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Sample records for camphene

  1. Camphene, a Plant Derived Monoterpene, Exerts Its Hypolipidemic Action by Affecting SREBP-1 and MTP Expression.

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    Ioanna Vallianou

    Full Text Available The control of hyperlipidemia plays a central role in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that camphene, a constituent of mastic gum oil, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides (TG in the plasma of hyperlipidemic rats without affecting HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. In the present study, we examine the mechanism by which camphene exerts its hypolipidemic action. We evaluated the effect of camphene on the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and TG from [14C]-acetate in HepG2 cells, along with the statin mevinolin. Camphene inhibited the biosynthesis of cholesterol in a concentration-dependent manner, and a maximal inhibition of 39% was observed at 100 μM while mevinolin nearly abolished cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, treatment with camphene reduced TG by 34% and increased apolipoprotein AI expression. In contrast, mevinolin increased TG by 26% and had a modest effect on apolipoprotein AI expression. To evaluate the mode of action of camphene, we examined its effects on the expression of SREBP-1, which affects TG biosynthesis and SREBP-2, which mostly affects sterol synthesis. Interestingly, camphene increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of SREBP-1 while mevinolin was found to increase the amount of the mature form of SREBP-2. The effect of camphene is most likely regulated through SREBP-1 by affecting MTP levels in response to a decrease in the intracellular cholesterol. We propose that camphene upregulates SREBP-1 expression and MTP inhibition is likely to be a probable mechanism whereby camphene exerts its hypolipidemic effect.

  2. Effects of a Thiosemicarbazide Camphene Derivative on Trichophyton mentagrophytes

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    Cleuza Conceição da Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Thiosemicarbazides are compounds known for their biological activity, particularly their antimicrobial properties, which include activity against fungi. The difficulty of treating fungal diseases induced us to assess the antifungal properties of some novel thiosemicarbazide compounds. We selected the natural products limonene and camphene as sources for the preparation of these new thiosemicarbazide derivatives. The compound N(4-[2,2-dimethyl-3-methylnorbornane]-thiosemicarbazide (TIO C showed an antifungal effect on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with values of MIC = 55 mmol L-1 and MFC = 110 mmol L-1. Scanning-electron microscopy showed a decrease in mycelium development and morphological alterations of T. mentagrophytes cultured on nail fragments and treated with TIO C. In an attempt to discover its mode of action, we noted that ergosterol is apparently not a target of TIO C activity. An effect of TIO C on T. mentagrophytes cell walls and dividing cross-walls was shown by observed impairment of the fluorescence of tissues stained with calcofluor white, a specific marker for fungal chitin, suggesting that the compound can affect and damage the cell-wall structure or may interfere with its formation, during cell division, growth, and morphogenesis. This approach to the synthesis of new derivatives might provide interesting compounds with greater biological activity in pharmacological research.

  3. Production of Camphene by Isomerization Reaction on Sulfated ZrO2

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    NoraAlejandraComelli; OmarMasini; AlfredoL~zaroCarrascull; EstherNataliaPonzi; MartaIsabelPonzi

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of camphene production in liquid phase from α-pinene was experimentally determined in an isothermal batch reactor. To this end, a sulfated ZrO2 catalyst was used and the reaction studied in the temperature range of 370-403 K. By analyzing the experimental data, second reaction order for α-pinene was found. A kinetic model is presented which includes term for the catalyst load used. The specific rate constant at 393K was 2.19×10-3 mol·L-1·min-1, the activation energy being 93kJ·mo1·-1. Both values are within the range of literature results.

  4. Research Progress on Synthesis of Camphene Derivatives%莰烯衍生物的合成研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁玉辉; 肖转泉; 陈金珠; 范国荣; 王鹏; 陈尚钘; 王宗德

    2015-01-01

    Camphene is a kind of natural renewable resource with high economic value, and one of the main byproducts in the deep processing of turpentine as well. The camphene derivatives have great practical application value that can be widely used in fine chemical industry, medicine, food, materials and other industries. Therefore, the synthesis and application research of alcohols, ethers, phenols,ω-acyls, esters and amides derivatives of camphene were summarized, especially the progress in recent years. On this basis, the future researches on the exploitations and applications of camphene and its derivatives were proposed.%莰烯既是一种天然可再生资源,又是松节油深加工中主要副产物之一,具有很高的经济价值。以莰烯为原料合成的衍生物在精细化工、医药、食品、材料等行业均有实际应用价值。因此,本文从莰烯的醇类、醚类、酚类、ω-酰基类、酯类及酰胺类衍生物的合成、应用研究等方面进行综述,重点介绍了近年来的进展状况。在此基础上,提出了莰烯及其衍生物今后的开发及应用研究方向。

  5. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Enantioselectivity in the enzymatic cyclization of (+)- and (-)-linalyl pyrophosphate to (+)- and (-)-pinene and (+)- and (-)-camphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.; Satterwhite, D.M.; Cane, D.E.; Chang, C.C.

    1988-07-25

    Cyclase I from Salvia officinalis leaf catalyzes the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to the stereo-chemically related bicyclic monoterpenes (+)-alpha-pinene and (+)-camphene and to lesser quantities of monocyclic and acyclic olefins, whereas cyclase II from this plant tissue converts the same acyclic precursor to (-)-alpha-pinene, (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-camphene as well as to lesser amounts of monocyclics and acyclics. These antipodal cyclizations are considered to proceed by the initial isomerization of the substrate to the respective bound tertiary allylic intermediates (-)-(3R)- and (+)-(3S)-linalyl pyrophosphate. ((3R)-8,9-14C,(3RS)-1E-3H)Linalyl pyrophosphate (3H:14C = 5.14) was tested as a substrate with both cyclases to determine the configuration of the cyclizing intermediate. This substrate with cyclase I yielded alpha-pinene and camphene with 3H:14C ratios of 3.1 and 4.2, respectively, indicating preferential, but not exclusive, utilization of the (3R)-enantiomer. With cyclase II, the doubly labeled substrate gave bicyclic olefins with 3H:14C ratios of from 13 to 20, indicating preferential, but not exclusive, utilization of the (3S)-enantiomer in this case. (3R)- and (3S)-(1Z-3H)linalyl pyrophosphate were separately compared to the achiral precursors (1-3H)geranyl pyrophosphate and (1-3H)neryl pyrophosphate (cis-isomer) as substrates for the cyclizations. With cyclase I, geranyl, neryl, and (3R)-linalyl pyrophosphate gave rise exclusively to (+)-alpha-pinene and (+)-camphene, whereas (3S)-linayl pyrophosphate produced, at relatively low rates, the (-)-isomers. With cyclase II, geranyl, neryl, and (3S)-linalyl pyrophosphate yielded exclusively the (-)-isomer series, whereas (3R)-linalyl pyrophosphate afforded the (+)-isomers at low rates.

  6. Transcriptome Profile of the Response of Paracoccidioides spp. to a Camphene Thiosemicarbazide Derivative.

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    Lívia do Carmo Silva

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a systemic granulomatous human mycosis caused by fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides, which is geographically restricted to Latin America. Inhalation of spores, the infectious particles of the fungus, is a common route of infection. The PCM treatment of choice is azoles such as itraconazole, but sulfonamides and amphotericin B are used in some cases despite their toxicity to mammalian cells. The current availability of treatments highlights the need to identify and characterize novel targets for antifungal treatment of PCM as well as the need to search for new antifungal compounds obtained from natural sources or by chemical synthesis. To this end, we evaluated the antifungal activity of a camphene thiosemicarbazide derivative (TSC-C compound on Paracoccidioides yeast. To determine the response of Paracoccidioides spp. to TSC-C, we analyzed the transcriptional profile of the fungus after 8 h of contact with the compound. The results demonstrate that Paracoccidioides lutzii induced the expression of genes related to metabolism; cell cycle and DNA processing; biogenesis of cellular components; cell transduction/signal; cell rescue, defense and virulence; cellular transport, transport facilities and transport routes; energy; protein synthesis; protein fate; transcription; and other proteins without classification. Additionally, we observed intensely inhibited genes related to protein synthesis. Analysis by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that the compound induced the production of reactive oxygen species. Using an isolate with down-regulated SOD1 gene expression (SOD1-aRNA, we sought to determine the function of this gene in the defense of Paracoccidioides yeast cells against the compound. Mutant cells were more susceptible to TSC-C, demonstrating the importance of this gene in response to the compound. The results presented herein suggest that TSC-C is a promising candidate for PCM treatment.

  7. The Structure and Molecular Parameters of Camphene Determined by Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeman, Elias M.; Dréan, Pascal; Huet, T. R.

    2016-06-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds, from plants has strong revelance for plant physiology, plant ecology and atmospheric chemistry. Camphene (C10H16) is a bicyclic monoterpene which is emitted in the atmosphere by biogenic sources. The structure of the unique stable conformer was optimized using density functional theory and ab initio calculations. The rotational spectrum of camphene was recorded in a supersonic jet expansion with a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer over the range 2-20 GHz. Signals from the parent species and from the ten 13C isotopomers were observed in natural abundance. The rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters were fitted to a Watson's Hamiltonian in the A-reduction. A magnetic hyperfine structure associated with the pairs of hydrogen nuclei in the methylene groups was observed and modeled.The rotational constants coupled to the equilibrium structure calculations were used to determine the r_0 and the r_m(1) gas-phase geometries of the carbon skeleton. The present work provides the first spectroscopic characterization of camphene in the gas phase and these results are also relevant for ozonolysis kinetics study through Criegee intermediates. R. Baraldi, F. Rapparini, O. Facini, D. Spano and P. Duce, Journal of Mediterranean Ecology, Vol.6, No.1, (2005). A. Bracho-Nunez, N. M. Knothe, S. Welter, M. Staudt, W. R. Costa, M. A. R. Liberato, M. T. F. Piedade, and J. Kesselmeier Biogeosciences, 10, 5855-5873, (2013). Minna Kivimäenpää, Narantsetseg Magsarjav, Rajendra Ghimire, Juha-Matti Markkanen, Juha Heijari, Martti Vuorinen and Jarmo K. Holopainen, Atmospheric Environment, 60, 477-485, (2012). R.C. de M. Oliveira and G. F. Bauerfeldt, J. Phys. Chem. A, 119 2802-2812 (2015)

  8. Camphene isolated from essential oil of Piper cernuum (Piperaceae) induces intrinsic apoptosis in melanoma cells and displays antitumor activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girola, Natalia; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Farias, Camyla F; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Ferreira, Adilson K; Teixeira, Sarah F; Capello, Tabata M; Martins, Euder G A; Matsuo, Alisson L; Travassos, Luiz R; Lago, João H G

    2015-11-27

    Natural monoterpenes were isolated from the essential oil of Piper cernuum Vell. (Piperaceae) leaves. The crude oil and the individual monoterpenes were tested for cytotoxicity in human tumor cell lineages and B16F10-Nex2 murine melanoma cells. In the present work we demonstrate the activity of camphene against different cancer cells, with its mechanism of action being investigated in vitro and in vivo in murine melanoma. Camphene induced apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway in melanoma cells mainly by causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, with release of Ca(2+) together with HmgB1 and calreticulin, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and up regulation of caspase-3 activity. Importantly, camphene exerted antitumor activity in vivo by inhibiting subcutaneous tumor growth of highly aggressive melanoma cells in a syngeneic model, suggesting a promising role of this compound in cancer therapy.

  9. Camphene, a plant-derived monoterpene, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats independently of HMG-CoA reductase activity.

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    Ioanna Vallianou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (p<0.001, 54% of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol (p<0.001 and 34.5% of triglycerides (p<0.001. Treatment of HepG2 cells with camphene led to a decrease in cellular cholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. CONCLUSIONS: Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid

  10. Thermal properties and structural characterizations of new types of phase change material: Anhydrous and hydrated palmitic acid/camphene solid dispersions

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    Lee, Tu, E-mail: tulee@cc.ncu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yu Hsiu; Lee, Yun; Lee, Hung Lin

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: • Solid dispersion is implemented on phase change materials. • Water is added as a tertiary component. • Specific heat of solid is increased by partially amorphous camphene. • Microstructures are characterized by LTDSC, PXRD and SAXS. • Thermal properties are linked to microstructures. - Abstract: Two new types of phase change material anhydrous and hydrated palmitic acid/camphene solid dispersions (PA1CA1) are prepared and characterized by low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering and temperature–history method. Their microstructures contain nanometer-sized palmitic acid (PA) crystallites with lamellar periodicity dispersed in a partially amorphous plastic crystalline camphene (CA) matrix. The PA phase apparently possesses a relatively high latent heat value inherited from the pristine crystalline PA of 229.7 ± 0.1 kJ kg{sup −1}. The relatively high specific heat of solid, C{sub ps}, for anhydrous PA1CA1 of 2.17 ± 0.06 kJ kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} is originated from the presence of disordered CA matrix. Hydration of PA1CA1 can further increase the C{sub ps} to 2.61 ± 0.01 kJ kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}. The mixing of partially amorphous CA, some PA and the small amount of water may have turned the matrix into more disorder due to their different bonding natures, molecular weights, and various molecular shapes and sizes.

  11. Synthesis of isobornyloxyethyl methacrylate from camphene%莰烯合成甲基丙烯酸异冰片基氧乙基酯的研究

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    王士康; 徐徐; 徐晓维; 魏柏松; 王石发

    2013-01-01

    Isobornyloxyethyl methacrylate (IBOEMA),a new type of active diluent for UV-curing coating,was synthesized from camphene as raw material by etherification and transesterification.In the etherification process of camphene and ethylene alcohol,A-15 was used as the catalyst,and the effects of the amount of A-15,the molar ratios of ethylene glycol to camphene,reaction temperature and time on the yield of isobornyl hydroxyethyl ether were investigated,and the optimum synthesis conditions of isobornyl hydroxyethyl ether were determined based on orthogonal test results as follows:A-15 was used as the catalyst and its dosage was 6.0% (based on the total weight of camphene and ethylene glycol) ; ethylene glycol/camphene molar ratio was 3.5∶ 1.0; reaction temperature and time were 90 ℃ and 9 h,respectively.The conversion ratio of camphene,reaction selectivity,and the yield of isobornyl hydroxyethyl ether reached 79%,93%,and 74%,respectively,at aforesaid reaction conditions.In the transesterification process of isobornyl hydroxyethyl ether and methyl methacrylate,cyclohexane was used as the solvent,and the reaction was carried out at the condition of refluxing; the effects of the type and amount of catalyst,the molar ratio of isobornyl hydroxyethyl ether to methyl methacrylate,reaction time,the type and amount of inhibitor on the yield of IBOEMA were examined,and the optimum synthesis conditions of IBOEMA were determined based on the orthogonal test results as follows:methyl methacrylate/isobornyl hydroxyethyl ether molar ratio was 1.25 ∶ 1.00; KOH was used as the catalyst for transesterification and it dosage was 3% (based on the total weight of methyl methacrylate and isobornyl hydroxyethyl ether) ; reaction time 8 h; phenothiazine was used as the inhibitor,and its dosage was 1% ; cyclohexane was used as the solvent,and cyclohexane/isobornyl hydroxyethyl ether molar ratio was 37∶ 1.The conversion ratio of isobornyl hydroxyethyl ether,reaction selectivity

  12. 莰烯乙酸酯化制乙酸异龙脑酯宏观动力学%Macro Kinetics of Esterification of Camphene and Acetic Acid for Isobornyl Acetate

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    高振明; 程双; 张金忠; 张新平; 刘金龙

    2015-01-01

    The performance of esterification of camphene for isobornyl acetate over self-prepared strip catalyst with industrial original particle size3 mm×3 mm in a fixed bed tube reactor was studied. Macro-kinetics for esterification of camphene were obtained from the experimental data under different conditions using the power-low kinetics model with the nonlinear least squares method. The results showed that the apparent activation energy for esterification of camphene was 47.225 kJ/mol, and the reaction orders for camphene and acetic acid concentration were 0.15 and 0.50, respectively. The residual error distributions and the statistic tests showed that the proposed macro-kinetic models are reliable and adequate.%采用3 mm×3 mm条状工业分子筛催化剂,在固定床管式反应器中考察了该催化剂在崁烯酯化制备乙酸异龙脑酯中的反应性能,建立了幂函数宏观动力学模型,运用最小二乘法进行动力学模型参数估计。结果表明,崁烯酯化制备乙酸异龙脑酯的表观活化能(Ea)为47.225 kJ/mol,对崁烯和乙酸的反应级数分别为0.15和0.5。预测值与实验值能较好地吻合,表明动力学模型是适用的。

  13. GC-MS分析高良姜配方颗粒中桉叶油醇和莰烯含量%Content Determination of Eucalyptol and Camphene in Galangal Formula Granules by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜国志; 李军山; 陈钟; 孙胜斌

    2015-01-01

    目的:利用GC-MS联用技术分析高良姜配方颗粒中桉叶油醇和莰烯含量。方法:用水蒸汽蒸馏法从高良姜配方颗粒中提取挥发油,经气质分析仪分析,NIST08库定性分析桉叶油醇和莰烯,用外标法定量。结果:桉叶油醇含量0.075%,相对偏差5.4%,莰烯含量0.018%,相对偏差6.6%。结论:此方法稳定、可靠,重现性好,适用于高良姜配方颗粒中桉叶油醇和莰烯含量的分析。%To analyze the content of eucalyptol and camphene in galangal formula granules by GC-MS. Methods: Volatile oil was extracted from galangal formula granules by steam distillation method. Qualitative analysis of eucalyptol and camphene was carried out by using GC-MS and NIST08, the mass spectra library. External standard method was adopted for quantification. Results: The content percentage of eucalyptol was 0.075% and the relative deviation was 5.4%. The percentage of the content of camphene was 0.018% and the relative deviation was 6.6%. Conclusion: This method is stable, reliable and has good reproducibility so that it is suitable for the analysis of the content of eucalyptol and camphene in galangal formula granules.

  14. Study on selective alkylation of camphene with O-Cresol over solid acid catalyst%固体酸催化莰烯与邻甲酚的选择性烷基化反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周调调; 刘六军; 白杨; 宋先亮

    2011-01-01

    详细考察了各类固体酸催化剂对莰烯与邻甲酚烷基化产物选择性的影响.采用气相色谱、气相色谱-质谱联用技术、核磁和红外表征了烷基化产物,并对结果进行了分析.实验结果表明:以丝光沸石为催化剂,用量为6%,莰烯与邻甲酚的物质的量的比为1∶1.5,反应温度为160℃,莰烯的转化率为99.89%,目标C-C烷基化产物的选择性可达77.48%.以脱铝丝光沸石,Al -HM为催化剂,莰烯的转化率分别达到99.36%、99.6%,目标C-C烷基化产物的选择性分别为77.57%和80.5%.%The selectivity of alkylation product of camphene with o-cresol over various types of solid acid catalysts were studied in detail. The alkylation products were identified by GC, GC-MS, IR, 'H-NMR, and the results were analyzed. The results show that when 6% of H-Mordenite is used, reacting at 160℃ with o-cresol and camphene molar ratio of 1. 5:1 ,the conversion of camphene is 99. 89% ,and the selectivity of the desired C-C alkylation product is up to 77. 48% ;When dealuminated HM and Al-HM are taken as catalysts respectively, the conversion rates of camphene are 99.36% and 99.6% respectively, and the selectivity of the desired C-C alkylation product are up to 77.57% and 80. 5% separately.

  15. 莰烯与2-甲基-1,3-丙二醇烷氧基化反应的研究%Study on the alkoxylation of camphene with 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂慧琴; 许如银; 陶海; 周政; 张志炳

    2015-01-01

    The alkoxylation of camphene with 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol was carried out in the presence of anhydrous macroporous and strong acid cation exchange resins.The effects of various parameters,such as agitation speed, catalyst type,solvent,initial mass ratio of reactants,reaction temperature and reusability of catalysts,were investigated in a 250 mL glass stirred tank reactor in order to optimize the reaction conditions.The conditions for the alkoxylation of camphene with 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol under the catalytic action of anhydrous Lewatit2620 were optimized as follows:agitation speed was 400 r·min-1 ;initial mass ratio of camphene to 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol was 1.5∶1;catalyst loading based on the total mass of reactants was 20%;reaction temperature was 353 K and reaction time was four hours.Under these optimum conditions,the conversion of camphene was 78.80% and the selectivity of isobornyl hydroxyl isobutyl ether was 93.5%.Besides,the catalyst showed good catalytic activity after reusing by eight times.Through lengthening the reaction time,thermodynamic equilibrium constants at 333~370 K were derived.The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to calculate activity coefficients of reactants and to correct the nonideality of reactants.The equilibrium constants decreased with increasing temperature,which demonstrated the alkoxylation of camphene with 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol was exothermic.The equilibrium constants based on concentration were significantly different from that based on activity,which indicated that it was necessary to take the nonideality of the mixture into account in calculation.Besides,the optimized reaction conditions were also verified in a 5 L double layer glass reaction kettle.From the perspective of conversion of camphene and se-lectivity of isobornyl hydroxyl isobutyl ether,result of the experiment in a 5 L layer glass reaction kettle is almost the same as that of the small-scale experiment,which providing evidence for industrial

  16. 糠醛-环己醇-莰烯三元气液平衡数据的测定%Measurement of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data in Furfural-Cyclohexanol-Camphene Ternary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 程毅; 许兰淑; 李瑞

    2016-01-01

    A self-made vapor-liquid equilibrium device was used to measure the vapor-liquid equilibrium data of furfural-cyclohexanol, furfural-camphene and furfural-cyclohexanol-camphene at 101. 3 kPa. The Wilson equation parameters were obtained by the correlation and calculation of the measured data. The calculated data of temperature and the mass fractions of gaseous components of furfural-cyclohexanol and furfural-comphene at 101. 3kPa were obtained by Wilson equation and agreed with the industrial data well. The thermodynamic consistency of the two groups binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data were checked with the area integral method. The results met the with requirements. The data of furfural-cyclohexanol-camphene ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium were measured and fitted. The results showed that at 421.5K, the molar fraction of furfural was the maximum and the molar fraction of cyclohexanol was the minimum in the vapor phase, so that furfural and cyclohexanol could be separated at this temperature. And it could be regarded as basic theory for the separation of furfural and cyclohexanol in engineering.%利用自制气液平衡装置测定糠醛-环己醇、糠醛-莰烯和糠醛-环己醇-莰烯在101.3 kPa下的气液平衡数据。对所测得的数据进行关联与计算,得到Wilson方程参数。代入Wilson模型,计算出101.3 KPa条件下糠醛-环己醇、糠醛-莰烯2组二元体系的温度与气相组分的质量分数,与实验值比偏差不大,说明实验可行。用面积积分法验证两组二元气液平衡数据的热力学一致性,结果符合要求。通过测定糠醛-环己醇-莰烯三元气液平衡数据,并进行拟合,得到421.5K时糠醛的气相物质的量分数相对最高,环己醇的气相物质的量分数又相对最低,即在该温度下分离糖醛分环己醇较好,可为工程上分离糠醛和环己醇提供理论依据。

  17. The preparation of porous alumina ceramics with directional pore channels structure by a camphene-based freeze-casting%莰烯基冷冻浇注成型法制备定向通孔氧化铝陶瓷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波涛; 骆兵; 许壮志; 刘贵山

    2011-01-01

    由莰烯、氧化铝、Texaphor 963组成的陶瓷料浆,在温度梯度的诱导下,用冷冻浇注成型法制备了氧化铝陶瓷坯体,经干燥、烧结后,制备出了高孔隙率、高强度的定向通孔氧化铝陶瓷.通过扫描电镜观察其孔结构,并对其孔隙率、抗压强度和收缩率进行分析测试.结果表明:料浆的固体含量和烧结温度显著影响试样的气孔率、抗压强度和收缩率;冷冻温度和烧结温度对最终的孔径分布和微观结构有较大影响.采用莰烯基冷冻浇注成型法可以制备定向通孔陶瓷材料,通过调整工艺参数来控制多孔陶瓷孔隙结构和性能,以满足不同需求.%The porous alumina ceramics was prepared by freezing the slurry system, which was constituted of camphene, alumina powder and Texaphor 963, then induced by temperature gradient, followed by drying and firing. The resultant porous ceramics had unique directional pore channels structure, high porosity and high compressive strength. The scanning electron microscope was used to observe its internal structure. The porosity, compressive strength and shrinkage of the porous ceramics were tested respectively. The results show that the solid loading of the slurry and sintering temperature have remarkable effects on porosity, compressive strength and shrinkage of porous alumina ceramics, freezing temperature and sintering temperature have greater influence on pore size distribution and fracture microstructure of porous alumina ceramics. The porous ceramics with directional pore channels structure can be prepared by a camphene-based freeze-casting technique, by adjusting process parameters to control the pore structure and properties of porous ceramics, in order to meet different needs of the user.

  18. Main Factors Affecting the Esterification of Camphene with Lower Aliphatic Acid and Synthesis of Isobornyl Carboxylate%低级脂肪酸与莰烯酯化反应的影响因素及C1~C5羧酸异龙脑酯的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷运璀; 曹进荣; 吴征兵; 张明; 孙卫

    2013-01-01

    讨论C1~C5低级脂肪酸与莰烯酯化反应制备脂肪羧酸异龙脑酯中催化剂硫酸的用量、反应时间、反应温度等几个因素对反应的影响,并介绍了甲酸异龙脑酯、乙酸异龙脑酯、丙酸异龙脑酯、丁酸异龙脑酯、异丁酸异龙脑酯、异戊酸异龙脑酯等一些低级脂肪酸酯的制备方法.%This paper discussed the major factors which affect the esterification of camphene and C1-C5 fatty acids,such as the catalyst (H2SO4)quantity,reaction time,and reaction temperature.Several esters (isobomyl formate,acetate,propionate,butyrate,isobutyrate and isovalerate)were synthesized under the best conditions.

  19. Synthesis of 2,3,7-trihydroxy-9-Camphenal-6-Fluorone with new reagent and Its Spectrophotometric Application in Determining Ti(IV) in Alloy Steel%新试剂莰烯基荧光酮的合成及光度法测定合金钢中钛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍时安; 李先春; 王敦清

    2000-01-01

      The report in this paper is about the synthesis of 2,3,7 trihydroxy -9- camphenal -6- fluorone (CAF) with a new reagent. The result of this study shows that Ti(IV)-CAF-Triton X-l00 can form a ternary complex(1:1:1),which has the maximum absorption at 562 nm and the molar absorption coefficient is 7.5×0-4 L.mol-1.cm-1. If the new spectrophotometric method is used to determine titanium contents in alloy steel samples, the result will be comparatively satisfactory. The method will be poved to be simple and direct.%  报导2,3,7-三羟基-9-莰烯基-6-荧光酮(简称CAF)的合成及光度法测定合金钢中Ti(IV)含量.结果表明,在酸性介质中,Ti(IV)-CAF-Triton X-100形成1:1:1三元络合物.最大吸收波长为562 nm,摩尔吸光系数7.5×104 L.mol-1. cm-1,Ti(IV)浓度在0~10mg/25ml范围内符合比尔定律.方法用于合金钢中钛的测定,方法快速简便,结果较为满意.

  20. The Deactivation Mechanism and Regeneration Methods of Resin Catalyst for the Esterification of Camphene%莰烯酯化制乙酸异龙脑酯催化剂失活机理及再生方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈艳艳; 郑辉东; 邹文虎; 王莹淑; 吴燕翔

    2013-01-01

    通过BET、FT-IR、元素分析、SEM、N2低温吸附、离子交换容量测定等表征手段对莰烯酯化制备乙酸异龙脑酯固定床催化剂(CT800)失活机理及再生方法进行了研究.结果表明,催化剂活性降低的主要原因是反应过程中生成的聚合物对催化剂活性中心的覆盖造成的.通过乙醇浸取的方法对失活催化剂再生后,其酯化反应的活性接近新鲜催化剂水平,是一种较好的再生手段.%Cation exchange resin as catalyst for the preparation of isobornyl acetate by the esterification of camphene is widely used in industry. However this type of catalyst is easy to lose its activity during the reaction. In this paper, the deactivation mechanism and regeneration method of the catalyst ( CT800 ) were investigated. It showed that the deactivation of catalyst was mainly caused by the overlay of polymer byproducts on the resin activity centers. The deactivated catalyst can be regenerated by washing with ethanol. The activity of the regenerated catalyst is close to that of fresh one. This proves that this generation method is effective.

  1. 莰烯C酰基化反应研究%Study on Camphene Carbonacylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 李萍; 许荔艳; 肖转泉

    2001-01-01

    对莰烯的C酰基化反应(ω-乙酰化、丙酰化、苯甲酰化)进行了探讨,研究了不同催化剂、不同溶剂对反应的影响.结果表明,在Lewis酸催化下莰烯可以进行C酰基化反应.研究结果为莰烯一步合成ω-酰基莰烯奠定了良好的基础.

  2. 莰烯酯化连续化工艺的研究%Continuous Process Study on Camphene Esterification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海泉; 倪峰; 张金忠; 费利江; 唐勇

    2011-01-01

    考评强酸树脂催化剂在不同环境下的溶胀性,通过釜式反应器考查催化剂的处理方式对反应效果的影响,确立了用原料液浸泡过的催化剂进行最优反应条件探索实验.在自行设计的固定床反应器中,进行了莰烯酯化连续化反应.结果表明,最优的反应温度为30℃,最佳空速为1.00 h-1,最优原料配比乙酸:莰烯为2:1(摩尔比).

  3. 新显色剂CAF测定水环境中微量铁%Determination of Trace Fe in Water with Camphenal Fluorone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷乐; 廖贵红; 黄英; 童晓凯; 梁艳梅; 衷明华

    2003-01-01

    研究了在HAc-NaAc缓冲液中,有微乳液存在下,Fe3+与莰烯基荧光酮(CAF)的显色反应,提出一个灵敏度高、选择性好、简便、快速测定微量铁的分光光度法.Fe(Ⅲ)与CAF的络合物表观摩尔吸光系数ε=3.00×104L*mol-1*cm-1,有色络合物至少稳定9h,铁含量在1-5μg/50mL范围内符合比耳定律.该法测定水样中微量Fe(Ⅲ),获得了令人满意的结果.

  4. The effect of organic base on one-step acylation of camphene%有机碱对莰烯直接乙酰化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 肖转泉; 黄勇红

    2003-01-01

    研究了在含氮有机碱存在下的莰烯直接乙酰化反应,结果表明,在反应中加入与莰烯等摩尔的六氢吡啶,有利于莰烯乙酰化反应,在反应液中的酰化产物ω-乙酰基莰烯含量最高达到56%,大大超过异构化产物乙酸异冰片酯.

  5. 微波辐射下莰烯与乙醇的加成反应%The reaction of camphene with ethyl alcohol under microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林中祥; 顾阳

    2001-01-01

    研究了在微波辐射下莰烯与乙醇加成生成异菠基乙醚的反应.莰烯、乙醇、对甲苯磺酸的混合物在微波辐射下反应30min,可使反应液中异菠基乙醚的质量分数达76.35%,反应速率比加热回流条件下的反应提高了十几倍.

  6. The Synthesis and Crystal Structure for a New Camphene Acid Amide%莰烯酸酰胺的合成及其晶体结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖伟; 肖转泉; 聂旭亮; 陈金珠; 王宗德

    2012-01-01

      以莰烯为原料,经Vilsmeier-Haack反应、氧化反应、酰氯化反应、酰胺化反应,合成了新化合物莰烯酸酰胺,其结构经IR、元素分析、X-射线单晶衍射表征.合成的莰烯酸酰胺属triclinic晶系, P21/c空间群,晶胞参数为:a=1.2200(9) nm, b=0.8036(6) nm, c=1.0654(8) nm,α=90.000°,β=96.981(9)°,γ=90.000°, V=1.0368(13) nm3, Dc =1.161 g·cm−3, Z =1,μ=0.073 mm−1, F (000)=400, S =1.080,最后一致性因子为R1=0.0829, wR2=0.1829.化合物分子通过分子间N—H…O氢键作用相互堆积,形成空间3维结构.

  7. Research of Preparing Camphene Based C/SiC Slurry%莰烯基碳/碳化硅料浆制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 胡传奇; 王忠文

    2010-01-01

    研究了分散剂种类及其用量对莰烯基碳黑料浆分散性的影响,研究了分散剂种类及其用量、固相含量、表面改性对莰烯基碳化硅料浆分散性的影响.通过优化制备参数,制备出炭黑含量为10%(质量分数),固相含量达70%(体积分数),在50s-1剪切速率下表观黏度为0.9Pa·s,满足室温冷凝浇注成型的莰烯基碳粉/碳化硅料浆.

  8. Study on Catalyst for Isomerization of Pinene to Camphene%蒎烯异构化制莰烯催化剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    研究了固体酸催化剂(编号为SA-ISO)在蒎烯异构化制莰烯反应中的性能,考察了反应温度、蒎烯质量空速及颗粒大小对催化剂反应性能的影响,在优化的条件下考察了催化剂的稳定性.结果表明,催化剂直径小于2 mm的条件下,可以消除内扩散对异构化反应的影响.在反应温度130℃、蒎烯空速为0.5h-1条件下,蒎烯转化率98.9%,莰烯选择性78.7%,成型催化剂在固定床单管反应器上连续稳定反应8000 h以上.利用N2吸附-脱附、NH3程序升温脱附(NH3-TPD)和热重-差热(TG-DTA)等测试技术对SA-ISO催化剂进行了表征和分析,结果表明,SA-ISO催化剂反应过程中逐渐积碳导致比表面积和孔容下降,但催化剂未出现失活迹象,催化剂有较高容炭能力,具有良好的工业应用的前景.

  9. 新显色剂CAF测定环境水中微量铁%Studies and Application of the Chromogenic Reaction of Fe( Ⅲ ) with a New Reagent Camphenal Fluorone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄英; 童晓凯; 梁艳梅; 殷乐; 廖贵红

    2003-01-01

    木文研究了茨烯基荧光酮(CAF)与Fe(Ⅲ)最佳显色反应的条什在PH=6.0且有表面活性剂CTMAB存在下,Fe(Ⅲ)与CAF形成稳定的棕色配合物,最大吸收波长入max=610nm,表观摩尔系数ε=3.16×104L/(mol·cm),Fe(Ⅲ)含量在0~12μg/ml范围内符合比尔定律.此法选择性好,简便,快速.用来测定环境水中微量Fe(Ⅲ)含量,结果满意.

  10. STUDY ON ADDITION REACTION BETWEEN CAMPHENE AND FORMIC ACID UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION%微波辐射下莰烯与羧酸加成反应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林中祥; 欧文华

    2004-01-01

    研究了微波辐射下莰烯与羧酸用对甲苯磺酸作催化剂在密闭反应罐中的加成反应,系统探讨了在微波辐射下各因素对莰烯与羧酸(主要是甲酸)加成反应的影响.研究结果表明,在莰烯、甲酸和对甲苯磺酸分别为25、53和0.20 mmol时,于700 W功率的微波辐射下,莰烯与甲酸反应40 s,反应液中甲酸异龙脑酯的含量可达77.2 %,微波辐射大幅度地提高了莰烯与甲酸的加成反应速率,缩短了反应时间,为工业上莰烯的酯化工艺改进提供了新的思路.

  11. 用动态累积分批精馏法从莰烯下脚料中提取柠烯%Separation Limonene From Leftover Bits and Pieces of Camphene by Dynamie Accumulative Batch Distillation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓淑华; 周立清; 周家华

    1999-01-01

    动态累积分批精馏法具有分离效率高的优点,用于从莰烯下脚料中分离柠烯较之传统分批蒸馏方法,在填料层高度减少了一半,分离时间减少了一半的情况下,效率提高约7%.

  12. The Effect of Microwave Irradiations on the Reaction of Camphene with Alcohols%微波辐射对莰烯与醇加成反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧文华; 林中祥

    2003-01-01

    将微波辐射应用到莰烯与醇加成反应中,以提高其反应速率.笔者研究了微波辐射下用对甲苯磺酸作催化剂时莰烯与醇在密闭反应罐中的反应,探讨了微波功率、辐射时间及醇的种类对反应的影响,并与普通加热条件下的反应进行比较.结果表明,莰烯与丙醇在700 W功率的微波辐射下反应30 min,异龙脑基丙醚的含量达59.0%,微波辐射下,莰烯与醇加成反应的速率大大提高;增大微波辐射功率,反应速率加快;空间位阻大的醇不利于反应的进行.

  13. Preparation of Porous Al2O3 Ceramic by Camphene-based Freeze-casting%莰烯基冷冻浇注成型法制备Al2O3多孔陶瓷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波涛; 骆兵; 许壮志; 刘贵山

    2010-01-01

    采用莰烯基冷冻浇注成型工艺制备了氧化铝定向贯通直孔结构的多孔陶瓷.借助DNJ-1型旋转式粘度计、扫描电子显微镜、显气孔率容重测试仪等表征方法,研究了固含量对料浆粘度的影响、坯体升华干燥行为随时间变化的影响、固含量与孔隙率的关系以及氧化铝多孔陶瓷孔的方向和断面显微结构.结果表明:在固含量为10~50vol%范围内的料浆,经冷冻干燥,在1650 ℃下烧成,制备出了平均孔径在10~50 μm、气孔率在14%~78%、固含量为10vol%时,抗压强度高达15.6 MPa的氧化铝定向贯通直孔结构的多孔陶瓷,并且固含量与孔隙率呈线性关系.

  14. 合成莰烯衍生醛、酮、硫酯类化合物的新方法%A NEW ROUTE OF SYNTHESIZING CAMPHENE DERIVATIVE COMPOUNDS--ALDEHYDE,KETONES AND THIOESTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平; 黄南平

    2002-01-01

    莰烯与一氯一氢二茂锆\\及一氧化碳反应,得到一种亲核的中间产物,可与水、卤代烃、芳基氯化硫等化合物反应,合成莰烯衍生醛、酮、硫酯类化合物.莰烯与一氯一氢二茂锆在四氢呋喃(THF)中反应,得到相应的莰烯基锆化合物,接着与酰氯在CuI的催化下反应,合成了莰烯衍生酮类化合物.

  15. 氯化锌直接催化α-蒎烯异构制备莰烯反应规律研究%Study on the synthesis of camphene by isomerization of α-pinene using ZnCl2 as catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘悦; 刘仕伟; 李露

    2013-01-01

    研究了以无机氯化物为催化剂催化α-蒎烯异构制备莰烯的反应规律,考察了催化剂种类、催化剂用量、反应时间、反应温度对异构反应的影响,确定了最佳的反应条件.在最佳反应条件下,即以氯化锌(ZnCl2)为催化剂,用量占α-蒎烯质量的3%,α-蒎烯用量2.86g,温度140℃,反应时间10h,α-蒎烯异构化反应转化率为94.64%,莰烯选择性为50.42%.

  16. Study on SO2-4/TiO2 Catalyst Modified by Rare Earth for the Synthesis of Camphene%稀土改性SO2-4/TiO2对合成莰烯的催化作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧宗; 徐景士; 刘永根; 杨义文

    2003-01-01

    筛选出三种稀土改性催化剂SO2-4/TiO2-La2O3、SO2-4/TiO2-CeO2、SO2-4/TiO2-Nd2O3催化α-蒎烯合成莰烯的反应.考察了La3+、Ce4+、Nd3+浓度、反应温度、反应时间对转化率和产物分布的影响.确定在130 ℃反应均为一级反应,反应速率常数分别为3.964×10-1h-1、5.262×10-1h-1和5.313×10-1h-1.

  17. Main Factors Affecting the Esterification of Camphene with Lower Aliphatic Acid and Synthesis of Isobornyl Carboxylate%低级脂肪酸与莰烯酯化反应的影响因素及C1~C5羧酸异龙脑酯的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷运璀; 曹进荣; 吴征兵; 张明; 孙卫

    2007-01-01

    本文讨论C1~C5低级脂肪酸与莰烯酯化反应制备脂肪羧酸异龙脑酯中催化剂硫酸的用量、反应时间、反应温度等几个因素对反应的影响,并叙述了甲酸异龙脑酯、乙酸异龙脑酯、丙酸异龙脑酯、丁酸异龙脑酯、异丁酸异龙脑酯、异戊酸异龙脑酯等一些低级脂肪酸酯的制备方法.

  18. 合成樟脑生产中莰烯连续化分馏装置的技术改造及其应用效果%Modification to Continuouslization of Fractionator for Camphene Production in Synthetic Camphor Process and Its Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危景波

    2011-01-01

    分析了合成樟脑生产工艺中莰烯分馏工段使用间歇式分馏装置存在的主要问题.通过技术改造把原来的间歇式分馏装置改造成为连续化分馏装置,莰烯含量提高了2个百分点,塔釜含莰烯量降低了2个百分点,莰烯产量由原来33 t/d提高到48 t/d,煤和电单耗分别降低了46.3%和19%,取得了显著的经济效益和社会效益.

  19. 纳米固体超强酸SO42-/ZrO2催化莰烯合成异龙脑%Synthesis of isoborneol from camphene catalyzed by nanometer solid superacid SO2-4/ZrO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧宗; 刘永根; 杨义文; 王瑞芬; 刘芳; 葛军英

    2006-01-01

    自1979年报道了无卤素SO42-促进型氧化物固体酸以来,固体酸催化剂作为一类新型绿色催化剂备受人们关注。近来又发现将固体超强酸制成纳米微粒具有更强的催化活性。本文以纳米固体超强酸SO42-/ZrO2为催化剂,以莰烯和草酸为原料,通过酯化-皂化法合成了异龙脑。

  20. Drug: D07747 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07747 Mixture, Drug alpha, beta-Pinene - borneol - anetholtrithion - d-camphene - cine...11], Anetholtrithion [DR:D02377], d-Camphene [CPD:C06304], Cineole [DR:D04115], Fenchone [CPD:C09859] PubChem: 96024466 ...

  1. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  2. Studies of Phase Transformation in Molecular Crystals Using the Positron Annihilation Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Lightbody, David; Sherwood, John N.

    1980-01-01

    An examination has been made of the brittle/plastic phase transformation in the molecular crystals cyclohexane, DL-camphene and succinonitrile using the positron annihilation technique. In each material, the transition is characterized by a distinct increase in ortho-positronium lifetime. The inf......An examination has been made of the brittle/plastic phase transformation in the molecular crystals cyclohexane, DL-camphene and succinonitrile using the positron annihilation technique. In each material, the transition is characterized by a distinct increase in ortho-positronium lifetime....... The influence of impurities on the transition was examined for DL-camphene. Addition of the impurity tricylene in concentrations in the range 0.14-4.0 mol % resulted in a lowering of the transition temperature from 176 to 167 K and a broadening of the transition region....

  3. Chemotype diversity of indigenous Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) populations in Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stešević, Danijela; Ristić, Mihailo; Nikolić, Vuko; Nedović, Marijana; Caković, Danka; Šatović, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), α-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and α-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between α-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and α-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, α-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and α-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio.

  4. Toxaphene: a challenging analytical problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, de H.J.; Wester, P.G.; Schelvis, A.; Boer, de J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of toxaphene, a highly complex mixture of chlorinated bornanes, bornenes and camphenes, is a challenging problem, especially as individual congeners are present at trace levels in biota and other relevant samples. The complicated nomenclature of the compounds of interest is briefly disc

  5. Isolation of pure enantiomers of Toxaphene congeners via hydrochlorination and chlorination of Pinene and composition of Soviet polychloropinene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, V.; Trukhin, A.; Kruchkov, F.; Kiprianova, A.; Miltsov, S. [Sankt-Peterburgskij Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Kallenborn, R. [NILU, Kjeller (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Toxaphene is an insecticidal mixture, produced by the controlled photochlorination of camphene1. In the USSR similar insecticide - Polychloropinene was produced by chlorination of {alpha}-pinene with AIBN (azobisisobutyronitrile) as initiator. Natural camphene occurs in different essential oils in (+)-form as well as (-)-form. Production of artificial camphene starts from natural {alpha}-pinene, which is also chiral. All noted types of camphene are used for toxaphene synthesis by different manufacturers. Some congeners in selected samples of technical Toxaphene were shown to have small deviations from racemic distribution. Nevertheless, there is no information about any enantiomerically pure congeners of toxaphene. The amount of Polychloropinene produced in the USSR is estimated to be 160 thousand tons, which is a significant contribution into the total global production. Unfortunately, there is no traceable sample of Soviet Polychloropinene available. In the present work we report on the preparation of artificial model Polychloropinene mixtures with different content of chlorine in an attempt to find the difference between Toxaphene and Soviet Polychloropinene. Another goal of our research project is to prepare pure enantiomers of important Toxaphene congeners, to establish their configuration and thus to provide more opportunities to enantiomerspecific environmental analysis of Toxaphene residues.

