studied were not statistically affected by the extract administration. Ethanolic extract of the leaf of N. latifolia thus exhibited antidiabetic action in STZ-induced diabetic rats with minimal toxicity.

  16. A new triterpenoid, madhunolic acid, from the seeds of Madhuca latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, B S; Khan, S; Kardar, M N; Perwaiz, S

    2007-01-01

    A new triterpenoid, madhunolic acid, along with the three known constituents stigmasterol, 4-hydroxymethyl benzoate, and hydroquinone were isolated from the fruit seeds of Madhuca latifolia. The structure of the new compound was elucidated as 2beta,3beta,23-trihydroxyurs-5,12,20-trien-28-oic acid (1) on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. PMID:17566924

  17. A host plant genome (Zizania latifolia) after a century-long endophyte infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Longbiao; Qiu, Jie; Han, Zujing; Ye, Zihong; Chen, Chao; Liu, Chuanjun; Xin, Xiufang; Ye, Chu-Yu; Wang, Ying-Ying; Xie, Hongqing; Wang, Yu; Bao, Jiandong; Tang, She; Xu, Jie; Gui, Yijie; Fu, Fei; Wang, Weidi; Zhang, Xingchen; Zhu, Qianhua; Guang, Xuanmin; Wang, Chongzhi; Cui, Haifeng; Cai, Daguang; Ge, Song; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Qian, Qian; He, Sheng Yang; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-08-01

    Despite the importance of host-microbe interactions in natural ecosystems, agriculture and medicine, the impact of long-term (especially decades or longer) microbial colonization on the dynamics of host genomes is not well understood. The vegetable crop 'Jiaobai' with enlarged edible stems was domesticated from wild Zizania latifolia (Oryzeae) approximately 2000 years ago as a result of persistent infection by a fungal endophyte, Ustilago esculenta. Asexual propagation via infected rhizomes is the only means of Jiaobai production, and the Z. latifolia-endophyte complex has been maintained continuously for two centuries. Here, genomic analysis revealed that cultivated Z. latifolia has a significantly smaller repertoire of immune receptors compared with wild Z. latifolia. There are widespread gene losses/mutations and expression changes in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway in Jiaobai. These results show that continuous long-standing endophyte association can have a major effect on the evolution of the structural and transcriptomic components of the host genome. PMID:26072920

  18. Evidence for asymmetrical hybridization despite pre- and post-pollination reproductive barriers between two Silene species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Montgomery, Benjamin R; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widespread among plants; nevertheless, pre- and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms may maintain species integrity for interfertile species in sympatry despite some gene flow. Interspecific hybridization and potential isolating barriers were evaluated between co-flowering Silene asclepiadea and Silene yunnanensis in an alpine community in southwest China. We investigated morphological and molecular (nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast gene sequence) variation in sympatric populations of S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis. Additionally, we analyzed pollinator behaviour and compared reproductive success between the putative hybrids and their parental species. Both the molecular and morphological data indicate that there were putative natural hybrids in the field, with S. asclepiadae the ovule parent and S. yunnanensis the pollen parent. Bumblebees were the primary visitors to S. asclepiadae and putative hybrids, while butterflies were the primary visitors to S. yunnanensis Pollen production and viability were significantly lower in putative hybrids than the parental species. The direction of hybridization is quite asymmetric from S. yunnanensis to S. asclepiadea Protandry combined with later peak flowering of S. yunnanensis, and pollinator preference may have contributed to the asymmetric pattern of hybridization, but putative hybrids were rare. Our results thus suggest that despite gene flow, S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis can maintain species boundaries, perhaps as a result of floral isolation and low fecundity of the hybrids. PMID:27178066

  19. Analytical evaluation of dose measurement of critical accident at SILENE (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) jointly organized SILENE Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise to intercompare the dose measurement systems of participating countries. Each participating country carried out dose measurements in the same irradiation field, and the measurement results were mutually compared. The authors participated in the exercise to measure the doses of gamma rays and neutron from SILENE by using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's) and an alanine dosimeter. In this examination, the authors derived evaluation formulae for obtaining a tissue-absorbed dose from measured value (ambient dose equivalent) of TLD for neutron. We reported the tissue-absorbed dose computed using this evaluation formula to OECD/NEA. TLD's for neutron were irradiated in the TRACY facility to verify the evaluation formulae. The results of TLD's were compared with the calculations of MCNP and measurements with alanine dose meter. We found that the ratio of the dose by the evaluation formula to the measured value by the alanine dosimeter was 0.94 and the formula agreed within 6%. From examination of this TRACY, we can conclude that the value reported to OECD/NEA has equivalent accuracy. (author)

  20. Arsenate tolerance in Silene paradoxa does not rely on phytochelatin-dependent sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenate tolerance, As accumulation and As-induced phytochelatin accumulation were compared in populations of Silene paradoxa, one from a mine site enriched in As, Cu and Zn, the other from an uncontaminated site. The mine population was significantly more arsenate-tolerant. Arsenate uptake and root-to-shoot transport were slightly but significantly higher in the non-mine plants. The difference in uptake was quantitatively insufficient to explain the difference in tolerance between the populations. As accumulation in the roots was similar in both populations, but the mine plants accumulated much less phytochelatins than the non-mine plants. The mean phytochelatin chain length, however, was higher in the mine population, possibly due to a constitutively lower cellular glutathione level. It is argued that the mine plants must possess an arsenic detoxification mechanism other than arsenate reduction and subsequent phytochelatin-based sequestration. This alternative mechanism might explain at least some part of the superior tolerance in the mine plants. - Neither decreased uptake nor phytochelatins seem to play a role in the As tolerance in Silene paradoxa

  1. Nauclea latifolia aqueous leaf extract eliminates hepatic and cerebral Plasmodium berghei parasite in experimental mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Innocent; Onyesom; Ejovi; Osioma; Precious; Chiamaka; Okereke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of hot water leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia(N. latifolia) on antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation values and parasite levels in hepatic and brain tissue of experimental mice(BALB/c) infected with Plasmodium berghei(P. berghei) malaria.Methods: Forty nine mice were divided into seven groups(n = 7) and used for the study. Group A(control) were given 0.2 m L/kg phosphate buffer saline; Group B mice were infected with P. berghei and treated with phosphate buffer saline. Groups C and D mice were also infected but treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of leaf extract respectively. Groups E and F mice were not infected, but received 200 and 300 mg/kg of leaf extract respectively. Group G mice were infected and treated with chloroquine(5 mg/kg). Liver and brain tissues of mice were prepared for both biochemical assay and microscopic examination. Results: Results showed that P. berghei malaria infection induced oxidative stress in both liver and brain tissues as evidenced by the significant(P < 0.05) decrease in antioxidants: superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase. These reductions perhaps caused compromise in membrane integrity as indicated by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdhyde. Malaria parasites were also identified in these tissues. However, N. latifolia treatment eliminated the parasites in tissues and protected them from oxidative damage even better than chloroquine treatment did, whose anti-malarial potency also cleared tissue parasites. The measurement of protection by N. latifolia against damage was strengthened by the insignificant micro structural alterations.Conclusions: The bioactive phytochemical(s) in N. latifolia should be structured and the mechanism(s) of its antimalarial tendency should be further investigated.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic components of growth and reproduction in Typha latifolia: experimental studies in three contrasting marshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The magnitude and causes of intraspecific variation in biomass production and allocation, and morphology for Typha latifolia L. from three marshes which can be distinguished by their successional maturity were investigated. The first stage of investigation was to determine the environmental characteristics of the three marshes and the characteristics of the T. latifolia populations. Second, in situ studies of /sup 14/C fixation and allocation were used to determine the phenotypic variation in biomass production and allocation. Third, populations were sampled for genotypic variation in biomass allocation patterns by comparing growth in controlled garden experiments. Fourth, the growth of different biotypes was compared by transplantation into natural stands of T. latifolia. And fifth, the intraspecific variations were considered in terms of their consequences for the persistence of T. latifolia in habitats over successional time.

  3. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Akmal Ishak; Maznah Ismail; Muhajir Hamid; Zalinah Ahmad; Siti Aisyah Abd Ghafar

    2013-01-01

    Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD) and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adi...

  4. EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA LEAVES IN ALBINO RATS

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    Arutla Rajender

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC. Wall. ex Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae has been reported to be used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and skin diseases. We studied the antiulcer potential of the methanolic extract in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in the above-mentioned disorders. Gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extract of Anogeissus latifolia (ALE (200 and 400 mg/kg/body weight was studied on aspirin, and ethanol-induced ulcers. The results of the present study showed for the first time that the ALE possessed gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition in the formation of ulcers induced by chemical agents with a maximum of 88.95%. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. These findings could justify, at least partially, the inclusion of this plant in the management of gastric disorders in traditional medicine.

  5. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic stem bark extract ofSchotia latifolia Jacq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunday Oyewole Oyedemi; Anthony Jide Afolayan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic extract ofSchotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark commonly used in South Africa traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments.Methods: The antibacterial test andMIC was determined by using agar well diffusion and dilution methods respectively against eight strains of bacteria. The total phenol, proanthocyanidin and flavonoid contents ofS. latifolia were assessed using standard methods. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid(ABTS), nitric oxide(NO), hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)and lipid oxidation(LO).Results:The antibacterial activity demonstrated an appreciable effect against all the gram positive bacteria atMIC between0.016 and10 mg/mL while that of gram negative bacteria was above10 mg/mL. The plant extract exhibited high concentration of proanthocyanidin [(300.00±0.10) mgCE/g], followed by flavonoid [(12.46±0.04 mg) TE/g] and phenol [(11.06±0.03) mgQE/g] contents. Similarly, the extract at0.5 mg/mL scavenges DPPH, ABTS, H2O2, LO andNO by87.55%, 89.47%, 77.15%, 86.48% and77.75% of the radicals respectively. The reducing power was also found to be concentration dependent.Conclusions:Our data suggest thatS. latifolia extract has antibacterial and antioxidants activity and thus could be used as alternative therapy against antibiotic resistance bacteria and to prevent many radical related diseases.

  6. Anatomy and Histochemistry of Roots and Shoots in Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaodong Yang; Xia Zhang; Junkai Li; Manzhu Bao; Dejiang Ni; SEAGO, JAMES L.

    2014-01-01

    Wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) is a famous, perennial, emergent vegetable in China. The current work explores the anatomy and histochemistry of roots, stems, and leaves and the permeability of apoplastic barriers of wild rice. The adventitious roots in wild rice have suberized and lignified endodermis and adjacent, thick-walled cortical layers and suberized and lignified hypodermis, composed of a uniseriate sclerenchyma layer (SC) underlying uniseriate exodermis; they also have lysigen...

  7. Nauclea latifolia aqueous leaf extract eliminates hepatic and cerebral Plasmodium berghei parasite in experimental mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Innocent Onyesom; Ejovi Osioma; Precious Chiamaka Okereke

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess the effects of hot water leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia (N. latifolia) on antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation values and parasite levels in hepatic and brain tissue of experimental mice (BALB/c) infected with Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) malaria. Methods:Forty nine mice were divided into seven groups (n=7) and used for the study. Group A (control) were given 0.2 mL/kg phosphate buffer saline;Group B mice were infected with P. berghei and treated with phosphate buffer saline. Groups C and D mice were also infected but treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of leaf extract respectively. Groups E and F mice were not infected, but received 200 and 300 mg/kg of leaf extract respectively. Group G mice were infected and treated with chloroquine (5 mg/kg). Liver and brain tissues of mice were prepared for both biochemical assay and microscopic examination. Results:Results showed that P. berghei malaria infection induced oxidative stress in both liver and brain tissues as evidenced by the significant (P Conclusions:The bioactive phytochemical(s) in N. latifolia should be structured and the mechanism(s) of its antimalarial tendency should be further investigated.

  8. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyul Chang

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer., like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth. Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean

  9. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production. PMID

  10. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy and paternal leakage in natural populations of Silene vulgaris, a gynodioecious plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Stephanie A; Welch, Mark E; McCauley, David E

    2009-03-01

    It is currently thought that most angiosperms transmit their mitochondrial genomes maternally. Maternal transmission limits opportunities for genetic heterogeneity (heteroplasmy) of the mitochondrial genome within individuals. Recent studies of the gynodioecious species Silene vulgaris and Silene acaulis, however, document both direct and indirect evidence of mitochondrial heteroplasmy, suggesting that the mitochondrial genome is at times transmitted via paternal leakage. This heteroplasmy allows the generation of multi-locus recombinants, as documented in recent studies of both species. A prior study that employed quantitative PCR (q-PCR) on a limited sample provided direct evidence of heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial gene atp1 in S. vulgaris. Here, we apply the q-PCR methods to a much larger sample and extend them to incorporate the study of an additional atp1 haplotype along with two other haplotypes of the mitochondrial gene cox1 to evaluate the origin, extent, and transmission of mitochondrial genome heteroplasmy in S. vulgaris. We first calibrate our q-PCR methods experimentally and then use them to quantify heteroplasmy in 408 S. vulgaris individuals sampled from 22 natural populations located in Virginia, New York, and Tennessee. Sixty-one individuals exhibit heteroplasmy, including five that exhibited the joint heteroplasmy at both loci that is a prerequisite for effective recombination. The heteroplasmic individuals were distributed among 18 of the populations studied, demonstrating that heteroplasmy is a widespread phenomenon in this species. Further, we compare mother and offspring from 71 families to determine the rate of heteroplasmy gained and lost via paternal leakage and vegetative sorting across generations. Of 17 sibships exhibiting cox1 heteroplasmy and 14 sibships exhibiting atp1 heteroplasmy, more than half of the observations of heteroplasmy are generated via paternal leakage at the time of fertilization, with the rest being inherited from a

  11. Indole Alkaloids of Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Awang, Khalijah; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Osman, Hasnah

    2013-04-01

    The inhibition effect of mild steel (MS) corrosion in 1 M HCl was studied by the addition of indole alkaloids (crude) isolated from Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia ( A. latifolia) leaves at 303 K. Potentiodynamic polarization, impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were used for this study. Results show that the isolated alkaloid extract of A. latifolia is a good inhibitor and exhibited maximum inhibition efficiency (above 80%) at concentrations between 3 and 5 mg/L. Polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitor does not alter the mechanism of either anodic or cathodic reactions and acted as mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies of both electrochemical techniques are found to be in good agreement and adsorption of inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption of inhibitor over metal surface was well supported by the SEM studies, while FTIR studies evidenced the presence of indole alkaloids as green inhibitor that reduces the rate of corrosion.

  12. Ilex latifolia Prevents Amyloid β Protein (25-35)-Induced Memory Impairment by Inhibiting Apoptosis and Tau Phosphorylation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Youn; Lee, Hong Kyu; Jang, Ji Yeon; Yoo, Jae Kuk; Seong, Yeon Hee

    2015-12-01

    Ilex latifolia Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae), a Chinese bitter tea called "kudingcha," has been widely consumed as a health beverage and found to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ischemic activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of an ethanol extract of I. latifolia against amyloid β protein (Aβ)-induced memory impairment in mice and neurotoxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons. Memory impairment in mice was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of 15 nmol Aβ (25-35) and measured by the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. Chronic administration of I. latifolia (25-100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly prevented Aβ (25-35)-induced memory loss. I. latifolia also prevented the decrease of glutathione concentrations, increased lipid peroxidation, expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and changes in apoptosis-associated proteins in the memory-impaired mouse brain. Exposure of cultured cortical neurons to 10 μM Aβ (25-35) for 36 h induced neuronal apoptotic death. The neuronal cell death, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, generation of reactive oxygen species, and expression of proapoptotic proteins caused by Aβ (25-35) in the cultured neurons were inhibited by treatment with I. latifolia (1-50 μg/mL). These results suggest that I. latifolia may have a possible therapeutic role in managing cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanism might involve the antiapoptotic effects mediated by antioxidant activity and inhibition of p-tau formation. PMID:26291170

  13. In Vitro Study on the Antioxidant Potentials of the Leaves and Fruits of Nauclea latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola O. Ayeleso

    2014-01-01

    Nauclea latifolia, a straggling shrub or small tree, native to tropical Africa and Asia. Hot water extracts of the leaves and fruits of Nauclea latifolia were assessed for their total polyphenolic, flavanol, and flavonol contents as well as 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays. The aqueous extract of the leaves was found to contain higher level of total polyphenols (11.63±0.023 mg GAE/g, flavanol (1.45±0.10 mg CE/g, and flavonol (2.22±0.37 mg QE/g than the extract of the fruits with values of 1.75±0.02 mg GAE/g (total polyphenol, 0.15±0.01 mg CE/g (flavanol, and 1.00±0.13 mg QE/g (flavonol. Similarly, the aqueous extract of the leaves also exhibited higher DPPH (IC50 20.64 mg/mL, FRAP (86.10±3.46 μmol AAE/g, TEAC (94.83±3.57 μmol TE/g, and ORAC (196.55±0.073 μmol TE/g than the extract of the fruits with DPPH (IC50 120.33 mg/mL, FRAP (12.23±0.40 μmol AAE/g, TEAC (12.48±0.21 μmol TE/g, and ORAC (58.88±0.073 μmol TE/g. The present study showed that Nauclea latifolia has strong antioxidant potentials with the leaves demonstrating higher in vitro antioxidant activities than the fruits.

  14. Mosaic origins of a complex chimeric mitochondrial gene in Silene vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Storchova

    Full Text Available Chimeric genes are significant sources of evolutionary innovation that are normally created when portions of two or more protein coding regions fuse to form a new open reading frame. In plant mitochondria astonishingly high numbers of different novel chimeric genes have been reported, where they are generated through processes of rearrangement and recombination. Nonetheless, because most studies do not find or report nucleotide variation within the same chimeric gene, evolution after the origination of these chimeric genes remains unstudied. Here we identify two alleles of a complex chimera in Silene vulgaris that are divergent in nucleotide sequence, genomic position relative to other mitochondrial genes, and expression patterns. Structural patterns suggest a history partially influenced by gene conversion between the chimeric gene and functional copies of subunit 1 of the mitochondrial ATP synthase gene (atp1. We identified small repeat structures within the chimeras that are likely recombination sites allowing generation of the chimera. These results establish the potential for chimeric gene divergence in different plant mitochondrial lineages within the same species. This result contrasts with the absence of diversity within mitochondrial chimeras found in crop species.

  15. A taxonomic revision of the southern African native and naturalized species of Silene L. (Caryophyllaceae

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    J. C. Manning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The native and naturalized species of Silene L. in southern Africa are reviewed, with full synonomy and the description of two new species from the West Coast of Western Cape. Eight native species and three naturalized species are recognized, including the first identification in southern Africa of the Mediterranean S. nocturna L. The identity of S. aethiopica Burm., which has remained unknown since its description, is established and is found to be the oldest name for S. clandestina Jacq. Patterns of morphological variation within each species are discussed and subspecies are recognized for geographically segregated groups of populations that are ± morphologically diagnosable. The following new names or combinations are made among the southern African taxa: S. aethiopica subsp. longiflora; S. burchellii subsp. modesta, subsp. multiflora, and subsp. pilosellifolia; S. crassifolia subsp. primuliflora; S. saldanhensis; S. rigens; and S. undulata subsp. polyantha. Each taxon is described, with information on ecology and distribution, and most species are illustrated, including SEM micrographs of the seeds.

  16. Geometrical data generation using 'La Java de Silene' GUI for FUBLIA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FUBILA experimental program is a common project between CEA and JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) investigating the physical phenomena occurring in an advanced BWR reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel > is an original Graphical User Interface, written in Java language, for generation of 3D arbitrarily shaped geometries for the neutron transport codes used at CEA. The interface deals simultaneously with two kinds of geometries : regular and unstructured, arranged in collections. Unstructured geometries are built visually and regular ones visually or using a test editor. Regular geometries can be composed using ten different predefined and parameterized components. This paper summarizes the principles of the software and presents some new capabilities, specifically developed for generating the FUBLIA geometries. The principal new developments concern introduction of the possibility to place cylindrical cells on the rectangular cell vertices in the rectangular grid component in order to describe the mercedes between the fuel pins. The rectangular grid component was enriched with the possibility to manage successive nesting of incomplete assemblies, those disposed on the core borders. Consistent meshing of the reflector zone bordering the core was created with the APOLLO3 mesh generator. The effectiveness of the released version of Silene is illustrated with generation and management of one particular geometrical configurations describing the FUBLIA-UGC experimental phase

  17. Franco-Russian comparison of mixed neutron and gamma radiation field dosimeters at the Silene reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives the results of dosimetry measurements carried out in the Silene reactor at Valduc (France) with neutron and photon dosimeters in mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields, in the frame of a Franco-Russian comparison of dosimeters. Neutron dosimetry was supplied by passive semiconductors, activation detectors and nuclear track detectors. For photon dosimetry, thermoluminescent and passive semiconductor detectors were used. The experiments were located at 3 m from the reactor core, in free air and also at the front and back of a tissue-equivalent phantom. The pulse operating mode of the reactor was used to simulate a criticality accident with solid fissile material, while the free evolution mode simulated a criticality accident in a fissile solution. The photon absorbed dose showed a slight increase on entering the phantom compared to measurements in free air, probably due to backscattering by the phantom. At the rear of the phantom, the neutron kerma was four times lower than on the front, whereas the photon dose was only two times lower. The heterogeneity of dose inside the phantom was far greater for neutrons than for photons

  18. The effects of stress intensity and stress type on inbreeding depression in Silene vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandner, Tobias Michael; Matthies, Diethart

    2016-06-01

    Inbreeding depression (ID) is generally assumed to increase under stressful conditions, but a number of studies have found the opposite pattern, that is that crossed offspring were more capable of exploiting benign conditions. Alternatively, the phenotypic variation hypothesis predicts that not stress intensity, but enhanced phenotypic variation in an environment leads to increased ID. We subjected inbred and crossed offspring of Silene vulgaris to drought, simulated herbivory, copper contamination, and two levels of nutrient deficiency and shade. In contrast to the predominant expectation, most stress treatments decreased inbreeding depression. With increasing nutrient limitation, ID decreased strongly, whereas under increasing shade ID did not change. These differences may be due to purging in the population of origin where conditions are nutrient-poor and dry, but not shaded. In contrast to the greenhouse experiment, ID was higher in a field site than in a more benign common garden. However, the predictions of the phenotypic variation hypothesis were met in both the greenhouse and the field versus garden experiment. The results suggest that there may be no general relationship between ID and stress intensity, but specific effects of stress type and the novelty and variability of the environment. PMID:27110935

  19. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil. PMID:24196112

  20. An Efficient In Vitro Plantlet Regeneration from Shoot Tip Cultures of Curculigo latifolia, a Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Babaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure was developed for in vitro propagation of Curculigo latifolia through shoot tip culture. Direct regeneration and indirect scalp induction of Curculigo latifolia were obtained from shoot tip grown on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of thidiazuron and indole-3-butyric acid. Maximum response for direct regeneration in terms of percentage of explants producing shoot, shoot number, and shoot length was obtained on MS medium supplemented with combination of thidiazuron (0.5 mg L−1 and indole-3-butyric acid (0.25 mg L−1 after both 10 and 14 weeks of cultures. Indole-3-butyric acid in combination with thidiazuron exhibited a synergistic effect on shoot regeneration. The shoot tips were able to induce maximum scalp from basal end of explants on the medium with 2 mg L−1 thidiazuron. Cultures showed that shoot number, shoot length, and scalp size increased significantly after 14 weeks of culture. Transferring of the shoots onto the MS medium devoid of growth regulators resulted in the highest percentage of root induction and longer roots, while medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L−1 IBA produced more numbers of roots.

  1. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M L; Del Valle, José C; Whittall, Justen B

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  2. Evidence for paternal transmission and heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial genome of Silene vulgaris, a gynodioecious plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, D E; Bailey, M F; Sherman, N A; Darnell, M Z

    2005-07-01

    Gynodioecy refers to the co-occurrence of females and hermaphrodites in the same population. In many gynodioecious plants, sex is determined by an epistatic interaction between mitochondrial and nuclear genes, resulting in intragenomic evolutionary conflict, should the mitochondrial genome be maternally inherited. While maternal inheritance of the mitochondrial genome is common in angiosperms, few gynodioecious species have been studied. Here, the inheritance of the mitochondrial genes atpA and coxI was studied in 318 Silene vulgaris individuals distributed among 23 crosses. While maternal inheritance was indicated in 96% of the individuals studied, one or more individuals from each of four sib groups displayed a genotype that was identical to the father, or that did not match either parent. Given evidence that inheritance is not strictly maternal, it was hypothesized that some individuals could carry a mixture of maternally and paternally derived copies of the mitochondrial genome, a condition known as heteroplasmy. Since heteroplasmy might be difficult to detect should multiple versions of the mitochondrial genome co-occur in highly unequal copy number, a method was devised to amplify low-copy number forms of atpA differentially. Evidence for heteroplasmy was found in 23 of the 99 individuals studied, including cases in which the otherwise cryptic form of atpA matched the paternal genotype. The distribution of shared nucleotide sequence polymorphism among atpA haplotypes and the results of a population survey of the joint distribution of atpA and coxI haplotypes across individuals supports the hypothesis that heteroplasmy facilitates formation of novel mitochondrial genotypes by recombination. PMID:15829984

  3. Investigating past range dynamics for a weed of cultivation, Silene vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebasky, Megan E; Keller, Stephen R; Taylor, Douglas R

    2016-07-01

    Since the last glacial maximum (LGM), many plant and animal taxa have expanded their ranges by migration from glacial refugia. Weeds of cultivation may have followed this trend or spread globally following the expansion of agriculture or ruderal habitats associated with human-mediated disturbance. We tested whether the range expansion of the weed Silene vulgaris across Europe fit the classical model of postglacial expansion from southern refugia, or followed known routes of the expansion of human agricultural practices. We used species distribution modeling to predict spatial patterns of postglacial expansion and contrasted these with the patterns of human agricultural expansion. A population genetic analysis using microsatellite loci was then used to test which scenario was better supported by spatial patterns of genetic diversity and structure. Genetic diversity was highest in southern Europe and declined with increasing latitude. Locations of ancestral demes from genetic cluster analysis were consistent with areas of predicted refugia. Species distribution models showed the most suitable habitat in the LGM on the southern coasts of Europe. These results support the typical postglacial northward colonization from southern refugia while refuting the east-to-west agricultural spread as the main mode of expansion for S. vulgaris. We know that S. vulgaris has recently colonized many regions (including North America and other continents) through human-mediated dispersal, but there is no evidence for a direct link between the Neolithic expansion of agriculture and current patterns of genetic diversity of S. vulgaris in Europe. Therefore, the history of range expansion of S. vulgaris likely began with postglacial expansion after the LGM, followed by more recent global dispersal by humans. PMID:27547314

  4. Nectar reward and advertisement in hummingbird-pollinated Silene virginica (Caryophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Charles B; Cheely, George; Dudash, Michele R; Reynolds, Richard J

    2006-12-01

    We tested for an association between nectar and various floral traits and investigated their roles as primary and secondary pollinator attractants in hummingbird-pollinated Silene virginica. Our goal was to gain insight into the mechanisms of pollinator-mediated selection that underlies floral trait divergence within the genus. In a field population of S. virginica, we measured five floral and eight vegetative traits and quantified nectar volume, nectar sugar concentration, and total sugar reward (nectar volume × nectar sugar concentration). All three components of nectar reward were positively correlated to flower size, and nectar volume varied significantly among individuals within the population. To ascertain whether the correlation of specific floral traits with nectar reward influences the behavior of the primary pollinator of S. virginica, the ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris, we investigated whether A. colubris preferred the expression of floral traits associated with high nectar volume and total sugar reward. We accomplished this by constructing floral arrays consisting of artificial flowers that had equal nectar quantity and total sugar reward but that differed in petal area and corolla tube diameter, which were positively correlated with nectar quantity and total sugar reward in our field study. In observations of visitation frequencies to the various floral-trait combinations, hummingbirds preferentially visited artificial floral phenotypes with larger petal displays, with the greatest preference for floral phenotypes with both larger petals and wider corolla-tube diameters. This association between primary and secondary floral attractants and hummingbird discrimination of floral features supports the concept that the floral traits of S. virginica reflect pollinator-mediated selection by the principal pollinator. PMID:21642126

  5. Genetical and biochemical evidence that the hydroxylation pattern of the anthocyanin B-ring in Silene dioica is determined at the p-coumaroyl-coenzyme a stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamsteeg, J.; Brederode, J. van; Nigtevecht, G. van

    1980-01-01

    In petals of Silene dioica, gene P controls the 3′-hydroxylation of the anthocyanin B-ring and the hydroxylation pattern of the hydroxycinnamoyl acyl group bound to the 4″'-hydroxyl group of rhamnose of anthocyanidin 3-rhamnosyl(1→6)glucoside-5-glucoside. In this paper, experiments are presented whi

  6. Bioethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by solid-state fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Sujit Kumar [Division of Biotechnology, Majhighariani Institute of Technology and Science, Sriram Vihar, Bhujabal, Rayagada 765017 (India); Behera, Shuvasis [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004 (India); Swain, Manas Ranjan; Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019 (India)

    2009-05-15

    There is a growing interest worldwide to find out new and cheap carbohydrate sources for production of bioethanol. In this context, the production of ethanol from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The moisture level of 70%, pH of 6.0 and temperature of 30 C were found optimum for maximum ethanol concentration (225.0 {+-} 4.0 g/kg flower) obtained from mahula flowers after 72 h of fermentation. Concomitant with highest ethanol concentration, the maximum ethanol productivity (3.13 g/kg flower/h), yeast biomass (18.5 x 10{sup 8} CFU/g flower), the ethanol yield (58.44 g/100 g sugar consumed) and the fermentation efficiency (77.1%) were also obtained at these parametric levels. (author)

  7. Ethanol fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers using free and immobilized yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M R; Kar, S; Sahoo, A K; Ray, R C

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest to find alternate bioresources for production of ethanol, apart from cane/sugar beet molasses and starchy crops like sweet sorghum, cassava and sweet potato. Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) is a forest tree abundantly available in the Indian subcontinent and its flowers are very rich in fermentable sugars (28.1-36.3 g 100 g(-1)). Batch fermentation of fresh and 12-month-stored flowers with free (whole cells) and immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CTCRI) was carried out in 2-l Erlenmeyer flasks. The ethanol yields were 193 and 148 g kg(-1) (using free cells) and 205 and 152 g kg(-1) (using immobilized cells) from fresh and 12-month-stored mahula flowers, respectively. PMID:16580830

  8. Anatomy and Histochemistry of Roots and Shoots in Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb. is a famous, perennial, emergent vegetable in China. The current work explores the anatomy and histochemistry of roots, stems, and leaves and the permeability of apoplastic barriers of wild rice. The adventitious roots in wild rice have suberized and lignified endodermis and adjacent, thick-walled cortical layers and suberized and lignified hypodermis, composed of a uniseriate sclerenchyma layer (SC underlying uniseriate exodermis; they also have lysigenous aerenchyma. Stems have a thickened epidermal cuticle, a narrow peripheral mechanical ring (PMR, an outer ring of vascular bundles, and an inner ring of vascular bundles embedded in a multiseriate sclerenchyma ring (SCR. There is evidence of suberin in stem SCR and PMR sclerenchyma cells. Sheathing leaves are characterized by thick cuticles and fibrous bundle sheath extensions. Air spaces in stems and leaves consist of mostly lysigenous aerenchyma and pith cavities in stems. Apoplastic barriers are found in roots and stems.

  9. Detection of Heavy Metal Contents and Proximate Analysis of roots of Anogeissus latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor K. Dholwani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of heavy metal contamination in plants, serve to indicate the metal concentration status of the site, where plants have grown. This is an important tool for phytoremediation. Proximate analysis in plants gives valuable information and help to access the quality of the sample. So studies were carried out on the roots of Anogeissus latifolia which is useful in UTI infections, skin diseases, liver complaints, fever, epileptic fits etc. for heavy metal contents and proximate analysis of the root sample was also done. The root showed the absence of heavy metals when it was subjected to analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Spectrometer. The ash values, extractive values, moisture content, total solid content and crude fiber content of the root sample were also determined.

  10. Characterization of the bacterial flora associated with root systems of Pinus contorta var. latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerfield, J A; Westlake, D W; Cook, F D

    1978-12-01

    Root systems of young and mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Englem.) were removed from forest stands and the associated aerobic bacterial flora isolated. Characterization of rhizoplane and control soil isolates from these tree root systems demonstrated differences from that reported for agricultural crops. Ammonifying, proteolytic, and amylolytic organisms were proportionately reduced within the rhizoplane. The rhizoplane organisms grew more slowly than the control soil isolates, although they responded in greater numbers to the addition of an amino acid supplement to the growth media. The rhizoplane organisms also showed an increased ability to solubilize phosphate. The chitinolytic organisms were suppressed within the rhizoplane of the mature tree but were stimulated by the young trees. With this exception, the rhizoplane microflora of older and younger trees were similar. PMID:747813

  11. Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide production by Azotobacter indicus using flower extract of Madhuca latifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Satish V; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Deepak M; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2010-10-01

    Efficacy of Azotobacter indicus ATCC 9540 strain for production exopolysaccharide (EPS) bioflocculant was investigated. Mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L), a natural substrate at the concentration of 20 g L(-1), gave maximum recovery of EPS followed by sucrose and mannitol as compared to other carbon sources after 172 h. Yeast extract was found to be the most effective nitrogen source as compared to beef extract, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, casein hydrolysate, and urea for the production of EPS. EPS production was increased in presence of nitrogen (5.51 g L(-1)) as compared to nitrogen-free medium (3.51 g L(-1)), and fermentation time was also reduced by 28 h. Maximum EPS production (6.10 g L(-1)) was found in the presence of 20 g L(-1) flower extract and 0.5 g L(-1) yeast extract containing Ashby's media with 180 rpm at 30 degrees C at 144 h, under controlled conditions in 2.5 L fermenter using optimized medium. The isolated EPS showed cation-dependent flocculating activity. Concentration of EPS played an important role in bioflocculating activity which increased in a concentration-dependent manner up to a certain limit, with the maximum flocculation of 72% at 500 mg L(-1) concentration but remained almost static after this concentration. Extracted polymer was characterized by different chemical tests, FT-IR spectroscopy, and TLC which showed presence of uronic acids, O-acetyl groups, and Orcinol with suggestive indication of alginate like polymer. This study suggests that use of M. latifolia L. flowers can be a potential alternative bioresource for production of exopolysaccharide. PMID:19921493

  12. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

    OpenAIRE

    Shengzhang Dong; Guowan Zheng; Xiaoping Yu; Changhuan Fu

    2012-01-01

    The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck)) was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field condi...

  13. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Kummer; Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz; Camila Fernanda Estevão-Silva; Renata Grespan; Expedito Leite Silva; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Rutaceae) includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka...

  14. Seed germination characteristics of Phillyrea angustifolia L. and P. latifolia L. (Oleaceae, two Mediterranean shrub species having lignified endocarp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the germination characteristics of Phillyrea angustifolia L. and P. latifolia L. seeds in order to develop an optimized propagation protocol for Phillyrea species. Seeds of P. angustifolia and P. latifolia were collected from wild plants growing in Cáceres province (CW Spain and Andalucía (S Spain, respectively. Percentage of water uptake for P. latifolia seeds was calculated. Seeds with and without endocarp were germinated at different constant and alternating temperatures. Seeds without endocarp were soaked in distilled water or gibberellic acid, and then set to germinate. Seeds with endocarp of both species were stratified at 5 ºC for 30 or 90 days and then the endocarp was completely removed from the seeds before they were sowed. Chemical scarification with sulfuric acid and mechanical scarification were tested on P. angustifolia seeds with endocarp. Phillyrea endocarp was permeable to water, since Phillyrea seeds with endocarp imbibed water, but water uptake was faster when the endocarp was removed. Moreover, the encodarp could interfere mechanically in the emergence of the radicle, since seed germination of Phillyrea species was promoted by the complete removal of the lignified endocarp surrounding each seed. Optimal germination temperature for both species was 15 ºC, and lower temperatures produced secondary dormancy. Soaking in distilled water or gibberellic acid did not significantly enhance seed germination. Cold stratification and chemical scarification treatments were detrimental for seed germination.

  15. Antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia (Lam. H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Woode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Hilleria latifolia (Lam. H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae is a perennial herb used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of various painful conditions. Little scientific evidence exists in literature on the effect of this plant on pain. Materials and Methods : The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of H. latifolia in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, glutamate, formalin, and capsaicin tests and thermal (tail immersion test behavioral pain models in rodents. The possible mechanisms of the antinociceptive action were also assessed with various antagonists in the formalin test. Results : The H. latifolia extract (HLE together with morphine and diclofenac (positive controls, showed significant antinociceptive activity in all the models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by HLE in the formalin test was partly or wholly reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, theophylline, and atropine. Glibenclamide, ondansetron, yohimbine, nifedipine, and NG -l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, however, did not significantly block the antinociceptive effect of the extract. HLE, unlike morphine, did not induce tolerance to its antinociceptive effect in the formalin test after chronic administration; morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to HLE. Interestingly, also, the chronic concomitant administration of HLE and morphine significantly suppressed the development of morphine tolerance. Conclusion : Together, these results indicate that HLE produces dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical and thermal pain, without tolerance induction, through mechanisms that involve an interaction with adenosinergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and opioid pathways.

  16. Regulation of photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity by 60Co γ-irradiation in Zizania latifolia plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the photosynthetic performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in response to γ-irradiation of an aquatic plant Zizania latifolia. The Z. latifolia seedlings at 6-leaf stage were exposed to 25, 50 and 100 Gy of γ rays from a 60Co source. The growth parameters, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant contents were examined at 1–5 weeks post-irradiation (WPI). The results showed that plant height, leaf number and tiller (branch close to ground) number were significantly suppressed by 50 and 100 Gy irradiation at 5, 3–5 and 4–5 WPI, respectively, but they were not significantly different from control by 25 Gy irradiation. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll contents were also found to be significantly decreased by irradiation. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) generally declined in a dose-dependent manner. As for the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching (qP) were observed to be significantly decreased compared to the control at 3 WPI, while non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) significantly increased by 100 Gy. γ-irradiation induced substantial increase in MDA content, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, reduced ascorbate (AsA) content and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, suggesting a protective mechanism of Z. latifolia plant against oxidative stress when exposed to γ-irradiation. - Highlights: • The responses of Zizania latifolia plants to 60Co γ-irradiation were examined. • Plant growth was suppressed by high doses of irradiation but slightly affected by low doses. • γ-irradiation reduced PSII activity and chlorophyll content. •

  17. Inter-code comparison exercise for criticality excursion analysis. Benchmarks phase 1: pulse mode experiments with uranyl nitrate solution using the Tracy and Silene experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEA Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety established an Expert Group on Criticality Excursion Analysis in 2001 to explore the performance of various transient codes to evaluate criticality accidents in a fissile solution. Inter-code comparison exercises among four transient codes (AGNES, CRITEX, INCTAC and TRACE) have been carried out with typical transient experiments using uranyl nitrate fuel solution. Two sets of benchmarks were carried out based on experimental programmes performed in the Tracy reactor in Japan, and the Silene reactor in France. Tracy and Silene have the same geometrical features: an annular cylinder with a central void tube for a transient rod and similar operational modes for reactivity insertion. The experiments selected are representative benchmarks for low- and high-enriched uranyl nitrate solution, about 10 wt% for Tracy and 93 wt% for the Silene core. This report provides an analysis of the benchmark results obtained with four different codes. It will be of particular interest to criticality safety practitioners developing transient codes, notably since little experimental data is available and the existing transient codes are presently unavailable to the public. (authors)

  18. Nutrients removal by Typha latifolia and Cynodon spp. grown in constructed wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Pimentel de Matos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extraction capacity of two species when grown in constructed wetlands with subsurface horizontal flow (SACs for the treatment of swine wastewater (ARS. To this end, were built 8 SACs of 2.0 m x 0.5 m x 0.6 m, fiber glass, filled with 0.55 m of fine gravels. In SAC2; SAC4; SAC6 and SAC8 was cultivated cattail (Typha latifolia and in SAC3; SAC5; SAC7 and SAC9 was cultivated tifton-85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.. The SAC2 and SAC3, SAC4 and SAC5, SAC6 and SAC7 and SAC8 and SAC9 received 163, 327, 461 and 561 kg ha-1 day-1 of BOD, respectively. During the 120 days of the SACs monitoring, it was found that the cattail has not adapted to the conditions of exposure. The highest yields were obtained with the application of organic load average of 327 kg ha-1 day-1 of BOD. The tifton-85 was the plant species with the highest capacity to extract nutrients, getting to draw between 443 and 540, 86 and 99, 193 and 241, 0.77 and 2.17, and 1.21 and 3.68 kg ha-1 TKN, P, K, Cu and Zn, respectively, while cattail showed greater capacity to absorb sodium.

  19. Effect of phenol on the agronomic performance of Typha latifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect from phenol application in macrophytes (Typha latifolia L., to use in constructed wetlands used to wastewater treatment. Typha was cropped in 15 L pots under greenhouse conditions. The pots were infilled with crushed stone (zero and nutritious solution of Hoagland modified. The effects were evaluated for the following application doses: 0 (T0, 150 (T1, 300 (T2, 450 (T3 e 600 mg L-1 of phenol (T4. Control pots no planting received 300 mg L-1 of phenol (T5. Weekly, it was made replacement of water evapotranspired (T1, T2, T3 and T4 or evaporated (T5. Phenol concentration increased in nutritious solution in pots of T3, T4, T5 and tendency of stabilization in pots T1 and T2 was verified. The highest yield of dry matter occurred in that treatment T0 and T1. Typha presents increase in take up nitrogen and phosphorus in pots submitted to the solution and larger phenol concentration. However, the smallest biomass production led to a smaller extraction of nutrients in nutritious solution. The results indicated that Typha was able to develop satisfactorily in nutrient solution with concentration of phenol below 150 mg L-1.

  20. Well-being perceived and working conditions at ENEA research center; La valutazione soggettiva del benessere lavorativo in un campione di dipendenti ENEA dell'area bolognese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenni, P.; Fagarazzi, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Sarchielli, M.; Zanobini, F. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Psicologia

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this research on 143 workers of the ENEA area in Bologna, has been to survey the degree of well-being perceived and expressed by these workers with respect to different factors of the work environment. This study follows some training/information seminars on environment, health and safety organized in ENEA by Occupational Medicine Group to comply with Leg. Decr. 626/94. In a multidisciplinary approach the health idea has been interpreted not as lack of illness but as pursuit and preservation of the well-being in the work environment. For this purpose, also the involvement and participation of the workers seem to be very useful for subjective reports about individual task, equipment, interfaces, workplace and work organization. In this research, we have adopted an ergonomic checklist based on guiding principles to be applied to the design of optimal working conditions with regard to human well-being, safety and health (see UNI ENV 26385, 1991). Data processing and analysis have requested occupational medicine, ergonomics and statistics competencies. [Italian] La ricerca condotta su un campione ENEA di 143 dipendenti dell'area bolognese ha inteso verificare il grado di benessere percepito ed espresso dai lavoratori in rapporto alle diverse variabili presenti nel contesto lavorativo. Tale indagine e' stata preceduta da specifici seminari di formazione/informazione su ambiente, salute e sicurezza, organizzati a cura della Medicina del Lavoro di Bologna presso le sedi ENEA, a seguito delle disposizioni contenute nel D.Lvo. 626/94. In un'ottica multidisciplinare, il concetto di salute e' stato interpretato non tanto come assenza di malattia quanto come ricerca e mantenimento del benessere lavorativo e, per raggiungere questo scopo, sembra essere molto utile anche il diretto coinvolgimento e la partecipazione dei lavoratori per valutazioni soggettive sulle mansioni assegnate, le attrezzature, le interfacce, la postazione di lavoro e l

  1. Effect of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia (Family: Rubiaceae on the isolated uterus of non-pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nworgu Z.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Nauclea latifolia has been reported to be used by traditional healers to arrest pre-term labour. The ethanolic extract of the root of N. latifolia was screened for activity via agonist-induced contractions of uterine smooth muscles in non-pregnant female albino rats. The extract, at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml (final bath concentration, was tested against oxytocin (4×10 -5 to 8×10 -2 I.U/ml: final bath concentration, acetylcholine (0.04 to 40 µg/ml: final bath concentration and ergometrine (0.05 to 100 µg/ml: final bath concentration induced contractions invitro. The effect of the extract was compared to that of (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration salbutamol and (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration atropine. Both concentrations of the extract significantly shifted the concentration response curves of oxytocin ( P < 0.01, acetylcholine ( P < 0.0001 and ergometrine ( P < 0.0001 to the right with a slight depression of the Emax. This shift was more with the 0.2 mg/ml concentration, thus suggesting the possibility of a dose dependent action. There was no statistical significant decrease in Emax by 0.1 mg/ml of the extract, while the 0.2 mg/ml produced a significant depression ( P < 0.05 of the Emax, which like salbutamol could not be overwhelmed by higher concentrations of oxytocin. Similarly a significant reduction of the Emax of acetylcholine induced contractions was produced by 0.2 mg/ml, while both concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml produced significant ( P < 0.0001 reduction in Emax of ergometrine. It can thus be concluded that N latifolia root extract reduces oxytocin, acetylcholine and ergometrine-induced uterine contractions. These inhibitions were non-competitive. The result indicates an anti-abortifacient property.

  2. Etude ethnobotanique, phytochimique et activités biologiques de Nauclea latifolia Smith, une plante médicinale africaine récoltée au Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Badiaga, Mamadou

    2011-01-01

    Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae) est une plante aux vertus médicinales beaucoup plus connues en Afrique sub-saharienne dans la pharmacopée traditionnelle pour ses nombreuses activités pharmacologiques. N. latifolia Sm. est un arbre ou arbuste d'espèce soudano-sahélienne ; ses zones d'abondance sont principalement l'Afrique Occidentale et Centrale. Sa large utilisation en médecine traditionnelle , nous a incités à réaliser une enquête ethnobotanique et un screening phytochimique afin de met...

  3. Anti-Microbial Evaluation of a Herbal Dental Remedy Stem Bark of Nuclea latifolia-Family Rubiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Falodun; Igwe, A.; Osahon, Obasuyi

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Nuclea latifolia used as a dentrifice by the local populace. The crude powdered sample was evaluated for the chemical and antimicrobial effects. The methanolic and chloroform extracts were subjected to different organisms of clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus varidans, Staphylococcus aerues, Penicillum nonatum, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were also obtained. The results of the study revealed significant antibacterial effect of the extracts. The study thus justifies the ethno medicinal use of the plant as a dental remedy.

  4. Biomass production of young lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia stands in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansons A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is gaining an increasing importance in the context of emission targets set by the European Union. Large areas of abandoned agricultural land with different soils are potentially available for establishment of biomass plantations in the Baltic states. Considering soil and climatic requirements as well as traits characteristic for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm and the scarcity of published knowledge, we assessed the above-ground biomass of Pinus contorta in comparison to that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and factors affecting biomass production. Data were collected in 3 experimental trials, located in two sites in central part of Latvia: Zvirgzde and Kuldiga (56°41’ N, 24°28’ E and 57°03’ N, 21°57’ E, respectively. Trials were established with density 5000 tree ha-1, using seed material from Canada (50°08’-60°15’ N, 116°25’-132°50’ W and two Pinus contorta stands with unknown origin growing in Latvia. Results reveal that absolute dry aboveground biomass of Pinus contorta reaches 114 ± 6.4 t ha-1 at age 16 on a fertile former arable land, 48 ± 3.6 and 94 ± 9.4 t ha-1 at age 22 and 25, respectively, on a sandy forest land (Vacciniosa forest type. The biomass is significantly (p < 0.01 and considerably (more than two-fold higher than that of the native Pinus sylvestris and the productivity is similar (in fertile soils or higher (on poor soils than reported for other species in energy-wood plantations. Provenance was a significant factor affecting the above-ground biomass, and the ranking of provenances did not change significantly between different soil conditions. It provides opportunities for further improvement of productivity using selection.

  5. Individual spatial aggregation correlates with between-population variation in fine-scale genetic structure of Silene ciliata (Caryophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Romero, C; García-Fernández, A; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Roumet, M; Morente-López, J; López-Gil, A; Iriondo, J M

    2016-05-01

    Fine-scale genetic structure (FSGS) can vary among populations within species depending on multiple demographic and environmental factors. Theoretical models predict that FSGS should decrease in high-density populations and increase in populations where individuals are spatially aggregated. However, few empirical studies have compared FSGS between populations with different degrees of individual spatial aggregation and microhabitat heterogeneity. In this work, we studied the relationship between spatial and genetic structure in five populations of alpine specialist Silene ciliata Poiret (Caryophyllaceae). We mapped all individuals in each population and genotyped 96 of them using 10 microsatellite markers. We found significant FSGS consistent with an isolation-by-distance process in three of the five populations. The intensity of FSGS was positively associated with individual spatial aggregation. However, no association was found between FSGS and global population density or microhabitat heterogeneity. Overall, our results support theoretical studies indicating that stronger spatial aggregation tends to increase the magnitude of FSGS. They also highlight the relevance of characterizing local plant distribution and microhabitat to better understand the mechanisms that generate intraspecific variation in FSGS across landscapes. PMID:26604191

  6. Neutron Activation and Thermoluminescent Detector Responses to a Bare Pulse of the CEA Valduc SILENE Critical Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McMahan, Kimberly L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Yi-kang [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Gagnier, Emmanuel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Authier, Nicolas [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Piot, Jerome [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Jacquet, Xavier [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Rousseau, Guillaume [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Reynolds, Kevin H. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This benchmark experiment was conducted as a joint venture between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US and the Centre de Valduc in France planned this experiment. The experiment was conducted on October 11, 2010 in the SILENE critical assembly facility at Valduc. Several other organizations contributed to this experiment and the subsequent evaluation, including CEA Saclay, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Babcock International Group in the United Kingdom, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this experiment was to measure neutron activation and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses from a source similar to a fissile solution critical excursion. The resulting benchmark can be used for validation of computer codes and nuclear data libraries as required when performing analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). A secondary goal of this experiment was to qualitatively test performance of two CAAS detectors similar to those currently and formerly in use in some US DOE facilities. The detectors tested were the CIDAS MkX and the Rocky Flats NCD-91. These detectors were being evaluated to determine whether they would alarm, so they were not expected to generate benchmark quality data.

  7. Transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes correlate with mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in a natural population of Silene vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Matthew S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although rapid changes in copy number and gene order are common within plant mitochondrial genomes, associated patterns of gene transcription are underinvestigated. Previous studies have shown that the gynodioecious plant species Silene vulgaris exhibits high mitochondrial diversity and occasional paternal inheritance of mitochondrial markers. Here we address whether variation in DNA molecular markers is correlated with variation in transcription of mitochondrial genes in S. vulgaris collected from natural populations. Results We analyzed RFLP variation in two mitochondrial genes, cox1 and atp1, in offspring of ten plants from a natural population of S. vulgaris in Central Europe. We also investigated transcription profiles of the atp1 and cox1 genes. Most DNA haplotypes and transcription profiles were maternally inherited; for these, transcription profiles were associated with specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. One individual exhibited a pattern consistent with paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA; this individual exhibited a transcription profile suggestive of paternal but inconsistent with maternal inheritance. We found no associations between gender and transcript profiles. Conclusions Specific transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes were associated with specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in a natural population of a gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Our findings suggest the potential for a causal association between rearrangements in the plant mt genome and transcription product variation.

  8. Investigation on the biotrophic interaction of Ustilago esculenta on Zizania latifolia found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Robinson C; Goyari, Sailendra; Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika D; Handique, Pratap J; Talukdar, Narayan C

    2016-09-01

    Ustilago esculenta is a uniquely flavored biotrophic smut fungus that forms a smut gall on the top internodal region of Zizania latifolia, a perennial wild rice found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The smut gall is an edible vegetable locally called "kambong" in Manipur, India. The life cycle of the fungus was studied in vitro and its biotrophism was observed during different stages of the plant growth starting from the bud stage to decaying stage using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy. The size of the smut gall and the number of internodes below the apical smut gall varied significantly (P < 0.05). Examination of various parts of infected plants using culture methods, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction revealed that Ustilago esculenta colonized Zizania latifolia in a non-systemic manner. Spores and fragmented hyphae of U. esculenta were present in the rhizome of infected plant throughout the year, but shoot interiors were without any fungal structures from April until September. The smut region of infected plants in early September to December were heavily sporulated with fragmented hyphae, while the nodal regions of infected plants had no spores and fragmented hyphae. Hyphae and spores were also absent in the internodes and membranes aboveground up to smut region of infected plants but were present in the old rhizomes. PMID:27334294

  9. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders. PMID:27322226

  10. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, John C [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McMahan, Kimberly L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Authier, Nicolas [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Jacquet, Xavier [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Rousseau, Guillaume [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Wolff, Herve [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Savanier, Laurence [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Baclet, Nathalie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Lee, Yi-kang [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Trama, Jean-Christophe [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Masse, Veronique [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Gagnier, Emmanuel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Naury, Sylvie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Hunter, Richard [Babcock International Group (United Kingdom); Kim, Soon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dulik, George Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available

  11. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Dong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

  12. 中国发现新的检疫性杂草宽叶酢浆草%Quarantine Weed Oxalis latifolia Firstly Found in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤东生; 刘萍; 傅杨

    2013-01-01

    宽叶酢浆草(Oxalis latifolia)是2010年在云南省昆明市新发现的一种入侵性强危害重的外来植物.为了解其危害特点,预测其将来对中国农业生产的影响及制定有效的控制措施,综述了该物种生物生态学特性和国外的危害和防治情况.通过GBIF软件的模拟分析了宽叶酢浆草在中国的入侵定殖风险程度.综合以上分析,提出了深入开展宽叶酢浆草的生态学和危害规律研究的必要性,与防范和化解宽叶酢浆草在中国的扩展蔓延的重要意义.%Oxalis latifolia was a new quarantine invasive plant found in Kunming of Yunnan Province in 2010. The weed has caused serious damage to production. To understand damage pattern of 0. latifolia, forecast its influence on agricultural production of China, and make effective solutions to control the weed, the present study was carried out to review biological and ecological characteristics and the condition of damage and control in overseas. Moreover, the invasive and colonization risk of O. latifolia in China was analyzed by the software of GBIF. Based on the above analysis, the paper purposed the necessary to launch ecological and damage patterns of 0. latifolia, the significance to prevent and resolve its spread in China.

  13. The alpine cushion plant Silene acaulis as foundation species: a bug's-eye view to facilitation and microclimate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Molenda

    Full Text Available Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms--predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson's diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants.