  6. Preparation of Articular Cartilage Specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupina, T A

    2016-08-01

    We developed and adapted a technology for preparation of articular cartilage specimens for scanning electron microscopy. The method includes prefixation processing, fixation, washing, and dehydration of articular cartilage specimens with subsequent treatment in camphene and air-drying. The technological result consists in prevention of deformation of the articular cartilage structures. The method is simpler and cheaper than the known technologies.

  7. Drug: D04840 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04840 Mixture, Drug Dental phenol with camphor (JP16); Phenol - camphor; Camphenic...eutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 27 Dental preparations 27...3 Analgesics and sedatives 2730 Analgesics and sedatives D04840 Dental phenol with camphor (JP16) PubChem: 17398190 ...

  8. Volatile terpenoids from aeciospores of Cronartium fusiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Identification of the terpenoids present in the volatile fraction from aeciospores of the gall rust fungus Cronartium fusiforme. The major monoterpenoid hydrocarbons found to be present with only traces of camphene include alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene, myrcene, linonene, beta-phellandrene, and delta-terpinene. A number of monoterpenoid alcohols, acyclic sesquiterpenes, and aromatic compounds were also present.

  9. COMPOSITION OF THE VOLATILE OIL OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE RHIZOMES AND EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL FACTORS ON THE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Shahnaz S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae rhizomes of Delhi region, has been studied under different physical factors. The volatile oil of the fresh rhizomes is composed mainly of β-germacrene-D (25.4 %, linalool (11.8 %, camphene (9.4%, (Z-β-farnesene (8.4 %, guaia-6,9-diene (8.3 %, limonene oxide (5.9 %, citronellal (3.6 % and α-guaiene (3.5 %. When the volatile oil was heated at 110° C for 24 hours, β-germacrene-D (19.7 %, linalool (13.4 %, camphene (10.1 %, limonene (8.2 %, guaia-6,9-diene (6.5 %, limonene-1,2-epoxide (4.9 % and α-guaiene (3.2 % were the major constituents. Exposure of the volatile oil to sunlight for 48 hours as 15° C showed the presence of β-germacrene-D (21.4 %, linalool (14.5 %, camphene (8.7 %, cis-carveol (6.5 %, neral (5.8 % and α-guaiene (3.2 % as the main components. UV light exposure of the volatile oil for 24 hours at 12° C exhibited the occurrence of β-caryophyllene (23 %, linalool (12.9 %, camphene (9 %, valencene (8.2 %, (Z-β-farnesene (8.1 % and nerol (6.6 % as the prominent constituents. The predominant compounds of the silica gel treated oil for 24 hours at 12° C included β-germacrene-D (22 %, linalool (18.4 %, β-selinene (7.5 %, camphene (8.7 %, δ-cadinene (6.8 %, gamma-cadinene (6.8 %, limonene oxide (6.6 %, citronellal (5.4 % and α-guaiene (3.6 %. Treatment of the volatile oil with alumina neutral for 24 hours at 12° C produced abundantly β-germacrene-D (26.2 %, linalool (14 %, (Z-β-farnesene (11 %, β-selinene (8.3 %, camphene (6.4 %, tagetonol (5.8 %, borneol (3.9 % and α-selinene (3.3 %. Camphene (10.1 – 6.4 % and linalool (14.5 – 11.8 % were the major components present in all the oil samples.

  10. The effect of harvest periods on the chemical compositions of essential oils of sage (Salvia aucheri L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Guilles; Chalchat, Jean Claude; Chalard, Pierre; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of sage leaves (Salvia aucheri Bentham var. canescens Boiss. & Heldr.), growing wild in South Anatolia, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The percentage yields of the essential oils from sage leaves harvested at different years were 1.0%, 1.3%, 1.3%, 1.0%, 1.4%, 1.5% and 1.2%, respectively. In this study, 1,8-cineole, camphre, camphene α-pinene and β-pinene were identified as the major components of sage leaves collected at different periods. The main constituents of sage oil collected over the years were 1,8-cineole (35.01-48.06%), camphre (13.58-23.92%), camphene (6.77-8.82%), α-pinene (5.79-8.54%) and β-pinene (4.32-6.28%).

  11. In vitro and in vivo tumor promoting potency of technical toxaphene, UV-irradiated toxaphene, and biotransformed toxaphene

    OpenAIRE

    Besselink, H.T.; Nixon, E.; McHugh, B.; Klungsøyr, J; Brouwer, A.

    2000-01-01

    Toxaphene, a complex mixture of polychlorinated camphenes, was first introduced in 1945 by Hercules Co. as Hercules 3965. Until the mid 1980s, it was mass produced and widely used as an insecticide, and was also used as a piscicide to control rough fish in various water systems. The lipophilic, persistent, and volatile nature of toxaphene has contributed to its global dispersion throughout the fresh water and marine environment. In addition to bioaccumulation in biota inhabiting these regions...

  12. Drug: D06743 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l [CPD:C09704], Camphene [CPD:C06076], alpha-Pinene [CPD:C09880], beta-Pinene [CPD:C09882], Cineole [CPD:C09...rneol [CPD:C01411] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine fo...16); Powdered amomum seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for da

  13. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Diisobornyl Oxalate%草酸二异龙脑酯的合成及其结构表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平辉; 郭利群; 袁晓敏; 徐士超; 赵振东; 毕良武; 李冬梅

    2015-01-01

    通过莰烯和草酸在硼酐催化作用下的重排加成(酯化)反应合成了草酸二异龙脑酯,探讨了原料配比、催化剂用量、反应温度以及反应时间对酯化反应的影响。研究结果表明,莰烯(13.6 g)、草酸和催化剂的质量比为1.7∶2∶1,反应温度为55℃、反应时间为96 h的条件下,莰烯的转化率为89.5%,草酸二异龙脑酯的选择性为95.6%。产物通过IR、LCMS-IT-TOF、1H NMR、13C NMR等手段进行了结构鉴定与表征。%Diisobornyl oxalate was obtained by rearrangement,addition and esterification reactions from camphene and oxalic acid with boric anhydride as catalyst. The effects of reaction conditions such as material ratio,dosage of catalyst,reaction temperature and reaction time on the conversion of camphene and the selectivity of diisobornyl oxalate were explored. The results showed that the optimal synthetic conditions were:the mass ratio of camphene,anhydrous oxalic acid and catalyst 1. 7∶2∶1,reaction time 96 h,and reaction temperature 55 ℃. Under these conditions,the conversion rate of camphene was 89. 5% and the selectivity of diisobornyl oxalate was 95. 6%. The structure of diisobornyl oxalate was characterized by IR, LCMS-IT-TOF, 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

  14. Creep of metal-type organic compounds. 4: Application to hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, G.C.; Jones, D.R.H. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Engineering Dept.

    1997-02-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) experiments using the metal analogue materials camphene and succinonitrile are described. Data obtained previously from uniaxial creep experiments are used in densification rate equations for HIP taken from the literature, and the predicted densification behavior is compared with experimental data. The HIP equations are then modified to include two different representations of the friction stress arising from a dispersed phase of fine, hard particles. In each case the modified theory adequately describes the experimental data.

  15. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes: Stereochemistry of the coupled isomerization and cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphane and isocamphane monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.; Gershenzon, J.; Wheeler, C.J.; Satterwhite, D.M. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (+)-camphene is considered to proceed by the initial isomerization of the substrate to (-)-(3R)-linalyl pyrophosphate and the subsequent cyclization of this bound intermediate. In the case of (-)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (-)-camphene, isomerization of the substrate to the (+)-(3S)-linalyl intermediate precedes cyclization. The geranyl and linalyl precursors were shown to be mutually competitive substrates (inhibitors) of the relevant cyclization enzymes isolated from Salvia officinalis (sage) and Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) by the mixed substrate analysis method, demonstrating that isomerization and cyclization take place at the same active site. Incubation of partially purified enzyme preparations with (3R)-(1Z-3H)linalyl pyrophosphate plus (1-14C)geranyl pyrophosphate gave rise to double-labeled (+)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (+)-camphene, whereas incubation of enzyme preparations catalyzing the antipodal cyclizations with (3S)-(1Z-3H)-linalyl pyrophosphate plus (1-14C)geranyl pyrophosphate yielded double-labeled (-)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (-)-camphene. Each product was then transformed to the corresponding (+)- or (-)-camphor without change in the 3H:14C isotope ratio, and the location of the tritium label was deduced in each case by stereoselective, base-catalyzed exchange of the exo-alpha-hydrogen of the derived ketone. The finding that the 1Z-3H of the linalyl precursor was positioned at the endo-alpha-hydrogen of the corresponding camphor in all cases, coupled to the previously demonstrated retention of configuration at C1 of the geranyl substrate in these transformations, confirmed the syn-isomerization of geranyl pyrophosphate to linalyl pyrophosphate and the cyclization of the latter via the anti,endo- conformer.

  16. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  17. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a~tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt, respectively, and with an average monoterpene to isoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlight hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission occurred into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  18. Green synthesis of allyl isobornyl ether%烯丙基异冰片基醚绿色合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士康; 徐徐; 兰蓝; 樊媛媛; 王石发

    2012-01-01

    以莰烯和烯丙醇为原料,研究了烯丙基异冰片基醚的绿色合成工艺,探讨了催化剂种类及用量、反应温度、反应时间,以及烯丙醇与莰烯物质的量之比对莰烯醚化反应选择性及烯丙基异冰片基醚产物得率的影响.采用正交试验方法确定了烯丙基异冰片基醚的最适工艺条件:A-15型阳离子树脂为催化剂,催化剂用量为烯丙醇和莰烯原料总质量的5%,烯丙醇与莰烯物质的量之比为1.5:1,反应温度75℃,反应时间7h.在此条件下工业莰烯转化率为85.5%,反应选择性为97.5%,烯丙基异冰片基醚得率为83.4%.最后采用GC-MS、IR等分析技术对合成所得产物的结构进行了分析测定.%Green synthetic method of allyl isobornyl ether was investigated by using camphene and allyl alcohol as the raw materials in this paper. Influence of catalysts and their usages, reaction temperature, reaction time, and the molar ratio of allyl alcohol to camphene on the selectivity of etherification and the yield of allyl isobornyl ether were examined, and the optimum synthesis conditions were determined based on the orthogonal test results as follows: A-15 resin was used as the catalyst for etherification, and the amount of A-15 cationic exchange resin was 5 % (based on the total weight of camphene and allyl alcohol) ; molar ratio of allyl alcohol to camphene was 1. 5-1; reaction temperature and reaction time were 75 ℃ and 7 h, respectively. The conversion ratio of camphene and the reaction selectivity reached 85. 5 % and 97. 5 % respectively, and the yield of allyl isobornyl ether also reached 83. 4 %. The structure of allyl isobornyl ether was identified by GC-MS and IR spectra.

  19. Terpenoids of the essential oil of eucalyptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayal, R.; Maheshwari, M.L.

    1985-12-01

    The essential oils obtained from the leaves of two hybrids namely FRI-4, FRI-5 and from E. camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. deglupta, and E. robusta were analyzed by GLC. Fifteen compounds viz. - pinene, camphene, -pinene, phellandrene, limonene, cineole, -terpinene, p-cymene, citronellal, linalool, terpin-1-ene-401, citronellyl acetate, borneol, -terpineol and piperitone in varying rations have been identified in all of varying rations have been identified in all of them. Physico-chemical properties of the oils have also been determined. 5 references, 2 tables.

  20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia annua L. from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Verdian-rizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried flowering aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. (Compositae was analysed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-two components were identified in the essential oil of A. annua L. with campher (48.00%, 1,8-cineole (9.39%, camphene (6.98% and spathulenol (4.89% as major components. The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities . The activity was more pronounced against fungal organisms than against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  1. A Comparative Study on Turpentine Oils of Oleoresins of Pinus sylvestris L. from Three Districts of Denizli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tümen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oleoresin samples collected from Pinus sylvestris L. trees from Acıpayam, Çal and Çamlıbel, three different locations in Denizli-Turkey. The constituents of the turpentine oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of oleoresin of Pinus sylvestris L., were identified by GC-MS. Fifty four constituents were detected from the turpentine oil, which constituted about between 96.2% and 98.2% of the total amount. Major constituents of the oil were a-pinene, b-pinene, camphene, longifolene, D3-carene, limonene and b-caryophyllene

  2. Volatile Constituents of Zhumaria Majdae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanparst

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC- MS analyses of a sample of essential oil of zhumaria Linalool ned by simple water distillation of the pulverized air - dired leaves and flowers of the plant indicated that Linalool and comphor are the two major constituents of the volatile oil. Sylvestrene , y -terpinene, a- Pinene, b - carene, camphene, and Epiborneol constitute the other main components of the essential oil. The GC - MS chromatogram indicated the presence of more than fifty - components in the oil, most of them were present in trace amounts. In this study, the chemical structures of twenty of these consti tuents were elucidated using GC - MS analysis.

  3. Unambiguous assigning of the signals of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of {sup 1} H and {sup 13} C of monoterpenes using computational methods; Asignacion inequivoca de las senales del espectro de resonancia magnetica nuclear de {sup 1} H y {sup 13} C de monoterpenos empleando metodos computacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, F.; Cuevas, G.; Tenorio, J.; Rochin, A.L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Quimica, A.P. 70213, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Ab initio calculations, within the frame of Density Functional Theory were carried out on camphene and {alpha}-pinene. The {sup 1} H and {sup 13} C shifts were estimated according to the recently developed Sum-Over-States Density Functional Perturbation Theory (SOS-DFPT) as implemented in a modified deMon-KS program. The calculations not only reproduced the observed NMR chemical shifts, quantitatively in the case of {sup 1} H nuclei and qualitatively in the case of {sup 13} C nuclei, but also allow assigning unambiguously the signal on these spectra. (Author)

  4. Leaf and root volatiles produced by tissue cultures of Alpinia zerumbet (pers. Burtt & Smith under the influence of different plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Victório

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles produced by plantlets of Alpinia zerumbet were obtained by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE. The effects of indole-3-acetic acid, kinetin, thidiazuron and 6-benzylaminopurine on leaf and root volatile composition obtained by tissue cultures were investigated. A higher content of b-pinene and a lower content of sabinene were observed in leaf volatile of plantlets cultured in control, IAA and IAA+ TDZ media, as compared with those of donor plants. In vitro conditions were favorable to increase caryophyllene content. Volatile compounds from the root were characterized mainly by camphene, fenchyl-acetate and bornyl acetate; which constitute about 60% of total volatile.

  5. Volatile oil analysis of spruce galls caused by Sacchiphantes viridis Ratz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Miszta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of volatile oil obtained from galls caused by Sacchiphantes viridis are presented in this paper. It was found that galls contain more oil than normal shoots. The composition of the oil obtained from galls differs significantly from that of normal shoots. The differences observed in the amount of camphene. β-pinene, myrcene, 3-carene, unidentinfied compounds 14 and 17, camphor, fenchyl alcohol, borneol and citronellol seem to be connected with the deterioration of central resin canals in the stem cortex during the development of galls and with the formation of new and very numerous canals in the bases of the differentiated gall leaves.

  6. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Waterman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %, β-caryophyllene (8.2 %, piperitione (6.7 % and α-humulene (5.1 %, whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %, with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6 % and α-pinene (6.5 %.

  7. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS (L. POIT LEAVES FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF TAMIL NADU

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    V. Pandiyarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L. leaves from three different regions of Tamil Nadu was analysed by GC – MS method and the constituents of three different localities were compared. In all 12 compounds were identified and they were α-caryophyllene, α-pinene, α-thujene, camphene, D-limonene, sabinene, β-myrcene, 1, 8-cineole, γ-terpinene, α-terpinolene, α-terpineol, phenentherene. It was found that the constituents of the essential oil differed in quantities in the three different populations of Hyptis suaveolens (L. which may due to local geographical differences.

  8. Creep of metal-type organic compounds. 3: Friction stress models for creep in particle-hardened systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, G.C.; Jones, D.R.H. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Engineering Dept.

    1996-08-15

    The effect of a dispersed phase of small, hard particles on the creep behavior of two plastic crystals, camphene and succinonitrile, is investigated experimentally. Three models describing the creep deformation of a material containing hard particles are compared to the experimental data. Previous work has considered the particles to result in a constant friction stress which opposes creep deformation. The experimental results for plastic crystals are shown to be equally consistent with a model in which the friction stress is a linear function of the applied stress.

  9. Effect of sulfate ions on activity of TiO/sub 2/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and ZrO/sub 2/ for the 2-pinene isomerization reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Ryuichiro; Morikawa, Toshiyuki; Hiraga, Yoshizumi; Tanabe, Kozo

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of titanium oxide, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and ZrO/sub 2/ with (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ brought high catalytic activity for isomerization of 2-pinene. The selectivities of the catalysts for formation of camphene and 1,7,7-trimethyltricyclo(2.2.1.0/sup 2.6/)heptane (tricyclene) were high (60-70%). The effect of sulfate ions has been interpreted in terms of surface acid strength. (orig.)

  10. Chemical investigation of the leaf and rhizome essential oils of Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith leaf and rhizome oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Twenty-nine components were identified in the leaf oil. The major components were zerumbone (36.98%; a-caryophyllene (16.35% and camphene (9.24%. Thirty components were identified in rhizome oil with the main components being in zerumbone (46.83%; a-caryophyllene (19.00% and 1,5,5,8-tetramethyl-12-oxabicyclo[9.1.0]dodeca-3,7-diene (4.28%. The compositions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

  11. A new freeze casting technique for ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kiyoshi

    A new freeze casting technique for ceramics capable of manufacturing near room temperature with a sublimable vehicle has been developed in order to eliminate expensive processes under extremely cold temperatures in the conventional freeze casting. Fluid concentrated slurries of Al2O 3 powder in molten camphene (C10H16) were successfully prepared at 55°C with a small amount of a dispersant. These slurries were quickly solidified (frozen) at room temperature to yield a rigid solid green body, where the frozen camphene was easily removed by sublimation (freeze-drying) with negligible shrinkage. Sintering was successfully conducted without any special binder burnout process to yield dense sintered bodies (over 98% T.D). An organic alloy with a eutectic composition in the naphthalene (C 10H8)-camphor (C10H16O) binary system with a eutectic temperature of 31°C was also found to be a successful vehicle for the new ceramic freeze casting. The fabrication processes are almost the same as those with camphene. It was found that vehicles with off-eutectic compositions resulted in large voids in the sintered body due to the ceramic particle rejection by pro-eutectic crystals during freezing. At the eutectic composition, fine lamellar microstructure in the solidified vehicle inhibits the particle rejection. The proposed advantages of the new freeze casting technique with a sublimable vehicle include; (1) elimination of extremely cold temperatures used in conventional freeze casting; (2) elimination of troublesome binder burnout process; and (3) fast manufacturing cycle due to quick solidification. Porous ceramic bodies with unique interconnected pore channels were fabricated by the new freeze casting with lower solid content. The unique channels surrounded by fully dense walls have nearly circular cross-sections unlike conventional aqueous freeze casting. The porosity and the channel diameters are controllable by the solid content in the slurry. The unique channels are

  12. Participation of citral in the bronchodilatory effect of ginger oil and possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangprayool, Thitiya; Kupittayanant, Sajeera; Chudapongse, Nuannoi

    2013-09-01

    The extract of ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), has been reported to possess anti-hyperactivity and anti-inflammation on airway. The present study described brochodilatory activity of ginger oil and identified its active compound. Ginger oil was extracted by hydro-distillation. The compositions of ginger oil were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometer. Citral, eucalyptol and camphene were found to be the major components. Ginger oil and citral, but not camphene, suppressed rat tracheal contraction induced by carbachol (CCh). Consistent with previous report, eucalyptol showed a relaxing effect on rat airway. Since the content of eucalyptol in ginger oil was relatively low, the contribution of eucalyptol to the bronchodilatory effect of ginger oil was small. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the myorelaxing effect, propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), indomethacin (a COX inhibitor) and L-NAME (a NOS inhibitor) were used to block the inhibitory effects of ginger oil and citral. It was found that propranolol, but not indomethacin and L-NAME, reversed bronchodilatory effects of both ginger oil and citral, suggesting that a possible mechanism involved β-adrenergic receptor. This study provides the pharmacological basis supporting the therapeutic potential of Z. officinale rhizomes as a bronchodilator.

  13. Recycling of Coal Fly Ash for the Fabrication of Porous Mullite/Alumina Composites

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    Kyu H. Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash with the addition of Al2O3 was recycled to produce mullite/alumina composites and the camphene-based freeze casting technique was processed to develop a controlled porous structure with improved mechanical strength. Many rod-shaped mullite crystals, formed by the mullitization of coal fly ash in the presence of enough silicate, melt. After sintering at 1300–1500 °C with the initial solid loadings of 30–50 wt.%, interconnected macro-sized pore channels with nearly circular-shaped cross-sections developed along the macroscopic solidification direction of camphene solvent used in freeze casting and a few micron-sized pores formed in the walls of the pore channels. The macro-pore size of the mullite/alumina composites was in the range 20–25 μm, 18–20 μm and 15–17 μm with reverse dependence on the sintering temperature at 30, 40 and 50 wt.% solid loading, respectively. By increasing initial solid loading and the sintering temperature, the sintered porosity was reduced from 79.8% to 31.2%, resulting in an increase in the compressive strength from 8.2 to 80.4 MPa.

  14. Characterization of the chemical composition of the essential oils from Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer 'terra-fria' and Annona squamosa L.

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    Felipe Girotto Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer 'terra-fria' and Annona squamosa L. The species were grown in a greenhouse for 18 months, which nutrient solution was applied weekly; the plants were then harvested and the leaves dried to extract the essential oil. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to study its chemical profiles. Eleven substances were found in the essential oil of A. emarginata, primarily (E-caryophyllene (29.29%, (Z-caryophyllene (16.86%, γ-muurolene (7.54%, α-pinene (13.86%, and tricyclene (10.04%. Ten substances were detected in the oil from A. squamosa, primarily (E-caryophyllene (28.71%, (Z-caryophyllene (14.46%, α-humulene (4.41%, camphene (18.10%, α-pinene (7.37%, β-pinene (8.71%, and longifolene (5.64%. Six substances were common to both species: (E-caryophyllene, (Z-caryophyllene, α-humulene, camphene, α-pinene, and β-pinene.

  15. Freeze-cast alumina pore networks: Effects of freezing conditions and dispersion medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S. M.; Xiao, X.; Faber, K. T.

    2015-11-01

    Alumina ceramics were freeze-cast from water- and camphene-based slurries under varying freezing conditions and examined using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Pore network characteristics, i.e., porosity, pore size, geometric surface area, and tortuosity, were measured from XCT reconstructions and the data were used to develop a model to predict feature size from processing conditions. Classical solidification theory was used to examine relationships between pore size, temperature gradients, and freezing front velocity. Freezing front velocity was subsequently predicted from casting conditions via the two-phase Stefan problem. Resulting models for water-based samples agreed with solidification-based theories predicting lamellar spacing of binary eutectic alloys, and models for camphene-based samples concurred with those for dendritic growth. Relationships between freezing conditions and geometric surface area were also modeled by considering the inverse relationship between pore size and surface area. Tortuosity was determined to be dependent primarily on the type of dispersion medium. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Annual variations of atmospheric VOC concentrations in a boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakola, H.; Hellen, H.; Tarvainen, V. (Finnish Meteorological Institute Air Quality Research, Helsinki (Finland)); Baeck, J. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Patokoski, J.; Rinne, J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Ambient atmospheric concentrations of monoterpene compounds were measured above a boreal forest in Hyytiaelae, Finland during 2000-2007. For most of the time, two samples per week were collected, although there are some gaps in the data due to analytical or other issues. The monoterpene concentrations reached their maximum in summer, although they were found to be quite high also during winter. The main compounds found during winter were alpha-pinene, DELTA3-carene, beta-pinene and camphene. In summer 1,8-cineol and sabinene were also present in the samples. The concentrations of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene/myrcene, camphene, DELTA3-carene increased during the measurement period both in winter and in summer. This increase cannot be explained by meteorological conditions. The possible explanations could be human activities in the vicinity of the sampling site in addition to forest growth. The seasonal cycles of daytime concentrations were found to follow emission fluxes modeled using a simple temperature dependent parameterisation. The measured monoterpene concentrations were used, together with emission rate measurements, for estimating ambient atmospheric beta-caryophyllene concentration which cannot be directly measured due to its high reactivity against ozone. (orig.)

  17. Research Progress on the Essential Oil of Artemisia Annua L.%青蒿挥发油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 胡浩斌; 郑旭东; 王春林

    2011-01-01

    From the aspects of extraction method, harvesting time, storage time, producing area, collection position and planting season, the influence factors of essential oil yield of Artenisia annua L. were analyzed, and essential oil components were collected from different places.The results showed that there was great difference in the chemical composition of essential oils, and the major chemical composition of essential oil are sesquiterpene and monoterpene, such as camphor, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, caryophyllene oside, caryophyllene, seltnene, camphene, pinene and germacrene D.%从提取方法、采收期、贮存期、产地、采集部位和种植季节6个方面分析青蒿挥发油收率的影响因素.并收集整理了不同产些的挥发油组分,总结出青蒿挥发油化学成分差异较大,以倍半萜和单萜为主,主要成分是樟脑(Camphor)、1,8-按叶素(1,8-cineole)、蒿酮(Artemisia ketone)、石竹烯氧化物(Caryophyllene oside)、石竹烯(Caryophyllene)、芹予烯(Seltnene)、莰烯(Camphene)、蒎烯(Pinene)和大根香叶烯D(Germacrene D)等化合物.

  18. Analytical methodology development for toxaphene by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, H.; Senthilkumar, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ohi, E.; Takasuga, T. [Shimadzu-Techno Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Toxaphene is a broad-spectrum insecticide, was one of the most heavily used agricultural chemicals on a global scale, especially against pests in cotton field and vegetable farms. Basically, commercial production of toxaphene involves the reaction of camphene, chlorine activated by ultraviolet radiation and certain catalysts to yield chlorinated camphene with chlorine content of 67 to 69% by weight. Environmental hazards and increasing public concerns associated with toxaphene are reviewed. By 1974, cumulative world use of toxaphene was, estimated as 450,000 metric tons. Production of toxaphene declined from 1973 to 1980; however, annual consumption in 1980 was estimated as 105,000 tons, thus qualifying toxaphene as one of the most heavily utilized agricultural chemicals. Toxaphene is extremely persistent in soil and waters, with documented half times of 9 to 11 years. Toxaphene is especially hazardous to non-target marine and freshwater organisms, with death recorded at ambient water concentrations substantially below 10 ng/mL, and adverse effects observed on growth, reproduction, and metabolism at water concentrations between 0.05 and 0.3 ng/mL.

  19. Essential oil composition of terminal branches, cones and roots of Tetraclinis articulata from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tékaya-Karoui, Ahlem; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Mighri, Zine

    2007-08-01

    The volatiles obtained separately from the terminal branches (woody and non-woody), cones and roots of Tetraclinis articulata gathered from the area of Zaghouan (Tunisia) have been analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Remarkable differences were found between the constituent percentages of the different studied organs. The main components in the non-woody branches volatile oil were naphtalen (6.6%), Z-muurolene (29.0%) while Camphene (43.2%), Z-beta-ocimene (11.7%), nonanol (5.3%) and a non identified compound (12%) were the main components in the wood branches volatile concentrate. In the cones oil, the most important compounds found were trans-pinacarveol (6.1%), p-cymene-8-ol (10.4%), fenchyl acetate (5.1%), beta-phellandrene (8.1%) and carvone (5.3%). The major constituent in the oil of roots was found to be Camphene (70.2%). A comparison of these data with previous results reported in the literature showed surprising differences.

  20. Essential Oils Extracted Using Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation from Aerial Parts of Eleven Artemisia Species: Chemical Compositions and Diversities in Different Geographical Regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohammadhosseini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs extracted through microwave-assisted hydrodistillation from aerial parts of 11 Artemisia species growing wild in different regions in Northern, Eastern, Western, and Central parts of Iran. The EOs were subsequently analyzed via GC and GC-MS. The percentage yields of the EOs varied over the range of 0.21-0.50 (w/w%. On the basis of these characterizations and spectral assignments, natural compounds including camphor, 1,8-cineole, camphene, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-thujone, and sabinene were the most abundant and frequent constituents among all studied chemical profiles. Accordingly, oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and non-terpene hydrocarbons were the dominant groups of natural compounds in the chemical profiles of 13, 4, and 2 samples, respectively. Moreover, five chemotypes were identified using statistical analyses: camphene, α-pinene and β-pinene; 1,8-cineole; camphore and 1,8-cineole; camphore and camphore and β-thujone.

  1. Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L. from East Part of Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Haziri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We have analyzed the chemical nature of essential oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L. from East part of Kosova. Approach: The essential oil from aerial part of Tanacetum parthenium (L., obtained by hidro-distillation was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Results: Out of 25 peaks, 22 components, which constitute 88%, were identified in oil. The main compounds of Tanacetum parthenium (L. from east region of Kosova, were camphor (63% and camphene (9.6%. This study demonstrates the occurrence of camphor/camphene chemotype of Tanacetum parthenium (L. from east part of Kosova. The present study showed the chemical composition of the hydro-distilled oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L. from East part of Kosova and the results are compared to those reported in the literature. Conclusion: After comparison of our date with those reported in literature we can conclude that genetic and environmental factors play role in determining the composition of essential oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L..

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the gum of Turkish pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, Mehmet Hakki; Nitz, Siegfried; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Digrak, Metin; Efe, Fatih Tuncay; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2004-06-16

    The essential oil from the gum of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae)) grown in Turkey was obtained by the hydro-distillation method, and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Moreover, the antimicrobial activities of the oil against the growth of 13 bacteria and 3 pathogenic yeasts were evaluated using the agar-disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. The results showed that the essential oil contained about 89.67% monoterpenes, 8.1% oxygenated monoterpenes and 1.2% diterpenes. alpha-Pinene (75.6%), beta-pinene (9.5%), trans-verbenol (3.0%), camphene (1.4%), trans-pinocarveol (about 1.20%), and limonene (1.0%) were the major components. The antimicrobial results showed that the oil inhibited nine bacteria and all the yeasts studied, and the activities were considerably dependent upon concentration and its bioactive compounds such as carvacrol, camphene, and limonene. Moreover, the essential oil of the gum was found to be more effective yeastcide than Nystatin, synthetic yeastcide. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities of the oil were lower than those of standard antibiotics, ampicillin sodium, and streptomycine sulfate under the conditions studied.

  3. Sorption and selective chromatographic properties of isomer-selective composite sorbent based on a eutectic mixture of nematic liquid crystals and perbenzoylated β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuchak, L. A.; Kapralova, T. S.; Kuraeva, Yu. G.; Belousova, Z. P.; Stepanova, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mesomorphic, sorption, and selective properties of a three-component sorbent based on a mixture of nematic ( N) liquid crystals of 4-methoxy-4'-ethoxyazoxybenzene (MEAB) and 4,4'-diethoxyazoxybenzene (azoxyphenetol, AOP) of an eutectic composition and heptakis-(2,3,6-tri- O-benzoyl)-β-cyclodextrin (Bz-β-CD) are studied. For 30 organic compounds of different classes with linear and cyclic molecular structures, including optical isomers of limonene, pinene, camphene, and butanediol-2,3, thermodynamic functions are determined for their gas-phase sorption using a three-component MEAB-AOP-Bz-β- CD sorbent (62: 28: 10 wt %). It is found that the investigated sorbent possesses high structural selectivity (αp/m = 1.128-1.059, 100-130°C, N) and moderate enantioselectivity (1.07-1.02) within a broad temperature range (95-170°C) including both mesomorphic and isotropic phases of the sorbent. It is shown that the enantioselectivity of the sorbent is apparent under conditions of both increasing retention when a chiral Bz-β-CD additive is introduced into the MEAB-AOP system (limonenes, pinenes, camphenes) and decreasing retention (butanediols-2,3).

  4. Chemical differentiation of Boswellia sacra and Boswellia carterii essential oils by gas chromatography and chiral gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Cole L; Suhail, Mahmoud M; Smith, Brett L; Boren, Karen E; Taylor, Lindsey C; Schreuder, Marc F; Chai, Jeremiah K; Casabianca, Hervé; Haq, Sadqa; Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Al-Shahri, Ahmed A; Al-Hatmi, Saif; Young, D Gary

    2012-10-26

    Major botanical and scientific references currently identify two species of frankincense, Boswellia carterii and Boswellia sacra, as being synonymous. We evaluated the Somalian (B. carterii) and Omani/Yemeni (B. sacra) species by chemical analyses to determine if there were any minor or major differences between the two species of frankincense. Components identified with their average percent for B. sacra are α-thujene (0.6%), α-pinene (68.2%), camphene (2.1%), sabinene (2.9%), β-pinene (2.0%), myrcene (0.7%), limonene+β-phellandrene (6.2%). Components identified with their average percent for B. carterii are α-thujene (7.9%), α-pinene (37.3%), camphene (0.8%), sabinene (4.9%), β-pinene (1.8%), myrcene (7.3%), limonene+β-phellandrene (14.4%). Initially, GC-MS analysis did not reveal major statistical differences. However, optical rotation values, B. Sacra (+30.1°) and B. carterii (-13.3°), demonstrated a greater significant difference. Enantiomeric ratio (+)/(-) values of α-pinene for B. sacra and B. carterii are 8.24 and 0.68, respectively, were also calculated aiding our conclusion that B. sacra and B. carterii are not synonymous but rather two distinct and individual frankincense species.

  5. 吊金钱和鸭跖草挥发物主要成分的抑菌作用%Antimicrobial Activity of Major Components of Ceropegia woodii and Commelina communis Volatiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟雪; 王志英; 孟庆敏; 郑宝仁; 卢宝伟; 王婷婷

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the antimicrobial activity of the volatiles from flowers Ceropegia woodii and Commelina communis,the gas samples were collected by dynamic top collection method,and analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that, camphene ( 3. 83% and 14. 91% from the two floral species, respectively),α-pinene(5. 89% and 31. 06%),and eucalyptole(33. 80% and 0. 45%) were most abundant. The fungistatic activity of the three terpene compounds against four fungal species, Alternaria solani,Penicillium gladioli,Epicoccum nigrum and Aspergillus niger was evaluated by mycelial growth-rate method. The results showed that α-pinene, camphene and eucalyptole all had remarkable fungistatic activity against the tested fungal pathogens. The overall fungistatic activity of α-pinene was the highest, followed by eucalyptole and then camphene. The two species of flowers could be used for development of new type of plant fungicides.%为了确定吊金钱( Ceropegia woodii)和鸭跖草( Commelina communis)2种花卉挥发物的抑菌活性,首先利用顶端动态采集和GC/MS分析方法,检测其主要成分。结果表明,在2种花卉挥发物中,莰烯、α-蒎烯和桉树脑3种萜烯化合物含量很高,其中莰烯在2种花卉挥发物中的相对含量分别为3.83%、14.91%,α-蒎烯分别为5.89%、31.06%,桉树脑分别为33.80%、0.45%。以唐菖蒲腐烂病、番茄早疫病、玉米附球菌叶斑病、洋葱黑曲霉病的病原菌为供试菌种,采用生长速率法对上述3种主要挥发物的抑菌活性进行测定,结果显示,α-蒎烯、莰烯、桉树脑均具有显著的抑菌效果,综合对比表明,抑菌能力由大到小为:α-蒎烯>桉树脑>莰烯。因此,2种花卉可用于新型植物农药的开发。

  6. Synthesis and properties of isobornyl methacrylate%甲基丙烯酸异冰片酯的合成及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓维; 徐徐; 魏柏松; 王石发

    2013-01-01

    Isobornyl methacrylate was synthesized by direct esterification of camphene and methacrylic acid.The synthesis conditions of isobornyl methacrylate were discussed.Effects including reaction time,reaction temperature,molar ratio of camphene to methacrylic acid,types of catalysts and their dosage,types of antipolymerization inhibitors and their dosage on yield and selectivity were investigated.The optimum conditions were obtained by orthogonal test.The optimum conditions were 10% Ambedyst 15 as the catalyst (based on total mass of reactants percent),0.03% phenothiazine as the polymerization inhibitor,the molar ratio of methacrylic acid to camphene 1.3∶ 1,esterification temperature 60 ℃,reaction time 8-9 h.The average yield and the selectivity of isobornyl methacrylate under the optimum conditions were 80.2% and 95.3% respectively,and the ester content was more than 99.2%.The structure of the isobornyl acrylate was analyzed by GC-MS,FT-IR and so on.%以莰烯和甲基丙烯酸为原料,采用直接加成酯化法合成甲基丙烯酸异冰片酯(IBOMA).分析了反应时间、反应温度、莰烯与甲基丙烯酸的物质的量之比、催化剂种类及用量、阻聚剂种类及用量等对产物得率和反应选择性的影响,并采用正交试验对反应条件进行了优化,确定了适宜的合成工艺条件:以10%的Amberlyst 15作催化剂、0.03%的吩噻嗪作阻聚剂、甲基丙烯酸与莰烯物质的量之比为1.3∶1、酯化温度为60℃、反应时间为8~9 h,在此工艺条件下,产物甲基丙烯酸异冰片酯的平均得率为80.2%,平均选择性为95.3%,酯含量大于99.2%.采用GC-MS、FT-IR等分析技术对产物性能进行了表征.

  7. 固体酸Amberlyst 15催化合成丙烯酸异冰片酯%Synthesis of Isobornyl Acrylate in the Presence of Amberlyst 15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓维; 徐徐; 王石发; 花宇

    2013-01-01

    以莰烯和丙烯酸为原料,用强酸性阳离子树脂Amberlyst 15作催化剂合成了功能单体丙烯酸异冰片酯,考察了物料比、催化剂用量、阻聚剂种类及用量、反应温度、反应时间等因素对反应的影响,同时采用正交试验对工艺条件进行了优化,结果表明,较适宜的反应条件是n(丙烯酸)∶n(莰烯)为1.3∶1,催化剂Amberlyst 15用量占原料总质量的12%,阻聚剂吩噻嗪用量占原料总质量的0.03%,反应温度为60℃,在此条件下制备的丙烯酸异冰片酯得率为83.3%,选择性为94.6%.利用傅立叶变换红外光谱及气相色谱-质谱等分析手段对产物的结构进行了鉴定.%Functional monomer-isobornyl acrylate was prepared from camphene and acrylic acid using cation exchange resin-Amberlyst 15 as catalyst.Effects of material ratio of camphene to acrylic acid,content of catalyst,types and content of inhibitors,the temperature,and the reaction time on reaction were investigated.Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were material ratio of acrylic acid to camphene 1.3∶ 1,content of catalyst 12 %,content of phenothiazine 0.03 %,and the reaction temperature 60 ℃.The yield of isobornyl acrylate was 83.3 %,and the selectivity was 94.6 % under the above conditions.The structure of isobornyl acrylate was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS.

  8. Transcriptional response of marine medaka (Oryzias javanicus) on exposure to toxaphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seonock; Yum, Seungshic

    2011-04-01

    Differential gene expression profiles were established from the head and liver tissues of the marine medaka fish (Oryzias javanicus) after its exposure to toxaphene, a persistent organic pollutant and insecticide, using differential display polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-seven differentially expressed genes were identified, which were associated with the cytoskeleton, development, metabolism, nucleic acid/protein binding, and signal transduction. Among these genes, those encoding molecular biomarkers known to be involved in metabolism, ATP hydrolysis, and protein regulation were strongly induced at the transcription level, and genes encoding one structural protein subunit or involved in lipid metabolism were strongly downregulated. The same trends in gene expression changes were observed with real-time PCR analysis of 12 selected clones. The genes identified could be used as molecular biomarkers of biological responses to polychlorinated camphene contamination in aquatic environments.

  9. 2-exo,5-endo,8,8,10-Pentachlorobornane

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    Vladimir Nikiforov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H13Cl5, is a polychlorinated monoterpene and a Toxaphene congener. This compound is also the only pentachlorinated derivative of camphene formed via ionic chlorination. Previously, the title compound was thought to be 2-exo,5-endo,9,9,10-pentachlorobornane, but X-ray structural analysis showed it to have a different structure and rather to be 2-exo,5-endo,8,8,10-pentachlorobornane. The title compound shows static disorder and almost half the molecule was divided in two partitions with an occupancy ratio of 0.575 (major to 0.425 (minor. The repulsive close contacts of Cl atoms could possibly be the cause for this disorder.

  10. Geographical Variation in the Composition of Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf. Needle Oils

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    Güneş Uçar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is to investigate the effect of the geographic variation on the composition of needle oils of Abies bornmuelleriana endemic to Turkey. Samples were taken from the stands distanced up to 500 km from each other. By means of GC-MS/FID analyses, it was found that main compounds making up about 90 percent of the needle essential oils exhibit notable systematic variation depending on the longitude where the trees grow. Among most occurring monoterpenes, the percentages of a -pinene and camphene tend to increase in west–east direction. To compensate these increments a decrease was observed in mainly the three monoterpenes, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and limonene.

  11. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Salvia pinnata L.

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    Nehir Unver Somer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L. (Labiatae, collected during flowering and fruiting periods, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. 37 compounds were identified representing 96.1 % of the essential oil obtained from the plant material collected during flowering period. 30 compounds were detected constituting 94.7 % of the essential oil of the plant material collected in fruiting period. The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

  12. Analysis Of Phytochemical Constituents And Antimicrobial Activities Of Alpinia calcarata Against Clinical Pathogens

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    Jency George

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of essential oil isolated from the rhizome of Alpinia calcarata against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Fresh rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata were subjected to hydro distillation process to obtain essential oil and characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against ten pathogenic bacteria and seven fungi by the disc diffusion method. GC – MS analysis of the essential oil extracted from the rhizome of Alpinia calcarata contained the derivatives of 2-octanone, camphene, 1,8-cineole, α fenchyl acetate, 2 hexanone, 4 methyl- 2- hexanone and other minor compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic bacteria, no activity was observed against the fungi Aspergillus aculeatus and Fusarium oxysporum. The findings of the present study indicate that the rhizome extract of Alpinia calcarata possess secondary metabolites and potential to develop antimicrobial drugs.

  13. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  14. Chemical Composition of Vegetative Parts and Flowers Essential Oils of Wild Anvillea garcinii Grown in Saudi Arabia

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    Merajuddin Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The flowers and vegetative parts essential oils of Anvillea garcinii were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS using polar and nonpolar columns which led to the identification of total 140 compounds from both oils, among which 130 compounds were identified for the first time in the genus Anvillea. In the flowers oil 126 compounds were identified, whereas 119 compounds were identified in the vegetative parts oil of A. garcinii representing 95.7% and 94.9% of the total oil composition, respectively. The major components in the flowers oil were bornyl acetate (33.7%, cis-nerolidol (7.3% and camphene (6.1%. In contrast, the major compounds in the vegetative parts oil were cis-nerolidol (16.0%, terpine n-4-ol (10.4% and cabreuva oxide B (6.4%.

  15. The Essential Oil of Monarda didyma L. (Lamiaceae Exerts Phytotoxic Activity in Vitro against Various Weed Seed

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    Donata Ricci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of Monarda didyma L. cultivated in central Italy was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. The major compounds of the oil were thymol (59.3%, p-cymene (10.3%, terpinolene (9.2%, δ-3-carene (4.4%, myrcene (3.7%, and camphene (3.4%. The essential oil was tested in vitro for its anti-germination activity against Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg., Avena fatua L., Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L. seeds, demonstrating good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. The exposure of the employed weed seeds to M. didyma essential oil and thymol solution (59.3% increased the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, markers of oxidative stress, in emerging 5-day-old rootlets.

  16. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Douglas fir (Pseudosuga menziesii Mirb. Franco from Serbia

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    VELE TEŠEVIĆ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of fresh young needles with twigs of Douglas fir (Pseudosuga menziesii Mirb. Franco obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Ten compounds, accounting for 94.26 % of the oil, were identified. The main compounds found were bornyl acetate (34.65 %, camphene (29.82 %, a-pinene (11.65 % and santene (5.45 %. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was tested against various fungal species. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Douglas fir essential oil ranged from 1.5 to 4 µg mL-1. The fungi most sensitive to the tested oil were Phomopsis helianthi, while Penicillium species, along with Microsporum canis, were the most resistant. Compared to the commercial fungicidal agent bifonazole, the studied essential oil demonstrated higher antifungal activity.

  17. Quantifying Marine Emissions of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds Using Laboratory Measurements of Plankton Monocultures and Field Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolis, A. W.; Meskhidze, N.; Kamykowski, D.; Reed, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    production rate of 3.5 μmol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 with ranges between 0.6 and 4.1 μmol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 for similar light levels and temperatures between 18 to 30°C. Three monoterpenes detected were α-pinene, camphene, and d-limonene. Diatoms had the highest α-pinene and d-limonene production rates of 0.045 μmol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 and 0.015 μmol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1, respectively. The prymnesiophyte species had the highest camphene production of 0.021 μmol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1. Production rates of d-limonene and camphene did not show a well-defined light dependency, but both isoprene and α-pinene showed an increase in terpene production with increasing light intensities. Field samples show α-pinene, d-limonene, and camphene production rates of 0.05 μmol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1, 0.02 μmol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 and 0.018 μmol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1, respectively. Field samples acclimated at 26°C had the highest terpene production rates. This study tabulates a large number of BVOC emission rates for various phytoplankton species under diverse environmental conditions.

  18. Phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary Helen PA; Susheela Gomathy K; Jayasree S; Nizzy AM; Rajagopal B; Jeeva S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of essential oil isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.Methods:Fresh rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza were subjected to hydro distillation process to obtain essential oil and characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and six fungi by the disc diffusion method. Results: GC – MS analysis of the essential oil extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza contained the derivatives of xanthorihizol, camphene and curcumene, monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, hydrocarbons and other minor compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic bacteria, no activity was observed against the fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that the rhizome extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza possess secondary metabolites and potential to develop antimicrobial drugs.

  19. EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT VALERIAN (VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L. ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITIONS CULTIVATED AT GARMSAR ZONE IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Morteza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on experimental field at Garmsar zone in Iran during 2010 – 2011 in order to Evaluation of medicinal plant valerian (Valeriana officinalis L. essential oil compositions cultivated at Garmsar zone in Iran. Sowing date was 20 September and planting densitiy was 80000 plant ha–1. The volatile constituents of the root part of cultivated Valeriana officinalis were isolated by steam distillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS systems that were identified the 69 compositions. The results showed that oil percentage was 1.65%. The basic oil components among the identified 69 compounds were α-Fenchene (6.1%, Camphene (11%, Borneol (6.6%, Bornyl acetate (10.1% and Valerenal (12.9%. and Our finding may give applicable advice to commercial and medicinal and aromatic plants researches for management for increase of quantity and quality yields in medicinal and aromatic plants farming.

  20. Effect of Drying and Hydrodistillation Time on the Amount of Ginger Essential Oil

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    Ida Hasmita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the effect of drying and hydrodistillation time on the amount of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. essential oil. For this purpose, a hydrodistillation laboratory-scale extraction unit was employed. The fresh ginger were dried by air drying for 1, 2 and 4 days at ambient temperature. In general, ginger oil obtained in the form of bright yellow liquid with a distinctive aroma of ginger. The experimental results showed that the yields of the ginger essential oils were affected by the drying time of raw material and hydrodistillation times. The obtained essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and 12 compounds were identified. The major compounds of ginger essential oil were 1,8-cineole, geranial, geraniol, camphene and neral.

  1. Chemical profile, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of rhizome oil of Zingiber anamalayanum from Western Ghats in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Mohamed; Kabeer, T K Ahmedul; Nair, S Ajikumaran; Dan, Mathew; Sabu, M; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-09-01

    Volatile oil from fresh rhizomes of Zingiber anamalayanum was isolated by hydrodistillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-one out of 24 constituents comprising 99.47% of the oil were identified. Major components in Z. anamalayanum rhizome oil were δ-2-carene (52.83%), camphene (9.83%), endo-fenchol (9.42%), iso-dihydrocarveol (6.44%) and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.19%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons in the rhizome oil were 65.81%, followed by oxygenated monoterpenes (23.78%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (9.87%). Physical parameters of rhizome oil were [Formula: see text] 1.4031, [Formula: see text] - 16.097(o) (c = 1, CHCl3) and [Formula: see text] 0.9202. Z. anamalayanum rhizome oil showed significant anti-Dalton's Lymphoma Ascitic activity.

  2. Variation of terpenes in milk and cultured cream from Norwegian alpine rangeland-fed and in-door fed cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Grethe Iren A; Sandberg, Ellen; Øyaas, Jorun; Abrahamsen, Roger K

    2016-05-15

    The terpene content of milk and cream made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors, and by early or late grazing, in alpine rangeland farms in Norway, were analysed for three consecutive years. The main terpenes identified and semi-quantified were the monoterpenes β-pinene, α-pinene, α-thujene, camphene, sabinene, δ-3-carene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, camphor, β-citronellene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. The average total terpene content increased five times during the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes α-thujene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and β-citronellene were only detected in milk and cultured cream from the alpine rangeland feeding period and not in samples from the indoors feeding period. These four terpenes could be used, as indicators, to show that milk and cultured cream originate from the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes did not influence the sensorial quality of the milk or the cultured cream.

  3. Natural terpenes prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and release of apoptotic proteins during nimesulide-hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Tripathi, Madhulika; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Pandey, Pramod K; Kakkar, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Nimesulide, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, is reported to cause severe hepatotoxicity. In this study, molecular mechanisms involved in deranged oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction during nimesulide-induced hepatotoxicity and its attenuation by plant derived terpenes, camphene and geraniol has been explored in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hepatotoxicity due to nimesulide (80 mg/kg BW) was evident from elevated SGPT, SGOT, bilirubin and histo-pathological changes. Antioxidants and key redox enzymes (iNOS, mtNOS, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, GPx and GR) were altered significantly as assessed by their mRNA expression, Immunoblot analysis and enzyme activities. Redox imbalance along with oxidative stress was evident from decreased NAD(P)H and GSH (56% and 74% respectively; Pterpenes against nimesulide toxicity. Therefore CG, a combination of natural terpenes prevented nimesulide induced cellular damage and ensuing hepatotoxicity.

  4. Biogenic VOC measurements during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charlotte; Hopkins, James; Lee, James; Lewis, Alastair; Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2010-05-01

    We present the first ambient air speciated monoterpene measurements from the UK FGAM (Facility for Ground based Atmospheric Measrements) - York dual channel gas chromatograph system with flame ionisation detectors, alongside measurements of other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) such as isoprene, which were made during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) campaign in Danum Valley, Borneo, in 2008. The monoterpenes measured were alpha-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, gamma-terpinene and limonene. We compare the relative concentrations and diurnal profiles of the different monoterpene species and other BVOCs such as isoprene, and analyse variability in their concentrations in light of various environmental conditions, in order to gain insight into factors which influence their emission rates, and therefore regulate their potential impact upon photochemical processes within the boundary layer. We also present regional BVOC measurements made onboard the FAAM BAE 146 aircraft over both the natural rainforest and oil palm plantations.

  5. Enantiomeric distribution of key volatile components in Citrus essential oils

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    Ivana Bonaccorsi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus as many other plants present characteristic distribution of some enantiomers, thus it is often possible to use this parameter for identification, characterization, genuineness, and pharmacological activity assessment. In particular, it is possible to reveal adulteration of different nature, such as addition of synthetic compounds, or natural components of different botanical origin, with drastic changes in the biological and olfactory properties. This study is focused on the evaluation of the enantiomeric excesses of numerous samples of different Citrus species: C. deliciosa Ten., C. limon (L. Burm., C. bergamia, C. aurantifolia (Christm. Swing., C. latifolia Tan., C. sinensis (L. Osbeck, and C. aurantium L. The enantiomeric distribution is determined by direct esGC and, depending on the complexity of the essential oil, by MDGC with a chiral column in the second dimension. The research is focused on the determination of fourteen chiral components which present specific distribution in the essential oils investigated. Particular attention is given to the trend of the enantiomeric distribution during the productive season, so to identify useful parameters for quality assessment also in consideration of the wide range of variability often reported in literature. The components investigated were the following: α-thujene, α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, limonene, linalool, camphor, citronellal, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol. The use of MDGC allowed the separation of the enantiomers of camphor and citronellal, otherwise not separated by conventional esGC; however for the separation of the enantiomers of α-pinene it was preferable to use conventional esGC. The MDGC system allowed to determine the enantiomeric distribution of camphene, α- and β-phellandrene in lime essential oil for the first time. The results are discussed in function of seasonal variation and, when possible, in

  6. Analysis of Volatile Components in the Needle and Branch of Picea crassifolia by SPME/GC/MS%青海云杉针叶和枝条的挥发性化合物的固相微萃GC/MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史睿杰; 谢寿安; 赵薇; 吕淑杰; 宋晓斌; 郭新荣

    2011-01-01

    采用固相微萃取(SPME)技术,结合气相色谱/质谱(GC-MS)提取方法,分析了青海云杉针叶和枝条中的挥发性化合物,共鉴定了65种化学成分.其中针叶中分离鉴定出42种挥发性成分,占峰面积99.78%,主要成分为a-蒎烯、莰烯、左旋乙酸冰片酯;枝条中分离鉴定出50种挥发性成分,占峰面积的99.93%,主要成分为a-蒎烯、a-水芹烯、莰烯、1-甲基-5-(1-1-甲基乙烯基)-环己烯、石竹烯.青海云杉针叶和枝条的挥发物质中,萜烯类物质含量最多.%The volatile components in the needle and branch of Picea crassifolia were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and were analyzed by GC-MS. About 65 different compounds were identified. Forty-two were found in the needle, accounting for 99. 78 % the total area, including orpinene, camphene, acetate of (lS-en-do)-l ,7,7-trimethyl-cyclo[2. 2. L]heptan-2-ol. Fifty were found in the branch, accounting for 99. 93 % of the total area, including d-Pinene, orphellandrene, camphene, (R)- l-methyl-5-( l-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene, caryo-phyllene. The content terpenes were the main components in the volatiles.

  7. Study on the Isomerization Reaction ofβ-Pinene Catalyzed by Solid Superacid S2O82-/TiO2%固体超强酸S2O82-/TiO2催化β-蒎烯异构化反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧宗; 王瑞芬; 杨义文; 刘永根; 刘芳; 葛军英

    2005-01-01

      The isomerization reaction of β-pinene catalyzed by solid superacid S2O82-/TiO2 was performed. The results showed that the catalyst had strong catalytic activity and better selectivity. The main product of isomerization reaction was camphene and its by-products were limonene, carene and tricyclene etc. The factors influencing the isomerization reaction were investigated . The optimal reaction conditions were as follows:the reaction temperature 80℃, the reaction time 4h and the use level of catalyst S2O82-/TiO2 3% of the mass of β-pinene. Under the above-mentioned optimal reaction conditions, the conversion ofβ-pinene could reach 99.96%and the selectivity of camphene could reach 55.63%.%  将固体超强酸S2O82-/TiO2用于催化β-蒎烯的异构化反应,结果表明,该催化剂具有很高的催化活性和较好的选择性.异构化反应的主产物为莰烯,副产物主要是苧烯、蒈烯、三环烯等.异构化反应的最佳条件为,反应温度80℃,反应时间4h,催化剂用量为β-蒎烯质量的3%.在此条件下,β-蒎烯转化率为99.96%,莰烯选择性55.63%.

  8. Determining Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. Essential Oil on Some Microbial Strains

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    Zahra Izadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. is a herbal plant that has anti- septic, anti-microbial, anti-parasitic and anti-inflammatory effects. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of shoot essential oil (essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant of the feverfew on a number of microorganisms including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Materials and Methods: In this empirical study, plant samples were collected at the full blooming stage. Shoot essential oil was extracted using hydro-distillation technique and Clevenger apparatus. Components of the extract were identified using GC and GC/MS apparatus and its antimicrobial properties were evaluated using diffusion in Agar method (disk diffusion and dilution in the well (Micro-broth dilution.Results: Among 35 compounds identified in the essential oil of the feverfew, camphor (45%, chrysanthenyl acetate (21.5 and camphene (9.6%, were the main components respectively. Essential oil showed very good antifungal effect which was stronger than its antibacterial effect. Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive to the essential oil than gram-positive bacteria. The mean diameter of inhibition zone, in the bio-assessment of the effect of feverfew essential oil on gram-positive bacteria and fungi was respectively more than the effect of vancomycin and amphotericin B and this effect on gram-negative bacteria was less than the effect of gentamicin. This effect is attributed to the high value of camphor, chrysanthenyl acetate and camphene found in the essential oil.Conclusion: Feverfew essential oil could be utilized as a sound and harmless substitute for the antibiotics.

  9. Natural terpenes prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and release of apoptotic proteins during nimesulide-hepatotoxicity in rats.

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    Brijesh Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Nimesulide, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, is reported to cause severe hepatotoxicity. In this study, molecular mechanisms involved in deranged oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction during nimesulide-induced hepatotoxicity and its attenuation by plant derived terpenes, camphene and geraniol has been explored in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hepatotoxicity due to nimesulide (80 mg/kg BW was evident from elevated SGPT, SGOT, bilirubin and histo-pathological changes. Antioxidants and key redox enzymes (iNOS, mtNOS, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, GPx and GR were altered significantly as assessed by their mRNA expression, Immunoblot analysis and enzyme activities. Redox imbalance along with oxidative stress was evident from decreased NAD(PH and GSH (56% and 74% respectively; P<0.001, increased superoxide and secondary ROS/RNS generation along with oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules. Nimesulide reduced mitochondrial activity, depolarized mitochondria and caused membrane permeability transition (MPT followed by release of apoptotic proteins (AIF; apoptosis inducing factor, EndoG; endonuclease G, and Cyto c; cytochrome c. It also significantly activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 and increased oxidative DNA damage (level of 8-Oxoguanine glycosylase; P<0.05. A combination of camphene and geraniol (CG; 1:1, when pre-administered in rats (10 mg/kg BW, accorded protection against nimesulide hepatotoxicity in vivo, as evident from normalized serum biomarkers and histopathology. mRNA expression and activity of key antioxidant and redox enzymes along with oxidative stress were also normalized due to CG pre-treatment. Downstream effects like decreased mitochondrial swelling, inhibition in release of apoptotic proteins, prevention of mitochondrial depolarization along with reduction in oxidized NAD(PH and increased mitochondrial electron flow further supported protective action of selected terpenes against nimesulide toxicity. Therefore

  10. Rapid changes of induced volatile organic compounds in Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Qin; JIN Youju; HU Yongiian; CHEN Huajun; LI Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    Using the thermal-desorption cold trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometer(TCT-GC-MS)technique,the composition and relative contents of volatile compounds were analyzed in undamaged(control),insect-damaged(ID)and artificially-damaged(AD)leaves ofPinus massoniana in field at different times and levels of damage.Results showed that although volatile substances were highly released earlier in AD leaves plants,they were significantly less abundant in AD than in ID leaves treatments.Also,the damage level considerably influenced the changes of induced volatile products from leaves.Compared with the control,the emission rate of camphene,β-pinene,phellandrene,caryophyllene and(E)farnesene was high after 1 h in 25%-40% ID-affected leaves,whereas that of tricyclene,myrcene,camphene,β-Pinene,phellandrene and caryophyllene reached its maximum after 24 h in 60%-75% D-affected leaves.In the same manner,some volatile compounds in the AD leaves treatment displayed their peaks just after 1 h,but others after 24 h.The AD and ID leaves at the damage level of 25%-40% did not exhibit an obvious regularity with time;however,in 60%- 75% AD leaves,peaks of volatile substances were attained after 1 or 2 h.Our results also showed that the relative content ofβ-pinene increased and was higher in damaged than control plants,β-pinene plays an important role in inducing the insect resistance of P.massoniana trees.

  11. Development of a sampling method for the simultaneous monitoring of straight-chain alkanes, straight-chain saturated carbonyl compounds and monoterpenes in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detournay, Anaïs; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine; Gaudion, Vincent; Leonardis, Thierry; Fronval, Isabelle; Kaluzny, Pascal; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2011-04-01

    Studies have shown that biogenic compounds, long chain secondary compounds and long lifetime anthropogenic compounds are involved in the formation of organic aerosols in both polluted areas and remote places. This work aims at developing an active sampling method to monitor these compounds (i.e. 6 straight-chain saturated aldehydes from C6 to C11; 8 straight-chain alkanes from C9 to C16; 6 monoterpenes: α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, limonene, α-terpinene, & γ-terpinene; and 5 aromatic compounds: toluene, ethylbenzene, meta-, para- and ortho-xylenes) in remote areas. Samples are collected onto multi-bed sorbent cartridges at 200 mL min(-1) flow rate, using the automatic sampler SyPAC (TERA-Environnement, Crolles, France). No breakthrough was observed for sampling volumes up to 120 L (standard mixture at ambient temperature, with a relative humidity of 75%). As ozone has been shown to alter the samples (losses of 90% of aldehydes and up to 95% of terpenes were observed), the addition of a conditioned manganese dioxide (MnO(2)) scrubber to the system has been validated (full recovery of the affected compounds for a standard mixture at 50% relative humidity--RH). Samples are first thermodesorbed and then analysed by GC/FID/MS. This method allows suitable detection limits (from 2 ppt for camphene to 13 ppt for octanal--36 L sampled), and reproducibility (from 1% for toluene to 22% for heptanal). It has been successfully used to determine the diurnal variation of the target compounds (six 3 h samples a day) during winter and summer measurement campaigns at a remote site in the south of France.

  12. How rainfall, relative humidity and temperature influence volatile emissions from apple trees in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, Armelle; Gu, Hainan; Dorn, Silvia

    2005-07-01

    Headspace volatiles from apple-bearing twigs were collected in the field with a Radiello sampler during three different diurnal periods over the complete fruit growing season. Analyses by thermal desorption-GC-MS identified a total of 62 compounds in changing quantities, including the terpenoids alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, limonene, beta-caryophyllene and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, the aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde and nonanal, and the alcohol (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. The variations in emission of these plant odours were statistically related to temperature, humidity and rainfall in the field. Remarkably, rainfall had a significant positive influence on changes in volatile release during all three diurnal periods, and further factors of significance were temperature and relative humidity around noon, relative humidity in the late afternoon, and temperature and relative humidity during the night. Rainfall was associated consistently with an increase in the late afternoon in terpene and aldehyde volatiles with a known repellent effect on the codling moth, one of the key pests of apple fruit. During the summer of 2003, a season characterized by below-average rainfall, some postulated effects of drought on trees were tested by establishing correlations with rainfall. Emissions of the wood terpenes alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and limonene were negatively correlated with rainfall. Another monoterpene, camphene, was only detected in this summer but not in the previous years, and its emissions were negatively correlated with rainfall, further supporting the theory that drought can result in higher formation of secondary metabolites. Finally, the two green leaf volatiles (E)-2-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol were negatively correlated with rainfall, coinciding well with the expectation that water deficit stress increases activity of lipoxygenase. To our knowledge, this work represents the first empirical study concerning the influence of abiotic factors on volatile

  13. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  14. Monoterpene Compositions of Three Forested Ecosystems in the Central Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, A.; Fuentes, J. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J. Q.; Jardine, K.

    2014-12-01

    Monoterpenes play fundamental roles as secondary metabolites in forested ecosystems and as gas and liquid phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in their surrounding atmospheres. While the chemical pathways involved in ozonolysis driven SOA formation from individual monoterpene precursors is known, local and regional chemical transport models are still lacking observations of speciated monoterpenes from forested atmospheres. Here, we present high vertically resolved mixing ratio profiles of speciated monoterpenes from the ambient air of three neighboring forested ecosystems in the central Amazon Basin. Two well-drained plateau primary forests and one seasonally flooded valley forest were sampled during the afternoon hours (13:00 - 16:30) on walkup towers from the initiation of the 2013-14 wet season through the onset of the 2014 dry season (Nov 2013 - Jul 2014). Ambient mixing ratios in all three ecosystems were greatest in the upper canopy with secondary sources of some monoterpenes within the sub-canopies. Relative vertical compositions of monoterpenes did not change significantly throughout the seasons for either ecosystem type. Both ecosystem types were dominated by d-limonene (up to 1.6 ppb) with equally strong mixing ratios of alpha-pinene in the valley compared to the much weaker a-pinene mixing ratios on the plateaus (up to 200 ppt). The highly reactive cis- and trans-beta-ocimene were consistently present in both ecosystems (up to 250 ppt) with the addition of equally high camphene mixing ratios in the valley forest (up to 200 ppt) which is present in the plateau ecosystems in low quantities (50 ppt). With respect to clean atmosphere mixing ratios of 10 ppb ozone, lifetimes are below 2 hours for camphene and below 30 minutes for ocimene, suggesting a potentially large impact on local and possibly regional ozonolysis and subsequent SOA composition.

  15. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  16. Chemical Components of Four Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), α-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and β-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), and α-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), α-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), α-pinene (6.0%), and γ-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), γ-terpinene (11.5%), α-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and α-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers.

  17. EAG and behavioral responses of Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to plant volatiles%光肩星天牛对植物源挥发物的触角电位和行为反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽清; 严善春; 孙宗华; 孟昭君

    2013-01-01

    By using EAG instrument and "Y" pipe, this study examined the EAG responses of Anoplophora glabripennis adults to 12 kinds of plant volatiles, including cis-3-hexen-l-ol, β-myr-cene, phellandrene, 3-carene, S-α-pinene, camphene, R-α-pinene, S-β-pinene, D-limonene, ocimene, ethyl acetate, and hexane at 5 concentrations, and the behavioral responses of the adults to 9 kinds of the volatiles, aimed to provide basic information for the development of at-tractants and repellents to A. glabripennsis. The antennae of the female and male adults had obvi-ous EAG responses to 12 kinds of the volatiles (except for the male adults to S-a-pinene), espe-cially at the concentrations of 0.4 and 2 mol·L-1. There exited significant differences (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the feeling strength of the antennae to the volatiles between female and male adults. The results of behavior test showed that higher concentrations ocimene and β-myrcene had obvious repellent effect (P<0.01) (except myrcene to the female adults), S-a-pinene, S-β-pi-nene, ethyl acetate, β-a-pinene, phellandrene, and camphene had obvious attracting effect ( P< 0.01) (except S-α-pinene to the male adults and camphene to the female adults), whereas D-limonene had no obvious repellent and attracting effect on the male and female adults.%为给光肩星天牛引诱剂和驱避剂开发提供基础资料,采用触角电位仪和“Y”型管,测定光肩星天牛成虫对顺-3-烯-1-醇、月桂烯、水芹烯、3-蒈烯、S-α-蒎烯、莰烯、R-α-蒎烯、S-β-蒎烯、柠檬烯、罗勒烯、乙酸乙酯和正己烷等12种植物挥发物5个浓度的EAG和9种挥发物5个浓度的行为反应.结果表明:雌、雄虫触角对12种挥发物均有明显的EAG反应(S-α-蒎烯对雄虫除外),特别是在0.4和2mol·L-1两个浓度;雌、雄虫触角对挥发物的感受强度多存在显著差异(P<0.05或P<0.01).行为测试结果表明:较高浓度的罗勒烯、月桂烯2种挥发物

  18. GC法同时测定伊痛舒注射液中4种成分的含量%Simultaneous determination of four compounds in Yitongshu injection by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛思佳; 陈霞; 赵明; 哈迪; 赵春杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立伊痛舒注射液中α-蒎烯、莰烯、柠檬烯和甲基丁香酚4种成分含量测定的方法.方法 采用挥发油提取器,利用GC法进行测定.采用DB-1石英毛细管柱(30 m×0.25 mm,0.25 μm),氢火焰离子化检测器,程序升温,流速为1.0mL·min-1,进样量为1μL,分流比为10∶1,内标物为丁香酚.结果 α-蒎烯、莰烯、柠檬烯和甲基丁香酚质量浓度分别在22.77 ~728.6 mg· L-1、5.069~162.2 mg·L-1、4.844~155.0 mg·L-1和65.58 ~2099mg·L-1内线性关系良好,平均回收率分别为(94.0±1.2)%、(93.3±1.6)%、(93.1±2.2)%和(92.4±1.6)%.结论 该方法准确,重复性好,可为伊痛舒注射液的质量控制提供依据.%Objective To establish a method for the simultaneous determination of α-pinene,camphene,limo-nene and methyl eugenol in Yitongshu injection(traditional Chinese medicines). Methods The sample was extracted by the oil extractor and determined with capillary column DB-1 (30 m ×0. 25 mm,0. 25 μm)by GC coupled with flame ionization detector. Programmed temperature was performed at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL·min-1 with injection volume of 1 μL. Split injection was conducted with split ratio of 10:1. The internal standard was eugenol. Results a-Pinene, camphene, limonene and methyl eugenol were linear in the range of 22. 77-728. 6 mg·L-1,5. 069-162. 2 mg·L-1,4. 844-155. 0 mg·L-1 and 65. 58-2 099 mg·L-1, respectively. The average recoveries were(94. 0% ±1.2)% , (93. 3 ± 1. 6) % , (93. 1 ±2. 2) % and(92. 4 ± 1.6)%. Conclusions This method is accurate and reproducible for the determination of a-pinene,camphene, limonene and methyl eugenol. It can be used for the quality control of Yitongshu injection.

  19. Study on the catalyst for the synthesis of isobornyl acetate%合成乙酸异龙脑酯催化剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁春利; 刘金龙; 章琪均; 张春雷

    2012-01-01

    研究分子筛催化剂HYI在合成乙酸异龙脑酯反应中的性能,考察焙烧温度、反应温度及颗粒度对催化剂反应性能的影响,在优化反应条件下考察催化剂稳定性.结果表明,在焙烧温度500℃制备的催化剂具有较高的活性、选择性和稳定性,催化剂直径小于2mm条件下,可以消除内扩散对催化剂的影响.在反应温度75℃、常压和莰烯空速0.6h-1条件下,莰烯转化率74%,乙酸异龙脑酯选择性94%,成型催化剂在固定床反应器上连续稳定反应2500h以上.利用N2吸附-脱附、NH3-TPD和TG-DSC对HYI催化剂进行表征,分析催化剂的失活原因,结果表明,催化剂失活主要与反应过程中积炭导致的比表面积和孔容下降有关,催化剂活性可以通过烧焦再生恢复,具有良好的工业应用前景.%The catalytic performance of the zeolite catalyst HYI for the esterification of camphene and acetic acid to isobomyl acetate and the effects of calcination temperature, reaction temperature and grain size on the performance of the catalyst were studied. The catalyst stability was investigated in a fix-bed reactor under the optimum reaction condition. The results indicated that HYI catalyst prepared at calcinic-ition temperature 500 t exhibited high esterification activity, selectivity and stability; the conversion of camphene and the selectivity to isobornyl acetate were 74% and 94% respectively under the condition of reaction temperature 80 t and camphene space velocity 0. 6 h"1. When the particle diameter of the catalyst was smaller than 2 mm, the effect of intraparticle diffusion could be ignored. The catalyst could continiously and stably run for over 2 500 h in the fix-bed reactor. The fresh and deactivated HYI catalysts were characterized by NH3-TPD,N2 adsorption-desorption and TG-DSC in order to know the deactivation causes of the catalyst. The results showed that carbon deposition which reduced the specific surface area and pore

  20. 干姜和炮姜挥发油中致香成分的GC-MS分析%GC-MS Analysis of Aroma Components in Volatile Oils of Rhizoma Zingiberis and Rhizoma Zingiberis Preparata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢常珑

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To research the effects of processing on the aroma components in volatile oils of zingiber, and to provide references for the development and utilization of zingiber and its preparata in perfume industry.[Method] Volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation method.The aroma components in volatile oils of Rhizoma Zingiberis and Rhizoma Zingiberis Preparata were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology.[Result] Components with relatively high content in volatile oils of Rhizoma Zingiberis were sabinene, camphene, eucalyptol, borneol, α-zingiberene, linalyl propionate, α-pinene and so on; while those of Rhizoma Zingiberis Preparata were camphene , sabinene,α-curcumene, borneol, eucalyptol,α-pinene and so on.Two components of cymene and elemol were newly added.At the same time, relative contents of α-curcumene,α-pinene, camphene,α-bisabolene, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-ketone, tricyclene, eucalyptol, nerolidol and α-sesquiphellandrene increased significantly;while relative contents of α-zingiberene,α-phellandrene, eucalyptol, (E)-citral, (Z)-citral, linalyl propionate,α-terpilenol and geranyl acetate.[ Conclusion] After Rhizoma Zingiberis was processed into Rhizoma Zingiberis Preparata by heat-ing, its physicochemical properties has certain changes, which leads to the differences in aroma components.%[目的]研究炮制对姜挥发油中致香成分的影响,为姜及其炮制品在香料行业的开发利用提供参考。[方法]采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,以气相色谱-质谱联用技术对干姜挥发油和炮姜挥发油致香成分进行分析。[结果]干姜挥发油中相对含量较高的组分依次是桧烯、莰烯、桉叶油醇、龙脑、α-姜烯、丙酸芳樟醇和α-蒎烯等,而炮姜挥发油中相对含量较高的组分依次是莰烯、桧烯、α-姜黄烯、龙脑、桉叶油醇和α-蒎烯等,新增加了对伞花烃和榄香醇2种成分,同时α-姜黄烯、α

  1. Stability assessment of gas mixtures containing terpenes at nominal 5 nmol/mol contained in treated aluminum gas cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George C

    2010-10-01

    Studies of climate change increasingly recognize the diverse influences exerted by terpenes in the atmosphere, including roles in particulates, ozone formation, and their oxidizing potential. Measurements of key terpenes suggest atmospheric concentrations ranging from low pmol/mol (parts per trillion) to nmol/mol (parts per billion), depending on location and compound. To accurately establish concentration trends, assess the role of terpenes in atmospheric chemistry, and relate measurement records from many laboratories and researchers, it is essential to have good calibration standards. The feasibility of preparing well-characterized, stable gas cylinder standards for terpenes at the nmol/mol level is not yet well established. Several of the world's National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) are researching the feasibility of developing primary and secondary reference gas standards at the nmol/mol level for terpenes. The US NMI, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, has prepared several nmol/mol mixtures, in treated aluminum gas cylinders, containing terpenes in dry nitrogen at nominal 5 nmol/mol for stability studies. Overall, 11 terpenes were studied for stability. An initial gas mixture containing nine terpenes, one oxygenate, and six aromatic compounds, including benzene as an internal standard, was prepared. Results for four of the nine terpenes in this initial mixture indicate stability in these treated aluminum gas cylinders for over 6 months and project long term (years) stability. Interesting results were seen for beta-pinene, which when using a linear equation rate decline predicts that it will reach a zero concentration level at day 416. At the same time, increases in alpha-pinene, D: -limonene (R-(+)-limonene), and p-cymene were observed, including camphene, a terpene not prepared in the gas mixture, indicating a chemical transformation of beta-pinene to these species. Additional mixtures containing combination of either alpha-pinene, camphor

  2. STUDI KINETIKA REAKSI HETEROGEN α-PINENE MENJADI TERPINEOL DENGAN KATALISATOR ASAM KHLORO ASETAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herti Utami

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available KINETIC STUDY OF HETEROGENEOUS HYDRATION OF α-PINENE TO TERPINEOL USING CHLORO ACETIC ACID AS A CATALYST. Indonesian turpentine contains 65-85% α-pinene, 1% camphene, 1-3% β-pinene, 10-18% 3-carene and limonene 1-3%. In order to obtain more valuable products, α-pinene can be hydrated in dilute acid solutions to produce terpineol, which can be used as perfume, insect repellent, antifungal, disinfectant etc. The aim of this research was to study kinetics of terpineol synthesis from α-pinene, the main component of turpentine Turpentine was introduced into a batch reactor (tree neck flask equipped with condenser, thermometer, stirrer and was warmed up to the desired temperature with the reaction time of 420 minutes. The study investigated the effects of temperature, catalyst amount, and the stirring rate on the hydration of α-pinene. The heterogeneous kinetics model was proposed to quantitavely describe the hydration process of α-pinene. The results of this study showed the relationship of the constants of the reaction rate and temperatures. The equations can be written as follow and . The relative errors were 2.80% and 2.19%, respectively. It was found that the chemical reaction step controlled the hydration process. The results of this study show that the proposed heterogeneous kinetics model can quantitatively describe the hydration of α-pinene using chloro acetic acid as catalyst very well.   Abstrak   Terpentin Indonesia mengandung 65-85% α-pinene, 1% camphene, 1-3% β-pinene, 10-18% 3-carene dan limonene 1-3%. Untuk meningkatkan nilai jual, α-pinene dapat dihidrasi dalam medium asam menjadi terpineol yang dapat digunakan untuk bahan parfum, penangkal serangga, anti jamur,  desinkfektan dll. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari studi kinetika reaksi sintesa terpineol dari α-pinene yang merupakan komponen utama terpentin. Terpentin sebanyak volume tertentu dipanaskan dalam reaktor batch labu leher tiga yang dilengkapi dengan

  3. 异莰烷基甲酸及其酯类的合成与结构分析%Synthesis and structural analysis of isocamphanyl formic acid and its esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金霖霖; 翁玉辉; 范国荣; 肖转泉; 陈金珠; 王鹏; 王宗德

    2016-01-01

    以莰烯为原料,经Vilsmeier-Haack反应、催化加氢得到异莰烷基甲醛,异莰烷基甲醛经氧化反应得到异莰烷基甲酸。在对甲苯磺酸的催化下,与一系列一元醇(正丙醇、正丁醇、异丁醇、仲丁醇、正戊醇、异戊醇和环己醇)进行酯化反应,合成了未见报道的7种异莰烷基甲酸酯类化合物4a-4g,产率在61~84%之间,采用IR、MS、1 H NMR及13 C NMR对产物进行了结构表征。分析了异莰烷基甲酸酯及其反应中间体的合成方法。本研究可为莰烯的精细化学利用提供一定的理论基础。%Isocamphyl formaldehyde was synthesized from camphene by the Vilsmeier-Haack reaction and catalytic hydrogenation. Isocamphanyl formaldehyde was converted into isocamphanyl formic acid through the oxidation with K2Cr2O7-H2SO4. Then,seven novel ester derivatives of isocamphanyl formic acid were synthesized by the esterification reaction of isocamphanyl formic acid and seven monohydric alcohol (n-propanol,n-butanol,iso-butanol,sec-butanol,n-pentanol,iso-pentanol and cyclohexanol ),under the catalysis by p-toluenesulfonic acid. The yield of these ester derivatives were ranged between 61~84%. The structures of these syn-thesized compounds were characterized by infrared spectroscopy(IR),mass spectrometry(MS),and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(1 H NMR,13 C NMR). Synthetic method of isocamphanyl formic acid,ester derivaitves and other intermediates were discussed. This study provided a theoretical basis to the fine chemistry utilization of camphene.

  4. Study on the Chemical Components of Volatile Oils from Zingiber officinale in Guangxi by GC-MS%广西生姜挥发油化学成分的GC-MS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭建宁; 梁臣艳; 黄秋洁; 关小丽; 梁金妮

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the chemical components of volatile oils of Zingiber officinale from different habitats in Guangxi. METHODS: The volatile oils were extracted by water distillation method and the chemical component was analyzed by GC-MS. RESULTS: The yield rate of volatile oils were 0.11%~0.23%. Twenty-one common components were present in volatile oils from Z officinale from five habitats in Guangxi, while the relative percentage content was between 60%-85%. The chemical components including lS-a-Pinene,Camphene,Cineole,Borneol,Nerol and Citral were found in Z. Officinale. There was significant difference in relative percentage of same components, particularly the highest percentage of nerol was 10 times as munch as the lowest. CONCLUSION: The chemical components of volatile oils in Z officinale from different habitats in Guangxi have little difference , but there is great difference in the same chemical components.%目的:测定广西境内5个不同产地的生姜挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,并用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法对广西生姜挥发油化学成分进行分析.结果:广西5个产地的生姜挥发油得油率在0.11%~0.23%之间.5个产地的生姜挥发油中共有化学成分21个,相对百分含量在60%~85%之间.共有化学成分主要有1S-α-蒎烯(1S-α-Pinene)、莰烯(Camphene)、桉油精(Cineole)、龙脑(Borneol)、橙花醇(Nerol)和柠檬醛(Citral).不同产地的生姜挥发油中,同一成分相对百分含量差异较大,其中橙花醇的相对百分含量相差近10倍.结论:广西境内不同产地的生姜挥发油的化学成分差异不大,但同一成分的相对百分含量差异较大.

  5. 顶空萃取-气相色谱-质谱法测定一种儿童专用防痱止痒水的挥发性成分%Analysis of Volatile Flavor Components in One Type of Remove Philippine and Itching Water by Headspace Extraction-GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 熊爽; 田福林; 赵海波

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空萃取-气相色谱/质谱法分析鉴定防痱止痒水的挥发性成分。结果表明:共检测出35种挥发性成分,主要成分为乙醇和酞酸二乙酯,其它成分主要包括醇、烯、酯、甘菊环等。检出的物质中,α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、莰烯、桉叶醇、樟脑、α-萜品醇、龙脑、醋酸异龙脑酯、石竹烯为野菊花挥发油的有效成分;苯甲酸甲酯、苯甲酸苄酯、丁香酚为金银花挥发油的有效成分;广藿香醇为广藿香提取物的主要成分。α-蒎烯、β-月桂烯、β-蒎烯、莰烯、薄荷醇、丁香酚等成分都具有较强的驱避蚊虫的作用。%The volatile components in one type of remove philippine and itching water were analyzed by headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(HS-GC/MS).The results showed that HS-GC/MS is effective in the analysis of remove philippine and itching water.35 components are separated and identified.The main components are ethyl alcohol and diethyl phthalate acid,the others are alcohols,terpenes,esters and azulenes.alpha.-Pinene,beta.-pinene,camphene,eucalyptol,camphor,p-menth-1-en-8-ol,borneol,isobornyl acetate,caryophyllene are the effective components of the volatile oil in chrysanthemum indicum L.Benzoic acid methyl ester,benzyl benzoate,eugenol are the effective components of the volatile oil in flos lonicerae.Patchouli alcohol is the effective components of the volatile oil in pogostemon cablin(blanco) benth.alpha.-Pinene,beta.-myrcene,beta.-pinene,camphene,menthol,eugenol are all effictive repellent.

  6. 新疆云杉枝条及针叶挥发性化合物固相微萃取GC-MS分析%Analysis of Volatile Compound in Branch and Needle of Picea obovata by SPME-GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵薇; 史睿杰; 谢寿安; 吕淑杰; 宋晓斌; 郭新荣

    2011-01-01

    采用固相微萃取技术,提取新疆云杉(Picea obovata Ledeb.)枝条及针叶的挥发性物质,利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)进行鉴定.结果表明,新疆云杉枝条及针叶的主要挥发性物质为萜烯类化合物.其中枝条挥发物中含有44种化合物,主要包括α-蒎烯(44.97%,m/m,下同)、莰烯(17.44%)、石竹烯(8.98%)、D-柠檬烯(7.35%)、α-水芹烯(4.72%)、醇类化合物(6.42%)等,以及少量的芳香烃类化合物、奠、茚、烯烃和烷烃类化合物.针叶挥发物中含有47种化合物,主要包括1 R-α-蒎烯(34.31%)、莰烯(22.72%)、酯类化合物(7.68%)、萘类化合物(5.48%)、茨醇(3.78%)以及少量的芳香烃类化合物、蒽、烯烃和烷烃类化合物.%Volatile compounds from branch and leaf of Picea obovata were extracted by solid phase micro extraction. Their constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that terpenoid compounds were the main volatile compounds in branch and needle of Picea obovata. Forty-four kinds of volatile compounds were found in branch, including α-pinene (44.97%, m/m, the same below), camphene (17.44%), carypohyllene (8.98%), D-limonene (7.35%), a- phellandrene (4.72%), alcohol compounds (6.42%), etc., and a small number of aromatic compound, such as azulene, indene, olefin and alkane. Forty-seven kinds of volatile compounds were found in the needle, the main compounds were Lr-a-pinene (34.31%), camphene (22.72%), ester compounds (7.68%), naphthalene compounds (5.48%), borneol (3.78%), etc., and a small number of aromatic compound, anthracene, olefin and alkane.

  7. A floating macro/mesoporous crystalline anatase TiO2 ceramic with enhanced photocatalytic performance for recalcitrant wastewater degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zipeng; Zhou, Wei; Du, Fan; Qu, Yang; Tian, Guohui; Pan, Kai; Tian, Chungui; Fu, Honggang

    2014-01-14

    A macro/mesoporous anatase TiO2 ceramic floating photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized using highly thermally stable mesoporous TiO2 powder as a precursor, followed by a camphene-based freeze-casting process and high-temperature calcinations. The ceramics are characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results indicate that the TiO2 ceramics present hierarchical macro/mesoporous structures, which maintain high porosity and high compressive strength at the optimal sintering temperature of 800 °C. The ordered mesoporous TiO2 network still possesses high thermal stability and inhibits the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation during calcinations. The obtained ceramics exhibit good adsorptive and photocatalytic activity for the degradation of octane and rhodamine B, and the total organic carbon removal ratio is up to 98.8% and 98.6% after photodegradation for 3 h, respectively. The roles of active species in the photocatalytic process are compared using different types of active species scavengers, and the degradation mechanism is also proposed. Furthermore, the ceramics are recyclable, and no clear changes are observed after ten cycles. In addition, the ceramics are also active in the photodegradation of phenol, thiobencarb, and atrazine. Therefore, these novel floating photocatalysts will have wide applications, including the removal of floating organic pollutants from the wastewater surfaces or the removal of soluble organic pollutants from wastewater.

  8. Facile synthesis of hierarchical porous TiO(2) ceramics with enhanced photocatalytic performance for micropolluted pesticide degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zipeng; Zhou, Wei; Du, Fan; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Zhenzi; Zhang, Hang; Li, Wei

    2014-10-08

    In this research, hierarchical porous TiO2 ceramics were successfully synthesized through a camphene-based freeze-drying route. The well-dispersed TiO2 slurries were first frozen and dried at room temperature, followed by high-temperature sintering. The ceramics were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results indicated that the obtained TiO2 ceramics could inhibit undesirable anatase-to-rutile phase transformation and grain growth even at temperatures as high as 800 °C. In this experiment, optimal compressive strength and porosity of the TiO2 ceramics were produced with the initial TiO2 slurry content of ∼15 wt %. The resultant TiO2 ceramics performed excellently in the photodegradation of atrazine and thiobencarb, and the total organic carbon removal efficiency was up to 95.7% and 96.7%, respectively. More importantly, the TiO2 ceramics were easily recyclable. No obvious changes of the photocatalytic performance were observed after six cycles. Furthermore, the ceramics also effectively degraded other pesticides such as dimethoate, lindane, dipterex, malathion, and bentazone. These hierarchical porous TiO2 ceramics have potential applications in environmental cleanup.