  14. Phylogeographic pattern of range expansion provides evidence for cryptic species lineages in Silene nutans in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H; Touzet, P; Van Rossum, F; Delalande, D; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of recent or past evolutionary processes, a single species might consist of distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), even corresponding to cryptic species. Determining the underlying mechanisms of range shifts and the processes at work in the build-up of divergent ESUs requires elucidating the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range. We investigated the large-scale patterns of genetic structure in the perennial herbaceous plant species Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae) in Western Europe. We sampled and genotyped 111 populations using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci and 6 plastid single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Broad-scale spatial population genetic structure was examined using Bayesian clustering, spatial multivariate analyses and measures of hierarchical genetic differentiation. The genotypic structure of S. nutans was typical of a predominantly allogamous mating system. We also identified plastid lineages with no intra-population polymorphism, mirroring two genetically differentiated nuclear lineages. No evidence of admixture was found. Spatial trends in genetic diversity further suggested independent leading-edge expansion associated with founding events and subsequent genetic erosion. Overall, our findings suggested speciation processes in S. nutans and highlighted striking patterns of distinct stepwise recolonisation of Western Europe shaped by Quaternary climate oscillations. Two main potential ESUs can be defined in Western Europe, corresponding to Eastern and Western nuclear-plastid lineages. In situ preservation of populations and genetic rescue implying ex situ conservation techniques should take the lineage identity into account. This is particularly true in Great Britain, northern France and Belgium, where S. nutans is rare and where distinct lineages co-occur in close contact. PMID:26647652

  15. Effect of genotype, Cr(III and Cr(VI on plant growth and micronutrient status in Silene vulgaris (Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Pradas-del-Real

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromium released into the environment from industrial activities has become an important environmental concern. Silene vulgaris has been proven to be tolerant to many heavy metals, so it is considered an interesting species in the revegetation and restoration of polluted soils, but no information is available about its response to Cr. The objective of this work was to study uptake and influence on plant growth of Cr(III and Cr(VI in six genotypes (four hermaphrodites and two females of S. vulgaris from different sites of Madrid (Spain. Plants were treated for 12 days with 60 µM of Cr(III or Cr(VI in semihydroponics. Dry weights, soil-plant analysis development values (SPAD reading with chlorophylls and micronutrient and total Cr concentrations were determined. Metal uptake was higher in presence of Cr(VI than of Cr(III and poorly translocated to the shoots. In both cases S. vulgaris did not show visual toxicity symptoms, biomass reduction, or differences among SPAD values as consequence of Cr additions. However genotypes SV36 and SV38 showed Fe and Mn imbalance. This is the first report on the relatively good performance of hermaphrodite and female S. vulgaris genotypes in Cr uptake and physiological traits, but further studies will be necessary to elucidate the mechanisms by which the gender may influence these variables. S. vulgaris presented high diversity at genotypic level; the treatment with hexavalent Cr increased the differences among genotypes so the use of cuttings from an homogeneous genotype seems to be an adequate method for the study of this species.

  16. High-level Zn and Cd tolerance in Silene paradoxa L. from a moderately Cd- and Zn-contaminated copper mine tailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium and zinc tolerance were examined in populations of Silene paradoxa, one from uncontaminated calcareous soil (CVD) and one from a mine tailing (FC) (Cd < 1-15 ppm, Zn 400-1300 ppm, pH 2-6). The mine population exhibited extremely high Zn and Cd tolerance levels, although the degrees of Cd and Zn enrichment relatively low at the population site. Cd and Zn hypertolerance in FC were associated with reduced rates of accumulation of these metals, both in roots and shoots (Cd), or exclusively in shoots (Zn). However, exclusion potentially explained only a minor part of the superior tolerance in FC. Cd hypertolerance in FC was associated with decreased, rather than enhanced phytochelatin accumulation. The remarkably high levels of Cd and Zn hypertolerance in FC might relate to the low soil pH, due to oxidation of sulphide minerals, and the absence of soil organic matter at the FC site. - Silene paradoxa from a copper mine exhibits extreme levels of Zn and Cd tolerance

  17. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia Wood with Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Hartley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5–24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX. CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  18. The role of sand, marble chips and Typha latifolia in domestic wastewater treatment - a column study on constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaverugu, Rakesh; Shingare, Rita P; Raghunathan, Karthik; Juwarkar, Asha A; Thawale, Prashant R; Singh, Sanjeev K

    2016-10-01

    The relative importance of sand, marble chips and wetland plant Typha latifolia is evaluated in constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of domestic wastewater intended for reuse in agriculture. The prototype CWs for the experiments are realized in polyvinyl chloride columns, which are grouped into four treatments, viz. sand (columns. The statistical analysis suggests that the main effects of sand and cattail are found to be significant (p column hydraulic conductivity is also reported for all the treatments. Thus, the findings of this study elucidate the role of low-cost and easily available filter media and it will guide the environmental practitioners in designing cost-effective CWs for wastewater treatment. PMID:26878342

  19. Root-zone acidity and nitrogen source affects Typha latifolia L. growth and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Hans; Dyhr-Jensen, Kirsten; Lorenzen, Bent

    2002-12-01

    The NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) uptake kinetics by Typha latifolia L. were studied after prolonged hydroponics growth at constant pH 3.5, 5.0, 6.5 or 7.0 and with NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-) as the sole N-source. In addition, the effects of pH and N source on H(+) extrusion and adenine nucleotide content were examined. Typha latifolia was able to grow with both N sources at near neutral pH levels, but the plants had higher relative growth rates, higher tissue concentrations of the major nutrients, higher contents of adenine nucleotides, and higher affinity for uptake of inorganic nitrogen when grown on NH(4)(+). Growth almost completely stopped at pH 3.5, irrespective of N source, probably as a consequence of pH effects on plasma membrane integrity and H(+) influx into the root cells. Tissue concentrations of the major nutrients and adenine nucleotides were severely reduced at low pH, and the uptake capacity for inorganic nitrogen was low, and more so for NO(3)(-)-fed than for NH(4)(+)-fed plants. The maximum uptake rate, V(max), was highest for NH(4)(+) at pH 6.5 (30.9 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight) and for NO(3)(-) at pH 5.0 (31.7 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight), and less than 10% of these values at pH 3.5. The affinity for uptake as estimated by the half saturation constant, K((1/2)), was lowest at low pH for NH(4)(+) and at high pH for NO(3)(-). The changes in V(max) and K((1/2)) were thus consistent with the theory of increasing competition between cations and H(+) at low pH and between anions and OH(-) at high pH. C(min) was independent of pH, but slightly higher for NO(3)(-) than for NH(4)(+) (C(min)(NH(4)(+)) approximately 0.8 mmol m(-3); C(min)(NO(3)(-)) approximately 2.8 mmol m(-3)). The growth inhibition at low pH was probably due to a reduced nutrient uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by nutrient stress. Typha latifolia seems to be well adapted to growth in wetland soils where NH(4)(+) is the prevailing nitrogen compound, but very low p

  20. The fate of arsenic, cadmium and lead in Typha latifolia: A case study on the applicability of micro-PIXE in plant ionomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Uptake, accumulation and distribution of multi-elemental pollution. ► Quantitative analysis of the spatal distribution of nutrients in roots and rhizomes. ► Typha latifolia – plant species important for phytoremediation of hazardous xenobiotics. ► Low amounts of Cd and Pb in the inner tissues of roots and rhizomes. ► Predominantly As was found within the vascular tissue – high mobility of the element. -- Abstract: Understanding the uptake, accumulation and distribution of toxic elements in plants is crucial to the design of effective phytoremediation strategies, especially in the case of complex multi-element pollution. Using micro-proton induced X-ray emission, the spatial distribution of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Cd and Pb have been quantitatively resolved in roots and rhizomes of an obligate wetland plant species, Typha latifolia, treated with a mixture of 100 μM each of As, Cd and Pb, together. The highest concentrations of As, Cd and Pb were found in the roots of the T. latifolia, with tissue-specific distributions. The As was detected in the root rhizodermis, and in the rhizome the majority of the As was within the vascular tissues, which indicates the high mobility of As within T. latifolia. The Cd was detected in the root exodermis, and in the vascular bundle and epidermis of the rhizome. The highest Pb concentrations were detected in the root rhizodermis and exodermis, and in the epidermis of the rhizome. These data represent an essential step in the resolution of fundamental questions in plant ionomics

  1. Identification of Abiotic and Biotic Factors Causing Deterioration During Storage and Development of Storage Techniques for Mahua (Madhuca indica Syn. Bassia latifolia) flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Basanta Kumar Das

    2010-01-01

    Mahua (Madhuca indica syn. Bassia latifolia) flowers, occupy an important position in the life of the tribal in many parts of India. Particularly, the flowers of the plant are sugar rich and in certain cases it is the only source of livelihood for those people. However, its nutrient quality deteriorates during the postharvest storage and thus, poses a serious problem of adequate storage. In order to determine the cause of spoilage and to develop the measures to check it, collected flowers wer...

  2. The fate of arsenic, cadmium and lead in Typha latifolia: A case study on the applicability of micro-PIXE in plant ionomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubenova, Lyudmila [Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Sciences, Research Unit Microbe–Plant Interactions, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mezek, Gašper Kukec; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primož [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schröder, Peter, E-mail: peter.schroeder@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Sciences, Research Unit Microbe–Plant Interactions, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Uptake, accumulation and distribution of multi-elemental pollution. ► Quantitative analysis of the spatal distribution of nutrients in roots and rhizomes. ► Typha latifolia – plant species important for phytoremediation of hazardous xenobiotics. ► Low amounts of Cd and Pb in the inner tissues of roots and rhizomes. ► Predominantly As was found within the vascular tissue – high mobility of the element. -- Abstract: Understanding the uptake, accumulation and distribution of toxic elements in plants is crucial to the design of effective phytoremediation strategies, especially in the case of complex multi-element pollution. Using micro-proton induced X-ray emission, the spatial distribution of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Cd and Pb have been quantitatively resolved in roots and rhizomes of an obligate wetland plant species, Typha latifolia, treated with a mixture of 100 μM each of As, Cd and Pb, together. The highest concentrations of As, Cd and Pb were found in the roots of the T. latifolia, with tissue-specific distributions. The As was detected in the root rhizodermis, and in the rhizome the majority of the As was within the vascular tissues, which indicates the high mobility of As within T. latifolia. The Cd was detected in the root exodermis, and in the vascular bundle and epidermis of the rhizome. The highest Pb concentrations were detected in the root rhizodermis and exodermis, and in the epidermis of the rhizome. These data represent an essential step in the resolution of fundamental questions in plant ionomics.

  3. Leaf gas exchange and fluorescence of Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus ilex saplings in severe drought and high temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saplings of Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus ilex were withheld watering for 7 days, followed by reirrigation. Incident photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), leaf temperature, net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, and photochemical efficiency of the photosystem II (ΔF/F'm) were measured three times during the day. The watered plants had higher photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductances, ΔF/F'm and ETR than non-watered plants. However, watered plants were mildly water stressed as shown by low ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and high non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (qN). Their ΔF/F′m was low in the morning and increased in the evening, following the variations in PPFD. Watered plants of Q. ilex had lower photosynthetic activity, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency than Ph. latifolia and P. lentiscus, and, conversely, reached the highest ΔF/F′m and ETR. This seems to indicate a different relationship between photosynthetic activity and electron transport rate in Q. ilex compared to the other two species. Ph. latifolia and P. lentiscus appeared to be better adapted to severe drought than Q. ilex. (author)

  4. The fate of arsenic, cadmium and lead in Typha latifolia: a case study on the applicability of micro-PIXE in plant ionomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Mezek, Gašper Kukec; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Regvar, Marjana; Pelicon, Primož; Schröder, Peter

    2013-03-15

    Understanding the uptake, accumulation and distribution of toxic elements in plants is crucial to the design of effective phytoremediation strategies, especially in the case of complex multi-element pollution. Using micro-proton induced X-ray emission, the spatial distribution of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Cd and Pb have been quantitatively resolved in roots and rhizomes of an obligate wetland plant species, Typha latifolia, treated with a mixture of 100 μM each of As, Cd and Pb, together. The highest concentrations of As, Cd and Pb were found in the roots of the T. latifolia, with tissue-specific distributions. The As was detected in the root rhizodermis, and in the rhizome the majority of the As was within the vascular tissues, which indicates the high mobility of As within T. latifolia. The Cd was detected in the root exodermis, and in the vascular bundle and epidermis of the rhizome. The highest Pb concentrations were detected in the root rhizodermis and exodermis, and in the epidermis of the rhizome. These data represent an essential step in the resolution of fundamental questions in plant ionomics. PMID:23416480

  5. Ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) absorbing pigments in the leaves of Silene vulgaris: their role in UV-B tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UV-B radiation tolerant perennial herb Silene vulgaris was tested on the influence of incident UV-B fluxes during growth on the synthesis of UV-B absorbing pigments in the leaves. Analysis of methanolic leaf extracts showed a stimulating effect of UV-B on the absorbing ability of leaf extracts. HPLC analysis made clear that UV-B radiation stimulated extractable flavonoid concentrations in leaves, but that UV-B absorption could only be partly attributed to these flavonoids. The contribution of flavonoids to UV-B absorption diminishes if plants mature. Other possible functions of flavonoids in plants growing under elevated UV-B conditions are discussed. (author)

  6. Co-hyperaccumulative characteristics of lead, zinc and cadmium by Silene viscidula Franch%滇白前(Silene viscidula)对铅、锌、镉的共超富集特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖青青; 王宏镔; 王海娟; 叶志鸿

    2009-01-01

    为了寻找新的重金属超富集植物特别是多金属共超富集植物,调查测定了云南兰坪铅锌矿区北厂矿段生长的8种植物及其根区土壤的重金属质量分数,以及土壤基本理化性质.结果表明:研究区土壤中磷和钾质量分数较低,总氮、总磷、总钾、铵态氮、硝态氮、速效磷分别占土壤干质量的0.2%、0.03%、0.52%、0.0029%、0.000 12%、0.00068%;有机质质量分数平均为4.81%,pH值平均为6.79,电导率变化范围为11.4~140-3μs·cm-1.该矿区土壤中锌(Zn)、铅(Pb)、镉(Cd)、铜(Cu)的质量分数平均值分别为(38 178±23 870)、(18 671±10 143)、(438±345)、(159±:82)mg·kg>-1,除Cu外均超过国家土壤环境质量(GB 15618-1995)三级标准.8种植物地上部Zn、Pb、Cd、Cu质量分数范围分别为271~17 986、51~5 430、1~617、2~26mg·kg-1,尤以滇白前(Silene viscidula Franch)地上部Zn、Pb、Cd质量分数为最高.进一步采集38个滇白前样本对其重金属富集特征进行深人调查,表明其地上部中含zn、Pb和Cd平均为(11 043±3 537)、(1 546±1 044)和(391±196)mg·kg-1,富集系数(地上部和土壤金属质量分数之比)分别为0.35、0.08和1.05,转运系数(地上部和根中金属质量分数之比)均超过1,均值分别为8.21、3.90和8.36.野外调查数据表明,滇白前是一种Pb/Zn/Cd共超富集植物.滇白前对Zn、Pb富集系数小于1,主要是由于其对应土壤中Zn、Pb质量分数太高(平均分别为(45 778±32 819)、(22 512±13 613)mg·kg-1)所致.

  7. Preliminary Screening of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities and Establishment of an Efficient Callus Induction in Curculigo latifolia Dryand (Lemba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Farzinebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf, seed, and tuber explants of C. latifolia were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of BAP and IBA, alone or in combinations, to achieve in vitro plant regeneration. Subsequently, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were determined from in vitro and in vivo plant developed. No response was observed from seed culture on MS media with various concentrations of PGRs. The highest percentage of callus was observed on tuber explants (94% and leaf explants (89% when cultured on MS media supplemented with IBA in combination with BAP. A maximum of 88% shoots per tuber explant, with a mean number of shoots (8.8±1.0, were obtained on MS medium supplemented with combinations of BAP and IBA (2.5 mg L−1. The best root induction (92% and mean number (7.6±0.5 from tuber explants were recorded on 2.5 mg L−1 IBA alone supplemented to MS medium. The higher antioxidant content (80% was observed from in vivo tuber. However, tuber part from the intact plant showed higher inhibition zone in antibacterial activity compared to other in vitro and in vivo tested parts.

  8. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Microbiology Laboratory, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019, Orissa (India)

    2010-07-15

    Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flower is a suitable alternative cheaper carbohydrate source for production of bio-ethanol. Recent production of bio-ethanol by microbial fermentation as an alternative energy source has renewed research interest because of the increase in the fuel price. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria) are two most widely used microorganisms for ethanol production. In this study, experiments were carried out to compare the potential of the yeast S. cerevisiae (CTCRI strain) with the bacterium Z. mobilis (MTCC 92) for ethanol fermentation from mahula flowers. The ethanol production after 96 h fermentation was 149 and 122.9 g kg{sup -1} flowers using free cells of S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis, respectively. The S. cerevisiae strain showed 21.2% more final ethanol production in comparison to Z. mobilis. Ethanol yield (Yx/s), volumetric product productivity (Qp), sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%) and microbial biomass concentration (X) obtained by S. cerevisiae were found to be 5.2%, 21.1%, 5.27% and 134% higher than Z. mobilis, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. (author)

  9. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flower is a suitable alternative cheaper carbohydrate source for production of bio-ethanol. Recent production of bio-ethanol by microbial fermentation as an alternative energy source has renewed research interest because of the increase in the fuel price. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria) are two most widely used microorganisms for ethanol production. In this study, experiments were carried out to compare the potential of the yeast S. cerevisiae (CTCRI strain) with the bacterium Z. mobilis (MTCC 92) for ethanol fermentation from mahula flowers. The ethanol production after 96 h fermentation was 149 and 122.9 g kg-1 flowers using free cells of S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis, respectively. The S. cerevisiae strain showed 21.2% more final ethanol production in comparison to Z. mobilis. Ethanol yield (Yx/s), volumetric product productivity (Qp), sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%) and microbial biomass concentration (X) obtained by S. cerevisiae were found to be 5.2%, 21.1%, 5.27% and 134% higher than Z. mobilis, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. (author)

  10. Genomic Rearrangement in Endogenous Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons of Rice Lines Introgressed by Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye SHEN; Xiu-Yun LIN; Xiao-Hui SHAN; Chun-Jing LIN; Fang-Pu HAN; Jin-Song PANG; Bao LIU

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic introgression of alien DNA may impose a genomic stress to the recipient genome.Herein, we report that apparent de novo genomic rearrangements in 10 of 13 selected endogenous, low-copy, and potentially active long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occurred in one or more of threerice lines studied that were introgressed by wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.). For nine retrotransposons inwhich both the reverse-transcriptase (RT) region and the LTR region were available, largely concordantrearrangements occurred at both regions in five elements and at the RT region only in the remaining fourelements. A marked proportion of the genomic changes was shared by two or all three introgression linesthat were derived from a single F1 plant. This indicates that most of the genomic changes occurred at earlydevelopmental stages of the F1 somatic cells, which then gave rise to germline cells, and, hence, ensuredinheritance of the changes to later generations. Possible causes and potential implications of the introgres-sion-induced genomic rearrangements in LTR retrotransposons are discussed in the context of plant ge-nome evolution and breeding.

  11. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kummer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus (Rutaceae includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  12. Analysis of Active Components and Proteomics of Chinese Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) and Indica Rice (Nagina22).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming-Xia; Zhai, Li-Jie; Yang, Hua; Zhai, Shu-Menghui; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2016-08-01

    The ancient Chinese wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) (CWR) has valuable biological and medicinal functions. To assess the advantages lost in modern cultivated rice after domestication, we compared the composition of bioactive compounds and the results of proteomic analysis with those of Indica rice (N22). We used routine methods to determine the protein, total dietary fiber, amino acid, mineral substance, plant secondary metabolites, and amino acid composition of CWR and N22. The protein and mineral contents of CWR were two times that of N22, and the levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium, chromium, iron, and zinc were significantly higher than those of N22 (P Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the main seed proteins of CWR were glutelins, including both acid and alkaline subunits, which were approximately twice those of N22. To investigate the differences in protein profiles between CWR and N22, we conducted two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis of the total proteins in the seeds of the two rice species. 2-DE gels revealed 19 differentially expressed proteins. Information obtained from peptide mass fingerprinting indicates that glutelin precursor caffeoyl coenzyme A (CoA) O-methyltransferase and putative bithoraxoid-like protein can provide good gene sources for improving rice quality. PMID:27533651

  13. LC-MS- and (1)H NMR Spectroscopy-Guided Identification of Antifungal Diterpenoids from Sagittaria latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravu, Ranga Rao; Jacob, Melissa R; Jeffries, Cynthia; Tu, Ying; Khan, Shabana I; Agarwal, Ameeta K; Guy, R Kiplin; Walker, Larry A; Clark, Alice M; Li, Xing-Cong

    2015-09-25

    Antifungal screening of small-molecule natural product libraries showed that a column fraction (CF) derived from the plant extract of Sagittaria latifolia was active against the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Dereplication analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) indicated the presence of new compounds in this CF. Subsequent fractionation of the plant extract resulted in the identification of two new isopimaradiene-type diterpenoids, 1 and 2. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by chemical methods and spectroscopic analysis as isopimara-7,15-dien-19-ol 19-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside and isopimara-7,15-dien-19-ol 19-O-α-l-(5'-acetoxy)arabinofuranoside, respectively. Compound 1 exhibited IC50 values of 3.7 and 1.8 μg/mL, respectively, against C. neoformans and C. gattii. Its aglycone, isopimara-7,15-dien-19-ol (3), resulting from acid hydrolysis of 1, was also active against the two fungal pathogens, with IC50 values of 9.2 and 6.8 μg/mL, respectively. This study demonstrates that utilization of the combined LC-MS and (1)H NMR analytical tools is an improved chemical screening approach for hit prioritization in natural product drug discovery. PMID:26371504

  14. Vermischte Notizen zur Benennung hessischer Pflanzen : dritter Nachtrag zum "Namensverzeichnis zur Flora der Farn- und Samenpflanzen Hessens"

    OpenAIRE

    Buttler, Karl Peter

    1998-01-01

    Die seit dem zweiten Nachtrag (Januar 1997) bekannt gewordenen Ergänzungen und Verbesserungen zum "Namensverzeichnis" sind im dritten Nachtrag zusammengefaßt. Angefügt sind Anmerkungen zur Nomenklatur von Armeria vulgaris/A. elongata, Cichorium intybus, Pyrus pyraster, Silene dioica und S. latifolia subsp. alba, Silene viscaria, Stellaria palustris. Neue Kombination: Bassia scoparia var. subvillosa (Moquin-Tandon) Buttler.

  15. Spotlight census of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and the domestic cat (Felis catus in three sample areas of the Marches region (Central Italy / Censimento notturno di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e di Gatto domestico (Felis catus in tre aree campione delle Marche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pandolfi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the density of the red fox and of the domestic cat, 55 transects were made from 1986 to 1989 using spotlight census method in three sample areas. The mean density of foxes agreed substantially with its biological cycle and the hightes values (2.01 foxes/km² in spring and 4.3 foxes/km² in winter were recorded in the study area with the better natural characteristics. Foxes selected the shrub woodland (macchia all year round, the inhabited area in spring. The domestic cat was widely spread and abundant, and selected especially inhabited areas where the density varied from 4.27 cats/km² (in winter to 12.42 cat/km² (in spring. Riassunto Dal 1986 al 1989, con il metodo dei percorsi notturni con fari, sono stati effettuati complessivamente 55 conteggi in tre aree campione per valutare la densità della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e del Gatto domestico (Felis catus nonché le loro preferenze ambientali limitatamente ad una zona campione. Per la Volpe le densità medie rilevate sono sostanzialmente in accordo con il ciclo biologico della specie e quelle più elevate (2,O1 volpi/km² in primavera e 4,3 volpi/km² in inverno sono state registrate nella zona campione con maggior presenza di boschi ed aree incolte. La Volpe seleziona le zone con vegetazione "di macchia" in ogni periodo dell'anno, e le aree abitate in primavera. Per il Gatto domestico le densità rilevate evidenziano la presenza di una diffusa ed abbondante popolazione. La specie mostra una spiccata preferenza per le aree abitate dove raggiunge densità di 4,27 individui/km² e 12,42 individui/km² in inverno e primavera rispettivamente.

  16. Studio preliminare su un campione di soggetti con diagnosi di disturbo di personalità borderline ricoverati presso il Day Hospital Psichiatrico della Struttura di Psichiatria S.P.D.C. dell’Azienda Ospedaliera “SS. Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” di Alessandria

    OpenAIRE

    Bergonzini C.;; Veglia F.;; Bertamini D.;; Piantato E.; Prelati M.; Raffaelli S.;

    2013-01-01

    Obiettivi: Il progetto di ricerca è finalizzato all’osservazione dell’attività del day hospital psichiatrico e alla valutazione dell’efficacia del trattamento su un gruppo di pazienti con diagnosi di Disturbo Borderline di Personalità. Metodologia: Il campione è costituito da un gruppo di 5 pazienti con diagnosi di DBP in terapia presso il day hospital, che saranno seguiti per 6 mesi sia con terapia farmacologica che con una psicoterapia che segue le linee guida del Trattamento basato sulla M...

  17. Germinação de Borreria densiflora var. latifolia sob condições controladas de luz e temperatura Germination of Borreria densiflora var. latifolia under controlled conditions of light and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A.B. Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A germinação é um processo fundamental na dinâmica populacional das plantas daninhas. Sendo assim, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a interação entre temperatura e luz sobre a germinação de uma nova variedade da planta daninha vassourinha-de-botão (Borreria densiflora var. latifolia, sob condições de câmara de germinação. Foi estudada a influência de cinco temperaturas (20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC constantes e alternada 20-30 ºC, em presença de fotoperíodo de 12h e escuro constante sobre a germinação, no delineamento experimental aleatorizado em blocos, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação acumulada e a velocidade do processo, sendo a última avaliada pelo índice de velocidade de germinação. Os dados foram submetidos à análise da variância pelo teste F, seguido do teste de Tukey a 0,05 de probabilidade. A germinação ocorreu preferencialmente na presença de luz, com interação significativa somente entre presença de luz e temperatura. Constatou-se, portanto, o fotoblastismo positivo desta nova variedade de B. densiflora. A maior porcentagem de germinação ocorreu na alternância de 20-30 ºC, seguida das temperaturas de 25, 30 e 35 ºC, e a velocidade de germinação aumentou com o aumento da temperatura. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciam que a dinâmica populacional desta planta daninha é influenciada principalmente por amplitudes térmicas, temperaturas mais elevadas (acima de 25 ºC e condições de luminosidade, justificando, assim, sua ocorrência nas regiões tropicais do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil.Germination is a fundamental process in weed population dynamics. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the interaction between temperature and light upon the germination of a new variety of the weed vassourinha-de-botão (Borreria densiflora var. latifolia, under germination chamber conditions. The influence of five temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35 ºC constant and

  18. Disease status and population origin effects on floral scent: potential consequences for oviposition and fruit predation in a complex interaction between a plant, fungus, and noctuid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dötterl, S.; Jürgens, A.; Wolfe, L.M.; Biere, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Silene latifolia-Hadena bicruris nursery pollination system, the Hadena moth is both pollinator and seed predator of its host plant. Floral scent, which differs among S. latifolia individuals and populations, is important for adult Hadena to locate its host. However, the success of moth larva

  19. Study on Production Technology of Typha latifolia L. Juice Beverage%蒲菜汁饮料生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董静; 杨用钊; 周美玲

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究蒲菜鲜汁加工成新型绿色保健饮料的最佳工艺.[方法]通过单因素和正交试验,研究蒲菜汁饮料的最佳配方和工艺条件.[结果]最佳配方为:料液比15%.蔗糖4%、柠檬酸0.09%、明胶0.10%.混合物料经20 MPa均质,90~100℃杀菌10 min,最终获得乳白色、无沉淀、口感佳、具有浓郁蒲菜香气的饮料.通过感官指标、理化指标、微生物指标进行检测得到合格的蒲莱汁饮料,保存期可达6个月以上.[结论]该工艺条件下生产的蒲菜汁饮料口感好、营养丰富、稳定性强.%[ Objective ] The aim was to study production technology of Typha latifolia L. juice beverage. [ Method ] A new green-health beverage was made from fresh juice of Typha latifolia L. Through single-factor and orthogonal experiments, the optimum formula and processing conditions for the Typha latifolia L. juice beverage were investigated. [ Result ] The result showed that the optimum formula : typha juice 15%, sucrose 4%, citric acid 0.09%, gelatin 0.10%. The mixtures passed 20MPa homogenous pressure, 90 - 100 ℃ sterilization for 10 min, ultimately beverage with white, non-precipitation, the best taste, rich aroma of the typha was obtained. The beverage passed sensory evaluation and physicochemical and microbiological detections. Storage period was up to 6 months. [ Conclusion] Typha lati folia L. Juice Beverage was non-precipitation, the best taste, and rich in nutrition.

  20. Characterization and cloning of a stearoyl/oleoyl specific fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase from the seeds of Madhuca longifolia (latifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Santosh K; Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Jha, Jyoti K; Mondal, Ashis K; Maiti, Mrinal K; Basu, Asitava; Ghosh, Dolly; Ghosh, Sudhamoy; Sen, Soumitra K

    2007-12-01

    Deposition of oleate, stearate and palmitate at the later stages of seed development in Mahua (Madhuca longifolia (latifolia)), a tropical non-conventional oil seed plant, has been found to be the characteristic feature of the regulatory mechanism that produces the saturated fatty acid rich Mahua seed fat (commonly known as Mowrah fat). Although, the content of palmitate has been observed to be higher than that of stearate at the initial stages of seed development, it goes down when the stearate and oleate contents consistently rise till maturity. The present study was undertaken in order to identify the kind of acyl-ACP thioesterase(s) that drives the characteristic composition of signature fatty acids (oleate 37%, palmitate 25%, stearate 23%, linoleate 12.5%) in its seed oil at maturity. The relative Fat activities in the crude protein extracts of the matured seeds towards three thioester substrates (oleoyl-, stearoyl- and palmitoyl-ACP) have been found to be present in the following respective ratio 100:31:8. Upon further purification of the crude extract, the search revealed the presence of two partially purified thioesterases: a long-chain oleoyl preferring house-keeping LC-Fat and a novel stearoyl-oleoyl preferring SO-Fat. The characteristic accumulation of oleate and linoleate in the M. latifolia seed fat is believed to be primarily due to the thioesterase activity of the LC-Fat or MlFatA. On the other hand, the SO-Fat showed almost equal substrate specificity towards stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACP, when its activity towards palmitoyl-ACP compared to stearoyl-ACP was only about 12%. An RT-PCR based technique for cloning of a DNA fragment from the mRNA pool of the developing seed followed by nucleotide sequencing resulted in the identification of a FatB type of thioesterase gene (MlFatB). This gene was found to exist as a single copy in the mother plant genome. Ectopic expression of this MlFatB gene product in E. coli strain fadD88 further proved that it induced a

  1. 馉饳菜生物学特性的研究%Study on the Biologic Characteristics of Silene conoidea L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐恒戬; 李翠香

    2011-01-01

    Wild vegetable was a kind of satisfactory food, but the resource was deficient because of weed killer and predatory collection.Silene conoidea L.was a satisfactory wild vegetable in the locality.In this paper, its characteristics of growth and development and seed germination were investigated.The results showed that the seeds germinated quickly below 15 ℃ ,and grew well before spring festival.The vegetable product was collected to the end of March.The seed was short-lived seed.Only did the seed collected in the same year germinated well, and old seeds germination rate was very low.The new seed germinated evenly in 3 - 5 days and not affected by light.%麦瓶草幼苗是当地人们喜食的野菜,俗称馉饳菜.本试验对其生长发育性状和种子发芽特性进行了研究,以期为麦瓶草的栽培提供依据.结果表明,麦瓶草种子在低于15℃时播种,可以迅速发芽,在年前形成幼苗,年后为产品形成期,至3月底采收结束.麦瓶草种子寿命较短,为短命种子,只有当年采收的种子才萌发良好,陈种子发芽率极低.种子发芽整齐度高,萌发期3~5 d,光照对发芽过程没有影响,为中光性.

  2. Fractionation of stable zinc isotopes in the field-grown zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and the zinc-tolerant plant Silene vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ye-Tao; Cloquet, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Carignan, Jean; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-18

    Stable Zn isotope signatures offer a potential tool for tracing Zn uptake and transfer mechanisms within plant-soil systems. Zinc isotopic compositions were determined in the Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens collected at a Zn-contaminated site (Viviez), a serpentine site (Vosges), and a noncontaminated site (Sainte Eulalie) in France. Meanwhile, a Zn-tolerant plant ( Silene vulgaris ) was also collected at Viviez for comparison. While δ(66)Zn was substantially differentiated among N. caerulescens from the three localities, they all exhibited an enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes of 0.40-0.72‰ from soil to root, followed by a depletion in heavy Zn from root to shoot (-0.10 to -0.50‰). The enrichment of heavy Zn in roots is ascribed to the transport systems responsible for Zn absorption into root symplast and root-to-shoot translocation, while the depletion in heavy Zn in shoots is likely to be mediated by a diffusive process and an efficient translocation driven by energy-required transporters (e.g., NcHMA4). The mass balance yielded a bulk Zn isotopic composition between plant and soil (Δ(66)Zn(plant-soil)) of -0.01‰ to 0.63‰ in N. caerulescens , indicative of high- and/or low-affinity transport systems operating in the three ecotypes. In S. vulgaris , however, there was no significant isotope fractionation between whole plant and rhizosphere soil and between root and shoot, suggesting that this species appears to have a particular Zn homeostasis. We confirm that quantifying stable Zn isotopes is useful for understanding Zn accumulation mechanisms in plants. PMID:22891730

  3. The composition and depth of green roof substrates affect the growth of Silene vulgaris and Lagurus ovatus species and the C and N sequestration under two irrigation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondoño, S; Martínez-Sánchez, J J; Moreno, J L

    2016-01-15

    Extensive green roofs are used to increase the surface area covered by vegetation in big cities, thereby reducing the urban heat-island effect, promoting CO2 sequestration, and increasing biodiversity and urban-wildlife habitats. In Mediterranean semi-arid regions, the deficiency of water necessitates the use in these roofs of overall native plants which are more adapted to drought than other species. However, such endemic plants have been used scarcely in green roofs. For this purpose, we tested two different substrates with two depths (5 and 10 cm), in order to study their suitability with regard to adequate plant development under Mediterranean conditions. A compost-soil-bricks (CSB) (1:1:3; v:v:v) mixture and another made up of compost and bricks (CB) (1:4; v:v) were arranged in two depths (5 and 10 cm), in cultivation tables. Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke and Lagurus ovatus L. seeds were sown in each substrate. These experimental units were subjected, on the one hand, to irrigation at 40% of the registered evapotranspiration values (ET0) and, on the other, to drought conditions, during a nine-month trial. Physichochemical and microbiological substrate characteristics were studied, along with the physiological and nutritional status of the plants. We obtained significantly greater plant coverage in CSB at 10 cm, especially for L. ovatus (80-90%), as well as a better physiological status, especially in S. vulgaris (SPAD values of 50-60), under irrigation, whereas neither species could grow in the absence of water. The carbon and nitrogen fixation by the substrate and the aboveground biomass were also higher in CSB at 10 cm, especially under L. ovatus - in which 1.32 kg C m(-2) and 209 g N m(-2) were fixed throughout the experiment. Besides, the enzymatic and biochemical parameters assayed showed that microbial activity and nutrient cycling, which fulfill a key role for plant development, were higher in CSB. Therefore, irrigation of 40% can

  4. Spectrometric Determination of Metal Elements in Typha latifolia L.from Jianshui of Yunnan%云南建水草牙中金属元素的光谱测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊明; 戴建辉; 白红丽; 张虹; 王宝森

    2011-01-01

    [目的]测定云南建水草牙(Typha lotifolia L.)中8种金属元素的含量,以期为这一资源的开发利用提供科学依据.[方法]采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定草芽中的Fe、Zn、Cu、Ni、Co、Cd、Pb和Cr元素的含量.[结果]建水草牙分有多种时人体有益的矿物元素,7种金属元素含量顺序为Fe>Zn >Cu>Ni>C0>Cd >Pb,Cr未检测出;Fe元素含量较高,而Cu含量相对较低.[结论]建水草牙含矿物元素较丰富.%[Objective ] To determine the content of 8 metal elements in Typha latifolia L. from Jianshui County of Yunnan Province, so at to provide a scientific basis for development and utilization of this resources. [Method] Contents of 8 metal elements including Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Pb and Cr were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. [Result] Typha latifolia L. was rich in various mineral elements to human health. The content ordet of 7 analyzed mineral elements was Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni >Co >Cd>Pb. Cr element could not be detected in tested sample. The content( Fe was higher in Typha latifolia L. , while Cu was relatively lower. [ Conclusion ] There were abundant mineral el-ements which were necessary fur people in the Typha latifolia L..

  5. Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime: i principali risultati di una ricerca condotta su un campione di studentesse dell’Università di Perugia / Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime : les principaux résultats d’une recherche menée à partir d’un échantillon d’étudiantes universitaires de l’Université de Pérouse (Italie) / Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime: The main results of a research among female students of the University of Perugia

    OpenAIRE

    Barro Martina

    2013-01-01

    L’articolo presenta i principali risultati di una ricerca empirica condotta su un campione di studentesse universitarie dell’Università di Perugia. Il questionario verteva su episodi di molestie sessuale, di stalking e di atti sessuali non voluti che potevano essere capitati alle studentesse tanto nell’ambiente universitario che in generale. Oltre ai comportamenti citati, sono stati analizzati i dati sul contesto in cui sono avvenuti i fatti di molestia, sulle reazioni, sulle conseguenze e su...

  6. Identification of Abiotic and Biotic Factors Causing Deterioration During Storage and Development of Storage Techniques for Mahua (Madhuca indica Syn. Bassia latifolia flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta Kumar Das

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mahua (Madhuca indica syn. Bassia latifolia flowers, occupy an important position in the life of the tribal in many parts of India. Particularly, the flowers of the plant are sugar rich and in certain cases it is the only source of livelihood for those people. However, its nutrient quality deteriorates during the postharvest storage and thus, poses a serious problem of adequate storage. In order to determine the cause of spoilage and to develop the measures to check it, collected flowers were stored using two methods in this investigation; first, under normally practiced conditions (NPS, i.e., the practice adopted by the flower’s collectors, and second, oven dried, powdered with liquid nitrogen, and stored at 00C (±10C in different small airtight sterilized vials labelled as laboratory processed samples (LPS. Both LPS and NPS were stored for a year i.e. from one harvesting season to the next. Experiments were carried out, at every month interval, to identify the factors responsible for spoilage of flowers during storage. LPS did not exhibit deterioration in the nutrient value throughout the year of storage, but NPS showed spoilage due to various biotic and abiotic factors comprised of moisture, temperature and microorganisms. To check postharvest spoilage various innovative storage techniques like physical and chemical treatments were experimented. Results revealed that storage at low temperature by liquid nitrogen treatment and chemical conversion to oxalic acid were the most effective techniques for a long-term storage.

  7. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized in agar agar and Ca-alginate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Kar, Shaktimay; Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Microbiology Laboratory, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019, Orissa (India)

    2010-01-15

    Batch fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia L., a tree commonly found in tropical rain forest) flowers was carried out using immobilized cells (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yields were 151.2, 154.5 and 149.1 g kg{sup -1} flowers using immobilized (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells, respectively. Cell entrapment in calcium alginate was found to be marginally superior to those in agar agar (2.2% more) as well as over free cell (3.5% more) as regard to ethanol yield from mahula flowers is concerned. Further, the immobilized cells were physiologically active at least for three cycles [150.6, 148.5 and 146.5 g kg{sup -1} (agar agar) and 152.8, 151.5 and 149.5 g kg{sup -1} flowers (calcium alginate) for first, second and third cycle, respectively] of ethanol fermentation without apparently lowering the productivity. Mahula flowers, a renewable, non-food-grade cheap carbohydrate substrate from non-agricultural environment such as forest can serve as an alternative to food grade sugar/starchy crops such as maize, sugarcane for bio-ethanol production. (author)

  8. CRECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO DE LA LIMA ÁCIDA (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, cv. Tahití, EN SUELOS CON LIMITACIONES POR PROFUNDIDAD EFECTIVA, EN UN BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF LIME (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, cv. Tahiti, IN SOILS WITH LIMITATIONS BY EFFECTIVE DEPTH IN A TROPICAL DRY FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Ochoa Agudelo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó la evolución de la biomasa, la distribución diferencial de ésta entre los órganos y algunos parámetros del crecimiento y desarrollo, de la lima ácida (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, cv. Tahití, injertada sobre Carrizo y Kryder. El cultivo se estableció en suelos con limitaciones por profundidad efectiva (PE entre 10 y 20 cm; las evaluaciones se realizaron a los 24, 32 y 39 meses después del trasplante. Se debe tener presente que el crecimiento de las raíces está condicionado a los atributos edáficos en donde se establecen los cultivos, en especial los perennes, en cuyo caso existen requerimientos mínimos de PE para el adecuado desarrollo de los árboles; se establecieron diferencias entre la biomasa acumulada, como consecuencia de ésta limitación. Al comparar el crecimiento de las plantas con la PE se evidenció que los individuos que crecieron en suelos con PE de 20 cm, presentaron un desarrollo relativamente semejante a plantaciones sin limitaciones de este tipo; mientras que, en suelos con PE inferior a 10 cm, la respuesta fue 3 a 5 veces menor.Abstract. It was evaluated the evolution of biomass, its differential distribution among the organs and some parameters of growth and development of acid lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, cv. Tahiti, grafted on Carrizo and Kryder patterns. The plants were established in soils with limitations by its effective depth (ED, which ranged between 10 and 20 cm. Assessments were effectuated at 24, 32 and 39 months after transplantation. It is must to keep in mind that root growth is conditioned to the soil attributes of the site where the crops are established, especially in the case of perennials, which have requirements of minimum PE in order to achieve an adequate development. Differences were established between biomass accumulated as a result of the limitation in effective depth. When comparing the growth of plants with ED, we found that the individuals that grew up in soils with

  9. Analýza interakcí rodičovských genomů mezidruhového hybrida S. latifolia x S. viscosa na cytogenetické úrovni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2006), s. 395-396. ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých vědeckých a výzkumných pracovníků z oborů chemie, biochemie a molekulární biologie /6./. 14.06.2006-17.06.2006, Devět skal - Žďárské vrchy] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/05/2076; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/05/H505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : interspecific hybrid * GISH * Silene Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  10. Effect of Cadmium and Lead Stress on the DNA Cross-linking in Zizania latifolia%重金属镉、铅胁迫对茭白DNA交联的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯丰; 江解增

    2009-01-01

    To study the contents of dietary fiber (DF) and crude fiber in gall's of Zizania latifolia grown in stress with Cd2+ I00 nag/L, Pb2+ 1 000 mg/L and their combined stress, a single-harvested cultivar Jiangshujiao and a double-harvested cultivar Fenghongzao of Zizania latifolia were cultured in oil with organic fertilizer (OF) and inorganic fertilizer (IF). The results showed that, Cd2+ and Pb2+ stress could reduce the amount of extracted DNA and the hyperehromicity of DNA in the leaves of Zizania latifolia remarkably. Treated with combined stress of Cd2+ and Pb2+, the amount of extracted DNA in the leaves of Zizania latifolia was lower than single stress. The hyperchromicity of DNA had a larger descendent range when treated with combined stress than single stress. Treated with inorganic fertilizer, the amount of extracted DNA in the leaves of Zizania latifolia was lower than treated with organic fertilizer. The hyperchrornicity of DNA had a larger descen-dent range when treated with inorganic fertilizer than organic fertilizer. The amount of extracted DNA and the hyper-chromicity of DNA in leaves of Jiangshu were higher than that of Fenghongzao at the same treatment.%以单季茭白品种蒋墅芟和双季茭白品种葑红早为试材,对Cd2+、pb2+的单一及其复合胁迫,进行有机肥和无机肥处理,测定了两茭白品种叶片中DNA的提取量以及DNA增色效应的变化.试验结果表明.Cd2+、Pb2+胁迫均能显著降低两茭白品种叶片中DNA提取的量及DNA增色效应的程度.不同胁迫处理方式间以复合胁迫处理下茭白叶片中DNA提取的量显著低于单一胁迫处理,复合胁迫处理时茭白叶片DNA的增色效应下降的幅度显著大于单一胁迫处理.不同肥料处理间则以无机肥处理时DNA提取的量显著低于有机肥处理;而无机肥处理时茭白叶片DNA增色效应下降的幅度显著大于有机肥处理.品种间同比均以蒋墅茭较高.

  11. 茭白总蛋白质双向电泳技术体系的建立%Establishment of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Conditions for Proteomic Analysis of Zizania latifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海波; 陈伟; 周静峰; 宋慧波; 郁志芳

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) conditions of Zizania latifolia,the effects of different protein extraction methods,loading amount,pH ranges of IPG strip and gel concentration,etc,on 2-DE maps were investigated.The results showed that the modified phenol extraction protocol is more suitable for total protein extraction of Z.latifolia compared with TCA/acetone protocol.And a high quality 2-DE map with more protein spots,clear background and high protein point resolution was obtained using the following optimized procedure:loading 1.0mg protein sample on 17 cm IPG strip with pH 4-7,SDS-PAGE with 12 g/dL gel concentration,and finally detecting proteins with coomassie brilliant blue G250 staining.The research provides a basis for further study of the Z.latifolia proteomics.%为建立茭白总蛋白质双向电泳技术体系,研究了TCA/丙酮沉淀法和改良酚抽法两种不同总蛋白质提取方法、蛋白质上样量、pH值范围及凝胶质量浓度等条件对2-DE的影响.结果表明,改良酚抽法更适合茭白总蛋白质的提取,采用17 cm、pH 4~7的胶条、1.0 mg的蛋白质上样量、12 g/dL的凝胶浓度、考马斯亮蓝G-250胶体考染法染色,最终可获得蛋白质点较多,背景清晰,分辨率较高的2-DE图谱,为进一步开展茭白差异蛋白质组学研究奠定了基础.

  12. Histone H4 acetylation patterns during seed germination and early plant development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hodurková, Jaromíra; Vyskot, Boris

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2003), s. 23-28. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5004901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : epigenetic modification * Silene latifolia * transcription Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2003

  13. Fully automated pipeline for detection of sex linked genes using RNA-Seq data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michalovová, Monika; Kubát, Zdeněk; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovský, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 78 (2015). ISSN 1471-2105 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : SILENE-LATIFOLIA * RUMEX-ACETOSA * Y-CHROMOSOME Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 2.576, year: 2014

  14. The genomics of plant sex chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 236, JUL 2015 (2015), s. 126-135. ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2220 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Y-CHROMOSOME * SILENE-LATIFOLIA * DIOECIOUS PLANT Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.607, year: 2014

  15. SILEN-C3, a phase 2 randomized trial with faldaprevir plus pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin in treatment-naive hepatitis C virus genotype 1-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Douglas; Asselah, Tarik; Guyader, Dominique; Berg, Thomas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Mauss, Stefan; Ratziu, Vlad; Ferenci, Peter; Larrey, Dominique; Maieron, Andreas; Stern, Jerry O; Ozan, Melek; Datsenko, Yakov; Böcher, Wulf Otto; Steinmann, Gerhard

    2014-06-01

    Faldaprevir is an investigational hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor which, when administered for 24 weeks in combination with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in treatment-naive patients in a prior study (SILEN-C1; M. S. Sulkowski et al., Hepatology 57:2143-2154, 2013, doi:10.1002/hep.26276), achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 72 to 84%. The current randomized, open-label, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of 12 versus 24 weeks of 120 mg faldaprevir administered once daily, combined with 24 or 48 weeks of PegIFN/RBV, in 160 treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 patients. Patients with maintained rapid virologic response (HCV RNA of <25 IU/ml at week 4 and undetectable at weeks 8 and 12) stopped all treatment at week 24, otherwise they continued PegIFN/RBV to week 48. SVR was achieved by 67% and 74% of patients in the 12-week and 24-week groups, respectively. Virologic response rates were lower in the 12-week group from weeks 2 to 12, during which both groups received identical treatment. SVR rates were similar in both groups for patients achieving undetectable HCV RNA. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, and 6% of patients in each treatment group discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Once-daily faldaprevir at 120 mg for 12 or 24 weeks with PegIFN/RBV resulted in high SVR rates, and the regimen was well tolerated. Differences in the overall SVR rates between the 12-week and 24-week groups were not statistically significant and possibly were due to IL28B genotype imbalances; IL28B genotype was not tested, as its significance was not known at the time of the study. These results supported phase 3 evaluation. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00984620). PMID:24709256

  16. 纤维素酶—乙醇法提取苦丁茶中总黄酮%Extraction of Total Flavonoids from the Leaves of Ilex latifolia by Cellulase-Ethanol Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靖

    2012-01-01

    Total flavonoids were extracted from leaves of Ilex latifolia (Kuding tea) by cellulase-ethanol method. The effects of cellulose dose, enzymolysis time, temperature, pH, volume fraction of ethanol, and dose of ethanol on yield of total flavonoids were studied by single factor tests so as to optimize the extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows, dose of cellulose enzyme, 1.0 mg per 5.0 g Kuding tea flour; enzymolysis time, 2.0 h; enzymolysis temperature, 55℃; pH, 4.5; volume fraction of ethanol, 60%; dose of ethanol, 35 mL per 5.0 g Kuding tea flour. The yield of flavonoids was up to 7.80% under these conditions.%采用纤维素酶酶解预处理与乙醇浸提法相结合从苦丁茶中提取总黄酮.通过单因素试验考察酶用量、酶解时间、酶解温度、pH、乙醇体积分数和乙醇用量对总黄酮提取率的影响,优化提取工艺条件.结果表明,优化的提取工艺条件为0.5 g苦丁茶粉末中加入纤维素酶1.0mg、酶解时间2.0 h、酶解温度55℃、酶解pH 4.5、体积分数60%的乙醇用量35 mL,最佳提取工艺条件下苦丁茶中总黄酮提取率达7.80%.

  17. Genome size estimates for six rust (Pucciniales) species

    OpenAIRE

    Talhinhas, Pedro; Ramos, Ana Paula; Tavares, Daniela; Tavares, Sílvia; Loureiro, João

    2015-01-01

    Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales), one of the largest groups of phytopathogenic organisms, are characterised by host specialisation, biotrophy, complex life cycles and enlarged genomes. In this work we have used flow cytometry to determine the genome size of six rust species, Melampsora pulcherrima, Puccinia behenis, P. cichorii, P. pimpinellae, P. vincae and Uromyces dianthi, the causal agents of rust on Mercurialis annua, Silene latifolia, Cichorium intybus, Pimpinella villos...

  18. Evolution of Y chromosome gene functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žlůvová, Jitka; Marková, Michaela; Janoušek, Bohuslav; Vyskot, Boris

    Marseilles, 2006. s. 19-19. [10th Evolution ary Biology Meeting at Marseilles. 20.09.2006-22.09.2006, Marseilles] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP204/05/P505; GA ČR(CZ) GD205/05/H505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : Silene latifolia * Y chromosome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  19. Secondary metabolites from Scorzonera latifolia roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acikara, O. B.; Šmejkal, K.; Cvačka, Josef; Buděšínský, Miloš; Dračínský, Martin; Saltan, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 16 (2015), PM167. ISSN 0032-0943. [GA 2015. International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research /63./. 23.08.2015-27.08.2015, Budapest] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : medical plant * metabolites * Asteraceae Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  20. Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime: i principali risultati di una ricerca condotta su un campione di studentesse dell’Università di Perugia / Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime : les principaux résultats d’une recherche menée à partir d’un échantillon d’étudiantes universitaires de l’Université de Pérouse (Italie / Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime: The main results of a research among female students of the University of Perugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barro Martina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo presenta i principali risultati di una ricerca empirica condotta su un campione di studentesse universitarie dell’Università di Perugia. Il questionario verteva su episodi di molestie sessuale, di stalking e di atti sessuali non voluti che potevano essere capitati alle studentesse tanto nell’ambiente universitario che in generale. Oltre ai comportamenti citati, sono stati analizzati i dati sul contesto in cui sono avvenuti i fatti di molestia, sulle reazioni, sulle conseguenze e sul senso di minaccia percepito. Nelle conclusioni l’autrice propone un’interpretazione della rappresentazione sociale della molestia sessuale basata sulla teoria dell’identità sociale e su quella dell’autocategorizzazione del sé.RésuméCet article rend compte des principaux résultats d'une enquête menée à partir d’un échantillon d'étudiantes universitaires de l'Université de Pérouse (Italie. Le questionnaire avait pour objet les épisodes de harcèlement sexuel, de traque furtive (stalking et de violence sexuelle qui pouvaient avoir eu lieu dans le milieu universitaire comme à l’extérieur. En outre, l’auteur analyse le contexte, les réactions, les conséquences et le sentiment de menace perçu par les étudiantes. En conclusion, l’auteur propose une interprétation de la représentation sociale du harcèlement sexuel s’appuyant sur les théories de l'identité sociale et de l'auto-catégorisation.AbstractThis article presents the main results of an empirical research among female students of the University of Perugia (Italy. The questionnaire dealt with sexual harassment, stalking and unwanted sexual acts experienced by the girls inside and outside the university. In addition, contextual data connected to these incidents, the reaction, the consequences and the perceived threat are analysed. Finally, the author proposes an explanation for a social representation of sexual harassment based on Social Identity and Self

  1. Comportamiento de la producción de lima Tahití (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, injertada sobre el patrón de Mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco y la influencia del virus de la tristeza (CTV en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta, 1997-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Quiroga - Cardona

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tahiti limes (Citrus latifolia T is in third place among the citrus species cultivated in Colombia. Its fruits are consumed in the domestic market and has a growing export market. Among the viral diseases affecting citrus crops Virus Citrus Tristeza (CTV is one of the most limiting for production and longevity of plantsespecially in Tahiti lime. This study was carried out under the ecological conditions of the Research Center Corpoica La Libertad, in the foothills of the department of Meta. The plants used in the nursery in 1996 grafted with buds from crops used as standard Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco. The crop fieldwas established in 1997, occupying an area of one hectare, with a density of 490 plants ha-1. To determine crop production took annual records, and the incidence and severity of the (CTV were two readings in plants, during the seventh and eleventh year after transplantation (addt. In 2008 (11 addt A description of thesymptoms of the damage caused by citrus tristeza in the plant and the photographic record was made. The Tahiti lime production started three years after transplantation with 4 t/ ha and increased annually to present the peak of production in the eighth year with 62 t/ ha, then decreased until 2 t/ ha in year 11.The incidence of CTV in 2003 (6 addt was 16.5 % for a total of 80 affected plants and in 2008 (11 addt 100 % of plants were affected (490 plants. The severity of CTV, in the 2003 was 29.4 %, while the reading of 2008 was 84 %.

  2. Infection of the Anther-smut Microbotryum violaceum in Populations of Silene dioica: Variation in Floral Morphology, Patterns of Spore Deposition and Pathogen-Pollinator Mediated Selection%麦瓶草种群中的花药黑粉菌感染:花的形态学变异、菌孢子散布式样及病原菌-传媒调节性选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘登义; Ulla CARLSSON

    2002-01-01

    The anther-smut Microbotryum violaceum (Brandenburger and Schvinn) G. Deml. And Oberw.) causes a systemic infection of its host Silene dioica (L.) Clairv., resulting in sterility and production of teliospores (dispersal propagules) in flowers. These spores are transmitted to healthy plants mainly by flower visitors. The behavioral responses of flower visitors to a variation in floral characters, are not only likely to affect rates of pollen export/import, but also the rate of spore deposition and probability of disease. In a transplantation experiment, using plants from four different populations, we tested for correlation between variation in female floral morphology and patterns of spore and pollen deposition, and a resulting risk of disease. The source populations in this experiment were located on four islands in Skeppsvik archipelago in northern Sweden, and represented a gradient of disease incidence from completely healthy (Island 1), low incidence (Island 2) to high incidences (Islands 3 and 4) of disease. Fifty plants from each population were transplanted to the center of the population on Island 4. There were significant differences among the transplants in floral characters, I.e. Corolla size, style length and ovule number. Plants from the non-diseased population had larger flowers and longer styles than plants from the highly diseased populations. Numbers of pollen grains and spores deposited on flowers were strongly and positively correlated. We found that plants originating from the non-diseased population captured approximately 4 times more pollen and 9 times more spores per flower than the individuals from the resident population (Island 4, population 4). The incidences of disease among plants from the four populations differed significantly, and was 37%, 20%, 18% and 0 for populations 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. In a survey of ten populations we found a significant negative correlation between the mean style length (positively

  3. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-11-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite.

  4. Nonneutral Evolution of Organelle Genes in Silene vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Houliston, Gary J.; Olson, Matthew S.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of mitochondrial gene evolution in angiosperms has taken a dramatic shift within the past decade, from universal slow rates of nucleotide change to a growing realization of high variation in rates among lineages. Additionally, evidence of paternal inheritance of plant mitochondria and recombination among mitochondrial genomes within heteroplasmic individuals has led to speculation about the potential for independent evolution of organellar genes. We report intraspecific mitochondria...