  9. Attempt to unravel the composition of toxaphene by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytár, P; van Stee, L L P; Leonards, P E G; de Boer, J; Brinkman, U A Th

    2003-04-25

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) coupled with micro electron-capture and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) detection has been used to analyse technical toxaphene. An HP-1 x HT-8 column combination yielded highly structured chromatograms and revealed a complex mixture of over 1000 compounds what is significantly higher number than in any study before. The analysis of a mixture of 23 individual congeners and TOF-MS evaluation of technical toxaphene showed that the chromatogram is structured according to the number of chlorine substituents in a molecule. The nature of the compounds (bornane and camphene) does not appear to have any influence. The sum of the peak areas of all congeners in each group was calculated using laboratory-written software; based on these results, the composition of technical toxaphene as a function of the number of chlorine substituents was provisionally calculated and was found that hepta- and octachlorinated compounds represents 75% of the total toxaphene area.

  10. Effects of toxaphene and endrin at very low dietary concentrations on discrimination acquisition and reversal in bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Adult male bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus were fed toxaphene (chlorinated camphene, 67?69% chlorine) at 10 and 50 ppm or endrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,4-endo-endo,5,8-dimethanonaphalene) at 0?1 and 1?0 ppm and their performance on non-spatial discrimination reversal tasks was measured. The birds were on dosage for 138 days (beginning at the age of 3 days) prior to testing. Two tests (with different pairs of patterns) were conducted with toxaphene-treated birds and five with endrin-treated birds. The toxaphene-treated birds made 50% more errors than did controls (p toxaphene in birds treated as adults appeared after about 30 days of treatment and those of endrin after about 40 days of treatment. Mean brain residues in endrin-treated birds were 0?075 ppm (wet weight basis) for the 0?1 ppm level birds and 0?35 ppm for the 1?0 ppm level birds.

  11. Differential Essential Oil Composition and Morphology between Perennial Satureja species Growing in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David García-Rellán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of thirty six samples of perennial Spanish savouries (Satureja montana L., Satureja innota (Pau G. López, Satureja cuneifolia Ten. and Satureja intricata Lange, was investigated by GC and GC-MS. A total of 72 compounds accounting between 98.25-99.55% of the total oil were identified. High content of carvacrol (59.72±1.50% followed by g -terpinene (17.40±1.11% were found in S.montana essential oils. S. cuneifolia yielded an oil rich in camphor (45.04±1.67% and camphene (12.42±1.71% whereas S. innota produces an essential oil with linalool (23.94±7.58% or geraniol (8.62±3.45% according to the locality of collection and S. intricata showed chemical polymorphism with camphor (16.02±1.75%, as the main compound followed with populations with myrcene (8.46±1.46% and populations with g -terpinene (8.22±1.33%. Although the morphological affinity between S. innota, S.cuneifolia and S. intricata could lead to consider the subspecies level, the phytochemical discriminant analysis support the taxonomic classification of Flora Iberica which ranks these taxa into species.

  12. Steam distillation extraction of ginger essential oil: Study of the effect of steam flow rate and time process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Sulaswatty, Anny; Agustian, Egi; Salahuddin, Aditama, Deska Prayoga Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    In Indonesia ginger was usually used as a seasoning for dishes, an ingredient for beverage and a source of herbal medicines. Beside raw usage, ginger can be processed to obtain the essential oil which has many advantages such as proven to be an active antimicrobial and having an antioxidant ability. There are a lot of methods to extract essential oil from ginger, one of which is steam distillation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of variation of time process and steam flow rate in the yield on ginger essential oil steam distillation extraction process. It was found that the best operation condition was 0.35 ml/s as the steam flow rate which yields 2.43% oil. The optimum time process was predicted at 7.5 hours. The composition of the oil was varied depend on the flow rate and every flow rate has its own major component contained in the oil. Curcumene composition in the oil was increased as increased steam flow rate applied, but the composition of camphene was decreased along with the increasing steam flow rate.

  13. Larvicidal activity of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils and blends of their constituents against mosquito, Aedes aegypti , acute toxicity on water flea, Daphnia magna , and aqueous residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Hye-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-06-13

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 20 plant essential oils and components from ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils against the mosquito, Aedes aegypti . Of the 20 plant essential oils, ajowan and Peru balsam oils at 0.1 mg/mL exhibited 100 and 97.5% larval mortality, respectively. At this same concentration, the individual constituents, (+)-camphene, benzoic acid, thymol, carvacrol, benzyl benzonate, and benzyl trans-cinnamate, caused 100% mortality. The toxicity of blends of constituents identified in two active oils indicated that thymol and benzyl benzoate were major contributors to the larvicidal activity of the artificial blend. This study also tested the acute toxicity of these two active oils and their major constituents against the water flea, Daphnia magna . Peru balsam oil and benzyl trans-cinnamate were the most toxic to D. magna. Two days after the treatment, residues of ajowan and Peru balsalm oils in water were 36.2 and 85.1%, respectively. Less than 50% of benzyl trans-cinnamate and thymol were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. The results show that the essential oils of ajowan and Peru balsam and some of their constituents have potential as botanical insecticides against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae.

  14. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirlley F. M Da Luz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Piper nigrum plants were inoculated by spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and after 120 days, the essential oils (EO and extracts of leaves and roots were obtained. The AMF inoculation promoted a decrease of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (25.4% to 10.6% and an increase of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (67.0% to 82.7% in the leaf EO. In addition, an increase of the main compounds α-bisabolol (32.3% to 48.5% and elemol (11.4% to 23.2% was observed. However, in the roots EO the main compounds were monoterpenes as camphene, sabinene and limonene, which did not display variation. The leaf extract showed a significant variation in total phenolic content (6.8 ± 0.2 to 16.4 ± 1.0 mg AGE/g and antioxidant activity (12.3 ± 2.0 to 73.7 ± 1.4 mg TE/g. The oils and extracts of the roots remained almost unchanged, suggesting that the inoculation with AMF induces a systemic response in P. nigrum and affects mainly the leaves. Industrial relevance. Piper nigrum essential oil is used as flavoring, antimicrobial and antioxidant agent in food preservation. These proprieties are attributed to the presence of the oxygenated sesquiterpenoids α-bisabolol and elemol, which displayed an increased its content after AMF inoculation. Keywords. Black pepper; AMF colonization; α-bisabolol; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity

  15. Quantitative Monitoring of the Volatiles from the Aerial Parts of Satureja Hortensis by the use of HS-SPME-GC-MS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Rezaei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile fractions isolated from the ground aerial parts of Satureja hortensis were trapped using the headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME strategy and subsequently monitored using gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (GC-MS instrumentation. Eleven constituents were totally recognized in the analyzed volatile parts, representing entire of the corresponding profile. Among the natural groups present in the chemical profile, monoterpene hydrocarbons (99.5% were found as the major constituents with the dominant compounds being γ-terpinene (46.0%, p-cymene (11.8%, α-terpinene (11.1%, α-pinene (10.4% and α-thujene (6.8%. However, lower contents of some natural compounds including myrcene (5.2%, β-pinene (3.9%, o-cymene (2.6%, α-phellandrene (1.1%, camphene (0.6% and thymol (0.5% were identified. Accordingly, only 0.5% of the profile included oxygenated monoterpenes.

  16. An in-depth review on the medicinal flora Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asia Begum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinus offi cinalis (Rosemary is a common household plant which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is grown in many parts of the world. It is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple or blue fl owers. The two most commonly grown hardy Rosemaries are Rosmarinus offi cinalis ‘Arp’ and R. offi cinalis ‘Madelene Hill’ (syn. ‘Hill Hardy’. The other cultivars of the plant are R. offi cinalis ‘Albus’, R. offi cinalis ‘Bendenen Blue’, R. offi cinalis ‘Goodwin Creek’, R. offi cinalis ‘Herb Cottage’, R. offi cinalis ‘Logee’s Light Blue’, R. offi cinalis ‘Miss Jessup’s Upright’, R. offi cinalis ‘Russian River’, R. offi cinalis ‘Salem’. The chemical constituents include bitter principle, resin, tannic acid, volatile oils and fl avonoids. The volatile oil consists of borneol, bornyl acetate, camphene, cineol, pinene and camphor. It is used for problems involved in central nervous system, cardio vascular system, genito urinary conditions, liver treatments, reproductive system and respiratory system. The volatile oil of the plant is used in oils and lotions for the treatment of various ailments like arthritis, gout, muscular pain, neuralgia, wound and rubbed into hair for stimulating the hair bulbs to renewed activity, to prevent premature baldness.

  17. GC-MS分析秀丽海桐叶挥发油成分%Analysis of the Chemical Constituent of Volatile Oil from Leaves of Pittosporum pulchrum (Pittosporaceae) by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云峰; 李振麟; 赖茂祥; 胡琦敏

    2011-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取秀丽海桐(Pittosporum pulchrum Gagnep.)叶中的挥发油,应用GC-MS联用技术进行挥发油成分分析.结果从秀丽海桐叶挥发油中分离出51个组分,确认出其中的37种成分,其主要成分为a-蒎烯(29.27% ),β-蒎烯(17.84%)、坎烯(3.90%)和桃金娘烯醇(3.60%).确认的37种成分为首次从该植物中鉴定出来.%The volatile oil from the leaves of P. pulchrum was extracted by hydrodistillation method and the constituents were analysed with capillary gas chromatography and GC-MS-DS.51 compounds were obtained and 37 of them were identified. α-Pinene(29.27%), β-Pinene (17.84%), Camphene(3.90%) and Myrtenol(3.60%) were the major chemical constituents of volatile oil from the leaves of P. pulchrum . Among the 51 compounds, 37 of them were first identified from this plant.

  18. Investigation of two technical toxaphene products by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, W.; Armbruster, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelchemie; Gleixner, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Organochlorine compounds have been used in high quantities throughout the past 60 years. Being long-lived in the environment and toxic to humans and wildlife, some of them were classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). One of the POPs of special concern is toxaphene which is produced by the chlorination of the natural product camphene (or {alpha}-pinene). The technical products consist of several hundred compounds, mainly of chlorobornanes with an average number of eight chlorine substituents. Toxaphene has been produced in high quantities in different parts of the world. Even though the use has been discontinued during the last two decades, there are still several ecosystems which are heavily contaminated with this chloropesticide. Due to the huge variety of the technical products accompanied with a severe change of composition in the environment, analytical tracing back of toxaphene residues to a specific product has not yet been achieved. One of the potential analytical tools for distinguishing substances that differ only in their way of production is the determination of ratios of stable isotopes ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C; {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H; {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N). Since the synthesis of toxaphene is starting from natural compounds obtained from different continents, the technical products could have different ratios of stable isotopes. In this study, we investigated the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of two former major toxaphene products.

  19. Antimicrobial activity ofRosmarinus eriocalyx essential oil and polyphenols:An endemic medicinal plant from Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fethi Benbelad; Abdelmounam Khadir; Mourad Bendahou; Fatima Zenati; Chafika Bellahsene; Alain Muselli; Jean Costa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potency ofRosmarinus eriocalyx (R. eriocalyx) essential oil and total polyphenols against pathogenic microorganisms. Methods:Antimicrobial activity ofR. eriocalyx extracts was assessed by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations determination. Essential oil obtained from endemic rosemary by hydrodistillation was analysed by gas chromatograph/retention index and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results:An interesting antimicrobial activity was shown byR. eriocalyx extracts. Polyphenols, constituted mainly by flavonoids, were the most effective extract with very low minimum inhibitory concentrations values, ranged between 0.06 and 8.00 mg/mL, while essential oil was less efficient. It should be noted that antimicrobial activities of bothR. eriocalyx extracts were more directed against fungi and Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative ones, in which Staphylococcus aureus,Enterococcus faecalis, andCandida albicans were the most sensitive strains. Concerning chemical composition ofR. eriocalyx essential oil, camphor (37.8%), 1,8-cineole (17.4%), camphene (13.3%), andα-pinene (10.9%) were the major compounds. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate thatR. eriocalyx extracts possess significant bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Because of its richness in essential oil, and especially flavonoids,R. eriocalyx may be a source for effective and safe antimicrobial agents.

  20. The formation of ultra-fine particles during ozone-initiated oxidations with terpenes emitted from natural paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamorena, Rheo B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang-Guen [Environment and Process Technology Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gwi-Nam [Environment and Process Technology Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woojin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: woojin_lee@kaist.ac.kr

    2007-03-06

    The formation of secondary products during the ozone-initiated oxidations with biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint was investigated in this study. Mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy measurements have shown that the major components of gas-phase chemicals emitted from natural paint are monoterpenes including {alpha}- and {beta}-pinenes, camphene, p-cymene, and limonene. A significant formation of gaseous carbonyl products and nano-sized particles (4.4-168 nm) was observed in the presence of ozone. Carboxylic acids were also observed to form during the reactions (i.e. formic acid at 0.170 ppm and acetic acid at 0.260 ppm). The formation of particles increased as the volume of paint introduced into a reaction chamber increased. A secondary increase in the particle number concentration was observed after 440 min, which suggests further partitioning of oxidation products (i.e. carboxylic acids) into the particles previously existing in the reaction chamber. The growth of particles increased as the mean particle diameter and particle mass concentrations increased during the reaction. The experimental results obtained in this study may provide insight into the potential exposure of occupants to irritating chemical compounds formed during the oxidations of biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint in indoor environments.

  1. A comparison of new measurements of total monoterpene flux with improved measurements of speciated monoterpene flux

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    A. Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Many monoterpenes have been identified in forest emissions using gas chromatography (GC. Until now, it has been impossible to determine whether all monoterpenes are appropriately measured using GC techniques. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS coupled with the eddy covariance (EC technique to measure mixing ratios and fluxes of total monoterpenes above a ponderosa pine plantation. We compared PTR-MS-EC results with simultaneous measurements of eight speciated monoterpenes, β-pinene, α-pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpinene, camphene, and terpinolene, made with an automated, in situ gas chromatograph with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID, coupled to a relaxed eddy accumulation system (REA. Monoterpene mixing ratios and fluxes measured by PTR-MS averaged 30±2.3% and 31±9.2% larger than by GC-FID, with larger differences at night than during the day. Four unidentified peaks that correlated with β-pinene were resolved in the chromatograms and completely accounted for the daytime difference and reduced the nighttime difference to 19±3.4%. Measurements of total monoterpenes by PTR-MS-EC indicated that GC-FID-REA measured the common, longer-lived monoterpenes well, but that additional monoterpenes were emitted from the ecosystem that represented an important contribution to the total mixing ratio above the forest at night, and that must have been oxidized during the day before they escaped the forest canopy.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joog-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-11-15

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, {alpha}-pinene, camphene, {alpha}-limonene, {beta}-eudesmol, {alpha}-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as {beta}-eudesmol, {alpha}-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  3. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

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    Halijah Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%, camphene (16.6% and 10.2%, β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%, and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%, respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9% and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0% were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits.

  4. Essential oil composition of Achillea millefolium growing in Darreh-shahr township

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    Noorkhoda Yousefzadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Achillea millefolium belongs to the Asteraceae family from genus Achillea. In this study, essential oils were extracted from all aerial parts via hydro distillation (HD method by clevengerset. Using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique causes the chemicals component of the essential oil to be identified. About 41 components, which were identified, encompassed 97.66 percent of the whole essential oil. The essential oil yields as a result of hydro distillation. After drying, about 0.56 percent of Achillea millefolium was added to a balloon and then was connected to the clevenger apparatus (weight/weight - 60 grams of plants was obtained (it has been based on dried materials. In essential oils of Achillea millefolium dihydrocarveol (34.97%, the umbelulone (16.65%, 1,8-cineole (14.94%, bornyl acetate (6.08%, chrysanthenyle acetate cis (5.24%, camphene (4.21%, para-cymene (3.29% and α-pinene (3.24% were our major identified compounds. The purpose of this study is to identify the constituents of essential oils extracted from plants and also to determine the percentage of each compound in the essential oil of Achillea millefolium used as drug.

  5. Electroantennogram responses of Dendrolimus superans (Lepidoptera:Lasiocampidae) to six volatiles of Larixgmelinii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dendrolirnus superans is one of the important pests feeding on the needles of Larix gmelinii.Six standard compounds,(1R)-(+)-α-pinene,(1S)-(-)-α-pinene,ocimene,(1S)-(-)-β-pinene,R(-)-α-phellandrene and camphene,the main volatiles of L.gmelinii were used to test the electroantennogram (EAG) responses of moths.The results show that the order of the EAG responses of moths to seven concentrations of these six compounds were as follows:mated females >virgin females > unmated males,except for 0.1 μL/μL R(-)-α-phellandrene,where the order was:virgin females >mated females > unmated males.There are statistically significant differences between the EAG responses of virgin females and unmated males (p < 0.05),and also between mated females with virgin females and mated females and unmated males (p<0.01),which suggests that the mated females are more sensitive to the volatiles of host plant.The results of EAG responses of the mated females,virgin females and unmated males indicate that they are more sensitive to R(-)-α-phellandrene than to the other volatile components.The active time for the EAG responses of both mated females and unmated males occurs during the night,i.e.,from 20:00 to 04:00 hours.This is consistent with their eclosion,mating and oviposition periods.

  6. Volatile constituents of the oils from Povedadaphne Quadriporata (lauraceae from "Alberto M. Brenes" biological preserve, Costa Rica

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    José F. Cicció

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the leaf, bark and wood oils of Povedadaphne quadriporata W. Burger from Costa Rica were analyzed by capillary GC/FID and GC/MS. One hundred and sixty-three compounds were identified. The major components from the leaf oil were a-pinene (21.2%, germacrene D (18.1%, b-pinene (14.8%, a-phellandrene (7.8%, a-copaene (6.6%, b-caryophyllene (6.1% and d-cadinene (3.5%. From bark oil, the main constituents were a-pinene (27.7%, p-cymene (7.8%, b-pinene (7.4%, camphene (3.6%, a-copaene (3.5% and limonene (3.3%. From wood oil, 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (8.0%, a-eudesmol (3.4%, cadalene (3.4% and d-cadinene (3.0% were the major compounds identified. This paper describes for the first time the composition of essential oils in this unique species and genus.

  7. QSRR Study of GC Retention Indices of Volatile Compounds Emitted from Mosla chinensis Maxim by Multiple Linear Regression%QSRR Study of GC Retention Indices of Volatile Compounds Emitted from Mosla chinensis Maxim by Multiple Linear Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧; 李祖光; 陈小珍

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds emitted from Mosla chinensis Maxim were analyzed by headspace solid-phase micro- extraction (HS-SPME) and headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main volatiles from Mosla chinensis Maxim were studied in this paper. It can be seen that 61 compounds were separated and identified. Forty-nine volatile compounds were identified by SPME method, mainly including myrcene, a-terpinene, p-cymene, (E)-ocimene, thymol, thymol acetate and (E)-fl-farnesene. Forty-five major volatile compounds were identified by LPME method, including a-thujene, a-pinene, camphene, butanoic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester, myrcene, butanoic acid, butyl ester, a-terpinene, p-cymene, (E)-ocimene, butane, 1,1-dibutoxy-, thymol, thymol acetate and (E)-fl-farnesene. After analyzing the volatile compounds, multiple linear regression (MLR) method was used for building the regression model. Then the quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) model was validated by predictive-ability test. The prediction results were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results demonstrated that headspace SPME-GC-MS and LPME-GC-MS are the simple, rapid and easy sample enrichment technique suitable for analysis of volatile compounds. This investigation provided an effective method for predicting the retention indices of new compounds even in the absence of the standard candidates.

  8. Influence of Binasal and Uninasal Inhalations of Essential Oil of Abies koreana Twigs on Electroencephalographic Activity of Human

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    Min Seo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present work investigates the effect of essential oil from the twigs of Abies koreana on electroencephalographic (EEG activity of human brain in order to understand the influence of binasal and uninasal inhalations. Methods. To accomplish this study, the essential oil from the twigs of A. koreana (AEO was isolated by steam distillation and the EEG readings were recorded using QEEG-8 system from 8 grounding electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. Results. D-Limonene (25.29%, bornyl acetate (19.31%, camphene (12.48%, α-pinene (11.88%, β-pinene (6.45%, and eudesm-7(11-en-ol (5.38% were the major components in the essential oil. In the EEG study, the absolute alpha (left frontal and right parietal and absolute fast alpha (right parietal values significantly increased during the binasal inhalation of AEO. In the uninasal inhalation, absolute beta and theta values decreased significantly, especially in the right frontal and left and right parietal regions. The results revealed that the AEO produced different EEG power spectrum changes according to the nostril difference. Conclusion. The changes in EEG values due to the inhalation of AEO may contribute to the enhancement of relaxation (binasal inhalation and alertness/attention (right uninasal inhalation states of brain which could be used in aromatherapy treatments.

  9. {alpha}-Pinene conversion by modified-kaolinitic clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volzone, C. [CETMIC-Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica-(CONICET-CIC), C.C. 49, Cno. Centenario y 506 (1897) M.B. Gonnet, Prov., Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: volzcris@netverk.com.ar; Masini, O. [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Economico Sociales, 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, Prov., San Luis (Argentina); Comelli, N.A. [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Economico Sociales, 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, Prov., San Luis (Argentina); Grzona, L.M. [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Economico Sociales, 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, Prov., San Luis (Argentina); Ponzi, E.N. [CINDECA (CONICET-UNLP) calle 47 No. 257 (1900) La Plata, Prov., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ponzi, M.I. [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Economico Sociales, 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, Prov., San Luis (Argentina)

    2005-10-15

    The isomerization of {alpha}-pinene using natural kaolinitic clay before and after different treatments was studied in this work. The kaolinite is a clay material constituted by phyllosilicate 1:1 layer (one sheet of tetrahedral silicon and one sheet of octahedral alumina). The clay was treated at different times using 6.0 N solution of sulfuric acid previous heating to 500 or 700 K. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, by chemical analyses and acidity measurements. The catalytic reactions were carried out at 373 K in a reactor batch with condenser and stirrer. Samples were taken at regular intervals, and reactants and products were quantitatively analyzed with a gas chromatograph after separation of the individual compounds. Conversions of alpha pinene between 67 and 94%, and selectivities in camphene and in limonene of 65 and 23%, respectively, were obtained with the clay treated at different conditions. The structural and textural changes of the clay by the treatments influenced on catalytic reactions.

  10. The Essential Oil Composition of Tanacetum densum (Labill. Heywood ssp. eginense Heywood from Turkey

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    Kaan Polatoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum densum (L. Heywood ssp. eginense Heywood, from Turkey was analysed by GC and GC-MS. T. densum ssp. eginense flower, stem and leaf oils were characterized with camphor (30.9% , 25.7%, 27.7%, 1,8-Cineole (12.4% flower oil, camphene (10.6%, %7.0, flower and leaf oils, bornyl acetate, (9.4%, 11.8%, stem and leaf oils, α-pinene (7.0%, %5.3, flower and leaf oils , borneol (5.1%, 5.2%, stem and leaf oils, neodihydrocarveol (5.1%, flower oil. An unidentified compound was also present in flower, stem and leaf oils (11.5%, 27.2%, 20.5%. A comparison is done with the previous investigations on the other subspecies of T. densum and the differences were investigated. Flower and stem oils did not show any significant activity to the tested microorganisms when compared to positive control chloramphenicol. Flower and stem oils both showed cytotoxicity to Vibrio fischeri.

  11. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from Alpinia blepharocalyx rhizomes against Lasioderma serricorne

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    Wang Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of essential oil derived from Alpinia blepharocalyx rhizomes against the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius. Essential oil of A. blepharocalyx rhizomes was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 46 components of the essential oil of A. blepharocalyx rhizomes were identified. The principal compounds in A. blepharocalyx essential oil were camphor (23.13%, sabinene (11.27%, α-pinene (9.81% and eucalyptol (8.86% followed by camphene (8.05%, sylvestrene (5.61% and α-phellandrene (5.00%. Among them, the four active constituents, predicted with a bioactivity-test, were isolated and identified as camphor, sabinene, α-pinene and eucalyptol. The essential oil of A. blepharocalyx possessed strong contact toxicity against the cigarette beetle with LD50 value of 15.02 μg adult-1, and also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LC50 value of 3.83 mg L-1 air. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. blepharocalyx shows potential in terms of contact and fumigant toxicities against stored product insects.

  12. 贵州引种的迷迭香(Rosmarinus officinalis L.)中挥发油化学成分分析%Analysis of chemical constituents of the volatile oil from the Rosmarinus officinalis L. in Guizhou province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴宽; 郁建平; 连宾; 吴庆松; 王德义; 时磊

    2002-01-01

    对贵州引种的迷迭香中挥发油的化学成分进行定性和定量分析,并与不同来源的迷迭香油的化学成分进行比较.结果表明,从贵州引种的迷迭香挥发油中分离出38种成分,鉴定出27种,鉴定率为71.05%,主要成分是α-蒎烯(α-Pinene),含量25.44%;1,8-桉树脑(1,8-Cineole),含量20.27%;其次是樟脑(Camphor),含量7.67%;莰烯(Camphene),含量7.10%;龙脑(Borneol),含量3.30%;β-石竹烯(β-Caryophyllene),含量3.23%.贵州引种的迷迭香中挥发油的化学成分主要是α-蒎烯、1,8-桉树脑,占挥发油检出成分的45.71%.该挥发油按化学成分分类属α-蒎烯、1.8-桉树脑型.

  13. 稀土固体超强酸催化a-蒎烯异构化反应%Study on the Rare Earth Solid Superacids SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3 Catalyzed a-Pinene Isomerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧宗; 周国斌; 徐景士; 刘显亮

    2002-01-01

      The preparation of the rare earth solid superacid SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3 and a-pinene isomerization catalyzed by SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3 were studied. The conditions for preparation of SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3 and isomerization of a-pinene were optimized. It indicates that the catalyst has fair high catalytic activity and selectivity for a-pinene isomerization and the main product is camphene. The changes of structure and profile of SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3 calcinated under different temperature were determined by IR, XRD and SEM.%  首次研究了稀土固体超强酸SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3的制备及其催化a-蒎烯的异构化反应,得出最佳条件。结果表明,该催化剂对a-蒎烯的异构化反应具有很高的催化活性和选择性,主产物为莰烯。用IR、XRD、SEM等手段分析了不同焙烧温度的SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3的结构和形貌变化。

  14. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elizabeth Harman-Ware

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β- pinene, camphene and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic and neoabietic acids.

  15. Volatile Constituents of Three Invasive Weeds of Himalayan Region

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    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of three most common aromatic exotic weeds viz. Lantana camara L., Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng and Ageratum conyzoides L. of the Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil of Lantana camara L. was dominated by sesquiterpenoids (70.8% represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (68.7% with germacrene D (27.9%, germacrene B (16.3%, b-caryophyllene (9.6%, b-selinene (6.2%, α-humulene (5.8% as major constituents. Other constituents in significant amount were sabinene (5.6% and 1,8-cineole (4.8%. Amorphenes viz. amorph-4-en-7-ol (9.6%, 3-acetoxyamorpha-4,7(11-dien-8-one (7.8% and amorph-4,7(11-dien-8-one (5.7% were identified as the marker constituents of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng along with p-cymene (16.6%, bornyl acetate (15.6% and camphene (8.9%. On the contrary, the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. was characterized by the presence of high percentages of ageratochromene (precocene II, 42.5%, β-caryophyllene (20.7%, demethoxyageratochromene (precocene I, 16.7%, a-humulene (6.6% and p-cymene (3.3%.

  16. Monoterpene synthase from Dracocephalum kotschyi and SPME-GC-MS analysis of its aroma profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saeidnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae, as one of the remarkable aromatic plants, widely grows and also is cultivated in various temperate regions of Iran. There are diverse reports about the composition of the oil of this plant representing limonene derivatives as its major compounds. There is no report on cloning of mono- or sesquiterpene synthases from this plant. In the present study, the aroma profile of D. kotschyi has been extracted and analyzed via Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction technique coupled with Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy. In order to determine the sequence of the active terpene synthase in this plant, first mRNA was prepared and cloning was performed by 3’ and 5’-RACEs-PCR method, then cDNA was sequenced and finally aligned with other recognized terpene synthases. The results showed that the plant leaves mainly comprised geranial (37.2%, limonene-10-al (28.5%, limonene (20.1% and 1,1-dimethoxy decane (14.5%. Sequencing the cDNA cloned from this plant revealed the presence of a monoterpene synthase absolutely similar to limonene synthase, responsible in formation of limonene, terpinolene, camphene and some other cyclic monoterpenes in its young leaves.

  17. Comparison of host volatiles under different physiological states and electroantennogram responses of Semanotus bifasciatus (Motschulsky)to these volatiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yue-qin; LUO You-qing; YAN Xiong-fei

    2008-01-01

    Based on an analytical TCT-GC/MS method, volatile compounds of branches of Platycladus orientalis under three physiological states (healthy, weak and baited trees) were analyzed. The results showed that α-pinene, β-phellandrene, 3-careen, limonene and thujopsane were released under all three physiological states. There were other kinds of volatiles released from branches of weak P. orientalis trees, such as camphene, γ-terpinen, (+)-4-carene and cedrene, but these four volatiles compounds were not released from the branches of healthy P. orientalis. Volatile components from the physically damaged branches of P. orientalis had changed.β-terpinene, myerene, isocaryophillene and caryophyllene were identified in both healthy and weak branches of P. orientalis. Only cedrene was identified in the baited wood. Electroantennogram (EAG) tests were conducted with nine volatile compounds from the branches of P. orientalis. Antannnae of male and female Semanotus bifasciatus (Motschulsky) were highly sensitive to these nine volatile compounds. Cedrene elicited the strongest response, whereas β-terpinene the lowest. Males and females showed no significant difference in their EAG responses to the nine volatile compounds.

  18. Anti-inflammation Activities of Essential Oil and Anti-microbial Activities Of Ethanol Extraction from China’s Rosemary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingbo ZHOU; Ruqiang HUANG; Jihong HUANG; Junwei FENG

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarius officinalis L.), an endemic plant species in south region of China, is traditional y used as a spice. In this research, the anti-inflamma-tory activities of essential oil and the antibacterial activities of ethanol extraction were determined, respectively. Results showed that based on the GC-MS analysis there were 35 kinds of active ingredients in the essential oil in total y, mainly in-cluding D-limonene (24.158 ml/L), α-Pinene (23.325 ml/L), Camphor (9.855 ml/L), Camphene (7.076 ml/L), Verbenone (6.685 ml/L), Borneol(5.580 ml/L), etc. The LC-UV determination indicated that the main components in the ethanol extractionwere rosmarinic acid (3 910 mg/kg) and carnosic acid (2 970 mg/kg). By mice peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis of chicken erythrocytes experiment, the essential oil of rosemary was shown having a significant role in anti-inflammation. And the ethanol extraction had broad-spectrum antibacterial effects, but had no effect on mold by the agar diffusion method of 8 bacteria. As a result, both rosemary essential oil and ethanol extraction had good potential medicinal values.

  19. Microstructures of Porous Al2 O3 -ZrO2 Ceramics%多孔 Al2O3-ZrO2陶瓷的微观结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜红菊

    2015-01-01

    The low viscosity and high stability ceramic slurry were fabricated introducing Al2 O3 and ZrO2 ceramic powder as solute ,camphene as the solvent and Texaphor963 as additives .The por‐ous Al2 O3 -ZrO2 ceramics were prepared with high strength ceramic bodies by freezing casting meth‐od ,using pressureless sintering process .The microstructures of porous Al2 O3 -ZrO2 ceramics were studied in this paper .%以Al2 O3,ZrO2陶瓷粉体为溶质,以莰烯为溶剂,以Texaphor963作为添加剂,制备出低粘度高稳定性的陶瓷浆料,采用冷冻注模工艺制备出具有较高强度的陶瓷坯体,采用无压烧结工艺,得到了多孔Al2 O3-ZrO2陶瓷制品,并对其微观结构进行了研究。

  20. Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Roles in Bacteriostasis in Five Conifer Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan GAO; You-Ju JIN; Hai-Dong LI; Hua-Jun CHEN

    2005-01-01

    In order to make clear the functions of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on bacteriostasis and air decontamination, we analyzed the composition and content of VOCs in Pinus tabulaeformis Carr., P. bungeana Zucc., Sabina chinensis Antoine, Picea koraiensis Nakai, and Cedrus deodara G. Don under near-natural conditions using the thermal-desorption cold trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometer technique. The effects of the VOCs on airborne microorganisms were investigated using the method of natural sedimentation. Results showed that the major VOCs were as follows: limonene, β-pinene, α-pinene,and α-caryophyllene in Pinus tabulaeformis and P. bungeana; limonene, borneol acetate, β-pinene, myrcene,and tricylene in S. chinensis; limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, camphene, and β-pinene in Picea koraiensis;and limonene, 2, (10)-pinene, α-pinene, and myrcene in C. deodara. These VOCs and the corresponding foliar extracts inhibited the growth of bacteria and stimulated the growth of fungi. Experimental data using monomers of the VOCs demonstrated that limonene, β-pinene, and three aldehydes could significantly inhibit bacterial growth, suggesting an inhibitory effect of VOCs on the growth of airborne microorganisms in the five conifer species. The bacteriostasis and air-decontaminating effects of plant VOCs are further discussed in terms of their chemical composition.

  1. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

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    Robin D Couch

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis. However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1 an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2 a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3 a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4 a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5 a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6 decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  2. Review on Isomerization of the Major Monoterpenes in Turpentine%松节油中主要单萜烯的异构方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧; 赵振东; 毕良武; 李冬梅

    2013-01-01

    综述了比较常用的α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯以及3-蒈烯的异构方法.α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯以及3-蒈烯是松节油中含量较高的3种单萜烯烃,这3种单萜烯都可以在加热或者催化剂存在下,尤其是二者的共同作用下发生异构转化,生成苧烯、莰烯、月桂烯、对伞花烃等烯烃类化合物,可以作为原料或中间体而被进一步利用.%It was reviewed according to the home and aboard literatures on the isomerization of main terpenes in turpentine,which are α-pinene,β-pinene and 3-carene.All these terpenes could be transformed by thermal energy or catalysis,especially the combined effect by both factors.They could give a complicated product which consisted of limonene,camphene,myrcene and p-cymene and so on.They would be used as materials or intermediates for further applications.

  3. A comparison of new measurements of total monoterpene flux with improved measurements of speciated monoterpene flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many monoterpenes have been identified in forest emissions using gas chromatography (GC. Until now, it has been impossible to determine whether all monoterpenes are appropriately measured using GC techniques. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS coupled with the eddy covariance (EC technique to measure mixing ratios and fluxes of total monoterpenes above a ponderosa pine plantation. We compared PTR-MS-EC results with simultaneous measurements of eight speciated monoterpenes, β-pinene, α-pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpinene, camphene, and terpinolene, made with an automated, in situ gas chromatograph with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID, coupled to a relaxed eddy accumulation system (REA. Monoterpene mixing ratios and fluxes measured by PTR-MS averaged 30±2.3% and 31±9.2% larger than by GC-FID, with larger mixing ratio discrepancies between the two techniques at night than during the day. Two unidentified peaks that correlated with β-pinene were resolved in the chromatograms and completely accounted for the daytime difference and reduced the nighttime mixing ratio difference to 20±2.9%. Measurements of total monoterpenes by PTR-MS-EC indicated that GC-FID-REA measured the common, longer-lived monoterpenes well, but that additional terpenes were emitted from the ecosystem that represented an important contribution to the total mixing ratio above the forest at night.

  4. Chemical constituents of essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. from Iran

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    Ahmad Reza GOLPARVAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. are aromatic plants belonging to Lamiaceae family. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical components of D. kotschyi and D. moldavica from Iran. The aerial parts of D. kotschyi were collected from (Kamu Mountain Isfahan province and the aerial parts of D. moldavica were collected from Sari (Mazandaran province North of Iran, during 2014. The essential oil was extracted by a Clevenger approach and analyzed using GC/MS. In total, 32 and 24 compounds were identified in the essential oil from the aerial parts D. kotschyi and D. moldavica, respectively. The results obtained in our study indicated that the major components in the oil D. kotschyi were limonene (23.56 %, carvacrol (14.65 %, γ-terpinene (12.99 %, α -pinene (12.62 %, 2-methyl-1-octen-3-yne (9.73 %, camphene (4.66 %, myrcene (3.65 % and α -terpinene (3.12 %. The major constituents of the oil D. moldavica were geranyl acetate (36.62 %, geraniol (24.31 %, neral (16.25 % and geranial (11.21 %. D. kotschyi is one of the important sources of limonene and D. moldavica is one of the important sources of geranyl acetate.

  5. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Oil of Salvia santolinifolia Boiss. From Southeast of Iran

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    Mir Babak Bahadori, Hassan Valizadeh , Mahdi Moridi Farimani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salvia santolinifolia is a medicinal plant, traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, hypercholesterolemia, hemorrhoids and diarrhea. Discovery of new natural antimicrobial agents is necessary because of microorganism’s resistance to common antibiotics. Methods: Essential oil of S. santolinifolia was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Antibacterial, antifungal and general toxic activities of the essential oil were also evaluated. Results: Chemical analysis of the oil revealed that α-pinene (49.3%, β-eudesmol (20.0%, camphene (7.8% and limonene (7.7% are the major components of the essential oil of S. santolinifolia. The inhibition zones ranged from 11.5 to 23.8 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the oil obtained from 200 to 800 µg/ml against several microbial strains. Conclusion: Our results showed that the volatile oil of S. santolinifolia could be considered as a rich source of natural agents for several uses as antibiotics against human pathogenic microbes.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus eriocalyx essential oil and polyphenols: An endemic medicinal plant from Algeria

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    Fethi Benbelaïd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potency of Rosmarinus eriocalyx (R. eriocalyx essential oil and total polyphenols against pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of R. eriocalyx extracts was assessed by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations determination. Essential oil obtained from endemic rosemary by hydrodistillation was analysed by gas chromatograph/retention index and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results: An interesting antimicrobial activity was shown by R. eriocalyx extracts. Polyphenols, constituted mainly by flavonoids, were the most effective extract with very low minimum inhibitory concentrations values, ranged between 0.06 and 8.00 mg/mL, while essential oil was less efficient. It should be noted that antimicrobial activities of both R. eriocalyx extracts were more directed against fungi and Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative ones, in which Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive strains. Concerning chemical composition of R. eriocalyx essential oil, camphor (37.8%, 1,8- cineole (17.4%, camphene (13.3%, and α-pinene (10.9% were the major compounds. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that R. eriocalyx extracts possess significant bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Because of its richness in essential oil, and especially flavonoids, R. eriocalyx may be a source for effective and safe antimicrobial agents.

  8. Preparation of Ecofriendly Formulations Containing Biologically Active Monoterpenes with Their Fumigant and Residual Toxicities against Adults of Culex pipiens

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    Mohamed E. I. Badawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different mixtures of monoterpenes (ketone, alcohol, and alkene were loaded on paper discs and wax and their knockdown activities were evaluated against Culex pipiens adults. Some individual monoterpenes were also evaluated by residual toxicity technique. Citronella oil as a reference was also loaded separately or in combination with monoterpenes on paper discs and wax. The ketone monoterpenes mixture (camphor, menthone, carvone, and fenchone on paper discs was the most active (KT50 = 17.20 min followed by ketone monoterpenes with citronella oil (KT50 = 20.79 min and citronella oil alone (KT50 = 28.72 min. Wax formulations proved that the ketone and alcohol (geraniol, thymol, and menthol monoterpenes gave the most activity as knockdown (KT50 = 31.79 and 43.39 min, resp.. Alcohol monoterpenes formulation recorded KT50 = 43.39 min. Residual activity of tested individual monoterpenes reported that the menthol was more toxic than camphor and camphene. Generally, this study suggests that the monoterpenes have the properties, which make them used as eco-friendly compounds in the control programs of Cx. pipiens adult. The use of paper discs is more applicable than wax in the adulticidal formulations.

  9. The Lebanese Citrus Aurantium: A Promising Future in Medicinal Phytochemistry

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    Salim Makhoul

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The West Bekaa region of Lebanon is mostly an agricultural land where traditional herbal medicine is a common practice. Many medicinal applications are especially attributed to the Citrus aurantium plant mainly used in the food and drink industry. In this work, the essential oil of Citrus aurantium is studied in an attempt to find an explanation for the different medical applications of this plant extract which is widely known among locals. Using Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry, twenty-six different chemicals were identified and quantified. These include the major constituent, Linalool, (29.99%, Bergamol (14.94%, Farnesol (9.86% and D-Limonene (8.42%. The latter as well as Linalool are known to have anticancer effects, thus representing major components in anticancer treatments. Their proportions in the studied essential oil and the presence of the other components (a-thujene, apinene, Camphene, Sabinene, b-pinene, b-Myrcene, p-Cymene, Ocimene (E, Linalool oxide (Trans, Linalool oxide (Cis, Terpinen-4-ol, Terpineol, Nerol (Or Cis-Geraniol, Neral, Geranial, Neryl acetate, Geranyl acetate, Nerolidol, Farnesal, Eicosane, Tetracosane, Pentacosane have amplified the importance of Citrus aurantium as a scientifically-proven medicinal plant thus justify its diverse medical applications

  10. The essential oil qualitative and quantitative composition in the needles of Pinus sylvestris L. growing along industrial transects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija [Department of Biology, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos 8, LT-44404 Kaunas (Lithuania)], E-mail: e.kupcinskiene@gmail.com; Stikliene, Aida [Department of Ecology, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11, LT-53361 Kaunas, Akademija (Lithuania); Judzentiene, Asta [Institute of Chemistry, A. Gostauto 9, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the areas affected by a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Volatile components of the needles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The most heavily polluted CF stand had significantly higher concentration of {gamma}-Terpinene, Caryophyllene oxide in the current-year needles, while higher concentration of {delta}-3-Carene, {alpha}-Terpinene, {gamma}-Terpinene and Terpinolene was documented for 1-year-old needles. The most heavily polluted OR stand had a significantly higher concentration of Sabinene + {beta}-Pinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the current-year needles and a significantly higher concentration of Camphene, Sabinene + {beta}-Pinene, Myrcene, {alpha}-Cadinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the 1-year-old needles than the least polluted site. Along transects an increase in the amount of some diterpenes and a decrease in the components of the shorter chain essential oils was observed. These effects could be at least partially attributed to SO{sub 2}. - Quantities of components of essential oil in the needles of Scots pine growing around two factories are described in relation to pollution.

  11. CYP345E2, an antenna-specific cytochrome P450 from the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, catalyses the oxidation of pine host monoterpene volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Dullat, Harpreet K; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a significant pest of western North American pine forests. This beetle responds to pheromones and host volatiles in order to mass attack and thus overcome the terpenoid chemical defences of its host. The ability of MPB antennae to rapidly process odorants is necessary to avoid odorant receptor saturation and thus the enzymes responsible for odorant clearance are an important aspect of host colonization. An antenna-specific cytochrome P450, DponCYP345E2, is the most highly expressed transcript in adult MPB antenna. In in vitro assays with recombinant enzyme, DponCYP345E2 used several pine host monoterpenes as substrates, including (+)-(3)-carene, (+)-β-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, (+)-limonene, (-)-limonene, (-)-camphene, (+)-α-pinene, (-)-α-pinene, and terpinolene. The substrates were epoxidized or hydroxylated, depending upon the substrate. To complement DponCYP345E2, we also functionally characterized the NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase and the cytochrome b5 from MPB. DponCYP345E2 is the first cytochrome P450 to be functionally characterized in insect olfaction and in MPB.

  12. Baseline isotopic data of polyhalogenated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Walter [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstr. 28, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: w-vetter@uni-hohenheim.de; Armbruster, Wolfgang [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstr. 28, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Betson, Tatiana R. [Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Schleucher, Juergen [Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Kapp, Thomas [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstr. 28, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Lehnert, Katja [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstr. 28, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-09-08

    The {delta} {sup 2}H- and {delta} {sup 13}C-values of polyhalogenated compounds were determined by EA-IRMS. Most of the compounds were related to the chloropesticides DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and toxaphene, as well as several polybrominated compounds such as bromophenols and -anisoles. {delta} {sup 2}H-values ranged between -235 per mille and +75 per mille whereas {delta} {sup 13}C-values were found in the range -22 per mille to -38 per mille . No correlation between {delta} {sup 2}H- and {delta} {sup 13}C-values could be identified. Comparative analysis clarified that bromophenols and the corresponding bromoanisoles may vary in their isotopic distribution. {sup 2}H NMR was used to quantify abundances of {sup 2}H isotopomers. Quantification of isotopomers of 2,4-dibromophenol and 2,4-dibromoanisole proved that both compounds from different suppliers do not originate from the same source. Differences in the {delta} {sup 2}H-values of two toxaphene products were further investigated by the synthesis of products of different degree of chlorination from camphene. It was shown that the {delta} {sup 13}C-values remained mostly unaltered as was expected since no carbon is lost in this procedure. However, the reaction products became enriched in {sup 2}H with increasing degree of chlorination. Different {delta} {sup 2}H-values of the starting material will also impact the {delta} {sup 2}H-values of the chlorination products.

  13. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.W.; Wilkening, A.J.; Atkinson, T.H.; Nation, J.L.; Wilkinson, R.C.; Foltz, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    Responses of seven species of pine-infesting beetles to traps baited with either turpentine, ethanol, turpentine and ethanol released from separate dispensers, or a 1:1 solution of turpentine and ethanol released from one dispenser were assessed in three field experiments. The weevil species, Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and the cerambycid pine sawyer, Monochamus carolinenis (Olivier), were attracted to turpentine and were unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, responded to ethanol alone but was not attracted to turpentine, nor did the presence of turpentine significantly affects its response to ethanol. The remaining four species) hylobius pales, M. titillator, Dendroctonus terebrans and x. pubescens) displayed responses to turpentine that were enhanced by the addition of ethanol, but in different ways according to the method of deployment. Reasons for increased responses by some species to a solution of turpentine and ethanol over the two released separately are not clear; they may lie in different dosages of evaporation rates of volatiles in the field. Laboratory analyses of trapped headspace volatiles from dispensers containing only turpentine and those containing a solution of turpentine and ethanol revealed no differences in the amounts of four principal monoterpene hydrocarbons (..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, and limonene) released over time.

  14. Essential Oil Variability and Biological Activities of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. Wood According to the Extraction Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Saka, Boualem; Boudarene, Lynda; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, the hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) kinetics of essential oil (EO) extracted from Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. wood was conducted, in order to assess the impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry analyses showed significant differences between the extracted EOs, where each family class or component presents a specific kinetic according to extraction time, technique and especially for the major components: camphene, linalool, cedrol, carvacrol and α-acorenol. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, where each activity has a specific effect according to extraction time and technique. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select EOs to be investigated carefully depending on extraction time and technique, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of EO in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food.

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-11-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, α-pinene, camphene, α-limonene, β-eudesmol, α-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  16. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT.

  17. An in-depth review on the medicinal flora Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Asia; Sandhya, Subarda; Shaffath Ali, Syed; Vinod, Kombath Ravindran; Reddy, Swapna; Banji, David

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) is a common household plant which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is grown in many parts of the world. It is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple or blue flowers. The two most commonly grown hardy Rosemaries are Rosmarinus officinalis 'Arp' and R. officinalis 'Madelene Hill' (syn. 'Hill Hardy'). The other cultivars of the plant are R. officinalis 'Albus', R. officinalis 'Bendenen Blue', R. officinalis 'Goodwin Creek', R. officinalis 'Herb Cottage', R. officinalis 'Logee's Light Blue', R. officinalis 'Miss Jessup's Upright', R. officinalis 'Russian River', R. officinalis 'Salem'. The chemical constituents include bitter principle, resin, tannic acid, volatile oils and fl avonoids. The volatile oil consists of borneol, bornyl acetate, camphene, cineol, pinene and camphor. It is used for problems involved in central nervous system, cardio vascular system, genito urinary conditions, liver treatments, reproductive system and respiratory system. The volatile oil of the plant is used in oils and lotions for the treatment of various ailments like arthritis, gout, muscular pain, neuralgia, wound and rubbed into hair for stimulating the hair bulbs to renewed activity, to prevent premature baldness.

  18. Analysis of enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in plant emissions using portable dynamic air sampling/solid-phase microextraction (PDAS-SPME) and chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Williams, Jonathan

    A portable dynamic air sampler (PDAS) using a porous polymer solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre has been validated for the determination of biogenic enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in air. These compounds were adsorbed in the field, and then thermally desorbed at 250 °C in a gas chromatograph injector port connected via a β-cyclodextrin capillary separating column to a mass spectrometer. The optimized method has been applied for investigating the emissions of enantiomeric monoterpenes from Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Lavandula lanata (Lavender) which were selected as representative of coniferous trees and aromatic plants, respectively. The enantiomers of α-pinene, sabinene, camphene, δ-3-carene, β-pinene, limonene, β-phellandrene, 4-carene and camphor were successfully determined in the emissions from the three plants. While Douglas-fir showed a strong predominance toward (-)-enantiomers, Rosemary and Lavender demonstrated a large variation in enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes. The simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity of dynamic sampling with porous polymer coated SPME fibres coupled to chiral capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) makes this method potentially useful for in-field investigations of atmosphere-biosphere interactions and studies of optically explicit atmospheric chemistry.

  19. Production of terpenes in the culture of Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Terpenes show high reactivity in the troposphere, contributing to organic aerosol reactions with OH radicals. One of the main sources of terpenes in the atmosphere is terrestrial plants. It has been recently reported that marine phytoplankton also produce monoterpenes (Yassaa et al: 2008). Because aerosol production of natural origin affects the cloud cover over the open ocean, it is important to investigate the origin of aerosol generation in the open ocean. In this study, we investigated the production of terpenes and isoprene with a focus on Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae) and Rhodella maculata (Rhodophyta). Concentrations of terpenes and isoprene were measured using a dynamic headspace (GERSTEL DHS)—gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N)—mass spectrometer (Agilent 5975C). In addition, chlorophyll a was measured using a fluorometer (Turner TD-700). The results showed that isoprene, α-pinene, and β-pinene were produced by Chlamydomonas sp. and that isoprene, limonene, and camphene were produced by Rhodella maculata. Chlamydomonas sp. produced α-pinene and β-pinene, similar to land plants. The ratio of the pinene/isoprene concentrations in the atmosphere over seawater where phytoplankton are blooming has been reported as approximately 0.7 (Yassaa et al: 2008). In this experiment, the pinene/isoprene concentration ratios in the cultures were approximately 0.1. This result indicates that marine phytoplankton may not be ignored in the marine atmosphere chemistry of terpenes.

  20. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  1. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of different parts of Seseli rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcetić, Mirjana; Bozić, Dragana; Milenković, Marina; Lakusić, Branislava; Kovacević, Nada

    2012-08-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the Balkan endemic species Seseli rigidum Waldst. & Kit. (Apiaceae) was investigated. The monoterpene alpha-pinene was predominant in the volatile oil from aerial parts (57.4%) and fruit (23.3%). In the essential oil of the aerial parts limonene (6.7%), camphene (5.8%) and sabinene (5.5%) were also present in high amounts, and in the fruit oil, beta-phellandrene (17.4%) and sabinene (12.9%). On the contrary, the root essential oil was composed almost entirely of the polyacetylene falcarinol (88.8%). The antimicrobial activity of the root essential oil was significant against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis (MICs 6.25-25.00 microg/mL). Volatile constituents from the root strongly inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus (MICs 6.25-50.00 microg/mL). Anti-staphylococcal activity can be attributed to the main volatile constituent ofS. rigidum root, falcarinol.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Salvia tomentosa Mill. essential oil

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    ANDREY MARCHEV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and bioactivity of essential oil from Salvia tomentosa Mill. natively grown in Bulgaria were investigated. GC-MS analysis identified 60 compounds which represented 98% of the oil constituents. The prevalent constituents were monoterpenes with eight dominant compounds being identified: borneol (10.3%, β-pinene (9%, camphor (7.9%, α-pinene (6%, camphene (4%, 1.8-cineole (3.8%, α-limonene (3.5% and β-caryophyllene (3%. The essential oil showed considerable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50=0.28±0.06 µg/mL, comparable with that of galanthamine. Study of antioxidant activity strongly suggested that the hydrogen atom transfer reaction was preferable over the electron transfer (ORAC=175.0±0.40 µM Trolox equivalents/g oil and FRAP=1.45±0.21 mM Trolox equivalents/g oil. The essential oil showed moderate antifungal and antibacterial activities against Candida albicans and Gram-positive bacteria, whereas it was almost inactive against the investigated Gram-negative strains. The results suggested that the essential oil of Bulgarian S. tomentosa could be considered as a prospective active ingredient for prevention of oxidative stress-related and neurodegenerative disorders in aromatherapy. Because of the high antioxidant capacity, the oil could be considered as natural supplement or antioxidant in cosmetics and food products.

  3. High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Ristić, Mihailo; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Hančević, Katarina; Radić, Tomislav; Satović, Zlatko

    2012-10-01

    Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and β-pinene, β-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/β-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study.

  4. Chemical composition, larvicidal action, and adult repellency of Thymus magnus against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Uk; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2012-09-01

    Thymus magnus, an endemic species, is found in the Republic of Korea. The volatile compounds extracted by SPME from T. magnus were investigated for their chemical composition and electrophysiological response against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The volatile compounds of T. magnus as determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were gamma-terpinene (33.0%), thymol (29.9%), beta-bisabolene (8.9%), p-cymene (8.3%), alpha-terpinene (5.0%), myrcene (4.7%), beta-caryophyllene (4.0%), alpha-thujene (2.7%), camphene (1.3%), carvacrol (1.2%), and alpha-pinene (1.1%). Among these candidates, thymol exhibited complete (100%) repellent activity against female Ae. albopictus, an effect that was confirmed through evaluating the electrophysiological response on the antenna of Ae. albopictus. The effectiveness of a binary 1:2 mixture of thymol and vanillin (0.05:0.1 microl per cm2) was found to be significantly more effective than thymol alone for a period of 120 min. In addition, thymol, alpha-terpinene, and carvacrol showed high larvicidal activity against on the third-stage larvae with LC50 values of 0.9 microl per 100 ml.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Volatile Oils of Hawk Tea from Six Botanical Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bao; Zhang, Dan; Yan, Xue-Wei; Wang, Jian-Wei; Yao, Ling; Tan, Li-Hong; Zhao, Sheng-Ping; Li, Na; Cao, Wei-Guo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, volatile oils of six Hawk tea varieties were studied for their chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities to screen the most suitable botanical origins of Hawk tea. A total of 72 components were separated and identified from the six oils. The major constituents of the volatile oils were: α-pinene, camphene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, cis-nerolidol, and germacrene B. Moreover, the volatile oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. The results showed that all volatile oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which suggested that these volatile oils may serve as natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants and preservatives to be applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. Principal component analysis results denoted that some major compounds may be closely related to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. It also showed that the volatile oils from Litsea coreana var. lanuginosa and Litsea pungens Hemsl. were characterized by positive values of first two principal components, indicating higher active chemical compounds and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared with other species. Thus, they were temporarily considered as good sources of Hawk tea.

  6. Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakusić, Dmitar; Ristić, Mihailo; Slavkovska, Violeta; Lakusić, Branislava

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils obtained from rosemary plants of the same genotype cultivated in Belgrade were determined by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were camphor (18.2 - 28.1%), 1,8-cineole (6.4-18.0%), alpha-pinene (9.7-13.5%), borneol (4.4-9.5%), camphene (5.1-8.7%), beta-pinene (2.1-8.1%), beta-phellandrene (4.6-6.5%), myrcene (3.4-5.9%) and bornyl acetate (0.2-7.9%). Cluster analysis showed that 16 samples that had been collected each month during the vegetative cycle can be separated into three main clades with different compositions of essential oils. In the shoots with fruits ('fruits' - Clade I) and shoots with developed leaves ('old shoots' - Clade III) camphor is dominant. In shoots with young and incompletely developed leaves ('young shoot' - Clade II) camphor and 1,8-cineole had almost the same concentration. The fact that the same genotype during the growing seasons can synthesize oils that are so different that they can be classified as different chemotypes confirms the opinion that the chemical composition of essential oils sometimes critically depends on the time of collection. Also, for the definition of chemotypes it is not enough to base this on a chemical analysis of an oil from one phenophase only.

  7. Comparative analysis of essential oils from eight herbal medicines with pungent flavor and cool nature by GC-MS and chemometric resolution methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenxi; Zeng, Yingxu; Wan, Mingzhu; Li, Rongxi; Liang, Yizeng; Li, Chengyong; Zeng, Zhongda; Chau, Foo-Tim

    2009-02-01

    Systematic comparative research was conducted on essential oils from eight traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) of pungent flavor and cool nature because the essential oils are the main active ingredients of herbs of this kind. The work was based on their component analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), on their retention indices, as well as on chemometric resolution methods. A total of 144 compounds were tentatively identified, accounting for 69.0% to 91.8% of the total essential oils. It is worth noting that there are 67 compounds in at least three of these eight essential oils. Moreover, many biologically active compounds, such as hexanal, alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, p-cymene, limonene, eucalyptol, (Z)-ocimene, gamma-terpinene, camphor, p-menthone, 4-terpineol, alpha-terpineol, carvone, eugenol, caryophyllene, beta-farnesene, alpha-curcumene, beta-selinene, delta-cadinene, caryophyllene oxide, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde, phthalic acid diisobutyl ester, linoleic acid, tetradecanoic acid, (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, eucalyptol, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, linoleic acid methyl ester, exist in at least four of the eight essential oils. These results might help us to understand why the eight herbs are all of pungent flavor and cool nature according to the theory of TCM, and may provide a useful chemical basis for future research on herbs of this kind.

  8. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F

    2003-12-17

    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  9. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-15

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

  10. [Analysis of volatile constituents in leaves of three cypress species by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dejun; Zhang, Yonghui; Dai, Huaguo; Wang, Yan

    2006-03-01

    Volatile oils in leaves of three cypress species were extracted by hydrodistillation method and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sixty-four constituents were separated and identified. The majority of the components were found to be monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. There were 33, 37, 37 compounds in the oils of leaves of Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant, Cupressus lusitanica 'zhongshan' Mill and Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant. Cv. Kaizuca, respectively. Fourteen compounds were common to them, which were thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, beta-myrcene, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpinolene, bornyl acetate, beta-elemene, alpha-amorphene, germacrene D, delta-cadinene and elemol. In addition, each species had particular compounds. The main components were found to be: sabinene (20.99%), limonene (19.78%) and bornyl acetate (11.68%) for Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant; alpha-pinene (10.39%), sabinene (11.19%) and delta-3-carene (8.88%) for Cupressus lusitanica 'zhongshan' Mill; limonene (24.56%), beta-myrcene (8.04%) for Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant. Cv. Kaizuca.

  11. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ijaz Hussain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%, camphor (17.1%, α-pinene (12.3%, limonene (6.23%, camphene (6.00% and linalool (5.70%. The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3 using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  12. Essential oil of three Uvaria species from Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, Koffi A; Félix, Tonzibo Z; Figueredo, Gilles; Chalard, Pierre; N'guessan, Yao T

    2011-11-01

    Different parts of Uvaria ovata (Dunals) A, U. anonoides Baker f. and U. tortilis A. Chev were collected from Ivory Coast, in Toumodi (center), Agboville (south-east) and Sikensi (south), respectively. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, were investigated by CG and CG/MS. The proportion of the chromatographed constituents identified varied from 92.5% to 98.5%. For U. ovata, the root bark oil comprised mainly camphene (10.2%), beta-pinene (10.1%), epi-alpha-cadinol (13.2%) and intermedeol (9.7%), while the oil of the stem bark was dominated by epi-alpha-cadinol (27.3%), intermedeol (11.9%) and benzyl benzoate (13.4%). The oil of the leaves showed beta-caryophyllene (15.6%), germacrene D (24.2%) and benzyl benzoate (18.3%) as the most abundant constituents. The leaf oil of U. anonoides was rich in 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (21.3%) and benzyl benzoate (8.7%), while, gamma-terpinene (31.7%), beta-caryophyllene (23.9%) and germacrene D (15.8%) constituted the main components of the stem bark oil of U. tortilis.

  13. Cannabinoid receptor 1 binding activity and quantitative analysis of Cannabis sativa L. smoke and vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischedick, Justin; Van Der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) extracts, vapor produced by the Volcano vaporizer and smoke made from burning cannabis joints were analyzed by GC-flame ionization detecter (FID), GC-MS and HPLC. Three different medicinal cannabis varieties were investigated Bedrocan, Bedrobinol and Bediol. Cannabinoids plus other components such as terpenoids and pyrolytic by-products were identified and quantified in all samples. Cannabis vapor and smoke was tested for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) binding activity and compared to pure Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC). The top five major compounds in Bedrocan extracts were Delta(9)-THC, cannabigerol (CBG), terpinolene, myrcene, and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBG, cannabichromene (CBC), and camphene in Bediol cannabidiol (CBD), Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC, and CBG. The major components in Bedrocan vapor (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, terpinolene, myrcene, CBG, cis-ocimene and CBD in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene and CBD in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. The major components in Bedrocan smoke (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, cannabinol (CBN), terpinolene, CBG, myrcene and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, CBN and myrcene in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, CBN, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. There was no statistically significant difference between CB1 binding of pure Delta(9)-THC compared to cannabis smoke and vapor at an equivalent concentration of Delta(9)-THC.

  14. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars to attractive and repellent plant volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacem eRharrabe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Lepidoptera, the behavior of caterpillars to plant odors is poorly known. However, caterpillars are equipped with a reduced number of olfactory sensilla (3 on the antenna and 4-5 on the maxillary palps which they can use to make fine discrimination between complex plant odors. In this work, we characterized behavioral responses of Spodoptera littoralis larvae to 11 odorants found in plants using binary choices in a Petri dish assay. In this assay, 1-hexanol, hexanal and cis-jasmone elicited a dose-dependent attraction, camphene and eugenol were repellent, while the response to other odorants were less marked. We recorded the electrophysiological responses to 5 of these odors from olfactory neurons of sensillum B2 of the antenna. Several neurons from this sensillum responded to each of the chemicals tested by an increase of their firing activity on top of a high background activity, suggesting that olfactory neurons of caterpillars is broadly tuned to a range of odorants rather than being specialized to a few molecules.

  15. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils from Thymus satureioides and Thymus pallidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichrak, Ghalbane; Rim, Belaqziz; Loubna, Ait Said; Khalid, Oufdou; Abderrahmane, Romane; Said, El Messoussi

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Thymus satureioides (T.s) and T. pallidus (T.p). EOs were isolated by steam distillation and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major constituents of the volatile fraction of T. satureioides were bomeol (29.5%), carvacrol (9.1%), and beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), while those of T. pallidus were camphor (29.8%), dihydrocarvone (17.6%), bomeol (7.6%) and camphene (7.5%). The essential oils were tested against a panel of Gram+ and Gram- bacteria by using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods. The data indicated that the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive strain producing an average inhibition zone of 51.7 mm. Furthermore, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, known as a resistant strain, was also sensitive. The samples were also subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by using the 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The IC50 values of the oil of T. satureioides and T. pallidus were 0.32 and 11.6 mg/mL, respectively.

  16. Essential oil composition of Salvia fruticosa Mill. populations from Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cvetkovikj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO isolated from 19 different populations of Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Greek sage, Lamiaceae from nine different regions of Albania and Greece. The EO yield ranged from 0.25% to 4.00%. Eighteen of the total analyzed populations met the Ph.Eur.8.0 minimal requirements concerning the essential oil yield. Performing GC/FID/MS analyses, a total of 75 components were detected, representing 79.15-97.83% of the oils. Thirteen components (α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, γ-terpinene, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, terpinene-4-ol, trans-(E-caryophyllene, aromadendrene and α-humulene were identified in all samples, with 1,8-cineole as a predominant constituent. Statistical analysis showed that the geographical origin of plants did not have significant influence on the variation in chemical composition of the Greek sage essential oil.

  17. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

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    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  18. The storage stability of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Deep, Akash; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the sorptive loss properties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags were investigated as a function of storage duration. To this end, the relative recovery of gas phase standards of BVOCs, obtained via vaporization of liquid phase standards, was computed by calibrating their standards (response factors: RF) represnting each phase. Accordingly, the results indicated either slight loss (-5.59% (isoprene), -2.39% (camphene), -1.69% ((R)-(+)-limonene), -0.88% (p-cymene)) or gain (1.47% (γ-terpinene), 2.27% (α-terpinene), 2.63% (α-phellandrene), 2.73% ((+)-3-carene), 3.93% ((+)-β-pinene), and 5.98% ((+)-α-pinene)). Through comparison of the calibration results across storage time, the temporal stability of BVOCs was assessed. Longer BVOC storage time in polyester aluminum (PEA) bags lowered the relative recovery of BVOCs. The relative loss of BVOCs, if calculated in terms of mean bag standard RF ratios (relative to liquid standard) across elapsed time, decreased systematically: 0.99 ± 0.05 (0 h), 0.88 ± 0.06 (24 h), 0.66 ± 0.11 (72 h), and 0.62 ± 0.14 (120 h). It is thus recommended to complete the analysis of BVOC in PEA bags within 24 h of sample acquisition. As such, it is important to apply appropriate sampling approaches with a proper storage plan when measuring ambient BVOCs collected by bag sampling methods.

  19. Chemical composition of essential oils of Piper jacquemontianum and Piper variabile from Guatemala and bioactivity of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sully M. Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from two native species from Guatemala were studied for their chemical composition and the dichloromethane and methanol extracts for their biological activity. A GC-MS analysis of the essential oil from Piper jacquemontianum Kunth, Piperaceae, showed 34 constituents, consisting mainly of linalool (69.4%, while Piper variabile C. DC. essential oil had 36 constituents, camphor (28.4%, camphene (16.6% and limonene (13.9% being the major components. Dichloromethane extracts of both species were cytotoxic against MCF-7, H-460 and SF-268 cell lines (<7 µg/mL. Dichloromethane extract of P. jacquemontianum was slightly active against bacteria (0.5 mg/mL, was active against promastigotes of Leishmania (20.4-61.0 µg/mL, and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (51.9 µg/mL. The methanol extract of P. variabile showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum F32 (4.5 µg/mL, and the dichloromethane extract against Leishmania (55.8-76.3 µg/mL and T. cruzi (45.8 µg/mL. None of the extracts from the two species was active against Aedes aegypti larvae and Artemia salina nauplii.

  20. Structure design and fabrication of porous hydroxyapatite microspheres for cell delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijing; Chen, Kexin; Li, Geng; Han, Guoxiang; Yu, Sheng; Yao, Juming; Cai, Yurong

    2016-09-01

    Porous microspheres fabricated from bioceramics have great potential for cell delivery in injectable tissue engineering application. The size and structure of pores in the microspheres are important for the effective protection and transportation of cells. In this study, porous hydroxyapatite microspheres are fabricated through the water-in-oil emulsion method followed by a calcination treatment at the high temperature. Both self-made resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) composite spheres and camphene are used as pore-forming agents to produce big pores corresponding to the size of RF spheres and connected channel among big pores in hydroxyapatite matrix. The properties of the microspheres are characterized using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, universal material machine, field emission scanning electron microscopy. Cell assays are carried out to evaluate the cellular compatibility of the microspheres. The results showed that the hydroxyapatite microspheres with controllable pore structure and high porosity could be fabricated by this method, which have better strength to resist the compressive force. The microspheres are conducive to support adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicate that the obtained porous hydroxyapatite microspheres can be a permeable microenvironment for cell delivery in injectable tissue engineering.

  1. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of essential oils of Piper septuplinervium and P. subtomentosum (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila Murilloa, Mónica Constanza; Cuca Suareza, Luis Enrique; Cerón Salamanca, Jairo Alonso

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils of Piper subtomentosum (leaves and inflorescences) and Piper septuplinervium (aerial parts) were analyzed by GC-MS; sixty-three compounds were determined, representing 92.0%, 86.9 %, and 91.8 % of the total relative oil composition of the leaves, inflorescences, and aerial parts, respectively. The most abundant component in the aerial parts and inflorescence oils was α-pinene (27.3%, 21.0%, respectively), and δ-cadinene was the main component of the leaf oil. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils were determined on the Spodoptera frugiperda second instar larvae; the essential oil from the aerial parts of P. septuplinervium was the most active against insect pests (LC50= 9.4 μL/L of air). Statistical analysis by direct Pearson correlation showed that the insecticidal activity of the essential oils was primarily due to camphene and α- and β-pinene. The effect of the oils on the insect life cycle was also evaluated, and in some cases, a delay in growth and inhibition of the oviposition in the females were observed.

  2. Influence of Binasal and Uninasal Inhalations of Essential Oil of Abies koreana Twigs on Electroencephalographic Activity of Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present work investigates the effect of essential oil from the twigs of Abies koreana on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of human brain in order to understand the influence of binasal and uninasal inhalations. Methods. To accomplish this study, the essential oil from the twigs of A. koreana (AEO) was isolated by steam distillation and the EEG readings were recorded using QEEG-8 system from 8 grounding electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. Results. D-Limonene (25.29%), bornyl acetate (19.31%), camphene (12.48%), α-pinene (11.88%), β-pinene (6.45%), and eudesm-7(11)-en-ol (5.38%) were the major components in the essential oil. In the EEG study, the absolute alpha (left frontal and right parietal) and absolute fast alpha (right parietal) values significantly increased during the binasal inhalation of AEO. In the uninasal inhalation, absolute beta and theta values decreased significantly, especially in the right frontal and left and right parietal regions. The results revealed that the AEO produced different EEG power spectrum changes according to the nostril difference. Conclusion. The changes in EEG values due to the inhalation of AEO may contribute to the enhancement of relaxation (binasal inhalation) and alertness/attention (right uninasal inhalation) states of brain which could be used in aromatherapy treatments. PMID:28042202

  3. Microdistillation and analysis of volatiles from eight ornamental Salvia taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Turner, Jimmy L; Pounders, Cecil; Demirci, Fatih; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Wedge, David E

    2010-09-01

    Volatile compounds from seven Salvia species and one interspecific hybrid growing at the Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, Texas, US. Salvia coccinea, S. farinacea, S. greggii, S. leucantha, S. longispicata x farinacea, S. madrensis, S. roemeriana and S. splendens were investigated for their chemical compositions using a microdistillation technique. Volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). One hundred and twenty seven compounds were identified representing 94.3-99.7% of the oils. The major components in each of the seven species were as follows: S. coccinea (Z)-3-hexenal (31%), viridiflorol (19%); S. farinacea 1-octen-3-ol (30%) and (Z)-3-hexenal (23%); S. greggii 1,8-cineole (22%), borneol (17%), camphene (11%) and alpha-pinene (10%); S. leucantha limonene (35%) and alpha-pinene (17%); S. longispicata x farinacea 1-octen-3-ol (50%) and (Z)-3-hexenal (24%); S. madrensis (Z)-3-hexenal (53%); S. roemeriana limonene (49%) and alpha-pinene (20%); and S. splendens (Z)-3-hexenal (36%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (19%) and linalool (11%). The microdistillation method was fast, practical and a useful technique that enabled the isolation of the volatiles in samples when only limited quantities were available.

  4. In Vitro Control of Post-Harvest Fruit Rot Fungi by Some Plant Essential Oil Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Rana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare, previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.

  5. Biotransformation of terpenoids by mammals, microorganisms, and plant-cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takashi

    2005-05-01

    This review article summarizes our knowledge of the metabolism of mono- and sesquiterpenoids in mammals, microorganisms, cloned-insect enzymes, and plant-cultured cells. A number of unusual enzymatic reactions and products are reported such as the stereoselective formation of primary alcohols from sterically congested Me2C groups. Such enzymatic processes, including unknown chemical transformations under abiotic conditions, could lead to the discovery of new chemical reactions and might be helpful in the design of new drugs. The transformations of the following mono- and sesquiterpenoids (in alphabetical order) are discussed: (+)-(1R)-aromadendrene (61), (-)-allo-aromadendrene (62), (+/-)-camphene (21), (-)-cis-carane (20), (+)-3-carene (17), (+/-)-carvone (27), (-)-beta-caryophyllene (43), (+)-cedrol (35), cuminaldehyde (25), (+)-curdione (69), (-)-cyclocolorenone (60), (-)-elemol (51), (2E,6E)-farnesol (31), germacrone (67), ginsenol (40), (-)-globulol (63), isoprobotryan-9alpha-ol (82a), juvenile hormone III (33), (+)-ledol (65), (+)-longifolene (46), myrcene (3), (-)-myrtenal (23), (+)-nootkatone (48), patchouli alcohol (37), (-)-perillaldehyde (24), (-)-alpha- and beta-pinene (8 and 9), alpha-santalol (28), (-)-6beta-santonin (83a), 6beta-tetrahydrosantonin (83b), beta-selinene (57), alpha-thujone (26a), beta-thujone (26b), T-2 toxin (87), and valerianol (53).

  6. α-Pinene- and β-myrcene-rich volatile fruit oil of Cupressus arizonica Greene from northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Bagher

    2011-03-01

    Cupressus arizonica Greene is an aromatic evergreen coniferous plant with great importance in urban horticulture and in the pharmaceutical and fragrance industries. The hydrodistilled volatile fruit oil of cultivated C. arizonica from northwest Iran was analysed by GC/MS. Forty-three components were identified, accounting for 96.4% of the total oil. Monoterpenoids (91.9%) dominated the identified components of the essential oil, followed by a lesser portion of sesquiterpenoids (4.2%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons (87.9%) were the principal subclass of components, with α-pinene (54.3%), β-myrcene (11.1%), δ-3-carene (6.5%) and limonene (6%) as main constituents. β-Pinene (4%), terpinolene (2.8%) and camphene (1.1%) were the other monoterpenoids present in notable amounts. α-Terpineol (1.4%) was the only representative of the oxygen-containing monoterpenoids. Sesquiterpenoids had a minor share in the volatile oil's composition. Hydrocarbonic compounds (91.1%) had a higher share compared to the oxygenated components (5%). Comparison of the essential oil profile of C. arizonica Greene plants cultivated in Iran showed remarkable quantitative but slight qualitative differences with previous reports from other parts of the world. In summary, the chemical and percentage composition of the studied oil from cultivated C. arizonica Greene from northwest Iran was characterised by a high occurrence of α-pinene and β-myrcene, and is thus competent for use in related industries and as a favourite ornamental aromatic tree.

  7. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and mode of action of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae, etiological agent of American Foulbrood on Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, María Celeste; Alonso-Salces, Rosa María; Umpierrez, María Laura; Rossini, Carmen; Fuselli, Sandra Rosa

    2016-12-10

    This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of Aloysia polystachia, Acantholippia seriphioides, Schinus molle, Solidago chilensis, Lippia turbinata, Minthostachys mollis, Buddleja globosa and Baccharis latifolia essential oils (EOs), and evaluate their antibacterial activities and their capacity to provoke membrane disruption in Paenibacillus larvae, the bacteria that causes the American Foulbrood disease on honey bee larvae. The relationship between the composition of the EOs and these activities on P. larvae was also analyzed. Monoterpenes were the most abundant compounds in all EOs. All EOs showed antimicrobial activity against P. larvae and disrupted the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of P. larvae provoking the leakage of cytoplasmic constituents (with the exception of B. latifolia EO). While, the EOs' antimicrobial activity was correlated most strongly to the content of pulegone, carvone, (Z)-β-ocimene, δ-cadinene, camphene, terpinen-4-ol, elemol, β-pinene, β-elemene, γ-cadinene, α-terpineol and bornyl acetate; the volatiles that better explained the membrane disruption were carvone, limonene, cis-carvone oxide, pentadecane, trans-carvyl acetate, trans-carvone oxide, trans-limonene oxide, artemisia ketone, trans-carveol, thymol and γ-terpinene (positively correlated) and biciclogermacrene, δ-2-carene, verbenol, α-pinene and α-thujene (negatively correlated). The studied EOs are proposed as natural alternative means of control for the American Foulbrood disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Release Variation of Volatile Compounds from Pinus sylvestnis var.mongolica Litv.and Their Effects on Bacteri-ostasis%樟子松挥发性有机物释放动态及其抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭阿君; 王志英; 邹丽

    2014-01-01

    利用SUMMA采样罐收集樟子松( Pinus sylvestnis var.mongolica Litv.)挥发物,通过预浓缩仪与气质联用系统对樟子松挥发物进行分析。研究结果表明:春、夏、秋三季樟子松挥发物的主要成分有萜类、烷烃、烯烃类、醇类、呋喃类、醛类、酮类和含氮化合物7大类物质,其中萜类、烃类物质占主体,且随季节变化显著。(+)-2-蒈烯(占挥发物总量36.84%)、(+)-莰烯(占挥发物总量22.28%)是构成春季挥发物的主要成分,夏季则以2-氯-1-丙烯(占挥发物总量34.31%)为主,秋季以(E)-2,7-二甲基-3-辛烯-5-炔(占挥发物总量59.19%)、桧烯(占挥发物总量11.35%)、莰烯(占挥发物总量9.05%)、β-蒎烯(占挥发物总量6.88%)、β-月桂烯(占挥发物总量4.01%)为主。樟子松的挥发物对空气中的细菌具有抑制作用,以夏季抑菌作用最强。%Pre-concentrated system combined with GC-MS was evaluated for determining volatile compounds from Pinus sylvestnis var.mongolica Litv.by SUMMA canister for sampling.In spring, summer and autumn, the main compounds of volatile compounds are terpene, alkenes, alkanes, alcohol, furan, aldehydes, ketone and nitrogenous compounds, and the ter-pene, alkenes and alkanes are major component.The component and content have dynamic varieties in different seasons. (+)-2-caren (36.84%) and (+)-Camphene (22.28%) are major component in spring, 1-Propene, 2-chloro-(34.31%) in summer, and 3-Octen-5-yne,2,7-dimethyl-(E)-(59.19%), sabinene (11.35%), camphene (9.05%) and beta.-Pi-nene (6.88%) inautumn .Volatile compounds from Pinsu sylvestnis var.mongolica Litv.have inhibition against bacteria in air especially in summer.

  9. SWA/TiO2微球的制备及催化α-蒎烯异构化性能%Preparation of nanometer microsphere of titanium dioxide supported silicotungstic acid and catalytic performance for α-pinene isomerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓涛; 吴春华; 赵黔榕

    2012-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶法和浸溃法,制备了纳米负载型H4SiW12O40 (SWA)催化剂,考察了载体种类、SWA浸溃浓度对催化剂性能的影响.结果表明,用TiO2固载、8% SWA浸渍所得催化剂SWA/TiO2的催化性能较佳.利用XRD、TEM和BET比表面测定技术对其结构进行了表征.结果显示,该催化剂颗粒为圆球形,粒径为40~50 nm,具有较好的分散性.载体TiO2的引入明显增大了SWA的比表面积.将纳米SWA/TiO2用于催化α-蒎烯异构化反应,实验结果表明,该催化剂具有较好的催化活性和选择性,异构化反应的主产物是莰烯.在适宜的实验条件下,α-蒎烯的转化率达98%,莰烯的产率达58%.与其它负载型催化剂比较,SWA/TiO2具有用量少、活性高、反应时间短等特点.%Nanometer microsphere SWA/TiO2,a novel supported catalyst,was prepared by sol-gel method and impregnation. The effects of the kinds of carriers, the impregnating consistence of silicotungstic acid ( SWA) were investigated. The results showed that the catalyst displayed excellent activity when it supported, by TiO2 and impregnated with 8% SWA. The structure of SWA/TiO2 was characterized by XRD.TEM and BET surface area measurement technology. The results indicated that the catalyst had a narrow particle size distribution with an average particle diameter about 40 - 50 nm. The surface area of catalyst was obviously increased supported by TiO2. Nanometer SWA/TiO2 was used as a catalyst in a-pinene isomerization. Experimental results showed that the catalyst had better catalytic activity and selectivity. The main product of isomerizauon reaction was camphene. Under the suitable technology conditions, the conversion of a-pinene reached 98% and the camphene yield reached 58%. Compared with other supported catalysts, the SWA/TiOj can short reaction time,high activity and decrease catalyst quantity.

  10. Analysis of the chemical compositions of the volatile oil from Rosmarinus officinalisL.planted in Yuzhou,Henan by GC-MS%河南禹州产迷迭香精油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利红; 李先芳; 解克伟

    2012-01-01

    【目的】对禹州引种的迷迭香精油成分进行分析,并与国内其他产区的迷迭香进行比较,为国内迷迭香精油的生产和加工提供依据。【方法】用GC-MS技术和峰面积归一化法,参照NIST08质谱库,对禹州产迷迭香的精油成分进行定性和定量分析。【结果】从禹州产迷迭香精油中检测到40种物质,并鉴定了25种;含量较高的物质依次为:α-蒎烯(37.150%)、莰烯(18.053%)、桉树脑(12.284%)、樟脑(7.295%)、α-水芹烯(3.820%)、4-蒈烯(3.548%)、β-月桂烯(2.720%)、龙脑(2.273%)、乙酸龙脑酯(1.632%)、α-松油醇(1.343%)和β-蒎烯(1.760%)等;其中,莰烯、α-水芹烯和β-月桂烯的含量高于国内其他产区,α-蒎烯和樟脑含量居国内前列。【结论】与国内其他产区相似,禹州产迷迭香也属于西班牙型;从中提取的精油符合行业规定标准。%【Objective】 The chemical compositions in the volatile oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L.planted in Yuzhou were compared with those in the other regions in China,to provide a scientific proof for integrative development and utilization of rosemary in our country.【Method】 The volatile oil was extracted by distillation and analyzed by GC-MS.The relative content of each component was calculated by peak area normalization method.【Result】 There were 40 peaks separated and 25 of them were identified from the oil of Yuzhou rosemary.The major constituents of the volatiles were α-pinene(37.150%),camphene(18.053%),eucalyptol(12.284%),camphor(7.295%),α-phellandrene(3.820%),4-carene(3.548%),β-myrcene(2.720%),borneol(2.273%),bornyl acetate(1.632%),α-rerpineo(1.343%)and β-pinene(1.760%),etc.The contents of camphene and β-myrcene were higer than those of other regions;the contents of α-pinene and camphor ranked in the front in China.【Conclusion】 The main compositions of the volatile oil from rosemary in Yuzhou are similar to these of

  11. Volatile organic compound emission fluxes from a temperate forest in Changbai Mountain%长白山温带森林挥发性有机物的排放通量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白建辉; 林凤友; 万晓伟; Guenther Alex; Turnipseed Andrew; Duhl Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission fluxes, meteorological parameters, solar global radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were carried out in a temperate forest, Changbai Moutain, China during the summer season in 2010. VOC flux measurements were made by using relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique on an above canopy tower. It was found that the dominate monoterpenes emitted from this mixed forest were ot-pinene, fl-piaene, campbene, sabinene, myreene, earene, limonen, ocimene, terpinene, cymene, terpinolene, and tricyelene. VOC emission and air temperature were correlated and there were evident diurnal variations, i. e. , lower emissions in the morning and late evening, and the highest emissions around the noon. During the summer of 2010, the mean monoterpene emission flux was 0. 242 mg· m -2·h -1 , and ranged from 0. 005 to 1.668 mg·m-2·h-l. The average and maximum of emission fluxes (mg.m-2·h-1) were 0.072 and 0.234 for α-pinene, 0.028 and 0.356 for camphene, 0.027 and 0.433 for myrceue, 0.023 and 0. 173 for camphene, 0.037 and 0. 197 for limonene, 0.016 and 0. 168 for ocimcne, 0.053 and 0. 320 for terpinolene, and 0. 067 and 0. 755 for cymene, respectively.%2010年夏季,在长白山温带森林开展了挥发性有机物(VOC)排放通量以及气象参数、PAR的综合测量.VOC排放通量采用松弛涡度积累(RelaxedEddyAccumulation)技术在森林冠层上进行测量.初步发现长白山阔叶林主要排放α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、莰烯、香桧烯、月桂烯、蒈烯、柠檬烯、罗勒烯、松油烯、繖花烃、萜品油烯、三环烯等.研究表明,长白山阔叶混交林VOC排放有明显的日变化——早晚较低和中午前后较高.2010年夏季,单萜烯总排放通量的平均值为0.242mg·m·h-2-1,其变化范围为0.005~1.668mg·m·h-2-1;各成分排放通量的平均值(和最大值)分别为α-蒎烯0.072(0.234)、莰烯0.028(0.356)、月

  12. Modeling toxaphene behavior in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-01-15

    Chlorinated camphenes, toxaphene, are persistent organic pollutants of concern in the Great Lakes since elevated concentrations are found in various media throughout the system. While concentrations have decreased since their peak values in the 1970s and 80s, recent measurements have shown that the rate of this decline in Lake Superior has decreased significantly. This modeling study focused on toxaphene cycling in the Great Lakes and was performed primarily to determine if elevated water and fish concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by physical differences among the lakes. Specifically, the coastal zone model for persistent organic pollutants (CoZMo-POP), a fugacity-based multimedia fate model, was used to calculate toxaphene concentrations in the atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, and biota. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing calculated and reported concentrations in these compartments. In general, simulated and observed concentrations agree within one order of magnitude. Both model results and observed values indicate that toxaphene concentrations have declined in water and biota since the 1980s primarily as the result of decreased atmospheric deposition rates. Overall the model results suggest that the CoZMo-POP2 model does a reasonable job in simulating toxaphene variations in the Great Lakes basin. The results suggest that the recent findings of higher toxaphene concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by differences in the physical properties of the lake (primarily large volume, large residence time and cold temperatures) compared to the lower lakes and increased recent inputs are not needed to explain the measured values.

  13. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. 'Liscia' and C. medica cv. 'Rugosa' Cultivated in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, Luigi; Caputo, Lucia; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Nazzaro, Filomena; Souza, Lucéia Fátima

    2016-09-18

    Citrus medica cv. 'liscia' and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. 'liscia', accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. 'rugosa', accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. 'liscia' (79.1%) and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' (80.2%). In both oils, limonene (67.2%-62.8%) and camphene (8.5%-10.9%) are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313), Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071), and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579). Low concentrations of C. medica cv. 'rugosa' EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384) and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  14. A comparative study on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed Hassan; Nauman, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Hussain, Shahzad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2010-07-28

    Spices are the building blocks of flavor in foods. This research work was focused on two important spices, i.e., ginger and cumin. Ginger and cumin both are recognized for their antioxidant properties. So, this study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum). The highest yield for volatile oil was obtained by the cumin sample, which was 2.52 +/- 0.11%, while the fresh ginger showed the lowest yield (0.31 +/- 0.08%). The analysis of volatile oils of fresh and dried ginger showed camphene, p-cineole, alpha-terpineol, zingiberene and pentadecanoic acid as major components, while the major components in cumin volatile oil were cuminal, gamma-terpinene and pinocarveol. In nonvolatile extracts the highest yield was obtained by the methanol extract of cumin (4.08 +/- 0.17% w/w), while the n-hexane extract of fresh ginger showed the lowest yield (0.52 +/- 0.03% w/w). Maximum total phenolic contents were observed in the methanol extract of fresh ginger (95.2 mg/g dry extract) followed by the hexane extract of fresh ginger (87.5 mg/g dry extract). The hexane extract of cumin showed the lowest total phenolic content (10.6 mg/g dry extract). The DPPH method showed the highest antioxidant activity for cumin essential oil (85.44 +/- 0.50%) followed by dried ginger essential oil (83.87 +/- 0.50%) and fresh ginger essential oil (83.03 +/- 0.54%). The FRAP of essential oils showed almost comparative results with DPPH. Cumin essential oil was found best in reducing Fe(3+) ions, followed by dried and fresh ginger. Our results suggest that both ginger and cumin can be used as potential sources of natural antioxidants in foods.