  5. Grande impresa e decisioni pubbliche. La Fiat da Campione nazionale atipico a global player

    OpenAIRE

    Germano Luca

    2007-01-01

    This paper starts from a mainframe inspired on C. Lindblom's theory (1977): big business and public decisions-makers had always had a privileged relationship. However, as an important variation from Lindblom's affirmations, the intervention of the State in Italy has not been addressed to satisfied all the requests of big enterprises. Its intervention has been characterised as a negotiation process orientated by the reciprocal advantages of both involved actors. We present a case study, the Fi...

  6. Analisi della risposta sismica di un edificio campione nel Comune di Ariano Irpino (AV)

    OpenAIRE

    Cogliano, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Di Giulio, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Fodarella, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Improta, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Minichiello, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Pucillo, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Riccio, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Rovelli, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2006-01-01

    Nella pratica ingegneristica vengono usate correlazioni derivate da regressioni statistiche tra numero dei piani degli edifici e frequenze di risonanza. Tuttavia la discrepanza tra comportamento reale e valori aspettati può essere talvolta significativa, e solo l’acquisizione di dati sperimentali consente di comprendere il reale comportamento dinamico di una struttura. La sperimentazione, in situazioni anche complesse, e la raccolta di nuovi dati possono essere molto importanti nel campo dell...

  7. Contrasting Patterns of Transposable Element and Satellite Distribution on Sex Chromosomes (XY1Y2) in the Dioecious Plant Rumex acetosa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šteflová, Pavlína; Tokan, Viktor; Vogel, Ivan; Lexa, M.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovský, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2013), s. 769-782. ISSN 1759-6653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/10/0930; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0102; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2220 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Y-CHROMOSOME * REPETITIVE SEQUENCES * SILENE-LATIFOLIA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.532, year: 2013

  8. Growth performance of 12 year old air layered Madhuca latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Bhanudas Chavan

    2014-12-01

    It is concluded that, the growth of air-layered Mahua is better when compared to published literature on seedling originated mahus. Based on this study, it is proved that air layering of mahua is cheap and best method to produce quality planting material. Further large scale investigation on performance of air-layered mahua plantations will provide early returns in terms of flowers and seed to sustain local livelihood. The stature of air layered mahua is well suited for agroforestry plantations.

  9. Hypolipidemic activity of gum ghatti of Anogeissus latifolia

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. M. PARVATHI; C. K. Ramesh; Krishna, V; M Paramesha; I J Kuppast

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are becoming an increasing problem worldwide and hypercholesterolemia has been correlated for coronary heart diseases. Currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with number of side effects. Herbal treatment for hyperlipidemia poses no side effects and is relatively cheap and locally available. In view of this, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of gum ghatti of Anogeissus lalifolia on serum lipid levels of albino rats. Rats w...

  10. Hypolipidemic activity of gum ghatti of Anogeissus latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M.M Parvathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are becoming an increasing problem worldwide and hypercholesterolemia has been correlated for coronary heart diseases. Currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with number of side effects. Herbal treatment for hyperlipidemia poses no side effects and is relatively cheap and locally available. In view of this, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of gum ghatti of Anogeissus lalifolia on serum lipid levels of albino rats. Rats were made hyperlipidemic by the oral administration of cholesterol (400mg/kg body weight/day along with cholic acid (50mg/kg in coconut oil. The hypolipidemic effect was compared with control. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with gum ghatti at 250 mg/kg dosage showed significant reduction in serum triglyceride (82.75±0.63 only and there was no significant changes either in serum total cholesterol or elevation in HDL. Whereas, at 500 and 750 mg/kg dosage showed significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (72.85±0.60, 68.17±0.95 and serum triglyceride (78.92±0.34, 75.93±1.05. Further, the 750 mg/kg dose has also exhibited significant elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (41.13±0.37.

  11. Environ: E00600 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00600 Arenaria juncea, Silene fortunei, Silene jenisensis, Gypsophila oldhamiana r...oot Crude drug Arenaria juncea, Arenaria [TAX:3577], Silene fortunei [TAX:411984], Silene jenisensis, Silene...[TAX:3573], Gypsophila oldhamiana, Gypsophila [TAX:146094] Caryophyllaceae (pink family) Arenaria juncea, Silene fortune...[BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Caryophyllaceae (pink family) E00600 Arenaria juncea, Silene fortunei, Silene jenisensis, Gypsophila oldhamiana root ...

  12. Analisi dei modi di vibrazione di un edificio campione in muratura mediante registrazioni di terremoti e modellazioni numeriche.

    OpenAIRE

    Pucillo, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Fodarella, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Cogliano, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Di Giulio, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Minichiello, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Riccio, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Rovelli, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2009-01-01

    Nella pratica ingegneristica vengono usate correlazioni derivate da regressioni statistiche tra numero dei piani degli edifici e frequenze di risonanza. Tuttavia la discrepanza tra comportamento reale e valori aspettati può essere talvolta significativa, e solo l’acquisizione di dati sperimentali consente di comprendere il reale comportamento dinamico di una struttura. La sperimentazione, in situazioni anche complesse, e la raccolta di nuovi dati possono essere molto importanti nel campo dell...

  13. Analisi statistica delle abitudini alla suzione di tipo non nutritivo in un campione in età pediatrica

    OpenAIRE

    CONSOLI, GIULIANA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion related to non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier or finger) in a sample of children at the Unit of Pediatric Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillo-facial Sciences of the “Sapienza”, University of Rome. Materials and methods: Two samples of children were selected from January 2009 to December 2010, all aged between 5 and 9 years in deciduous or early mixed dentition. The first sample (study group) ...

  14. Re-inventare una comunità locale. La luxury sophistication di Campione del Garda e la memoria dimenticata

    OpenAIRE

    Visentin, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Ci sono luoghi in cui la geografia provoca la storia. Nella nostra stretta contemporaneità ci sono consumi e comportamenti che possono reinventare completamente i luoghi. Conseguentemente cancellare la memoria di ciò che sono stati o ancor peggio trasfigurarla in caricature che del passato portano solo alcuni segni, trasformati in esagerazioni demodé. Ormai la cultura dello “shopping mall”, “in stile”, dei parchi a tema è entrata nel nostro quotidiano, studiata ed analizzata a fondo da sociol...

  15. Rice field agroecosystem investigation : environmental and toxicological assessment; Indagine su una risaia campione: analisi ambientali e chimico-tossicologiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, A.; Minciardi, M.; Rossi, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bonotto, F.; Paonessa, F.; Troiani, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dip. Energia; Rosa, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricrche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Cormegna, M. [Ente Nazionale Risi, Centro Ricerche sul Riso, Castello d`Agogna, Pavia (Italy)

    1995-10-01

    The rice-field agroecosystem, even if deeply anthropically determined, can be considered substitute of the plain wet lands, now almost all disappeared in the part of the territory has been considering. The aim of the research we started was the analysis and the ecological characterization of this environment and the assessment of the effects of the different agronomical practices, relating to the conservation of the biodiversity in a plain wetland. The ENEA Environmental Biology and Nature Conservation Division of Saluggia (VC) and Casaccia (Roma), in co-operation with ENEA ERG-RAD-LAB Division of Saluggia and the Rice Research Center of Castello d`Agogna (PV) associated to Rice National Society, started a preliminary research on a sample rice field, aiming to evaluate, using different methodologies, the destiny of the chemical substances (herbicides, fungicidals, heavy metals and other chemical compounds) introduced through cultivation practices or arrived by irrigation systems.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11270-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne) Silene latifolia mRNA for X1 protein. 37 3.7 (Q17BB0) RecName: Full=Ribosome biogenesis protein WDR12 homolog...none) Dictyostelium discoideum chromoso... 37 3.7 (B0W517) RecName: Full=Ribosome biogenesis protein WDR12 homolog... |pid:none) Synthetic construct Homo sapiens c... 37 3.7 AE014297_4601( AE014297 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogas...300_1( BC145300 |pid:none) Mus musculus peroxisomal biogenesi... 37 4.9 AF250047_... AF070689_1( AF070689 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster cytoplasmi... 36 6.4 AF0

  17. Wild food plants used in the villages of the Lake Vrana Nature Park (northern Dalmatia, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatia is a country of diverse plant use traditions, which are still insufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to document local traditions of using wild food plants around Lake Vrana (northern Dalmatia, Zadar region.  We interviewed 43 inhabitants of six traditional villages north of Lake Vrana. On average 12 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 55 food plants and 3 fungi taxa. Wild vegetables were most widely collected, particularly by older women who gathered the plants mainly when herding their flocks of sheep. Wild fruits and mushrooms were rarely collected. The former used to be an important supplementary food for children, or for everyone during times of food shortage, and the latter were relatively rare due to the dry climate and shortage of woods. The most commonly collected plants are wild vegetables: Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sonchus oleraceus, Asparagus acutifolius, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex pulcher, Daucus carota, Allium ampeloprasum and Silene latifolia.

  18. Identification and characterization of a bacteria-like sequence in the genome of some Silene species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Talianová, Martina; Žlůvová, Jitka; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris; Janoušek, Bohuslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2012), s. 247-253. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/08/0932; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/0083; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : horizontal gene transfer * microdissection * phylogenetic analysis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.692, year: 2012

  19. Gas pressure generation from irradiated fuel during transient heating in the Silene reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several in-pile experiments have been performed to measure the fission gases release out of an irradiated fuel during a fast power transient (0,7 - 1,5 kJ/g in 7 ms). They have shown that a fuel subjected to such a transient can release a large amount of fission and other gases, namely H2 and CO. Special caution during the handling, followed by stoving before the transient have suppressed the spurious CO and H2 in the last experiments. We can now determine the kinetics of intrinsic gases release. The fuel can liberate up to half of its fission gases below melting in a frame time included between 120 and 200 ms for 90% releasing. In the case of full melting during the transient, the fission gases release reaches 100% and seems slower

  20. Mosaic Origins of a Complex Chimeric Mitochondrial Gene in Silene vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorchová, Helena; Müller, Karel; Lau, S.; Olson, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2012), e30401--. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0261; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004; GA MŠk ME09035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : CYTOPLASMIC MALE-STERILITY * OPEN READING FRAME * COMPLETE NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  1. Genome Structure and Gene Expression Variation in Plant Mitochondria, Particularly in the Genus Silene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorchová, Helena

    Vol. Part 4. Berlin: SPRINGER-VERLAG, 2011 - (Pontarotti, P.), s. 273-289 ISBN 978-3-642-20762-4 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0261; GA MŠk ME09035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : CYTOPLASMIC MALE-STERILITY * GROUP-II INTRONS * RNA EDITING SITES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  2. Genetic variation of inbreeding depression among floral and fitness traits in Silene nutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Hansen, Thomas Møller; Siegismund, Hans Redlef;

    2010-01-01

    decoupled. There was a trend that the smaller population was less affected by ID than the large one, although the differences were not significant for most traits. Hence, evidence for purging of deleterious alleles remains inconclusive in this study. Genetic variation in ID among paternal families was...

  3. Evolution of sex determination systems with heterogametic males and females in Silene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlancarová, Veronika; Ždánská, Jana; Janoušek, Bohuslav; Talianová, Martina; Zschach, C.; Žlůvová, Jitka; Široký, Jiří; Kováčová, Viera; Blavet, Hana; Danihelka, J.; Oxelman, B.; Widmer, A.; Vyskot, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2013), s. 3669-3677. ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06264S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0102; GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2220 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : ANCESTRAL CHARACTER STATES * MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD * DETERMINATION PATHWAY Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.659, year: 2013

  4. Expression response of duplicated metallothionein 3 gene to copper stress in Silene vulgaris ecotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nevrtalová, Eva; Baloun, Jiří; Hudzieczek, Vojtěch; Čegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šafář, Jan; Milde, D.; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 6 (2014), s. 1427-1439. ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2220; GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GP13-34962P; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/0083 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Copper * Gene duplication * Metallothionein Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2014

  5. Studium evoluce pohlavních chromozomů u Silene otites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubá, Martina; Janoušek, Bohuslav; Vyskot, Boris

    Brno : Masarykova univerzita v Brně, 2006 - (Wimmerová, M.; Beneš, P.). s. 67-68 ISBN 80-210-3942-6. [Pracovní setkání biochemiků a molekulárních biologů /10./. 08.02.2006-09.02.2006, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/05/2076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : genetic mapping * detection of polymorphism * recombination frequence Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  6. Deciphering evolutionary strata on plant sex chromosomes and fungal mating-type chromosomes through compositional segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravi S; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-03-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported. Only two plants Silene latifolia and papaya have been studied until now for the presence of evolutionary strata on their X chromosomes, made possible by the sequencing of sex-linked genes on both the X and Y chromosomes, which is a requirement of all current methods that determine stratum structure based on the comparison of gametologous sex chromosomes. To circumvent this limitation and detect strata even if only the sequence of sex chromosome in the homogametic sex (i.e. X or Z chromosome) is available, we have developed an integrated segmentation and clustering method. In application to gene sequences on the papaya X chromosome and protein-coding sequences on the S. latifolia X chromosome, our method could decipher all known evolutionary strata, as reported by previous studies. Our method, after validating on known strata on the papaya and S. latifolia X chromosome, was applied to the chromosome 19 of Populus trichocarpa, an incipient sex chromosome, deciphering two, yet unknown, evolutionary strata. In addition, we applied this approach to the recently sequenced sex chromosome V of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp. that has a haploid sex determination system (UV system) recovering the sex determining and pseudoautosomal regions, and then to the mating-type chromosomes of an anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae predicting five strata in the non

  7. Sex in advertising: dioecy alters the net benefits of attractiveness in Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vamosi, Jana C; Vamosi, Steven M.; Barrett, Spencer C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The flowers and inflorescences of animal-pollinated dioecious plants are generally small and inconspicuous in comparison with outcrossing cosexual species. The net benefits of an attractive floral display may be different for dioecious compared to cosexual populations because dioecious species experience a more severe reduction in pollen delivery when pollinators forage longer on fewer individuals. Here, we develop a model that predicts the decrease in pollen delivery in dioecious relative to...

  8. Nutritional value of organic acid lime juice (Citrus latifolia T.), cv. Tahiti

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Netto Rangel; Lucia Maria Jaeger de Carvalho; Renata Borchetta Fernandes Fonseca; Antonio Gomes Soares; Edgar Oliveira de Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Acid lime can be used as fresh fruit or as juice to increase the flavor of drinks. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze organic acid lime nutritional composition in order to evaluate if there are important differences among those conventionally produced. No significant differences in total titrable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, sucrose, calcium, and zinc were found between the acid lime juice from organic biodynamic crops and conventional crops. However, the organic biodynamic fruits presented...

  9. Extraction of essential oils from lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Atti-Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work lime essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide. In the case of hydrodistillation, the parameters evaluated were extraction time and characteristics of the plant material. In supercritical extraction, the parameters evaluated were temperature, pressure, CO2 flow, extraction time and material characteristics. Considering citral content, the best results for hydrodistillation were obtained with a distillation time of 3 hours using whole peels. The best results for supercritical extraction were found using 60ºC, 90 bar, at a CO2 flow rate of 1 mL/ min for 30 minutes using milled peels. The best yields of lime oil were obtained by hydrodistillation (5.45% w/w and supercritical extraction (7.93% w/w for milled peels.Neste trabalho o óleo essencial de lima ácida foi extraído por hidrodestilação e CO2 supercrítico. No caso da hidrodestilação, os parâmetros avaliados foram o tempo de processo e características do material vegetal. Em extração supercrítica, os parâmetros avaliados foram temperatura, pressão e fluxo do CO2, tempo de processo e características do material. Considerando o conteúdo de citral, os melhores resultados para hidrodestilação foram obtidos em um tempo de processo de 3 horas utilizando-se cascas inteiras. Os melhores resultados para extração supercrítica foram obtidos a 60ºC, 90 bar, a um fluxo de CO2 de 1 mL/ min para 30 minutos de processo utilizando-se cascas moídas. Os melhores resultados em termos de rendimento de óleo essencial foram obtidos por hidrodestilação (5,45% p/p e extração supercrítica (7,93% p/p, para cascas moídas.

  10. Extraction of essential oils from lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Atti-Santos; Marcelo Rossato; Luciana Atti Serafini; Eduardo Cassel; Patrick Moyna

    2005-01-01

    In this work lime essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide. In the case of hydrodistillation, the parameters evaluated were extraction time and characteristics of the plant material. In supercritical extraction, the parameters evaluated were temperature, pressure, CO2 flow, extraction time and material characteristics. Considering citral content, the best results for hydrodistillation were obtained with a distillation time of 3 hours using whole peel...

  11. Nutritional value of organic acid lime juice (Citrus latifolia T., cv. Tahiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Netto Rangel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid lime can be used as fresh fruit or as juice to increase the flavor of drinks. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze organic acid lime nutritional composition in order to evaluate if there are important differences among those conventionally produced. No significant differences in total titrable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, sucrose, calcium, and zinc were found between the acid lime juice from organic biodynamic crops and conventional crops. However, the organic biodynamic fruits presented higher peel percentage than the conventional ones leading to lower juice yield. On the other hand, fructose, glucose, total soluble solids contents, potassium, manganese, iron, and copper were higher in the conventional samples. These results indicated few nutritional differences between organic and conventional acid lime juices in some constituents. Nevertheless, fruit juice from biodynamic crops could be a good choice since it is free from pesticides and other agents that cause problems to human health maintaining the levels similar to those of important nutritional compounds.

  12. Noble strain of Sparassis latifolia produces high content of β-glucan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ju Lee

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: These results indicate that the nucleotide sequences and the amino acid sequences of RPB2 can be used to identify individual Sparassis sp. The Sparassis strain CLM1 may be best for developing a remedy to prevent or treat cancer and other chronic diseases.

  13. Makomotines A to D from Makomotake, Zizania latifolia infected with Ustilago esculenta

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jae-Hoon; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Yamashita, Kimiko; Morita, Akio; Masuda, Kikuko; Yazawa, Kazunaga; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Tetrahedron Letters.Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document.Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Tetrahedron Letters, Volume 55, Issue 26, 25 June 2014. DOI 10.1016/j.tetl...

  14. Associazione fra LDL piccole e dense e segni iniziali di aterosclerosi carotidea in un campione di donne dell’area napoletana

    OpenAIRE

    Ubaldi, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    E’ stata valutata la relazione fra LDL piccole e dense e spessore medio-intimale carotideo in 228 donne in menopausa partecipanti al progetto Atena. I risultati dimostrano una forte associazione fra IMT e sd-LDL in maniera indipendente da età, sindrome metabolica ed Apo B. Queste osservazioni sperimentali suggeriscono che le LDL piccole e dense potrebbero rappresentare, in aggiunta ai fattori di rischio tradizionali, un marcatore per la diagnosi ed il grado di gravità della aterosclero...

  15. Salute dentoparodontale in gravidanza e sue correlazioni con la salute sistemica: studio epidemiologico longitudinale in un campione di donne gravide milanesi

    OpenAIRE

    Carmagnola, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    According to recent evidence, periodontal diseases may represent a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes like preterm birth (<37 weeks) and/or low birth weight (<2500 g) as well as they are supposed to be related to systemic diseases like for example cardiovascular diseases, which are often characterized by a hyperinflammatory trait and are in turn associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this report was to analyze oral and systemic conditions in a sample of...

  16. Educazione all'igiene orale ed eradicazione della carie dentale nellíinfanzia. Risultati finali di uno studio in un campione di popolazione infantile di Ferrara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bergamini

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: poichè nel 1985 l’O.M.S. collocò l’eradicazione della carie infantile fra gli obiettivi epidemiologici da raggiungere nella regione europea entro l’anno 2000, è stato effettuato uno screening microbiologico finalizzato all’isolamento di germi cariogeni nel cavo orale dei bambini.

    Materiali e metodi: secondo le procedure correnti, sono stati eseguiti tamponi gengivo-coronali in 476 bambini delle scuole elementari e medie inferiori di Ferrara, cui è stato somministrato anche un questionario, mirato a conoscere il loro grado di informazione sull’igiene orale. Risultati: nel periodo Gennaio-Aprile 2000, sono stati esaminati 476 bambini suddivisi per sesso ed età [6-8 anni: 67 maschi, 98 femmine; 9-11: 53 maschi, 81 femmine; 12-14: 99 maschi, 78 femmine]. Sono stati isolati 119 ceppi di Rothia dentocariosa, con una preponderanza fra i maschi di 12-14 anni (n. 86; 86,8%. Dai questionari (476 consegnati; 399 compilati si evince che l’86,4% ritiene importante l’igiene orale, ma solo il 51,8% si lava i denti dopo ogni pasto ed appena il 22,3% esegue un controllo periodico dal dentista. Rothia dentocariosa è stata isolata nel 56,5% di coloro che si lavano i denti una volta al giorno e nel 75,9% di quelli che non li lavano.

    Conclusioni: considerando che Rothia dentocariosa non risulta essere un normale saprofita del cavo orale ma è probabilmente un germe opportunista in grado di promuovere attivamente le lesioni della carie iniziale, il suo isolamento può essere considerato un indice precoce di lesione cariogena in progressione. Ne deriva che, nonostante i notevoli progressi compiuti negli ultimi anni, paragonabili a quelli di nazioni ad alto tenore sociosanitario, l’obiettivo dell’eradicazione totale della carie dalla popolazione infantile ferrarese non è stato ancora raggiunto. Ciò principalmente a causa di un difetto di formazione culturale sia dei genitori che dei figli verso le tematiche della prevenzione.

    Risulta pertanto necessario potenziare i programmi di educazione sanitaria finalizzati ad accrescere nella popolazione la consapevolezza dell’importanza dell’igiene orale.

  17. Minority stress e transgenderismi. Effetti dello stigma vissuto ed interiorizzato e dei fattori protettivi sulla salute mentale di un campione di persone transgender italiane

    OpenAIRE

    Scandurra, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Le persone transgender vivono violenze ed oppressioni continue e sistematiche a causa della propria non conformità di genere rappresentando una popolazione altamente stigmatizzata e a rischio di esperire problematiche di salute mentale. Un modello teorico di grande utilità per comprendere le cause di queste problematiche e gli effetti dello stigma sociale è quello del minority stress (Meyer, 1995; 2003; 2007). Nonostante ciò, fino a pochissimi anni fa, le persone transgender sono state inspie...

  18. Stigma towards Eating Disorders in Italian Students (STEaDIS): Studio osservazionale delle opinioni sull’Anoressia e la Bulimia Nervosa in un campione di studenti universitari italiani

    OpenAIRE

    Caslini,

    2015-01-01

    Razionale: La richiesta di cure per l’anoressia (AN) e la bulimia nervosa (BN) rimane bassa rispetto alla diffusione dei disturbi nonostante la disponibilità di trattamenti e l’associazione tra una buona prognosi e la precocità delle cure: una delle motivazioni alla base del problema è insita nelle paure generate dalle credenze e dagli atteggiamenti stigmatizzanti verso i disturbi del comportamento alimentare (DCA). Lo stigma per i disturbi psichiatrici è un fenomeno radicato nella società, d...

  19. Uso della tecnologia GIS per l'analisi degli effetti sanitari dell'esposizione a lungo termine all'inquinamento atmosferico in un campione di popolazione generale

    OpenAIRE

    Maio, Sara; Baldacci, Sandra; Nuvolone, Daniela; Della Maggiore, Roberto; Borbotti, Marco; Angino, Anna; Martini, Franca; Di Pede, Francesco; Simoni, Marzia; Pistelli, Francesco; Carrozzi, Laura; Viegi, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to assess, in a population sample living in Pisa (Tuscany, Italy), the relation between the temporal change of health status, risk factors, drugs consumption and long-term exposure to atmospheric pollution sources, using GIS (Geographical Information System) technology. Design: we selected a general population sub-sample (those who were medicine users in the 1991-93 survey and a matched randomly selected control group). These subjects, in 2005, participated in a telephone interview...

  20. Plant sex chromosomes: molecular structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilena, M; Mariotti, B; Manzano, S

    2008-01-01

    Recent molecular and genomic studies carried out in a number of model dioecious plant species, including Asparagus officinalis, Carica papaya, Silene latifolia, Rumex acetosa and Marchantia polymorpha, have shed light on the molecular structure of both homomorphic and heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and also on the gene functions they have maintained since their evolution from a pair of autosomes. The molecular structure of sex chromosomes in species from different plant families represents the evolutionary pathway followed by sex chromosomes during their evolution. The degree of Y chromosome degeneration that accompanies the suppression of recombination between the Xs and Ys differs among species. The primitive Ys of A. officinalis and C. papaya have only diverged from their homomorphic Xs in a short male-specific and non-recombining region (MSY), while the heteromorphic Ys of S. latifolia, R. acetosa and M. polymorpha have diverged from their respective Xs. As in the Y chromosomes of mammals and Drosophila, the accumulation of repetitive DNA, including both transposable elements and satellite DNA, has played an important role in the divergence and size enlargement of plant Ys, and consequently in reducing gene density. Nevertheless, the degeneration process in plants does not appear to have reached the Y-linked genes. Although a low gene density has been found in the sequenced Y chromosome of M. polymorpha, most of its genes are essential and are expressed in the vegetative and reproductive organs in both male and females. Similarly, most of the Y-linked genes that have been isolated and characterized up to now in S. latifolia are housekeeping genes that have X-linked homologues, and are therefore expressed in both males and females. Only one of them seems to be degenerate with respect to its homologous region in the X. Sequence analysis of larger regions in the homomorphic X and Y chromosomes of papaya and asparagus, and also in the heteromorphic sex chromosomes

  1. Transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes correlate with mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in a natural population of Silene vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elansary, Hosam O; Müller, Karel; Olson, M.S.; Štorchová, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 11 (2010), s. 1-10. ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0261; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : GYNODIOECIOUS PLANT * PATERNAL TRANSMISSION * MULTIPLE PROMOTERS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  2. A comparison of pollen-siring ability and life history between males and hermaphrodites of subdioecious Silene acaulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Marianne; Jakobsen, Ruth Bruus; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2009-01-01

    seeds from hermaphrodites.Questions: (1) Do pollen grains from males exhibit some advantage over pollen from (1) Do pollen grains from males exhibit some advantage over pollen from hermaphrodites? In particular, do they sire more seeds than hermaphrodites? (2) Is the reproductive system of S. acaulis...... stable or is it evolving towards one with fewer morphs (i.e. dioecy or gynodioecy)?Hypothesis: Pollen from male plants is better at siring seeds on females than pollen from Pollen from male plants is better at siring seeds on females than pollen from hermaphrodites.Study system: A subdioecious population...... performed in which females were hand A pollen-competition experiment was performed in which females were hand pollinated with a mixture of pollen from males and hermaphrodites, all with known isozyme alleles, which allowed determination of who sired each seed. We recorded plant size, flower morphology...

  3. Ensayos sobre la influencia del ratio NO3‐/NH4+ de Silene vulgaris en bandejas flotantes

    OpenAIRE

    Meira Barreto, Daniel José

    2008-01-01

    La colleja es un cultivo tradicional, poco extendido en la actualidad, pero que puede servir de alternativa a los principales cultivos foliáceos. El cultivo en bandejas flotantes resulta una técnica sencilla e interesante para la producción de hortalizas de hoja de pequeño tamaño tipo “baby leaf”, ofreciendo una buena posibilidad en el manejo y control de la solución nutritiva, por lo que puede ser usada para producir verduras con bajos contenidos en nitratos y oxalatos. El objetivo de ...

  4. Characterization of the HMA7 gene and transcriptomic analysis of candidate genes for copper tolerance in two Silene vulgaris ecotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baloun, Jiří; Nevrtalová, Eva; Kováčová, Viera; Hudzieczek, Vojtěch; Čegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 13 (2014), s. 1188-1196. ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Copper * Genes coding ROS-eliminating and Cu-transporting proteins * RNA-Seq database Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  5. Characterization of the HMA7 gene and transcriptomic analysis of candidate genes for copper tolerance in two Silene vulgaris ecotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baloun, J.; Nevrtalová, E.; Kováčová, V.; Hudzieczek, V.; Čegan, R.; Vyskot, B.; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 13 (2014), s. 1188-1196. ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Copper * Genes coding ROS-eliminating and Cu-transporting proteins * RNA-Seq database Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  6. Control químico de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemíptera: Psyllidae en lima persa Citrus latifolia Tanaka Chemical control of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in Persian lime Citrus latifolia Tanaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martín Hernández-Fuentes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial, la citricultura representa una actividad de gran importancia. México ocupa el cuarto lugar mundial en producción. Debido a la introducción y dispersión del vector D. citri en todas las zonas citrí colas de México y la reciente detección de la enfermedad conocida como huanglongbing causada por la bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, es necesaria la evaluación de métodos de control de este insecto. En el año 2010 en Nayarit, México, se realizaron pruebas de efectividad técnica en campo y persistencia de productos químicos de diferente mecanismo de acción contra D. citri en lima persa. Se hicieron dos evaluaciones en fechas distintas. En cada ensayo se evaluó número de ninfas por brote y porcentaje de brotes infestados. De los productos evaluados el dimetoato, imidacloprid y la mezcla de imidacloprid más betaciflutrina ejercieron más de 85 % de control de ninfas durante 27 días después de la aplicación. En los árboles tratados con dimetoato e imidacloprid en dosis de 400 mL y 300 mL ha-¹, respectivamente, se observó 100% de brotes libres de ninfas de D. citri a los 27 días después de la aplicación. El aceite agrícola en dosis de dos y tres L ha-1 ejerció menor control de ninfas de D. citri.Citrus crops represent an outstanding activity at worldwide level. Mexico ranks fourth place in production. Due introduction and dispersion of D. citri vector in all citric zones from Mexico and the newly detected disease known as huanglongbing (HLB caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus bacteria, assessment of control methods for this bug is required. In 2010, technical effectiveness in field and persistence for different action route against Persian lime D. citri chemical products tests were performed in Nayarit, Mexico. Two assessments were made at different dates. The amount of nymphs per shoot and percentage of infested shoots were assessed in each rehearsal. From evaluated products, dimethoate, imidacloprid and the mixture of imidacloprid and (β-cyfluthrin exerted more than 85% percent of control against nymphs during 27 days after application. In trees treated with dimethoate and imidacloprid in 400 mL and 300 mL ha-1 dose, respectively, 100% of shoots free of D. citri nymphs at 27 days after application was observed. Agricultural oil in two and three L ha-1 dose exerted less control against D. citri nymphs.

  7. ВЛИЯНИЕ РОГОЗА ШИРОКОЛИСТНОГО (TYPHA LATIFOLIA L.) И КОМПОНЕНТОВ ФИЛЬТРУЮЩЕЙ ЗАГРУЗКИ НА ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТЬ УДАЛЕНИЯ СОЕДИНЕНИЙ АЗОТА В СИСТЕМАХ ПОЧВЕННО-БОЛОТНОЙ ОЧИСТКИ СТОЧНЫХ ВОД

    OpenAIRE

    Сивкова, Елена; Прибыткова, Екатерина

    2011-01-01

    Изучено влияние рогоза широколистного (Typha latifolia) и наличия известняка в составе фильтрующей загрузки площадок почвенно-болотной очистки сточных вод на процессы удаления соединений азота. Показано изменение содержания ионов аммония в воде, вычислены скорость и эффективность удаления NH4 + в зависимости от условий очистки. Установлено, что присутствие высшей водной растительности в системах очистки горизонтального поверхностного потока повышает скорость и эффективность удаления аммонийно...

  8. How to be an attractive male: floral dimorphism and attractiveness to pollinators in a dioecious plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waelti Marc O

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual selection theory predicts that males are limited in their reproductive success by access to mates, whereas females are more limited by resources. In animal-pollinated plants, attraction of pollinators and successful pollination is crucial for reproductive success. In dioecious plant species, males should thus be selected to increase their attractiveness to pollinators by investing more than females in floral traits that enhance pollinator visitation. We tested the prediction of higher attractiveness of male flowers in the dioecious, moth-pollinated herb Silene latifolia, by investigating floral signals (floral display and fragrance and conducting behavioral experiments with the pollinator-moth, Hadena bicruris. Results As found in previous studies, male plants produced more but smaller flowers. Male flowers, however, emitted significantly larger amounts of scent than female flowers, especially of the pollinator-attracting compounds. In behavioral tests we showed that naïve pollinator-moths preferred male over female flowers, but this preference was only significant for male moths. Conclusion Our data suggest the evolution of dimorphic floral signals is shaped by sexual selection and pollinator preferences, causing sexual conflict in both plants and pollinators.

  9. LC-MS and 1H NMR as an improved dereplication tool to identify antifungal diterpenoids from Sagittaria latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dereplication strategy using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) to facilitate compound identification towards antifungal natural product discovery is presented. This analytical approach takes advantage of th...

  10. Ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers with immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswar 751 004, Orissa (India); Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Microbiology Laboratory, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751 019, Orissa (India)

    2011-01-15

    The dried spongy fruit of luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.), a cucurbitaceous crop available in abundance in tropical and sub-tropical countries has been found to be a promising material for immobilizing microbial cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the ethanol production from mahula flowers in submerged fermentation using whole cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in luffa sponge discs. The cells not only survived but also were physiologically active in three more cycles of fermentation without significant reduction (<5%) in ethanol production. After 96 h, there was 91.1% sugar conversion producing 223.2 g ethanol/kg flowers (1st cycle) which was 0.99%, 2.3% and 3.2% more than 2nd (221 g ethanol/kg flowers), 3rd (218 g ethanol/kg flowers) and 4th (216 g ethanol/kg flowers) cycle of fermentation, respectively. Furthermore, ethanol production by immobilized cells was 8.96% higher than the free cells. (author)

  11. Evaluación de patrones para lima tahití (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) frente a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Montoya, Johnny Camilo

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se evaluó la respuesta de patrones para lima Tahití frente a infecciones de Citrus tristeza virus. El documento se divide en tres capítulos. El primer capítulo es una revisión general del estado del arte de CTV, que abarca generalidades sobre sus hospederos, distribución, genoma viral, síntomas que generan las diferentes cepas y antecedentes de lima Tahití en Colombia. El segundo capítulo abarca la identificación de cepas de CTV que infectan en campo mediante el uso de ...

  12. Species-specific SSR alleles for studies of hybrid cattails (Typha latifolia × T. angustifolia; Typhaceae) in North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Snow, A. A.; Travis, S. E.; Wildová, Radka; Fér, T.; Sweeney, P. M.; Marburger, J. E.; Windels, S.; Kubátová, B.; Goldberg, D. E.; Mutegi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 12 (2010), s. 2061-2067. ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : gene flow * hybrid * introgression * invasive species * molecular markers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2010

  13. A study of the absorption and distribution of isotope-labelling tracer 65Zn in Typha latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of the study of the absorption and distribution of 65Zn in Typha latifoliate shows that Typha has a very powerful capacity of absorbing 65Zn. The 65Zn absorbed and accumulated by the root and rhizome of Typha was much greater than that transferred to the leaf. The capacity of absorbing 65Zn of the organs of Typha is as follows: root>rhizome>leaf. The research also shows that the quantity of 65Zn absorbed by Typha increased with the time. Moreover, the quantity of zinc absorbed by Typha increased with the concentration of 65Zn in the culture solution. But the rate of absorbing 65Zn of Typha declined after 24 hor for the concentration of 65Zn in culture solution beyond 200 mg·kg-1

  14. Discomforts of tasks video users: The case of workers of ENEA area in Bologna (Italy); I disturbi da postura riferiti da utenti di videoterminale: studio di un campione ENEA dell`area di Bologna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenni, P.; Varasano, R.; Cavallaro, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ``E. Clementel`` Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Arduini, R.; Mattioli, S. [Azienda USL, Bologna (Italy). Dip. di Prevenzione, Servizio di Medicina del Lavoro; Tuozzi, G. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Psicologia

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the subjective musculoskeletal discomfort in a sample of 334 workers (204 males and 130 females) of the ENEA area in Bologna, using for different periods and tasks video display units (VDU). On a preliminary self report questionnaire the workers have reported: hours at VDU per day, type of task type of hardware, physical-ergonomic environmental conditions, equipment and layout of the work station. Then, on a case-history form, the researcher has recorded for each subject: anamnesis, fatigue symptoms, discomfort and pain perceived in the back, shoulder, hand and arm regions. The results have shown that, in this sample, the main cause for potential musculoskeletal problems is related to aging whereas the women mainly engaged in repetitive jobs seem to be more likely subject to these troubles. About the correlation between type of task and musculoskeletal discomfort, the females refer more complaints than the males, especially when the task is repetitive. Also the number of hours spent at VDU per day is higher in the females. Finally, about physical-ergonomic environmental conditions, most users have not referred discomforts related to lighting, noise, micro climate or to work station (equipment and layout).

  15. Rischio di Violenza e Pericolosità Sociale: quali influenze? Applicazione delle Scale HCR-20 e PCL-R ad un campione di internati presso gli OPG di Italia

    OpenAIRE

    POMILLA, ANTONELLA

    2012-01-01

    Il lavoro di ricerca ha voluto offrire un contributo in merito alla disamina del nesso di causalità esistente tra la patologia di mente e l’acting di comportamenti aggressivo-violenti e/o criminosi. Primo obiettivo di ricerca era il tentativo di comprendere se sia oggi risolta, ed in che modo, l’annosa diatriba sulla liceità di associare alla malattia mentale la presenza di un potenziale di rischio per l’adozione di condotte violente e/o criminose. Nello specifico, era in intento di annove...

  16. Schede “geologiche” per la “Valutazione degli effetti locali nei siti di ubicazione di singoli edifici (edilizia ordinaria, strategica e monumentale)” rilevate nelle aree campione della Basilicata e del Molise

    OpenAIRE

    Di Capua, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione AC, Roma, Italia; Peppoloni, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione AC, Roma, Italia; Compagnoni, M.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale - Politecnico di Milano; Pellegrino, P.; Collaboratore esterno dell'INGV

    2009-01-01

    L’attività ha previsto il rilevamento delle caratteristiche geologiche, geomorfologiche, geotecniche e geofisiche di 72 siti di ubicazione di chiese danneggiate dai terremoti dell’Irpinia-Basilicata (1980), dell’Abruzzo-Molise (1984) e del Molise (2002). Le informazioni sono state raccolte con la scheda “geologica” di II livello per la “Valutazione degli effetti locali nei siti di ubicazione di singoli edifici (edilizia ordinaria, strategica e monumentale)”, messa a punto nell’...

  17. Valutazione con MMPI 2 Di. Un campione di pazienti borderline della comunità terapeutica "Villa Ratti" e relazione con le percentuali di interventi del progetto terapeutico-riabilitativo

    OpenAIRE

    DI FRANCESCO

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: PERSONALITÀ E RIABILITAZIONE PSICHIATRICA INTRODUZIONE: i percorsi riabilitativi delle comunità terapeutiche sono mirati a riacquisire un’adeguata funzionalità personale, relazionale e lavorativa, consentendo il reinserimento sociale dei pazienti. Tuttavia in letteratura non sono presenti dati sulla predisposizione alla partecipazione alle attività previste dai piani di cura individualizzati. Pertanto si indaga la relazione tra i tratti di personalità dei pazienti della Comunità...

  18. INDAGINE GEOGRAFICA A CAMPIONE PER LO STUDIO DEI MUTAMENTI TERRITORIALI CAUSATI DALLA DIFFUSIONE DEL CTV IN UN’AREA AGRUMICOLA SICILIANA ATTRAVERSO LA GEO-LOCALIZZAZIONE DEI FOCOLAI D'INFEZIONE

    OpenAIRE

    De Cristofaro, Bernardina; Incognito, Antonella; Petino, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    Il virus della “tristeza” (Citrus Tristeza Virus CTV) ha già arrecato ingenti danni e continua a diffondersi in tutto l’areale agrumicolo italiano, in particolare in Sicilia e Calabria. Per poter tentare di arginare questa epidemia e limitarne le conseguenze è importante avere dei validi strumenti d’indagine, anche dal punto di vista geografico-economico. Tra questi, possiamo annoverare l’elaborazione di cartografie sufficientemente dettagliate di micro areali agrumicoli che ev...

  19. Derivatization of phytochelatins from Silene vulgaris, induced upon exposure to arsenate and cadmium: comparison of derivatization with Ellman's reagent and monobromobimane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneller, F E; van Heerwaarden, L M; Koevoets, P L; Vooijs, R; Schat, H; Verkleij, J A

    2000-09-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are a family of thiol-rich peptides, with the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)(n)()-Gly, with n = 2-11, induced in plants upon exposure to excessive amounts of heavy metals and some metalloids, such as arsenic. Two types of PC analyses are currently used, i.e., acid extraction and separation on HPLC with either precolumn derivatization (pH 8.2) with monobromobimane (mBBr) or postcolumn derivatization (pH 7.8) with Ellman's reagent [5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), DTNB]. Although both methods were satisfactory for analysis of Cd-induced PCs, formation of (RS)(3)-As complexes during extraction of As-induced PCs rendered the DTNB method useless. This paper shows that precolumn derivatization with mBBr, during which the (RS)(3)-As complexes are disrupted, provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of both Cd- and As-induced PCs. In addition, derivatization efficiencies of both methods for the oligomers with n = 2-4 (PC(2)(-)(4)) are compared. Derivatization efficiency decreased from 71.8% and 81.4% for mBBr and DTNB derivatization, respectively, for PC(2) to 27.4% and 50.2% for PC(4). This decrease is most likely due to steric hindrance. Correction of measured thiol concentration is therefore advised for better quantification of PC concentrations in plant material. PMID:10995306

  20. The genetic controlled hydroxylation pattern of the anthocyanin b-ring in Silene dioica is not determined at the p-coumaric acid stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, R.; Brederode, J. van

    1980-01-01

    The basic C-15 skeleton of flavonoids is formed by the head-to-tail condensation of three malonyl-CoA units to one molecule of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA. The A-ring and part of the heterocyclic ring are derived from the acetate units, the B-ring from the hydroxycinnamoyl ester. The basic C-15 flavonoid i

  1. High transcript abundance, RNA editing, and small RNAs in intergenic regions within the massive mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Silene noctiflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, Z.; Stone, James D.; Štorchová, Helena; Sloan, D.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, NOV 14 (2015), s. 938. ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0048 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antisense RNA * Junk DNA * mtDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2014

  2. Transcription of atp1 is influenced by both genomic configuration and nuclear background in the highly rearranged mitochondrial genomes of Silene vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, Karel; Štorchová, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 81, 4-5 (2013), s. 495-505. ISSN 0167-4412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0261; GA MŠk ME09035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Transcription * Mitochondria * atp1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.072, year: 2013

  3. Flora of fallow lands of the Podlaski Przełom Bugu mesoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Skrzyczyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on flora of fallow lands of the Podlaski Przełom Bugu mesoregion were carried out between 2001 and 2003 in the area of 77 localities, situated in 20 communes. A systematic list of fallow land flora was made and its variation with respect to occurrence frequency, biological spectrum, persistence and belonging to geographic-historical and sociological-ecological groups was analyzed. Flora of fallow lands of the Podlaski Przełom Bugu mesoregion includes 442 species included in 60 families and 241 botanical genera. The most numerous group comprises very rare, rare and quite frequent species. In the floristic composition of the analysed flora, apophytes (72.2% predominate over anthropophytes (2.8% as well as perennials (61% over ephemerals (39%. Considering the biological spectrum of flora, hemicryptophytes (49% and terophytes (32% predominate over other life forms. Forest and shrub species (18.5% as well as meadow (17% and xerothermic sward plants (17.4% have the largest share in the flora. The abundant occurrence of segetal (15.8% and long-lived ruderal communities (8.1% was also noted. Moreover, the occurrence of 25 species endangered with extinction in fallow land communities of the Południowopodlaska Lowland was noted. They are as follows: Nigella arvensis, Potentilla recta, Platanthera chlorantha, Agrostemma githago, Prunella grandiflora, Populus alba, Silene tatarica, Papaver argemone, Papaver rhoeas, Veronica polita, Hieracium floribundum, Bromus secalinus, Polygonum bistorta, Geum alleppicu, Astragalus arenarius, Centaurium erythraea, Veronica agrestis, Veronica verna, Cirsium rivulare, Allium oleraceum, Hierochloë odorata, Chenopodium polyspermum, Vinca minor, Dipsacus silvestris and Campanula latifolia.

  4. Multiple infections by the anther smut pathogen are frequent and involve related strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela López-Villavicencio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Population models of host-parasite interactions predict that when different parasite genotypes compete within a host for limited resources, those that exploit the host faster will be selected, leading to an increase in parasite virulence. When parasites sharing a host are related, however, kin selection should lead to more cooperative host exploitation that may involve slower rates of parasite reproduction. Despite their potential importance, studies that assess the prevalence of multiple genotype infections in natural populations remain rare, and studies quantifying the relatedness of parasites occurring together as natural multiple infections are particularly scarce. We investigated multiple infections in natural populations of the systemic fungal plant parasite Microbotryum violaceum, the anther smut of Caryophyllaceae, on its host, Silene latifolia. We found that multiple infections can be extremely frequent, with different fungal genotypes found in different stems of single plants. Multiple infections involved parasite genotypes more closely related than would be expected based upon their genetic diversity or due to spatial substructuring within the parasite populations. Together with previous sequential inoculation experiments, our results suggest that M. violaceum actively excludes divergent competitors while tolerating closely related genotypes. Such an exclusion mechanism might explain why multiple infections were less frequent in populations with the highest genetic diversity, which is at odds with intuitive expectations. Thus, these results demonstrate that genetic diversity can influence the prevalence of multiple infections in nature, which will have important consequences for their optimal levels of virulence. Measuring the occurrence of multiple infections and the relatedness among parasites within hosts in natural populations may be important for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of disease, the consequences of vaccine use

  5. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczaj Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68 in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L. and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs, as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants.

  6. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus. PMID:27136128

  7. Web-Based Dynamic Assessment: Taking Assessment as Teaching and Learning Strategy for Improving Students e-Learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2010-01-01

    This research combines the idea of cake format dynamic assessment defined by Sternberg and Grigorenko (2001) and the "graduated prompt approach" proposed by (Campione and Brown, 1985) and (Campione and Brown, 1987) to develop a multiple-choice Web-based dynamic assessment system. This research adopts a quasi-experimental design to investigate the…

  8. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species. PMID:24237338

  9. Effect of N:P ratio of influent on biomass, nutrient allocation, and recovery of Typha latifolia and Canna 'Bengal Tiger' in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an effective low-technology approach for treating agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastewater. Recovery of phosphorous by constructed wetland plants may be affected by wastewater nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) ratios. Varying N:P ratios were supplied to Canna '...

  10. Soil Characteristics and Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Performance Two Decades after Disk Trenching of Unburned and Broadcast-Burned Plots in Subboreal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Boateng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of low-impact broadcast-burning and disk-trenching planting position (control, hinge, trench on soil characteristics and lodgepole pine foliar nutrition and growth over two decades at a subboreal site in British Columbia, Canada. Broadcast burning had virtually no effect on either the bulk density or chemical properties of soil. In contrast, significant reductions in soil bulk density and increases in soil nutrient availability persisted for 20 years in hinge position soils relative to undisturbed (control soil between trenches. These effects on bulk density and nutrient availability are associated with significant differences in pine size by year 6. Burning and planting positions interacted significantly in their effect on pine height, diameter, and stem volume for at least 19 years. Pine survival was high regardless of burning or planting position. Neither broadcast burning nor planting position significantly affected lodgepole pine foliar nutrient status in this study.

  11. Contexto y Caracterización de la Cadena de Suministro del Limón Persa (Citrus latifolia Tanaka en Veracruz-México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Fernández-Lambert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se realiza en el Distrito Citrícola de Martínez de la Torre, Ver., con alcance a los municipios de Álamo Temapache, y Cuitláhuac en Veracruz, y reporta el contexto e integración de la cadena de suministro del limón persa. El estudio de sus eslabones permitió identificar las problemáticas de abastecimiento, operación y distribución en dicha cadena. A partir de entrevistas abiertas no estructuradas a especialistas, técnicos, productores y empresarios, así como la consulta de bases de datos y documentos de organismos afines a esta agroindustria, los resultados de la investigación advierten que la fuente de los problemas estructurales de la ineficacia en la sincronización de la cadena de suministro del limón persa, se centra en la baja productividad del huerto, un excesivo intermediarismo entre el huerto y la exportadora, la baja adopción tecnológica o uso de tecnología hechiza en los procesos de empaque del cítrico.

  12. Phytoremediation of TNT by .I.Juncus glaucys, Typha latifolia./I. and .I.Carex gracillis in vitro./I..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nepovím, Aleš; Vaněk, Tomáš; Hebner, A.; Thomas, H.; Gerth, A.

    Veracruz, 2002 - (Olguín, E.). s. - [International Symposium on Environmental Biotechnology /6./. 09.06.2002-12.06.2002, Veracruz] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : phytoremediation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  13. A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test d...

  14. Comportamenti sessuali e rischio di AIDS in studenti universitari

    OpenAIRE

    M.L. Sammarco; G. Ripabelli; I. Fanelli; G.M. Grasso

    2003-01-01

    Obiettivi: la trasmissione eterosessuale di HIV sta acquisendo una sempre maggiore importanza. Obiettivo del presente studio è stato, pertanto, quello di valutare in un campione di studenti universitari le caratteristiche dei comportamenti sessuali a rischio.

    Metodi: nell’ambito di uno studio più ampio, è stato distribuito ad un campione di studenti dell’Università del Molise (Campobasso) un questionario anon...

  15. Studio osservazionale comparativo su un campione di studenti del Nord, del Centro e del Sud con valutazione della Maturità, del Test di accesso e delle scelte di sede effettuate al concorso con graduatoria nazionale 2013-2014. Osservazioni preliminari.

    OpenAIRE

    Familiari, G; Baldini, R; Lanzone, A; Valli, M; Di Liegro, I; Locatelli, V; Morini, S; Muraro, R; Strepparava, MG; Cavaggioni, G; Barbaranelli, C.; Heyn, R.; Relucenti, M; Gaudio, E.

    2014-01-01

    In compliance with the new norms governing access to medical faculties in Italy, which foresee a sole national ranking list, a comparative observational study was carried out on a sample of students from the country’s northern, central and southern areas (888 in all), the aim of which was to appraise the students’ O-level marks, the results of their national entrance examinations and the particular university campuses chosen by them. The preliminary results, based on a direct survey carrie...

  16. 不同直径微孔保鲜袋保鲜茭白效果研究%Quality assessment of few-flower wildrice (zizania latifolia turcz.) packed with perforated polypropylene bag with different orifice diameter during cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱炳俊; 邓云; 陈骏; 张晗; 沈永培; 平健; 曹林奎

    2011-01-01

    以带壳鲜茭白为试材,用5种不同孔径的聚乙烯袋进行包装处理,在(2±1)℃和90%~95%RH下贮藏42d后,分析茭白木质素、丙二醛、Vc、可溶性回形物、pH、表皮色泽等品质变化.结果表明:不同孔径的聚乙烯袋对茭白的品质指标的影响存在差异,其中普通聚乙烯袋对茭白表皮的绿化、纤维化、木质化、Vc降解、失重和腐烂等的延缓作用比其余4种包装袋更为显著(P<0.05).这表明普通聚乙烯保鲜袋更适合带壳茭白保鲜.%The few-flower wildrice {Zizania aquaiica L.) packed with perforated polypropylene bags with 5 different orifice diameters were stored at (2±l)"Cand 90%~95% relative humidity. After 42 days, main physicochemical and sensorial quality changes were evaluated. The results showed that the orifice diameter is a factor affecting the quality of few-flower wildrice. Common polypropylene bag was more efficient for inhibiting greening and lignifying. Decreasing degradation of Vc and weight loss, reducing brown and decay than the other 4 bags.

  17. 茭白线粒体蛋白双向电泳体系建立%Establishment of two-dimensional electrophoresis system for mitochondrial proteins of Zizania latifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜传来; 罗海波; 彭昕; 王韦华; 郁志芳

    2016-01-01

    [目的]建立适合于茭白线粒体蛋白质组分析的双向电泳技术体系,为进一步开展茭白线粒体差异蛋白质组学研究提供参考.[方法]以茭白为试验材料,比较不同线粒体提取纯化方法、IPG胶条pH范围及蛋白上样量等条件对双向电泳图谱的影响.[结果]差速离心(3000~14000×g)联合Percoll不连续密度梯度离心(20%∶24%∶40%=2∶4∶2)对茭白线粒体的提取纯化效果优于仅采用差速离心.采用改良酚抽法提取茭白线粒体蛋白,17 cm、pH 3~10的IPG胶条,1.0 mg上样量,12% SDS-PAGE进行双向电泳,0.12%考马斯亮蓝G-250胶体考染法染色,茭白线粒体蛋白主要分布在pH 4~8范围内,pH 3~4和pH 8~10范围内蛋白点较少;进一步选用pH 4~7和pH 5~8的IPG胶条对茭白线粒体蛋白进行双向电泳,分离效果均明显提高,且pH 4~7范围内IPG胶条的双向电泳图谱清晰,蛋白点分辨率较高.分别采用0.8、1.0和1.2 mg 3个不同的上样量进行双向电泳,结果表明上样量为1.0 mg时,电泳图谱质量最好.[结论]通过差速离心联合Percoll不连续密度梯度离心提取纯化茭白线粒体,并控制好双向电泳体系的pH范围、上样量等因素,可获得蛋白质点清晰、分辨率高、重复性好的双向电泳图谱.

  18. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant potential of four Arctic vascular plants from Svalbard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, P.; Singh, S.M.; DeSouza, L.; Wahidullah, S.

    resistant towards dissociation. Each ion is likely to represent a single component of the mixture rather than being fragments of other heavier ions. The ionization behaviour is typical of neutral oligosaccharides, due to their capability to form strong...) The phytoecdysteroid profiles of 7 species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae). Arch Insect Biochem Physio 72:234–248 FIGURE LEGENDS Figure 1: Structures of compounds identified in Silene uralensis: (1) Ethyl benzene, (2) Benzoyl selenol, (3) Benzaldehyde, (4...

  19. Phytoecdysteroids of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Novozhilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occurrence of integristerone A (1, 20-hydroxyecdysone (2, ecdysone (3, 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (4 has been analyzed in 64 species of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae. Materials and Methods: Ecdysteroid content was determinate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. HPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF (Japan system equipped with a LC-20A Prominence liquid chromatograph, a photodiode array detector SPD-M20A and ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results: New sources of phytoecdysteroids: Melandrium sachalinense and Melandrium firmum have been revealed. It is the 1 st time that two has been identified in M. sachalinense and M. firmum; 1 in the species: Lychnis fulgens, Silene repens, Silene foliosa, Silene stenophylla, Silene jenisseensis and M. sachalinense; 3 in Lychnis cognata; 4 in L. fulgens, S. stenophylla and S. jenisseensis (the tribe Lychnideae, the subfamily Caryophylloideae. Ecdysteroid-negative taxa are Spergularia rubra of the tribe Sperguleae; species of the genera Minuartia, Honckenya, Eremogone, Arenaria, Moehringia, Pseudostellaria, Fimbripetalum, Stellaria and Cerastium of the tribe Alsineae; Scleranthus annuus of the tribe Sclerantheae, as well as the East Asian representatives of the genera Gypsophila, Psammophiliela, Dianthus and Saponaria of the tribe Diantheae; Oberna and Agrostemma of the tribe Lychnideae. Conclusion: This investigation shows the most promising sources of ecdysteriods are species of genera Silene and Lychnis.

  20. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of plants used in Western Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Abdulrahman Alamin

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis have therapeutic value in diabetes and related complications and thus supporting the traditional uses of these plants in Sudanese traditional medicine.