  15. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. ‘Liscia’ and C. medica cv. ‘Rugosa’ Cultivated in Southern Italy

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    Luigi Aliberti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus medica cv. ‘liscia’ and C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. ‘liscia’, accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’, accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. ‘liscia’ (79.1% and C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ (80.2%. In both oils, limonene (67.2%–62.8% and camphene (8.5%–10.9% are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313, Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384, Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071, and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579. Low concentrations of C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384 and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1 was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  16. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

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    S. G. Gonser

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and consequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report of technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of known masses of camphene (C10H16 to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  17. Seasonal variations of Laurus nobilis L. leaves volatile oil components in Isfahan, Iran

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    Y. Shokoohinia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. (sweet laurel is one of the volatile oil bearing plants of Lauraceae family. It is cultivated in different parts of Iran and its leaves and fruits have been used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. There are a few reports about the effects of some environmental conditions on the quality and quantity of laurel volatiles. The goal of our work was to search the seasonal variations on the L. nobilis leaves volatile composition. The volatiles of four samples of the dried leaves of L. nobilis collected in March, June, September and December 2009 in Isfahan, Iran were prepared by using a Clevenger type apparatus for 3 hours and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Twenty-nine, thirty-one, thirty-three and thirty-four components consisting 96.91%, 97.66%, 97.46% and 95.44% of the total compounds were identified of the volatiles obtained with yields of 1.1%, 1.5%, 1.4% and 0.8% (w/w, subsequently. The main compound was found to be 1,8-cineole (30.80-40.25%. Although twenty-seven out of thirty-six volatile components were similar in different seasons, there were some differences between other compounds of our four samples. While the essential oil composition of the March and June plant samples were characterized by presence of 1,8-cineole, δ-3-carene and camphor, the volatiles of September and December plant samples contained 1,8-cineole, camphene and sabinene. Some compounds like eugenol, methyl eugenol and α-terpenyl acetate were not affected apparently by seasonal changes.

  18. 纵坑切梢小蠹虫对松节油及其不同组分的趋性1)%Taxis of Tomicus piniperda to Turpentine and Its Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔淑芬; 孙忠林; 顾地周; 宫汝淳

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effect of the taxis of Tomicus piniperda to turpentine and its different com-ponents.T.pinipre da has some taxis to the α-pinene, limonene, myrcene, and camphene turpentine in turpentine, but the taxis difference is not significant compared with the control.The taxis of T.piniperda to turpentine×α-pinene andα-pi-nene×β-pinene are significantly stronger than that of the other interaction and control, but T.piniperda has weak taxis to the interaction of the other two compounds and other single compound.Therefore, one can use volatile substances in tur-pentine to control T.piniperda.%以自制昆虫嗅觉仪研究了纵坑切梢小蠹虫( Tomicus piniperda)对松节油及其不同组分的趋性效果。结果表明:纵坑切梢小蠹虫对松节油中α-派烯、苎烯、月桂烯、莰烯有一定的趋性,但趋性与对照差异不显著;对松节油×α-派烯以及α-派烯×β-派烯的趋性最强并显著高于对照;对其他单一化合物和其他化合物的交互作用趋性较弱。可以通过松节油中挥发性物质对纵坑切梢小蠹虫的引诱作用实现对其虫害的人工防治。

  19. 磁性纳米固体超强酸SO4(2-)/Ti02-Fe3O4催化α-蒎烯异构化反应%Isomerization of α-Pinene over Magnetic Nano-Solid Superacid SO24-/TiO2 -Fe3O4 Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春华; 朱丹丹; 代学宇; 李朝贺

    2011-01-01

    为了提高纳米固体酸催化剂与液体产物的分离性能,制备了磁性纳米固体超强酸S04(2-)/Ti02-Fe304催化剂,并用透射电子显微镜(TEM),X射线衍射光谱(XRD)、红外光谱(IR)对催化剂进行结构表征.将其用于α-蒎烯异构化反应,通过单因素试验和正交试验,得出α-蒎烯异构化最适宜工艺条件为:反应温度120 ℃,催化剂用量2%,反应时间2h,此时α-蒎烯的转化率为92.07%,莰烯的选择性为58.96%.%In order to increase the separation of nano-solid superacid from liquid product, magnetic nanosolid superacid SO24-/TiO2-Fe3O4 catalysts were prepared. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used to characterize the structure of catalyst. The performance of the catalyst was investigated by isomerization reaction of α-pinene. By using single factor method and orthogonal test methods, the best processing conditions of the isomerization of α-pinene is obtained: reaction temperature is 120 ℃, the amount of catalyst is 2%,reaction time is 2 h. Under these processing conditions, the conversion of α-pinene is 92.1% and the selectivity of camphene is 58.96%.

  20. GC/MS法结合保留指数分析鼠尾草油中香味成分%Analysis of aroma components in sage oil by GC/MS combined with retention index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李源栋; 段焰青; 王红霞; 夏建军

    2016-01-01

    The aromacomponents in sageoil were analyzed by GC/MS,and the peak area normalizationmethod was used tocalculate the relativecontentof eachcomponent. With themass spectrometry library search,45compounds which account for 96.37% in the aromacomponents in sage oil were identified by using retention index.Thehomologue and the isomers wereconfirmed by using retention index,and the accuracyofcompound qualitative analysis in natural flavor was improved. The aromaof the key aromacompositionsof the sageoil(thujone,camphor,1,8–cineole,camphene, caryophyllene,terpinolene,borneol,bornyl acetate,et al) was determined,and the results provided the technical support for the development and applicationof sageoil.%利用GC/MS对鼠尾草油香味成分进行了分析,并用峰面积归一化法计算各成分相对含量,通过质谱库检索,保留指数比对,分析并确定了45个化合物,占鼠尾草油香味成分96.37%。利用保留指数来鉴别同系物及同分异构体,提高了对鼠尾草油成分定性的准确性。通过香气分析,确定鼠尾草油中关键致香成分:侧柏酮,樟脑,1,8–桉叶素,莰烯,石竹烯,萜品油烯,龙脑,乙酸龙脑酯等,研究结果为鼠尾草油产品开发和应用提供了理论依据。

  1. 山东产蛇床子挥发油化学成分研究%Studies of Chemical Constituents of the Volatile Oil of Cnidii Fructus in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱缨; 谈如蓝; 吴芝园; 俞迪佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Cnidii Fructus in Shandong by GC - MS. Methods The volatile oil was extracted from Cnidii Fructus by steam distillation. The volatile components were identified by GC - MS method and the relative component percentage of each component was determined by GC area normalization method. Results 39 major components were identified. High relative content of chemical components were as follows: limonene(18. 90% ), alpha - pinene(16. 40% ), borneyl ac-etate(11. 00% ), camphene(7. 44% ), etc. Conclusion This method has good separation effect, is accurate and fast, and can be used as the quality monitoring for Cnidii Fructus.%目的:采用气相色谱-质谱(GC - MS)法分析山东产地蛇床子果实挥发油的化学成分。方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法从蛇床子果实中提取挥发油,运用 GC - MS 法对其挥发性成分进行分析鉴定,归一法测定其相对百分含量。结果鉴定了39种主要成分,相对含量高的有柠檬油烯(18.90%)、α-松萜(16.40%)、醋酸冰片酯(11.00%)、莰烯(7.44%)等。结论该法分离效果好、准确、快速,适用于中药蛇床子的药材质量监控。

  2. ISOLASI DAN AKTIVITAS LARVACIDA MINYAK ATSIRI AKAR (Curcuma mangga, Val. TERHADAP LARVA Aedes Aegypti DAN PROFIL GC-MS NYA

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    Lolita Lolita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma mangga, Val. has been recognized as a traditional drug since a long time ago. The active ingrediences of this plant especially the volatile oil contains monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This research was aimed to study about the larvacide’s activity of the volatile oil Curcuma mangga, Val. rhizome and also to analyze its chemical compounds using the GC-MS. The volatile oil was isolated from Curcuma mangga, Val. with steam and water distillation. The test method for larvicide was done by dissolving the substances into water and added by Tween 20 10% v/v to the the volatile oil. The concentration of the volatile oil of Curcuma mangga, Val. rhizome were 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm, 250 ppm, 300 ppm, and 350 ppm. The concentration of positive control “abate” were 0,01 ppm; 0,025 ppm; 0,05 ppm; 0,1 ppm; 0,5 ppm while as the negative control was Tween 20 solution. The perception time of larvae’s mortality was 24 hours. The chemical compound of Curcuma mangga, Val. can be analysed by the GC-MS. Data of larvae’s mortality were used to estimate the values of LC50 with the probit analyzis method. This study showed that the volatile oil of Curcuma mangga, Val. have clear-brass colour, bitter taste, typically aromatic like mango, rendement equal to (1,23 ± 0,029% v/b and refractive index 1,4881. The value of LC50 for the volatile oil of Curcuma mangga, Val. rhizome is (216,17 ±12,51 ppm while abate equal to (0,072 ± 0,024 ppm. This finding indicates that abate were more potent to larvae of Aedes aegypti. The GC-MS showes 30 peaks chromatogram and six peaks which indicates the possibility of alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, eukalyptole, ar-turmerone presence.

  3. Volatile Organic Compounds Obtained by in Vitro Callus Cultivation of Plectranthus ornatus Codd. (Lamiaceae

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    Fabio S. de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus spp (Lamiaceae are plants of economic importance because they are sources of aromatic essential oils and are also cultivated and several species of this genus are used as folk medicines. This paper describes the effects of different concentrations of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on the induction of callus from nodal segments of Plectranthus ornatus Codd and in the production of volatile organic compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The 20 and 40 day calli were subjected to solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME and submitted to GCMS analysis. Variations in VOCs between the samples were observed and, a direct relationship was observed between of the major constituent detected (α-terpinyl acetate and the monoterpenes α-thujene, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, sabinene and α-limonene that were present in the volatile fractions. Besides α-terpinyl acetate, isobornyl acetate and α-limonene were also major constituents. Variations were observed in VOCs in the analyzed periods. The best cultivation media for the production of VOCs was found to be MS0 (control. Moderate success was achieved by treatment with 2.68 µM and 5:37 µM NAA (Group 2. With 2,4-D (9.0 µM, only the presence of α-terpinyl acetate and isocumene were detected and, with 2.26 µM of 2,4-D was produced mainly α-terpinyl acetate, α-thujene and β-caryophyllene (16.2%. The VOC profiles present in P. ornatus were interpreted using PCA and HCA. The results permitted us to determine the best cultivation media for VOC production and, the PCA and HCA analysis allowed us to recognize four groups among the different treatments from the compounds identified in this set of treatments.

  4. 2,3-环氧蒎烷无溶剂重排合成龙脑烯醛%Synthesis of Campholenic Aldehyde by Solvent-Free Rearrangement of 2,3-Epoxypinane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周调调; 白杨; 宋先亮; 刘六军

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to synthesize campholenic aldehyde by rearrangement of 2,3-pinene oxide under solvent free conditions. Results showed that the conversion rate of 2,3-pinene oxide was 99. 19% and aldehyde selectivity was up to 74. 33% when 4% ZnCl2( the mass of 2,3-epoxypinane) was used, reacting at 80 degrees C for 1 hour under the sol vent-free conditions. The conversion rates of 2,3-epoxypinane were 98.01% and 89.4% , and the selectivity to camphene was up to 63.46% and 48.96% respectively when MCM-41 or SO4-ZrO2-MCM-41 was taken as the catalyst, rearranging at 80 degrees C for 1 hour under the solvent-free conditions.%以2,3-环氧蒎烷为原料,在无溶剂的条件下以ZnCl2为催化剂进行重排合成龙脑烯醛.研究结果表明,ZnCl2用量为环氧蒎烷的4%,在80℃下反应1h时,2,3-环氧蒎烷的转化率达99.19%,龙脑烯醛的选择性达到74.33%;以MCM-41、自制SO4-ZrO2-MCM-41为催化剂进行无溶剂重排,2,3-环氧蒎烷的转化率分别达到98.01%、89.40%,选择性分别为63.46%和48.96%.

  5. Phytochemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Essential Oil from Xanthium strumarium L.

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    Javad Sharifi-Rad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil (EO from fresh cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L. leaves was investigated by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the EO was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Scolicidal activity was assayed against Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. In total, 34 compounds were identified, accounting for 98.96% of the EO. The main compounds in the EO were cis-β-guaiene (34.2%, limonene (20.3%, borneol (11.6%, bornyl acetate (4.5%, β-cubebene (3.8%, sabinene (3.6%, phytol (3.1%, β-selinene (2.8%, camphene (2.2%, α-cubebene (2.4%, β-caryophyllene (1.9%, α-pinene (1.8% and xanthinin (1.04%. The antibacterial and antifungal screening of the EO showed that all assayed concentrations significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger (MIC = 0.5 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.0, 4.8 ± 0.0, 20.5 ± 0.3, 55.2 ± 0.0 and 34.3 ± 0.0 µg/mL, respectively. The scolicidal assay indicated that the EO exhibited a significant activity against E. granulosus protoscolices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the scolicidal activity of X. strumarium. Because of the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance, the study of new effective natural chemotherapeutic agents, such as the X. strumarium EO, possibly with low side effects, represents a very promising approach in biomedical research.

  6. Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry Coupled with Solid-phase Microextraction for Determination of Volatile Constituents of Chinese Ginger%固相微萃取-气相色谱/质谱分析生姜的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国新; 邓春晖; 吴丹; 胡耀铭

    2003-01-01

    采用固相微萃取(SPME)技术结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析了生姜中的挥发性化合物.用膜厚为100 μm的聚二甲基硅氧烷纤维头萃取新鲜生姜中的挥发性化合物,纤维头在温度为250 ℃气化室进样口脱附3 min.通过顶空SPME-GC-MS方法从生姜中共分离和鉴定出36个化合物.其中主要的化合物为α-水芹烯,莰烯,里哪醇,香叶醛,姜烯,倍半水芹烯,橙花醛,α-没药烯,α-姜黄烯,由色谱峰的峰面积比例计算出各个化合物的相对含量. 研究和讨论了影响SPME条件的参数,包括吸附时间、温度、脱附时间等.%Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME-GC-MS) was developed for the determination of volatile compounds of ginger. The volatile constituents of fresh ginger were extracted by SPME with a 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane fiber. The fibers were desorbed in a GC injection liner at 250 ℃ for 3 min. With headspace SPME-GC-MS analysis, thirty-six peaks in ginger were separated and identified by mass spectrometry. The volatile compounds included α-phellandrene, camphene, linalool, geranial, zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene, neral, α-bisabolene, α-curcumene etc and their relative contents were calculated on basis of peak area ratio. SPME extraction conditions including time, temperature and desorption time were investigated.

  7. Recent findings of toxaphene in fish. Analysis and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, T.; Collingro, C.; Paepke, O. [Ergo research, Hamburg (Germany); Dyballa, C. [Chemical and Veterinary Control Lab. (CVUA), Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of chlorinated camphene derivatives containing 67 to 69 % chlorine. It has been extensively used as an insecticide e.g. for cotton and vegetables, as well as for the control of poultry and livestock ectoparasites. Toxaphene was the active agent in various products with different trademarks often applied in combinations with other organochlorine insecticides. Since 1946 the production of toxaphene is estimated to be more than one million tonsi. Toxaphene is very persistent and has a high potential to accumulate in aquatic life. Various regulations concerning Toxaphene have been set into force. Directive 79/117/EWG prohibits the use and placing on the market of plant protection agencies containing e.g. toxaphene. Toxaphene is a listed contaminant in the UNEP Governing Council Decision 18/32 on Persistent Organic Pollutants. According to the German legislation Rueckstands-Hoechstmengen-VO 2001 (RHmV) the limit value for three toxaphene congeners (total of Parlar 26, Parlar 50 and Parlar 62 -indicator compounds) amounts 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight for fishv. In the beginning of the Nineties the limit value was lower by a factor of 10 (0,01 mg/kg fresh weight), but based on the results from a comprehensive study of the former German Federal Institute for Health Protection of consumers and veterinary medicine (BgVV) and the Federal Research Center for Fisheries, the limit value was increased. In the EU Directive 2002/32/EC a limit value for toxaphene for all kind of feeding stuff, which is 0.1 mg/kg related to a feeding stuff with 12 % moisture content, was set up. This EU regulation does not differentiate between single matrices like the German law does actually. Within the frame of this paper recent findings of toxaphene congeners in fish are presented exemplarily.

  8. Frankincense derived heavy terpene cocktail boosting breast cancer cell(MDA-MB-231) death in vitro简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faruck; Lukmanul; Hakkim; Mohammed; Al-Buloshi; Jamal; Al-Sabahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-cancer effect of frankincense derived heavy oil obtained by Soxhlet extraction method on breast cancer cells(MDA-MB-231), and to study its chemical profile using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.Methods: Hexane was used to extract heavy oil from frankincense resin. Chemical profiling of heavy oil was done using Perkin Elmer Clarus GC system with mass spectrometer. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with different dilutions(1:1 000, 1:1 500,1:1 750, 1:2 000, 1:2 250, 1:2 500, 1:2 750, 1:3 000, 1:3 250) of heavy oil for 24 h. The cells were observed by using light microscopy. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay.Results: Gas chromatography mass spectrometry chemical profiling of frankincense derived heavy oil revealed the presence of terpenes such as a-pinene(61.56%), a-amyrin(20.6%), b-amyrin(8.1%), b-phellandrene(1.47%) and camphene(1.04%). Heavy terpene cocktail induced significant MDA-MB-231 cell death at each concentration tested. Noticeably, very low concentration of Soxhlet derived heavy terpenes elicits considerable cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 cells compared to hydro distillated essential oil derived from frankincense resin.Conclusions: Extracting anti-cancer active principle cocktail by simple Soxhlet method is cost effective and less time consuming. Our in vitro anti-cancer data forms the rationale for us to test heavy terpene complex in breast cancer xenograft model in vivo. Furthermore, fractionation and developing frankincense heavy terpene based breast cancer drug is the major goal of our laboratory.

  9. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahma Said Salim Al Nomaani; Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods: The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results: About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55%and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99%and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions: The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  10. Frankincense derived heavy terpene cocktail boosting breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231) deathin vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faruck Lukmanul Hakkim; Mohammed Al-Buloshi; Jamal Al-Sabahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anti-cancer effect of frankincense derived heavy oil obtained by Soxhlet extraction method on breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), and to study its chemical profile using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Methods: Hexane was used to extract heavy oil from frankincense resin. Chemical profiling of heavy oil was done using Perkin Elmer Clarus GC system with mass spectrometer.MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with different dilutions (1:1 000, 1:1 500, 1:1 750, 1:2 000, 1:2 250, 1:2 500, 1:2 750, 1:3 000, 1:3 250) of heavy oil for 24 h. The cells were observed by using light microscopy. Cell viability was measured byMTT assay. Results: Gas chromatography mass spectrometry chemical profiling of frankincense derived heavy oil revealed the presence of terpenes such asα-pinene (61.56%),α-amyrin (20.6%),β-amyrin (8.1%),β-phellandrene (1.47%) and camphene (1.04%). Heavy terpene cocktail induced significantMDA-MB-231 cell death at each concentration tested. Noticeably, very low concentration of Soxhlet derived heavy terpenes elicits considerable cytotoxicityon MDA-MB-231cells compared to hydro distillated essential oil derived from frankincense resin. Conclusions: Extracting anti-cancer active principle cocktail by simple Soxhlet method is cost effective and less time consuming. Ourin vitro anti-cancer data forms the rationale for us to test heavy terpene complex in breast cancer xenograft modelin vivo. Furthermore, fractionation and developing frankincense heavy terpene based breast cancer drug is the major goal of our laboratory.

  11. GC-MS Determination of Volatile Components of the Seeds of Camphor Tree with Solid Phase Micro-extraction%固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法分析香樟籽挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敏燕; 杨振; 魏永生; 刘鹏; 杨杰

    2012-01-01

    The volatile components of the seed of micro-extraction and GC-MS in hyphenation, and their comphor tree were separated and identified by solid phase relative contents (in %) were found by the method of normalization. Totally 76 compounds were separated among which 47 compounds were identified and determined, amounting to 97.4%of the total peak areas of the volatile components. The main compounds found were as follows (relative%): camphor (57. 890%), limonene (12.68%), a-pinene (4. 42%), camphene (2. 69%), aromadendrene (2.34%), o-eymene (2.26%), β-pinene (2. 12%).%采用固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法分离和鉴定香樟籽的挥发性成分,用归一化法测定其相对含量。共分离出76种组分,鉴定出47种化合物,其含量占总挥发性成分的97.4%。主要挥发成分为樟脑(57.89%)、柠檬烯(12.68%)、α-蒎烯(4.42%)、莰烯(2.69%)、香橙烯(2.34%)、伞花烃(2.26%)及β-蒎烯(2.12%)。

  12. 固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法测定千里光的挥发油成分%GC-MS Determination of Components of Volatile Oil in Senecio Scandens Buch.-Ham. With Solid Phase Micro-extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道平; 危英

    2012-01-01

    采用固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法分离和鉴定千里光挥发油成分,用归一化法测定其相对含量。共分离出93个组分,鉴定出71种化学物,其含量占总挥发油组分峰面积的96.39%。主要挥发成分及其含量为十四烯(11.55%)、4-乙烯基苯酚(10.99%)、沪榄香烯(10.25%)、4-乙烯基-2-甲氧基-苯酚(9.75%)、莰烯(8.7%)、(E,E)-a-金合欢烯(7.1%)和三环烯(4.6%)等。%Components of volatile oil in Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. were separated and identified by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and GC-MS in hyphenation, and their relative contents (in %) were found by the method of normalization. Totally 93 compounds were separated, among which 71 compounds were identified and determined, amounting to 96.39% of the total peak areas of the components of the volatile oil. The main compounds found with their relative contents were as follows.- tetradecene (11. 55%), 4-vinylphenol (10. 99%), 8-elemene (10. 25%), 4-vinyb2-methoxyphenol (9. 75%), camphene (8. 7%), (E, E)-a-farnesene (7. 1%) and tricyclene (4.6%).

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-Su Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%, β-caryophyllene (5.71%, α-thujone (5.46%, piperitone (5.27%, epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%, α-pinene (4.97%, 1,8-cineole (4.52%, β-pinene (4.45%, and camphene (4.19%. These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.

  14. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gonser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the Earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size-separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and subsequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report on technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of defined masses of camphene (C10H16 to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  15. Assessment of Volatile Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl Baill by HS-SPME-GC-MS Using Different Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Eliane de Lara da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oil and volatile obtained from the roots of Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl Baill was performed in this work. The Clevenger extractor was utilized in hydrodistillation of oil and chemical composition determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS. The identification of compounds was confirmed by retention index (Kovats index obtained from a series of straight chain alkanes (C7–C30 and by comparison with NIST and ADAMS library. A total of 61 compounds were identified in essential oil by GC-MS. The extraction of volatile was performed also by the use of the solid phase microextraction (SPME with four different fibers. The essential oil extraction was extremely rapid (15 s to avoid saturation of the fiber and the MS detector. The majority of the composition of essential oil is the terpenes: β-pinene (major compound 9.16%, β-vatirene (8.34%, α-gurjunene (6.98%, α-pinene (6.35%, camphene (4.34%, tricyclene (3.79% and dehydro aromadendrene (3.52% it and aldehydes and alcohols. Through the SPME it was possible to determine the nine volatile compounds not identified in oil 2,3,4-trimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, α-phellandrene, 3-carene, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, pinocamphone, D-verbenon, 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-(2-methyl-cyclopropyl-cyclohexene, 2,4-diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene, and (6-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dimethylehenyl methanol.

  16. 沉香种子超临界CO2萃取物的气相色谱-质谱联用分析%Analysis of Constituents in Supercritical Fluid CO2 Extraction in Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum Fruits by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 蒋海强; 巩丽丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the chemical compositions from Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum fruits. Method: The chemical structures of products were identified by supercritical fluid CO2 extraction ( GC-MS) , combined with NIST database queries. Result: By GC-MS, 24 compounds can be identified, the content of ethyl palmitate is the highest up to 28.26%, and 4-methyl-l(-1 , 5-dimethyl)-benzene is 10.22%, methyl hexadecanoate is 8.09% and camphene is 7.26%. Conclusion: The extraction of essential oil from Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum fruits by supercritical fluid C02 extraction (SFE-CO2) is satisfactory.%目的:分析沉香种子的挥发性成分.方法:采用超临界CO2流体萃取技术,提取沉香种子中的挥发性成分,经气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析,结合NIST数据库查询,鉴定化合物结构.结果:经GC-MS分析,分离得到沉香种子中25个化学成分,鉴定了22个,其中棕榈酸乙酯的含量最高,为28.26%,4-甲基-1-(1,5-二甲基)-苯含量为10.22%,棕榈酸甲酯的含量为8.09%,莰烯含量为7.26%.结论:超临界CO2萃取法是提取沉香种子提取物较为理想的方法.

  17. Analysis of essential oil from 10 species of drugs of Alpinia officinarum by GC/MS%10味山姜属药物挥发油成分的气相-质谱联用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 秦华珍; 王晓倩; 余腾飞; 刘颖

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil of the Alpinia of ficinarum , the genetic relationship and the connection between the pungent and warm nature and the essential oil in them were studied. Extract essential oil components by steam distillation,then examined them by GC-MS. Among the 10 types of naphtha,nine of them contained eudesmol. In addition, γ-cadinene, γ-terpinene, linalool, camphene, pink element, 4-terpenols, 4,7,10-Cycloundecatriene,1,1,4,8-tetramethyl-,cis ,cis,cis-were the main components in them. There were certain associativities between the pungent and warm nature and the essential oil contained in the 10 species of drugs of A. officinarum.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,用气相-质谱联用法(GC-MS),对高良姜等10味山姜属药物的挥发油成分进行比较分析,了解亲缘关系、辛温药性与挥发油成分的关系.结果表明,10种挥发油中有9种含有桉叶油醇.此外,γ-杜松烯、γ-萜品烯、芳樟醇、莰烯、石竹素、4-萜烯醇、4,7,10- Cycloundecatriene,1,1,4,8-tetramethyl-,cis,cis,cis-也是它们的主要成分.这说明山姜属药物辛温性味与挥发油成分具有一定的相关性.

  18. Radiocarbon content of synthetic and natural semi-volatile halogenated organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, C.M.; Xu Li; Eglinton, T.I.; Boon, J.P.; Faulkner, D.J

    2002-12-01

    New developments in molecular-level {sup 14}C analysis techniques enable clues about natural versus commercial synthesis of trace organic contaminants. - Some halogenated organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been suggested to have natural sources but separating these compounds from their commercially synthesized counterparts is difficult. Molecular-level {sup 14}C analysis may be beneficial since most synthetic compounds are manufactured from petrochemicals ({sup 14}C-free) and natural compounds should have 'modern' or 'contemporary' {sup 14}C levels. As a baseline study, we measured, for the first time, the {sup 14}C abundance in commercial PCB and PBDE mixtures, a number of organochlorine pesticides, as well as one natural product 2-(3', 5'-dibromo-2'-methoxyphenoxy)-3,5-dibromoanisole. The latter compound was isolated from a marine sponge and is similar in structure to a PBDE. All of the synthetic compounds were {sup 14}C-free except for the pesticide toxaphene, which had a modern {sup 14}C abundance, as did the brominated natural compound. The result for toxaphene was not surprising since it was commercially synthesized by the chlorination of camphene derived from pine trees. These results suggest that measuring the {sup 14}C content of halogenated organic compounds may be quite useful in establishing whether organic compounds encountered in the environment have natural or synthetic origins (or both) provided that any synthetic counterparts derive from petrochemical feedstock.

  19. GC-MS of Volatile Chemical Constituents of Liquidamobar orientalis%苏合香挥发性化学成分的GC-MS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世宇; 彭颖; 夏厚林; 周颖; 王建; 曾南

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究苏合香的挥发性化学成分.方法:通过固相微萃取技术提取苏合香的挥发性成分,采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术进行分析鉴定.结果:共鉴定出苏合香28种成分,占总色谱峰面积的90.72%,其中α-蒎烯(15.97%)、莰烯(13.28%)和β-蒎烯(12.82%)的含量较高.结论:本方法简便、高效,可为芳香辛味含挥发性成分药物的成分研究提供参考.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the volatile chemical constituents of Liquidamobar orientalis. METHODS: HS-SPME was used to extract the volatile chemical constituents and GC-MS was used to analyze the volatile chemical constituents. RESULTS: 28 compounds were identified, which accounts for 90.72% of the total GC peak area, of which the amounts of the volatile chemical constituents a-pinene( 15.97%),camphene( 13.28%) and ^-pinene (12.82%) had taken a larger part. CONCLUSION: The method employed in the study is convenient and efficient, and the study can serve as a reference to researches on aromatic and pungent Pharmaceuticals with volatile constituents.

  20. Isolation and characterization of three new monoterpene synthases from Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Xin eRuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5 and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, salicylic acid (SA and gibberellin (GA, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant-environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant.

  1. 纳米复合固体超强酸催化α-蒎烯异构活性%Isomerization Activity of α-Pinene Catalyzed by Nanometer Composite Solid Superacid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春华; 赵黔榕; 毕韵梅

    2009-01-01

    用浸渍法以S_2O_8~(2-)为促进剂,制备得到尺寸为15~20nm的复合固体超强酸S_2O_8~(2-)/SnO_2-TiO_2,将其用于催化α-蒎烯异构化反应.考察了制备条件对其催化性能的影响,发现在Sn/Ti比2:1、S_2O_8~(2-)的浸渍浓度1.0mol/L和焙烧温度500℃条件下,所得纳米S_2O_8~(2-)/SnO_2-TiO_2具有最高的催化活性和选择性,α-蒎烯的转化率达98%,莰烯得率为62%.%Nanometer composite solid superacid S_2O_8~(2-)/SnO_2-TiO_2 with witch granule of 15 ~ 20nm was prepared by impregnation with persulfate. It was used in isomerization reaction of α-pinene and the influence of preparation conditions on the catalyst performance was investigated. Under the suitable preparation condition, i. e. Sn/Ti mole ratio 2 : 1, S_2O_8(2-) impregnation concentration 1mol/L, and calcination temperature 500℃, the S_2O_8~(2-)/SnO_2-TiO_2 has highest activity and selectivity, and the conversion of α-pinene and the yield of camphene reach 98% and 62% ,respectively.

  2. Changes in the essential oil content and terpene composition of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. by using plant biostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir FOROUTAN NIA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant biostimulants can stimulate the increase of growth, metabolism and the biosynthesis of metabolites in plants. This study investigated the changes of rosemary essential oil and its components composition under use of biostimulants for the possible reduction in use of chemical fertilizers. Treatments included biostimulants based on amino acids in four formulations, Aminolforte, Kadostim, Humiforte, and Fosnutren (each of them at 0.75 and 1.5 L ha-1, and application of N.P.K fertilizer as a control treatment (by applied complete fertilizer at 100 kg per hectar with proportion of 15:8:15 percentage of N:P:K in the fertilizer. Results showed that the essential oil content and its components were significantly affected by biostimulants application. The maximum content of essential oil was obtained at 1.5 L ha-1 Humiforte and both concentrations of Aminolforte. While, the highest content of α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and camphor as major components of rosemary essential oil were obtained at 1.5 L ha-1 Fosnutren. In addition, the maximum content of linalool, z-pinocamphone, bornyl acetate, and caryophyllene oxide were observed at 1.5 L ha-1 Fosnutren.Although, the highest content of myrcene and verbenone was obtained in the treatment with N.P.K fertilizer, but the maximum contents of β-pinene, camphene, borneol, and α-terpineol were related to the both concentrations of Aminolforte.We can conclude that biostimulants based on amino acids can be an effective alternative in reducing the use of chemical fertilizer and increasing the quantity and quality of rosemary essential oil.

  3. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 40 Mediterranean plant species: VOC speciation and extrapolation to habitat scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, S.M.; Boissard, C.; Hewitt, C.N. [Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom). Department of Environmental Science

    2001-07-01

    Forty native Mediterranean plant species were screened for emissions of the C5 and C10 hydrocarbons, isoprene and monoterpenes, in five different habitats. A total of 32 compounds were observed in the emissions from these plants. The number of compounds emitted by different plant species varied from 19 (Quercus ilex) to a single compound emission, usually of isoprene. Emission rates were normalised to generate emission factors for each plant species for each sampling event at standard conditions of temperature and light intensity. Plant species were categorised according to their main emitted compound, the major groups being isoprene, {alpha}-pinene, linalool, and limonene emitters. Estimates of habitat fluxes for each emitted compound were derived from the contributing plant species' emission factors, biomass and ground cover. Emissions of individual compounds ranged from 0.002 to 505gha{sup -1}h{sup -1} (camphene from garrigue in Spain in autumn and isoprene from riverside habitats in Spain in late spring, respectively). Emissions of isoprene ranged from 0.3 to 505gha{sup -1}h{sup -1} (macchia in Italy in late spring and autumn, and riverside in Spain in late spring, respectively) and {alpha}-pinene emissions ranged from 0.51 to 52.92gha{sup -1}h{sup -1} (garrigue in Spain in late spring, and forest in France in autumn, respectively). Habitat fluxes of most compounds in autumn were greater than in late spring, dominated by emissions from Quercus ilex, Gemista scorpius and Quercus pubescens. This study contributes to regional emission inventories and will be of use to tropospheric chemical modellers. (author)

  4. 湿地松自由授粉家系松脂组分遗传变异研究%Study on Genetic Variation of Resin Components among Open-pollinated Families of Slash Pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦杰; 栾启福; 沈丹玉; 陈彬; 姜景民; 傅用山

    2012-01-01

    To study the genetic variation of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) resin components, 98 individual trees from 38 open pollinated families in Changle Forest Farm, Zhejiang Province, were selected for the determination of resin components and the hereditary correlation analysis, the result shows that slash pine resin contains ten kinds of monoterpene, namely a-pinene. S-piiene, camphen, α-phellandrene,β-phellandrene. β-myrcene, sabinene, tricyclene,estragole and trans-anethole, which altogether account for mre than 9 86%. Analysis oi variance indicates highly significant differences in all coirponents exoept for estragole and tricytlene among thr families (P < 0. 01); the estimated family hentability for monoterpene components is between 0. 50 -0 95 with s'rong hereditary transmission capability. There was a significant negative genetic correlation (r=-0. 46, P <0. 01) between α-pinene and β-pinene. The resin acids mainlv include tweniy eetnponents in pimarie typo acio and abietir type acid, namely: pimaric acid, palustrio acid, sandaracopimaris acid, isopimaric aeid,abieticarid, neoabietic acid, de-hydroabietate, communic acid, levopimarate, pimaral, lscpimatal, 8.12-abiatadicaoate, 8,15-abietadienoate, 8, 13-abietadienoate, 7, 13, 15-abjetatrienoate, 15-hydioxydehydroabietic acid, 8, 15-pimarene, rimuen, lsostevioi and kaurene, among which the abietic type acids is greatet than the pimaric type acid, analysis of variance indicates highly significant flif%ences in pimaric acid, isopimane soid, Rbietic acid,neoabietie acid, pimaral, isopimaral 8,12-abietadienoatt, 8,15-ahietadienoate, 7,13,I5-abtstatrienoate. l5-nydrexydehydroabieticavl, 8,15-pimare ne, and nmuen, the estimated family heritability for these tweheresin acid components is between 0. 50 -0. 81. the hentability is relatively stable.

  5. Isoprene and terpenoid emissions from Abies alba: Identification and emission rates under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorska, Olga; Dewulf, Jo; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Šimpraga, Maja; Steppe, Kathy; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from Abies alba were studied under ambient conditions in Flanders (Belgium). Emission patterns and rates were investigated from April till November 2010 by using the dynamic branch enclosure technique. The present work revealed that A. alba is an isoprene emitter, with isoprene accounting for 86-93% of total BVOC emissions, except during budburst (67%) in May. The emission spectrum of A. alba consisted of 27 compounds. Next to isoprene, the main emitted compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene. BVOC emissions showed a peak in June after development of the young needles, followed by a constant emission during summer months and September and a decrease in October. In all the samples isoprene was the most abundant compound with standardized emission rates between 27 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June and 4.6 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October, while the total standardized terpenoid emission rates ranged from 2.85 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June to 0.26 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October. The obtained average β coefficients according to the temperature dependent algorithm of Guenther et al. (1993) during April-June, July, August and September-October were as follows: for terpenoids 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.12 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.01 K-1 and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0 K-1, respectively. Overall, isoprene detected in this study was never quantified in previous studies on A. alba and this finding could have a significant impact on the regional BVOCs budget. Therefore, the result of this study is very important for modeling and local air quality.

  6. Composition and Comprehensive Antioxidant Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Essential Oil from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Wanner, Juergen; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Stanchev, Veselin; Krastanov, Albert

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of an essential oil of ginger rhizomes from Ecuador was elucidated. The analysis of the essential oil by GC/FID/MS resulted in identification of 71 compounds, of which the main are citral (geranial 10.5% and neral 9.1%), α-zingiberene (17.4%), camphene (7.8%), α-farnesene (6.8%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (6.7%). The in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil expressed by IC50 in descending order is: hydroxyl radical (OH*) scavenging (0.0065 μg/mL) > chelating capacity (0.822 μg/mL) > 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS*+) scavenging (3.94 μg/mL) > xanthine oxidase inhibition (138.0 μg/mL) > oxygen radical (O2*) scavenging (404.0 μg/mL) > 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) scavenging (675 μg/mL). Lipid peroxidation inhibition of the essential oil was less efficient than butylhydroxytoluol (BHT) in both stages, i.e. hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde formation. In vivo studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase in antioxidant marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells. Moreover, ginger essential oil in concentrations of 1.6 mg/mL increases the viability of cells to oxidative stress induced by H2O2.

  7. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were β-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), α-cadinol (5.4%) and β-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were α-pinene (9.4%), β-pinene (20.6%), ρ-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), β-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), α-copaene (2.0-7.3%), β-elemene (5.9-16.6%), β-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), β-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), δ-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark).

  8. Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Galangal%中药材良姜挥发性组分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亭亭; 李霞; 李磊; 张昭良

    2012-01-01

    通过顶空固相微萃取结合气-质联用技术,分析检测中药良姜的挥发性组分,研究萃取时间、萃取温度对良姜挥发性物质数量的影响.结果表明,当萃取时间为35 min,萃取温度为60℃时共检出53种化学组分,其中52种物质可鉴别.其主要组分是萜烯类化合物(w =40.238%)、桉树脑(w=23.066%)、α-松油醇(w=8.522%)、β-蒎烯(w=3.618%)和莰烯(w=3.001%)等.%Headspace solid phase micro-extraction coupling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( HS-SPME/GC-MS) was used to analyze volatile compounds of galangal. Effect of extraction time and temperature on the amount of identified compounds was discussed under the optimal SPME conditions :35 min extraction time,60 ℃ extraction temperature. 53 kinds of compounds were separated by the gas chromatography and 52 kinds of these can be determined under certain conditions above with the results as follows; the main component was terpenes (40. 238% ) , and other compounds of high content were eucalyptol ( 23. 066% ) , p-menth-1 -en-8-ol (8.522% ) ,β-pinene (3.618% ) .camphene (3.001% ) ,and so on.

  9. Activité antioxydante et anti-candidosique de l’huile essentielle de Laurus nobilis L. provenant de la région d’El Kala (Nord–Est Algérien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira OUIBRAHIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available L’huile essentielle extraite de Laurus nobilis L. par hydrodistillation a fourni un rendement de 0,7%. L’analyse de l’huile essentielle par CG/SM a permis l’identification de 17 composants, principalement des monoterpènes. 1,8 cinéole (36,31%, β-linalol (22.52%, eugenol-methylether (9.17% et camphene (7.37% ont constitué les composés majoritaires avec un total de 96,95%. L’activité antioxydante in vitro a été évaluée à travers trois méthodes: le test de piégeage du radical libre DPPH avec un IC50 de 1,55 ± 0,14 mg/ml ; le test de blanchiment de β-carotène qui a permis d’enregistrer un pourcentage d’inhibition de la peroxydation lipidique de 41,97% et finalement l’évaluation du pouvoir réducteur qui s’est avéré faible par rapport à celui de l’acide ascorbique. L’activité anticantidosique a été testée sur 4 souches de Candida albicans en utilisant la méthode de dilution en milieu gélosé. Les quatre souches ont montré une sensibilité avec une CMI de 0,68 mg/ml pour les souches d’origine urinaire et vaginale et 1.08 mg/ml pour les Candida d’origine bucco-nasale. L’huile essentielle de Laurus nobilis originaire de la région d’El Kala a manifesté des propriétés antioxidantes modérées et des propriétés anticandidosiques.

  10. Quantifying environmental stress-induced emissions of algal isoprene and monoterpenes using laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Sabolis, A.; Reed, R.; Kamykowski, D.

    2015-02-01

    We report here production rates of isoprene and monoterpene compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and d-limonene) from six phytoplankton monocultures as a function of irradiance and temperature. Irradiance experiments were carried out for diatom strains (Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana), prymnesiophyte strains (Pleurochrysis carterae), dinoflagellate strains (Karenia brevis and Prorocentrum minimum), and cryptophyte strains (Rhodomonas salina), while temperature experiments were carried out for diatom strains (Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana). Phytoplankton species, incubated in a climate-controlled room, were subject to variable light (90 to 900 μmol m-2 s-1) and temperature (18 to 30 °C) regimes. Compared to isoprene, monoterpene emissions were an order of magnitude lower at all light and temperature levels. Emission rates are normalized by cell count and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) content. Diatom strains were the largest emitters, with ~ 2 × 10-17 g(cell)-1h-1 (~ 35 μg (g Chl a)-1 h-1) for isoprene and ~ 5 × 10-19 g (cell)-1 h-1 (~ 1 μg (g Chl a)-1) h-1) for α-pinene. The contribution to the total monoterpene production was ~ 70% from α-pinene, ~ 20% for d-limonene, and 250 μmol m-2 s-1) irradiance. Measurements revealed different patterns for time-averaged emissions rates over two successive days. On the first day, most of the species showed a distinct increase in production rates within the first 4 h while, on the second day, the emission rates were overall higher, but less variable. The data suggest that enhanced amounts of isoprene and monoterpenes are emitted from phytoplankton as a result of perturbations in environmental conditions that cause imbalance in chloroplasts and force primary producers to acclimate physiologically. This relationship could be a valuable tool for development of dynamic ecosystem modeling approaches for global marine isoprene and monoterpene emissions based on phytoplankton

  11. Quantifying environmental stress induced emissions of algal isoprene and monoterpenes using laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Sabolis, A.; Reed, R.; Kamykowski, D.

    2014-09-01

    We report here production rates of isoprene and monoterpene compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and d-limonene) from six phytoplankton monocultures as a function of irradiance and temperature. Irradiance experiments were carried out for diatom strains - Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana; prymnesiophyte strains - Pleurochrysis carterae; dinoflagellate strains - Karenia brevis and Prorocentrum minimum; cryptophyte strains - Rhodomonas salina, while temperature experiments were carried out for diatom strains - Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Phytoplankton species, incubated in a climate-controlled room, were subject to variable light (90 to 900 μmol m-2s-1) and temperature (18 to 30 °C) regimes. Compared to isoprene, monoterpene emissions were an order of magnitude lower at all light and temperature levels. Emission rates are normalized by cell count and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) content. Diatom strains were the largest emitters, with ~2x1017g (cell)-1h-1 (~35 μg (g Chl a)-1h-1) for isoprene and ~5x10-19 g (cell)-1h-1 (~1μg (g Chl a)-1) h-1) for α-pinene. The contribution to the total monoterpene production was ~70% from α-pinene, ~20% for d-limonene, and 250 μmol m-2s-1) irradiance. Measurements revealed different patterns for time-averaged emissions rates over two successive days. On the first day most of the species showed distinct increase in production rates within the first four hours, while on the second day the emission rates were overall higher, but less variable. The data suggest that enhanced amounts of isoprene and monoterpenes are emitted from phytoplankton as a result of perturbations in environmental conditions that cause disbalance in chloroplasts and forces primary producers to acclimate physiologically. This relationship could be a valuable tool for development of dynamic ecosystem modeling approaches for global marine isoprene and monoterpene emissions based on phytoplankton physiological

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Park, Sun-Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Sang-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Young-Eun; You, Yong-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1-0.5 mg/mL and 0.25-0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.

  13. Variability of the needle essential oils of Pinus heldreichii from different populations in Montenegro and Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2007-05-01

    The essential-oil compositions of Pinus heldreichii Christ. from Montenegro and Serbia are reported at the population level. Whitebark pine is a sub-endemic high-mountain Balkan pine relict of an anthropogenically reduced area, with large morphological diversity and insufficiently clear taxonomic position. In the pine-needle terpene profile from three populations from Montenegro, and one from Serbia, 101 compounds were detected, 72 of which could be identified (Table 3). The dominant constituents are limonene (26.3%), alpha-pinene (17.5%), germacrene D (13.5%), and beta-caryophyllene (10.4%), comprising ca. 67.7% of the essential oil. Medium-to-high contents (0.5-10%) of the following 16 additional components were found: beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, alpha-humulene, delta-cadinene, alpha-muurolene, (E)-hex-2-enal, beta-gurjunene, gamma-muurolene, isopimarol, camphene, gamma-cadinene, aromadendrene, beta-bisabolene, trans-beta-farnesene, alpha-cadinene, and (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol. The similarity of the populations and the within-population variability was visualized by principle-component analysis (PCA) of eleven selected terpenes in 97 tree samples. Cluster and genetic analyses suggest closest connection between the two spatially most-distant populations I (Montenegro) and IV (Serbia). Based on the profile of the main sesquiterpene components, the studied populations from Montenegro and Serbia are more similar to the populations from Greece and the Central Balkan peninsula (Bosnia and Serbia-Kosovo) than to those on the furthest eastern margin of their natural range (Bulgaria).

  14. Terpenoid and carbonyl emissions from Norway spruce in Finland during the growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakola, Hannele; Tarvainen, Virpi; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Jaars, Kerneels; Hemmilä, Marja; Kulmala, Markku; Bäck, Jaana; Hellén, Heidi

    2017-03-01

    We present spring and summer volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rate measurements from Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growing in a boreal forest in southern Finland. The measurements were conducted using in situ gas chromatograph with 1 to 2 h time resolution to reveal quantitative and qualitative short-term and seasonal variability of the emissions. The measurements cover altogether 14 weeks in years 2011, 2014 and 2015. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates were measured all the time, but isoprene only in 2014 and 2015 and acetone and C4-C10 aldehydes only in 2015. The emission rates of all the compounds were low in spring, but MT, acetone, and C4-C10 aldehyde emission rates increased as summer proceeded, reaching maximum emission rates in July. Late summer mean values (late July and August) were 29, 17, and 33 ng g(dw)-1 h-1 for MTs, acetone, and aldehydes respectively. SQT emission rates increased during the summer and highest emissions were measured in late summer (late summer mean value 84 ng g(dw)-1 h-1) concomitant with highest linalool emissions most likely due to stress effects. The between-tree variability of emission pattern was studied by measuring seven different trees during the same afternoon using adsorbent tubes. Especially the contributions of limonene, terpinolene, and camphene were found to vary between trees, whereas proportions of α-pinene (25 ± 5 %) and β-pinene (7 ± 3 %) were more stable. Our results show that it is important to measure emissions at canopy level due to irregular emission pattern, but reliable SQT emission data can be measured only from enclosures. SQT emissions contributed more than 90 % of the ozone reactivity most of the time, and about 70 % of the OH reactivity during late summer. The contribution of aldehydes to OH reactivity was comparable to that of MT during late summer, 10-30 % most of the time.

  15. Wild Sicilian rosemary: phytochemical and morphological screening and antioxidant activity evaluation of extracts and essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Saija, Antonella; Speciale, Antonio; Trombetta, Domenico; Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Leto, Claudio; Rubino, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    To identify the best biotypes, an extensive survey of Sicilian wild rosemary was carried out by collecting 57 samples from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. All the biotypes collected were classified as Rosmarinus officinalis L. A cluster analysis based on the morphological characteristics of the plants allowed the division of the biotypes into seven main groups, although the characteristics examined were found to be highly similar and not area-dependent. Moreover, all samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying an extraction protocol to obtain the nonvolatile components and hydrodistillation to collect the essential oils for the volatile components. The extracts were characterized by LC-UV-DAD/ESI-MS, and the essential oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the nonvolatile fractions, 18 components were identified, namely, 13 flavones, two organic acids, and three diterpenes. In the volatile fractions, a total of 82 components were found, with as predominant components α-pinene and camphene among the monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone among the oxygenated monoterpenes. Cluster analyses were carried out on both phytochemical profiles, allowing the separation of the rosemary samples into different chemical groups. Finally, the total phenol content and the antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) colorimetric assay, the UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and the scavenging activity of the superoxide radical (O$\\rm{{_{2}^{{^\\cdot} -}}}$). The present study confirmed that the essential oils and organic extracts of the Sicilian rosemary samples analyzed showed a considerable antioxidant/free radical-scavenging activity.

  16. Phytochemical compositions and biological activities of essential oil from Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Sharifi-Rad, Majid; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Iriti, Marcello; Sharifi-Rad, Marzieh; Sharifi-Rad, Razieh; Raeisi, Sara

    2015-04-17

    The chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) from fresh cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) leaves was investigated by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the EO was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Scolicidal activity was assayed against Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. In total, 34 compounds were identified, accounting for 98.96% of the EO. The main compounds in the EO were cis-β-guaiene (34.2%), limonene (20.3%), borneol (11.6%), bornyl acetate (4.5%), β-cubebene (3.8%), sabinene (3.6%), phytol (3.1%), β-selinene (2.8%), camphene (2.2%), α-cubebene (2.4%), β-caryophyllene (1.9%), α-pinene (1.8%) and xanthinin (1.04%). The antibacterial and antifungal screening of the EO showed that all assayed concentrations significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger (MIC = 0.5 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.0, 4.8 ± 0.0, 20.5 ± 0.3, 55.2 ± 0.0 and 34.3 ± 0.0 µg/mL, respectively). The scolicidal assay indicated that the EO exhibited a significant activity against E. granulosus protoscolices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the scolicidal activity of X. strumarium. Because of the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance, the study of new effective natural chemotherapeutic agents, such as the X. strumarium EO, possibly with low side effects, represents a very promising approach in biomedical research.

  17. Contribution of understorey vegetation and soil processes to boreal forest isoprenoid exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Mari; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-03-01

    statistical model, based on prevailing temperature, seasonality, vegetation effect, and the interaction of these parameters, explained 43 % of the monoterpene fluxes, and 34-46 % of individual α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, and Δ3-carene fluxes.

  18. Mapping Terpenes over the Teakettle Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycner, J.; Ustin, S.; Grigsby, S.

    2015-12-01

    Terpenes are a category of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) produced by many plants, most notably coniferous plants. Commonly, these terpenes are aromatic compounds. The intensity of terpene emission varies depending greatly on light and temperature. Through remote sensing data as well as ASD spectroradiometry data this study focuses on locating sources of terpene emissions in the Teakettle Experimental Forest. These emissions are of particular concern because of their influence on the chemical concentration of the lower troposphere, as well as being an indicator of tree health. A novel approach has been designed through this study in order to locate and further understand these terpene emissions. Terpenes such as camphene have been reported to have subtle spectral features located at around 1.7 μm. For the first time, a map of terpene sources has been constructed by accentuating this particular feature. A continuum interpolated band ratio (CIBR) was used in order to compute a relative abundance of terpenes from the AVIRIS data. The CIBR equation showed promise, as terpenes were most strongly concentrated in areas of coniferous vegetation (a primary source of terpenes) and were less prominent over bodies of water or industrialized areas. The greatest concentrations were focused over treetops and other woody vegetation. Although it is known that terpenes have weak absorption features in the SWIR, there is little information available regarding the mapping of terpene emissions. This project addresses a novel approach to observing biochemical components in the lower troposphere and could potentially give more information to explain the health of forest ecosystems.

  19. Effects of biotic and abiotic stress on induced accumulation of terpenes and phenolics in red pines inoculated with bark beetle-vectored fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepzig, K D; Kruger, E L; Smalley, E B; Raffa, K F

    1995-05-01

    This study characterized the chemical response of healthy red pine to artificial inoculation with the bark beetle-vectored fungusLeptographium terebrantis. In addition, we sought to determine whether stress altered this induced response and to understand the implications of these interactions to the study of decline diseases. Twenty-five-year-old trees responded to mechanical wounding or inoculation withL. terebrantis by producing resinous reaction lesions in the phloem. Aseptically wounded and wound-inoculated phloem contained higher concentrations of phenolics than did constitutive tissue. Trees inoculated withL. terebrantis also contained higher concentrations of six monoterpenes,α-pinene,β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, camphene, and myrcene, and higher total monoterpenes than did trees that were mechanically wounded or left unwounded. Concentrations of these monoterpenes increased with time after inoculation. Total phenolic concentrations in unwounded stem tissue did not differ between healthy and root-diseased trees. Likewise, constitutive monoterpene concentrations in stem phloem were similar between healthy and root-diseased trees. However, when stem phloem tissue was challenged with fungal inoculations, reaction tissue from root-diseased trees contained lower concentrations ofα-pinene, the predominant monoterpene in red pine, than did reaction tissue from healthy trees. Seedlings stressed by exposure to low light levels exhibited less extensive induced chemical changes when challenge inoculated withL. terebrantis than did seedlings growing under higher light. Stem phloem tissue in these seedlings contained lower concentrations ofα-pinene than did nonstressed seedlings also challenge inoculated withL. terebrantis. It is hypothesized that monoterpenes and phenolics play a role in the defensive response of red pine against insect-fungal attack, that stress may predispose red pine to attack by insect-fungal complexes, and that such interactions are involved

  20. Effect of chitosan based active packaging film on the keeping quality of chilled stored barracuda fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remya, S; Mohan, C O; Bindu, J; Sivaraman, G K; Venkateshwarlu, G; Ravishankar, C N

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, active antimicrobial (AM) packaging films were prepared from chitosan (CH) incorporated with ginger (Zingiber officinale) essential oil at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % v/v) and characterized. GC-MS analysis revealed zingiberene (22.54 ± 0.13), geranial (12.34 ± 0.33), β-sesquiphellandrene (8.14 ± 0.14), camphene (7.44 ± 0.54) and neral (5.45 ± 0.23) as the major components of essential oil extracted from ginger. Addition of ginger essential oil (GEO) improved the AM activity of the CH film against food borne pathogens, without significantly (p film. CH film with GEO was more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria and maximum antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was shown by 0.3 % GEO added CH film. In a further experiment, steaks of barracuda (Sphyraena jello) fish were wrapped with the CH-GEO (0.3 %) film and stored at 2 °C for 20 days. Throughout the storage period, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value and total mesophilic count of fish steak wrapped with the CH-GEO film were significantly (p film of ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) (nylon, EVOH and polyethylene). Sensorily, CH-GEO film wrapped sample was acceptable till the end of storage for 20 days compared to 12 days for unwrapped control and fish steak packed in EVOH film. The results indicate that the developed CH-GEO film is efficient in extending the storage life of fish.

  1. Synthesis of two major toxaphene components and their photostabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelhan, Mehmet; Maurer, Martin

    2005-12-28

    The synthesis of 2-endo,3-exo,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,10-heptachlorobornane (B7-1001, Hp-Sed) and 2-endo,3-exo,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,9,10-octachlorobornane (B8-1412) is described. Both compounds are components of toxaphene, an insecticide that has been widely used in the past. B7-1001 is an important toxaphene congener, comprising up to 99% of total toxaphene concentrations found in fish and sediment samples from treated lakes. B8-1412 is also a significant component of toxaphene contamination in samples from biota. In synthesizing the compounds, 2-exo,3-endo,6-endo,8,9,10-hexachlorobornane (B6-913) was obtained by reduction of the well-known toxaphene component P 32 (B7-515, 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,10-heptachlorobornane), which was itself isolated from the chlorination products of (+)-camphene. Chlorination of B6-913 provided B7-1001 in 49.5% yield, and P 32 and four other heptachlorobornanes were also detected in the reaction mixture. Structures of two of the heptachlorobornanes were elucidated by MS and NMR as 2-exo,3-endo,6-endo,8,9,9,10-heptachlorobornane (B7-1461) and 2-exo,3,3,6-endo,8,9,10-heptachlorobornane (B7-1303). B8-1412 was isolated from the product mixture obtained by chlorination of 2-exo,3-endo,6-endo,8,9,9,10-heptachlorobornane. Photolysis experiments at lambda = 254 nm revealed that B6-913 is photochemicaly the most stable compound of the seven toxaphene compounds studied, with a t(1/2) of 213 h. B7-1001, having a t(1/2) of 82 h, was the second most stable compound. B8-1412 was degraded more rapidly, with a t(1/2) of 28.8 h, than B7-1001, but was still much more stable than P 50 (B9-1679, 2-endo,3-exo,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10,10-nonachlorobornane), which had a t(1/2) of 9.4 h, despite its reputation as a very persistant compound. Under the same experimental conditions hexachlorobenzene (HLB) and octachlorodibenzodioxine (OCDD) were consumed very quickly with t(1/2) = 0.0025 and 0.0015 h, respectively.

  2. Distillation time alters essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of male Juniperus scopulorum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Schlegel, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 15 distillation times (DT), ranging from 1.25 to 960 min, on oil yield, essential oil profiles, and antioxidant capacity of male J. scopulorum trees. Essential oil yields were 0.07% at 1.25 min DT and reached a maximum of 1.48% at 840 min DT. The concentrations of alpha-thujene (1.76-2.75%), alpha-pinene (2.9-8.7%), sabinene (45-74.7%), myrcene (2.4-3.4%), and para-cymene (0.8-3.1%) were highest at the shortest DT (1.5 to 5 min) and decreased with increasing DT. Cis-sabinene hydrate (0.5-0.97%) and linalool plus trans-sabinene (0.56-1.6%) reached maximum levels at 40 min DT. Maximum concentrations of limonene (2.3-2.8%) and pregeijerene-B (0.06-1.4%) were obtained at 360-480 min DT, and 4-terpinenol (0.7-5.7%) at 480 min DT. Alpha-terpinene (0.16-2.9%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-4.9%) and terpinolene (0.3-1.4%) reached maximum at 720 min DT. The concentrations of delta-cadinene (0.06-1.65%), elemol (0-6.0%), and 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol (0-4.4%) reached maximum at 840 min DT. The yield of the essential oil constituents increased with increasing DT. Only linalool/transsabinene hydrate reached a maximum yield at 360 min DT. Maximum yields of the following constituents were obtained at 720 min DT: alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, alpha-terpinene, para-cimene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, and 4-terpinenol. At 840 min DT, cis-sabinene hydrate, prejeijerene-B, gamma muurolene, delta-cadinene, reached maximum. At 960 min DT, maximum yields of beta-pinene, elemol, alphaeudesmol/betaeudesmol, 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol were reached. These changes were adequately modeled by either the Michaelis-Menten or the Power (Convex) nonlinear regression models. Oils from the 480 min DT showed higher antioxidant activity compared to samples collected at 40, 160, or 960 min DT. These results show the potential for obtaining essential oils with various compositions and antioxidant capacity from male J

  3. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  4. Chemodiversity of a Scots pine stand and implications for terpene air concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bäck

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 48 yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40–97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum. An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene

  5. 鲜艾叶与干艾叶挥发性成分的HS-SPME-GC-MS分析%HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis of volatile components in fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 赵先恩; 王晓; 耿岩玲; 刘建华; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱质谱联用(HS-SPME-GC-MS)技术分析比较鲜艾叶与干艾叶的挥发性成分。考察了不同萃取头和萃取温度对艾叶挥发性成分的萃取效果,以选用65μm PDMS/DVB SPME萃取头和60℃水浴加热时萃取效果最好;采用峰面积归一化法测定各成分的质量分数,共鉴定出58种挥发性成分,主要为烯烃类、芳香类和醇类物质,占总峰面积90%以上。鲜艾叶与干艾叶均含有莰烯、1-辛烯-3-醇、α-水芹烯、邻聚伞花素、桉油精、石竹烯等,此外又各自具有特有成分,表明艾叶在干制后其挥发性成分发生变化。%We analyzed volatile components in fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi Levl.et Vant.with headspace solid phase microextraction(SPME) and GC-MS.We also investigated the impacts of different SPME fibers and extraction temperature on the extracts.Results demonstrate that 65 μm PDMS/DVB fibre and temperature of 60 ℃ exhibit good extraction effect.We employed peak area normalization method to determine the volatile components.Fifty-eight compounds are identified in the fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi,which include alkanes,alkenes and alcohols,and whose area exceeds 90% of the total peak area.Results also show that fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi not only contain identical volatile compounds such as Camphene,1-Octen-3-ol,alpha-Phellandrene,Benzene,1-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-Eucalyptol and Caryophyllene,but also contain their own unique volatile compounds.This shows that their volatile components change after dryness.

  6. 中国不同产地姜油挥发性成分的对比分析%Comparative Analysis of Volatile Components of Ginger Oil Originated from Different Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔俭杰; 李琼

    2011-01-01

    采用气质联用法(GC-MS)对不同产地(山东、云南、安徽、江苏、新疆)的姜油中的挥发性成分进行分析和比较.采用双柱(DB-1柱和HP-INNOWAX柱)保留指数(RI)辅助定性,气相色谱(GC)面积归一法定量.研究过程中,成功分离分析出醇类、酮类、烯烃类、酯类、醛类、杂环类、芳香类化合物等共计64种成分,其组成成分平均含量最高为姜烯(29.7%),其它依次为β-倍半水芹烯(12.28%)、α-姜黄烯(9.7%)、β-水芹烯1,8-桉叶素+苧烯(7.5%)、γ-杜松烯+α-金合欢烯(7.0%)、β-红没药烯(6.9%)和莰烯(5.7%)等.对比结果表明,不同产地的姜油含有几乎相同的化学成分,但含量存在差异.%This paper reports analysis and comparison of volatile components of oil of ginger (Zingiber of ficinale Roscoe) produced from different areas in China (Shandong, Yunnan, Anhui, Jiangsu and Xinjiang) by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry ( GC-MS) . The qualitative analysis was supported by retention index (RI) on two columns ( DB-1 column and HP-INNOWAX column). The quantification of components was based on peak area in GC. In the study, totally 64 volatile components were successfully separated and identified, including alcohols, ketones, olefins, esters, aldehydes and heterocyclic components. It was found that Zingiberene was the highest level volatile component (29. 68%) , followed by β-sesquiphellandrene (12.3%), α-curcumene (9. 7%), β-phellandrene + 1, 8-cineole + limonene (7. 5%), β-bisabolene (6. 9%), and camphene (5. 7%). The results show that ginger oil produced at different areas contain almost same components but in different quantities.

  7. Analysis on the Aroma Components of Different Flower Parts in Magnolia officinalis Wild and Cultivated Species%厚朴野生种与栽培种花不同部位香气成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁; 杨志玲; 杨旭

    2012-01-01

    The aroma components in flower bud samples of Magnolia officinalis wild and cultivated species whose bracts had just opened were studied by solid phase micro-extraction and GC/MS technology. The aroma components and their relative contents in different flower parts were compared and analyzed. The results showed that there were 39 components in M. Officinalis wild species, 26 in pistils and stamens, 22 in petals. There were 75 components in M. Officinalis cultivated species, 49 in pistils and stamens, 54 in petals. Terpenes were the major compounds in the flower bud of M. Officinalis, camphene, (Z)-3 ,7-dimethyl-1 ,3 ,6-octatriene, caryophyllene and 3 ,7-dimethyl-l ,6-octadien-3-ol were identified in both wild and cultivated species and their relative contents were high. Both the aromatic compounds and their relative contents in M. Officinalis wild and cultivated species were distinctly different, the aromatic compounds and their relative contents were also significantly different in pistils and stamens, petals of M. Officinalis wild or cultivated species.%以厚朴野生种和栽培种苞片刚裂开的花苞为试材,采用固相微萃取和气相色谱—质谱(GC/MS)分析技术对其进行香气成分和相对含量的测定,比较分析了花朵不同部位香气成分的差异.结果表明:厚朴野生种共有39种香气成分,雌雄蕊中26种,花瓣中22种,栽培种中75种香气成分,雌雄蕊中49种,花瓣中54种.萜烯类是两种厚朴花苞中最重要的香气化合物,莰烯、罗勒烯异构体混合物、石竹烯、芳樟醇是野生种和栽培种中共有的相对含量较高的香气成分.厚朴野生种和栽培种间以及同种厚朴雌雄蕊与花瓣之间的香气成分的种类和相对含量差异显著.

  8. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Effects of

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    SS Saei Dehkordi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rosmarinus officinalis L. as a member of the Lamiaceae family and lysozyme as a natural antibacterial agent is important in food microbiology, because of its characteristics. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and anti-listerial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (REO alone and in combination with lysozyme for enhancement of anti-listerial activity of both substances. Materials & Methods: Rosmarinus officinalis L. was purchased from a local grocery store at Shahrekord and was identified by the Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR. The air-dried aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil and yielded oil was analyzed by GC/MS. Antibacterial activity (on basis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of REO was studied separately and in combination with unheated lysozyme (L and heat-treated lysozyme (HTL on Listeria monocytogenes at different pH (5, 6 and 7 by a micro-broth dilution assay. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, 98.05% of constituents of the essential oil were identified. The major components were α-pinene (14.06%, 1,8-cineole (13.62%, verbenone (11.2%, camphor (10.51%, borneol (7.3%, 3-octanone (7.02%, camphene (5.46% and linalool (5.07%. The inhibitory action of REO was stronger at lower pH especially 5 (MIC=225 μg/mL. Inhibition by L at pH 5 was 640 μg/mL but no inhibition was seen at pH 7. HTL resulted in more effective inhibition than L, especially at pH 5 and heat-treatment 80˚C (MIC: 160 μg/mL. Conclusion: Combination of L + REO and particularly HTL + REO was led to enhancement of bacterial inhibition. It was concluded that REO by the identified chemical composition was effective alone or in combination with L or HTL on Listeria monocytogenes as a food-borne pathogen.

  9. QUALITY COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BANGLADESHI AND CHINA GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.

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    Sudam Nandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. was extracted from China and Bangladeshi varieties and yielded 0.21% and 0.23 % by hydro-distillation method on fresh weight basis respectively. Fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The major constituents of China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oils were zingiberene 38.10 % and 41.49%, β-phellandrene 12.0% and 9.92%, α-citral 11.48% and 9.76 %, α-curcumene 9.22% and 11.58%, camphene 5.94% and 4.60% , β-bisabolene 4.39% and 5.0% respectively. The IC50 (DPPH method values were found 61.18 µg/mL and 56.71 µg/mL with the highest inhibition of 78.49 % and 80.77% and the LC50 values in the brine shrimp lethality cytotoxicity bioassay were found 0.4842 µg/mL and 0.7151 µg/mL in China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oil respectively. Both the essential oils showed significant activities against some gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The proximate composition of the China and Bangladeshi variety showed the ash (7.12±0.151, 8.15±0.18%, protein (5.47±0.19, 6.60±0.16%, crude fibre (4.32±0.10, 4.61±0.12%, carbohydrate (16..06±0.35, 18.38±0.41 and food energy (70.50±0.89, 81.74±1.01 kcal/100g. respectively. The elemental compositions of the both varieties were found rich in Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Se, Na and K. These results indicate the quality composition of the two varieties may find interest in spice and culinary industries as well as in medicinal preparation.

  10. Compostos voláteis de três cultivares de manga (Mangifera indica L. Volatile composition of three cultivars of mango (Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.B. Franco

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os compostos voláteis de três cultivares de manga (Haden, Tommy-Atkins e Keitt procedentes do Estado de São Paulo, foram isolados por uma técnica de headspace dinâmico, envolvendo sucção em polímero poroso. A separação da mistura complexa de voláteis foi efetuada por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução. Alguns compostos voláteis foram identificados por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas e índices de Kovats. Os hidrocarbonetos monoterpênicos foram os compostos mais abundantes no headspace das amostras. Car-3-eno foi o componente majoritário dos cultivares Haden e Keitt, enquanto a Tommy-Atkins mostrou predominância de car-3-eno e alfa-pineno. Outros compostos identificados foram alfa-fencheno, alfa-canfeno, p-cimeno, beta-mirceno, beta-felandreno, limoneno, alfa-terpinoleno, beta-cariofileno e alfa-humuleno. Os três lotes analisados para cada cultivar mostraram grande homogeneidade, não havendo diferença significativa ao nível de 5%.The volatile compounds of three mango cultivars (Haden, Tommy-Atkins and Keitt, from the State of São Paulo, were isolated by a dynamic headspace technique involving suction on a porous polymer. The complex mixture of volatile compounds was separated by high-resolution gas chromatography. Some volatiles were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats Indices. The monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most abundant in the headspace of the fruits. Car-3-ene was the major component of the cultivars Haden and Keitt, while the Tommy Atkins mango exhibited predominance of two constituents, car-3-ene and alpha-pinene. Other identified compounds were alpha-fenchene, alpha-camphene, p-cimene, beta-mircene, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-terpinolene, beta-caryophyllene e alpha-humulene. Samples of the same cultivar demonstrated great homogeneity, with no statistically significant difference being observed among the three lots analyzed for each cultivar.

  11. Quantifying environmental stress induced emissions of algal isoprene and monoterpenes using laboratory measurements

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    N. Meskhidze

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report here production rates of isoprene and monoterpene compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and d-limonene from six phytoplankton monocultures as a function of irradiance and temperature. Irradiance experiments were carried out for diatom strains – Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana; prymnesiophyte strains – Pleurochrysis carterae; dinoflagellate strains – Karenia brevis and Prorocentrum minimum; cryptophyte strains – Rhodomonas salina, while temperature experiments were carried out for diatom strains – Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Phytoplankton species, incubated in a climate-controlled room, were subject to variable light (90 to 900 μmol m−2s−1 and temperature (18 to 30 °C regimes. Compared to isoprene, monoterpene emissions were an order of magnitude lower at all light and temperature levels. Emission rates are normalized by cell count and Chlorophyll a (Chl a content. Diatom strains were the largest emitters, with ~2x1017g (cell−1h−1 (~35 μg (g Chl a−1h−1 for isoprene and ~5x10−19 g (cell−1h−1 (~1μg (g Chl a−1 h−1 for α-pinene. The contribution to the total monoterpene production was ~70% from α-pinene, ~20% for d-limonene, and −2s−1 and a gradual increase at high (>250 μmol m−2s−1 irradiance. Measurements revealed different patterns for time-averaged emissions rates over two successive days. On the first day most of the species showed distinct increase in production rates within the first four hours, while on the second day the emission rates were overall higher, but less variable. The data suggest that enhanced amounts of isoprene and monoterpenes are emitted from phytoplankton as a result of perturbations in environmental conditions that cause disbalance in chloroplasts and forces primary producers to acclimate physiologically. This relationship could be a valuable tool for development of dynamic ecosystem modeling approaches for global

  12. Physico-chemical evaluation of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Atti-Santos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen samples of Rosmarinus officinalis were extracted by steam distillation in a pilot plant and evaluated in terms of chemical compositions and physico-chemical characteristics. The volatile oil yields ranged from 0.37% (1999 harvest to 0.49% (1998 harvest. Twenty components were identified in the oils. The major components were alpha-pinene (40.55 to 45.10%, 1,8-cineole (17.40 to 19.35%, camphene (4.73 to 6.06% and verbenone (2.32 to 3.86%. The physico-chemical parameters averaged 0.8887 g/cm³ for specific gravity, 1.4689 for refractive index, and +11.82° for optical rotation, and there were no significant variations in either the chemical or physico-chemical data in the different years.Dezenove amostras de Rosmarinus officinalis foram extraídas por destilação por arraste a vapor em uma planta piloto e os óleos essenciais foram avaliados quanto a composição química e características físico-químicas. Os rendimentos de óleo essencial variaram de 0,37% (média de 1999 a 0,49% (média de 1998. Vinte componentes foram identificados nos óleos essenciais. Os componentes majoritários foram a-pineno (40,55 a 45,10%, 1,8-cineol (17,40 a 19,35%, canfeno (4,73 a 6,06% e verbenona (2,32 a 3,86%. A média por safra dos parâmetros físico-químicos avaliados resultaram em 0,8887g/cm³ para densidade específica, 1,4689 para índice de refração e +11,82º para rotação óptica, sendo que as variações encontradas para os parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos dos óleos essenciais não variaram significativamente em função do ano de produção.

  13. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

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    L. Kaser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK+MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK+MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the

  14. Synergistic effect of some essential oils on toxicity and knockdown effects, against mosquitos, cockroaches and housefly

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    Idin Zibaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and knockdown effect of Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their mixed formulation on Periplaneta Americana (L., Blattella germanica (L., Supella longipalpa, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi and Musca domestica were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In all bioassay five different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used by filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods, all essential oils was toxic to cockroaches, mosquitos and housefly species the lowest and the highest LC50 belong to mixed formulation on B. germanica (LC50 6.1 and E. globulus on P. americana (LC50 27.7 respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50 values for cockroaches ranged from 1403.3 min with 0.625% E. globulus (for P. americana to 2.2 min with 10% mixed formulation for A. stephensi. The KT50 values ranged from 0.1 to 1090.8 min for 10% and 0.625 for mixed formulation and R. officinalis respectively. The mortality after 24 h for mixed formulation was 100% but for single essential oils ranged from 81.5 to 98.3 for P. americana treated with R. officinalis and A. stephensi treated with E. globulus respectively. Studies on persistence of essential oils on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 14 and 16 peaks for E. globules and R. officinalis respectively. α-Pinene (39.8%, 1, 8-Cineole (13.2%, Camphene (9.1% and Borneol (3.7% were present in major amounts for R. officinalis and 1,8-Cineole (31.4%, α-Pinene (15.3%, d-Limonene (9.7% and α-Terpinolen (5.3% were present in major amounts for E. globulus respectively. Our results showed that two surveyed essential oils has compatible with synergistic effect on various insect species, furthermore it is useful for applying as integrated pest management tool for studied insects management, especially in

  15. An intercomparison of GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements in ambient air under conditions of enhanced monoterpene loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ambrose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toluene was measured using both a gas chromatographic system (GC, with a flame ionization detector (FID, and a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS at the AIRMAP atmospheric monitoring station Thompson Farm (THF in rural Durham, NH during the summer of 2004. Simultaneous measurements of monoterpenes, including α- and β-pinene, camphene, Δ3-carene, and d-limonene, by GC-FID demonstrated large enhancements in monoterpene mixing ratios relative to toluene, with median and maximum enhancement ratios of ~2 and ~30, respectively. A detailed intercomparison among the GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements was conducted to test the specificity of PTR-MS for atmospheric toluene measurements under conditions often dominated by biogenic emissions. We derived quantitative estimates of potential interferences in the PTR-MS toluene measurements related to sampling and analysis of monoterpenes, including fragmentation of the monoterpenes and some of their primary carbonyl oxidation products via reactions with H3O+, O2+ and NO+ in the PTR-MS drift tube. The PTR-MS and GC-FID toluene measurements were in good quantitative agreement and the two systems tracked one another well from the instrumental limits of detection to maximum mixing ratios of ~0.5 ppbv. Discrepancies in the measured mixing ratios were not well correlated with enhancements in the monoterpenes. Better quantitative agreement between the two systems was obtained by correcting the PTR-MS measurements for contributions from monoterpene fragmentation in the PTR-MS drift tube; however, the improvement was minor. Interferences in the PTR-MS measurements from fragmentation of the monoterpene oxidation products pinonaldehyde, caronaldehyde and α-pinene oxide were also likely negligible. The results from THF suggest that toluene can be reliably quantified by PTR-MS using our operating conditions under the ambient

  16. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

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    L. Kaser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK + MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK + MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the study

  17. Essential oil yield and composition of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes after different drying periods Teor e composição de óleo essencial de rizomas de gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe após diferentes períodos de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.M Dabague

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger production in Paraná State, Brazil, has predominated in Morretes Municipality, with around 300 ha cultivated area. The aim of this work was to evaluate the essential oil yield and composition of ginger rhizomes produced in Morretes and subjected to different drying periods at room temperature. Experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x5 factorial arrangement, with four replicates (four plants each, five origins and five drying periods at room temperature (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type device for 3h and the constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The drying of ginger rhizomes at room temperature for up to 60 days decreased the essential oil yield in most origins. Geranial and neral levels were higher in all origins and as drying periods were longer. Geraniol and geranyl acetate levels decreased after drying in all origins, as well as eucalyptol, camphene, zingiberene and β-bisabolene in most origins.A produção de gengibre no Paraná concentra-se no município de Morretes, ocupando uma área de plantio de aproximadamente 300 ha. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o teor e a composição do óleo essencial de rizomas de gengibre produzidos em Morretes e submetidos a diferentes períodos de secagem em temperatura ambiente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com quatro repetições (quatro plantas por repetição, avaliando cinco procedências e cinco períodos de secagem a temperatura ambiente (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias. As extrações de óleo essencial foram realizadas por hidrodestilação em aparelho graduado Clevenger durante três horas e a análise dos constituintes foi realizada por meio de cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. A secagem de rizomas de gengibre em temperatura ambiente por até 60 dias resultou na diminuição de teores de

  18. Study on Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oils in Drug Pair of Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae by GC-MS%金银花、连翘药对配伍挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢学锋; 陈飞龙; 罗佳波

    2009-01-01

    目的 考察金银花、连翘药对配伍对挥发油化学成分的影响.方法 采用气-质联用系统对金银花、连翘药材以及药对配伍中的挥发油进行分析,评价配伍对挥发油成分及含量的影响.结果 采用GC-MS对金银花、连翘药材和药对挥发油的成分进行分析比较,发现金银花挥发油中检出的香叶醇、十四烷酸甲基酯、十六烷酸乙基酯、荧蒽、9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸甲基酯、亚油酸等成分和连翘挥发油中检出的樟脑烯、α-松油烯、紫苏醇、蒎烯、棕榈醛、β-水茴香萜等成分在药对挥发油中未检出,而相对于单煎所得的挥发油,药对挥发油中新增成分有柠檬烯、异长松叶烯、十九烷等.结论 金银花、连翘药对配伍对所提挥发油的成分和含量都有较大的影响.%Objective To discuss the influence of drug compatibility on the components of the volatile oil in Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae. Methods GC-MS system was used to analyze the volatile oil in Flos Lonicerae, Fructas Forsythiae and their combination. The effect of compatibility on the components and content of volatile oil was evaluated. Results The results of GC-MS showed that gerani]o, tetradecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, fluoranthene, 9, 12, 15-Octadeeatrienoic acid ethyl ester and linoleic acid was detectable in Flos Lonicerae but was undetectable in the drug pair; camphene, alpha-terpinene, perillaalcohol, 2-beta-pinene, beta-hexadecanal, phellandrene was de-tectable in Fructus Forsythiae but was undetectable in the drug pair; limonene, isolongifolene, nonadecane was detectable in the drug pair but was undetectable in the two single drugs. Conclusion The compatibility of the drug pair has an effect on components and contents in the volatile oil of Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae.

  19. 马尾松土贡种源松针挥发油化学成分 GC/MS 分析%GC/MS Analysis of Chemical Composition of Pine Needle Oil from Pinus massoniana Tugong Provenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军集; 周丽珠; 聂永雄; 舒文波; 梁忠云; 谷瑶

    2014-01-01

    用挥发油提取器提取马尾松土贡种源松针中挥发油,利用气相色谱-质谱( GC-MS)分析其中的化学成分,采用GC峰面积归一化法定量,并与马尾松普通种源松针油做对比。结果表明,土贡种源和普通种源挥发油得油率分别为0.52%、0.60%,各分出69、75个成分,鉴定其中23个,分别占挥发油总量的92.65%、94.56%,其挥发油主要成分为α-蒎烯(37.673%、46.715%)、莰烯(3.724%、3.015%)、β-蒎烯(14.969%、12.978%)、石竹烯(8.242%、10.212%),除α-蒎烯含量相差9.042%以外,其他成分含量相差不大。%The essential oil of Tugong Provenance and ordinary type Pinus massoniana was extracted by the volatile oil extractor , and the chemical composition of essential oil was analyzed and compared by gas chromatography -mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) by using the peak area normalization method .The results showed that the yield of essential oil of these two provenances were 0.52 % and 0.60 % respectively .23 constituents were identified from 69 and 75 chromatographic peaks respectively , and the relative content up to 92.65%, 94.56% respectively .The ma-jor constituents were α-pinene ( 37.673 %, 46.715 %) , camphene ( 3.724 %, 3.015 %) , β-pinene (14.969 %, 12.978 %), caryophyllene (8.242 %, 10.212 %).The major constituents were similar except theα-pinene content difference with 9.042 %.

  20. Biochemical, physiological and climatic influence on the emission of isoprenoides from Grey Poplar (Populus x canescens (Aiton) Sm.) and Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.); Biochemische, physiologische und klimatische Einfluesse auf die Isoprenoidemission der Graupappel (Populus x canescens (Aiton) Sm.) und der Steineiche (Quercus ilex L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrhofer, S.

    2007-05-15

    the expression rates of PcDXR or PcISPS. 4. Daytime variation of physiological and biochemical parameters of the monoterpene emission of Holm Oak was measured the same way as for Grey Poplar. Main components of the monoterpene emission were {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene/sabinene, myrcene, camphene, limonene, p-cymol and {delta}-3-carene and also isoprene was detected. The leaf temperature showed strongest influence on monoterpene emission. 5. Light and temperature dependency of the isoprenoide emission was characterised for both plant species according to the Guenther algorithm (1997). 6. In order to test the influence of isoprene within or in the nearest surrounding of poplar leaves on the concentrations of superoxideanionradicals (O{sub 2}{sup -}) Nitrobluetetrazoliumchloride (NBT) was used to make them visible. Isoprene concentration was raised in the near surrounding of the leaf by isoprene fumigation. (orig.)

  1. Chemodiversity in terpene emissions at a boreal Scots pine stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bäck

    2011-10-01

    also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ significantly between trees. The atmospheric concentrations at the site were found to reflect the species and/or chemodiversity rather than the emissions measured from any single tree, and were strongly dominated by α-pinene. We also tested the effect of chemodiversity on modeled monoterpene concentrations at the site and found out that since it significantly influences the distributions and hence the chemical reactions in the atmosphere, it should be taken into account in atmospheric modeling.

  2. 旱伞草与粉绿狐尾藻立体复合的抑藻效能%Allelopathic effects of Cyperus alternifolius and MyriophyUum aquaticum on phytoplankton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦松岩; 吴波; 闫颖怡; 周金喜; 周启星

    2011-01-01

    Allelopathic effects of C. alternifolius ( Cyperus alternifolius ), M. aquaticum ( Myriophyllum aquaticum ), C. alternifolius and M. aquaticum were investigated in coexistance experiments, and the algae biomass, chlorophyll a, community change and organic matters of the coexistance samples were monitored and analyzed. Cell numbers and Chl - a were significantly inhibited by C. alternifolius and M. aquaticum. The peak biomass of algae is 2.4 x 10^7/L, while that of the control, C. alternifolius, M. aquaticum is 4.48,1.15, 2. 03 × 10^8/L respectively. The organic matters analysis show that only 75 kinds of organic matter exist in the C. alternifolius and M. aquaticum coexistance samples while 131 kinds of organic matter exist in the control sample. Acetone cyanohydrin, Triethyl phosphate, Camphene and 4 - methyl - 4 - Phenol were new produced matters by C. alternlfolius and M. aquaticum which maybe the potential allelopathic matters.%为考察植物间组合的化感抑藻效能,将旱伞草、粉绿狐尾藻、旱伞草+粉绿狐尾藻在自然水体水样中对比种植,对藻密度、叶绿素a、群落变化及有机物组成进行监测.结果表明:旱伞草+粉绿狐尾藻水样中,藻类建群过程的延迟期最短,在第13天达到峰值2.4×10^7/L,而对照、旱伞草、粉绿狐尾藻水样为4.48、ll15、2.03×10^8/L;旱伞草+粉绿狐尾藻水样中群落的演替速度最快,有机物种类最少为75种,而对照、旱伞草、粉绿狐尾藻水样有机物种类数量为131、90及121种.旱伞草+羽毛组合水样中新生成丙酮氰醇、磷酸三乙酯、莰烯及4一甲基苯酚这4种物质,可能为潜在的化感物质.

  3. Emissions of selected VOC from forests: First results on measurements needed for improvement and validation of emission models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigner, D.; Steinbrecher, R.; Rappenglück, B.; Gasche, R.; Hansel, A.; Graus, M.; Lindinger, Ch.