  1. Environ: E00555 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rida) Obtained by steam distillation Lavandin is a cross between true lavender (L.angustifolia) and spike la...ifolia [TAX:39329] / L. latifolia [TAX:39331]) The fresh aerial part of flowering of lavandin (Lavandula hyb

  2. Caracterização da composição química e do rendimento dos resíduos industriais do limão Tahiti (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) Chemical composition and Tahiti lime industrial residues output characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Maria Vieira Lopes Mendonça; Alzira da Conceição; Juliana Piedade; Vânia Déa de Carvalho; Vanessa Cristina de Almeida Theodoro

    2006-01-01

    A indústria de sucos utiliza apenas de 40% a 50% dos frutos, sendo o restante considerado resíduo industrial. Estes resíduos apresentam-se ricos em alguns componentes como pectina, vitamina C e fibras dietárias que o tornam matéria-prima para a indústria alimentícia, farmacêutica e de rações. Visando o aproveitamento dos resíduos industriais do limão Tahiti para tais fins, caracterizou-se a composição centesimal, os teores de fibras, de pectina e de vitamina C presentes nas frações flavedo, a...

  3. Caracterização da composição química e do rendimento dos resíduos industriais do limão Tahiti (Citrus latifolia Tanaka Chemical composition and Tahiti lime industrial residues output characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Vieira Lopes Mendonça

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de sucos utiliza apenas de 40% a 50% dos frutos, sendo o restante considerado resíduo industrial. Estes resíduos apresentam-se ricos em alguns componentes como pectina, vitamina C e fibras dietárias que o tornam matéria-prima para a indústria alimentícia, farmacêutica e de rações. Visando o aproveitamento dos resíduos industriais do limão Tahiti para tais fins, caracterizou-se a composição centesimal, os teores de fibras, de pectina e de vitamina C presentes nas frações flavedo, albedo e bagaço do fruto. A partir da avaliação dos dados pelo teste de Scott Knott 5% de probabilidade, observou-se que os teores de cinzas, pectina, proteína, vitamina C e fibra bruta foram diferentes no flavedo, albedo e bagaço. O resíduo industrial do limão Tahiti tem um grande potencial para uso em formulação de rações para animais, dada a sua composição química, assim como poderá ser usado para a extração de fibras, pectina, vitamina C e óleos.The juice industry makes use of only 40 to 50% of the fruit and its remainder is considered industrial residue. This residue is very rich in some of its compounds such as pectin, ascorbic acid and dietary fibers making it into raw material for the food industry, pharmaceutics and animal food. With the purpose of using the industrial residue of Tahiti lime for such purposes, the centesimal composition, fiber contents, pectin and vitamin C contained in flavedo fractions, albedo and fruit pulp were characterized. From the evaluation for the Scott Knott's test to 5% of probability, it was observed that the ash content, pectin, protein, vitamin C and rude fiber were different for flavedo, albedo and pulp. Tahiti lime industrial residue has a great potential for animal food formulation, considering its chemical composition, as well as the fact that it can be used for fiber extraction, pectin, vitamin C and oils.

  4. Recruitment of a mast-fruiting, bird-dispersed tree: Bridging frugivore activity and seedling establishment

    OpenAIRE

    HERRERA, CARLOS M.; Jordano, Pedro; López-Soria, L.; Amat, Juan A.

    1994-01-01

    The recruitment of Phillyrea latifolia L. (Oleaceae), a bird-dispersed tree of Mediterranean forest, is described. Fruit removal by birds, seed rain, post-dispersal seed predation, seed germination, and seedling emergence, survival, and establishment were studied. The main objective was testing whether seed dispersal by birds produced a predictable seedling shadow as a result of coupled patterns of seed rain, seedling emergence, and seedling establishment. P. latifolia is a mast-fruiting spec...

  5. Glyphosate translocation in herbicide tolerant plants Translocação do glyphosate em plantas tolerantes ao herbicida

    OpenAIRE

    L Galon; E.A. Ferreira; I. Aspiazú; G. Concenço; A.F. Silva; Silva, A. A.; Vargas, L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate glyphosate translocation in glyphosate-tolerant weed species (I. nil, T. procumbens and S. latifolia) compared to glyphosate-susceptible species (B. pilosa). The evaluations of 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation were performed at 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after treatment (HAT) in I. nil and B. pilosa, and only at 72 HAT in the species T. procumbens and S. latifolia. The plants were collected and fractionated into application leaf, other leaves...

  6. Analisi dell’anisotropia microstrutturale in materiali compositi rinforzati con fibre corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dreossi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La microtomografia con luce di sincrotrone si è rivelata una tecnica particolarmente efficace per l’analisi della struttura risultante dalla distribuzione degli orientamenti assunti dalle fibre di rinforzo di compositi rinforzati con fibre di vetro. La ricostruzione dell'immagine tridimensionale ha consentito la visualizzazionedella distribuzione spaziale delle fibre all'interno della matrice polimerica anche nel caso di fibre di piccole dimensioni (diametro medio di 10 micrometri. E' stato quindi possibile misurare le differenze nell'orientamento delle fibre nei differenti strati di un campione utilizzando metodi basati sulla valutazione del Mean Intercept Length (MIL e del fabric tensor. La tecnica descritta è stata applicata a un campione di poliammide 6 rinforzato con il 30% di fibre corte di vetro ricavato da lastra.

  7. Confronto fra periodizzazione Tradizionale e a Blocchi per l’allenamento della forza in atleti maschi e partecipanti di genere femminile.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolomei, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    La prima parte dello studio riguarda la descrizione dell’origine e delle caratteristiche che differenziano la periodizzazione tradizionale e quella a blocchi per l’allenamento della forza. L’obiettivo della seconda parte del lavoro è stato quello di confrontare gli adattamento ormonali e prestativi ad un programma di allenamento della forza periodizzato secondo il modello tradizionale o secondo quello a blocchi in un campione di atleti di forza. Venticinque atleti maschi sono stati assegn...

  8. Robustezza di alcuni stimatori per l'analisi confermativa del modello circomplesso

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Michele

    1980-01-01

    Lo scopo principale dell’analisi delle strutture di covarianza (ASC) è di stimare i parametri di un modello teorico predefinito, utilizzando un campione di covarianze basate su N osservazioni. La derivazione dei metodi di stima per ottenere i parametri, gli errori standard associati e le statistiche di bontà dell’adattamento del modello, si basano su precise assunzioni legate alla distribuzione delle variabili. Gli effetti della violazione delle assunzioni di base dipendono dalla robustezza d...

  9. L'abitato dell'Età del Bronzo di S. Giovanni in Triario (Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Vinci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo riassume i risultati delle ricerche condotte a S. Giovanni in Triario nella pianura a Nord-Est di Bologna, mettendo insieme numerosi dati di natura diversa provenienti dalla documentazione di vecchi scavi di emergenza, l'analisi aerofotografica e dalle recenti indagini condotte sul sito costituite da ricognizioni di superficie e carotaggi manuali. Grazie alle nuove indagini condotte sul deposito stratigrafico e allo studio di un consistente campione di manufatti rendono ora possibile delineare gli elementi cronologici.

  10. L'abitato dell'Età del Bronzo di S. Giovanni in Triario (Bologna)

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Vinci

    2012-01-01

    Questo articolo riassume i risultati delle ricerche condotte a S. Giovanni in Triario nella pianura a Nord-Est di Bologna, mettendo insieme numerosi dati di natura diversa provenienti dalla documentazione di vecchi scavi di emergenza, l'analisi aerofotografica e dalle recenti indagini condotte sul sito costituite da ricognizioni di superficie e carotaggi manuali. Grazie alle nuove indagini condotte sul deposito stratigrafico e allo studio di un consistente campione di manufatti rendono ora po...

  11. Purchasing Drivers of Professional Wine Buyers. The Role of Denominations of Origin in the Buynig Decision of Italian Upscale Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    V. Zampi; M. Faraoni; di Folco, E.

    2008-01-01

    Attraverso un'ampia ricerca empirica condotta a livello italiano su un campione statistico di acquirenti professionali nel settore della ristorazione qualificata, è stato definito il posizionamento relativo di alcune delle principali denominazioni di origine di vini italiani cercando anche di identificare quali siano le determinanti del posizionamento di un brand territoriale. abstract: This paper investigate the perceived value of territorial wine brands (appellations) in the specialize...

  12. Development and application of new materials and devices for sample treatment and MS-based analytical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mattarozzi, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Questo lavoro di Tesi riguarda lo sviluppo di nuovi materiali per il trattamento del campione e lo sviluppo e l’applicazione di diversi metodi analitici basati sulla spettrometria di massa nella ricerca in ambito alimentare, ambientale, forense, biologico, tossicologico e biomedico articolandosi principalmente nelle seguenti linee: 1) Coating innovativi per microestrazione in fase solida. Questo attività di ricerca è stata finalizzata al raggiungimento di una maggiore selettività verso ana...

  13. Determinazione della silice: metodo colorimetrico (Automated Discrete Analyser SEAL AQ2)

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele A. TARTARI

    2012-01-01

    Metodo analitico interno al laboratorio di idrochimica del CNR-ISE di Verbania per la determinazione della silice disciolta reattiva al molibdato con l'analizzatore discreto multiparametrico SEAL AQ2e, strumento automatico in grado di eseguire contemporaneamente pi? metodi colorimetrici ad assorbimento molecolare utilizzando micro quantit? di campione e reattivi. La determinazione della silice viene eseguita con lo stesso metodo spettrofotometrico al blu di molibdeno adattato all'analizzatore...

  14. Misura della concentrazione di radon nell’acqua potabile di Roma

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, C.; Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Conversion of Energy. Univ. "La Sapienza". Rome; Galli, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Mattiacci Delle Salette, M.; Azienda USL Roma C, Roma; Diotallevi, R.; Azienda USL Roma C, Roma

    2007-01-01

    Sono state eseguite misure di concentrazione di 222Rn nell’acqua potabile della rete idrica di Roma con prelievi dalle principali adduttrici (acquedotti del Peschiera, Marcio, ..) e da pozzi. Il metodo impiegato si basa sull’adsorbimento in carboni attivi del radon estratto per degassamento dal campione dell’acqua in esame. I risultati mostrano concentrazioni dell’ordine del Bq/L nell’acqua dei principali acquedotti e nella rete di distribuzione. Concentrazioni maggiori (inferiori comunque a...

  15. Speculations on niches occupied by fungi in the sea with relation to bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.

    . marine biogeochemistry would undoubtedly benefit from a careful analysis of the structure of individual microbial assemblages'. It has been the aim of this article to. speculate upon the niches in the sea where fungi might contribute significantly...Campion-Alsumard T 1970 The biodeterioration of polyurethane by IIi Int. Biodeterior. Bull. 6 119-124 . . Karl D M 1982 Microbial transformations of organic matter at oceanic interfaces: a prospectus; in Readings in marine ecology (etl) J W Nybakk:en (New York: Harpel...

  16. “L’implantologia post-estrattiva immediata nel settore anteriore del mascellare superiore:analisi estetica. Studio clinico sperimentale”

    OpenAIRE

    Liccardo, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Lo studio prende in esame l’implantologia post-estrattiva immediata utilizzata come tecnica riabilitativa nel settore mascellare superiore anteriore al fine di proporla come una tecnica predicibile,affidabile e con numerosi vantaggi sia per tempi e procedimenti chirurgici che per i risultati. In particolare,lo scopo del lavoro è valutare la salute dei tessuti molli perimplantari posizionando impianti senza effettuare incisioni chirurgiche. I risultati ottenuti si basano su un campione di 23 ...

  17. CONSIDERAZIONI SULL’ACQUISIZIONE DEI TEMPI VERBALI DELL’ITALIANO DA PARTE DI APPRENDENTI SINOFONI

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Crippa

    2014-01-01

    L’articolo riflette brevemente sul percorso di acquisizione di modi e tempi verbali della lingua italiana da parte di apprendenti sinofoni. Molte ricerche hanno messo in evidenza un ordine ricorrente nelle sequenze di acquisizione del sistema verbale che costituisce, come è noto, una delle maggiori difficoltà per gli apprendenti stranieri che studiano l’italiano. In questo elaborato saranno presi come campione alcuni studenti universitari cinesi che hanno frequentato un corso intensivo di ita...

  18. Ricerca di contaminanti in tessuti animali e in alimenti destinati all'uomo.

    OpenAIRE

    Sori, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    La contaminazione chimica rappresenta uno dei rischi principali per la sicurezza alimentare e può arrecare anche gravi danni alla salute umana. Rientrano in questa tesi di dottorato tre famiglie di contaminanti: Micotossine, Metalli e Insetticidi. La ricerca di aflatossina B1 è stata effettuata su 90 confezioni di farina, sia biologici sia convenzionali. La presenza della micotossina è stata rilevata solo nelle farine di mais. Solo un campione di produzione convenzionale ha superato il li...

  19. Ricerche sugli enterobatteri nelle feci di Chirotteri

    OpenAIRE

    Dino Scaravelli; Paola Massi; Giovanni B. Tosi; Massimo Bertozzi

    2003-01-01

    Dal 2002, grazie al protocollo stipulato tra il gruppo di studio chirotteri del Museo di Onferno e l?Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell?Emilia, sezione di Forlì, si è iniziato un progetto di studio sulla enteroflora di varie specie di Chirotteri. I campioni fecali o più raramente da carcassa, sono stati procssati mediante sistemi standardizzati e tipizzati mediante Enterotubes, creando anche una collezione di riferimento. Le ricerche ad oggi hanno interessato campion...

  20. Adjuvants for single droplet application of glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Solvejg K.; Kudsk, Per; Lund, Ivar

    Retention and biological activity of droplets of glyphosate deposited onto plant leaves using a Drop on Demand inkjet printer application system, was examined on pot-grown Brassica napus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora and Echinocloa crus-galli plants. Retention was measured...... but the biological activity of glyphosate was not improved....

  1. Adjuvants for single droplet application of glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp; Kudsk, Per; Lund, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Retention and biological activity of droplets of glyphosate deposited onto plant leaves using a Drop on Demand inkjet printer application system, was examined on pot-grown Brassica napus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora and Echinocloa crus-galli plants. Retention was measured...... but the biological activity of glyphosate was not improved....

  2. The SiF32+ Dication: Chemistry Counts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roithová, J.; Schwarz, H.; Schröder, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 39 (2009), s. 9995-9999. ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1223 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : density functional calculations * dications * electron transfer * silenes * superelectrophiles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.382, year: 2009

  3. Reliability of a novel paradigm for determining hemispheric lateralization of visuospatial function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitehouse, A.J.O.; Badcock, N.A.; Groen, M.A.; Bishop, D.V.M.

    2009-01-01

    In most individuals, language production and visuospatial skills are subserved predominantly by the left and right hemispheres, respectively. Functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD) provides a noninvasive and relatively low-cost method for measuring functional lateralization. However, while the silen

  4. Beiträge zur Fortschreibung der Florenliste Deutschlands (Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Buttler, Karl Peter; Hand, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Im Rahmen der Vorarbeiten für eine neue Florenliste Deutschlands werden Nomenklaturaspekte bei Achillea collina, Anthriscus, Betula pubescens subsp. carpatica, Camelina microcarpa, Hordelymus, Populus nigra subsp. betulifolia, Silene baccifera sowie bei einigen von Cesati publizierten Unterart- Kombinationen diskutiert. Bei Urtica wird ein alternatives taxonomisches Konzept vorgeschlagen. Die beiden folgenden bisher nicht verfügbaren Kombinationen wurden notwendig: Populus nigra subsp. betuli...

  5. Central radio galaxies in groups: cavities, bubbles and the history of AGN heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacintucci, S.; Venturi, T.; Raychaudhury, S.; Vrtilek, J.

    2008-10-01

    E' noto che le regioni centrali degli ammassi e gruppi di galassie costituiscono un ambiente in cui gas caldo e plasma radioemittente proveniente dalle galassie dominanti interagiscono tra loro. In particolare, si pensa che la radioemissione dell'AGN centrale ed i suoi possibili cicli di attivita', siano strettamente legati alla presenza di cavita' e "bubbles" nel gas intergalattico. Si presentera' lo status di un progetto osservativo effettuato con il Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT, India) su di un campione di 18 gruppi di galassie, osservati a tre frequenze radio (235 MHz, 325 MHz e 610 MHz). Lo studio della morfologia radio degli AGN centrali e la relativa analisi spettrale permettono di ottenere stime sull'eta' di questi oggetti, e sulla loro energia totale, che a loro volta sono in relazione con le proprieta' X dei gruppi stessi. Per tutti gli oggetti del campione sono disponibili osservazioni Chandra di proprieta'. Per due oggetti del campione, 4C+24.36 (al centro di AWM04) e NGC741 (al centro di RSOG17) verra' presentato uno studio dettagliato.

  6. Molecular Evidence for the Hybrid Origin of Ilex dabieshanensis (Aquifoliaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shi

    Full Text Available Ilex, the largest genus of dioecious woody plants, is a good study system to assess the role of hybridization in speciation and evolution. Ilex dabieshanensis, a tree endemic to Dabieshan Mountains region, was initially described as a new species. Based on morphological intermediacy and sympatric distribution with its putative parental species, I. cornuta and I. latifolia, we proposed it as a natural hybrid between them. In this study, we sequenced one chloroplast intergenic spacer (trnH-psbA and two nuclear genes (gapC and nepGS in I. dabieshanensis and its putative parental species to test the hybrid origin hypothesis. Our results showed that there were one to two differentially fixed sequence differences between I. cornuta and I. latifolia at the two nuclear genes. Twelve of the 14 individuals of I. dabieshanensis exhibited additivity in chromatograms on these differentially fixed sites at both nuclear genes, and the remaining two exhibited additivity in chromatograms on the fixed site at only the nepGS gene. Except one haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene, all of the haplotypes of I. cornuta at the two nuclear genes were well separated from those of I. latifolia, and most haplotypes of I. dabieshanensis were shared with those of I. cornuta and I. latifolia. Phylogenetic analysis of these haplotypes was largely consistent with haplotype network analysis. I. cornuta and I. latifolia differed by two nucleotide substitutions in the chloroplast intergenic spacer, and 12 individuals of I. dabieshanensis had the same sequences as I. latifolia, while the remaining two were identical with I. cornuta. The molecular data provide convincing evidence for the hybrid origin of I. dabieshanensis and asymmetrical direction of hybridization. One haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene was nested with those of I. latifolia, indicating introgression to I. cornuta.

  7. Molecular Evidence for the Hybrid Origin of Ilex dabieshanensis (Aquifoliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Li, Naiwei; Wang, Shuqiong; Zhou, Yubing; Huang, Weijie; Yang, Yuchen; Ma, Yongpeng; Zhou, Renchao

    2016-01-01

    Ilex, the largest genus of dioecious woody plants, is a good study system to assess the role of hybridization in speciation and evolution. Ilex dabieshanensis, a tree endemic to Dabieshan Mountains region, was initially described as a new species. Based on morphological intermediacy and sympatric distribution with its putative parental species, I. cornuta and I. latifolia, we proposed it as a natural hybrid between them. In this study, we sequenced one chloroplast intergenic spacer (trnH-psbA) and two nuclear genes (gapC and nepGS) in I. dabieshanensis and its putative parental species to test the hybrid origin hypothesis. Our results showed that there were one to two differentially fixed sequence differences between I. cornuta and I. latifolia at the two nuclear genes. Twelve of the 14 individuals of I. dabieshanensis exhibited additivity in chromatograms on these differentially fixed sites at both nuclear genes, and the remaining two exhibited additivity in chromatograms on the fixed site at only the nepGS gene. Except one haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene, all of the haplotypes of I. cornuta at the two nuclear genes were well separated from those of I. latifolia, and most haplotypes of I. dabieshanensis were shared with those of I. cornuta and I. latifolia. Phylogenetic analysis of these haplotypes was largely consistent with haplotype network analysis. I. cornuta and I. latifolia differed by two nucleotide substitutions in the chloroplast intergenic spacer, and 12 individuals of I. dabieshanensis had the same sequences as I. latifolia, while the remaining two were identical with I. cornuta. The molecular data provide convincing evidence for the hybrid origin of I. dabieshanensis and asymmetrical direction of hybridization. One haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene was nested with those of I. latifolia, indicating introgression to I. cornuta. PMID:26808531

  8. Nitrous oxide emission from polyculture constructed wetlands: Effect of plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of nitrogen from the soil-plant system has raised environmental concern. This study assessed the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs). To better understand the mechanism of N2O emission, spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in four kinds of wetlands soil were compared. N2O emission data showed large temporal and spatial variation ranging from -5.5 to 32.7 mg N2O m-2 d-1. The highest N2O emission occurred in the cell planted with Phragmites australis and Zizania latifolia. Whereas, the lower emission rate were obtained in the cell planted with P. australis and Typha latifolia. These revealed that Z. latifolia stimulated the N2O emission. Transportation of more organic matter and oxygen for AOB growth may be the reason. The study of AOB also supported this result, indicating that the root structure of Z. latifolia was favored by AOB for N2O formation. - Zizania latifolia has a large contribution to global warming

  9. Rhizosphere effect of different aquatic plants on phosphorus depletion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenyu WANG; Shengfang WEN; Baoshan XING; Dongmei GAO; Fengmin LI

    2008-01-01

    A series of pot experiments with Alternanthera philoxeroides, Typha latifolia, Sagittaria sagittifolia and Phragmites communis were conducted to assess the phos-phorus depletion effect in the rhizosphere. The ratio of root to shoot, root morphology, phosphorus uptake efficiency and phosphorus utilization efficiency were analyzed. An obvious variation in phosphorus concentrations between the rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil was observed. The water-soluble P contents in the rhizosphere soil of A. philoxeroides, T. latifolia, S. sagittifolia and P. communis were reduced by 81%, 42%, 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with that in the non-rhizosphere soil. A. philox-eroides had the highest phosphorus uptake efficiency (1.32 mg/m), while T. latifolia achieved the effective phos-phorus depletion by the strong rooting system and the high phosphorus uptake efficiency (0.52 mg/m). T. latifolia not only used phosphorus to produce biomass economically, but also adjusted carbon allocation to the roots to explore the soil for more available phosphorus. A. philoxeroides and T. latifolia were more effective in depleting phosphorus in the rhizosphere than S. sagittifolia and P. communis.

  10. Uptake of uranium by plants growing on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted in an area where uranium mill tailings are discharged in the form of slurry (mixture of fine sand and effluent). The fine tailings sand is retained there and effluent is decanted for further treatment. Over the years, certain plant species like Typha latifolia, Saccharum spontanium, Ipomoea carnia etc. have covered the major portion of the tailings pond. Concentration and concentration ratio of uranium in different organs of these plants were evaluated. Concentration of uranium in Typha latifolia plant from tailings pond and the CR was found to have inverse relationship with substrate uranium content. Correlation coefficient between CR(R) and soil, CR(St) and soil and CR(L) and soil in Typha latifolia was -0.80, -0.90 and -0.86 respectively. (author)

  11. THE ABILITY OF LEAVES AND RHIZOMES OF AQUATIC PLANTS TO ACCUMULATE MACRO- AND MICRONUTRIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Edyta Parzych

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The samples of macrophytes and bottom sediments originated from the littoral zone of the Słupia River were collected in summer 2013. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of the accumulation of leaves and rhizomes of Glyceria maxima, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and Phalaris arundinacea for macro- and micronutrients. The largest quantities of macroelements were found in the leaves of the examined species, and microelements dominated the rhizomes of most examined macrophytes except for Mn in P.australis and T.latifolia. The obtained results show that N and K dominated in the leaves of P.arundinacea, P and Mg in the leaves of P.australis, and Ca in the leaves of G.maxima. The largest quantities of N, P and K were cumulated in the rhizomes of P.arundinacea, while Mg and Ca in the rhizome of T.latifolia. The leaves of aquatic plants accumulated from 1354.9 mmolc·kg-1 (T.latifolia to 1844.0 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea, and rhizomes from 985.8 mmolc·kg-1 (G.maxima to 1335.2 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea of all the analyzed components. In these species of macrophytes lower accumulated value of the sum of macro- and microelements were found in the rhizomes. The share of nitrogen was 42.4–59.8% of this amount, phosphorus 4.3–8.6%, potassium 22.8–35.1%, calcium from 2,6% to 12.4%, magnesium 3.0–7.5%, and heavy metals were from 0.6% (G.maxima to 1.2% (T.latifolia in leaves and from 2.2% (T.latifolia to 8.7% (G.maxima in rhizomes.

  12. AcEST: DK948919 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available action centre subunit IX OS=Heliosperma alpestre GN=psaJ PE=4 SV=1 Length = 46 Score = 48.9...LWFGFLAGLLIEINR 31 >sp|Q6YXM2|PSAJ_PHYPA Photosystem I reaction center subunit IX OS=Physcomitrella patens GN=psaJ PE=3 SV=1 Len...APVLAAIWFGILAGLLIEINR 31 TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL tr_hit_id B7ZI94 Definition tr... 5' (646 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching.... subunit IX OS=Silene ... 48 6e-04 tr|B0LP33|B0LP33_9CARY PSI reaction centre subunit IX OS=Silene ... 48 6e-04 >tr

  13. AcEST: DK948791 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available action centre subunit IX OS=Heliosperma alpestre GN=psaJ PE=4 SV=1 Length = 46 Score = 59...ter subunit IX OS=Physcomitrella patens GN=psaJ PE=3 SV=1 Length = 41 Score = 61.6 bits (148), Expect = 4e-09 Identities...em I subunit IX OS=Welwitschia m... 58 5e-07 tr|B0LP12|B0LP12_9CARY PSI reaction centre subunit IX OS=Silene...|B0LNJ2|B0LNJ2_9CARY PSI reaction centre subunit IX OS=Silene ... 58 5e-07 >tr|Q4FFL9|Q4FFL9_GINBI Photosyst...ct: 1 MQDVKTYLSTAPVLAAIWFGILAGLLIEINRFFP 34 TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL tr

  14. The Chromosome Number of Psammosilene tunicoides Endemic to China%中国特有植物金铁锁的细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘跃芝; 杨志云; 龚洵

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, Psammosilene tunicoides, an endemic species to China, was cytologically studied for the first time. The morphology of the nuclei at resting stage was categorized to be simple chromocentre type. The morphology of mitofic-pmphase chromosomes was categorized to be the interstitial type.28 chromosomes were observed at the mitotic metaphase, and 14 bivalent chromosomes were observed at diakinesis. So, the basic chromosome number was confirmed to be x = 14. Psomzr~silene tunicoides is different from Silene rubicunda in the basic chromosome number and the morphology of the nuclei at resting stage and mitotic-prophase chromosomes, because Sgene rub/cund has the basic chromosome number of x= 10 and 12, and its nuclei at resting stage and mitotic-prophase chromosomes is sparsely diffuse type and continuous type respectivrly.

  15. Ray tracing method with Fresnel's transmission to calculate polarized radiation power distribution focused by a terahertz Silicon lens antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriono, Catur; Rahardjo, Eko Tjipto; Hiromoto, Norihisa

    2015-03-01

    We study a method for simulating a power-flow density distribution of terahertz-wave focused by a hemispherical Silicon lens antenna. A regular ray-tracing method is not enough to evaluate a correct radiation power-flow because it does not take into account transmittances dependent on angles of incidence at different positions on the spherical boundary of the Si-lens. In this study, we propose a ray-tracing method including Fresnel's transmission coefficients on the surface of a Si-lens for incoming polarized rays. The power-flow-density distribution calculated by the proposed method has a good agreement except for interference and diffraction with the result obtained by an electromagnetic wave simulator. Our method is so simple and reliable that it is useful for designing and evaluating THz optical systems using dielectric lens antennas.

  16. Mezidruhový hybrid jako interní cytogenetická kontrola

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, Michaela

    Lyon, 2006 - (Nátr, L.). s. 77-77 ISSN 1213-6670. [4. Metodické dny. 01.10.2006-04.10.2006, Srní] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/05/H505; GA ČR(CZ) GA521/05/2076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : interspecific hybrid * internal control system * Silene Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  17. Sex-dependent differences in transcription of transposable elements in a dioecious plant species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Tomáš; Hobza, Roman; Kubát, Zdeněk; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovský, Eduard

    Lisbon, 2009. s. 143. [8th Plant Genomics European Meeting. 07.10.2009-10.10.2009, Lisbon] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/0083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sex chromosomes * Silene * transposable elements Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  18. Arctic cushion plants as fallout 'monitors'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal distribution of fallout 137Cs was determined for arctic cushion plants Dryas integrifolia, Silene acaulis and the bryophytes Rhacomitrium lanuginosum and Polytrichum juniperinum collected at various latitudes in Canadian Arctic. The results indicate that these plants have functioned as biological monitors of radioactive fallout and it is suggested that analysis of the internal distribution of 137Cs could serve as a model for other airborne contaminants. (author)

  19. Regeneration of whole fertile plants from 30,000-y-old fruit tissue buried in Siberian permafrost

    OpenAIRE

    Yashina, Svetlana; Gubin, Stanislav; Maksimovich, Stanislav; Yashina, Alexandra; Gakhova, Edith; Gilichinsky, David

    2012-01-01

    Whole, fertile plants of Silene stenophylla Ledeb. (Caryophyllaceae) have been uniquely regenerated from maternal, immature fruit tissue of Late Pleistocene age using in vitro tissue culture and clonal micropropagation. The fruits were excavated in northeastern Siberia from fossil squirrel burrows buried at a depth of 38 m in undisturbed and never thawed Late Pleistocene permafrost sediments with a temperature of −7 °C. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating showed fruits to b...

  20. Indagine conoscitiva sull'abitudine al fumo tra gli studenti di medicina e chirugia dell'Universitá degli Studi di Milano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rea

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivo: conoscere la diffusione del tabagismo in soggetti destinati alla professione medica.

    Metodi: a partire dall’anno accademico 1998/99, è stato distribuito agli studenti del IV anno del corso di laurea in Medicina e Chirurgia dell’Università degli Studi di Milano un questionario anonimo sulle abitudini al fumo. I dati sono elaborati utilizzando il software EpiInfo 2002. Risultati: il campione risulta costituito da 712 studenti, per il 70,5% femmine, con età media di 24 anni (DS=3,6; mediana=25. I fumatori rappresentano il 23% del campione con 92/483 femmine e 63/202 maschi; l’età media di inizio è di 16.8 anni (DS=2; mediana= 16,5; la maggioranza (76% è fumatrice di livello basso (meno di 10 sigarette/die.

    Tra gli ex fumatori (143 studenti, il 20% del campione, il 25% ha smesso da meno di un anno, la maggioranza (68% nel corso dei primi tre anni di medicina. Le motivazioni principali riferite dagli studenti sull’abbandono del fumo sono la salute in primo luogo, il costo e il non aver trovato soddisfacimento nel fumo.

    Conclusioni. il numero degli studenti fumatori, diminuito rispetto ad un’ indagine effettuata negli anni 1964 - 65 (Giovanardi et al., 1972 (23% vs 51%, P≤0.001, è ancora elevato. Emerge la necessità di attuare opportuni interventi di educazione sanitaria sui futuri medici che rappresentano un sottogruppo di popolazione con priorità di bersaglio in quanto futuri operatori e educatori sanitari.

  1. Palatability of weeds from different European origins to the slugs Deroceras reticulatum Müller and Arion lusitanicus Mabille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Kollmann, Johannes; Edwards, Peter J.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a study on the significance of seed provenances in schemes to enhance biodiversity in agricultural habitats, juvenile plants of Cichorium intybus, Daucus carota, Leucanthemum vulgare and Silene alba of different European origins were exposed to grazing by two slug species, Deroceras reticulatum and Arion lusitanicus. Living plants were offered in trays, either in a glasshouse ( Deroceras) or outdoors ( Arion). The amount of herbivory was origin-dependent, with higher losses for all four species from German and Hungarian provenances compared with English and Swiss plants. The main trend was similar for both slug species except in the case of Daucus, and there was a significant 'origin × plant species' interaction. We found strong correlations between provenance-specific herbivory and certain climatic characteristics of the corresponding regions, i.e. winter minimum temperatures, and dryness in spring and late summer, which are crucial for the development of slugs. The results can be interpreted in terms of a SW-NE European climatic gradient and may be a consequence of differences in the need for plant defences against herbivory by slugs. Additionally, the data on palatability were compared with susceptibility towards two parasites which occurred in a field experiment, a leaf miner on Leucanthemum vulgare and a rust fungus on Silene alba. While specific leaf mining frequencies on Leucanthemum contrasted with the palatability of the different provenances to slugs, the rust infection on Silene was low on local and German plants, and higher on the more distant provenances from England and Hungary.

  2. Aspetti dell'ecologia della lepre sarda (Lepus capensis mediterraneus) in aree della Sardegna meridionale. Some aspects of cape hare Lepus capensis mediterraneus ecology in Southern Sardinia

    OpenAIRE

    Murgia, Carlo; Murgia, Andrea; Deiana, Anna Maria

    2003-01-01

    Nonostante la Lepre sarda (Lepus capensis mediterraneus) sia una specie soggetta a prelievo, poco o nulla si conosce circa la sua ecologia, ed in particolare in Provincia di Cagliari nessuna ricerca era stata fino ad ora condotta. Scopo di questa indagine è stato quello di individuare i valori di densità, dinamica di popolazione e selezione dell'habitat. Sono stati effettuati dei conteggi notturni con l'uso di proiettori alogeni su percorsi campione negli anni 1994-95, 1995-96 e 1997-98; n...

  3. La Grande Guerra e la cultura politica britannica

    OpenAIRE

    Palazzolo, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    La conferenza illustra la reazione della cultura politica britannica nei confronti della Grande Guerra usando come campione rappresentativo il Leonard Hobhouse di "The Metaphysical Theory of the State" nel suo confronto con il neo-hegelismo di T.H. Green, da un lato, e di Bernard Bosanquet, dall'altro. Il contesto neo-idealistico di questo confronto mostra che, pur in uno spettro di posizioni molto ampio, la cultura britannica si va orientando verso un nuovo apprezzamento dell'idea di stato.

  4. Subsurface microbial ecology. Epi fluorescence direct counts; Ecologia microbica del sottosuolo: metodo di conta diretta in epifluorescenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barra Caracciolo, A.; Silvestri, C.; Creo, C.; Izzo, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    To the aim of recognize the importance of microorganisms in affecting or even determining the fate of xenobiotics in the subsurface environment evaluating bacteria concentration in a subsurface ecosystem, the report discusses a soil sample treatment method which has been developed for epi fluorescence direct counting with DAPI. [Italian] Lo studio discute un metodo di trattamento del campione per la conta diretta in epifluorescenza con un marcatore selettivo per il DNA, il DAPI, al fine di quantificare la concentrazione batterica del sottosuolo e studiare il ruolo dei microrganismi nella biodegradazione delle molecole esogene, ancora poco indagato.

  5. Analisi sui pigmenti di ceramica neolitica tramite tecniche Raman e LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fabbri

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available I dati presentati in questo breve contributo provengono da uno studio condotto in collaborazione dal Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche dell’Università di Pisa e dall’Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici di Fisica molecolare del CNR di Pisa. Le metodologie applicate sono basate sull’analisi integrata delle tecniche spettroscopiche Raman e LIBS già ampiamente utilizzate nel campo dei Beni Culturali; i metodi sono infatti essenzialmente non distruttivi, non richiedono di un pre trattamento del campione e l’acquisizione delle misure è immediata.

  6. Potentiometric Demonstration of Metal Biosorption by Nonliving Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Jimenez, Litza Halla; Torres-Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Garcia-de la Cruz, Ramon Fernando; Montes-Rojas, Antonio; Lopez-Arteaga, Rafael Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical experiment is presented to illustrate biosorption to second-year and upper-division undergraduate students. The extraction of Cd[superscript 2+], Pb[superscript 2+], and Cu[superscript 2+] by nonliving "Typha latifolia" (cattail) roots can be monitored in real time by potentiometry determinations. The open circuit potential…

  7. Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pushpa; Joseph, Mary; Tungikar, Vijay; Joshi, Swati

    2004-01-01

    Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species, Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant. PMID:15274488

  8. Effects of plant species on soil microbial processes and CH4 emission from constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane (CH4) emission from constructed wetland has raised environmental concern. This study evaluated the influence of mono and polyculture constructed wetland and seasonal variation on CH4 fluxes. Methane emission data showed large temporal variation ranging from 0 to 249.29 mg CH4 m−2 h−1. Results indicated that the highest CH4 flux was obtained in the polyculture system, planted with Phragmites australis, Zizania latifolia and Typha latifolia, reflecting polyculture system could stimulate CH4 emission. FISH analysis showed the higher amount of methanotrophs in the profile of Z. latifolia in both mono and polyculture systems. The highest methanogens amount and relatively lower methanotrophs amount in the profile of polyculture system were obtained. The results support the characteristics of CH4 fluxes. The polyculture constructed wetland has the higher potential of global warming. -- Highlights: ► The polyculture constructed wetland has the higher contribution to CH4 emission. ► The CH4–C conversion ranged from 0 to 3.7%. ► The Z. latifolia played important roles in methanotrophs growth and CH4 consumption. ► Major influence of T-N, TOC and plant cover on CH4 emission was obtained. -- The polyculture constructed wetland has the higher contribution to global warming

  9. Hapalopilus nidulans (Polyporales: Polyporaceae a new record from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Tiwari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hapalopilus nidulans (Polyporales: Polyporaceae is reported for the first time from India. It was collected on stored wood of Anogeissus latifolia, Chloroxylon swietenia, Ougeinia oojeinensis, Shorea robusta and Terminalia tomentosa from forest depots of Chhattisgarh, India. The species is being re-described on the basis of morphology, anatomy and cultural characters.

  10. Tundra in the rain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuper, Frida; Parmentier, Frans Jan W; Blok, Daan;

    2012-01-01

    increments) and Arctagrostis latifolia (leaf size and specific leaf area), but none were observed at the Swedish site. Total biomass production did not increase at either of the study sites. This study corroborates studies in other tundra vegetation types and shows that despite regional differences at the...

  11. A synopsis of the Malesian species of Kibara (Monimiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipson, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-nine species are recognized of which twenty-four are described as new ( K. bullata, K. carrii, K. chimbuensis, K. ferox, K. flagelliformis, K. fragrans, K. fugax, K. hartleyi, K. karengana, K. katikii, K. kostermansii, K. latifolia, K. leachii, K. macrantha, K. nitens, K. novobritanica, K. ob

  12. Notities over Nederlandse zeewieren I

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, I.

    1984-01-01

    Four species considered to be newly found drifting ashore are described and illustrated: Sargassum natans (L.) Børg., Champia parvula (C. Ag.) Harv., Crouania attenuata (C. Ag.) J. Ag. and Callophyllis laciniata (Huds.) Kütz. In addition some notes are made on new records of Pogotrichum filiforme Reinke, Leathesia difformis (L.) Aresch. and Punctaria latifolia Grev.

  13. Relationship between carbon and water economies and drought-vulnerability in two coexistent iso- and anisohydric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Forner, Núria; Biel, Carmen; Savé, Robert; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Stomata control carbon and water fluxes between leaves and the atmosphere. Isohydry (i.e., strong regulation of leaf water potential, Ψl) is commonly linked to 'early' stomatal closure under drought, which in turn is believed to imply lower hydraulic risk at the expense of reduced carbon assimilation. Hence, the iso/anisohydric classification has been widely used to assess drought-resistance and mortality mechanisms across species, but the underlying assumptions have been rarely tested. These include a direct correspondence between iso/anisohydric Ψl regulation and stomatal behavior across species, and similar vulnerability to xylem embolism in iso- and anisohydric species. Our objective is to assess the physiological mechanisms underlying drought-resistance differences under controlled, experimental conditions between two coexistent Mediterranean forest species with contrasted drought-vulnerability in the field: the resistant Phillyrea latifolia (anisohydric) and vulnerable Quercus ilex (isohydric). We hypothesize that lower Ψl in P. latifolia will not necessarily be associated with narrower hydraulic safety margins or longer periods of positive gas exchange under drought. Isohydric behavior was confirmed in Q. ilex, but did not imply lower hydraulic impairment, due to lower resistance to xylem embolism in this species. We found similar temporal patterns of stomatal conductance and assimilation between species. If anything, the anisohydric P. latifolia tended to show lower assimilation rates than Q. ilex under extreme drought. The fact that P. latifolia was as carbon-constrained as Q. ilex was also indicated by similar growth rates and carbon reserves dynamics in both species. Despite similarities in carbon management between species, after two years with no water supply P. latifolia mortality was less than half of Q. ilex mortality by this time. Our study warns against making direct connections between Ψl regulation, stomatal behavior and the mechanisms of

  14. Caratteristiche dei segni di marcatura territoriale nel capriolo, Capreolus capreolus L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Sorino

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I maschi maturi di capriolo sono territoriali dagli inizi della primavera (aprile fino all?epoca degli amori, tardo agosto ? inizio settembre. Durante il periodo territoriale, i maschi eseguono due tipi di marcatura olfattiva a significato territoriale: le raspate e i fregoni. Le prime sono effettuate con le ghiandole site tra le dita delle zampe anteriori, i secondi con le ghiandole poste alla base dei palchi. Nel presente contributo si riportano alcuni risultati preliminari sull?abbondanza relativa dei due tipi di marcatura in due habitat alpini con differente copertura vegetazionale, per stabilire se questa influenzi la scelta del tipo di marcatura. L?area di studio è situata nella Val Chisone (Alpi nord ? occidentali ed è compresa tra i 1800 e i 1900 metri di quota con una superficie di 238,5 ha. L?area è caratterizzata da un pascolo di 96,5 ha (pari al 40,5% dell?area e da un lariceto di 142 ha (pari al 59,5% dell?area. Lo studio è stato effettuato nel periodo estivo nell?arco del triennio 2001-2003. I segni territoriali sono stati rilevati in aree di forma quadrata con lati di 15 metri (225 m² campionate con un metodo di randomizzazione. In ogni area campione si è valutato il numero, le dimensioni e la densità dei segni di marcatura nonché il tipo di stratificazione vegetazionale (arborea, arbustiva, erbacea, le classi percentuali di copertura, il numero di piante marcate e quelle potenzialmente marcabili. Per valutare l?esistenza di correlazione tra i segni di marcatura e i diversi parametri ambientali misurati si sono utilizzati dei test di Spearman. Sono stati rilevati 52 fregoni (x = 3,71; SE = 0,90 e 24 raspate (x = 1,71; SE = 0,57. Il 68% dei fregoni è stato rilevato in aree campione con una densità di alberelli inferiore a 3,1 alberelli/10 m², mentre il 100% delle raspate è stato rinvenuto in aree campione con una densità di alberelli inferiore a 2,2 alberelli/10 m². In ogni area campione il numero di fregoni

  15. Al lelopathic Effect of Al ien I nvasive Borreria latifol ia on Solanaceae Crops%阔叶丰花草对茄科作物的化感效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶文琴; 许镇健; 黄丽宜; 缪绅裕; 杨礼香; 王厚麟; 陈健辉

    2014-01-01

    The germination rate,root and stem length of tomato,eggplant and pepper seeds treated with different concentration of B.latifolia water extract were determined by seed germination and biological determination methods to study the effects of alien invasive B.latifolia on seed germination and growth of seedlings of Solanaceae crops.The results showed that:1 )The germination rate index of tomato and eggplant decreases with increase of B.latifolia water extract concentration significantly;2) The germination rate of tomato seeds is lower than CK but the seed germination of different treatments is above 93.33%;3 )The seed germination rate of eggplant and pepper decreases with increase of B. latifolia water extract concentration and is above 70% and above 66.67% after 14 d respectively;4)The root length of tomato and eggplant treated with different concentration of B.latifolia water extract is lower than CK significantly,except for pepper under the higher concentration;5)The stem length of tomato seedlings after 7d is shorter than CK but the stem length of tomato seedlings after 14d is higher than CK.The integrated allelopathic effect of B.latifolia on tomato is the inhibiting effect.The integrated allelopathic effect of B.latifolia with lower concentration and higher concentration is the promoting effect and inhibiting effect separately.Pepper shows the certain adaptability to B.latifolia.%为探明入侵植物阔叶丰花草对茄科作物种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响,采用种子萌发与生物测定法,测定比较了阔叶丰花草不同浓度水提液处理番茄、茄子和辣椒种子的萌发率、幼苗的根长及茎长。结果表明:番茄和茄子的发芽速度指数随处理浓度上升而显著降低;番茄种子的萌发率略低于对照,均在93.33%以上;茄子和辣椒种子的萌发率均随水提液浓度的上升而降低,14 d 时分别在70%以上和66.67%以上;各浓度水提液番茄和茄子的根长显著

  16. О НОВЫХ И НАИБОЛЕЕ РЕДКИХ ВИДАХ ТАМБОВСКОЙФЛОРЫ. СООБЩЕНИЕ 4

    OpenAIRE

    Соколов, Александр; Соколова, Людмила

    2014-01-01

    В работе сообщаются сведения о новых (Astragalus pubiflorus (Pall.)) DC., Veronica persica Poir., Dipsacus strigosus Willd. ex Roem. et Schult.) и наиболее редких (Ephedra distachya L., Stipa lessingiana Trin. et Rupr., S. pulcherrima C. Koch, Rhynchospora alba (L.) Vahl, Carex humilis Leysser, Veratrum nigrum L., Anthericum ramosum L., Lilium martagon L., Ceratocarpus arenarius L., Arenaria procera Spreng., Silene sibirica (L.) Pers., Actaea spicata L., Aconitum anthora L., Clematis integrif...

  17. Bacterial secondary production on vascular plant detritus: relationships to detritus composition and degradation rate.

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, M.A. (María Asunción); Hodson, R E

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial production at the expense of vascular plant detritus was measured for three emergent plant species (Juncus effusus, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia) degrading in the littoral zone of a thermally impacted lake. Bacterial secondary production, measured as tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA, ranged from 0.01 to 0.81 microgram of bacterial C mg of detritus-1 day-1. The three plant species differed with respect to the amount of bacterial productivity they supported per mil...

  18. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression

    OpenAIRE

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M. A.; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Coltman, David W

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids f...

  19. Large-scale asymmetric introgression of cytoplasmic DNA reveals Holocene range displacement in a North American boreal pine complex

    OpenAIRE

    Godbout, Julie; Yeh, Francis C.; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) are two North American boreal hard pines that hybridize in their zone of contact in western Canada. The main objective of this study was to characterize their patterns of introgression resulting from past and recent gene flow, using cytoplasmic markers having maternal or paternal inheritance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was assessed in allopatric populations of each species and i...

  20. Nueva localidad para Phylodryas aestivus subcarinatus Boulenger, 1902 (Reptilia: colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cordella, Carlos Enrique

    1989-01-01

    Durante una recorrida realizada el 24 de abril de 1986 en la Reserva de Fauna "Laguna La Felipa" ubicada a 12 km de la localidad de Ucacha, departamento de Juárez Celman, provincia de Córdoba, se capturó un ejemplar de Philodryas aestivus. El individuo, una hembra adulta de 1434 mm de longitud total, se encontraba en un "totoral" (Totora latifolia) cercano al agua.

  1. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of plants used in Western Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maha; Abdulrahman; Alamin; Ahmed; Ibrahim; Yagi; Sakina; Mohamed; Yagi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the traditional antidiabetic uses of some indigenous Sudanese plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with a 400 mg/kg dose of aqueous extracts of five plant species orally for 2 h(acute) or 14 days(chronic). In acute model blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. In the chronic model blood samples were collected from overnight fasted diabetic rats on day 15 to estimate blood glucose level. And the body weight, serum lipid profile and activities of liver and kidney enzymes were measured. Histopathological observations of liver sections were also studied.Results: In the case of acute treatment, aqueous extracts of Tinospora bakis(T. bakis), Nauclea latifolia(N. latifolia) and Randia nilotica(R. nilotica) at 400 mg/kg significantly lowered(P < 0.05) blood glucose levels in diabetic rats whereas, chronic treatment of diabetic rats with 400 mg/kg of T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis proved to have significant(P < 0.05) antihyperglycemic effect and have the capacity to correct the metabolic disturbances associated with diabetes. Histopathological studies showed that the aqueous extracts of these four plants reinforced the healing of liver. However, Striga hermonthica aqueous extract did not exert any antihyperglycemic effect to diabetic rats. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis have therapeutic value in diabetes and related complications and thus supporting the traditional uses of these plants in Sudanese traditional medicine.

  2. Characterization of Root-Associated Methanotrophs from Three Freshwater Macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia†

    OpenAIRE

    Calhoun, A.; King, G. M.

    1998-01-01

    Root-associated methanotrophic bacteria were enriched from three common aquatic macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia. At least seven distinct taxa belonging to groups I and II were identified and presumptively assigned to the genera Methylosinus, Methylocystis, Methylomonas, and Methylococcus. Four of these strains appeared to be novel on the basis of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The root-methanotroph association did not appear to be...

  3. Rapportage onderzoek aantasting van de bast bij laanbomen

    OpenAIRE

    Lammeren, van, ACAP Andre; Ruiter, N.C.A.; Kieft, H

    2009-01-01

    In dit verslag zijn aantastingen op de stam onderzocht van Carpinus betulus ‘Frans Fontaine’, Fagus sylvatica “ Atropurpurea”, Fraxinus excelsior ‘Atlas’, Quercus palustris, Quercus robur, Sorbus latifolia “Henk Vink” en Ulmus ‘Clusius’ Daarbij is aandacht besteed aan het voorkomen en de aard en ontwikkeling van bastknobbels, baststrepen, bastscheuren, verkleuringen en het effect van epifyten zoals schimmels en korstmossen

  4. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel; Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves

    2004-01-01

    The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.); 'C-13' citrange...

  5. A synopsis of the Malesian species of Kibara (Monimiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Philipson, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-nine species are recognized of which twenty-four are described as new ( K. bullata, K. carrii, K. chimbuensis, K. ferox, K. flagelliformis, K. fragrans, K. fugax, K. hartleyi, K. karengana, K. katikii, K. kostermansii, K. latifolia, K. leachii, K. macrantha, K. nitens, K. novobritanica, K. oblongata, K. rosselensis, K. royenii, K. shungolensis, K. sleumeri, K. streimannii, K. sudestensis, and K. versteeghii) ). One new combination is made: K. oligocarpella (Kaneh. & Hatus.) Philipson, ...

  6. IDENTIFICACIÓN DEL AGENTE CAUSAL E IMPORTANCIA DE LA GOMOSIS EN LA ZONA CITRICOLA DE HUIMANGUIILLO, TABASCO, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    JA Acosta-Pérez; CF Ortiz-García; JM Zaldívar-Cruz; M Rodríguez-Cuevas; CC Bautista-Muñoz; C de la Cruz Castillo-Aguilar

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio consistió en identicar la especie Phytophthora causante de la gomosis o podredumbre del pie en cultivos de Naranja 'Valenciana' (Citrus sinensis) y Limón 'Persa' (Citrus latifolia) en la Sabana de Huimanguillo, Tabasco. De 34 sitios muestreados sistemáticamente se lograron obtener 13 aislamientos de Phytophthora en tejidos de tallo y frutos enfermos. Para esto, se utilizaron medio selectivo agar zanahoria (zanahoria 10 %-agar Pimaricina, Rifampicina, Vancomicina y PCNB. La...

  7. Comparative analysis of A, B,C and D genomes in the genus Oryza with C0t-1 DNA of C genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Weizhen; QIN Rui; LI Gang; HE Guangcun

    2006-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)was applied to somatic chromosomes preparations of Oryza officinalis Wall. (CC), O. sativa L. (AA)×O. officinalis F1 hybrid (AC), backcross progenies BC1 (AAC and ACC), O. latifolia Desv. (CCDD), O. alta Swallen (CCDD) and O. punctata Kotschy (BBCC)with a labelled probe of Cot-1 DNA from O. officinalis.In O. officinalis, the homologous chromosomes showed similar signal bands probed by C0t-1 DNA and karyotype analysis was conducted based on the band patterns. Using no blocking DNA, the probe identified the chromosomes of C genome clearly, but detected few signals on chromosomes of A genome in the F1 hybrid and two backcross progenies of BC1.It is obvious that the highly and moderately repetitive DNA sequences were considerably different between C and A genomes. The chromosomes of C genome were also discriminated from the chromosomes of D-and B-genome in the tetraploid species O. latifolia, O.alta and O. punctata by C0t-1 DNA-FISH. Comparison of the fluorescence intensity on the chromosomes of B, C and D genomes in O. latifolia, O. alta,and O. punctata indicated that the differentiations between C and D genomes are less than that between C and B genomes. The relationship between C and D genomes in O. alta is closer than that of C and D genomes in O. latifolia. This would be one of the causes for the fact that both the genomes are of the same karyotype (CCDD) but belong to different species. The above results showed that the C0t-1 DNA had a high specificity of genome and species. In this paper, the origin of allotetraploid in genus Oryza is also discussed.

  8. Distribution ecology of pollen tubes: fine-grained, labile spatial mosaics in southern Spanish Lamiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    HERRERA, CARLOS M.

    2004-01-01

    • Patterns of intraspecific variation in the number of pollen tubes per style in naturally pollinated plants are poorly known, yet that information is essential for assessing the frequency of occurrence and evolutionary implications of microgametophyte com- petition in the wild. • This paper analyses intraspecific variation in the number of pollen tubes per style for six species of southern Spanish insect-pollinated Lamiaceae (Ballota hirsuta, Lavandula latifolia, Marrubium supinum, Phlomi...

  9. Dielectric Properties of Paper Made from Pulps Loaded with Ferroelectric Particles

    OpenAIRE

    El Omari, Hind; Zyane, Adel; Belfkira, Ahmed; Taourirte, Moha; Brouillette, François

    2016-01-01

    Due to its physical properties and its ease of manufacture, paper is widely used in various engineering applications such as electrical insulation materials for components in high voltage technology. In this study, paper loaded with ferroelectric nanoparticles (BaTiO3 and SrTiO3) was made with fibers obtained from plants growing on the Moroccan soil [Halfa (Stipa tenacissima), Agave (Agave americana), Pennisetum (Pennisetum alopecuroides), Typha (Typha latifolia), and Junc (Juncus effusus)] a...

  10. Activity pattern and thermal biology of a day-flying hawkmoth (Macroglossum stellatarum) under Mediterranean summer conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    1992-01-01

    1 The daily activity pattern and aspects of the thermal biology are described for the day-flying hawkmoth, Macroglossum stellatarum L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), while foraging at a flowering population of Lavandula latifolia (Labiatae) under the dry-hot summer conditions of a southeastern Spanish locality. 2 The average abundance of M.stellatarum remained fairly constant from sunrise to about 17.00 hours (GMT), and a distinct peak occurred in the evening (18.00—20.00 hou...

  11. No evidence for niche segregation in a North American Cattail (Typha) species complex

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie-Gopsill, Andrew; Kirk, Heather; Drunen, Wendy Van; Freeland, Joanna R.; Dorken, Marcel E.

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization can lead to a breakdown of species boundaries, and is of particular concern in cases in which one of the parental species is invasive. Cattails (Typha spp.) have increased their abundance in the Great Lakes region of North America over the past 150 years. This increase in the distribution of cattails is associated with hybridization between broad-leaved (Typha latifolia) and narrow-leaved cattails (T. angustifolia). The resulting hybrids occur predominantly as F1s,...

  12. Perfil químico y biológico de aceites esenciales de plantas aromáticas de interés agro-industrial en Castilla-La Mancha (España)

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, O.; Cabrera, R.; González-Coloma, A.; Sánchez-Vioque, R.; de los Mozos-Pascual, M.; Rodríguez-Conde, M. F.; Laserna-Ruiz, I.; Usano-Alemany, J.; Herraiz, D.

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel., Lavandula latifolia Medik., Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L. are presented. The essential oils have been analysed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and 61 compounds were identified, 23 of whic...

  13. Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Njouendou Abdel J; Asongalem Emmanuel A; Nde Peter F; Njunda Anna L; Nsagha Dickson S; Kamga Henri LF; Assob Jules CN; Sandjon Bertrand; Penlap Veronique B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc) and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinal plants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms...

  14. Assessment of post-beetle impacts on natural regeneration of Lodgepole Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Keith N; Arocena, Joselito; Green, Scott; Kennedy, Nabla; Massicotte, Hugues; Scholefield, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The ecological disturbance from wildfire (2004) on ~ 10,000 hectares of forests near the Kenny Dam presented a unique opportunity to study the natural and artificial regeneration in burned mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested stands in north-central British Columbia. Mountain pine beetle (MPB) has been documented as a natural disturbance agent that may precede wildfire in lodgepole pine forests (Pinus contorta var. latifolia). The objectives of this study were to i)...

  15. A Comparative Study of Bioethanol Production from Aquatic Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodichetty Ramaiah Sunil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A greatest challenge for society in the 21st century is to meet energy demand, where biomass is subjected for pre-treatment and converted into biofuel (alcohol. Aquatic weeds are potential bio resources which are easily available for biofuel production. Aquatic weeds like Alternanthera sessilis, Typha latifolia, Eichhornia crassipes, Baccopa monnieri, Ipomoea aquatica and Pistia stratiotes are estimated for carbohydrates content. Highest content of reducing sugar was observed in Alternanthera sessilis (296.8µg/ml, total sugar in Ipomoea aquatic (880.00mg/ml, starch in Alternanthera sessilis (57.13mg/ml, cellulose in Pistia stratiotes and Typha latifolia (280.00mg/ml, hemicellulose in Typha latifolia (26.85mg/ml; high cellulosic aquatic weeds were subjected to pre-treatment methods like physical, chemical and enzymatic method. Meanwhile different yeast strains from the fruits of Manilkara zapota, Cucumis melo, Musa paradisiaca, Citrullus lanatus, Punica granatum and Ananas comosus were isolated yeast of Citrullus lanatus shows highest amount of alcohol production (307µg/ml, which is inoculated to pre-treated hydrolysate, where Alternanthera sessilis and Typha latifolia shows high amount of alcohol in physical method (160.5 and 115.4µg/ml. In chemical method in acid hydrolysis it shows 387.1 and 69.63µg/ml and in alkali hydrolysis 62 and 170µg/ml, so these two weeds were taken for enzymatic method for alcohol production, on seventh day Alternanthera sessilis shows highest alcohol production (113.33µg/ml, hence among six weeds Alternanthera sessilis and the yeast of Citrullus lanatus produces more amount of alcohol than others and it also shows that enzymatic method of pre-treatment is best in hydrolysis of biomass than physical and chemical method. The study revealed the possibility of producing alcohol from locally available fruits using simple, cheap and adaptable technology with biochemically characterized yeast strains.

  16. A Comparative Study of Bioethanol Production from Aquatic Weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kodichetty Ramaiah Sunil; Merin John; Venkatachalapathi Girish; Sirangala Thimappa Girisha

    2015-01-01

    A greatest challenge for society in the 21st century is to meet energy demand, where biomass is subjected for pre-treatment and converted into biofuel (alcohol). Aquatic weeds are potential bio resources which are easily available for biofuel production. Aquatic weeds like Alternanthera sessilis, Typha latifolia, Eichhornia crassipes, Baccopa monnieri, Ipomoea aquatica and Pistia stratiotes are estimated for carbohydrates content. Highest content of reducing sugar was observed in Alternanther...

  17. Comportamenti sessuali e rischio di AIDS in studenti universitari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Sammarco

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: la trasmissione eterosessuale di HIV sta acquisendo una sempre maggiore importanza. Obiettivo del presente studio è stato, pertanto, quello di valutare in un campione di studenti universitari le caratteristiche dei comportamenti sessuali a rischio.

    Metodi: nell’ambito di uno studio più ampio, è stato distribuito ad un campione di studenti dell’Università del Molise (Campobasso un questionario anonimo che comprendeva anche una sezione sui comportamenti sessuali. Il campione era composto da 430 studenti (maschi = 35,8%; l’età media era di 23 anni.

    Risultati: il 72.6% ha riferito rapporti sessuali completi (83,6%, femmine = 66,5%; p‹0,005, test del chiquadrato; più spesso i rapporti sono senza l’uso del preservativo (55,9%; maschi = 55,0%, femmine = 56,6%. Una discreta percentuale (18,5%; maschi = 29,9%, femmine = 10,5%, p‹0,005 ha avuto rapporti occasionali. Il 51,8% degli studenti sessualmente attivi ha avuto rapporti sessuali dopo aver bevuto alcolici (maschi = 65,9%; femmine = 41,9%; p‹0,05; tra questi il 54,6% (maschi = 50,0%, femmine = 59,5% non utilizza il preservativo. Una percentuale più contenuta (16,3%; maschi = 23,6%, femmine = 11,1%, p‹0,05 ha avuto rapporti sessuali dopo l’uso di droghe (soprattutto cannabis e cocaina; tra questi il 55,3% (maschi = 56,7%, femmine = 52,9% non utilizza il preservativo. Il 6,7% dei maschi ha avuto almeno un’esperienza omosessuale con rapporti anali, di cui una metà non ha utilizzato il preservativo nell’ultimo rapporto.

    Conclusioni: i maschi sono sessualmente più attivi e hanno comportamenti più a rischio, tuttavia non ci sono differenze significative per quanto riguarda l’uso del preservativo. Nel nostro paese il futuro dell’epidemia di AIDS dipenderà dai comportamenti sessuali della popolazione. A tal fine le strategie di prevenzione devono mirare ad aumentare la

  18. [Psicopatologia, fattori psicosociali e obesità].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Federica; Sardu, Claudia; Orrù, Walter; Velluzzi, Fernanda; Loviselli, Andrea; Contu, Paolo; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopi. Gli obiettivi di questo studio sono stati la valutazione dell'associazione tra obesità, variabili socio-demografiche e psicopatologiche in un campione clinico di pazienti afferenti a un centro per la diagnosi e il trattamento dell'obesità, confrontati con un campione omogeneo di controllo costituito da soggetti di peso normale. Metodi. Nel contesto di un progetto di ricerca riguardante obesità e psicopatologia, è stata applicata una regressione logistica multivariata per esaminare l'associazione tra obesità e variabili demografiche e cliniche relative a un campione consecutivo di 293 pazienti obesi (48 maschi, 245 femmine, età media: 45,41±13,55, indice di massa corporea [BMI] 35,6±6,2), confrontato con un gruppo di controllo omogeneo appaiato di 293 soggetti non obesi (48 maschi, 245 femmine, età media 45,66±13,86, BMI medio 21,8±2,06). Tutti i soggetti sono stati valutati mediante un'intervista clinica strutturata, la Structured Clinical Interview per la diagnosi di asse I del DSM-IV (SCID-I) e per l'asse II DSM-IV (SCID-II). Risultati. L'analisi statistica multivariata ha dimostrato che lo status di casalinga e la presenza "lifetime" di disturbi di asse I e II e in generale della presenza di una qualsiasi diagnosi psichiatrica, e, in particolare, delle diagnosi di disturbo depressivo, d'ansia, del comportamento alimentare e di alcuni disturbi di personalità, sono associate in modo significativo a una maggiore probabilità di essere in sovrappeso oppure obesi. Le probabilità di essere sovrappeso/obesi si modificano in rapporto alle diverse combinazioni di fattori di rischio, aumentando da un valore di 32,3% per un individuo non esposto ad alcun fattore di rischio, a un valore di 86,7% per i soggetti esposti a tutti i fattori di rischio considerati. Conclusioni. La presenza di una diagnosi di asse I e/o II e lo stato di casalinga è indipendentemente associata a un maggiore rischio di sovrappeso/obesità. L'interazione di questi

  19. Control of the Diurnal Pattern of Methane Emission from Emergent Aquatic Macrophytes by Gas Transport Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Gary J.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    1995-01-01

    Methane emissions from Typha latifolia (L.) showed a large mid-morning transient peak associated with rising light levels. This peak was also associated with a steep decline in lacunal CH, concentrations near the stem base. This pattern contrasted sharply with emissions from Peltandra virginica (L.) that gradually rose to a peak in the mid-afternoon corresponding to elevated air temperatures. Internal CH4 concentrations within P. virginica stems did not change significantly over the diurnal period. Stomatal conductance appeared to correlate directly with light levels in both plant types and were not associated with peak CH4 emission events in either plant. These patterns are consistent with a convective throughflow and diffusive gas ventilation systems for Typha and Peltandra, respectively. Further effects of the convective throughflow in T. latifolia were evident in the elevated CH4 concentrations measured within brown leaves as contrasted to the near ambient levels measured within live green leaves. Experimental manipulation of elevated and reduced CO2 levels in the atmosphere surrounding the plants and of light/dark periods suggested that stomatal aperture has little or no control of methane emissions from T. latifolia.

  20. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in plants associated with a contaminated stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological half-life (Te) is a useful measure for studying the long-term decline of contaminants, such as radionuclides, in natural systems. The current investigation determined levels of radiocesium (137Cs) in two aquatic (Polygonum punctatum, Sagittaria latifolia) and three terrestrial (Alnus serrulata, Myrica cerifera, Salix nigra) plant species from a contaminated stream and floodplain on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Current 137Cs levels in plants were used in conjunction with historical data to determine Te of 137Cs in each species. Median concentrations of 137Cs were highest in S. latifolia (0.84 Bq g-1) and lowest in M. cerifera (0.10 Bq g-1). Te's ranged from 4.85 yr in M. cerifera to 8.35 yr in S. nigra, both terrestrial species. Te's for all aquatic (6.30 yr) and all terrestrial (5.87) species combined were very similar. The Te's of the two aquatic primary producers (P. punctatum and S. latifolia) in the Steel Creek ecosystem were somewhat longer than Te values previously reported for some consumers from this ecosystem

  1. Air pollution abatement by road traffic and social acceptability. A case study; Misure anti-inquinamento da traffico urbano e partecipazione del cittadino: uno studio del caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntarelli, P.; Borrelli, G.; Brini, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes the research, realised via a questionnaire on citizens representative of two roman districts, analyses the social acceptability degree of actions for reducing atmospheric pollution produced by automobile traffic in the city of Rome (Italy). [Italian] Il rapporto descrive una ricerca sul campo, svolta tramite questionario e su un campione di cittadini di due quartieri di Roma, che si propone di esaminare il grado di accettazione sociale di una serie di misure tendenti a ridurre l'inquinamento atmosferico causato dal traffico veicolare urbano, dal momento che trova unanime consenso riconoscere al traffico veicolare e piu' in generale al sistema di vita urbano le maggiori responsabilita' per quanto riguarda la produzione di sostanze inquinanti nell'aria.

  2. Some Features of Raman Scattering by Molecules Adsorbed on Metal Crystal Faces and a Fine Light Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Polubotko, A M

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes some experiments on Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on the face (111) of silver monocrystals performed by A. Campion et al. From the existence of the forbidden line of benzene, the conclusion about existence of the surface field, caused by atomic structure of the surface is made. The relatively large intensity of this line allows to make a conclusion about large influence of the electromagnetic field spatial inhomogeneity in crystals on their optical properties. The difference between this field and a regular plane wave, which usually describes propagation of electromagnetic field in solids is named as a fine light structure. The influence of this structure on optical properties of solids is pointed out.

  3. Modelli di acquisto di e-book per le biblioteche dell'università italiana. Tre piattaforme a confronto (EBL, Ebrary, Ebsco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Frigimelica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni la diffusione degli e-book ha avuto una crescita esponenziale. L'accesso 24 ore su 24, la portabilità, gli strumenti avanzati offerti dalle piattaforme rendono questo prodotto particolarmente interessante in ambito accademico. Le biblioteche si trovano ad attraversare una fase di sperimentazione per quanto concerne la selezione e l'acquisizione degli e-book. L'articolo analizza tre piattaforme (EBL, Ebrary, EBSCO in particolare con l'ottica di stabilire se un'università italiana di medie dimensioni possa acquistare titoli stranieri in versione elettronica anziché cartacea, e a che condizioni. Vengono presentate informazioni sul catalogo offerto, i business model, le funzionalità disponibili. Il taglio è pratico/sperimentale, in quanto i paragoni tra le piattaforme si basano su un set di 150 monografie, pubblicate negli ultimi 5 anni da editori diversi e acquistate in cartaceo, utilizzato come campione rappresentativo.

  4. Investigating the Educational Use of Web2.0 Among Undergraduates in Nigerian Private Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akorede Muftau Diyaolu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Questo studio riporta i risultati di un sondaggio sull'uso di web2.0 tra gli studenti di due università private della Nigeria : la Crescent University di Abeokuta e la Caleb Unviersity di Lagos . La ricerca è finalizzata a trovare l' attuale consapevolezza degli studenti nell'uso del web2.0 , catturare il loro modello nell'utilizzo di web2.0 e determinare la sua rilevanza in ricerche accademiche . A tal fine, circa 161 studenti che rappresentano il 67,1 % dell'intero campione di studio hanno preso parte al sondaggio compilando un questionario. Il saggio fornisce un quadro dettagliato dei risultati con relative discussioni e raccomandazioni.

  5. Variabilità morfologica ed ecologica in Neomys fodiens e Neomys anomalus nell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Scaravelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I due Neomys italiani sono ancora da chiarire dal punto di vista della loro caratterizzazione morfologica e ecologica. Il lavoro prende in considerazione un campione di entrambe le specie proveniente da habitat forestali dell?Appennino settentrionale per i quali sono stati identificati i principali parametri ambientali. Vengono quindi descritte la variabilità dei tratti morfologici delle due specie in aree localizzate nel Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna nell?Appennino tosco-romagnolo. Risultano di sicuro effetto discriminatorio la maschera facciale, il rapporto piede posteriore/coda e i caratteri cranici. Sulla base dei criteri identificativi si sono realizzate rilevazioni di misure corporee per le due specie e una comparazione degli habitat utilizzati. N. fodiens appare unica specie nelle faggete-abetine e dominante nei castagneti, mentre nell?Ontaneta e nelle zone aperte e termofile si registra la sola presenza di N. anomalus. Mancano entrambi nei prati cespugliati, nella pecceta e nella cerreta. I gradienti presenti sono quindi illustrati. Non appare una differenza altitudinale nel campione esaminato, posto in stazioni tra i 400 e i 1300 m, ma per entrambe vi sono maggiori riscontri nella fascia tra 700 e 850 m. Nell?analisi multivariata rispetto alle altre specie e alle variabili ambientali si riscontra sempre una discreta correlazione con la presenza di acqua di una certa ampiezza, che comunque è significativa solo per N. fodiens, mentre risulta di interesse la positiva correlazione di N. anomalus con Apodemus sylvaticus.

  6. Criticality accident studies and research performed in the Valduc criticality laboratory, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1967, the IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire - Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute) started studies and research in France on criticality accidents, with the objective of improving knowledge and modelling of accidents in order to limit consequences to the public, the environment and installations. The criticality accident is accompanied by an intense emission of neutronic and gamma radiation and releases of radioactive products in the form of gas and aerosols, generating irradiation and contamination risks. The main objectives of the studies carried out, particularly using the CRAC installation and the SILENE reactor at Valduc (France), were to model the physics of criticality accidents, to estimate the risks of irradiation and radioactive releases, to elaborate an accident detection system and to provide information for intervention plans. This document summarizes the state of knowledge in the various fields mentioned above. The results of experiments carried out in the Valduc criticality laboratory are used internationally as reference data for the qualification of calculation codes and the assessment of the consequences of a criticality accident. The SILENE installation, that reproduces the various conditions encountered during a criticality accident, is also a unique international research tool for studies and training on those matters. (author)

  7. [Adhesion of Bacillus subtilis on the surface of pectin-calcium gel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, E A; Melekhin, A K

    2015-01-01

    Pectin-calcium gels obtained based on pectins of callus cultures are able to adhere to the surface of cells of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis to various degrees and this is thanks to the structural features of pectin. Rapid adhesion of the cells to gels obtained from the pectin of Tanacetum vulgare (TVC) callus cultures is associated with a high content of the linear region in the carbohydrate chain of pectin, a high molecular weight, and a low degree of methyl etherification of pectin. The number of adherent cells on the surface of gels obtained from pectins of Silene vulgaris callus cultures (SVC), TVC, and Lemna minor (LMC) after 8 h of incubation was close, whereas the number of cells was minimal on a gel produced using the pectin of Silene tatarica (STC) callus culture. This was due to the higher degree of methyl etherification of STC pectin (45%) compared to other pectins (4-12%). The adhesion rate constant (k) of B. subtilis for TCV gel during the first 120 min was the highest in comparison with other gels; the k value for SVC, STC and LMC gels was similar. The lowest level of k was characteristic for the gel from commercial apple pectin. The obtained data can beused for the production of gels with adhesive and antiadhesive properties. PMID:25842905

  8. Quantifying hummingbird preference for floral trait combinations: The role of selection on trait interactions in the evolution of pollination syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Charles B; Reynolds, Richard J; Williams, Christopher W; Makowsky, Robert; Dudash, Michele R

    2015-05-01

    Darwin recognized the flower's importance for the study of adaptation and emphasized that the flower's functionality reflects the coordinated action of multiple traits. Here we use a multitrait manipulative approach to quantify the potential role of selection acting on floral trait combinations underlying the divergence and maintenance of three related North American species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae). We artificially generated 48 plant phenotypes corresponding to all combinations of key attractive traits differing among the three Silene species (color, height, inflorescence architecture, flower orientation, and corolla-tube width). We quantified main and interaction effects of trait manipulation on hummingbird visitation preference using experimental arrays. The main effects of floral display height and floral orientation strongly influenced hummingbird visitation, with hummingbirds preferring flowers held high above the ground and vertically to the sky. Hummingbirds also prefer traits in a nonadditive manner as multiple two-way and higher order interaction effects were important predictors of hummingbird visitation. Contemporary trait combinations found in hummingbird pollinated S. virginica are mostly preferred. Our study demonstrates the likelihood of pollination syndromes evolving due to selection on trait combinations and highlights the importance of trait interactions in understanding the evolution of complex adaptations. PMID:25765062

  9. [Effect of intermittent artificial aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian-qiang; Li, Jin-zhong; Li, Xue-Ju; Liu, Xue-gong; Huang, Sui-liang

    2008-04-01

    Shale and T. latifolia were used as subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetland substrate and vegetation for eutrophic Jin River water treatment, and investigate the effect of intermittent aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, hydraulic loading rate was equal to 800 mm/d, and ratio of air and water was 5:1. During the entire running period, maximal monthly mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+ -N), total nitrogen (TN), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) removal rates were observed in August 2006. In contrast to the non-aerated wetland, aeration enhanced ammonia-nitrogen, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus removal: 10.1%, 4.7%, 10.2% and 8.8% for aeration in the middle, and 25.1%, 10.0%, 7.7% and 7.4% for aeration at the bottom of the substrate, respectively. However, aeration failed to improve the nitrate-nitrogen removal. During the whole experimental period, monthly mean NO3(-) -N removal rates were much lower for aerated constructed wetlands (regarding aeration in the middle and at the bottom) than those for non-aerated system. After finishing the experiment, aboveground plant biomass (stems and leaves) of T. latifolia was harvested, and its weight and nutrient content (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) were measured. Analysis of aboveground plant biomass indicated that intermittent aeration restrained the increase in biomass but stimulated assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus into stems and leaves. Additional total nitrogen removal of 11.6 g x m(-2) and 12.6 g x m(-2) by aboveground T. latifolia biomass for intermittent artificial aeration in the middle and at the bottom of the wetland substrate, respectively, was observed. PMID:18637335

  10. Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daijun; Ogaya, Romà; Barbeta, Adrià; Yang, Xiaohong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the aridity in the Mediterranean Basin and severely affect forest productivity and composition. The responses of forests to different timescales of drought, however, are still poorly understood because extreme and persistent moderate droughts can produce nonlinear responses in plants. We conducted a rainfall-manipulation experiment in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in the Prades Mountains in southern Catalonia from 1999 to 2014. The experimental drought significantly decreased forest aboveground-biomass increment (ABI), tended to increase the litterfall, and decreased aboveground net primary production throughout the 15 years of the study. The responses to the experimental drought were highly species-specific. A. unedo suffered a significant reduction in ABI, Q. ilex experienced a decrease during the early experiment (1999-2003) and in the extreme droughts of 2005-2006 and 2011-2012, and P. latifolia was unaffected by the treatment. The drought treatment significantly increased branch litterfall, especially in the extremely dry year of 2011, and also increased overall leaf litterfall. The drought treatment reduced the fruit production of Q. ilex, which affected seedling recruitment. The ABIs of all species were highly correlated with SPEI in early spring, whereas the branch litterfalls were better correlated with summer SPEIs and the leaf and fruit litterfalls were better correlated with autumn SPEIs. These species-specific responses indicated that the dominant species (Q. ilex) could be partially replaced by the drought-resistant species (P. latifolia). However, the results of this long-term study also suggest that the effect of drought treatment has been dampened over time, probably due to a combination of demographic compensation, morphological and physiological acclimation, and epigenetic changes. However, the structure of community (e.g., species composition

  11. Ability of four emergent macrophytes to remediate permethrin in mesocosm experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Kröger, R; Cooper, C M; Smith, S

    2009-08-01

    Increased focus is being placed on the ability of native vegetation to mitigate potential harmful effects of agricultural runoff, especially pyrethroid insecticides. Replicate 379 L Rubbermaid tubs (1.25 m [l] x 0.6 m [w] x 0.8 m [h]) were planted with individual species of cutgrass (Leersia oryzoides), cattails (Typha latifolia), bur-reed (Sparganium americanum), and powdery alligator-flag (Thalia dealbata), all common wetland macrophytes found in the Mississippi Delta, USA, agricultural region. Permethrin-enriched water (target concentration, 5 microg L(-1)) was pumped in at a 4-h hydraulic retention time at one end of the tub and discharged at the far end. Water samples were collected from discharge at 1-h intervals for 12 h and analyzed for permethrin concentrations. Permethrin removal rates were compared for the four different plant treatments and nonvegetated sediment-water controls. Results indicated that no particular single plant species was more effective at removing permethrin in water relative to unplanted controls. Overall mass reductions (from inflow to outflow) for cis-permethrin ranged from 67% +/- 6% in T. latifolia to 71% +/- 2% in L. oryzoides. The trans-permethrin overall mass reductions ranged from 76% +/- 4% in S. americanum to 82% +/- 2% in the unplanted control. Sediment and plant samples collected at the study conclusion indicated that 77%-95% of measured permethrin mass was associated with sediment for mesocosms planted with L. oryzoides, T. latifolia, and T. dealbata. Conversely, mesocosms planted with S. americanum had 83% of measured mass associated with the plant material. Specific plant-pesticide retention studies can lead to improved planning for best management practices and remediation techniques such as constructed wetlands and vegetated agricultural drainage ditches. PMID:19458989

  12. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as Rf values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate plant

  13. A whole plant approach to evaluate the water use of mediterranean maquis species in a coastal dune ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, S.; Salvatori, E.; Fusaro, L.; Gerosa, G.; Muys, B.; Manes, F.

    2009-02-01

    An integrated approach has been used to analyse the water relations of three Mediterranean species, A. unedo L., Q. ilex L. and P. latifolia L. co-occurring in a coastal dune ecosystem. The approach considered leaf level gas exchange, sap flow measurements and structural adaptations between 15 May and 31 July 2007, and was necessary to capture the different response of the three species to the same environment. The complexity of the response was proportional to the complexity of the system, characterized by a sandy soil with a low water retention capacity and the presence of a water table. The latter did not completely prevent the development of a drought response, and species differences in this responses have been partially attributed to a different root distribution. Sap flow of A. unedo decreased rapidly in response to the decline of Soil Water Content, while that of Q. ilex decreased only moderately. Midday leaf water potential of P. latifolia and A. unedo was between 2.2 and 2.7 MPa through the measuring period, while in Q. ilex it reached a value of 3.4 MPa at the end of the season. A. unedo was the only species to decrease the leaf area to sapwood area ratio from 23.9±1.2 (May) to 15.2±1.5 (July), as a response to drought. A. unedo also underwent an almost stepwise loss on hydraulic conductivity, such a loss didn't occur for Q. ilex, while P. latifolia was able to slightly increase hydraulic conductivity, showing how different plant compartments coordinate differently between species as a response to drought. Such different coordination affects the gas exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere, and has implications for the response of the Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystems to climate change.

  14. An integrated approach shows different use of water resources from Mediterranean maquis species in a coastal dune ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, S.; Salvatori, E.; Fusaro, L.; Gerosa, G.; Muys, B.; Manes, F.

    2009-11-01

    An integrated approach has been used to analyse the dependence of three Mediterranean species, A. unedo L., Q. ilex L., and P. latifolia L. co-occurring in a coastal dune ecosystem on two different water resources: groundwater and rainfed upper soil layers. The approach included leaf level gas exchanges, sap flow measurements and structural adaptations between 15 May and 31 July 2007. During this period it was possible to capture different species-specific response patterns to an environment characterized by a sandy soil, with a low water retention capacity, and the presence of a water table. The latter did not completely prevent the development of a drought response and, combined with previous studies in the same area, response differences between species have been partially attributed to different root distributions. Sap flow of A. unedo decreased rapidly with the decline of soil water content, while that of Q. ilex decreased only moderately. Midday leaf water potential of P. latifolia and A. unedo ranged between -2.2 and -2.7 MPa throughout the measuring period, while in Q. ilex it decreased down to -3.4 MPa at the end of the season. A. unedo was the only species that responded to drought with a decrease of its leaf area to sapwood area ratio from 23.9±1.2 (May) to 15.2±1.5 (July). While A. unedo also underwent an almost stepwise loss on hydraulic conductivity, such a loss did not occur for Q. ilex, whereas P. latifolia was able to slightly increase its hydraulic conducitivity. These differences show how different plant compartments coordinate differently between species in their responses to drought. The different responses appear to be mediated by different root distributions of the species and their relative resistances to drought are likely to depend on the duration of the periods in which water remains extractable in the upper soil layers.

  15. Laser induced spectroscopy breakdown (LIBS) application to heavy metal detection in soils; Applicazioni della tecnica Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) alla determinazione dei metalli pesanti nei suoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S.; Colao, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Div. Fisica Applicata; Capitelli, F. [Bari, Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia e Chimica Agroforestale ed Ambientale

    2000-07-01

    and the sample upon which the analytic use of LIBS technique relays. RSD % (Relative Standard Deviation) for LIBS and ICP data have been compared. LIBS values appeared systematically higher than the ICP ones. Also the correlation coefficients, calculated as the ratio between certified value and experimental one, both for LIBS and ICP, were considerably less close to one for LIBS than for ICP. In order to minimize the matrix effect, a model for correcting LIBS data by taking into account the plasma temperature experimentally determined both in the unknown and in the standard sample was introduced. Preliminary results showed a considerable improvement in the correlation coefficients for corrected LIBS data. Once the model validity is proven for different elements used in the plasma temperature determination, which is possible once known all the parameters of Boltzmann equation for experimental intensity spectral line, it is quite general and can be applied on all the samples and for all the elements. [Italian] Il LIBS (Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) e' una tecnica spettroscopica sperimentale che trova applicazione nell'analisi di campioni di interesse ambientale, quali suoli e rocce, ed industriali, come leghe metalliche. In questo rapporto sono presentati i risultati dell'applicazione della tecnica a campioni eterogenei di suoli certificati dal Joint Research Centre di Ispra (Varese) per la valutazione delle concentrazioni di metalli pesanti di interesse agronomico (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Nella tecnica LIBS, un impulso laser d'alta potenza e' focalizzato sul campione in modo da provocare sulla superficie dello stesso un piccolo volume di plasma. Le emissioni delle singole specie atomiche sono raccolte da fibra ottica e analizzate da un monocromatore e da un analizzatore ottico (iCCD). Il riconoscimento e l'assegnazione delle emissioni spettrali corrispondenti ai singoli elementi atomici permette di riconoscere la

  16. Avances de la fruticultura en México

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Villegas Monter; Antonio Mora Aguilera

    2011-01-01

    Las estadísticas oficiales informaron que en 2008 se cultivaron 264 944 ha con valor de la producción de $ 14 741 millones de pesos, en 20 frutales de clima templado; mientras que, en 35 tropicales y subtropicales fue de 1 822748 ha con valor de $ 43 463 millones de pesos. De los 55 frutales, sólo naranjo (Citrus sinensis), mango (Mangifera indica), Aguacate (Persea americana), limón mexicano (C. aurantifolia), banano (Musa acuminata), lima persa (C. latifolia) y manzano (Malus domestica) se ...

  17. Evaluación de extractos y fracciones de plantas colombianas en modelos de inflamación aguda, subcrónica y crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, María Cristina; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Calle, Jairo; Rincon, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad antiinflamatoria de extractos y fracciones de Acnistus arborescens, Baccharis latifolia, Myrcianthes leucoxila, Physalis peruviana y Salvia rubescens en los modelos in vivo de inflamación edema tópico en oreja de ratón, edema plantar por carragenina en rata y bolsa de aire en ratón, con profundización en modelo de artritis por adyuvante en rata. Inicialmente se realizó el screening de un total de 34 fracciones en el modelo de edema auricular en ratón, de los cuales se s...

  18. Crescimento de plantas jovens de limeira ácida 'Tahiti' sob lâminas de irrigação Growth of young 'Tahiti' acid lime trees under irrigation levels

    OpenAIRE

    José Alves Júnior; Cláudio R. da Silva; Rafael V. Ribeiro; Tonny J. A. da Silva; Marcos V. Folegatti

    2005-01-01

    Este estudo avaliou o efeito de lâminas de irrigação no crescimento vegetativo de limeira ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tan) sob condições de campo. Os tratamentos consistiram de irrigações por gotejamento baseadas em 100% (T3) e 50% (T2) da evapotranspiração da cultura medida em lisímetro de pesagem e o tratamento sem irrigação (T1). O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições. Mediram-se o diâmetro do caule e a altura das plantas mensalmente, ao passo que...

  19. The application of δ18O and δD for understanding water pools and fluxes in a Typha marsh

    OpenAIRE

    Bijoor, NS; Pataki, DE; Rocha, AV; Goulden, ML

    2011-01-01

    The δ18O and δD composition of water pools (leaf, root, standing water and soil water) and fluxes [transpiration (T), evaporation (E)] were used to understand ecohydrological processes in a managed Typha latifolia L. freshwater marsh. We observed isotopic steady-state T and deep rooting in Typha. The isotopic mass balance of marsh standing water showed that E accounted for 3% of the total water loss, T accounted for 17% and subsurface drainage (D) accounted for the majority (80%). There was a...

  20. ECOLOGICAL STATUS, DIVERSITY RESOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LITTLE KNOWN GENUS TAINIA BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE IN ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, Raju Das² and Rajendra Yonzone³

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the Orchid flora of Assam, four species of terrestrial Orchid Tainia recorded viz., T. angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana in an intensive field survey during 1996-2010. The present paper deals Tainia species diversity and distribution in Assam of North East India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with present ecological status, date of collection, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of Tainia species in the regions.

  1. Diversidad de la fauna de artropodos terrestres en el humedal jaboque, bogotá-colombia

    OpenAIRE

    SÁNCHEZ-N., DAVID; AMAT-GARCÍA, GERMÁN D.

    2012-01-01

    En el Humedal Jaboque, ubicado dentro del perímetro urbano de la ciudad de Bogotá, se estudió la composición taxonómica y trófica, la riqueza y la diversidad de la fauna de artrópodos terrestres asociada a cinco comunidades de vegetación cuyas especies dominantes eran: Juncus effusus, Juncus effusus y Polygonum punctatum; Schoenoplectus californicus, Typha latifolia y Bidens laevis. Se colectaron 8944 individuos que representan una biomasa seca de 9757.8 mg., correspondientes a 212 morfoespec...

  2. Caracterización de la artropofauna terrestre del humedal jaboque (bogotá, colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Amat García Germán; Sánchez Núñez David Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    En el humedal Jaboque, se estudió la diversidad y la estructura trófica de la artropofauna asociada a las comunidades de vegetación Juncus effusus, Juncus effusus-Polygonum punctatum, Schoenoplectus californicus y Typha latifolia. La composición y riqueza asociada a la comunidad Bidens laevis y la composición de los insectos antófilos relacionados a algunas plantas. Se identificaron en total 212 morfoespecies, distribuidas en 48 familias y siete órdenes. A lo largo del estudio se colectaron 8...

  3. DIAGNÓSTICO NUTRIMENTAL Y VALIDACIÓN DE DOSIS DE FERTILIZACIÓN PARA LIMÓN PERSA

    OpenAIRE

    R. Maldonado T.; G. Almaguer V.; M. E. \\u00C1lvarez S.; E. Robledo S.

    2008-01-01

    El bajo rendimiento promedio de 7 Mg ha-1 que obtienen aproximadamente el 70% de los productores de limón Persa (Citrus latifolia Tan.), en la región norte de Veracruz, México, en comparación con el obtenido en Florida, EE. UU., de 21 Mg ha-1, es atribuido principalmente al manejo inadecuado de la fertilización de las plantaciones. Para contribuir a solucionar este problema, en un huerto localizado en el ejido Chavarrillo, municipio de Emiliano Zapata, Veracruz, se estudiaron cuatro tratamien...

  4. Potencial del banco de semillas en la regeneración de la vegetación del humedal jaboque, bogotá, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    MONTENEGRO-S., ALBA L.; ÁVILA PARRA, YUDY A.; MENDIVELSO-CH., HOOZ A.; Vargas, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Se estudió el banco de semillas germinable (BS) en seis parches de vegetación en lazona conservada del humedal Jaboque: 1) Rumex conglomeratus - Polygonum sp. 2)Juncus effusus - Polygonum sp. 3) Typha latifolia 4) Juncus effusus 5) Pennisetumclandestinum - Polygonum sp. 6) Pennisetum clandestinum – Holcus lanatus. En cadaparche se evaluó la composición, la densidad de las especies presentes en el BS) el tipode BS que poseen algunas de las especies nativas del humedal) la similitud entre lacom...

  5. Germinación en el laboratorio de varias especies arbustivas mediterráneas : efecto de la temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, Raimon; Lloret Maya, Francisco

    1995-01-01

    Después de la aplicación de los tratamientos de temperatura (control, 75°C 1 hora y 120°C 5 minutos), la germinación en el laboratorio de las semillas de las especies estudiadas ha sido diferente en cada una de ellas. Los tratamientos de temperatura han producido una estimulación significativa de la germinación sólo en Phyllirea latifolia, un arbusto rebrotador, y en Cistus salviifolius, una especie tipicamente germinadora y más raramente rebrotadora. En esta última especie, sin embargo, el t...

  6. A multi-source portable light emitting diode spectrofluorometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Safwan; Bai, Baolong; Rayson, Gary D; Anderson, Dean M; Puscheck, Adam D; Landau, Serge Y; Glasser, Tzach

    2008-03-01

    A portable luminescence spectrofluorometer weighing only 1.5 kg that uses multiple light emitting diodes (LEDs) as excitation sources was developed and evaluated. Excitation using a sequence of seven individual broad-band LED emission sources enabled the generation of excitation-emission spectra using a light weight (pistache or Mastic) and Philyria latifolia, and the herbaceous species Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium spp. (clover), and a feed concentrate. Application of multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) to the resulting three-dimensional data sets enabled discernment among these various diet constituents. PMID:18339242

  7. An integrated approach shows different use of water resources from Mediterranean maquis species in a coastal dune ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Mereu, S; Salvatori, E.; L. Fusaro; G. Gerosa; Muys, B.; Manes, F

    2009-01-01

    An integrated approach has been used to analyse the dependence of three Mediterranean species, A. unedo L., Q. ilex L., and P. latifolia L. co-occurring in a coastal dune ecosystem on two different water resources: groundwater and rainfed upper soil layers. The approach included leaf level gas exchanges, sap flow measurements and structural adaptations between 15 May and 31 July 2007. During this period it was possible to capture differ...

  8. As espécies de Coccoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) da Amazônia brasileira The Species of Cocoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) from brasilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Efigênia de Melo

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. para...

  9. Eficiência do triclopyr no controle de plantas daninhas em gramado (Paspalum notatum) Triclopyr efficiency in controlling weeds in the lawn (Paspalum notatum)

    OpenAIRE

    F.C.L. Freitas; L. R. Ferreira; Silva, A. A.; J.G. Barbosa; G.V. Miranda; A.F.L. Machado

    2003-01-01

    As plantas daninhas interferem nos gramados, prejudicando a sua formação, qualidade e estética. O carrapicho-beiço-de-boi (Desmodium incanum) e a zórnia (Zornia latifolia), quando não controlados, podem atingir níveis de infestação que chegam a dizimar o gramado. Dentre as diversas técnicas de manejo de plantas daninhas em gramados, destaca-se o emprego de herbicidas; todavia, as informações sobre a utilização desses produtos em gramados são escassas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a e...

  10. Removal of personal care compounds from sewage sludge in reed bed container (lysimeter) studies - Effects of macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauly, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan; Bester, Kai

    2009-01-01

    as on the bactericide Triclosan. Additionally, the capacity of different macrophytes species to affect the treatment process was examined. Three different macrophyte species were compared: bulrush (Typha latifolia), reed (Phragmites australis) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea). They were...... planted into containers (lysimeters) with a size of 1 m × 1 m × 1 m which were filled with 20 cm gravel at the bottom and 50 cm sludge on top, into which the macrophytes were planted. During the twelve months experiment reduction of 20-30% for HHCB and AHTN, 70% for Triclosan and 70% for OTNE were...

  11. Intermittent warming of 'Tahiti' lime to prevent chilling injury during cold storage Aquecimento intermitente de lima 'Tahiti' para previnir injúrias pelo frio durante o armazenamento refrigerado

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Alfredo Kluge; Maria Luiza Lye Jomori; Angelo Pedro Jacomino; Maria Carolina Dario Vitti; Daniela Cristina Clemente Vitti

    2003-01-01

    Storage of 'Tahiti' limes (Citrus latifolia) at low temperature allows the marketing period to be extended. However, the loss of the green skin color and the occurrence of chilling injury (CI) prevent this extension. The purpose of this work was to verify the efficiency of intermittent warming (IW) in 'Tahiti' lime quality maintenance during cold storage. Fruit were submitted to IW (20ºC for 48 hours every 7 or 14 days or 38ºC for 24 hours every 14 days) during cold storage at 5ºC. Fruit were...

  12. Targetingβ-secretase with RNAi in neural stem cells for Alzheimer’s disease therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonghua Liu; Shengliang Li; Zibin Liang; Yan Zhao; Yulin Zhang; Yaqi Yang; Minjuan Wang; Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    There are several major pathological changes in Alzheimer’s disease, including apoptosis of cho-linergic neurons, overactivity or overexpression ofβ-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and inflammation. In this study, we synthesized a 19-nt oligonucleotide targeting BACE1, the key enzyme in amyloid beta protein (Aβ) production, and introduced it into the pSilenCircle vector to construct a short hairpin (shRNA) expression plasmid against the BACE1 gene. We transfected this vector into C17.2 neural stem cells and primary neural stem cells, resulting in downregulation of the BACE1 gene, which in turn induced a considerable reduction in reducing Aβprotein production. We anticipate that this technique combining celltransplantation and gene ther-apy wil open up novel therapeutic avenues for Alzheimer’s disease, particularly because it can be used to simultaneously target several pathogenetic changes in the disease.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01592-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 42 0.024 AK147979_1( AK147979 |pid:none) Mus musculus melanocyte cDNA, RIKE...... 37 0.77 EU521732_1( EU521732 |pid:none) Silene noctiflora putative calcium... 37 0.77 AJ631226_1( AJ631226 |pid:no...K228675_1( AK228675 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo... 39 0.20 (Q6NUK1) RecName: Full=Calcium-binding mitoc...le small inte... 36 2.2 CP001160_195( CP001160 |pid:none) Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP133... 35 2.9 Z28189_1( Z28189 |pid:no...ut multi-tissues library (tcce)... 48 0.63 1 ( CP001291 ) Cyanothece sp. PCC 7424, complete genome. 48 0.63

  14. The structural flexibility of the preferredoxin transit peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienk, H L; Czisch, M; de Kruijff, B

    1999-06-25

    In order to obtain insight into the structural flexibility of chloroplast targeting sequences, the Silene pratensis preferredoxin transit peptide was studied by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In water, the peptide is unstructured, with a minor propensity towards helix formation from Val-9 to Ser-12 and from Gly-30 to Ser-40. In 50% (v/v) trifluoroethanol, structurally independent N- and C-terminal helices are stabilized. The N-terminal helix appears to be amphipathic, with hydrophobic and hydroxylated amino acids on opposite sides. The C-terminal helix comprises amino acids Met-29-Gly-50 and is destabilized at Gly-39. No ordered tertiary structure was observed. The results are discussed in terms of protein import into chloroplasts, in which the possible interactions between the transit peptide and lipids are emphasized. PMID:10405168

  15. Sementes nocivas que ocorreram em amostras de sementes de azevém (Lolium multiflorum, analisadas no Rio Grande do Sul nos anos de 1978 e 1979 Weed seeds in ryegrass seeds, analysed in Rio Grande do Sul, during 1978 and 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Giaretta

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram levantadas informações sobre a qualidade da semente de azevém utilizadas no Rio Grande do Sul e produzida no próprio Estado ou em outras uni dades da Federação e mesmo em outros Países, nos anos de 1978 e 1979. Estas informações foram obtidas através de fichas e Boletins de Análise de Sementes dos Laboratórios de Análise de Sementes (LAS do Rio Grande do Sul. Em 1978 analisou-se 2.319 t de azevém sendo 74% da semente oriunda do Rio Grande do Sul e 26% introduzida, enquanto que das 4.772 t analisadas em 1979 99,6% são do Rio Grande do Sul e 0,4% são introduzidas. O percentual de sementes de azevém, produzidas no Estado, contaminadas com sementes nocivas foi de 61,5% em 1978 e de 60,0% em 1979; e o de sementes int roduzidas no Estado foi de 45,6% em 1978 e de 29,4%em 1979. Foi observado que ent re as sementes originárias do RS destacaram -se com maior ocorrênci a em 1978 as espécies nocivas de Silene gallica, Setaria geniculata, Anthemis cotula, Digitaria adscendens e Echinochloa spp, enquanto que nas sementes int roduzidas desta caram-se Sida spp e Rumex spp; em 1979, na semente oriunda do Estado desta caram-se Amaranthus spp, Silene gallica e Setaria geniculata, enquanto que nas sementes introduzidas a maior ocorrência foi de Setaria geniculata, Echinochloa spp e Solanum spp.This paper presents a quality record of rye-grass seeds produced in Rio Grande do Sul or imported from other countries. It refers to the presence of weeds in ryegrass during 1978 and 1979. These record were obtained in the Analysis Bulletins at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Agronômicas (IPAGRO Rio Grande do Sul°Brasil and in those from other institutions. This State produced 74% of 2.319 t analysed seeds and 26% come from other places in 1978. In 1979 4.772 t were registred, 99,6% from here and 0,4% from outside. The percentage of ryegrass seeds contaminated with weed seeds produced in the State, in 1978, were 61

  16. THE FLORA OF HEKIMDAG (BOZDAG, ESKISEHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ARDIÇ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the flora of Eskişehir Hekimdağ (Bozdağ were investigated. According to Davis's grid system, the research area lies in B3 square. The plant samples collected in this region and determined that there are 59 families, as well as 467 species and subspecies taxa belonging to 219 genera. The phytogeographical distribution is as follows: 49 Mediterranean, 31 Euro-Siberian, 19 Irano-Turanian, 6 Euxin and 362 unknown or other-regional elements. The largest families are Asteraceae (50, Fabaceae (38, Lamiaceae (24, Poaceae (21 and Liliaceae (18 in terms of the number of species and subspecies included. Genera represented by the highest number of species are Centaurea (7, Alyssum (6, Silene, Astragalus, Trifolium, Lathyrus ve Campanula (5 . The number of endemic taxa within the study area is 41 (10.86%. 13 taxa are new records for the B3 square.

  17. Irradiated fuel behavior under accident heating conditions and correlation with fission gas release and swelling model (Chicago)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyse the mixed oxide fast fuel response to off normal conditions obtained by means of an out-of-pile transient simulation apparatus designed to provide direct observations (temperature, pressure, fuel motion) of fuel fission gas phenomena that might occur during the transients. The results are concerning fast transient tests (0,1 to 1 second) obtained with high gas concentration irradiated fuel (4 to 7 at % burn up, 0,4 cm3Xe + Kr /g.UPuO2). The kinetics of fission gas release during the transients have been directly measured and then compared with the calculated results issued of the Chicago model. This model agrees, quite well, with other experiments done in the silene prompt reactor. Other gases than xenon and krypton (such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide) do not play any role in fuel behavior, since they have been completely ruled out

  18. AcEST: DK951008 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |B6RRE9|B6RRE9_9CARY PSI reaction centre subunit IX OS=Heliosperma alpestre...|B0LNP3|B0LNP3_SILCO PSI reaction centre subunit IX OS=Silene ... 62 3e-08 >tr|B7ZI94|B7ZI94_GNEPA Photosyst...action center subunit IX OS=Physcomitrella patens GN=psaJ PE=3 SV=1 Length = 41 Score...ter subunit IX OS=Staurastrum punctulatum GN=psaJ PE=3 SV=1 Length = 42 Score = 68.6 bits (166), Expect = 3e-11 Identities...|Q06QT7|Q06QT7_9LAMI PSI reaction center subunit IX OS=Menodor... 62 3e-08 tr|B7T2Y3|B7T2Y3_EROTE Photosyst

  19. AcEST: DK949087 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |B6RRE9|B6RRE9_9CARY PSI reaction centre subunit IX OS=Heliosperma alpestre GN=psaJ PE=4 SV=1 Length = 46 Score...IEINR Sbjct: 1 MQDVKTYLSTAPVLATLWFGFLAGLLIEINR 31 >sp|Q6YXM2|PSAJ_PHYPA Photosystem I reaction center subunit IX OS=Physcomitrel...+LAGLLIEINR Sbjct: 1 MQDVKTYLSTAPVLAAIWFGILAGLLIEINR 31 TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL tr...: TST38A01NGRL0005_A21, 5' (674 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,6...|B0LP54|B0LP54_9CARY PSI reaction centre subunit IX OS=Silene ... 50 2e-04 tr|B0LP33|B0LP33_9CARY PSI reaction centre

  20. AcEST: DK948126 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TLWFGSLAGLLIEINRLF 33 >tr|B6RRE9|B6RRE9_9CARY PSI reaction centre subunit IX OS=Heliosperma alpestre...MQDVKTYLSTAPVLATLWFGFLAGLLIEINRFF 33 >sp|Q6YXM2|PSAJ_PHYPA Photosystem I reaction center subunit IX OS=Physcomitrella paten...ris mRNA, clone: TST38A01NGRL0002_H21, 5' (585 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences...VK YLSTAPV+A IWF +LAGLLIEINRFF Sbjct: 1 MQYVKTYLSTAPVLAAIWFAILAGLLIEINRFF 33 TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL tr...|B0LP54|B0LP54_9CARY PSI reaction centre subunit IX OS=Silene ... 54 5e-06 tr

  1. AcEST: DK945807 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iosperma alpestre GN=psaJ PE=4 SV=1 Length = 46 Score = 50.8 bits (120), Expect = 6e-05 Identities...02. Query= DK945807|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU02A01NGRL0010_I04, 5' (597 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fast...|B0LP33|B0LP33_9CARY PSI reaction centre subunit IX OS=Silene ... 50 1e-04 >tr|B7ZI94|B7ZI94_GNEPA Photosyst...em I reaction center subunit IX OS=Physcomitrella patens GN=psaJ PE=3 SV=1 Length = 41 Score...|B6RRE9|B6RRE9_9CARY PSI reaction centre subunit IX OS=Heliosp... 51 6e-05 tr|Q69VC7|Q69VC7_ORYSJ Photosyst

  2. AcEST: DK949439 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ris mRNA, clone: TST38A01NGRL0005_P22, 5' (703 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences...action centre subunit IX OS=Silene ... 50 2e-04 >tr|B7ZI94|B7ZI94_GNEPA Photosyst...ter subunit IX OS=Physcomitrella patens GN=psaJ PE=3 SV=1 Length = 41 Score...ter subunit IX OS=Staurastrum punctulatum GN=psaJ PE=3 SV=1 Length = 42 Score = 55.5 bits (132), Expect = 3e-07 Identities...TACGAAGTGAGAACTCTAT ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-P

  3. Noves contribucions al coneixement de la flora vascular de les Illes Balears

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez, Llorenç; Gil, Llorenç; Cardona, Carles; Alomar, Guillem; González, Joan Miquel; Bibiloni, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    S’aporten dades per a un total de 76 tàxons. Rosa blondeana Ripart ex Désegl., Silene fuscata Link ex Brot., Medicago coronata (L.) Bartal., Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees, i Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., són novetats per a la flora de les Illes Balears (les dues darreres espècies com a elements al·lòctons). D’altra banda s’aporten diverses novetats de l’àmbit insular. Com a resultat de la revisió de material d’herbari s’exclou Phleum subulatum (Savi) Asch. & Graebn. del catàleg florístic bal...

  4. Improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium by genetically modified tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Physiological and biochemical response of the transformants to cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.)-non-transformed and transformed with a metallothionein gene MThis from Silene vulgaris L. - to increase cadmium supply in the nutrient solution was compared. The transgenic plants accumulated significantly more Cd both in the roots and the leaves. Visual toxicity symptoms and disturbance in water balance were correlated with Cd tissue content. Treatment with 300 μM CdCl2 resulted in inhibition of photosynthesis and mobilization of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Treatment with 500 μM CdCl2 led to irreversible damage of photosynthesis and oxidative stress. An appearance of a new peroxidase isoform and changes in the leaf polypeptide pattern were observed at the highest Cd concentration. The level of non-protein thiols gradually increased following the Cd treatment both in transgenic and non-transformed plants. - Genetic transformation of Nicotiana tabacum L. by metallothionein gene improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium

  5. Search for latitudinal trends in the effective half-life of fallout sup(137)Cs in vegetation of the Canadian arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using published data on the integrated deposition of fallout sup(90)Sr(sup(137)Cs) until 1975 and current measurements of the sup(137)Cs activity in plant communities along the latitudinal gradient north of 50 degrees N, an estimate has been made of the sup(137)Cs effective half-life, Tsub(eff), in the composite vegetation of the Canadian arctic. The lichens Alectoria nigricans, Alectoria ochroleuca, Cladonia rangiferina, Cornicularia divergens, and Umbilicaria muhlenbergii were studied, as well as a moss, Polytrichum juniperinum, and the vascular cushion plants Dryas integrifolia, Saxifraga oppositifolia, and Silene acaulis. In all cases, the effective half-life increases with increasing latitude, the longest Tsub(eff)(10-12 years) being exhibited by dry-habitat lichens at 80 degrees N

  6. Improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium by genetically modified tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Physiological and biochemical response of the transformants to cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorinova, N. [AgroBioInstitute, 8 Dragan Tzankov Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: noraig60@yahoo.co.uk; Nedkovska, M. [AgroBioInstitute, 8 Dragan Tzankov Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Todorovska, E. [AgroBioInstitute, 8 Dragan Tzankov Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Simova-Stoilova, L. [Institute of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stoyanova, Z. [Institute of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, K. [Institute of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Demirevska-Kepova, K. [Institute of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Atanassov, A. [AgroBioInstitute, 8 Dragan Tzankov Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Herzig, R. [Phytotech-Foundation PT-F, Quartiergasse 12, CH 3013 Bern (Switzerland)

    2007-01-15

    The response of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.)-non-transformed and transformed with a metallothionein gene MThis from Silene vulgaris L. - to increase cadmium supply in the nutrient solution was compared. The transgenic plants accumulated significantly more Cd both in the roots and the leaves. Visual toxicity symptoms and disturbance in water balance were correlated with Cd tissue content. Treatment with 300 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} resulted in inhibition of photosynthesis and mobilization of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Treatment with 500 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} led to irreversible damage of photosynthesis and oxidative stress. An appearance of a new peroxidase isoform and changes in the leaf polypeptide pattern were observed at the highest Cd concentration. The level of non-protein thiols gradually increased following the Cd treatment both in transgenic and non-transformed plants. - Genetic transformation of Nicotiana tabacum L. by metallothionein gene improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium.

  7. Quick evaluation of the neutron dose following a criticality accident by measurement of sodium 24 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to quickly sort out the irradiated individuals following a criticality accident, the neutron dose can be evaluated quickly by measuring the sodium-24 activity induced in the human body. The report supplies the information necessary for this evaluation from the response of various detectors of current use in radiation protection. The first part describes the method of evaluation of sodium-24 activity (A) given by the reading (M) of each instrument. The second part describes the method of kerma evaluation from the measured sodium-24 activity. The third part is an experimental application of the method of kerma evaluation from the sodium-24 activity measured in a phantom irradiated in the SILENE reactor flux. The results given by radiation protection instruments are in good agreement with the calculated values for a front exposure and demonstrate the usefulness of measuring the induced sodium-24 activity by radiation protection instruments of current use

  8. Autorité et respect en éducation

    OpenAIRE

    Prairat, Eirick

    2005-01-01

    Il y a une dialectique du respect et de l’autorité au cœur du travail éducatif, c’est cette dialectique silen­cieuse qui permet l’avènement d’un alter ego. Le che­min de l’éducation part du respect pour aller jusqu’au respect ; plus précisément, il part du respect entendu comme simple auto-limitation de son agir pour aller jusqu’au Respect entendu, cette fois, comme souci de l’autre, « comme capacité à traiter autrui comme soi-même et soi-même comme autrui », selon la formule ricœurienne d’Ol...

  9. Paleobotanical analysis of materials from fossil gopher burrows and upper pleistocene host deposits, the Kolyma River lower reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, D. A.; Zanina, O. G.

    2006-10-01

    The comparative analysis of palynomorphs and plant megafossils (fruits, seeds, twigs, leaves) in the Upper Pleistocene host sediments and materials filling in fossil burrows of gophers, their coprolites included, at the Duvannyi Yar, Stanchikovskii Yar and Zelenyi Mys sites of the Kolyma Lowland is carried out. Genera Salix, Lychnis, Silene, Draba, Potentilla, Larix, and families Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Cyperaceae, Compositae, and Leguminosae are determined among palynological remains and megafossils. Factors responsible for qualitative and quantitative differences in taxonomic compositions of palynological and megafossil assemblages are biological peculiarities of plants, different character of fossilization of palynomorphs and large plant remains, geographic conditions, different genesis of assemblages (allochthonous for microfossils and autochthonous for megafossils), and inadequately known morphology of certain spore and pollen taxa. The comprehensive paleobotanical analysis leads to the conclusion that the study region was occupied in the Late Pleistocene by plant communities of humid to somewhat dryer tundra with separate areas of pioneering and steppe vegetation.