    2003-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) play a crucial role in the formation of photo-oxidants and particles through the diverse BVOC degradation pathways. Yet, current estimations about temporal and spatial BVOC emissions, including the specific BVOC mix are rather vague. This project addresses this issue by: the determination of (a) BVOC net emission rates and (b) primary emissions of BVOCs from the trees and soils. Measurement campaigns were carried out at the Waldstein site in the Fichtelgebirge in 2001 and 2002. Primary emissions of isoprenoids from the soil and from twigs of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and stand fluxes of isoprenoids were quantified by means of REA-technique with in situ GC-FID analysis and GC-MS analysis in the laboratory. Moreover, REA-samples obtained by the system were analysed by a PTR-MS. A critical value when using the REA approach is the Businger-Oncley parameter b. For this canopy type a b value of 0.39 (threshold velocity w_o = 0.6) was determined. The PTR-MS data show clear diurnal variations of ambient air mixing ratios of VOC such as isoprene and monoterpenes, but also of oxygenated VOCs such as carbonyls and alcohols and methylvinylketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MAK), products from isoprene degradation. Four selected trees (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) were intensively screened for primary BVOC emission rates. Most abundant species are b-pinene/sabinene and camphene. They show typical diurnal patterns with high emissions during daytime. Soil emissions of NO reached 250 nmol N m-2 s-1 at soil temperatures (in 3 cm depth) of 13^oC and at a relative air humidity of 60%. Ambient air mixing ratios near the soil surface of NO reached values of up to 0.7 ppb. NO_2 and ozone mixing ratios varied between 0.1 to 1.5 ppb and 10 to 37 ppb, respectively. As expected nitrogen oxide emissions rates tend to increase with increasing surface temperature. Isoprenoid emission from the soil was low and in general near the detection limit

  4. 红烧牛肉罐头香味活性化合物的分析%Analysis of Aroma-Active Compounds in Canned Stewed Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许倩倩; 林美丽; 刘雪妮; 宋焕禄; 陈斌; 屈维丽

    2012-01-01

    The aroma-active compounds of canned stewed beef braised in brown sauce were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by dynamic headspace sampling, thermal desorption injection and GC-O/GC-MS. A total of 73 volatile compounds were identified. Among them were 23 aroma-active compounds, mainly consisting of 4 ketones, 3 aldehydes, 2 alcohols, 2 esters, 2 furans, 2 pyrazine, 2 thiazole, 2 terpenes, 1 alkene, and 1 pyridine. The important aroma-active compounds were 2-butanone (fruity), 2-pentanone (fruity and sweet), camphene (woody and minty), ethyl butyrate (sweet and fruity), pyridine(soul and fishy), 2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine(nut and roast), benzaldehyde (sweet and fruity), and 2-acetylthiazole (nut and roast peanut).%采用动态顶空的方法对红烧牛肉罐头中挥发性化合物进行提取,热脱附系统进样,利用气相-嗅闻-质谱联用的方法对其中的香味活性化合物进行定性定量分析,共鉴定出73中挥发性化合物,其中23种香味活性化合物,这些化合物种类主要有酮类4种,醛类3种,醇类2种,酯类2种,呋喃类2种,吡嗪类2种,噻唑类2种,萜类2种,烯类1种,吡啶1种。红烧牛肉罐头中重要的香味活性化合物有2-丁酮(水果味)、2-戊酮(甜味、果香味)、莰烯(木香味、薄荷味)、丁酸乙酯(香甜味、水果味)、吡啶(酸味、鱼香味)、2,5-二甲基-吡嗪(烧烤味、坚果味)、苯甲醛(甜味、果香味)、2-乙酰噻唑(坚果味、烤花生味)。

  5. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  6. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagora Bayala

    Full Text Available This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78% and β-caryophyllene (10.54% for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%, camphor (12.730%, α-pinene (6.87% and trans α-bergamotene (5.32% for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%, α-pinene (20.11%, sabinene (10.26%, β-pinene (9.22% and α-phellandrene (7.03% for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%, β-caryophyllene (12.70%, thymol (11.88, γ-terpinene (9.17% and thymyle acetate (7.64% for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%, α-pinene (9.17% and limonene (8.76% for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%, camphene (12.70%, zingiberene (8.40%, β-bisabolene (7.83% and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34% for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides showed the

  7. The analysis of aroma components in marjoram oil by GC/MS%GC/MS 法分析甘牛至油中香味成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李源栋; 刘秀明; 冒德寿; 夏建军; 者为; 段焰青

    2016-01-01

    The aroma components of marjoram oil were analyzed by GC /MS,and the peak area normaliza-tion method was used to calculate the relative content of each component.With the mass spectrometry li-brary search,58 compounds which account for 95.61% in the aroma components of marjoram oil,were identified by using reference literature,retention index.The cis(trans)-isomers isomers were confirmed by using retention index,and the accuracy of compound qualitative analysis in natural flavor was im-proved.The aroma of the key aroma compositions of the marjoram oil (linalool,alpha -terpineol,1,8 -cineole,linalyl acetate,alpha pinene,beta -pinene,myrcene,camphene,beta -caryophyllene, sabinene,camphor,borneol,et al)was determined,and the results provided the technical support for the development and application of marjoram oil.%利用 GC /MS 对甘牛至油中香味成分进行了分析,并用峰面积归一化法计算各成分相对含量,通过质谱库检索,保留指数比对,分析并确定了58个化合物,占甘牛至油香味成分95.61%,采用保留指数来鉴别同系物及同分异构体,提高了对甘牛至油中成分定性的准确性。通过香气分析,确定了甘牛至油中关键致香成分分别为芳樟醇、α-松油醇、1,8-桉叶素、乙酸芳樟酯、α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、月桂烯、莰烯、β-石竹烯、桧烯、樟脑、龙脑等,为甘牛至油产品开发和应用提供了理论依据。

  8. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Graus, M.; Herdlinger-Blatt, I. S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Sive, B.; Turnipseed, A.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F. M.; Guenther, A.; Keutsch, F. N.; Apel, E.; Hansel, A.

    2013-03-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa) during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS), a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA), a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS) and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF). The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR) is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK + MAC) using PTR-(TOF)-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK + MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20-25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the study, and

  9. GC- MS analysis of volatile oil from the pine needles of Pinus densiflora and Pinus sylvestris var.sylvtriforms%赤松与长白赤松松针挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕坤; 张海丰; 徐敏; 朱俊义

    2011-01-01

    Objective;To analyze volatile oil from the pine needles of Pinus densiflora Sieb. Et Zucc. And Pinus syl-vestris L. Var. Sylvtriforms Cheng et C. D. Chu by GC - MS. Methods; The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation from the pine needles of P. Densiflora and P. Sylvestris var. Sylvtriforms, respectively, and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry( GC - MS) technology, injector temperature was 230 ℃. The GC - MS analysis with a HP -5 fused silica capillary column(0. 25 mm ×30 m,0. 25 μm). Flow rate was 1 mL · Min-1. The split ratio was 40: 1. The injection volume was 0. 5 μL. The temperature programming was begun at 50 ℃, then programmed from 50 to 120 ℃ at 5 ℃ · Min-1 ,then programmed from 120 to 180 ℃ at 8 ℃ · Min-1 and finally,programmed from 180 to 200 ℃ at 5 ℃ · Min-1. Mass spectrometer conditions were;ionization mode,El; electron energy 70 eV; interface temperature 280 °C; ion source temperature 230℃. The mass selective detector was operated in the TIC mode,mass scan range,20 -500 amu. Results; From volatile oil of the pine needles of P. Densiflora, 36 compounds were separated,30 of them were identified; These 30 compounds amounted totally to about 98. 37% of the total peak area; The major components in the volatile oil were β - phellandrene (20. 96% ) , α - pinene (16. 081 % ) , camphene ( 11. 529 % ) , and santolina triene ( 16. 471 % ). From volatile oil of the pine needles of P. Sylvestris var. Sylvtriforms, 34 compounds were separated, 31 of them were identified; These 31 compounds amounted totally to about 99. 24% of the total peak area; The major components of the volatile oil were 1 -R-α- pinene (17. 592% ) ,caryophyllene( 15. 398% ) ,β - phellandrene ( 14. 813% ),[ S -(E,E)]- 1 - methyl - 5 - methyl-ene - 8 - ( 1 - methylethyl) -1,6- cyclodecadiene ( 7. 573% ) ,β - pinene ( 5. 929% ) , 1 - methyl - 4 - ( 1 -methylethylidene) - cyclohexene (4. 663% ). Conclusions: Components of volatile oil of the

  10. Volatile Components of Two Main Kinds of Edible Gingers in Yunnan Province%2种云南主要食用姜的挥发性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周露; 谢文申; 江明

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To analyze the chemical components of two main kinds of edible gingers in Yunnan Province.[Method] Chemical compo-nents of volatile oil from two types of Zingiber officinale Rosc ( White Ginger and Luoping Ginger) were researched by GC/MS method.[ Result] A total of 56 components were detected in the volatile oil of white ginger;and 50 components were identified.The main chemical components wereβ-phelandrene(14.800%), 2-nonanone(12.648%), camphene(12.349%), citral(6.342%), borneol(5.357%), limonene(6.342%), citronellol(2.895%),β-bisabolene(2.842%)and so on.As for Luoping Ginger, 67 components were detected in the volatile oil;and 60 compo-nents were identified.The main chemical components wereβ-phelandrene(10.832%), camphene(8.317%), citral(8.301%), ethyl trans-cine-matic(6.799%), 1,8-cineole(5.795%), borneol(5.357%), limonene(4.643%),geraniol(3.650%),alloaromadendrene(2.940%), citron-ellyl acetate(2.675%) and so on.[Conclusion] Comparison of the volatile oils from two kinds of Z.officinale showes that their characteristic fra-grance components are all most the same, and fragrance of Luoping Ginger is more abundance and gentleness.%[目的]分析云南地区2种主要食用姜的化学成分,比较2种姜品质的差异。[方法]采用GC/MS的方法对云南农贸市场上的2种食用姜挥发油化学成分进行研究,一种是市场上的普通白姜,简称“姜”,一种是罗平的小黄姜,简称“罗平姜”。[结果]姜挥发油中检测出56个成分,鉴定了50个成分,主要化学成分是β-水芹烯(14.800%)、2-十一烷酮(12.648%)、莰烯(12.349%)、香叶醛(8.361%)、龙脑(6.985%)、柠檬烯(6.342%)、香茅醇(2.895%)、β-红没药烯(2.842%)、α-蒎烯(2.824%)、6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮(2.598%)等。罗平姜挥发油中检测出67个成分,鉴定了60个成分,主要化学成分是β-水芹烯(10

  11. 20种非寄主植物挥发物对褐飞虱拒避与引诱行为的影响%Effects of volatiles in twenty non-host plants on the repellented and attractive behaviors of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献英; 霍治国; 犹昌艳; 胡飞

    2014-01-01

    【目的】为开发和设计褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens拒避剂与引诱剂提供科学依据.【方法】利用Y型嗅觉仪测定褐飞虱对20种非寄主植物释放的挥发物及对α-蒎烯、α-水芹烯、崁烯、芳樟醇的拒避与引诱行为.【结果和结论】枸树Broussonetia papyrifera、塞楝Khaya senegalensis、胜红蓟Ageratum conyzoides、蟛蜞菊Wedelia chinensis、鬼针草Bidens pilosa、马樱丹Lantana camara、桉树Eucalyptus exsetrta、毛麻楝Chukrasia tabularis的叶片和小茴香Foeniculum vulgare的种子挥发物对褐飞虱雌成虫具有显著的拒避作用,其中蟛蜞菊、塞楝和桉树叶片挥发物的拒避作用比较明显,拒避率分别为87.5%、83.3%和72.0%;洋葱Allium cepa(鳞茎)挥发物对褐飞虱具有极显著的引诱作用,引诱率为73.1%;其他植物叶片挥发物对褐飞虱的拒避与引诱行为没有显著的影响.9种植物共有的3种挥发成分在测试浓度下,α-蒎烯对褐飞虱雌成虫有显著的引诱作用,崁烯对其有显著的拒避作用,α-水芹烯则对其拒避与引诱行为没有显著影响.水稻挥发物芳樟醇因含量不同,褐飞虱雌成虫的选择行为有差异,芳樟醇用量为1μL时对褐飞虱具有显著引诱作用,10μL以上时表现为拒避作用,15μL以上均具有极显著的拒避作用.%[Objective]To provide scientific evidence for the development and design of repellents and at-tractants of brown planthopper ,Nilaparvata lugens Stal ( BPH).[Method] The repellented and attrac-tivebehaviors response of female adults BPH to volatiles of twenty non-host plants and α-phellandrene ,α-pinene ,camphene and linalool were tested by a Y-tube olfactometer .[Result and conclusion] The vola-tiles of Broussonetia papyrifera,Khaya senegalensis,Ageratum conyzoides,Wedelia chinensis,Bidens pilosa, Lantana camara, Eucalyptus exsetrta, Chukrasia tabularis, and the nuts of Foeniculum vulgare revealed

  12. 负氧离子在仓储过程中对普洱生茶挥发性成分的影响%Effects of the negative oxygen ions on the Pu-erh raw tea volatile components during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽; 周红杰; 许腾升; 任洪涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To improve the beneficial content of tea leaves and reduce the content of smoke substances, so as to improve the quality and taste of Pu-erh raw tea.Methods The aroma components were enriched by the simultaneous distillation extraction. The aroma components of Pu-erh raw tea before and after the negative oxygen ion storage were compared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.Results The content of aroma components showed significant differences between Gudao and Longji Pu-erh raw tea. The aroma components having “smell of cigarettes” included hexanal, camphene, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol,α-pinene, hotrienol, isoborneol, naphthalene, benzeneacetaldehyde, safranal, 3-carene, 2-methyl naphthalene, indole, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-vinyl naphthalene, 1,3-dimethyl naphthalene, dihydroactinidiolide, phenanthrene, naphthalene,α-farnesene, icosane, bornyl acetate, n-tetradecane, ene terpenoids and so on, especially the linalool and its oxides. After the negative oxygen ion storage, the smoke substances descend obviously, which could significantly improve the overall taste.Conclusion The negative oxygen ion storage can significantly improve the quality of Pu-erh raw tea.%目的:提升有益内含香气成分和降低茶叶“烟味”杂异味以及提高生茶整体品质。方法采用蒸馏萃取法(simultaneous distillation extraction, SDE)富集其香气物质,并采用气相色谱-质谱联用法对负氧离子仓储前后普洱生茶进行香气成分对比和分析。结果2003年的龙记生饼和2005年的古道生饼香气物质含量呈现很大差异。其中正己醛、莰烯、苯甲醛、苯甲醇、α-蒎烯、脱氢芳樟醇、异龙脑、萘、苯乙醛、藏花醛、3-蒈烯、2-甲基萘、吲哚、1-甲基萘、2-乙烯基萘、1,3-二甲基萘、二氢猕猴桃内酯、菲、萘、α-法呢烯、正二十烷、乙酸冰片酯、十四烷、烯萜类等物质存在“烟味”,芳樟醇及其氧化物突出。经过负

  13. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. T. Griffith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In October–November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC, US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR systems and whole air sampling (WAS into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4–27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs and ~ 21% of organic aerosol (mass basis suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3, aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in the first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13–195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~ 20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The

  14. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. T. Griffith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In October–November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC, US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR systems and whole air sampling (WAS into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4–27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3, aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13–195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The SC

  15. 固体超强酸SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5的制备及其表征%PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5 SOLID SUPERACID CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建团; 郭海福; 闫鹏; 陈志胜

    2012-01-01

    采用共沸除氯工艺制备SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5固体超强酸,该方法引入共沸蒸馏,以正丁醇和无水乙醇为溶剂,锡盐醇溶液滴加氨水前除去其中结晶水再除氯离子,免去抽滤除氯步骤,缩短了催化剂制备时间.将制备的SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5用于催化α-蒎烯的异构化反应,考察催化剂制备条件对催化剂活性的影响,采用FT-IR,XRD,TG-DTA等对催化剂的物化性质进行表征,并与沉淀法、sol-gel法制备的催化剂进行对比.结果表明:催化剂最佳制备条件为Nb2O5加入量为SnO2质量的25%、浸渍液硫酸浓度0.5 mol/L、焙烧温度500℃、焙烧时间2h,将该条件下制备的SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5应用于催化α-蒎烯异构化反应时,α-蒎烯完全转化,莰烯选择性为66.49%;与沉淀法、sol-gel法相比,相同条件下共沸除氯法制备的催化剂较好.%SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5 solid superacid catalyst was prepared by azeotropic dechlorination method, using w-butanol and anhydrous alcohol as solvents, a filtration step could be omitted, and thus the catalyst preparation time was much shortened. The prepared catalyst was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TG-DTA and its catalytic performance was evaluated using isomerization of a-pinene as probe reaction. Test results showed that the optimum preparation conditions of SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5 solid superacid catalyst were as follows: a Nb2O5/SnO2 mass ratio of 0. 25, the concentration of impregnating sulfuric acid solution was 0. 50 mol/L and calcined at 500 ℃ for 2. 0 h; catalyst prepared under such conditions exhibited good catalytic performance in isomerization of crpinene, the conversion of α-pinene and selectivity of camphene was 100% and 66.49%, respectively. Compared with other preparation methods, such as precipitation and sol-gel methods, catalyst prepared by azeotropic dechlorination method was better.

  16. A comparison of GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements in ambient air under conditions of enhanced monoterpene loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ambrose

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Toluene was measured using both a gas chromatographic system (GC, with a flame ionization detector (FID, and a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS at the AIRMAP atmospheric monitoring station Thompson Farm (THF in rural Durham, NH during the summer of 2004. Simultaneous measurements of monoterpenes, including α- and β-pinene, camphene, Δ 3-carene, and d-limonene, by GC-FID demonstrated large enhancements in monoterpene mixing ratios relative to toluene, with median and maximum enhancement ratios of ~2 and ~30, respectively. A detailed comparison between the GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements was conducted to test the specificity of PTR-MS for atmospheric toluene measurements under conditions often dominated by biogenic emissions. We derived quantitative estimates of potential interferences in the PTR-MS toluene measurements related to sampling and analysis of monoterpenes, including fragmentation of the monoterpenes and some of their primary carbonyl oxidation products via reactions with H3O+, O2+ and NO+ in the PTR-MS drift tube. The PTR-MS and GC-FID toluene measurements were in good quantitative agreement and the two systems tracked one another well from the instrumental limits of detection to maximum mixing ratios of ~0.5 ppbv. A correlation plot of the PTR-MS versus GC-FID toluene measurements was described by the least squares regression equation y=(1.13± 0.02x−(0.008±0.003 ppbv, suggesting a small ~13% positive bias in the PTR-MS measurements. The bias corresponded with a ~0.055 ppbv difference at the highest measured toluene level. The two systems agreed quantitatively within the combined 1σ measurement precisions for 60% of the measurements. Discrepancies in the measured mixing ratios were not well correlated with enhancements in the monoterpenes. Better quantitative agreement between the two systems was obtained by

  17. Essential oil of Lithraea molleoides (Vell.: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity Óleo essencial de Lithraea molleoides (Vell.: composição química e atividade antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tsunezi Shimizu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithraea molleoides (Vell. (Anacardiaceae is a tree found in Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. It is popularly used in the form of alcoholic extracts, decoctions and infusions for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, arthritis, diseases of the digestive system and as diuretic, tranquilizer, haemostatic and tonic agent. The objectives of this study were the extraction of the essential oil of the mature fruit, leaves and aerial parts of the plant and quantification of the yield thereof; the identification and quantification of the principal components of the essential oil and the determination of its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeast. The essential oil yield of the mature fruits was 1.0% but essential oil was not detected in leaves and flowery branches. The gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of the mature fruits detected the presence of limonene (89.89%, alpha-pinene (3.48%, beta-pinene (2.63%, alpha-terpineol (1.27%, myrcene (0.64%, sabinene hydrate (0.54%, 4-terpineol (0.28%, camphene (0.22% and delta-3-carene (0.13%. The essential oil was active against just a few of the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast tested and did not present antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria.Lithraea molleoides(Vell. (Anacardiaceae é uma árvore encontrada no Brasil, Paraguai, Bolívia, Uruguai, Argentina e Chile. É popularmente usada na forma de extrato alcoólico, decocção e infusão para o tratamento de tosse, bronquite, artrite, doenças do sistema digestivo, como diurético, tranqüilizante, hemostático e tônico. O objetivo do presente estudo foi a extração do óleo essencial dos frutos maduros, folhas e outras partes aéreas da planta e o rendimento do mesmo; a identificação e quantificação dos principais componentes e a determinação da atividade antimicrobiana. O rendimento do óleo essencial dos frutos maduros foi de 1%, entretanto, não foi encontrado

  18. Components Analysis of Essential Oil in Rosmarinus officinalis from Bama of Guangxi%广西巴马迷迭香精油化学成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊红日; 张立颖; 陈宝; 沈芳; 刘雄民; 李健; 周立邦

    2012-01-01

    The differences and similarities of essential oil components between fresh and dry leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. From Bama city of Guangxi province were studied by GC—MS. 58 kinds of chemical compositions were isolated from the oil of fresh leaves, among which 43 kinds of chemical compositions were identified as 97.83% of total compositions. While 54 kinds of chemical compositions were isolated from the oil of dry leaves, among which 44 kinds of chemical compositions were identified as 99.56% of total composition. It showed that the main components of two kinds of oils were almost the same, mainly including 9 kinds of components such as a-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, a-terpineol, camphene, borneol, isobor-neol, bornyl acetate and verbenone, the total quality content of which was 80.99% and 87.98%, respectively. As two high components, the content of a-pinene was 21.34% and 33.23% and 1,8-cineole was 25.69% and 24.59%, respectively. It indicated that the type of R. Officinalis in Bama city of Guangxi province was similar with the Spanish one.%运用气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)对比研究广西巴马迷迭香(Rosmarinus officinalis L.)鲜叶和干叶中精油成分的差异.从鲜叶提取的精油中分离出58种化学成分,鉴定了43种,占总含量的97.83%;从干叶提取的精油中分离出54种化学成分,鉴定了44种,占总含量的99.56%.鲜叶与干叶提取精油的主要成分基本相同,包括α-蒎烯、1,8-桉叶素、樟脑、α-松油醇、莰烯、龙脑、异龙脑、乙酸龙脑酯和马鞭草烯酮等9种成分,分别占精油总含量的80.99%和87.98%,其中含量较高的α-蒎烯各占21.34%、33.23%,1,8-桉叶素各占25.69%、24.59%.结果表明,广西巴马迷迭香的化学成分接近于西班牙型的迷迭香.

  19. Comparative Analysis on Volatile Compounds of Different Parts of Thymus mongolicus Ronn%金边百里香不同部位挥发性成分比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任瑞芬; 尹大芳; 任才; 武曦; 赵凯; 杨秀云

    2016-01-01

    为进一步探讨金边百里香植株内挥发性物质生物合成的组织特异性及其机理,以1年生金边百里香(Thy⁃mus mongolicus Ronn)幼苗为试验材料,采用顶空固相微萃取(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MC)技术对金边百里香叶、侧枝、主枝和根的挥发性成分进行了检测,并用峰面积进行归一化定量。结果表明,金边百里香不同部位的芳香成分及其含量差异显著,叶、侧枝、主枝、根中分别检测出32,35,31,28种挥发性物质,其含量分别为各部位总挥发性物质的99.03%,99.33%,79.98%,91.30%。金边百里香叶、侧枝、主枝、根中有6种共有成分,分别为邻异丙基甲苯、丙烯酸异冰片酯、莰烯、4-萜烯醇、NA、十一烷,其中,邻异丙基甲苯为最主要的挥发性成分。此外,有差异组分的化合物种类少且相对含量也比较低。%To lay the foundation of further explore the plant volatile compounds in biosynthesis of tissue specificity and mechanism of Thymus mongolicus Ronn, this paper took one-year-old Thymus mongolicus Ronn seedings as materials, adopted the solid-phase micro-extraction(SPME)and gas chromatography mass spectrometry(GC-MS)to determination the volatile compounds of the leaf, lateral branch, main branch, root of Thymus mongolicus Ronn, and analyzed quantitatively by area normalization. The results showed that the aromatic components and the content of different parte of Thymus mongolicus Ronn were significant difference, 32, 35, 31 and 28 chemicals were identified by GC/MS correspondingly from the leaf, lateral branch,main branch,root of Thymus mongolicus Ronn, the identified components accounted for 99.03%, 99.33%, 79.98% and 91.30% of the total volatile compounds. The common constituents of the volatile compounds of the leaf, lateral branch,main branch,root of Thymus mongolicus Ronn were p-Cymene, Isobornyl acrylate, Camphene, Terpinen-4-ol, NA, Undecane

  20. 3种杉科植物挥发性有机化合物成分%Composition of Volatile Organic Compounds in Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Taxodium ascendens and Taxodium distichum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷倩; 俞益武; 高岩; 丁倩倩; 薛丹; 张倩倩

    2013-01-01

      为了探究水杉(Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng)、池杉(Taxodium ascendens Brongn.)和落羽杉(T.distichum (Linn.) Rich.)挥发性有机化合物(VOCs)的差异,从植物挥发性有机化合物角度为其园林配置提供理论依据,试验采用动态顶空气体循环采集法和热脱附气质联用技术(TDS-GC-MS)对3种杉科植物挥发物进行成分分析。结果表明:萜烯类化合物是3种杉科植物挥发性有机化合物的主要成分。其中从水杉中鉴定出26种成分,主要为β-蒎烯(相对峰面积50.41%),水芹烯(13.42%),柠檬烯(6.96%),3-蒈烯(4.92%)和α-蒎烯(3.77%);从池杉中鉴定出37种成分,主要为β-蒎烯(40.18%),水芹烯(12.01%),柠檬烯(8.10%),石竹烯(5.77%)和顺-3-己烯醇(5.30%);从落羽杉中鉴定出28种成分,主要为β-蒎烯(42.97%),柠檬烯(30.53%),水芹烯(6.54%),莰烯(3.44%)和石竹烯(2.46%)。%  An experiment was conducted to study the constituents of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in-tostroboides, Taxodium ascendens and Taxodium distichum for their landscape application.The VOCs were identified with the thermal desorption system gas chromatography /mass spectrometer technique (TDS-GC/MS).The major compounds of the VOCs in the three plants are terpenes: β-pinene (relative content of 50.41%), phellandrene (13.42%), D-limonene (6.96%), 3-Carene (4.92%) and α-pinene (3.77%) in Metasequoia glyptostroboides, β-pinene (40.18%), phellan-drene (12.01%), D-limonene (8.10%), caryophyllene (5.77%) and cis-3-hexene-1-ol (5.30%) in Taxodium ascen-dens, and β-pinene (42.97%), D-limonene (30.53%), phellandrene (6.54%), camphene (3.44%) and caryo-

  1. Óleos essenciais de Cymbopogon nardus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum e Zingiber officinale: composição, atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus and Zingiber officinale: composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Aparecida Andrade

    2012-06-01

    (Zingiber officinale essential oils. The essential oil extraction was performed by the using of hydrodistillation through the modified Clevenger apparatus, and identification and quantification of the constituents by the GC/MS and GC-FID analysis. Evaluation of antibacterial activity was performed by using agar well diffusion method, with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, Salmonella Cholerasuis ATCC 6539 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using β-carotene/linoleic acid system and the radical scavenging DPPH method. In chromatographic analysis the major constituents of C. nardus essential oil were citronellal (47.12%, geraniol (18.56% and citronellol (11.07%, in the C. zeylanicum essential oil were identified (E-cinnamaldehyde (77.72%, acetate (E-cinnamyl (5.99% and the monoterpenoid 1,8-cineole (4.66% as major components, and in Z. officinale the majority were geranial (25.06%, neral (16.47%, 1,8-cineole (10.98%, geraniol (8.51%, geranyl acetate (4.19% and camphene (4.30%. The essential oils showed antibacterial activity for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms, and the most efficient was C. zeylanicum essential oil. The antioxidant activity was observed, when using β-carotene/ linoleic acid system, for C. nardus, followed by Z. officinale and C. zeylanicum and, when using DPPH test, activity was observed only for C. nardus.

  2. Development in the hydration of dihydromyrcene%二氢月桂烯水合工艺的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶晶; 郑辉东

    2013-01-01

    二氢月桂烯醇(DHMOH)是当前国际上最常用的大宗香料之一,其主要生产方法是通过二氢月桂烯(DHM)水合而成。本文介绍了由DHM生成DHMOH的两种方法:间接水合法和直接水合法近年来的研究情况,对其各自的优缺点和相关研究进展进行了综述。直接水合法以其对环境危害小、设备投资小、易连续生产等优点,是近年来的研究重点。针对直接水合法研究中主要存在的溶剂用量大、分离能耗高等问题,介绍了一些在新溶剂、新工艺方向的研究进展。其中,离子液体、超临界CO2等新型溶剂以其溶解度好、易分离等优点,在烯烃水合方面具有很好的应用前景。莰烯、α-蒎烯等与DHM结构类似的烯烃,其参与水合过程的反应机理与DHM相似,因此这些烯烃水合方面的研究常常可以互相借鉴。%Dihydromyrcol (DHMOH) is one of the most widely-used perfumes in the world,and is mainly produced by the hydration of dihydromyrcene (DHM). This paper is to introduce two main approaches to produce DHMOH from DHM,the direct hydration and the indirect hydration,and the recent researches in this field. The direct hydration becomes the main focus in recent studies for less equipment corrosion,lower equipment investment and more environment friendliness. The researches on new solvents and technology are presented to solve the problems of large solvent demand and high energy consumption in the direct hydration. Among them,ease-to-separated novel solvents,such as ionic liquid and supercritical CO2,are quite promising in the hydration of alkene. Camphene,α-pinene and other terpenes,which share similar chemical structures with DHM,follow almost the same hydration mechanism with DHM,so the researches on the hydration of dihydromyrcene can be applied to these terpenes in most cases and vice versa.

  3. Electroantennogram and behavioral responsesof Pissodes nitidus to terpene volatiles of Pinus koraiensis%松梢象对红松萜烯类挥发物的触角电位及行为反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 彭璐; 严善春; 廖月枝

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the electroantennographic (EAG) and behavioral responses of the weevil (Pissodes nitidus) to eight volatile compositions released from red pine (Pinus koraiensis). The volatiles include ( 1 S)-( - ) -α-pinene, ( 1R )- ( + ) -α-pinene, ( 1S)-( - ) -β-pinene, camphene, β-myrcene, careen, D-limonene and ocimene in a series of concentrations, i. e. , 0. 000 d, 0. 004, 0.04, 0.4 and 0.8 mol/L. The results show that the weevil had higher EAG responses to all eight volatiles in five concentrations compared with the control (P 〈 0.05) and its EAG responses intensified with increased concentrations of volatiles. (IS)-( - )-α-pinene and (1R)-( + )-α-pinene caused the most significant EAG responses with concentrations of 0.4 and 0. 8 mol/L. The behavioral responses to the eight volatiles were also examined with a Y-tube olfactometer. The weevils presented significantly repellent behavior to D-limone with concentrations of 0.4 and 0.8 mol/L and the repellent rate was 62.5% to 80%. Except β-myreene, the weevils were attracted to the other six volatiles and most significantly inclined to 0.4 mol/ L of (1S)-( -)-α-pinene, (IR)-( + )-α-pinene and ocimene, with trapping rates of above 80%. These volatiles assayed in this study, especially (1S)-( - )-α-pinene, (1R)-( + )-α-pinene, ocimene and D-limone, may be potentially useful as repellents or attractants for the control and management of P. nitidus.%本文研究了松梢象对寄主红松挥发物组分S型α一蒎烯、R型α一蒎烯、卢一蒎烯、β一月桂烯、罗勒烯、莰烯、3一蒈烯及反一柠檬烯8种挥发物,在0.0004、0.004、0.04、0.4及0.8mol/L浓度下的触角电位反应及行为反应。结果表明:这8种挥发物单体在各浓度下均能引起松梢象的触角电位(EAG)反应,且相同挥发物EAG反应值随浓度的增加

  4. 松墨天牛对雪松精油及其单烯的选择行为反应%Choice Behavior of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus to Cedrus deodara Essential Oil and Monoene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔飞; 陈京元; 夏剑萍; 桂连友

    2011-01-01

    The choice behavior of Monochamus alternatus to Cedrus deodara essential oil and monoene was determined by Y olfactometry to probe the effect of host volatile on host choice of Monochamus alternatus adults and to provide the scientific basis for development and utilization of attractants. The results showed that the attracting action of 1/200 Cedrus deodara essential oil was the highest among all treatments, the essential oil of Chinese red pine, simulative of Cedrus deodara essential oil (a-pinene .' βpinene: limonene .' camphene: mycrene=50: 40:10: 1: 3) and odor source A (α-pinene: β-pinene=1: 1) had the obvious attracting action to female Monochamus alternatus adults, the simulative of Cedrus deodara essential oil had better attracting action to female Monochamus alternatus adults compared with odor source A, the attracting ability of odor source A was significantly higher than a-pinene and there was no significant difference in attracting action among Chinese red pine essential oil + Cedrus deodara essential oil, Cedrus deodara essential oil + simulative of Cedrus deodara essential oil and odor source A+odor source B(α-pinene: β-pinene=10:1).%为探讨寄主挥发物在成虫寄主选择中的作用,为开发和利用引诱剂提供依据,利用Y型嗅觉仪,测试了松墨天牛(Monochamus alternatus Hope)对雪松精油及其单烯的选择行为.结果表明:200倍的雪松精油有明显引诱作用,引诱效果好于50倍和1000倍;马尾松精油、雪松精油模拟物(α-蒎烯:β-蒎烯:柠檬烯:莰烯:月桂烯=50:40:10:1:3)、味源物a(α-蒎烯:β-蒎烯=1:1)对松墨天牛雌成虫具有明显引诱作用;雪松精油模拟物对松墨天牛雌成虫的引诱能力大于味源物a,味源物a对松墨天牛雌成虫引诱能力显著高于α-蒎烯;3组对比处理,马尾松精油-雪松精油、雪松精油-雪松精油模拟物和味源物a-味源物b(α-蒎烯:β-蒎烯=10:1)之间对松墨天牛雌成虫的引诱作用无明显差异.

  5. Study on the Yield and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Rosmarinus officinalis L.Fresh Leaves in Pingjiang County%平江产迷迭香鲜叶精油产量及化学组成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 杨国恩; 毕志成; 贺兵; 赵立志

    2016-01-01

    The yield and chemical composition of the essential oil from the broad-type and the narrow-type Rosmarinus officinalis L.fresh leaves planted in Pingjiang County are studied.The steam distillation method and the GC-MS technology are adopted to extract the essential oil and to determine its chemical composition respectively.Through the monthly tracing research in a whole year,some useful results are obtained as follows:the yield in dry basis of the essential oil from the narrow-type Rosmarinus officinalis L.fresh leaves planted in Pingjiang County is up to 3.447%, higher than the broad-type ones.The yield of the essential oil is proportional to the air temperature, so the optimum harvesting time of the fresh leaves is between July and September per year.The harvesting time of the fresh leaves has no influence to the chemical components in the essential oil,but so does the content of every component.The chemical components and their content are both different between the essential oil from the broad-type Rosmarinus officinalis L.fresh leaves and the narrow-type ones harvested simultaneously,but the main components in the two kinds of essential oil are almost the same as α-pinene,camphene,1,8-cineole,borneol,camphor,verbenone,bornyl acetate,terpineol and β-linalool.The chemical type of the essential oil from the broad-type and the narrow-type Rosmarinus officinalis L.fresh leaves planted in Pingjiang County is Spanish type and Tunisian and Moroccan type respectively.%研究了岳阳平江产宽、窄叶型迷迭香鲜叶精油的产量及其化学组成,采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取了迷迭香鲜叶精油,利用 GC-MS 技术确定了精油的化学组成。1周年内的逐月跟踪研究表明:岳阳平江产窄叶型迷迭香鲜叶精油的干基得率为3.447%,精油产量高于宽叶型鲜叶;鲜叶精油产量与环境气温之间存在显著的正相关性,采收鲜叶以7月~9月份为佳;采收时间不影响精油的化学成分,但

  6. Bioextracts of Cistus ladanifer L. growing in São Domingos mine as source of valuable compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe

    2016-04-01

    intrapopulation variability being these concentrations, in general, higher than in plant shoots from non-contaminated area (except Cr). Cistus ladanifer bioextracts from the two populations exhibited similar profiles and quite variation in the qualitative composition. Major component in bioextracts obtained from C. ladanifer shoots of the two populations was viridiflorol (8.9-12.8 %). Other compounds were identified in all bioextracts (plant sample) with great odoriferous interest (amber-like scent: ambrox and caryophyllene oxide; fresh-camphoraceous: bornyl acetate, borneol and myrtenol) and microbial effect (alfa-pinene, beta-pinene, fenchone and camphor). Slight variability was observed in the concentrations of major components (mg/kg - alfa-pinene: 107.8-163.7; camphene: 20.8-53.3; camphor: 14.5-70.2; fechone: 4.2-20.7; verbenone: 131.8-232.0, depending on sample), but no relationship was found between these components and the concentrations of PHEs in shoots. Therefore, contamination in soils from São Domingos and PHEs in C. ladanifer shoots did not affect the quality of the bioextracts. Bioxtracts obtained from C. ladanifer growing in São Domingos mining area had valuable compounds. Phytostabilisation of mining areas from IPB with this species can provide economic return by the exploration of this plant-based product for fragrance and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Antennal Activity and EAG Responses of Asian Longhorn Beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to plant Terpenes%光肩星天牛对寄主植物萜烯类化合物触角活性和电位反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽清; 严善春; 程红; 孙宗华

    2012-01-01

    为给引诱剂和驱避剂开发提供基础资料,对光肩星天牛(Anoplophoraglabripennis(Motsch.))离体触角各节嗅觉反应差异,离体触角活性随时间变化的规律,以及雌、雄两性对2 mol/L的顺-3-烯-1-醇、月桂烯、水芹烯、3-蒈烯、S型α-蒎烯、莰烯、R型α-蒎烯、S型β-蒎烯、柠檬烯、罗勒烯、正己烷和乙酸乙酯12种植物挥发物进行了EAG反应测定.结果表明:光肩星天牛触角各节的嗅觉感受存在差异,最敏感节是端部第2节.雌、雄两性离体触角活性随时间变化规律不同,雌性呈缓慢减弱趋势,雄性0.8h内活性陡降,而后呈缓慢减弱趋势;雌、雄虫触角分别在离体10.0、2.8h基本失去活性.2 mol·L-1挥发物EAG测试结果表明:与对照相比,雌性对12种挥发物EAG反应明显(P<0.01),雄性除对S型α-蒎烯无明显EAG反应外(P>0.05),对其余11种挥发物反应明显(P<0.01).T检验表明:雌、雄虫除对Sβ-蒎烯差异不显著外,对其余11种挥发物的EAG反应存在显著差异(P<0.05).%Experiments were conducted on olfactory responses of each segment of antennae and antennal activity variation with time for female and male beetles, as well as the electroantennogram (EAG) responses of female and male beetles of Ano-plaphora glabripennis to cis-3-hexen-l-ol, /3-myrcene, R(-)-a-phellandrene, ( + )-3-carene, (1S)-(-) -a-pinene, cam-phene, (1R)-(+) -a-pinene, (1S)-(-)-/3-pinene, R-(+)-limonene, ocimene, hexane or ethyl acetate at a concentration of 2 mol ·L-1, Results show that the olfactory responses of each segment of antennae are different, and the most sensitive section is the end of section Ⅱ. Antennal activity variations with time for female and male are also different, and the females show a slow weakening trend, while the activities of males decrease drastically within 0. 8 hours, then exhibit a slowly decreasing trend. Antenna activity of the female is basically lost in vitro for 10 hours and 2

  8. The Impacts of Marine Organic Emissions on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Gantt, B.

    2013-12-01

    Using laboratory studies and global/regional climate model results, this talk will contribute to two main research questions: 1) what can be learned about the carbon emission inducing stress factors for marine algae, and 2) what is a potential impact of marine biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions on global atmospheric chemistry and climate. Marine photosynthetic organisms emit VOCs which can form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Currently large uncertainty exists in the magnitude of the marine biogenic sources, their spatiotemporal distribution, controlling factors, and contributions to natural background of organic aerosols. Here laboratory results for the production of isoprene and four monoterpene (α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and d-limonene) compounds as a function of variable light and temperature regimes for 6 different phytoplankton species will be discussed. The experiment was designed to simulate the regions where phytoplankton is subjected to changeable light/temperature conditions. The samples were grown and maintained at a climate controlled room. VOCs accumulated in the water and headspace above the water were measured by passing the sample through a gas chromatography/mass system equipped with a sample pre-concentrator allowing detection of low ppt levels of hydrocarbons. The VOC production rates were distinctly different for light/temperature stressed (the first 12 hour cycle at light/temperature levels higher than what the cultures were acclimated to in a climate controlled room) and photo/temperature-acclimated (the second 12 hour light/temperature cycle) states. In general, all phytoplankton species showed a rapid increase in isoprene and monoterpene production at higher light levels (between 150 to 420 μE m-2 s-1) until a constant production rate was reached. Isoprene and α-pinene, production rates also increased with temperature until a certain level, after which the rates declined as temperature increased further. Two

  9. Oviposition Preferences of Major Lepidoptera Pest of Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis%思茅松主要鳞翅目害虫的产卵选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马惠芬; 刘凌; 闫争亮; 刘云彩

    2013-01-01

    运用同时蒸馏萃取( SDE)和气相色谱-质谱联用技术( GC-MS)比较了思茅松( Pni usk esiyavar 。 langbianensis)、阿丁枫( Altingia chinensis)和西南桦( Bteu la alnoides)的树叶挥发性物质的组成和含量,并对松实小卷蛾( Rte inia crstata)、微红梢斑螟( Dioryctria rubella)、思茅松毛虫( Dendrolimus kikuchii)在3种树上的产卵选择性进行了试验。 GC-MS分析结果表明:思茅松针叶的挥发性物质以α-蒎烯为主,也含有较多的β-蒎烯、莰烯、石竹烯、月桂烯和β-水芹烯等萜烯类化合物;阿丁枫树叶的挥发物以( E)-石竹烯、异石竹烯、α-依兰油烯、愈创烷-1(5),11-二烯及双环大根香叶烯为主;而西南桦树叶挥发物中,除含有α-蒎烯等萜烯类化合物外,主要以2-己烯醛、2-己烯-1-醇、( Z)-3-己烯-1-醇、( Z)-2-己烯-1-醇等绿叶气味物质为主。产卵选择性试验表明:松实小卷蛾、微红梢斑螟、思茅松毛虫偏好选择思茅松针叶为其产卵场所,而将思茅松喷施阿丁枫和西南桦树叶提取物后,针叶上的产卵量大大减少。说明植物挥发物在松实小卷蛾、微红梢斑螟、思茅松毛虫等鳞翅目松树害虫的产卵寄主选择中起关键作用,松树挥发物提供了寄主对雌虫产卵适宜性的化学信息,而阔叶树挥发物则对其产卵具有驱避作用。%By simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we compared the leaf volatile compositions of Pinus kesiya var.l angbianensis, Altingia chinensis, Betula alnoides and we tested oviposi-tion preferences of Re tiin a csr tata, Dioryctria rubella and Dendrolimus kikuchi .In volatile of Pinus kesiya var.langbianen-sis,α-pinene is the dominant component.β-pinene, camphene,caryophyllene , myrcene and βp-hellandrene are also the maincomponents .In volatile ofA ltingi a chinensis, (E

  10. Analysis of volatiles from Laguncularia racemosa in Beihai, Guangxi by ATD-GC/MS andevaluation on safe property of the tree%广西北海拉关木挥发物的 ATD-GC/MS 分析及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚贻烈; 郑华; 陆小峰; 李坤; 钟景春; 宋国彬; 陈大亮

    2016-01-01

    fragrance or odor (ASV). Some substances were considered as mid-strong ASV chemicals, such as camphene (250), benzalde-hyde (500), acetophenone (200), nonanal (550), methyl salicylate (450) etc., and others were considered as low ASV chemicals, such as terpinolene (120), octanoic acid (100), nonanoic acid (100), p-cymene (80), etc. For its benefit to human health, L. racemosa is probably available to daily cosmetics and flavors by using the volatiles widely. Due to the safe and non-toxic smelling, the tree can be regarded as a prospective species for seashore vegeta-tion rebuilding, coastal eco-restoration and landscape/ fragrance environment making in the urban beaches.%速生红树植物拉关木具有优良的耐盐抗污染特性,但其自身吸收海水污染物后对周边环境及人类是否安全引人关注,尤其是该树种释放的挥发性成分在嗅觉方面是否安全有待评价。该研究以其活体无损伤幼龄及成年枝叶(无花、开花及带果状态)的挥发物为对象,用动态顶空密闭循环吸附捕集方式采集样品后,经全自动热脱附—气相色谱/质谱(ATD-GC/ MS)联用分析。结果表明:拉关木挥发物由萜烯、酮、羧酸等化合物组成,其中萜烯所占比例最高,而最优势成分α-蒎烯在各试样中的相对百分含量均在3/4左右,β-水芹烯、β-蒎烯等其它萜烯也具有较高含量,为10%~15%及在5%以上,萜烯类成分的存在与有关红树植物提取物化学成分的文献报道相吻合。试样中的其它少量成分呈松木、冬青、柑橘、桉树等香韵,部分成分具有中等强度的香比强值(ASV),如莰烯(250)、苯甲醛(500)、苯乙酮(200)、壬醛(550)、水杨酸甲酯(450)等,部分成分的 ASV值较低,如萜品油烯(异松油烯,120)、辛酸(100)、壬酸(100)、对伞花烃(80)等,但对总体气味均有一定的贡献度。由于拉关木挥发物中的各种成分总体有益于人体健康,且在日用香料香精产品中可广泛