  10. An assessment of solid-wire film coatings for MAG welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid electrode-wires, intended for MAG welding, are made of common and low-alloy constructional steels and are usually coated with a thin copper film whose role is to ensure good electrical contact in the contact tube (the current terminal), a low level of resistance to feed in the spiral of the MAG welding clamp, and a temporary anticorrosion protection. The present paper contains results of the investigations into the properties of film coatings on G3Sil-EN 440 solid wires. The assessment of the wire properties was based on the criteria established in the course of the experimentation. This was necessary because the available standards for the welding wires do not uniquely specify requirements regarding factors such as, for instance, film thickness, its uniformity and surface roughness which influence the quality of the coating

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01623-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.010 21 ( AC116979 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 6445720... 38 0.042 16 ( AE014845 ) Plasmodi...5... 34 0.79 9 ( AC116989 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 4545040... 36 0.82 6 ( AC121245 ) Medicago truncatula...ii sporozoite cDNA Plasm... 44 2.1 2 ( AC115599 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 4229098....3 2 ( CF469194 ) P17D1 Plasmodium yoelli 17X axenic hepatic stages... 44 4.3 2 ( BJ334014 ) Dictyostelium discoide.... 36 5.3 11 ( CF469633 ) P24G04 Plasmodium yoelli 17X axenic hepatic stage... 44 5.4 2 ( EU308518 ) Silene atocioide

  12. Induction of flowering by 5-azacytidine in some plant species: relationship between the stability of photoperiodically induced flowering and flower-inducing effect of DNA demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hiroshi; Miura, Takashi; Wada, Kaede C; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2007-11-01

    The flower-inducing effect of 5-azacytidine, a DNA demethylating reagent, was examined in several plant species with a stable or unstable photoperiodically induced flowering state under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions. The long day plant Silene armeria, whose flowering state is stable and the short day plant Pharbitis nil, whose flowering state is unstable were induced to flower by 5-azacytidine under a non-inductive condition. Thus, the replacement of photoinduction by 5-azacytidine treatment is not specific to Perilla frutescens. On the other hand, 5-azacytidine did not induce flowering in Xanthium strumarium whose flowering state is stable and Lemna paucicostata whose flowering state is unstable. Thus, epigenetics caused by DNA demethylation may be involved in the regulation of photoperiodic flowering irrespective of the stability of the photoperiodically induced flowering state. PMID:18251884

  13. Fissile solution dynamics: Student research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.

  14. Valutazione dell'affidabilità degli operatori per l'identificazione microscopica di peli di mammiferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ciucci

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La quantificazione dei resti indigesti contenuti negli escrementi è tra le tecniche più frequentemente utilizzate per studiare la dieta del lupo, dove il riconoscimento delle specie preda, nel caso dei mammiferi, si basa su caratteristiche microscopiche distintive del pelo. Tale tecnica, è tuttavia soggetta ad errori individuali nonostante l'esperienza dell'operatore e il ricorso a testi o collezioni di riferimento. Congiuntamente ad una mancata standardizzazione delle procedure di preparazione e trattamento del campione, queste fonti di errore possono alterare significativamente i risultati. Nell'ambito di un progetto UE-Life sull'ecologia del Lupo, in tre Parchi Regionali dell'Emilia-Romagna (2001-2004, abbiamo quindi applicato una procedura standardizzata per la selezione, raccolta, preparazione e trattamento dei campioni fecali di lupo ai fini dell'analisi della dieta. A tal fine è stato organizzato un corso di formazione da parte di docenti qualificati per un totale di 150 ore, suddiviso in moduli e articolato in esercitazioni e prove pratiche di autovalutazione. Al corso, e dopo un ulteriore periodo di esercitazioni individuali (ca. 300 ore/operatore, è quindi seguito un esame di identificazione che ha permesso di quantificare l'affidabilità di ciascun operatore. Il test per l'identificazione a livello di specie è stato basato su un campione di 120 peli, la cui specie di origine era ignota ai candidati (blind test, suddivisi tra ungulati selvatici (n=54: Capriolo, Cervo, Daino, Muflone, Cinghiale, ungulati domestici (n=21: bovini, ovini, caprini, equini, canidi (n= 18: lupo, cane, volpe e altre specie (n=27: lepre, marmotta, tasso, martora, faina, puzzola, gatto, scoiattolo, talpa, muridi. Un sottocampione di 65 peli è stato utilizzato per valutare l'affidabilità nel riconoscimento delle classi d'età (< 5 mesi, ≥ 5 mesi per le sole categorie degli ungulati selvatici (n=54 e degli

  15. Assessing intraspecific variation in effective dispersal along an altitudinal gradient: a test in two Mediterranean high-mountain plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lara-Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant recruitment depends among other factors on environmental conditions and their variation at different spatial scales. Characterizing dispersal in contrasting environments may thus be necessary to understand natural intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment. Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa are two representative species of cryophilic pastures above the tree line in Mediterranean high mountains. No explicit estimations of dispersal kernels have been made so far for these or other high-mountain plants. Such data could help to predict their dispersal and recruitment patterns in a context of changing environments under ongoing global warming. METHODS: We used an inverse modelling approach to analyse effective seed dispersal patterns in five populations of both Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa along an altitudinal gradient in Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid, Spain. We considered four commonly employed two-dimensional seedling dispersal kernels exponential-power, 2Dt, WALD and log-normal. KEY RESULTS: No single kernel function provided the best fit across all populations, although estimated mean dispersal distances were short (<1 m in all cases. S. ciliata did not exhibit significant among-population variation in mean dispersal distance, whereas significant differences in mean dispersal distance were found in A. caespitosa. Both S. ciliata and A. caespitosa exhibited among-population variation in the fecundity parameter and lacked significant variation in kernel shape. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the complexity of intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment, showing that effective dispersal kernels can remain relatively invariant across populations within particular species, even if there are strong variations in demographic structure and/or physical environment among populations, while the invariant dispersal assumption may not hold for other species in the same environment

  16. Nectar sugar composition of European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) in relation to flower length, pollination biology and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, T; Jürgens, A; Gottsberger, G

    2013-10-01

    Floral nectar composition has been explained as an adaptation to factors that are either directly or indirectly related to pollinator attraction. However, it is often unclear whether the sugar composition is a direct adaptation to pollinator preferences. Firstly, the lower osmolality of sucrose solutions means that they evaporate more rapidly than hexose solutions, which might be one reason why sucrose-rich nectar is typically found in flowers with long tubes (adapted to long-tongued pollinators), where it is better protected from evaporation than in open or short-tubed flowers. Secondly, it can be assumed that temperature-dependent evaporation is generally lower during the night than during the day so that selection pressure to secrete nectar with high osmolality (i.e. hexose-rich solutions) is relaxed for night-active flowers pollinated at night. Thirdly, the breeding system may affect selection pressure on nectar traits; that is, for pollinator-independent, self-pollinated plants, a lower selective pressure on nectar traits can be assumed, leading to a higher variability of nectar sugar composition independent of pollinator preferences, nectar accessibility and nectar protection. To analyse the relations between flower tube length, day vs. night pollination and self-pollination, the nectar sugar composition was investigated in 78 European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) with different pollination modes (diurnal, nocturnal, self-pollination) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All Caryophylleae species (Dianthus and relatives) were found to have nectar with more than 50% sucrose, whereas the sugar composition of Sileneae species (Silene and relatives) ranged from 0% to 98.2%. In the genus Silene, a clear dichotomous distribution of sucrose- and hexose-dominant nectars is evident. We found a positive correlation between the flower tube length and sucrose content in Caryophylloideae, particularly in day-flowering species, using both conventional

  17. Valutazione del carico di stress nei Vigili del Fuoco: correlazione con il profilo psicologico ed alcuni indicatori biologici di rischio

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    P. Giacobazzi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivo: approfondire i rapporti tra carico lavorativo, personalità ed alcuni indicatori biochimici di risposta allo stress le cui modificazioni possono contribuire a spiegare la suscettibilità/resistenza al rischio di malattie.

     Materiali e metodi: l’indagine è stata effettuata su un gruppo di Vigili del Fuoco (n°61 confrontati con un gruppo di controllo (ricercatori universitari; entrambi hanno aderito tramite consenso informato e fornito un campione di saliva per la misura del cortisolo e delle IgA in condizioni di base. Un sottogruppo di vigili ha fornito anche un campione di saliva dopo un turno lavorativo notturno (condizione di stress. Parallelamente si è effettuato un assessment psicologico tramite la somministrazione di questionari quali: lo State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, il Big Five Observer, il Locus of Control ed il Sensation Seeking Scale. Risultati: in condizioni basali i Vigili del Fuoco mostrano un livello di cortisolo salivare più elevato dei controlli (24,9 ± 11,3 vs 20,0 ± 8,6 nmol/l, p=0,091, mentre il livello di IgA è simile nei due gruppi. Nei vigili, dopo lo stress lavorativo, si è evidenziato un calo significativo delle IgA (296,5 ± 160,5 vs 191,9 ± 95,3 Bg/ml, p=0,014 ed una correlazione positiva tra il cortisolo salivare e l’ansietà di stato e di tratto.

    Conclusioni: i Vigili del Fuoco sono risultati meno ansiosi, più predisposti al rischio e con un profilo di personalità di tipo realistico in linea con la scelta professionale. Lo stress lavorativo si associa ad una riduzione significativa dell’ escrezione salivare di IgA, assunta come indice di attività del sistema immunitario, mentre il cortisolo salivare, che rappresenta un indicatore sensibile di attività neuroendocrina sotto stress, pur non modificandosi in termini assoluti si associa con il livello di ansietà dei vigili allo studio.

  18. Modelli organizzativi per la gestione della Day surgery in ambito pediatrico (DSP

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    T. Langiano

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: nell’ambito delle iniziative avviate negli ultimi anni a livello nazionale e regionale volte al recupero di appropriatezza nell’erogazione di prestazioni sanitarie mediante la deospedalizzazione dei pazienti, si inserisce l’indicazione del PO Materno-infantile 1998-2000, tra gli obiettivi relativi alla assistenza al bambino in ospedale, “all’applicazione di protocolli mirati a ridurre i ricoveri impropri attraverso l’implementazione del DH…”. Al fine di valutare la situazione attualmente esistente in tema di DSP e di promuovere una omogeneizzazione, mediante la definizione e la sperimentazione di un protocollo operativo specifico, il Ministero della Salute ha affidato all’OPBG il coordinamento del Progetto “Sviluppo dei criteri e modelli di riferimento per la diffusione della day surgery in campo pediatrico”. Nell’ambito del Progetto è stato effettuato un censimento dei modelli di DSP esistenti sul territorio nazionale.

    Metodologia: è stato individuato un campione di 108 ospedali che, nel 2000, hanno dimesso almeno 500 pazienti di età inferiore a 18 anni attribuiti a DRG chirurgici e che rendono conto del 52,2% dell’attività svolta in chirurgia pediatrica sul territorio nazionale. La scheda di rilevazione predisposta conteneva domande finalizzate a individuare le principali soluzioni organizzative adottate per l’erogazione di ricoveri in DSP e a delineare la casistica trattata.

    Risultati: alla rilevazione (settembre 2002-gennaio 2003 hanno partecipato 88 ospedali (81,5% del campione, di cui 49 effettuano prestazioni in DSP. I risultati indicano una discreta variabilità dei modelli organizzativi della DSP e una elevata concentrazione della casistica trattata: i 10 DRG più frequentemente trattati spiegano oltre l’80% dei casi di DSP.

    Conclusioni: i risultati ottenuti dimostrano come in Italia esistano ancora ampi

  19. Die anderen Ausdrucksweisen: subtile Offensiven Different Modes of Expression: Subtle Offensives

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    Ella Jasiowka

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Was passiert, wenn der „Herrscher des filmischen Blickes“ eine Frau ist? Anhand zweier jeweils sehr unterschiedlicher Beispiele „weiblicher“ Filmkunst zeigt die Autorin, dass es nötig ist, herkömmliche Interpretationsmuster zu überwinden, um dem Filmschaffen einzelner Künstler und Künstlerinnen auf den Grund zu gehen. Da es nicht die „feministische Kunst“ an sich gibt, muß man für das Werk so unterschiedlicher Künstlerinnen wie Sally Potter und Jane Campion jeweils unterschiedliche Schlüssel suchen, um ihnen gerecht zu werden. Dies tut Radkiewicz in ihrem Werk – aus feministischer Perspektive. Sie holt jeweils verschieden weit aus, wenn es darum geht, künstlerische Herkunft, Biographie, Vorbilder und Ziele der Künstlerinnen zu deren Werk in Bezug zu setzten. Ohne zu bahnbrechend neuen Erkenntnissen zu kommen, gelingt es ihr doch, ein komplexes Bild der von ihr behandelten Filmemacherinnen und den Filmen zu entwerfen, das einen umfassenden Gesamteindruck vermittelt. Die Kürze des Buches bringt dabei eine Konzentration mit sich, die zu einer Weiterbeschäftigung und Vertiefung einlädt.What happens if the filmmaker directing the audience’s gaze is a woman? Radkiewicz uses two very different examples of “female” film art to portray the two directions into which this kind of undertaking can lead. In so doing, she demonstrates that traditional methods of analysis no longer suffice to thoroughly examine the work of an artist. Since there is no neatly defined category of “feminist art,” one has to take into consideration different kinds of approaches in order to do justice to the work of film directors like Jane Campion and Sally Potter. Radkiewicz does exactly that in her work, and thus provides an analysis that is informed by a feminist perspective. She includes the filmmakers’ artistic trajectory, background, biography, and goals into her interpretation of Campion’s and Potter’s films. While Radkiewicz does

  20. Informa(ction: How to do things with medicine information leaflets

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    Anna Vita Bianco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – This paper analyses how Patient Information Leaflets (PILs of over-the-counter medical products convey information. More precisely, the article focuses on “instructions” on how to use medicines and related “instructional information” (Trimble 1985. The latter is used in PILs to explain why consumers should follow the instructions. The aim is to show, then, how and whether the PILs sampled help consumers to translate effectively the information contained into actions. The first part of the article examines the deontic devices employed in 8 English and Italian PILs of the most common over-the-counter medicines for human consumption used to relieve the same symptoms. The second part, instead, analyses whether and how the eight leaflets sampled followed the ‘instructions’ contained in one of the authoritative works by Sless and Shrensky in this field (2006. Both Australian authors, indeed, provide useful advice on how to write directives and related explanations in PILs.Riassunto – Questo lavoro si propone di analizzare come i foglietti illustrativi dei medicinali da banco veicolano le informazioni. Nel caso specifico, l’attenzione è rivolta alle “istruzioni” per l’uso (dei medicinali e alle “informazioni sulle istruzioni” (Trimble 1985. Quest’ultime vengono utilizzate nei foglietti illustrativi per spiegare ai consumatori perché seguire specifiche istruzioni. L’intento è quello di mostrare, quindi, come e se i foglietti illustrativi dei medicinali presi a campione aiutino i consumatori a tradurre in modo efficace le informazioni in azioni. La prima parte dell’articolo è incentrata sulle strategie deontiche utilizzate in 8 foglietti illustrativi di medicinali da banco inglesi e italiani per uso umano, usati comunemente per curare la stessa tipologia di sintomi. La seconda parte, invece, analizza se e come gli otto foglietti illustrativi presi a campione hanno seguito, a loro volta, le

  1. Il disagio degli insegnanti tra psicologia e pedagogia: una indagine multidimensionale sul fenomeno del burnout

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    Francesca Botticelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A partire da un minuzioso esame della letteratura internazionale sui diversi versanti che costituiscono gli elementi chiave di questa ricerca (stress lavoro-correlato, burnout, formazione insegnanti il lavoro vuole analizzare il fenomeno del burnout degli insegnanti come fenomeno multi dimensionale. Si raggiunge questo obiettivo a partire dalla concezione del burnout come risultato di stress lavoro-correlato che si muove su dimensioni plurime, aventi carattere sia soggettivo che organizzativo. Per l‘apprezzamento delle prime sono stati utilizzati il Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach e Jackson 1986; validazione italiana Sirigatti e Stefanile, 1993; sul versante della salute organizzativa il Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire (MOHQ; Avallone e Paplomatas 2005; sul versante dei principali sintomi lamentati dal campione di ricerca la Sympton Check List (SCL-90; Derogatis, 1977 e infine sulla percezione di sé Adjective Check List (ACL; Gough 1949; valid. It. Gough, Heilbrun, e Fioravanti, 1980 nella modalità di Sé reale . Il campione era costituito da 52 docenti di cui 28 maschi (53,8% e 24 femmine (46,2%. 50 anni l‘età media dei soggetti interpellati. L‘analisi dei risultati mostra la necessità di soluzioni al problema secondo più dimensioni e anche di una lettura pedagogica del fenomeno nel suo intrecciarsi con le dinamiche alla base della socialità contemporanea. Tale lettura e le soluzioni proposte si inscrivono infatti nel contesto ampio delle trasformazioni che investono a livello globale il mondo dell‘istruzione e la società nel suo complesso, generando un disagio che si coagula intorno alla perdita di senso del proprio essere nel mondo, quindi anche sul senso delle attività lavorative e dell‘educazione. Il contributo pedagogico è orientato quindi alla ricerca di senso da un lato, e al contrasto a livello istituzionale di pratiche volte a fare dell‘educazione un mercato e del suo assessment uno

  2. Identificazione di due polimorfismi mitocondriali utili alla discriminazione tra Martes martes e Martes foina

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    Licia Colli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La famiglia Mustelidae è presente sul territorio italiano con 7 specie autoctone (Meles meles, Mustela erminea, M. nivalis, M. putorius, Lutra lutra, Martes foina, M. martes ed una naturalizzata (Mustela vison. In tassonomia, variazioni morfologiche e morfometriche, spesso a carattere "locale", possono invalidare i tradizionali metodi di diagnosi utilizzati nell'attribuzione specifica. Inoltre criteri di discriminazione legati a caratteristiche corporee macroscopiche non sono applicabili nel caso in cui si disponga unicamente di resti quali peli, depositi fecali, tracce ematiche ecc. Nell'ambito dei mustelidi sono noti fenomeni di sovrapposizione dei caratteri diagnostici che rendono problematica l'identificazione delle specie, come nel caso di M. martes e M. foina. Negli ultimi anni l'identificazione di polimorfismi genetico-molecolari a scopo tassonomico ha permesso di dirimere numerosi casi incerti. In questo lavoro sono presentati i dati preliminari di uno studio volto ad identificare polimorfismi discriminanti le due specie di mustelidi considerate. L'analisi è stata condotta con enzimi di restrizione applicati ad una regione del genoma mitocondriale. Parte della sequenza del gene citocromo b (cyt b è stata amplificata con PCR e primers universali, ottenendo un frammento di circa 360 bp. Gli enzimi di restrizione impiegati nell'analisi sono stati scelti in accordo con profili di digestione teorici, ricavati con un apposito software a partire da sequenze di cyt b di M. martes e M. foina presenti in banche dati. A seguito della digestione sequenziale con gli enzimi Hae III e Bgl I, il profilo elettroforetico generato mostra la presenza di una banda di circa 180 bp negli individui appartenenti alla specie M. martes e di due bande distinte di circa 130 e 230 bp negli esemplari di M. foina. Il campione da noi

  3. Evidence-based Medicine e Clinical Governance: una survey tra giovani chirurghi italiani

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    Gabriele Maritati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. La Clinical Governance (CG rappresenta in Italia la strategia di politica sanitaria di riferimento per la promozione di elevati standard qualitativi all’interno del SSN. Al centro della CG si colloca il movimento culturale dell’Evidence-based Medicine (EBM. Obiettivi. Misurare all’interno di un campione di giovani chirurghi: 1 la conoscenza dell’EBM e della CG 2 la rilevanza riconosciuta ai temi dell’EBM e della CG nella propria prospettiva professionale. Metodi. Un questionario anonimo è stato inviato via e-mail ai chirurghi iscritti alla Società Polispecialistica Italiana Giovani Chirurghi (SPIGC e a professionisti segnalati da altri colleghi. I chirurghi eleggibili dovevano essere specializzati da non oltre 4 anni o iscritti all’ultimo anno della Scuola di Specializzazione. Risultati. Sono stati invitati a partecipare 1077 chirurghi (1020 iscritti alla SPIGC e 57 segnalati. Dei 254 rispondenti (24% 137 erano eleggibili. Di questi, il 96% ha riferito di conoscere il termine Evidence-based Medicine e il 54 % quello di Clinical Governance. Il 62% ha dichiarato di conoscere la definizione dell’EBM e solo il 18% quello della CG. Per il 90% di essi, l’EBM condizionerà in maniera significativa la propria attività nei prossimi 15 anni; tale percentuale si riduce al 72% in merito alla CG. Inoltre, il 41% ritiene di non essere in grado di valutare critica mente la letteratura scientifica. Limiti. Il tasso di risposta alla survey potrebbe essere considerevolmente sottostimato poiché la mailing list della SPIGC comprende 1020 indirizzi non aggiornati in funzione dei soci correntemente iscritti che sono attualmente 435. Inoltre, i chirurghi partecipanti alla survey potrebbero non essere rappresentativi della totalità dei giovani chirurghi italiani, in quanto espressione di un sottogruppo particolarmente motivato alle tematiche dell’EBM e della CG. Conclusioni. Nonostante i giovani chirurghi italiani riconoscano la

  4. Rilevazione della percezione corporea, dell' autostima corporea e dei disturbi del comportamento alimentare in adolescenti vittime di abuso sessuale durante l' infanzia.

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    L. Bassoli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: l’esperienza dell’abuso sessuale si ripercuote su diversi aspetti della personalità delle vittime. Il nostro studio ha analizzato la sua influenza sulla percezione corporea (Test delle figure di Collins, sull’autostima corporea (Scala Corporea del Test Multidimensionale Autostima di Bracken e sull’adozione di comportamenti alimentari patologici (Eating Attitude Test.

    Materiali e metodi: il campione della ricerca è composto da 2935 studenti maggiorenni frequentanti le 212 classi quinte dei 46 istituti superiori milanesi selezionati per la ricerca. Gli strumenti sono i test sopraindicati ed un questionario ad hoc per indagare le caratteristiche dell’eventuale abuso sessuale. La compilazione e la restituzione dei questionari hanno salvaguardato rigorosamente l’anonimato.

    Risultati: nel campione, l’esperienza dell’abuso incide sulla percezione corporea aumentando il divario tra l’immagine del corpo in cui ci si riconosce e l’immagine che si vorrebbe avere con una differenza media che nei maschi passa da 0,1 nei non abusati a –0,4 in vittime d’abuso lieve fino a 1 in vittime d’abuso grave, mentre nelle ragazze i valori sono rispettivamente 0,8, 0,9 e 1,3. La percentuale a rischio per disturbi del comportamento alimentare sale notevolmente tra le vittime d’abuso, essendo 1,5% e 11,8% in maschi e femmine non vittimizzati, 2,3% e 15,9% rispettivamente in vittime d’abuso lieve e 27,3% e 24,1% in vittime d’abuso grave. Anche sull’autostima corporea l’esperienza dell’abuso sembra avere un forte impatto che si manifesta con un aumento dei casi di bassa autostima che risultano il 15,6% e il 35,5% tra maschi e femmine non abusati, il 16% e il 41,2%, rispettivamente, tra chi ha subito un abuso lieve e il 27,3% e il 50% tra le vittime d’abuso grave.

    Conclusioni: la ricerca suggerisce che essere vittima abuso sessuale

  5. Damage caused by Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842, Metastrongylidae, to weasels (Mustela nivalis L. in North-Western Italy

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    Claudio Prigioni

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The percentage of infestation (incidence and the degree of damage caused by Skrjabingylus nasicola were analysed in 15 fresh skulls of weasels (Mustela nivalis collected in Pavia province (Northern Italy during 1986-89 and in 79 preserved skulls from the Civic Museum of Natural History of Genoa (Liguria region. The incidence was 66.6% for the first sample of weasels and 54.4% for the second one; the mean degree of damage, assessed according King's methods, was 3.7 and 2.6 respectively. Although no significant difference in Skrjabingylus prevalence was recorded in relation to sex and age of weasels, a trend of increase in parasite incidence was observed from young to adults in the sample of weasels from the Museum of Genoa. Apodemus sylvaticus, which was the staple in the diet of weasels collected in Pavia province, could be considered the main paratenic host of the skrjabingylosis in northern Italian plain. Riassunto Danni causati da Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1942, Metastrongylidae, nella donnola Mustela nivalis in Italia nord occidentale - La percentuale di infestazione (incidenza e l'entità del danno causato da Skrjabingylus nasicola sono state analizzate in 15 donnole (Mustela nivalis reperite in aree coltivate della Provincia di Pavia nel 1986-89 e in 79 esemplari appartenenti alla collezione del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova. L'incidenza dell'infestazione è risultata del 66,6% per il primo campione e del 54,4% per il secondo, mentre l'entità media del danno, valutata secondo il metodo proposto da King, è stata di 3,7 e 2,6 rispettivamente. Sebbene non sia stata rilevata nessuna differenza signiticativa della prevalenza parassitaria in relazione al sesso ed all'età delle donnole, è stata evidenziata, per il campione del Museo di Genova, una tendenza all'incremento dell'incidenza dai

  6. Phosphorus utilization and microbial community in response to lead/iron addition to a waterlogged soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Shunqing; WU Yuping; XU Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have emerged as a viable option for helping to solve a wide range of water quality problems. However, heavy metals adsorbed by substrates would decrease the growth of plants, impair the functions of wetlands and eventually result in failure of contaminant removal. Typha latifolia L., tolerant to heavy metals, has been widely used for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings under waterlogged conditions. This study examined effects of iron as ferrous sulfate (100 and 500 mg/kg) and lead as lead nitrate (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) on phosphorus utilization and microbial community structure in a constructed wetland. Wetland plants (T. latifolia) were grown for 8 weeks in rhizobags filled with a paddy soil under waterlogged conditions. The results showed that both the amount of iron plaque on the roots and phosphorus adsorbed on the plaque decreased with the amount of lead addition. When the ratio of added iron to lead was 1:1, phosphorus utilized by plants was the maximum. Total amount of phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs) was 23%-59% higher in the rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. The relative abundance of Gram-negative bacteria, aerobic bacteria, and methane oxidizing bacteria was also higher in the rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil, but opposite was observed for other bacteria and fungi. Based on cluster analysis, microbial communities were mostly controlled by the addition of ferrous sulfate and lead nitrate in rhizosphere and bulk soil, respectively.

  7. Polyploid evolution and Pleistocene glacial cycles: A case study from the alpine primrose Primula marginata (Primulaceae

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    Casazza Gabriele

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies highlighted the role of Pleistocene climatic cycles in polyploid speciation and of southern Alpine refugia as reservoirs of diversity during glacial maxima. The polyploid Primula marginata, endemic to the southwestern Alps, includes both hexaploid and dodecaploid cytotypes that show no ecological or morphological differences. We used flow cytometry to determine variation and geographic distribution of cytotypes within and between populations and analyses of chloroplast (cp and nuclear ribosomal (nr DNA sequences from the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region to infer the evolutionary history of the two cytotypes and the auto- vs. allopolyploid origin of dodecaploid populations. Results We did not detect any intermediate cytotypes or variation of ploidy levels within populations. Hexaploids occur in the western and dodecaploids in the eastern part of the distributional range, respectively. The cpDNA and nrDNA topologies are in conflict, for the former supports shared ancestry between P. marginata and P. latifolia, while the latter implies common origins between at least some ITS clones of P. marginata and P. allionii. Conclusions Our results suggest an initial episode of chloroplast capture involving ancestral lineages of P. latifolia and P. marginata, followed by polyploidization between P. marginata-like and P. allionii-like lineages in a southern refugium of the Maritime Alps. The higher proportion of ITS polymorphisms in dodecaploid than in hexaploid accessions of P. marginata and higher total nucleotide diversity of ITS clones in dodecaploid vs. hexaploid individuals sequences are congruent with the allopolyploid hypothesis of dodecaploid origin.

  8. Water level, vegetation composition and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, M.; Augustin, J.; Burlo, A.; Yarmashuk, T.; Chuvashova, H.; Thiele, A.; Freibauer, A.; Tikhonov, V.; Hoffmann, M.

    2015-10-01

    Rewetting of temperate continental cutover peatlands generally implies the creation of flooded areas, which are - dependent on water depth - colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported to be large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. This paper describes the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse emissions were measured with manual chambers in weekly to few - weekly intervals over a two years period and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions were generally associated with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Small sedges were minor methane emitters and net CO2 sinks, while Phragmites australis sites released large amounts of methane and sequestered very much CO2. Variability of both fluxes increased with site productivity. Floating mats composed of Carex tussocks and Typha latifolia were a source for both methane and CO2. We conclude that shallow, stable flooding is a better measure to arrive at low GHG emissions than deep flooding, and that the risk of high GHG emissions consequent on rewetting is larger for eutrophic than for mesotrophic peatlands.

  9. Effect of cyclic phytoremediation with different wetland plants on municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mudassar; Irshad, Muhammad; Fawad, Muhammad; Ali, Zeshan; Eneji, A Egrinya; Aurangzeb, Naureen; Mohammad, Ashiq; Ali, Barkat

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost. The objective of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of phytoremediation on municipal wastewater (MWW). For this purpose, a phytoremediation garden was established using different aquatic plants species [Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipess, Hydrocotyle umbellatta, Lemna minor, Tyhpa latifolia, and Scirpus acutus] in seven earthen pond systems (P1-P7) for the cyclic treatment of MWW. The physico-chemical analysis of MWW was carried out before and after the cyclic phytoremediation. Results showed that pH, EC and turbidity of MWW were reduced by 5.5%, 33.7%, and 93.1%, respectively after treatment (from P1 to P7). Treatment system also reduced total dissolved solids (TDS) by 35.2%, Cl by 61%, HCO3 by 29.2%, hardness by 45.7%, Ca by 32.3% and Mg by 55.9%. Nitrate concentration was reduced by 77.6% but SO4 was enhanced slightly. An ameliorative combined effect of wetland plants namely L. minor, T. latifolia, and S. acutus on MWW was noticed. Sequential phytoremediation with a mixture of plants was more effective than that relying only on a single plant species. PMID:24912243

  10. Root exudates of wetland plants influenced by nutrient status and types of plant cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu Yong; Chung, Anna King Chuen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Wong, Ming Hung

    2012-07-01

    The present study investigated the amounts of root exudates and composition of organic acids released from two wetland plants (Typha latifolia and Vetiver zizanioides) under two nutrient treatments: low level (0.786 mM N and 0.032 mM P) and high level (7.86 mM N and 0.32 mM P) and two types of plant cultivation: monoculture and co-culture of the two plants. Low nutrient treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the root exudates of T. latifolia during the initial growth period (1-21 d) and those of V. zizanioides and the co-culture during the whole growth period. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the root exudates of the co-culture in the low nutrient treatment were 3.23-7.91 times of those in the high nutrient treatment during the medium growth period (7-28 d). The compositions of organic acids varied between the two plant species and between the two nutrient treatments. The pattern of organic acids was also different between the co-culture and the monoculture. Oxalic acid was by far the major organic acid exuded from the two wetland plants. The present study on root exudates suggests that co-culture of wetland plant species would be more useful in the reclamation of waste water than a monoculture system. PMID:22908625

  11. KARAKTERISTIK ANATOMI DAUN DARI SEPULUH SPESIES Hoya SUKULEN SERTA ANALISIS HUBUNGAN KEKERABATANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putra Hafiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoya has two types of leaves, succulent and non succulent. Succulent plant adapted well in extreme conditions, especially during dry period. Anatomical characters can be used to identify, classify, and determine plant relationship. The aims of this research were to identify anatomical character of succulent Hoya’s leaf and to determine their relationship. Ten examined species Hoya spp. (H. diversifolia, H. latifolia, H. dolichosparte, H. bilobata, H. lacunosa, H. verticillata, H. purpureofusca, H. kuhlii, H. oblanceolata, and H. micrantha showed anatomical similarity in their epidermal layer, hipodermal, mesophyl, and the absence of sponge tissue at mesophyl. However, there are diversities among the species. Based on paradermal section of the leaf,  two types of stomata were only found at the abaxial side, individual stomata and both individual and stomatal cluster. Hoya diversifolia has the smallest stomatal size, while Hoya latifolia has the biggest. Hoya lacunosa has the lowest stomatal density, while Hoya bilobata has the highest. Hoya diversifolia, Hoya lacunosa, and Hoya oblanceolata have the lowest stomatal index, while Hoya bilobata has the highest. Observation on transversal section showed that Hoya purpureofusca has the lowest leaf thickness, while Hoya kuhlii has the highest. The hierarchical cluster analysis based on anatomical leaf characters showed different patterns of relationship which diversed as three groups at relationship scale 15.

  12. Screening of 18 species for digestate phytodepuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Francesca; Breschigliaro, Simone; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    This experiment assesses the aptitude of 18 species in treating the digestate liquid fraction (DLF) in a floating wetland treatment system. The pilot system was created in NE Italy in 2010 and consists of a surface-flow system with 180 floating elements (Tech-IA®) vegetated with ten halophytes and eight other wetland species. The species were transplanted in July 2011 in basins filled with different proportions of DLF/water (DLF/w); periodic increasing of the DLF/w ratio was imposed after transplanting, reaching the worst conditions for plants in summer 2012 (highest EC value 7.3 mS cm/L and NH4-N content 225 mg/L). It emerged that only Cynodon dactylon, Typha latifolia, Elytrigia atherica, Halimione portulacoides, Salicornia fruticosa, Artemisia caerulescens, Spartina maritima and Puccinellia palustris were able to survive under the system conditions. Halophytes showed higher dry matter production than other plants. The best root development (up to 40-cm depth) was recorded for Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, T. latifolia and Juncus maritimus. The highest nitrogen (10-15 g/m(2)) and phosphorus (1-4 g/m(2)) uptakes were obtained with P. palustris, Iris pseudacorus and Aster tripolium. In conclusion, two halophytes, P. palustris and E. atherica, present the highest potential to be used to treat DLF in floating wetlands. PMID:25005162

  13. Novos registros de espécies da subtribo Ecliptinae (Heliantheae - Asteraceae para a Amazônia brasileira New records of species of the Ecliptinae subtribe (Heliantheae - Asteraceae to the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genilson Alves dos Reis e Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies da subtribo Ecliptinae encontradas nos estados do Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará e Rondônia, são apresentadas como novos registros para a Amazônia brasileira: Acmella uliginosa, Aspilia camporum, Aspilia ulei, Melanthera latifolia, Melanthera nivea, Spilanthes nervosa e Wedelia calycina. São apresentadas descrições e ilustrações para as espécies, dados sobre a distribuição geográfica, hábitat, época de floração e frutificação. Os novos registros evidenciam a importância de estudos sobre a flora amazônica e demonstram a necessidade de coletas mais intensas na região.The following seven species of the subtribe Ecliptinae found in the states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia have been recorded at the Brazilian Amazonia, for the first time: Acmella uliginosa, Aspilia camporum, Aspilia ulei, Melanthera latifolia, Melanthera nivea, Spilanthes nervosa and Wedelia calycina. Species descriptions and illustrations are presented, as well as information about geographic distribution, habitats and phenology. These new records highlight the importance of the floristic studies in Amazonia, and the need to carry out intensive fieldwork to improve the sampling in this region.

  14. Correlations between some hazardous inorganic pollutants in the Gomti River and their accumulation in selected macrophytes under aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdul Barey; Rai, U N; Singh, Rana Pratap

    2015-06-01

    Water quality of the Gomti River and phytoremediation potential of native macrophytes dwelling therein at six different sites were evaluated. River water showed high biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate (12.84, 77.94, 36.88, 6.04 and 2.25 mg L(-1), respectively). Gomti water was found to be contaminated with different metals like Fe, Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb (5.54, 1.05, 3.74, 2.57 and 0.73 mg L(-1), respectively). Macrophytes growing in the river accumulated considerable amounts of Fe, Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb in different parts. Among the studied plants, Eichhornia crassipes showed maximum remediation potential for Fe, Cd and Pb; Jussiaea repens for Cr; and Pistia stratiotes for Cd. However, in Typha latifolia, Cu accumulation was maximum. Except for Fe, translocation factor of E. crassipes, P. stratiotes, Hydrilla verticellata and T. latifolia was >1 for the studied metals, showing their potential to accumulate multiple metals in different plant parts. PMID:25894347

  15. Fuelwood consumption pattern at different altitudes in rural areas of Garhwal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Munesh [Department of Forestry, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal 246 174 (India); Sharma, C.M. [Department of Botany, HNB Garhwal University, Post Box 76, Srinagar, Garhwal 246 174 (India)

    2009-10-15

    The use of fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic use is causing severe deforestation in Garhwal Himalaya. In the present study fuelwood consumption patterns have been studied in six villages; two each in tropical (Ganga Bhogpur and Kunow), sub-tropical (Bhainswara and Ghargoan) and temperate (Dhaulana and Chunnikhal) regions under various ecological and socio-economic conditions. The total average fuelwood consumption in the present study was observed to be highest for Ganga Bhogpur (2.52 kg per capita per day) in the tropical region, whereas, lowest for Ghargoan (1.63 kg per capita per day) in the sub-tropical region. The labour energy expenditure for fuelwood collection was greatest for Dhaulana (146.62 MJ per capita per day) in the temperate region, and lowest for Ganga Bhogpur (88.80 MJ per capita per day) in the tropical region. The fuelwood consumption rate oscillated considerably across the different seasons. The tree and shrub species preferred by the inhabitants for fuelwood were Holoptelea integrifolia, Anogeissus latifolia and Lantana camara in the tropical region; A. latifolia, Acacia catechu and Carissa spinarum in the sub-tropical region; and Quercus leucotrichophora, Myrica esculenta and Pyracantha crenulata in the temperate region, respectively. (author)

  16. Influência do Cultivo Agrícola Convencional nas Características Químicas e Macrofauna Edáfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lécio Resende Pereira Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing population, the exploitation of natural resources, increasingly, has intensified. However, research which highlight the relationship between the production system and environmental sustainability are still incipient. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of conventional cultivation, chemical characteristics and edafic macrofauna. The research was performed in the cities of Areia and Remigio, PB, from August to September/2009. Five sites were selected, cultivated Psidium guajava, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Citrus latifolia, the consortium Annona muricata x Citrus latifolia and a forest area. It was installed a total of 25 traps Provid and the soil sampled. Later the traps were collected and identified the macrofauna taxonomic level of Order. The experimental design was completely randomized. It was found 370.0 individuals captured in eight different Orders, with a predominance of the Orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Araneae. There was a decrease in organic matter content, CTC and an increase in the levels of soil nutrients. It was concluded that the organic and mineral fertilization, combined with the reduced management of the soil result in reduced impacts on the diversity of soil organisms and the human disturbance of areas used for agriculture impairs negatively the edaphic ecosystem dynamics

  17. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  18. Response Analysis of eight native species of high Andean forest with two methods of propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research was to generate information on the native tree species represent an alternative in the ecological restoration of the Colombian high Andean forests, according to its dynamo-genetic characteristics. We have chosen and spread the species: Baccharis latifolia (R and P), Bocconia frutescens L., Cordia cylindrostachya (R and P), Diplostephium rosmarinifolium (Benth), Drymis granadensis L f., Eupatorium angustifolium (Kunth), Palicourea vaginata Benth, and Palicourea linearifolia Wernham. The species include a morphological description of flowers, fruits and seeds, and ISTA tests. The spread experiments were made in the nurseries of the Universidad Distrital and La Florida park. For the sexual spread, we have used as treatments four gibberellins concentrations and three shadow conditions, while the vegetative spread consisted of two diameters and ive indol butiric acid (IBA) concentrations. Results have shown that pre-germination treatments are needed for Bocconia frutescens y Palicourea vaginata, in order to increase the probability and germination rate. On the other hand, shadow conditions are needed for Baccharis latifolia, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium, Drymis granadensis, Eupatorium angustifolium and Palicourea vaginata, as their seeds exhibit photoblastic characteristics. Due to the Cordia cylindrostachya and Palicourea linearifolia seed attack by insects (Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera) their sexual spread is highly limited. Finally, regarding the species response to the IBA and diameter combinations, each species responded in a different manner. Additionally, regarding the vegetative spread, the species Bocconia frutescens, Cordia cylindrostachya, Palicourea vaginata, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium and Drymis granadensis were very difficult to spread

  19. Caracterização de genótipos de Citrus spp. através de marcadores RAPD Characterization of citrus genotypes (Citrus spp using RAPDs markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Bastianel

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Em programas de melhoramento de citros, a caracterização adequada dos recursos genéticos disponíveis é de grande importância, principalmente devido às características biológicas da cultura, como a heterozigosidade, a embrionia nucelar e o longo ciclo reprodutivo. A facilidade com que ocorrem hibridações (interespecíficas e intergenéricas e a embrionia nucelar favoreceram a formação e a preservação de novas combinações, classificadas como espécies. Neste estudo, marcadores RAPDs foram utilizados para analisar 15 acessos de Citrus spp., sendo quatro variedades de laranjeiras doce (C. sinensis Osbeck, quatro tangerineiras (C. reticulata Blanco, C. nobilis Loureiro, C. sunki Loureiro e C. deliciosa Tenore, uma laranjeira azeda (C. aurantium L., um pomeleiro (C. paradisi Macf., uma torangeira (C. grandis Osbeck, uma cidreira (C. medica L., uma limeira ácida (C. latifolia e dois híbridos (Citrus clementina T. x (C. tangerina T. x C. paradisi Macf.. Doze sequências iniciadoras aleatórias foram utilizadas para estudar os 15 genótipos, encontrando-se um grau de similaridade mínimio de 0,81 ("Simple Matching" entre as tangerineiras. Os menores graus de similaridade foram encontrados entre as espécies de Citrus menos aparentadas (C. medica, C. grandis e C. latifolia. As quatro cultivares de laranjeiras doces não puderam ser diferenciadas pelos marcadores RAPD utilizados, apresentando similaridade máxima.In citrus improvement programs the characterization of the available genetic resources is of great importance, mainly concerning biological characteristics of the culture, as the heterozigosity, nucellar the embriony and long reproductive cycle. Favored by nucellar embriony interespecific and intergeneric hybridizations and genotypes preservation happen easily. RAPDs markers were used to analyze 15 Citrus spp., four sweet orange (C. sinensis Osbeck, (C. medica, C. grandis e C. latifolia, four mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco, C

  20. Efectos de los equipos de trabajo autogestionados (EQTA y del trabajo individual sobre características grupales e individuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AITOR ARITZETA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo observa la medida en la que la estructuración de los trabajadores, de una empresa de automoción, a partir de Equipos de Trabajo Autogestionados EQTA tiene efectos significativos con respecto a las 19 características grupales relacionadas con la efectividad(Campion, Medsker y Higgs, 1993. Partiendo de dos muestras estadísticamente independientes pertenecientes a la misma organización, se observa también, las diferencias que con respecto a la satisfacción laboral, compromiso grupal, autoestima y autonomía personal muestran los sujetos de los EQTA (N=188 y los que realizan su trabajo de forma individual (N= 44. Los resultados indican que los EQTA obtienen valores superiores, con respecto a los que trabajan individualmente, en 13 de las 19 características, estando 18 relacionadas con la satisfacción. Solamente 9 características se relacionaron con la satisfacción en los grupos de trabajo individual. El compromiso grupal, aunque estadísticamente igual en ambos grupos, aparece relacionado con la satisfacción en los EQTA. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que los EQTA son beneficiosos, no solo económicamente, sino también para el desarrollo de los individuos en la organización. El trabajo tiene implicaciones para el diseño de los grupos autónomos en las organizaciones.

  1. Tolerance or Assimilation: The Legends of the Chinese Restaurant and "The Gypsy's Tavern"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying urban legends, the French folklorist Véronique Campion-Vincent posed the question of whether some of the more recent legends preach tolerance. The "elevator incident" or "swallowed ticket" legends display a different attitude to Others from that found in classic xenophobic urban legends. This different attitude is also to be found in two legends recorded in Serbia, namely, the legend of the Chinese restaurant and the legend of "The Gypsy's Tavern". An analysis of the two legends shows that the ambiguity of "tolerance legends" does not arise from the fact that they speak about a xenophobic environment while at the same time having a denouement that "preaches" tolerance, but rather from the fact that the "preaching" relates to those Others who have gone through a process of acculturation, who have been assimilated and who have accepted the rules of "our" culture. These legends do not preach tolerance towards the Otherness of Others but towards Others who are striving to become or have managed to become "Us".

  2. Dietary investigation by trace element content in bones of ancient inhabitants of Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone is an important mineral source for the entire organism especially for Ca, P, Na and trace elements like Sr, Mg, Zn and it is the reservoir for the storage and mobilization of many important ions required for the metabolic activity of the organism. The concentration of these elements are influenced by the individual diet and the content of some trace elements can be utilized as indicators of the diet of ancient populations. Bones from three differents archaeological sites found in Lombardy, Northern Italy, were investigated: (A) Roman necropolis found in Milan active from the 1st century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D; (B) Burial of the Longobard family found in Campione d'Italia (North of Lombardy) active between the 7th and 9th century A.D.; (C) Medieval necropolis of a Longobard community, found in a village near Cremona (SE of Lombardy) active in the 7th century A.D. Structures of bones and their trace element content seem to put in evidence on some differences in the way of life of the three investigated groups. (author)

  3. Oscillazioni del mesone D^0

    CERN Document Server

    Schiraldi, Vito; Morello, Michael Joseph

    In fisica delle particelle, con il termine di "oscillazione" si indica la trasformazione di una particella neutra nella sua antiparticella e viceversa, fenomeno dovuto al fatto che gli autostati di flavor non sono autostati della matrice di massa. Il Modello Standard delle interazioni fondamentali predice che l'oscillazione del mesone D^0 avvenga su tempi molto maggiori di una vita media, e appaia perciò come un effetto piccolo, inferiore al percento, in contrasto con il caso dei mesoni B^0 e B^0_s che oscillano con molta maggiore rapidità. Sperimentalmente, l'oscillazione dei mesoni D^0 è rimasta inosservata fino a tempi recenti: la prima evidenza sperimentale dell'esistenza di un effetto di oscillazione è stata ottenuta soltanto nella primavera del 2007 dagli esperimenti BaBar (SLAC, USA) e Belle (KEKB, Japan). Nell'agosto 2007 anche l’esperimento CDF (Fermilab, USA) ha presentato una evidenza simile, basata sull'analisi di una parte del campione di dati disponibile. La tesi descrive gli aspetti speri...

  4. Response of 4π Proportional Counters to γ-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of a 4π proportional counter to γ-rays has been measured as a function of γ-ray energy by the 4π β-γ coincidence-absorption method. The results, which are about a factor of three lower than those obtained using thick absorbers, are slightly lower than, but in general agreement with, those of Williams and Campion. Electrons produced by γ-ray interactions in the absorber are responsible for the higher results obtained with thick absorbers. This effect has been demonstrated by determining the γ-ray response of a 4π proportional counter as a function of absorber thickness for the 478-keV γ-rays of 7Be. In addition, the responses to 478-keV γ-rays of five different 4π proportional counters have been compared. For one of these, a pressurized 4π X-ray counter, the response has also been measured as a function of filling pressure. It is concluded that the intrinsic γ-ray response of 4π proportional counters is small and, if γ-ray absorption in the counting gas may be neglected, is not strongly dependent on the size, shape or material of the cathode. (author)

  5. Personal Networks and Migration Decision: The Case of Jamaican Brain Drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalyn NEGRÓN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain drain is the phenomena where the most educated citizens of a country migrate to countries with better opportunities. This typically affects developing countries more negatively than developed countries. Given the close proximity to the US and the high standard of education of its citizens, Jamaica tends to be particularly hard hit by this brain drain. In this paper I examine intentions to migrate among skilled and educated Jamaicans. Specifically, I explore to what extent the composition of their personal network affects their decision to migrate. The data set consists of 62 university students, roughly half of who intended to migrate. Data were collected on 40 people that they knew, including information about social support provided by their social networks. The socioeconomic data about respondents did not predict intentions to migrate. However, students at Campion College, a prestigious high school linked to upper middle class status, were significantly more likely to express an interest in migration than students from other schools. Frequency of travel abroad was negatively related to intention to migrate for those that had traveled at least once. The proportion of network members that provided informational and career advice was significantly higher for those that intended to migrate. Implications of these findings for immigration policy in Jamaica and receiving countries are discussed.

  6. Gender Is Cultural Rather Than Natural--Jane Campion’s The Piano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李懿

    2014-01-01

    Sex and gender have been confusingly categorised by many scholars. Sex refers to biological characteristics;gender, can also be influenced by biology but does not determined by it. Unlike sex, which is determined by nature at birth, gender is a social construct specifying the culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow and represent. In order to argue that gender attaches to culture and that gender identity is shaped socially and culturally, this essay analyses Jane Campion ’s The Piano from three perspectives. Firstly, the essay will examine the way people in the film represent their gender characters through three re-peatedly demonstrated narrative motifs, clothing, the axe and the piano, to illustrate that gender is performative and that cultural gender identities advocate specific performances in terms of behaviour, speech, views, etc. (Butler, 2011). Then, through an analy-sis of the different gazes of the characters in the film, the essay indicates that social and cultural interaction between the genders can go beyond and blur the boundaries of the stereotypical categories of male and female. In the third section, the essay will argue that social rules and discourse also play a prominent role in shaping people’s gender, by discussing how the characters represent and re-define their gender identity under the pressure of the patriarchal society they inhabit.

  7. Towards science educational spaces as dynamic and coauthored communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Koshi

    2008-04-01

    In this essay review, four studies around the themes of identity and globalization are summarized and analyzed. The researchers' perspectives are generally grounded in Brown and Campione's ideas on situated knowledge ( Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice (pp. 229-270). Cambridge: The MIT Press/Bradford Books, 1994) and Lave and Wenger's definition of learning as an activity fostered through participation in communities of practice ( Situated learning. Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1991). Questions about the goals of science education spaces, the nature of globalization in relation to practices in schools, the role of identities-in-practice in relation to participation in communities of practice such as classrooms are explored. Recommendations for key design features in effective science educational spaces, based upon the findings presented in the collection of four studies, are offered. School, it is suggested here, functions best as a clearing house for the myriad science-related stories student participants generate in their various communities of practice (e.g., within popular culture, family, community, informal educational sites). In this way, school has the potential to construct bridges between multiple student experiences and identities-in-practice.

  8. Flow sorting of the Y sex chromosome in the dioecious plant Melandrium album

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veuskens, J.; Jacobs, M.; Negrutiu, I. [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The preparation of stable chromosome suspensions and flow cytometric sorting of both the Y sex chromosome of the white campion, Melandrium album, and the deleted Y chromosome of an asexual mutant, 5K63, is described. The principle has been to maintain transformed roots in vitro, synchronize and block mitosis, reduce cells to protoplasts, and lyse these to release chromosomes. Such in vitro material, unlike many cell suspensions, showed a stable karyotype. Factors critical to producing high-quality chromosome suspensions from protoplasts include osmolality of isolation solutions and choice of spindle toxin and of lysis buffer. Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed young growing root cultures were synchronized at G1/S with 50 {mu}M aphidicolin for 24 h and released to a mitotic block with 30 {mu}M oryzalin for 11 h. Protoplast preparations from such tissue routinely had metaphase indices reaching 15%. Suspensions of intact metaphase chromosomes, with few chromatids, were obtained by lysing swollen mitotic protoplasts in a citric acid/disodium phosphate buffer. Except for the presence of clumps of autosomal chromosomes near the X and Y chromosome zones, monoparametric histograms of fluorescence intensities of suspensions stained with 4{prime},6-diamidino-2-phenylindole showed profiles similar to theoretical flow karyotypes. Two types of Y chromosomes, one full-length and one partially deleted (from the asexual mutant), could be sorted at 90% purity (21-fold enrichment of Y). These results are discussed in the context of sex determination and differentiation in higher plants. 45 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. TYPHA × GLAUCA GODR., A HYBRID OF TYPHA L.(TYPHACEAE) NEWLY RECORDED IN CHINA AND ITS MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS%Typha × glauca Godr., 香蒲属(香蒲科)中国新记录杂种及其形态特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀玉; 王东

    2013-01-01

    Typha L. (Typhaceae), one of the most common aquatic plants found in marshes and shallow water, is almost cosmopolitan. However, the distribution of approximately 24 species has two main centers: Eurasia and North America. To date 12 species have been reported in China. Typha was described by Linnaeus in 1753, and its taxonomy remains confusing because of the variability in its reproductive and vegetative characteristics, and its frequent hybridization. Seven hybrids of Typha species were reported from North America and Europe but none of them has been recorded in China. We have discovered a hybrid cattail, Typha x glauca Godr. (T angustifolia L. x T latifolia L.), through extensive field collections and herbarium studies. That was a newly recorded taxon for China. We studied the hybrid T x glauca in the field and examined Typha collections from the following herbaria including PE, IBSC, CDBI, HIB, WU, SZ, and CCNU. Both vegetative and reproductive characteristics were measured for available specimens of the hybrid and parental species from China. Pollen grains of Typha species were collected from our field collections, and were examined under a light microscope at x 1000 magnification. Morphological features of the hybrid and parental species was illustrated and discussed, and an identification key for them was provided. The hybrid was morphologically variable and generally intermediate to the parental species. The most readily diagnostic features of the hybrid were: 1. leaves were glaucous; 2. pollen was typically a mixture of monads, dyads, triads, and tetrads (vs. tetrads in T latifolia and monads in T angustifolia), often abortive; 3. pistillate bracteoles were narrower than the stigma (vs. broader in T angustifolia and absent in T latifolia), and 4. the stigmas were liner-lanceolate (vs. linear in T angustifolia, and lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate in T. latifolia). Importantly, the presence /or absence of dyads and triads of pollen grains could be used to

  10. Water level, vegetation composition, and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Merten; Augustin, Jürgen; Burlo, Andrei; Yarmashuk, Tatsiana; Chuvashova, Hanna; Thiele, Annett; Freibauer, Annette; Tikhonov, Vitalij; Hoffmann, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Peat extraction leaves a land surface with a strong relief of deep cutover areas and higher ridges. Rewetting inundates the deep parts, while less deeply extracted zones remain at or above the water level. In temperate fens the flooded areas are colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis dependent on water depth. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported as large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. Here, we analyze the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse gas emissions were measured campaign-wise with manual chambers every 2 to 4 weeks for 2 years and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions generally increased with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Mesotrophic small sedge reeds with water table around the land surface were small GHG sources in the range of 2.3 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. Eutrophic tall sedge - Typha latifolia reeds on newly formed floating mats were substantial net GHG emitters in the range of 25.1 to 39.1 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr. They represent transient vegetation stages. Phragmites reeds ranged between -1.7 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1 with an overall mean GHG emission of 1.3 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. The annual CO2 balance was best explained by vegetation biomass, which includes the role of vegetation composition and species. Methane emissions were obviously driven by biological activity of vegetation and soil organisms. Shallow flooding of cutover temperate fens is a suitable measure to arrive at low GHG emissions. Phragmites australis establishment should be promoted in deeper flooded areas and will lead to moderate, but

  11. A whole plant approach to evaluate the water use of mediterranean maquis species in a coastal dune ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mereu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach has been used to analyse the water relations of three Mediterranean species, A. unedo L., Q. ilex L. and P. latifolia L. co-occurring in a coastal dune ecosystem. The approach considered leaf level gas exchange, sap flow measurements and structural adaptations between 15 May and 31 July 2007, and was necessary to capture the different response of the three species to the same environment. The complexity of the response was proportional to the complexity of the system, characterized by a sandy soil with a low water retention capacity and the presence of a water table. The latter did not completely prevent the development of a drought response, and species differences in this responses have been partially attributed to a different root distribution. Sap flow of A. unedo decreased rapidly in response to the decline of Soil Water Content, while that of Q. ilex decreased only moderately. Midday leaf water potential of P. latifolia and A. unedo was between 2.2 and 2.7 MPa through the measuring period, while in Q. ilex it reached a value of 3.4 MPa at the end of the season. A. unedo was the only species to decrease the leaf area to sapwood area ratio from 23.9±1.2 (May to 15.2±1.5 (July, as a response to drought. A. unedo also underwent an almost stepwise loss on hydraulic conductivity, such a loss didn't occur for Q. ilex, while P. latifolia was able to slightly increase hydraulic conductivity, showing how different plant compartments coordinate differently between species as a response to drought. Such different coordination affects the gas exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere, and has implications for the response of the Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystems to climate change.

  12. An integrated approach shows different use of water resources from Mediterranean maquis species in a coastal dune ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Manes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach has been used to analyse the dependence of three Mediterranean species, A. unedo L., Q. ilex L., and P. latifolia L. co-occurring in a coastal dune ecosystem on two different water resources: groundwater and rainfed upper soil layers. The approach included leaf level gas exchanges, sap flow measurements and structural adaptations between 15 May and 31 July 2007. During this period it was possible to capture different species-specific response patterns to an environment characterized by a sandy soil, with a low water retention capacity, and the presence of a water table. The latter did not completely prevent the development of a drought response and, combined with previous studies in the same area, response differences between species have been partially attributed to different root distributions. Sap flow of A. unedo decreased rapidly with the decline of soil water content, while that of Q. ilex decreased only moderately. Midday leaf water potential of P. latifolia and A. unedo ranged between −2.2 and −2.7 MPa throughout the measuring period, while in Q. ilex it decreased down to −3.4 MPa at the end of the season. A. unedo was the only species that responded to drought with a decrease of its leaf area to sapwood area ratio from 23.9±1.2 (May to 15.2±1.5 (July. While A. unedo also underwent an almost stepwise loss on hydraulic conductivity, such a loss did not occur for Q. ilex, whereas P. latifolia was able to slightly increase its hydraulic conducitivity. These differences show how different plant compartments coordinate differently between species in their responses to drought. The different responses appear to be mediated by different root distributions of the species and their relative resistances to drought are likely to depend on the duration of the periods in which water remains extractable in the upper soil layers.

  13. Exploration of High elevation liana colonies on Mt. Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

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    WS Hoover

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty–five individual lianas were distributed on 2 East facing ridges on the second highest mountain on Java, Mt. Slamet (3418 m., Central Java, Indonesia. Twenty one colonies were observed on small flat areas on ridges. The liana species observed include: Embelia pergamacea, Toddalia asiatica, Elaeagnus latifolia, Schefflera lucida, Vaccinium laurifolium and Lonicera javanica. Diameter of each liana was measured and liana density/flat area calculated. Floristic collecting was under- taken within the elevational gradient of liana distribution. Data suggest an ecotone transition from lower to upper mon- tane forest is observed between 2200 and 2300 m, though forest types are difficult to determine due to disturbance caused by fire at the upper elevations. Observing lianas at these unusuall high elevations with near pluvial rainfall, con- tradict established scientific theory concerning global distribution and abundance of lianas.  

  14. Curvas dose-resposta em espécies de plantas daninhas com o uso do herbicida glyphosate(1 Dose-response curves in weed species with the use of herbicide glyphosate

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    André Luiz de Souza Lacerda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a resposta de diferentes espécies de plantas daninhas ao herbicida glyphosate, foi desenvolvido em câmara de crescimento um experimento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da ESALQ/USP. Para isso, foram estudadas seis espécies de plantas daninhas: Bidens pilosa L., Tridax procumbens L., Digitaria insularis (L. Fedde, Spermacoce latifolia Aubl., Ipomoea grandifolia L. e Commelina benghalensis L. Utilizou-se o herbicida glyphosate, inibidor da enzima EPSPs, com doses em escalas de 0,0; 11,3; 22,5; 45; 90; 180; 360; 720 e 1.440 g.ha-1 i.a. A elaboração das curvas dose-resposta foi feita pelo ajuste da equação dos dados coletados de biomassa verde utilizando o modelo log-logístico: Y = C+D-C / 1 + Exp{b[log(x-log(RC50]}, calculado por modelo estatístico não linear dos dados pelo programa estatístico SAS. Após a determinação das curvas dose-resposta nas espécies acima citadas concluiu-se que Bidens pilosa foi considerada a planta daninha mais suscetível ao herbicida glyphosate, pois apresentou menor RC50 (31,86 g.ha-1 i.a.. As espécies Tridax procumbens, Digitaria insularis, Spermacoce latifolia, Ipomoea grandifolia, Commelina benghalensis obtiveram RC50 de 58,40; 128,50; 250,44; 615,49 e >1.440 g.ha-1 i.a. respectivamente. Portanto, a quantidade necessária de herbicida para reduzir em 50% a biomassa verde foi de 1,83; 4,03; 7,86; 32 e >359,56 vezes maior em relação à Bidens pilosa respectivamente.With the objective of veryfing the response of different doses in species of weeds by herbicide glyphosate, an experiment was conducted in growth chamber in a completetly randomized design with three repetitions, in the Department of Vegetable Production at ESALQ/USP. For that, were chosen six species of weeds: Bidens pilosa L., Tridax procumbens L., Digitaria insularis (L. Feed, Spermacoce latifolia Aubl., Ipomoea grandifolia L. and Commelina benghalensis L

  15. CRECIMIENTO Y PRODUCTIVIDAD DE CHAYA (Cnidoscolus chayamansa MCVAUGH, EUPHORBIACEAE) CON DENSIDAD DE PLANTACIÓN VARIABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Mao E. Aguilar Luna; Pedro A. Macario Mendoza; Esperanza Huerta Lwanga; Salvador Hernández Daumás; Ramiro de Alba Becerra; Eduardo García Villanueva

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto que tiene la competenciainterespecífica en el crecimiento y la productividad de la chayacon densidad de plantación (DP) variable, en un suelocalcimórfico de tipo rendzina negra en Noh-Bec, Quintana Roo,México. La chaya se estableció a 1.50 x 3.00 m, utilizando estacassin hojas; se asoció con árboles jóvenes (menores de dosaños) de Cedrela odorata y Citrus latifolia en un diseño deplantación en círculo 'Nelder' de 3154 m2. Se establecieron ochoDP de 2602 a 3772 plantas.ha-1...

  16. Fatty acid composition of oil synthesized by Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N D; Mathur, J M; Saxena, B S; Sen, K

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Eidam strain 300 was found to be capable of synthesizing 24.9% oil or remarkably low free fatty acidity, in a chemically defined medium with 34% glucose as sole carbon source. although the total content of oil synthesized was less, utilization of the carbon source is better as shown by the high (8.4) fat coefficient. The major component fatty acids of the oil were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic and are influenced by the source of carbon. Palmitoleic acid is present in traces, confirming thereby the general observation that high oil formers produce oil of low hexadecenoic acid content. The relatively high stearic acid content of the oil distinguishes it from those of other microorganisms and resembles the oil produced by certain tropical plants, such as Madhuca latifolia. PMID:7026394

  17. Emission of isoprene from common Indian plant species and its implications for regional air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Singh, Abhai Pratap; Singh, M P; Kumar, Animesh; Varshney, C K

    2008-09-01

    Isoprene is most dominant volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by many plants. In this study 40 common Indian plant species were examined for isoprene emission using dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. Isoprene emission rates of plants species were found to vary from undetectable to 69.5 microg g(-1) h(-1) (Madhuca latifolia). Besides, an attempt has been made to evaluate suitability of 80 common Indian plant species for planting programmes. Out of 80 species, 29 species were moderate to high emitters (10 to < or =25 microg g(-1) h(-1)), 12 species were low emitter emitters (1 to < or =10 microg g(-1) h(-1)) and remaining 39 species were found to be negligible or non emitters (<1 microg g(-1) h(-1)) of isoprene. About 50% plant species selected for planting programmes in India were found to be moderate to high emitters of isoprene. PMID:17952698

  18. Studies on production and biological potential of prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-07-01

    Efficacy of Serratia marcescens for pigment production and biological activity was investigated. Natural substrates like sweet potato, mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L.), and sesam at different concentrations were taken. As a carbon source microorganism favored potato powder was followed by sesam and mannitol, and as nitrogen source casein hydrolysate was followed by yeast and malt extract. The effect of inorganic salts on pigment production was also studied. At final optimized composition of suitable carbon, nitrogen source, and trace materials and at suitable physiological conditions, prodigiosin production was 4.8 g L(-1). The isolated pigment showed antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Extracted pigment was characterized by spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and thin layer chromatography (TLC) which confirm production of biological compound prodigiosin. This study suggests that use of sweet potato powder and casein can be a potential alternative bioresource for commercial production of pigment prodigiosin. PMID:24781979

  19. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  20. Orchid Inventory and the Host in Meru Betiri National Park – East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Meru Betiri National Park is located in southern part of East Java Province. Inventory of orchid species was conducted to study orchid diversity in Meru Betiri National Park, especially in Bandealit coastal area. Observation of orchid within host trees was also done to study the preference host trees for orchid growth. It was recorded that there were 25 orchid species belonging to 20 genera. Twenty species of which are epiphyte and 5 species are terrestrial. The most common epiphyte orchids were Pomatocalpa latifolia, Pomatocalpa spicata, Rhynchostylis retusa, Micropera pallida and Grosourdya appendiculata. While terrestrial orchid was only found in a small number, with common terrestrial orchids were Corymborkis veratrifolia and Goodyera rubicunda. The most preference host trees for epiphyte orchid were Tectona grandis (Teak, Clausena indica, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Mangifera indica (Mango, but there is no specific relationship between host trees and epiphyte orchid.

  1. Actividad antioxidante in vitro y toxicidad de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae Antioxidant activity in vitro and toxicity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Citrus spp. (Rutaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Ojito Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los cítricos constituyen un género de plantas rico en contenido de fenoles y flavonoides, metabolitos secundarios que debido a su efecto antioxidante y baja toxicidad, han recibido en los últimos años mucha atención como potenciales fármacos. Objetivos: determinar la actividad antioxidante in vitro y la toxicidad frente a Artemia salina L. de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus aurantium L. var. sinensis L.; Citrus aurantium L.; Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle; Citrus latifolia (Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka Tanaka; Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae. Métodos: los extractos etanólicos y metanólicos se obtuvieron mediante extracción por ultrasonido y se caracterizaron fitoquímicamente; se determinó la concentración total de fenoles y flavonoides. La actividad antioxidante se halló mediante la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libre y el poder reductor. La toxicidad se evaluó mediante el bioensayo de letalidad sobre Artemia salina. Resultados: en los extractos etanólicos se encontró mayor presencia de compuestos químicos que en los extractos metanólicos. La mayor concentración de fenoles totales se obtuvo en el extracto metanólico de Citrus reticulata y de flavonoides totales en el extracto etanólico de Citrus aurantifolia y Citrus reticulata, en ambos solventes. Todos los extractos mostraron actividad antioxidante mediante las 2 pruebas ensayadas. Los extractos presentaron toxicidad moderada frente Artemia salina, siendo el extracto metanólico de Citrus latifolia el de menor toxicidad (LC50 = 464,24 µg/mL. Conclusiones: se evidenció la presencia de fenoles y clases de flavonoides, la actividad antioxidante de los extractos hidroalcohólicos de Citrus spp. y su moderada toxicidad frente a Artemia salina.Introduction: citrus fruits constitute an important source of flavonoids and phenols. The latter are secondary metabolites extensively studied in the last few years on account of their antioxidant

  2. Insecticidal and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Sparassol and Its Analogues against Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Jang, Miyeon; Lee, Kyoung-Tae; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2016-07-13

    Drosophila suzukii is an economically important pest in America and Europe as well as in Asia. Sparassol and methyl orsellinate are naturally produced by the cultivating mushrooms Sparassis cripta and Sparassis latifolia. Fumigant and contact toxicities of synthetic sparassol and its analogues, methyl orsellinate and methyl 2,4-dimethoxy-6-methylbenzoate (DMB), were investigated. Negligible fumigant activity was observed from the tested compounds. However, DMB showed the strongest contact toxicity, followed by sparassol and methyl orsellinate. The possible modes of action of the compounds were assessed for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE)- and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-inhibiting activities. AChE activity was weakly inhibited by methyl orsellinate and DMB, but GST was inhibited by sparassol, methyl orsellinate, and DMB. Thus, DMB could be a promising alternative to common insecticides as it can be easily synthesized from sparassol, which is the natural product of Sparassis species. Sparassis species could be an industrial resource of DMB. PMID:27327201

  3. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Remeikis, Andrius; Davis, Donald R; Solis, M Alma; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe six new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis: S. emarginatae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. bipartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. tripartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. latifoliae Remeikis, Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. baccharicola Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. confertae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The remaining two taxa are left unnamed. All taxa are illustrated with photographs of adults, their genitalia, and their leaf-mines. Additionally, leaf-mines on Baccharis salicifolia are documented. PMID:27395706

  4. Virucidal activity of essential oils from aromatic plants of San Luis, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, C C; Talarico, L; Almeida, N; Colombres, S; Duschatzky, C; Damonte, E B

    2003-11-01

    Essential oils obtained from eight aromatic plants of San Luis Province, Argentina, were screened for virucidal activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Junin virus (JUNV) and dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2). The most potent inhibition was observed with the essential oil of Lippia junelliana and Lippia turbinata against JUNV with virucidal concentration 50% (VC(50)) values in the range 14-20 ppm, whereas Aloysia gratissima, Heterotheca latifolia and Tessaria absinthioides inhibited JUNV in the range 52-90 ppm. The virucidal activity was time- and temperature-dependent. The essential oils of A. gratissima, Artemisia douglasiana, Eupatorium patens and T. absinthioides inactivated HSV-1 at 65-125 ppm. However, only A. douglasiana and E. patens had any discernible effect on DEN-2 infectivity with VC(50) values of 60 and 150 ppm, respectively. PMID:14595590

  5. THE ALLIANCE TRACHYNION DISTACHYAE RIVAS-MARTINEZ 1978 IN CENTRAL ITALYIN CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DE SANCTIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The therophytic basiphilous vegetation of Central Italy has been generally framed in a single association Trifolio scabri- Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Biondi et al. 1997. We show that a considerable floristic variation exists inside Trifolio-Hypochoeridetum in Central Italy, and that it should be treated as a complex of no less than five different associations: Medicagini rigidulae-Trifolietum scabri Fanelli et al. hoc loco, Trifolio scabri-Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Biondi, Izco. Ballelli & Formica 1997 s.s, Hippocrepido siliquosae- Brachypodietum distachyi Fanelli et al. ad interim, Trigonello gladiatae-Brachypodietum distachyi Fanelli et al. hoc loc, Crucianello latifoliae-Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Filesi, Blasi, Di Marzio 1996. These associations are floristically and ecologically distinct, and show different geographical ranges in Central Italy. The great diversity of Trachynion distachyae in Central Italy is related to the widespread occurrence of limestone and calcareous alluvial rocks and to a climate with abundant winter and autumn rains very favourable to the development of winter annuals.

  6. AcEST: DK943534 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 Tissue type young leaves Developmental stage sporophyte Contig ID CL14Contig1 Sequen...C76|A9QC76_TRACE 50S ribosomal protein L33 (Fragment) OS=Trachelium caeruleum GN=rpl33 PE=3 SV=1 Length = 64 Score...oplastic OS=Adiantum capillus-veneris GN=rpl33 PE=2 SV=2 Length = 66 Score = 134 bits (338), Expect = 1e-31 Ident...KE 62 >tr|Q4FG88|Q4FG88_TYPLA 50S ribosomal protein L33 (Fragment) OS=Typha latifolia GN=rpl33 PE=3 SV=1 Length = 66 Score...gth = 66 Score = 83.2 bits (204), Expect = 6e-15 Identities = 35/63 (55%), Positives = 46/63 (73%) Frame = +3 Quer

  7. Long-term ecological behaviour of abandoned uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semi-aquatic and terrestrial areas on abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in Ontario were studied in order to identify the growth characteristics of the naturally invading species dominating these areas. Semi-aquatic areas of tailings sites have been invaded by cattails. These species formed wetland communities which varied in size, but all were essentially monocultures of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia, or of the hybrids T. glauca. Sedges, Scripus cyperinus (wool-grass) and Phragmites australis (reed-grass), were found in transition zones between the cattail stand and the dry section of the tailings site. The expansion of the cattail stands appeared to be controlled by the hydrological conditions on the site, rather than the chemical characteristics of the tailings

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06627-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-08 AB261126_1( AB261126 |pid:none) Olyra latifolia gene for hypotheti... 63 1e-08 AB261112_1( AB261112 |pid:none) Aulonemia subpect... ... 144 2e-33 ( P13696 ) RecName: Full=Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein ... 142 1e-32 S00056( S00056 ;S51191)basic cyto...) Oncorhynchus mykiss clone omyk-evo... 137 4e-31 ( P48737 ) RecName: Full=Phosphatidylethanolamin... EU807876_1( EU807876 |pid:none) Malus prattii terminal flower 1 (T... 73 1e-11 (Q5PQN9) RecName: Full=39S ribosomal protein L38, mi...Name: Full=39S ribosomal protein L38, mitochondrial;... 70 5e-11 AB162044_1( AB162044 |pid:none) Pseudocydonia sine

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01844-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H3 Citrus clementina genomic cl... 48 0.49 1 ( ET073459 ) QM0AAA8BF12RM1 CCL1 Cit...RecName: Full=Cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase; ... 35 3.3 DQ243816_1( DQ243816 |pid:none) Paenibacillus sp. BL11... ( BX901924 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS... 48 0.49 1 ( ET110504 ) QM0AAC19AD01RM2 CC...|pid:none) Phillyrea latifolia partial mRNA f... 37 0.50 CP001344_1115( CP001344 |pid:none) Cyanothece sp. PCC...Contig-U01844-1 gap included 736 2 1126493 1125832 MINUS 3 4 U01844 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0

  10. Studies of diagnostic features in the genus Hypoxis L. (Hypoxidaceae R. Br. on the Witwatersrand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Heideman

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify specific concepts in the genus Hypoxis L. on the Witwatersrand it was found that diagnosis depends mostly on vegetative characters, particularly the habit, leaf vesture and venation, and the structure of the inflorescences. The relevant criteria are discussed in relationship to the Witwatersrand species, where eleven species and seven varieties are recognized:  H. rigidula Bak. (a var.  rigidula, (b var.  pilosissima Bak.; H. acuminata Bak.;  H. filiformis Bak.; H. obtusa Burch.; H. neliana Schinz; //.  latifolia Hook. f.; H. galpinii Bak.; H. multiceps Buch. ex Bak.; H. interjecta Nel; H. rooperi Moore; H. argentea Harv. ex Bak. (a var. argentea, (b var. sericea Bak.; and two varieties which constitute  comb, et stat. novs, unpublished as yet.

  11. Susceptibility of two-week old Lymnaea natalensis to some plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    The molluscacidal potency of 17 Nigerian plants extracted by the unevaporated crude water (UECW) method was evaluated on two-week old Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Five extracts were not active but extracts of Balanites aegytiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Cissampelos mucronata, Detarium microcarpum, Kigelia africana, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Nauclea latifolia and Securidaca longipedunculata were molluscacidal. There is potential for their future use in the integrated control of Lymnaea natalensis, as well as other snails. Mortality data for lethal concentration values for all extracts were analysed by use of probit transformation. The upper and lower fiducial limits of the LC50 (P = 0.05) were also determined. PMID:2626571

  12. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    Methanolic (MEOH), evaporated crude water (ECW) and unevaporated crude water (UECW) extracts of 25 Nigerian plants, used for different medicinal and domestic purposes were screened for molluscacidal activity on laboratory-reared Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Seven of the plants were not active; extracts from 18 (72 per cent) of the plants, some of which are renowned fish poisons, had molluscicidal activity. These were Acacia nilotica, Aristolochia albida, Balanites aegyptiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Detarium microcarpum, Gnidia kraussiana, Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, Opilia celtidefolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Sclerocarya birrea, Securidaca longipedunculata, Ximenia americana, Vetiveria nigritana and Ziziphus abyssinica. The LC50 of these extracts were determined. It is strongly recommended that the toxic effects of these extracts against fish, cercariae, snail eggs and mammals be further investigated so as to determine the right concentration, especially for use in fish ponds. PMID:2626572

  13. Biological Activity and Field Efficacy of Sulfosulfuron in Glasshouse and Wheat Field%磺酰磺隆的室内除草活性及对小麦田杂草田间防除效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兴祥; 高宗军; 房锋; 张悦丽; 齐军山; 李美

    2013-01-01

    [Aims] Sulfosulfuron is a new registered herbicide in our country. The paper aims to determine the biological activity and weed control effect of sulfosulfuron. [Methods] The whole plant dose-response experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sulfosulfuron on 11 major weeds growing in pots in glasshouse. Sulfosulfuron was applied postemergence to plots arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications in wheat fields. [Results] The result of experiments in glasshouse showed that the sulfosulfuron had best effect on Capsella bursapastoris, Beckmannia syzigachne, Sclerochloa kengiana with the ED,, of 1.49, 0.98, 5.33 g a.i./ha respectively, displayed better effect on Galium spurium, Lithospermum arvense, Silene conoidea, and had good inhibition on the growth of Lolium multifloTum, Avena fatua, Bromus japonicus. It only had slightly control effect or no effect to Descuminia sophia and Aegilops tauschii. The results of field experiments also showed that sulfosulfuron had better control on Lamium amplexicaule, Galium aparina, Silene conoidea, Lithospermum arvense without causing injury to wheat. [Conclusions] It was illustrated that sulfosulfuron could be applied in wheat fields to control most broadleaf and grass weeds.%[目的]探讨磺酰磺隆对小麦田杂草的除草活性.[方法]采用室内生物测定方法测定了磺酰磺隆对11种麦田杂草的除草活性,并在小麦田进行了田间试验.[结果]温室试验表明:磺酰磺隆对荠菜、菵草和硬草有很好的防除效果,ED50值分别为1.49、0.98、5.33 g a.i./hm2;对猪殃殃、麦家公、麦瓶草也有较好的效果;对野燕麦等有较好的抑制生长作用,但对播娘蒿、节节麦效果较差.田间试验表明:磺酰磺隆对猪殃殃杂草等均有较好的防效且对小麦安全.[结论]磺酰磺隆可以应用于小麦田防除多种杂草.

  14. Self-medication with tannin-rich browse in goats infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y

    2013-12-01

    Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves. PMID:24140164

  15. Indicator species of essential forest tree species in the Burdur district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç; Eser, Yunus; Kuzugüdenll, Emre; Izkan, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    The forests of Burdur district for long have been subjected to over grazing and individual selection. As a result of this, majority of the forest areas in the district were degraded. In the district, afforestation efforts included majority of forestry implementations. It is well known that selecting suitable species plays an important role for achieving afforestation efforts. In this context, knowing the indicator species among the target species would be used in afforestation efforts, studies on the interrelationships between environmental factors and target species distribution is vital for selecting suitable species for a given area. In this study, Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra), Red pine (Pinus brutia), Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), essential tree species, were considered as target species. The data taken from 100 sample plots in Burdur district was used. Interspecific correlation analysis was performed to determine the positive and negative indicator species among each of the target species. As a result of ICA, 2 positive (Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus), 2 negative (Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera) for Crimean Juniper, I positive (Juniperus oxycedrus), 3 negative (Onopordium acanthium, Fraxinus ornus, Phillyrea latifolia) for Anatolian black pine, 3 positive (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus coccifer, Crataegus orientalis), 2 negative (Berberis crataegina, Astragalus nanus) for Red pine and 3 positive (Berberis crataegina, Rhamnus oleoides, Astragalus prusianus) 2 negative (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus cerris) for Taurus cedarwere defined as indicator plant species. In this way, practical information was obtained for selecting the most suitable species, among the target species, for afforestation efforts in Burdur district. PMID:26591889

  16. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We assessed the phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) from mine effluent. ► B in mine effluent decreased from 187 mg l−1 to 123 mg l−1 (32% removal rate) through the PCW. ► Estimated methane production, energy yields and electrical energy yields of the PCW increased with biomass production. ► Cattails accumulated more than 250 mg kg−1 B and common reed accumulated 38 mg kg−1 B at the end of the experiment. -- Abstract: This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l−1 (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg−1 whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg−1 B during the research period

  17. Structure of aquatic vegetation of a large lake, western border of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, N L; Delatorre, M; Rodrigues, R B; Vidotto, C; Gonçalves, F; Scremin-Dias, E; Damasceno-Júnior, G; Pott, V J; Pott, A

    2012-08-01

    Studies on Neotropical aquatic macrophytes have increased in recent decades, however species richness in wetlands of South America is far from being fully known. In addition, studies having an ecological approach are scarce in the Pantanal. Rapid assessments are essential for gaining knowledge of the biodiversity in the region. This study was performed in five sites of the Baía do Castelo, the western border of the Brazilian Pantanal, which included wild-rice patches, floating mats and floating meadows. At each site, plots of 0.5 × 0.5 m were set (n = 137), species of aquatic macrophytes were identified, their coverage was measured and the plot depth was estimated. We recorded 57 species in 26 families, of which Poaceae was the richest. The most frequent and abundant species was Commelina schomburgkiana; the second most frequent was Oryza latifolia,followed by Leersia hexandra, Enydra radicans and Pityrogramma calomelanos. The latter species was second in cover, followed by Pontederia rotundifolia, Eichhornia azurea, E. crassipes and Enydra radicans. These five species and C. schomburgkiana (the most abundant) together represent more than half of the coverage on the lake. Pontederia rotundifolia, Ludwigia helminthorrhiza, Pistia stratiotes, E. azurea, E. crassipes, Enydra radicans and Panicum elephantipes were strongly associated with deeper areas, while Oryza latifolia, Leersia hexandra and Salvinia auriculata were prevalent in shallow areas. Pityrogramma calomelanos, Ludwigia nervosa, Ipomoea alba, Cayaponia podantha, Polygonum acuminatum, Rhynchanthera novemnervia and Ludwigia leptocarpa were highly correlated with floating meadows. The structure of the habitat, natural dynamics and zonation of aquatic vegetation in the Baía do Castelo seems to be influenced by a variation in water levels, which promotes spatial segregation, most likely due to competition and/habitat preference. PMID:22990823

  18. Fertilizer comparison test of the special formula fertilizer for Zizania latifoia%茭白配方专用肥肥效比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      通过与常规施肥比较,研究茭白配方专用肥对茭白生物学性状、产量和品质的影响。试验结果表明:茭白商品性有明显改善,粗脂肪、维生素C、总糖、氨基酸等品质指标增幅达到极显著水平,并可实现增产增效21.96%,节约肥料成本6.53%,利润提高25.98%。在配方专用肥的基础上增施氮肥,不能提高茭白产量,且肥料成本增加,种植效益明显下降。%In this study, by comparing the conventional fertilization with the special formula fertilizer for Zizania latifolia, the effect of the special formula fertilizer on biological characters, yield and quality were studied. The results show that there is a significant improvement in Zizania latifolia commodity traits, and the crude fat, vitamin C, total sugars, amino acids, and other quality indicators are increased significantly. Appling special formula fertilizer results in 21.96% increase in yield and efficiency, a 6.53% reduction in fertilizer costs, a 25.98% increase in profit. In addition, adding nitrogen fertilizer on the basis of the formula specialty fertilizer can’t improve Zizania latifolia’s production, and planting efficiency decreases with the increase of fertilizer costs.

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of arbutin in skin-whitening creams and medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongchai, Wisanu; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2007-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative analysis of arbutin. The arbutin was separated on an ODS Hypersil C(18) column with a mobile phase of water:methanol:0.1 M hydrochloric acid (89:10:1, v/v/v). The level of arbutin was measured by means of UV detection at 222 nm. The optimum conditions for arbutin quantitative analysis were investigated. The calibration curve was found to be linear up to 1,000 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin concentration, and the working calibration curve for arbutin determination over the range 0.5-30.0 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin (r(2)=0.9999) was established. The relative standard deviations for intraday and interday were found to be 0.98% and 1.15%, respectively. A detection limit (3sigma) and quantitation limit (10sigma) of 0.02 microg/ml(-1) and 0.2 microg/ml(-1), respectively, and a mean percentage recovery of the spiked arbutin of 99.88 +/- 1.12% were obtained. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of arbutin in commercial skin-whitening creams (Arbuwhite cream, Super Whitening cream, and Shiseido cream) with average contents of 7.60, 5.30, and 57.90 mg/g(-1), respectively. It was also applied to the determination of arbutin in medicinal plant extracts from Betula alnoides Buch. Ham., Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore, Curculigo latifolia Dryand. Var. latifolia, and Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) Roem, levels of which were found to be 3.50, 1.50, 1.10, and 0.12 microg/g(-1), respectively (no article reported in the literature about arbutin analysis). The proposed HPLC method is rapid, simple, and selective for routine analysis. PMID:17342266

  20. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türker, Onur Can [Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, Aksaray University, Aksaray (Turkey); Böcük, Harun, E-mail: hbocuk@anadolu.edu.tr [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskişehir (Turkey); Yakar, Anıl [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskişehir (Turkey)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We assessed the phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) from mine effluent. ► B in mine effluent decreased from 187 mg l{sup −1} to 123 mg l{sup −1} (32% removal rate) through the PCW. ► Estimated methane production, energy yields and electrical energy yields of the PCW increased with biomass production. ► Cattails accumulated more than 250 mg kg{sup −1} B and common reed accumulated 38 mg kg{sup −1} B at the end of the experiment. -- Abstract: This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l{sup −1} (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg{sup −1} whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg{sup −1} B during the research period.

  1. Mesophyll conductance plays a central role in leaf functioning of Oleaceae species exposed to contrasting sunlight irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Alessio; Loreto, Francesco; Tattini, Massimiliano; Giordano, Cristiana; Ferrini, Francesco; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    The ability to modify mesophyll conductance (gm ) in response to changes in irradiance may be a component of the acclimation of plants to shade-sun transitions, thus influencing species-specific distributions along light-gradients, and the ecological niches for the different species. To test this hypothesis we grew three woody species of the Oleaceae family, the evergreen Phillyrea latifolia (sun-requiring), the deciduous Fraxinus ornus (facultative sun-requiring) and the hemi-deciduous Ligustrum vulgare (shade tolerant) at 30 or 100% sunlight irradiance. We show that neither mesophyll conductance calculated with combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence techniques (gm ) nor CO2 assimilation significantly varied in F. ornus because of sunlight irradiance. This corroborates previous suggestions that species with high plasticity for light requirements, do not need to undertake extensive reorganization of leaf conductances to CO2 diffusion to adapt to different light environments. On the other hand, gm steeply declined in L. vulgare and increased in P. latifolia exposed to full-sun conditions. In these two species, leaf anatomical traits are in part responsible for light-driven changes in gm , as revealed by the correlation between gm and mesophyll conductance estimated by anatomical parameters (gmA ). Nonetheless, gm was greatly overestimated by gmA when leaf metabolism was impaired because of severe light stress. We show that gm is maximum at the light intensity at which plant species have evolved and we conclude that gm actually plays a key role in the sun and shade adaptation of Mediterranean species. The limits of gmA in predicting mesophyll conductance are also highlighted. PMID:26537749

  2. New Discoveries of Phaeophycean Fossils in the Early Cambrian,Haikou, Kunming,Yunnan, Southwest China%云南海口早寒武世褐藻化石新知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆良

    2001-01-01

    主要报道了产自云南海口耳材村早寒武世筇竹寺组玉案山段澄江生物群中的褐藻化石——拟点叶藻(Punctariopsis latifolia gen. et sp. nov.)、简单拟点叶藻(Punctariopsis simplex gen. et sp. nov.)和古文德带藻(Vendotaenia cf. antiqua Gnilovskaya) 3种.这些化石丰富了澄江生物群物种的多样性,为研究该群生物爆发性演化提供了新的证据.同时通过对现生褐藻和褐藻化石形态学的比较研究,表明化石属和现代属在系统演化上可能有较密切的亲缘关系,并进一步证明了澄江生物群在云南海口地区发生于一个潮间带和亚潮带的海水环境.%The paper deals with the new phaeophycean fossils in the Early Cambrian from Chengjiang Biota at Ercai Village of Haikou, Kunming, Yunnan, Southwest China. Three new taxa, Punctariopsis latifolia gen. et sp. nov., P.simplex gen. et sp. nov. and Vendotaenia cf. antiqua Gnilovskaya are described here in detail. These new findings show that the Chengjiang Biota is high in species diversity of fossil algae and might offer new evidence for a better understanding of the Cambrian explosive biological evolution. The fossil genus described here is found to have a close relationship with the living Punctaria based on similar morphology. The results suggest that the Chengjiang Biota in Haikou area of Kunming was living in an intertidal and subtidal seawater environment.

  3. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae. 3. Sections Hyalis and Morphixia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A revised classification is presented for Ixia L., a southern African genus restricted to the winter rainfall zone of the western part of the subcontinent, in which the four sections Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, Hyalis (Baker Diels, Ixia, and Morphixia (Ker Gawl. Pax are recognized and diagnosed. The circumscription of sect. Hyalis is emended to include both short- and long-tubed species, mostly with four or more leaves with the uppermost not sharply differentiated from the lower. This contrast with sect. Morphixia, also with short- and long-tubed species, in which the entirely sheathing uppermost leaf (rarely upper two leaves is distinct from the lower two or rarely three leaves, which have well-developed blades. We revise these two sections, recognizing 18 species in sect. Hyalis, including the two new species, I. linderi and I. recondita, and recognizing 31 species in sect. Morphixia, including the 11 new species, I. alata, I. cedarmontana, I. dolichosiphon, I. ecklonii, I. linearifolia, I. monticola (previously included in I. latifolia var. angustifolia, I. pavonia, I. parva and I. ramulosa (raised from varietal rank as var. parviflora and var. ramulosa respectively of I. latifolia, I. saundersiana and I. stenophylla (previously I. fucata var. filifolia. We also provide a new name, I. mollis for the illegitimate homonym I. flaccida. Lastly, we transfer I. purpureorosea from sect. Ixia to sect. Hyalis. We recognize eight informal series, three in sect. Hyalis and five in sect. Morphixia. With these changes and additions the genus Ixia now comprises 78 species.

  4. Eficiência do triclopyr no controle de plantas daninhas em gramado (Paspalum notatum Triclopyr efficiency in controlling weeds in the lawn (Paspalum notatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas interferem nos gramados, prejudicando a sua formação, qualidade e estética. O carrapicho-beiço-de-boi (Desmodium incanum e a zórnia (Zornia latifolia, quando não controlados, podem atingir níveis de infestação que chegam a dizimar o gramado. Dentre as diversas técnicas de manejo de plantas daninhas em gramados, destaca-se o emprego de herbicidas; todavia, as informações sobre a utilização desses produtos em gramados são escassas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do herbicida triclopyr no controle de Desmodium incanum e Zornia latifolia, infestantes da grama-batatais (Paspalum notatum. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em gramado estabelecido no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa-MG, entre os meses de abril e maio de 2000. Os tratamentos avaliados foram seis doses do triclopyr (0,00; 0,24; 0,48; 0,72; 0,96; e 1,20 kg ha-1 e uma dose do 2,4-D + picloram (0,48 + 0,128 kg ha-1, dispostos em delineamento experimental com blocos ao acaso e quatro repetições. O tamanho de cada parcela foi de 12 m² (4,0 x 3,0 m, sendo os tratamentos aplicados em uma faixa de 2,0 m de largura, ficando 1,0 m como testemunha lateral, para auxiliar nas avaliações visuais. Foram realizadas avaliações de fitotoxicidade aos 10 e 20 DAT (Dias Após o Tratamento e nível de controle aos 15 e 30 DAT, ambos com base na testemunha lateral. Em nenhum dos tratamentos avaliados verificaram-se danos na qualidade do gramado. A partir das doses de 0,48 e 0,66 kg ha-1 de triclopyr foram obtidos controles iguais ou superiores a 90% de Desmodium incanum e Zornia latifolia, respectivamente. Esses resultados foram semelhantes ao do tratamento-padrão (2,4D + picloram a 0,48 + 0,128 kg ha-1. Concluiu-se que o triclopyr mostrou-se seletivo para grama-batatais, proporcionando excelente controle das plantas daninhas acima mencionadas.Weeds interfere in the formation, quality and aesthetics of the lawn. Desmodium incanum

  5. The development of substance use in adolescence: results from comparing two longitudinal studies in England and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariotti Luca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the development of alcohol and cannabis use in two English and German adolescent cohorts, using longitudinal data from ongoing studies located in Peterborough and Duisburg respectively. We set out the two studies and detail the steps taken to make the comparisons presented. Unusually, this paper assesses this development simultaneously in both cohorts, using an under-utilized variation of a well-known technique (multiple-group multiple-cohort latent growth curve modelling. In keeping with expectations from other research, there are large differences in the proportions of young people in the two countries using cannabis and alcohol. The Peterborough cohort embarked on earlier initiation of both alcohol and cannabis use, and increase their frequency of use very quickly. Despite a one year chronological gap between the two study cohorts, the 13 year old Peterborough group drink (until drunk and smoke cannabis at the same level as the 15 year old versions of their German counterparts. Although there are some methodological differences between the two projects, the results appear to be valid.In questo articolo viene svolta una comparazione sullo sviluppo, nel corso dell’adolescenza, del consumo di droghe leggere e alcol tra un campione di giovani tedeschi e inglesi, utilizzando i dati di due studi longitudinali panel condotti rispettivamente in Germania e in Inghilterra. Per questo confronto viene utilizzata una tecnica particolare (multiple-group multiple-cohort latent growth curve modelling che permette di osservare similitudini e differenze nello sviluppo individuale del consumo di queste sostanze nel corso del tempo, con un’attenzione particolare alle differenze tra le due coorti. Nonostante alcune differenze di tipo metodologico tra i due studi, e comunque in sintonia con studi precedenti, si notano importanti differenze tra i due campioni. Il campione inglese infatti mostra un livello di consumo più alto rispetto a

  6. Allozymic and biometric variation in Dryomys nitedula (Pallas, 1778

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Filippucci

    1995-05-01

    . L'analisi genetica è stata condotta su 29 esemplari mediante elettroforesi di 40 loci genici. In entrambe le analisi il campione israeliano è risultato il più distinto. I1 cranio degli esemplari israeliani è caratterizzato da fila molare mandibolare più lunga, rhamus mandibolae più alto, bullae più lunghe e da una riduzione nella larghezza della costrizione interorbitale, della scatola cranica e del rostro. Elettroforeticamente il campione israeliano può essere distinto dalle popolazioni europee sulla base di quattro loci fissati per nuovi alleli (Ldh-1, G6pdh, Pep-1 e Lap-2. Il valore medio della distanza genetica di Nei tra le popolazioni europee e quella israeliana è D = 0.186, con range compreso tra 0.153 e 0.227. La popolazione israeliana, generalmente attribuita al taxon phrygius, si differenzia da questo su base morfologica. D. n. phrygius della località topotipica in Asia Minore risulta affine alla popolazione europea della Tracia turca. Per chiarire i rapporti filogenetici del driomio israeliano si suggerisce il confronto con altre popolazioni del Caucaso e dell'Iran e con Dryomys laniger della Turchia.

  7. Fungistatic activity of all-trans retinoic acid against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione E

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Elena Campione,1 Roberta Gaziano,2 Daniele Marino,2 Augusto Orlandi3 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of Anatomic Pathology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy Purpose: Fungal infections are a major complication in hematologic and neoplastic patients causing severe morbidity and mortality. Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans are among the most invasive opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients, and classic antifungal drugs are frequently unsuccessful in these patients. Recent reports hypothesize that the antifungal efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is mainly related to its strong capacity to stimulate monocyte-mediated immunity, but no consideration was given to its potential direct fungistatic activity. Moreover, ATRA offers the opportunity for systemic therapy. Methods and results: We investigated the efficacy of ATRA at different concentrations for its antifungal activity against opportunistic A. fumigatus and C. albicans obtained from clinical samples according to standard protocols. A fungistatic activity of ATRA on A. fumigatus and C. albicans at 0.5–1 mM concentration was documented up to 7 days. Conclusion: This is the first evidence of a direct and strong fungistatic activity of ATRA against A. fumigatus and C. albicans. The potential adjuvant therapeutic application of ATRA might be useful in the treatment and/or prevention of systemic mycoses in immunocompromised patients. The discovery of a direct fungistatic activity, in association with its reported immunomodulatory properties, makes ATRA an excellent candidate for new combined antifungal strategies for systemic mycoses in immunocompromised and cancer patients. Keywords: all-trans retinoic acid, fungistatic activity, fungal infections

  8. IL PROCESSO DI PRODUZIONE SCRITTA: LA COESIONE VERBALE IN TESTI DI SCUOLA PRIMARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rosi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Una delle principali difficoltà che incontrano i bambini della scuola primaria nella produzione scritta riguarda la coesione verbale, ovvero il mantenimento lungo il testo della dimensione temporale inizialmente selezionata per riportare gli eventi. L’articolo esamina questo specifico tipo di competenza testuale negli alunni di sei classi del secondo ciclo della scuola primaria, tre delle quali hanno partecipato alla sperimentazione educativa sulla produzione di testi scritti “Osservare l’interlingua”. Il confronto fra i dati raccolti all’inizio e alla fine dell’anno scolastico mostra una riduzione dei salti immotivati da un tempo verbale all’altro, definiti shift temporali, nei testi prodotti nelle classi del campione sperimentale in misura maggiore rispetto a quelle di controllo e sottolinea gli effetti positivi, a breve e lungo termine, di una didattica task-based condotta con approccio inclusivo, cooperativo ed attivo.  The process of writing: verb cohesion in primary school textsOne of principal difficulties in producing written texts for primary school pupils concerns verb cohesion, i.e. maintaining the temporal dimension initially chosen for expressing events throughout the text. The paper examines this specific textual competence in pupils from six classes within second cycle of primary school. Three of these classes were involved in the “Observing interlanguage” project focused on written production. The comparison of data collected at the beginning and the end of school year shows a decrease in temporal shifts (transitions from one verb tense to another in the texts produced by the students involved in the project with regard to the control group. These findings highlight the positive effects, both short-term and long-term, of task-based teaching through an inclusive, cooperative and active approach. 

  9. Initial investigation into computer scoring of candidate essays for personnel selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Michael C; Campion, Michael A; Campion, Emily D; Reider, Matthew H

    2016-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 101(7) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2016-32115-001). In the article the affiliations for Emily D. Campion and Matthew H. Reider were originally incorrect. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Emerging advancements including the exponentially growing availability of computer-collected data and increasingly sophisticated statistical software have led to a "Big Data Movement" wherein organizations have begun attempting to use large-scale data analysis to improve their effectiveness. Yet, little is known regarding how organizations can leverage these advancements to develop more effective personnel selection procedures, especially when the data are unstructured (text-based). Drawing on literature on natural language processing, we critically examine the possibility of leveraging advances in text mining and predictive modeling computer software programs as a surrogate for human raters in a selection context. We explain how to "train" a computer program to emulate a human rater when scoring accomplishment records. We then examine the reliability of the computer's scores, provide preliminary evidence of their construct validity, demonstrate that this practice does not produce scores that disadvantage minority groups, illustrate the positive financial impact of adopting this practice in an organization (N ∼ 46,000 candidates), and discuss implementation issues. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of using computer scoring to address the adverse impact-validity dilemma. We suggest that it may provide a cost-effective means of using predictors that have comparable validity but have previously been too expensive for large-scale screening. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077525

  10. The Causality of Casualness in the Translations of World Poetry: Jorie Graham vs Mary Oliver in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Loreto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the impact of poetry translation on the circulation of the works of American poets in Italy. The research is conducted by means of a double approach: in the first place, the aesthetic and cultural value of the poetry of two American women poets (Jorie Graham and Mary Oliver is assessed, whose work has received a radically different reception. Secondly, the reasons for this disparity of treatment are sought in the interrelation between the practices and activity of poetry translation and of publication, as they are customarily led in Italy. These are inferred from sample interviews with professionals in both fields. The results of the investigation highlight a combination of the casual and the causal, the causing factor being the occasional encounter of a poet with a translator, who then chooses his/her author, texts, and translating strategies according to his/her personal aesthetic, and sometimes ideological, judgment. Il saggio offre un’analisi dell’influenza delle traduzioni sulla circolazione della poesia americana contemporanea in Italia. La ricerca si articola in due momenti: in primo luogo viene fornita una valutazione estetica e culturale dell’opera di due poetesse americane, Jorie Graham e Mary Oliver, la cui ricezione in Italia è particolarmente significativa perché sta conoscendo fortune opposte; in secondo luogo viene condotta un’indagine dei motivi di questa disparità di trattamento nell’interazione tra le pratiche di traduzione e le dinamiche di pubblicazione in atto in Italia. Queste sono state dedotte da alcune interviste campione con professionisti dei due campi. I risultati hanno evidenziato una combinazione di fattori casuali e causali, nella quale l’incontro personale e a volte fortuito tra un poeta e un traduttore mette in moto strategie di selezione e di traduzione motivate da ragioni estetiche e a volte ideologiche. 

  11. Attivitá fisica extra-scolastica negli adolescenti: il ruolo dello stato socio-economico delle famiglie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Capelli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: l’associazione fra stato socio-economico (SES ed attività fisica è poco indagata. Obiettivo del presente studio è quello di valutare la relazione tra attività fisica extra-scolastica di adolescenti scolarizzati e lo SES della famiglia di provenienza.

    Metodi: l’indagine ha previsto la somministrazione nel corso dell’anno scolastico 2002-2003 di un apposito questionario anonimo autocompilato, già validato in uno studio pilota, ad un campione di studenti delle scuole medie inferiori del Lazio (province di Roma, Frosinone e Latina.

    Risultati: hanno partecipato allo studio 1486 studenti di cui 756 maschi (50.9% e 730 femmine (49.1%. L’età dei partecipanti varia fra gli 11 ed i 15 anni (età mediana 12 anni. Il 72.7% degli studenti dichiara di svolgere attività fisica al di fuori della scuola. Il livello di istruzione dei genitori e la loro attività lavorativa sembrano avere un peso notevole sui determinanti dell’attività fisica negli studenti. Infatti, svolgono prevalentemente attività fisica extra-scolastica i figli di genitori manager/libero professionisti (OR = 3.29 e con un elevato livello educativo (OR = 10.38 per i figli di genitori laureati.

    Conclusioni: i risultati confermano quanto la situazione socio-economica delle famiglie sia in netta relazione con l’attività fisico-sportiva dei giovani. Tali risultati potranno essere utili per gli operatori scolastici e gli amministratori nell’ispirare e realizzare azioni volte a diminuire il divario esistente fra i giovani che hanno le possibilità economiche e svolgono attività sportiva extra-scolastica e quelli che, invece, appartenendo a famiglie svantaggiate, hanno minore accesso a tali attività.

  12. Indagine sulle opinioni, conoscenze ed attitudini dei docenti scolastici della provincia di Frosinone in tema di tossicodipendenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrara

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: lo studio in questione mirava a valutare le conoscenze circa gli effetti e l’uso personale del fumo di tabacco e delle droghe in generale in un campione di insegnanti delle Scuole Medie Superiori della provincia di Frosinone.

    Metodi: sono stati somministrati questionari anonimi a 350 docenti frequentanti un Corso di Aggiornamento sulle tossicodipendenze.

    Risultati: il 23.4% ha dichiarato di essere fumatore, con un consumo medio pro die di 10 sigarette: di questi la maggior parte era di sesso femminile. Sul fastidio che si prova in presenza di un fumatore il 54.6% ha risposto positivamente, tra cui il 14.6% sono fumatori. Il 94% dichiara di non aver utilizzato alcun tipo di sostanza mentre il 5.5%, tra cui in prevalenza femmine, dichiara di utilizzare psicofarmaci. Le sostanze stupefacenti ritenute più pericolose sono eroina 82.9%, cocaina 81.1%, allucinogeni 70%, canapa indiana 54.9%; alcol 58% e tabacco 18% sono meno pericolose. Il 15.7% ritiene che l’abitudine al fumo sia scatenata dalla socializzazione, il 15.1% dall’imitazione, il 15.4% dal piacere e dalla curiosità, l’11.1% dal sentirsi grandi, l’8% dal gusto del proibito. Il 97.1% mostra un adeguato livello di conoscenza sulle droghe e il cervello è il principale organo danneggiato (96.3%.

    Conclusioni: la conoscenza dei docenti in materia di tossicodipendenze sembra concentrata sulle droghe illegali: infatti, i rischi legati al consumo di alcol e tabacco sono sottovalutati e non sono chiari i fattori determinanti la dipendenza. Infine i docenti hanno espresso l’esigenza di aggiornamento per l’insufficiente opera di informazione e prevenzione svolta da parte delle istituzioni competenti.

  13. A strategy of fox management in Italy: the guide lines of the Istituto Nazionale di Biologia della Selvaggina / Proposte per una strategia nazionale di gestione della Volpe: le linee direttrici dell'Istituto Nazionale di Biologia della Selvaggina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Toso

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Authors critically consider the usual fox management in Italy and suggest a new strategy concerning the hunting activity and population control. The following topics are discussed: a improvement of the knowledge about the geographical and ecological distribution of foxes using the information furnished by a specific national atlas; b population dynamics monitoring mainly obtained from the bag records and the cheking of breeding dens in selected sampling areas; c hunting methods and season; d guide-lines for the policy of fox control based on an up-to-date review about the effects of fox predation on game and the effectiveness of the different methods carried on. Riassunto Gli Autori esaminano criticamente il tipo di gestione cui viene sottoposta la Volpe Vulpes vulpes in Italia e suggeriscono una nuova strategia per ciò che concerne il prelievo venatorio ed il controllo delle popolazioni. In particolare vengono affrontati i seguenti temi: a miglioramento delle conoscenze sulla distribuzione geografica ed ecologica della specie attraverso la redazione di uno specifico atlante nazionale; b monitoraggio della dinamica delle popolazioni, ottenuto soprattutto con l'analisi dei carnieri ed il conteggio delle tane riproduttive in aree campione; c tempi e modalità del prelievo venatorio; d analisi delle attuali conoscenze circa l'impatto della predazione della Volpe sulla selvaggina e conseguenti indicazioni sull'opportunità e efficacia delle operazioni di controllo delle popolazioni volpine anche in relazione ai metodi diretti ed indiretti utilizzati.

  14. The determination of cadmium, lead and vanadium by high resolution ICP-MS in Antarctic snow samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, F. [Joh. Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Trincherini, P. [European Union Joint Research Centre, Ispra, VA (Italy). Inst. of Environment

    2000-02-01

    Double focusing ICP-MS was successfully used in this research for the direct determination of the cadmium, lead and vanadium content of a set of Antarctic samples collected during the 11. Italian Expedition to Antarctica. For cadmium and lead measurements the low resolution mode was chosen since it ensured the highest ion sensitivity and it allowed the highest detection limits to be attained; in the case of vanadium the high resolution mode was used to solve the isobaric interference. As far as vanadium and cadmium are concerned by GFAAS coupled with different preconcentration procedures. The vanadium, cadmium and lead content measured in a riverine water reference material (SRLS-3) was found in agreement with the certified values. [Italian] Si e' utilizzato uno spettrometro ICP-MS a doppia focalizzazione per la determinazione diretta di cadmio, piombo e vanadio in una serie di campioni di neve antartica superficiale raccolta durante l'undicesima spedizione italiana in Antartide. Per le determinazioni di cadmio e piombo si e' scelta la procedura a bassa risoluzione, che ha garantito la piu' elevata sensibilita' ed ha permesso di ottenere limiti di determinazione migliori; nel caso del vanadio si e' utilizzata la procedura ad alta risoluzione che ha permesso di risolvere problemi di interferenza isobarica. Per quanto riguarda cadmio e vanadio, i risultati delle determinazioni mediante ICP-MS sono risultati in buon accordo con quelli ottenuti mediante GFAAS accoppiata a diverse procedure di preconcentrazione. Il contenuto di cadmio, piombo e vanadio misurato con le procedure sviluppate in un campione certificato di acqua di fiume (SRLS-3) e' risultato in accordo con i valori certificati.

  15. Urban schools' teachers enacting project-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Blumenfeld, Phyllis C.

    2006-09-01

    What teaching practices foster inquiry and promote students to learn challenging subject matter in urban schools? Inquiry-based instruction and successful inquiry learning and teaching in project-based science (PBS) were described in previous studies (Brown & Campione, [1990]; Crawford, [1999]; Krajcik, Blumenfeld, Marx, Bass, & Fredricks, [1998]; Krajcik, Blumenfeld, Marx, & Solloway, [1994]; Minstrell & van Zee, [2000]). In this article, we describe the characteristics of inquiry teaching practices that promote student learning in urban schools. Teaching is a major factor that affects both achievement of and attitude of students toward science (Tamir, [1998]). Our involvement in reform in a large urban district includes the development of suitable learning materials and providing continuous and practiced-based professional development (Fishman & Davis, in press; van Es, Reiser, Matese, & Gomez, [2002]). Urban schools face particular challenges when enacting inquiry-based teaching practices like those espoused in PBS. In this article, we describe two case studies of urban teachers whose students achieved high gains on pre- and posttests and who demonstrated a great deal of preparedness and commitment to their students. Teachers' attempts to help their students to perform well are described and analyzed. The teachers we discuss work in a school district that strives to bring about reform in mathematics and science through systemic reform. The Center for Learning Technologies in Urban Schools (LeTUS) collaborates with the Detroit Public Schools to bring about reform in middle-school science. Through this collaboration, diverse populations of urban-school students learn science through inquiry-oriented projects and the use of various educational learning technologies. For inquiry-based science to succeed in urban schools, teachers must play an important role in enacting the curriculum while addressing the unique needs of students. The aim of this article is to

  16. Calcium pectinate gel beads obtained from callus cultures pectins as promising systems for colon-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Elena A; Popeyko, Oxana V

    2016-08-20

    Low methyl-esterified pectins obtained from the cell walls of the campion (SV, SV>300), tansy (TV, TV>300) and duckweed (LM, LM>300) callus cultures and apple pectin (AP, Classic AU 701) were used as the carriers for colon delivery of prednisolone. The pectins with molecular weight more than 300kDa (SV>300, TV>300, LM>300) formed gels which exhibited the higher gel strength. The higher gel strength of these gels appeared to be related to the higher Mw and the lower degree of methylesterification (DE) of these pectins. Release aspects of prednisolone in the simulated gastric (pH 1.25), intestinal (pH 7.0) and colonic (pH 7.0+pectinase) media were investigated. The LM-5%, AP-3% and AP-5% beads destroyed in simulated intestinal medium probably due to the higher DE of the LM and AP pectins. The SV>300-3% and TV>300-3% prednisolone loaded bead systems showed a high stability at pH 1.25 and pH 7.0. Prednisolone release occurred in a larger extent in colonic medium due to the enzymatic erosion of the beads. The SV>300-3% and TV>300-3% particles showed a more controlled release that appeared to be related to the lower DE, rhamnogalacturonan content, rhamnogalacturonan I branching and the higher linearity and Mw of the TV>300 and SV>300 pectins, as well as to the higher gel strength. This in vitro study suggests that calcium pectinate gel beads obtained from callus cultures pectins can be proposed as potential systems for colon-targeted drug delivery. PMID:27178956

  17. studio descrittivo delle evidenze neuropsicologiche in un gruppo di pazienti HIV positivi afferenti al reparto malattie infettive dell’ospedale di Alessandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amendola G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obiettivi: Le ormai note complicanze neurologiche nell’infezione da HIV comportano la necessità di introdurre la figura del neuropsicologo nel team dedicato, con l’obiettivo iniziale di definire un modello di presa in carico per l’utenza e descriverne le caratteristiche e i bisogni rilevati.Metodologia: data la particolare caratterizzazione sottocorticale del danno neuro-cognitivo secondario a HIV, che interessa in modo trasversale un po’ tutti i sistemi neurocognitivi, è stato necessario ricorrere, sul campione iniziale che qui descriviamo, composto da 31 pazienti, ad un’ampia batteria di prove neuropsicologiche, in linea con i protocolli internazionali, completata da un questionario di valutazione dell’umore (Beck Depression Inventory e un’intervista sulla tipologia, qualità e livelli di soddisfazione all’interno dei principali legami di appartenenza.Risultati: i dati fino oggi raccolti hanno mostrato specifiche difficoltà a livello di funzioni esecutive. Alcuni indici di confronto, che dovranno essere sottoposti a successive conferme e più fini analisi, sono risultati suggestivi per la possibilità di individuare e selezionare, tra quelli comunemente usati in questo campo, alcuni paradigmi neuropsicologici dotati della più alta validità di costrutto e di specificità predittiva. Conclusioni: le azioni neuropsicologiche sembrano poter rappresentare, oltre ché un fattore preventivo per i pazienti con HIV, una verifica ed eventuale adeguamento dei livelli di aderenza alle terapie, utile al fine di ottimizzare le risorse. Garantiscono inoltre, grazie all’offerta di un possibile “contenitore” dato dallo specialista, di ridurre il gravoso carico emotivo della malattia.

  18. Prevalenza di anticorpi anti-Legionella in gruppi di operatori odpedalieri provenienti da due regioni italiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Stancanelli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: é stato condotto uno studio di prevalenza per stabilire la presenza di anticorpi anti- Legionella in persone che svolgono diverse attività lavorative, tenendo conto dei fattori personali e ambientali che possono associarsi ad un maggior rischio espositivo.

    Metodi: sono state esaminate 160 persone di entrambi i sessi, suddivisi in base alla professione in operatori sanitari (n.52, operai (n.55 e impiegati (n.53. Dopo l’adesione tramite consenso informato, per ciascun soggetto veniva compilato un apposito questionario per indagare sui fattori di rischio per l’esposizione a Legionella spp e prelevato un campione di sangue per la ricerca sul siero di anticorpi IgG anti-Legionella (metodo IFA

    Risultati: il 43,8% dei medici e il 33,3% degli infermieri sono risultati positivi (titolo›1:128, contro il 16,4% degli operai e il 13,2 degli impiegati (10,55, p‹0,05. I gruppi più frequenti erano L. pneumophila sierogruppo 7-14 (77,1% dei positivi e L. non pneumophila, L’esame dei fattori di rischio non ha evidenziato associazioni significative con sesso, fumo, bevande alcoliche, anzianità lavorativa ed altre caratteristiche personali. I sintomi simil-influenzali nell’ultimo anno e gli episodi bronco-polmonari riferibili agli ultimi 10 anni non si associavano ad un maggior numero e/o grado di positività.

    Conclusioni: la sieropositività per Legionella è risultata associata con lo svolgimento delle mansioni di medico e/o infermiere ad indicare una maggior esposizione a Legionella spp negli ambienti sanitari, ma nella maggior parte dei casi si trattava di anticorpi verso i sierogruppi a bassa espressività clinica, come dimostrato dalla assenza anamnestica di legionellosi nel gruppo allo studio.

  19. L’ITALIANO ALL’UNIVERSITÉ DE SAVOIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Costantini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro traccia un profilo degli studenti iscritti al corso di laurea triennale in Lingua, letteratura e cultura italiana della facoltà di Lettere, lingue e scienze umane dell’Université de Savoie (Chambéry, Francia. Basandosi su informazioni raccolte presso un campione di ventisei studenti tramite un apposito questionario, l’articolo delinea un ritratto degli apprendenti e ne analizza le esperienze passate e presenti di apprendimento linguistico; i contatti che essi hanno con l’Italia e con parlanti italofoni; le motivazioni di ordine culturale, professionale e personale che li hanno spinti all’apprendimento della lingua italiana. A partire dal loro profilo che i dati fanno emergere si stabilisce un confronto, in merito alle dinamiche di studio e alle motivazioni all’apprendimento dell’italiano, tra gli studenti di Chambéry e l’utenza dei corsi di lingua italiana organizzati dagli Istituti italiani di cultura nel mondo.  Italian at the Université de Savoie The article profiles students enrolled in the undergraduate program in Italian language, literature and culture at the Faculty of Arts, Languages and Humanities at the Université de Savoie (Chambéry, France. Based on information gathered from a sample of twenty-six students through a questionnaire, the article outlines a portrait of the learners and analyzes their past and present experience regarding language learning, contact they have with Italy and Italian speakers and the cultural, professional and personal reasons that brought them to study the Italian language. Based on the data, a comparison regarding the dynamics of Italian language learning and motivation among students in Chambéry and users of Italian language courses organized by the Italian Cultural Institutes in the world can be made.

  20. Ecological implications of reduced pollen supply in the alpine: a case study using a dominant cushion plant species [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3xc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Reid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive assurance hypothesis states that self-incompatible female plants must produce twice the number of seeds relative to their self-compatible hermaphroditic counterparts to persist in gynodioecious populations. This is a viable life-history strategy, provided that pollination rates are sufficiently high. However, reduced pollination rates in alpine plants are likely due to climate induced plant-pollinator mismatches and general declines in pollinators. Using a gynodioecious population of the dominant plant Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae, we tested the reproductive assurance hypothesis and also the stress gradient hypothesis with a series of pollinator exclusion trials and extensive measurements of subsequent reproductive output (gender ratio, plant size, percent fruit-set, fruit weight, seeds per fruit, total seeds, seed weight, and seed germination. The reproductive assurance hypothesis was supported with female plants being more sensitive to and less likely to be viable under reductions in pollination rates. These findings are the first to show that the stress gradient hypothesis is also supported under a gradient of pollen supply instead of environmental limitations. Beneficiary abundance was negatively correlated to percent fruit-set under current pollen supply, but became positive under reduced pollen supply suggesting that there are important plant-plant-pollinator interactions related to reproduction in these alpine plant species.

  1. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  2. Research Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published in English and in French, this large report first proposes an overview of the use and history of research nuclear reactors. It discusses their definition, and presents the various types of research reactors which can be either related to nuclear power (critical mock-ups, material test reactors, safety test reactors, training reactors, prototypes), or to research (basic research, industry, health), or to specific particle physics phenomena (neutron diffraction, isotope production, neutron activation, neutron radiography, semiconductor doping). It reports the history of the French research reactors by distinguishing the first atomic pile (ZOE), and the activities and achievements during the fifties, the sixties and the seventies. It also addresses the development of instrumentation for research reactors (neutron, thermal, mechanical and fission gas release measurements). The other parts of the report concern the validation of neutronics calculations for different reactors (the EOLE water critical mock-up, the MASURCA air critical mock-up dedicated to fast neutron reactor study, the MINERVE water critical mock-up, the CALIBAN pulsed research reactor), the testing of materials under irradiation (OSIRIS reactor, laboratories associated with research reactors, the Jules Horowitz reactor and its experimental programs and related devices, irradiation of materials with ion beams), the investigation of accident situations (on the CABRI, Phebus, Silene and Jules Horowitz reactors). The last part proposes a worldwide overview of research reactors

  3. Hyperaccumulation of lead, zinc, and cadmium in plants growing on a lead/zinc outcrop in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. L.; Liao, W. B.; Yu, F. Q.; Liao, B.; Shu, W. S.

    2009-08-01

    A field survey was conducted to identify potential hyperaccumulators of Pb, Zn or Cd in the Beichang Pb/Zn mine outcrop in Yunnan Province, China. The average total concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in the soils were up to 28,438, 5,109, and 52 mg kg-1, respectively. A total of 68 plant species belonging to 60 genera of 37 families naturally colonizing the outcrop were recorded. According to metal accumulation in the plants and translocation factor (TF), Silene viscidula was identified as potential hyperaccumulator of Pb, Zn, and Cd with mean shoot concentrations of 3,938 mg kg-1 of Pb (TF = 1.2), 11,155 mg kg-1 of Zn (TF = 1.8) and 236 mg kg-1 of Cd (TF = 1.1), respectively; S. gracilicanlis (Pb 3,617 mg kg-1, TF = 1.2) and Onosma paniculatum (Pb 1,837 mg kg-1, TF = 1.9) were potential Pb hyperaccumulators. Potentilla griffithii (Zn 8,748 mg kg-1, TF = 1.5) and Gentiana sp. (Zn 19,710 mg kg-1, TF = 2.7) were potential Zn hyperaccumulators. Lysimachia deltoides (Cd 212 mg kg-1, TF = 3.2) was a potential Cd hyperaccumulator. These new plant resources could be used to explore the mechanisms of Pb, Zn and/or Cd hyperaccumulation, and the findings could be applied for the phytoremediation of Pb, Zn and/or Cd-contaminated soils.

  4. Ecological implications of reduced pollen deposition in alpine plants: a case study using a dominant cushion plant species [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3mb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Reid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive assurance hypothesis states that self-incompatible female plants must produce twice the number of seeds relative to their self-compatible hermaphroditic counterparts to persist in gynodioecious populations. This is a viable life-history strategy, provided that pollination rates are sufficiently high. However, reduced pollination rates in alpine plants are likely due to climate induced plant-pollinator mismatches and general declines in pollinators. Using a gynodioecious population of the dominant plant Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae, we tested the reproductive assurance hypothesis and also the stress gradient hypothesis with a series of pollinator exclusion trials and extensive measurements of subsequent reproductive output (gender ratio, plant size, percent fruit-set, fruit weight, seeds per fruit, total seeds, seed weight, and seed germination. The reproductive assurance hypothesis was supported with female plants being more sensitive to and less likely to be viable under reductions in pollination rates. These findings are the first to show that the stress gradient hypothesis is also supported under a gradient of pollen supply instead of environmental limitations. Beneficiary abundance was negatively correlated to percent fruit-set under current pollen supply, but became positive under reduced pollen supply suggesting that there are important plant-plant-pollinator interactions related to reproduction in these alpine plant species.

  5. Improvement of the Surface Hardness of Stainless Steel with the TitaniumCarbonitride Ti(CN) Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of the Ti(CN) thin films with methods of implantation and RFsputtering for improving the surfaces hardness of stainless steel (SS) hasbeen done. Some kinds of TiC thin films which made individually by varyingof RF sputtering power from 0 up to 160 watt are implanted by the nitrogenion beams on the doses and energy ion optimum of 6.107 x 1017 ion/cm2 and100 keV, also fabrication of Ti(CN) thin films use RF sputtering method withTi target and reaction gases as argon, silene and nitrogen on the optimum ofsputtering parameter condition. The thin films yields are characterized byusing Microhardness Tester MX 170, obtained SS hardness which layered Ti(CN)as 402.5 KHN from its initial of 215.54 KHN and 371.74 KHN (layered TiC), itmeans that the SS surface hardness improve 1.867 times cumulatively. From theX-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis yield showed that the microstructure ofTi(CN) films on the SS substrates are dominated by characteristic cubiccrystal structure with Miller plane orientation (111) on the scattering angleof 2 θ = 44o. Morphology visualization of Ti(CN) thin films crosssection on the SS substrate is realized by Spectroscopy Electron Microscope(SEM). (author)

  6. LLNL Results from CALIBAN-PROSPERO Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Experiments in September 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobaugh, M. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, C. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wysong, A. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Merritt, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heinrichs, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Topper, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses thin neutron activation foils, sulfur, and threshold energy shielding to determine neutron component doses and the total dose from neutrons in the event of a nuclear criticality accident. The dosimeter also uses a DOELAP accredited Panasonic UD-810 (Panasonic Industrial Devices Sales Company of America, 2 Riverfront Plaza, Newark, NJ 07102, U.S.A.) thermoluminescent dosimetery system (TLD) for determining the gamma component of the total dose. LLNL has participated in three international intercomparisons of nuclear accident dosimeters. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an exercise at the French Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission- CEA) Research Center at Valduc utilizing the SILENE reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison at CEA Valduc, this time with exposures at the CALIBAN reactor (Hickman et al. 2011). This paper discusses LLNL’s results of a third intercomparison hosted by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN) with exposures at two CEA Valduc reactors (CALIBAN and PROSPERO) in September 2014. Comparison results between the three participating facilities is presented elsewhere (Chevallier 2015; Duluc 2015).

  7. ECO-physiological response of S. vulgaris to CR(VI): Influence of concentration and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradas Del Real, Ana E; García-Gonzalo, Pilar; Gil-Díaz, M Mar; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Lobo, Carmen; Pérez-Sanz, Araceli

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to study the response of Silene vulgaris to a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cr(VI) in order to evaluate its potential use in the phytomanagement of Cr polluted sites. Cuttings of six homogenous genotypes from Madrid (Spain) have been used as plant material. The eco-physiological response of S. vulgaris to Cr(VI) changed with the genotype. The yield dose-response curve was characterized by stimulation at low doses of Cr(VI). The effects of metal concentration were quantified on root dry weight, water content and chlorophyll content, determined by SPAD index. The response was not homogeneous for all studied genotypes. At high doses of Cr(VI), plants increased micronutrient concentration in dry tissues which suggested that nutrient balance could be implicated in the alleviation of Cr toxicity. This work highlights the importance of studying the eco-physiological response of metallophytes under a range of pollutant concentrations to determine the most favorable traits to be employed in the phytomanagement process. PMID:26375321

  8. Inferring polyploid phylogenies from multiply-labeled gene trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Anna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene trees that arise in the context of reconstructing the evolutionary history of polyploid species are often multiply-labeled, that is, the same leaf label can occur several times in a single tree. This property considerably complicates the task of forming a consensus of a collection of such trees compared to usual phylogenetic trees. Results We present a method for computing a consensus tree of multiply-labeled trees. As with the well-known greedy consensus tree approach for phylogenetic trees, our method first breaks the given collection of gene trees into a set of clusters. It then aims to insert these clusters one at a time into a tree, starting with the clusters that are supported by most of the gene trees. As the problem to decide whether a cluster can be inserted into a multiply-labeled tree is computationally hard, we have developed a heuristic method for solving this problem. Conclusion We illustrate the applicability of our method using two collections of trees for plants of the genus Silene, that involve several allopolyploids at different levels.

  9. Measurements of the neutron-spectra on the nuclear plants by means of the activation and fission detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here are presented the results of the neutron spectra determinations on the nuclear plants HPRR(USA), SILEN (FRANCE), and VIPER (GREAT BRITAIN) by means of a method developed in the Institute for Nuclear Sciences BORIS KIDRIC, Vinca based on the measurements of the induced activities in the activation detectors, created number of fissions in the fission detectors as well as on the measurements of the specific activity Na-24 in a phantom of BOMAB type. The measurements of the neutron spectra by means of the activation and fission detectors is particularly convenient on the nuclear plants operating on an impulse rate, where exist neutron fields of relatively high intensities. The forms of the neutron spectra on these plants measured by the method developed in the Institute BORIS KIDRIC for the needs of the accidental dosimetry are used to determine the mean values of the conversion factors fluens - absorbed dose of the neutrons for the energy interval 1 keV - 14 MeV. The results are compared with the values obtained by the other authors and in most cases the departures were within 10%. (author)

  10. НОВЫЕ ДЛЯ СИБИРИ И МАЛОИЗВЕСТНЫЕ ЧУЖЕРОДНЫЕ ВИДЫ РАСТЕНИЙ

    OpenAIRE

    Эбель, Александр

    2013-01-01

    В статье сообщаются сведения о распространении в Сибири 6 видов заносных растений, ранее не отмеченных для этой территории (Anthemis arvensis, Carduus hamulosus, Centaurea majorovii, Elytrigia intermedia, Papaver dubium, Physalis peruviana), 4 видов редких в Сибири ксенофитов (Cuscuta campestris, Erucastrum gallicum, Poa compressa, Silene dichotoma) и 4 видов, дичающих из культуры (Malva moschata, Pyrethrum parthenium, Symphytum caucasicum, Xanthoxalis corniculata)....

  11. The status of the finite element transient criticality code FETCH. Verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the computer code FETCH, which has been assembled with support from the UK Health and Safety Executive and is based on codes that had been developed earlier at Imperial College. It is intended to be a generic method, based as far as possible on basic principles. It may be a method of reference in the future and should give the capability to explore safety-related situations somewhat beyond the range of experiment. As a result of research focussed on multi-phase flow modelling, the code has the capability to model fluidized beds and porous media - such as contaminated soil/wetted powders. Two key recent developments have been multi-phase / free surface modelling and the more recent incorporation of pressure feedback. The application of the pressure feedback model has helped explain some features of earlier SILENE high power transients. The FETCH code is currently subject to a validation and verification process. The recent addition of pressure feedback has strengthened the multi-phase modelling and has allowed new insight into the reason for observed pressure oscillations following the main power transient. (J.P.N.)

  12. Post-floral Erection of Stalks Provides Insight into the Evolution of Fruit Orientation and Its Effects on Seed Dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yang; Zhou, Zhuo; Sha, Wen; Sun, Hang

    2016-01-01

    That stalks reorient after flowering to face upwards is a common phenomenon in many flowering plants, indicating the potential importance of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. But this idea has not been subject to an empirical test. We examined this hypothesis by analysing the evolutionary correlation between fruit orientation and other characters and by investigating the effects of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. We found that 1) in a sub-alpine plant community, upward fruit orientation strongly correlates with fruits that act as seed containers, which are often of dry type and are dispersed by non-animal vectors; 2) as exemplified by the Campanulaceae s. str., fruit orientation strongly correlates with dehiscence position. Upwardly-oriented capsules dehisce at the apex, whereas pendent ones dehisce at the base, in both cases ensuring that seeds are released from an upright position; 3) in manipulation experiments on Silene chungtienensis, upward fruits (the natural state) exhibit much greater dispersal distances and more dispersive pattern than pendent ones, and have a more even distribution of dispersal direction than horizontal ones. Our results suggest that fruit orientation may have important function in seed dispersal, which may be the reason why the phenomenon that stalk erection after flowering occurs widely. PMID:26832830

  13. Rhizosphere characteristics of indigenously growing nickel hyperaccumulator and excluder plants on serpentine soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field study reinforces that root exudates may contribute to nickel hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense Halacsy. - The role of rhizosphere processes in metal hyperaccumulation is largely unexplored and a matter of debate, related field data are virtually not available. We conducted a field survey of rhizosphere characteristics beneath the Ni hyperaccumulator Thlaspi goesingense Halacsy and the metal-excluder species Silene vulgaris L. and Rumex acetosella L. growing natively on the same serpentine site. Relative to bulk soil and to the rhizosphere of the excluder species, we found significantly increased DOC and Ni concentrations in water extracts of T. goesingense rhizosphere, whereas exchangeable Ni was depleted due to excessive uptake of Ni. Chemical speciation analysis using the MINTEQA2 software package revealed that enhanced Ni solubility in Thlaspi rhizosphere is driven by the formation of Ni-organic complexes. Moreover, ligand-induced dissolution of Ni-bearing minerals is likely to contribute to enhanced Ni solubility. Increased Mg and Ca concentrations and pH in Thlaspi rhizosphere are consistent with ligand-induced dissolution of orthosilicates such as forsterite (Mg2SiO4). Our field data reinforce the hypothesis that exudation of organic ligands may contribute to enhanced solubility and replenishment of metals in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating species

  14. Extensions to Dynamic System Simulation of Fissile Solution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bernardin, John David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Spernjak, Dusan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Previous reports have documented the results of applying dynamic system simulation (DSS) techniques to model a variety of fissile solution systems. The SUPO (Super Power) aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) was chosen as the benchmark for comparison of model results to experimental data for steadystate operation.1 Subsequently, DSS was applied to additional AHR to verify results obtained for SUPO and extend modeling to prompt critical excursions, ramp reactivity insertions of various magnitudes and rate, and boiling operations in SILENE and KEWB (Kinetic Experiment Water Boiler).2 Additional models for pressurized cores (HRE: Homogeneous Reactor Experiment), annular core geometries, and accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADAHR) were developed and results reported.3 The focus of each of these models is core dynamics; neutron kinetics, thermal hydraulics, radiolytic gas generation and transport are coupled to examine the time-based evolution of these systems from start-up through transition to steady-state. A common characteristic of these models is the assumption that (a) core cooling system inlet temperature and flow and (b) plenum gas inlet pressure and flow are held constant; no external (to core) component operations that may result in dynamic change to these parameters are considered. This report discusses extension of models to include explicit reference to cooling structures and radiolytic gas handling. The accelerator-driven subcritical generic system model described in References 3 and 4 is used as a basis for this extension.

  15. Сообщение о нескольких новых местонахождениях редких видов сосудистых растений на территории Ленинградской области и Санкт-Петербурга

    OpenAIRE

    Доронина, А.

    2008-01-01

    В статье приводятся сведения о новых местонахождениях 16 редких видов сосудистых растений на территории Ленинградской области и Санкт-Петербурга. Pulsatilla vernalis, Lycopodiella inundata, Dactylorhiza baltica, D. traunsteineri, Silene tatarica, Isatis tinctoria, Orobanche pallidiflora, Lathraea squamaria, Corallorhiza trifida, Botrychium lunaria—охраняемые виды; Potentilla bifurca, Conium maculatum—редкие адвентивные виды, Echium vulgare, Moneses uniflora, Galeobdolon luteum—редкие виды в в...

  16. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry; Le programme d'intercomparaison internationale de dosimetrie d'accident 10-12 juin 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a {sup 60}Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  17. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  18. Natural and planted flora of the log mountain surface - mined demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.L. [Berea College, KY (United States); Wade, G.L. [USDA Forest Service, Burlington, VT (United States); Straw, R.A. [Univ. of Tennessee Plateau Experiment Station, Crossville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A descriptive study of the naturally invading and planted flora was conducted during 1984-1985 on a 14- and 21-year-old contour surface mine the 14.2 ha Log Mountain Demonstration Area (LMDA), in Bell County, Kentucky. Six habitats are designated from areas created from coal mining; the 1963 bench, 1970 bench, bench highwalls, mine outslopes, mine seeps, and coal haul-telephone microwave tower road. Twenty-four of 25 woody and herbaceous species (11 indigenous, 13 non-indigenous) have persisted from plantings by personnel of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. We recommend 11 native and exotic woody and herbaceous species for planting on coal surface-mined areas. An annotated list of vascular plants comprises 360 taxa (286 indigenous, 74 non-indigenous) in 224 genera from 82 families. Taxa consist of 1 Lycopodiophyta, 1 Equisetophyta, 8 Polypodiophyta, 7 Pinophyta, and 343 Magnoliophyta. The most species-rich families are the Asteraceae (64), Poaceae (39), Fabaceae (20), Cyperaceae (16), Rosaceae (13), and Lamiaceae (11). A total of 155 Bell County distribution records were documented. Three threatened Kentucky species (Gentiana decora, Liparis loeselii, Silene ovata) were present in refugial habitats created by surface mining. The high species richness has resulted from native and naturalized invading species from the environs, native and exotic planted species, and species from the remnant seed bank. Forest vegetation is a complex mosaic of natural and semi-natural plant communities on the unplanted and planted areas of LMDA.

  19. Reflections About the Role of Intellectuals in Latin America Reflexiones acerca del rol de los intelectuales en América Latina Reflexões sobre o papel dos intelectuais na América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Naidorf

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this paper is to address some theoretical aspects - concepts that contribute to reflection on the specific role of the current Latin American intellectual. The contributions of various authors will help us to characterize a role that is constantly rethinked, analyzed and disputed.

    The proposal is to retake the theoretical developments in the category "intellectual" from Antonio Gramsci and Immanuel Wallerstein mainly, but making reference to its most intense moments in the 60-70 decades with Sartre and Foucault in Europe. It also highlights the contributions made by Pierre Bourdieu, Sousa Santos and the contributions to Latin America by Fals Borda, Florestan Fernandez, Octavio Ianni and Eliseo Veron, among others. Also included are examples of statements for the EZLN by Subcomandante Marcos and refers to the analysis performed by Julio Gambina and Daniel Campione for the Argentine case.

    It’s not the interest of this work to arrive at definitions finished about the social function of

  20. Effect of Iron Plaque on Root Growth and Activity of Two Wetland Plants%根表铁膜对2种景观湿地植物根系发育及活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟顺清

    2015-01-01

    Root activity is an important indicator of plant response to environmental conditions.High iron content (Fe-plaques)frequently form on roots of wetland plants,reflecting the adaptation of wetland plants to submersion, facilitates nutrient uptake and prevents uptake of phytotoxins.In this study,root activity and the growth of adventi-tious roots of Typha latifolia and Iris pseudacorus in solution culture experiments were determined to investigate the response of wetland plant roots to iron plaque induced on the root surface.Typha latifolia and Iris pseudacorus (each 60 plants)were cultivated in Hoagland nutrient solution for one week.After adventitious roots of Typha lati-folia and Iris pseudacorus emerged,the existing root was removed and the plants were cultivated in the Hoagland so-lution for an additional three weeks at a pH of 5 .5 .Thirty-five plants with similar shoot height and root length were transferred to seven plastic buckets with a solution pH of 5.0 and different Fe2+(FeSO4·7H2O)concentrations (0,10,20,60,100,150,200 mg/L)to induce iron plague formation.The buckets were covered with black po-lyethylene bags and filled with N2 gas.After five days,two plants were removed from solution to determine root ac-tivity.One week later,the fresh weight and activity of the adventitious roots of both species in all treatment groups were measured.Adventitious root growth of Typha latifolia was inhibited by Fe2+concentrations of less than 100 mg/L,but was promoted at concentrations over 100 mg/L.At higher Fe2+concentrations,the root activity of Typha latifolia decreased and there was a large difference [9.70 μg/(g·h)]between maximum and minimum values.However,the influence of Fe plague on the adventitious root growth of Iris pseudacorus was not significant in all treatments,and the root activity of Iris pseudacorus ranged from 2.36 μg/(g·h)to 5.48 μg/(g·h)with little variation among treatments.There was a significant negative relationship between the root

  1. Distribución de plantas vasculares a escala local. Taxones con mayor ocupación geográfica en Ambite y Utande (La Alcarria Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Abad Alonso, Juan Javier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The method for performing Floral Cover Indices (FCI, presented in a previous article, is applied to two 100 km2 U.T.M. grid cells (30TVK86, Ambite and 30TWL02,Utande. They are located in different sectors of the natural region of Western “La Alcarria”. The goal is to know and compare distributions of presence and abundance of vascular plants at local scale. Geographical factors affecting cover of the flora is widely exposed. Analysis method and chorological maps drawing with four spatial levels (1, 4, 25 and 100 km2 are presented. Results of the twelve taxa with the highest FCI in the set of two grid cells and phytogeographical interpretations are shown: Genista scorpius, Quercus ilex subsp. ballota, Thymus vulgaris, Helianthemum cinereum subsp. rotundifolium, Brachypodium retusum, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, Lavandula latifolia, Dactylis hispanica, Rosmarinus officinalis, Koeleria vallesiana, Quercus faginea y Salvia lavandulifolia.Se aplica la Metodología de Índices de Ocupación de la Flora, presentada en un artículo anterior, en dos cuadrículas de 100 km2 pertenecientes a La Alcarria Occidental, pero localizadas en sectores diferentes (Ambite, 30TVK86, y Utande, 30TWL02, con objeto de conocer y comparar las distribuciones geográficas de la presencia y abundancia de plantas vasculares a escala local. Se exponen ampliamente los factores geográficos diferenciales que inciden en la ocupación de la flora. Se presentan el método de análisis y la elaboración de la cartografía corológica para cuatro resoluciones cartográficas diferentes (1, 4, 25 y 100 km2. Se muestran y se comentan fitogeográficamente los resultados de los doce taxones con mayor IOP en el conjunto de las dos cuadrículas: Genista scorpius, Quercus ilex subsp. ballota, Thymus vulgaris, Helianthemum cinereum subsp. rotundifolium, Brachypodium retusum, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, Lavandula latifolia, Dactylis hispanica, Rosmarinus officinalis, Koeleria

  2. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  3. Absorção de água pelas raízes do limoeiro sob distintas freqüências de irrigação Water uptake by lemon roots under different irrigation frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfran B. dos Santos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, nesse trabalho, caracterizar a absorção de água pelas raízes do limoeiro 'Taiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka no perfil de solo sob diferentes intervalos de irrigação por microaspersão. O estudo foi realizado em condições semi-áridas, em solo franco arenoso, cuja absorção de água pelas raízes das plantas foi determinada a partir da umidade em diversas posições no perfil do solo entre duas irrigações, por meio de sondas de TDR. A distribuição radicular foi avaliada a partir de dados de comprimento e diâmetro das raízes nas mesmas posições das sondas de TDR. Conforme os resultados, verificou-se que: (i à medida que as raízes se afastam do microaspersor, a extração de água pelas raízes do limoeiro é reduzida; (ii o limoeiro extrai mais água do solo quando não há restrição de disponibilidade hídrica; (iii sempre que os intervalos entre as irrigações aumentam, cresce também a área de extração de água pelo sistema radicular do limoeiro; (iv as raízes das plantas com diâmetros entre 0,5-2 mm foram as que mais extraíram água do solo.The present work had the objective of characterizing water uptake by 'Taiti' lemon (Citrus latifolia Tanaka roots in the soil profile under different microsprinkler irrigation intervals. The work was conducted under semi-arid conditions, in a sandy loam soil. Water uptake by roots was determined from soil water content by means of TDR probes, at several positions in the soil profile between two irrigation events. The root distribution was evaluated based upon data of length and root diameter at the same locations of TDR probes. According to the results, it was verified that: (i water uptake reduced as the distance root-microsprinkler increased; (ii lemon crop extracts more water when there is no restriction to the available water in the wetted volume; (iii the area of water uptake by lemon roots increases with increase in the irrigation intervals; (iv roots with

  4. Decomposition dynamics of mixed litter in a seasonally flooded forest near the Orinoco river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianoni, Alessia; Chacón, Noemí; Méndez, Carlos L.; Flores, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the decomposition of a litter mixture in the seasonally flooded forest of a tributary of the Orinoco river. This mixture was prepared using three litter species, based on the litter fall rate observed over a complete hydro-period (2012-2013). The mixture loading ratio was 0.46 of Pouteria orinocoensis (Sapotaceae), 0.38 of Alibertia latifolia (Rubiaceae) and 0.16 of Acosmium nitens (Fabaceae). The initial chemical composition of each single litter species was also determined. Litterbags (20 × 20 cm, 2 mm opening) containing either each single species or the mixture, were deployed on the flooded forest soil and sampled after 30, 240, 270, 300 and 330 days. There were differences in initial total N and P concentrations, with A. nitens (AN) showing the highest nutrient concentrations (%NAN = 1.86 ± 0.19; %PAN = 0.058 ± 0.008) and P. orinocoensis (PO) and A. latifolia (AL) the lowest (%NPO = 0.92 ± 0.06; %NAL = 1.04 ± 0.04; %PPO = 0.029 ± 0.005; %PAL = 0.032 ± 0.001). Litter from AN showed the greatest mass loss (55%) and fastest decomposition rate (k = 0.00185 ± 0.00028) while litter from AL and the mixture showed the smallest mass loss (24% and 27% respectively) and the slowest decomposition rate (kAL = 0.00078 ± 0.00012 and kMIX = 0.00077 ± 0.00006). Decomposition rates were significantly and positively correlated with initial N (r = 0.556, p < 0.05) and P concentrations (r = 0.482, p < 0.05). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between the expected decomposition rate and the observed decomposition rate of the mixture (additive response). To test the nature of the additivity, an enhancement factor (f) on decomposition rates for each single species was calculated. The species with the highest and smallest value of f were AN and AL, respectively. The fact that two out of the three species had values significantly different from 1, suggests that the additivity detected in our mixture was a consequence of the counterbalancing of

  5. Caracterização da comunidade de plantas aquáticas de dezoito reservatórios pertencentes a cinco bacias hidrográficas do Estado de São Paulo Characterization of the aquatic plant communities of 18 reservoirs of five watersheds in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar e comparar a composição florística de 18 reservatórios pertencentes a cinco bacias hidrográficas do Estado de São Paulo. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de fevereiro a setembro de 2002, com o auxílio de um barco. Percorreu-se a margem dos reservatórios das bacias hidrográficas dos rios Paraíba, Paraná, Paranapanema, Grande e Tietê, à velocidade de 30 km h-1. A cada 20 minutos, estabeleceu-se um ponto de amostragem, determinando-se sua posição por meio de GPS. Em cada ponto, em área de 1.000 m², identificaram-se as espécies ocorrentes e respectivas densidades, em porcentagem da área amostrada. Foram identificadas 39 espécies, distribuídas em 21 famílias, destacando-se as flutuantes Salvinia auriculata, Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea e Pistia stratiotes e as emersas Polygonum lapathifolium, Brachiaria arrecta,Brachiaria mutica, Cyperus sp. e Typha latifolia, considerando as quatro espécies com maior freqüência em cada bacia. O maior índice de similaridade (0,71 ocorreu entre as bacias dos rios Paranapanema e Grande, e o menor (0,49, entre as bacias dos rios Paraíba e Tietê.The objective of this work was to evaluate and compare the aquatic plant composition of 18 reservoirs in five watershed basins in SP-Brazil. The survey was carried out on a boat from February to September 2002, comprising the watersheds basins of the rivers Paraíba, Paraná, Paranapanema, Grande and Tietê. On average, every 20 minutes a sampling point was determined by means of a portable GPS, and the species were identified based on high density, average density and low density. A total of 39 species was identified, distributed in 21 families. The prominent species were the floating Salvinia auriculata, Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes and the immersed Polygonum lapathifolium, Brachiaria arrecta, Brachiaria mutica, Cyperus sp. and Typha latifolia

  6. SEX-DETector: A Probabilistic Approach to Study Sex Chromosomes in Non-Model Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyle, Aline; Käfer, Jos; Zemp, Niklaus; Mousset, Sylvain; Picard, Franck; Marais, Gabriel AB

    2016-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic framework to infer autosomal and sex-linked genes from RNA-seq data of a cross for any sex chromosome type (XY, ZW, and UV). Sex chromosomes (especially the non-recombining and repeat-dense Y, W, U, and V) are notoriously difficult to sequence. Strategies have been developed to obtain partially assembled sex chromosome sequences. Most of them remain difficult to apply to numerous non-model organisms, either because they require a reference genome, or because they are designed for evolutionarily old systems. Sequencing a cross (parents and progeny) by RNA-seq to study the segregation of alleles and infer sex-linked genes is a cost-efficient strategy, which also provides expression level estimates. However, the lack of a proper statistical framework has limited a broader application of this approach. Tests on empirical Silene data show that our method identifies 20–35% more sex-linked genes than existing pipelines, while making reliable inferences for downstream analyses. Approximately 12 individuals are needed for optimal results based on simulations. For species with an unknown sex-determination system, the method can assess the presence and type (XY vs. ZW) of sex chromosomes through a model comparison strategy. The method is particularly well optimized for sex chromosomes of young or intermediate age, which are expected in thousands of yet unstudied lineages. Any organisms, including non-model ones for which nothing is known a priori, that can be bred in the lab, are suitable for our method. SEX-DETector and its implementation in a Galaxy workflow are made freely available. PMID:27492231

  7. Epigenetic changes of Arabidopsis genome associated with altered DNA methyltransferase and demethylase expressions after gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Cho, Eun Ju; Kim, Ji Hong; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    DNA methylation at carbon 5 of cytosines is a hall mark of epigenetic inactivation and heterochromatin in both plants and mammals. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation has two roles that protect the genome from selfish DNA elements and regulate gene expression. Plant genome has three types of DNA methyltransferase, METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1), DOMAINREARRANGED METHYLASE (DRM) and CHROMOMETHYLASE 3 (CMT3) that are capable of methylating CG, CHG (where H is A, T, or C) and CHH sites, respectively. MET1 is a maintenance DNA methyltransferase that controls CG methylation. Two members of the DRM family, DRM1 and DRM2, are responsible for de novo methylation of CG, CHG, and CHH sites but show a preference for CHH sites. Finally, CMT3 principally carries out CHG methylation and is involved in both de novo methylation and maintenance. Alternatively, active DNA demethylation may occur through the glycosylase activity by removing the methylcytosines from DNA. It may have essential roles in preventing transcriptional silencing of transgenes and endogenous genes and in activating the expression of imprinted genes. DNA demetylation in Arabidopsis is mediated by the DEMETER (DME) family of bifunctional DNA glycosylase. Three targets of DME are MEA (MEDEA), FWA (FLOWERING WAGENINGEN), and FIS2 (FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED 2). The DME family contains DEMETER-LIKE 2 (DML2), DML3, and REPRESSOR OF SILENING 1 (ROS1). DNA demetylation by ROS1, DML2, and DML3 protect the hypermethylation of specific genome loci. ROS1 is necessary to suppress the promoter methylation and the silencing of endogenous genes. In contrast, the function of DML2 and DML3 has not been reported. Several recent studies have suggested that epigenetic alterations such as change in DNA methylation and histone modification should be caused in plant genomes upon exposure to ionizing radiation. However, there is a lack of data exploring the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize and

  8. Laboratory evaluation of traditional insect/mosquito repellent plants against Anopheles arabiensis, the predominant malaria vector in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Mulelam, Adane; Wassie, Fentahun

    2008-08-01

    Laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the repellent efficiency of most commonly known four traditional insect/mosquito repellent plants Wogert [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Silene macroserene], Kebercho [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Echinops sp.], Tinjut [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Ostostegia integrifolia], and Woira[vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Olea europaea] against Anopheles arabiensis under the laboratory conditions. One hundred (4-5 days old) female A. arabiensis were introduced into the both 'control' and 'test' repellent chamber through the hole on top. Traditional charcoal stoves were used for direct burning. The experiment was conducted by applying the smoke into the repellent "test" mosquito cage by direct burning of 25 gm of dried plant materials (leaves and roots) until plant materials completely burned. The number of mosquitoes driving away from the "test" and "control" cage was recorded for every 5 min. In the present investigation, the results clearly revealed that the roots of S. macroserene has potent repellent efficiency (93.61%) and was the most effective. The leaves of Echinops sp. (92.47%), leaves of O. integrifolia (90.10%) and O. europaea (79.78%) were also effective. Roots of S. macroserene exhibited the highest repellent efficiency by direct burning. The present study identified these four traditional indigenous insect/mosquito repellent plant materials are very promising and can be used as safer alternative to modern synthetic chemical repellents against mosquito vectors of disease. Since people have been using these plants for some medicinal purposes, no side effects have been found. PMID:18493796

  9. SEX-DETector: A Probabilistic Approach to Study Sex Chromosomes in Non-Model Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyle, Aline; Käfer, Jos; Zemp, Niklaus; Mousset, Sylvain; Picard, Franck; Marais, Gabriel Ab

    2016-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic framework to infer autosomal and sex-linked genes from RNA-seq data of a cross for any sex chromosome type (XY, ZW, and UV). Sex chromosomes (especially the non-recombining and repeat-dense Y, W, U, and V) are notoriously difficult to sequence. Strategies have been developed to obtain partially assembled sex chromosome sequences. Most of them remain difficult to apply to numerous non-model organisms, either because they require a reference genome, or because they are designed for evolutionarily old systems. Sequencing a cross (parents and progeny) by RNA-seq to study the segregation of alleles and infer sex-linked genes is a cost-efficient strategy, which also provides expression level estimates. However, the lack of a proper statistical framework has limited a broader application of this approach. Tests on empirical Silene data show that our method identifies 20-35% more sex-linked genes than existing pipelines, while making reliable inferences for downstream analyses. Approximately 12 individuals are needed for optimal results based on simulations. For species with an unknown sex-determination system, the method can assess the presence and type (XY vs. ZW) of sex chromosomes through a model comparison strategy. The method is particularly well optimized for sex chromosomes of young or intermediate age, which are expected in thousands of yet unstudied lineages. Any organisms, including non-model ones for which nothing is known a priori, that can be bred in the lab, are suitable for our method. SEX-DETector and its implementation in a Galaxy workflow are made freely available. PMID:27492231

  10. Epigenetic changes of Arabidopsis genome associated with altered DNA methyltransferase and demethylase expressions after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA methylation at carbon 5 of cytosines is a hall mark of epigenetic inactivation and heterochromatin in both plants and mammals. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation has two roles that protect the genome from selfish DNA elements and regulate gene expression. Plant genome has three types of DNA methyltransferase, METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1), DOMAINREARRANGED METHYLASE (DRM) and CHROMOMETHYLASE 3 (CMT3) that are capable of methylating CG, CHG (where H is A, T, or C) and CHH sites, respectively. MET1 is a maintenance DNA methyltransferase that controls CG methylation. Two members of the DRM family, DRM1 and DRM2, are responsible for de novo methylation of CG, CHG, and CHH sites but show a preference for CHH sites. Finally, CMT3 principally carries out CHG methylation and is involved in both de novo methylation and maintenance. Alternatively, active DNA demethylation may occur through the glycosylase activity by removing the methylcytosines from DNA. It may have essential roles in preventing transcriptional silencing of transgenes and endogenous genes and in activating the expression of imprinted genes. DNA demetylation in Arabidopsis is mediated by the DEMETER (DME) family of bifunctional DNA glycosylase. Three targets of DME are MEA (MEDEA), FWA (FLOWERING WAGENINGEN), and FIS2 (FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED 2). The DME family contains DEMETER-LIKE 2 (DML2), DML3, and REPRESSOR OF SILENING 1 (ROS1). DNA demetylation by ROS1, DML2, and DML3 protect the hypermethylation of specific genome loci. ROS1 is necessary to suppress the promoter methylation and the silencing of endogenous genes. In contrast, the function of DML2 and DML3 has not been reported. Several recent studies have suggested that epigenetic alterations such as change in DNA methylation and histone modification should be caused in plant genomes upon exposure to ionizing radiation. However, there is a lack of data exploring the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize and

  11. Regeneration of whole fertile plants from 30,000-y-old fruit tissue buried in Siberian permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashina, Svetlana; Gubin, Stanislav; Maksimovich, Stanislav; Yashina, Alexandra; Gakhova, Edith; Gilichinsky, David

    2012-03-01

    Whole, fertile plants of Silene stenophylla Ledeb. (Caryophyllaceae) have been uniquely regenerated from maternal, immature fruit tissue of Late Pleistocene age using in vitro tissue culture and clonal micropropagation. The fruits were excavated in northeastern Siberia from fossil squirrel burrows buried at a depth of 38 m in undisturbed and never thawed Late Pleistocene permafrost sediments with a temperature of -7 °C. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating showed fruits to be 31,800 ± 300 y old. The total γ-radiation dose accumulated by the fruits during this time was calculated as 0.07 kGy; this is the maximal reported dose after which tissues remain viable and seeds still germinate. Regenerated plants were brought to flowering and fruiting and they set viable seeds. At present, plants of S. stenophylla are the most ancient, viable, multicellular, living organisms. Morphophysiological studies comparing regenerated and extant plants obtained from modern seeds of the same species in the same region revealed that they were distinct phenotypes of S. stenophylla. The first generation cultivated from seeds obtained from regenerated plants progressed through all developmental stages and had the same morphological features as parent plants. The investigation showed high cryoresistance of plant placental tissue in permafrost. This natural cryopreservation of plant tissue over many thousands of years demonstrates a role for permafrost as a depository for an ancient gene pool, i.e., preexisting life, which hypothetically has long since vanished from the earth's surface, a potential source of ancient germplasm, and a laboratory for the study of rates of microevolution. PMID:22355102

  12. Urban traffic pollution and citizens information; Misure anti inquinamento da traffico urbano e partecipazione del cittadino. Uno studio di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntarelli, P.; Borrelli, G.; Brini, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    su un campione di cittadini di due quartieri di Roma, si propone di esaminare il grado di accettazione sociale di una serie di misure tendenti a ridurre l'inquinamento atmosferico causato dal traffico veicolare urbano, dal momento che trova unanime consenso riconoscere al traffico veicolare e piu' in generale al sistema di vita urbano le maggiori responsabilita' per quanto riguarda la produzione di sostanze inquinanti dell'aria.

  13. Tazarotene as alternative topical treatment for onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elena Campione,1 Evelin Jasmine Paternò,2 Gaetana Costanza,2,3 Laura Diluvio,1 Isabella Carboni,1 Daniele Marino,4 Cartesio Favalli,4 Sergio Chimenti,1 Luca Bianchi,1 Augusto Orlandi2,3 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, 3Department of Anatomic Pathology, Policlinic Tor Vergata, 4Department of Microbiology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy Background: Distal and lateral onychomycoses are the most frequent forms of onychomycosis, causing subungual hyperkeratosis that usually limits local penetration of antimycotic drugs. Tazarotene exerts anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activities toward both infective agents and damaged keratinocytes. Given the well-documented efficacy of tazarotene on hyperkeratotic nail psoriasis, we investigated its therapeutic use in onychomycosis. Patients and methods: We designed a preliminary open clinical trial in patients affected by distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis of the toenails and verified the fungistatic activity of tazarotene in vitro. Fifteen patients were treated with topical tazarotene 0.1% gel once per day for 12 weeks. Mycological cultures and potassium hydroxide stains of nail samples were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Treatment was considered effective when clinical healing and negative mycological culture were obtained. Onycholysis, nail bed discoloration, and subungual hyperkeratosis were measured using standardized methodologies and analyzed by means of Mann–Whitney test and analysis of variance. Fungistatic activity of tazarotene was evaluated by disk diffusion assay. Results: Six patients (40% reached a mycological cure on target nail samples already after 4 weeks of treatment. Complete clinical healing and negative cultures were reached in all patients at week 12, with a significant improvement of all clinical parameters of the infected nails. Disk diffusion assay after 48 hours of incubation with

  14. Sampling design e valutazione costi-benefici: un esempio applicato al pellet count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Raganella Pelliccioni

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il pellet count è un metodo utilizzato per la determinazione delle densità e della distribuzione dei cervidi e risulta particolarmente utile ? sebbene con i limiti riconosciuti al metodo - in contesti in cui l?estensione, la topografia e la copertura vegetale non consentono l?applicazione di altri metodi. Al fine di ottenere stime il più possibile accurate e precise risulta cruciale la scelta della forma e della dimensione delle unità di campionamento, condizionata dall?obiettivo di ridurre il più possibile la varianza tenendo presente al contempo i costi di realizzazione della raccolta dati. L?obiettivo del presente lavoro, basato su stime di densità del capriolo ottenute da pellet count nel Parco del Gigante, è quello di verificare l?andamento della variabilità del numero medio di pellet per unità di campionamento (plot al variare della dimensione dei plot. Nella primavera del 2002 sono stati ispezionati 139 transetti stabiliti su carta adottando un criterio di campionamento di tipo sistematico-stratificato (Thompson et al. 1998 con allocazione delle unità di campionamento (transetti lineari di dimensione pari a 500 x 2 m proporzionale alle principali categorie di habitat presenti. Ai fini dell?analisi è stato selezionato un sottocampione di 60 transetti di uguale forma e dimensione (500 m x 2, distribuiti in due habitat principali (habitat 1: aree di bosco sotto i 1000 m slm- N=52; habitat 2: aree di bosco sotto i 1000 m slm- N=8. Per ciascun habitat e per incrementi progressivi della lunghezza del transetto pari a 50 metri è stato calcolato il numero medio di pellet/transetto ed il rispettivo coefficiente di variazione (CV, mantenendo quindi costante la dimensione complessiva del campione. I risultati mostrano che all?aumentare della lunghezza del transetto si assiste ad una diminuzione del coefficiente di variazione (habitat 1: N=52, CV50=258 - CV500=92; habitat 2: N=8, CV50=118 - CV500

  15. La promozione del parto naturale: effetti di un ambulatorio dedicato sulla prevalenza del taglio cesareo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Simonetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Il taglio cesareo (TC è una procedura chirurgica eseguita in tutto il mondo, spesso senza una reale necessità, con un trend in continuo aumento sopratutto nei paesi industrializzati. In Italia la prevalenza del TC è più elevata rispetto ad altri paesi europei. Tale pratica espone le donne a rischio di complicanze evitabili e aumenta i costi dell’assistenza sanitaria. Tra i fattori riconducibili al ricorso al TC vengono riportate: carenze organizzative, medicina difensiva, convinzione che sia una modalità elettiva di nascita, scarso supporto alla donna del personale sanitario nel percorso di accompagnamento alla nascita. Diverse evidenze suggeriscono che interventi educativi rivolti alle donne in gravidanza aumentano la probabilità del parto naturale (PN rispetto al cesareo: un ambulatorio dedicato al PN potrebbe risultare determinante nel dipanare dubbi ed incertezze della gestante e promuovere la scelta del parto naturale rispetto al TC. Obiettivi. Confrontare la prevalenza dei TC prima e dopo l’implementazione di un ambulatorio dedicato alla promozione del PN. Metodi. L’indagine è stata condotta consultando i dati delle cartelle cliniche delle pazienti afferenti al Dipartimento Materno-Infantile della Azienda USL di Pescara dal 1 febbraio al 31 ottobre 2011, prima dell’attivazione dell’ambulatorio, e dal 1 febbraio al 31 ottobre 2012, dopo l’attivazione dello stesso. Sono state incluse tutte le schede ostetriche delle donne con gravidanza a termine (37 settimane di gestazione; feto vivo in presentazione cefalica; precedente parto spontaneo; precedente TC eseguito in travaglio con buona dilatazione cervicale raggiunta; intervallo tra i parti di 18-24 mesi. Risultati. Sul totale delle cartelle esaminate (2.623, il campione per l’anno 2011 e 2012 è costituito rispettivamente da donne che hanno espletato prevalentemente il PN (62%; 68% con un’età media di 32.0±1.9 e 31.6±0.3, di nazionalità italiana (82%; 87

  16. The diet of the fox (Vulpes vulpes in woodlands of Orobie Alps (Lombardy region, Northern Italy / Alimentazione della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cantini

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the fox was investigated by analysis of 273 scats, collected along standard trails from April to November 1987 and 1988. Food habits of foxes were described for three altitudinal ranges. Mammals, mainly Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus multiplex, were the staple food (percentage of frequency 42.8%, followed by fruits and other vegetables (26.7% and 37.3% respectively. Birds, Invertebrates (mainly Insects and garbage were little eaten. The game species (ungulates, hares, pheasants occurred with a low frequency (8.4% in the diet. The trophic niche breadth varied little through the altitudinal ranges and the seasons. The trophic niche overlap between the fox and the genus Martes (190 scats of M. martes and M. foina were examined is relatively wide (O=0.868. Riassunto La dieta della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie (Val Lesina è stata indagata nel periodo aprile-novembre 1987 e 1988 mediante l'analisi di 273 feci, raccolte lungo percorsi-campione ricadenti in tre piani vegetazionali. I Mammiferi, in particolare Clethrionomys glareolus e Microtus multiplex, sono la componente principale della dieta (frequenza percentuale 42,8%. Rilevante è anche il consumo di frutti (soprattutto in estate e autunno e di altri vegetali (26,7% e 37,3% rispettivamente, mentre poco frequente è quello di Uccelli, Invertebrati e rifiuti. Complessivamente ridotta è l'azione predatoria della Volpe nei confronti delle specie di interesse venatorio (Ungulati, lepri, Galliformi. L'ampiezza della nicchia trofica mostra modeste variazioni stagionali e altitudinali. I1 grado di sovrapposizione tra la nicchia trofica della Volpe e quella del genere Martes, quest'ultima ricavata dall'analisi di 190 feci di Martora (M. martes e Faina (M. foina, è elevato (O=0,868. Tuttavia, poiché in condizioni di

  17. Polimorfismi nei geni metabolici come fattori dirischio per il carcinoma gastrico (GC: risultati preliminari di uno studio caso-controllo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boccia

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: valutare le frequenze dei principali geni metabolici in un campione di casi di GC (Carcinoma Gastrico e di controlli, per determinare se esiste un’associazione con il rischio di GC, e considerare le possibili associazioni tra i genotipi studiati ed alcuni parametri clinico-patologici.

    Metodi: è stato condotto uno studio caso-controllo ospedaliero, tra novembre 1999 e maggio 2003 reclutando 48 pazienti con diagnosi di adenocarcinoma gastrico sottoposti a gastrectomia, e 48 controlli appaiati per sesso ed età presso il Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” in Roma. Per genotipizzare gli individui rispetto ai geni GSTM1, NAT2, SULT1A1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1 (5’ flanking e introne 6, è stata usata la tecnica della PCR con analisi del profilo dei frammenti di restrizione (PCR-RFLP. L’analisi statistica ha previsto l’impiego di test non parametrici e della regressione logistica.

    Risultati: le frequenze dei polimorfismi nei geni metabolici sono risultate in alcuni casi differenti nei casi rispetto ai controlli sebbene non si evidenzi una differenza statisticamente significativa. In particolare il genotipo GSMT1 null è più elevato nei pazienti rispetto ai controlli (63.8% vs. 51% e gli individui NAT2 acetilatori lenti risultano più frequenti nei casi rispetto ai controlli (69.6% vs. 57.45%. L’istotipo diffuso di GC è associato significativamente ai pazienti eterozigoti per l’allele SULT1A1 (c_= 8.216; p= 0.018, ed i pazienti NAT2 acetilatori lenti tendono ad avere un grading tumorale alto (c_= 7.425; p= 0.006.

    Conclusioni: i risultati preliminari di questo studio evidenziano associazioni tra alcuni genotipi metabolici e parametri clinico-patologici, che se confermati potrebbero permettere di identificare sottogruppi con prognosi più sfavorevole di GC da indirizzare preventivamente verso trattamenti specifici.

  18. Valutazione della qualitá dei dati in uno studio post marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D’Alessandro

    2003-05-01

    fornito un dato che si discosta da quello atteso, comportando un'imprecisione nella stima del rischio per i 928 anziani da loro monitorati, pari al 3,2% dell'intero campione.

  19. L’impatto del ricovero ospedaliero sulla qualità della vita dei pazienti: uno studio prospettico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giuseppe Re

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Secondo l’Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità la qualità di vita (QdV è “la personale percezione che un individuo ha della propria posizione nella vita, nel contesto di una cultura e di un insieme di valori nei quali egli vive, anche in relazione ai propri obiettivi, aspettative e preoccupazioni”. Numerosi sono gli strumenti psicometrici progettati per misurare in ambito sanitario l’impatto dell’erogazione di interventi clinico-assistenziali sulla QdV degli utenti, tuttavia poca attenzione si è posta sul ruolo di alcuni predittori - socio-demografici, clinici ed economico-sanitari - durante la degenza ospedaliera. Obiettivi. Accertare l’esistenza ed il tipo di associazione tra alcuni predittori e la variazione della QdV alla dimissione; esaminare i possibili risvolti per la pratica infermieristica. Metodi. Lo studio, condotto presso la struttura ospedaliera del polo universitario di Milano, ha somministrato all’ingresso e alla dimissione dei pazienti lo strumento psicometrico EuroQol-5D. Per valutare l’impatto del trattamento sulla QdV è utilizzato il test ?2, mentre per misurare significatività e rilevanza dei predittori è stato creato un modello di regressione logistica multipla. Risultati. L’erogazione di un trattamento clinico durante il ricovero migliora la QdV percepita (p < 0.001. La proporzione di esiti positivi nei trattamenti medici rispetto a quelli chirurgici è superiore (p < 0.05, così come quella nei ricoveri urgenti (p < 0.01. Il modello di regressione logistica multipla mostra associazioni significative tra età (p < 0.05, degenza (p < 0.05, tempo di intervento (p < 0.01 e variazione della QdV. Limiti. Studio monocentrico; campione di convenienza; periodo di osservazione limitato con possibili scostamenti nel numero e tipologia di ricoveri rispetto alla media annua. Conclusioni. La QdV percepita alla dimissione migliora in caso di erogazione di un trattamento clinico, in particolare se

  20. L’UMORISMO NELLA DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO PER STRANIERI. PROPOSTE DIDATTICHE .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Gironzetti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo, dopo aver presentato le più avanzate ricerche di carattere pragmalinguistico che hanno contribuito a definire la "competenza umoristica" come una specifica abilità linguistico-comunicativa,  invita a considerare l'umorismo come uno strumento valido ed efficace per rendere la lezione di italiano per stranieri un momento di apprendimento, ma anche di socializzazione, di comprensione e tolleranza interculturale. I testi umoristici costituiscono infatti un campione di lingua autentico, ricco di contenuti linguistici, paralinguistici e culturali, insomma, un ottimo spunto per la creazione di attività didattiche non solo interessanti, ma anche divertenti e motivanti. L'obiettivo finale di questo studio è proporre attività didattiche - di cui si fornisce esempi -  per insegnare (con l'umorismo nel contesto di una classe di lingua italiana per stranieri ispanofoni. Le attività didattiche proposte si basano sull'analisi di un corpus bilingue spagnolo/italiano di testi umoristici prestando particolare attenzione agli elementi linguistici e paralinguistici che caratterizzano l'umorismo nelle due lingue e ai contenuti socioculturali specifici necessari per poter comprendere il testo umoristico. Abstract   After a thorough survey of the latest research regarding pragmatic-linguistic issues which have contributed to defining "humor competence" as a specific linguistic-communicative skill, this article suggests considering humor as a valid and effective tool to make Italian language lessons for foreigners into moments for learning as well as socialization, understanding and intercultural tolerance. Humorous texts present authentic language, rich with linguistic, paralinguistic and cultural content, and they are an excellent stimulus for creating interesting, fun and motivating didactic activities. The aim of this study is to propose didactic activities - with examples- to teach humor (with humor in the context of an Italian language class