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Sample records for campestris global regulator

  1. Characterization of the GntR family regulator HpaR1 of the crucifer black rot pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Zhao Su; Liu Wu; Yan-Hua Qi; Guo-Fang Liu; Guang-Tao Lu; Ji-Liang Tang

    2016-01-01

    The GntR family transcription regulator HpaR1 identified from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris has been previously shown to positively regulate the genes responsible for hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity and to autorepress its own expression. Here, we demonstrated that HpaR1 is a global regulator that positively regulates diverse biological processes, including xanthan polysaccharide production, extracellular enzyme activity, cell motility and tolerance to various stresses. To in...

  2. Characterization of the GntR family regulator HpaR1 of the crucifer black rot pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Zhao; Wu, Liu; Qi, Yan-Hua; Liu, Guo-Fang; Lu, Guang-Tao; Tang, Ji-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The GntR family transcription regulator HpaR1 identified from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris has been previously shown to positively regulate the genes responsible for hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity and to autorepress its own expression. Here, we demonstrated that HpaR1 is a global regulator that positively regulates diverse biological processes, including xanthan polysaccharide production, extracellular enzyme activity, cell motility and tolerance to various stresses. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms of HpaR1, we began with xanthan polysaccharide production, which is governed by a cluster of gum genes. These are directed by the gumB promoter. Disruption of HpaR1 significantly reduced gumB transcription and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that HpaR1 interacts directly with gumB promoter. DNase I footprint analysis revealed that HpaR1 and RNA polymerase were bound to the sequences extending from -21 to +10 and -41 to +29 relative to the transcription initiation site of gumB, respectively. Furthermore, in vitro transcription assays showed that HpaR1 facilitated the binding of RNA polymerase to gumB promoter, leading to an enhancement of its transcription. These results suggest that HpaR1 regulates gumB transcription via a mechanism similar but different to what was found, until now, to only be used by some MerR family transcription activators. PMID:26818230

  3. Insights into the Extracytoplasmic Stress Response of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris: Role and Regulation of σE-Dependent Activity ▿ ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Bordes, Patricia; Lavatine, Laure; Phok, Kounthéa; Barriot, Roland; Boulanger, Alice; Castanié-Cornet, Marie-Pierre; Déjean, Guillaume; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Becker, Anke; Arlat, Matthieu; Gutierrez, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is an epiphytic bacterium that can become a vascular pathogen responsible for black rot disease of crucifers. To adapt gene expression in response to ever-changing habitats, phytopathogenic bacteria have evolved signal transduction regulatory pathways, such as extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors. The alternative sigma factor σE, encoded by rpoE, is crucial for envelope stress response and plays a role in the pathogenicity of many bacterial species. ...

  4. The host plant metabolite glucose is the precursor of diffusible signal factor (DSF) family signals in Xanthomonas campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyue; Liu, Xiaoling; Wu, Ji'en; Lee, Jasmine; Chen, Shaohua; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2015-04-01

    Plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris produces cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid (diffusible signal factor [DSF]) as a cell-cell communication signal to regulate biofilm dispersal and virulence factor production. Previous studies have demonstrated that DSF biosynthesis is dependent on the presence of RpfF, an enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase, but the DSF synthetic mechanism and the influence of the host plant on DSF biosynthesis are still not clear. We show here that exogenous addition of host plant juice or ethanol extract to the growth medium of X. campestris pv. campestris could significantly boost DSF family signal production. It was subsequently revealed that X. campestris pv. campestris produces not only DSF but also BDSF (cis-2-dodecenoic acid) and another novel DSF family signal, which was designated DSF-II. BDSF was originally identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia to be involved in regulation of motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in B. cenocepacia. Functional analysis suggested that DSF-II plays a role equal to that of DSF in regulation of biofilm dispersion and virulence factor production in X. campestris pv. campestris. Furthermore, chromatographic separation led to identification of glucose as a specific molecule stimulating DSF family signal biosynthesis in X. campestris pv. campestris. (13)C-labeling experiments demonstrated that glucose acts as a substrate to provide a carbon element for DSF biosynthesis. The results of this study indicate that X. campestris pv. campestris could utilize a common metabolite of the host plant to enhance DSF family signal synthesis and therefore promote virulence. PMID:25681189

  5. The role of PilZ domain proteins in the virulence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Yvonne; Ryan, Robert P; O'Donovan, Karen; He, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Le; Feng, Jia-Xun; Tang, Ji-Liang; Dow, J Maxwell

    2008-11-01

    Cyclic di-GMP [(bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate)] is an almost ubiquitous second messenger in bacteria that is implicated in the regulation of a range of functions that include developmental transitions, aggregative behaviour, adhesion, biofilm formation and virulence. Comparatively little is known about the mechanism(s) by which cyclic di-GMP exerts these various regulatory effects. PilZ has been identified as a cyclic di-GMP binding protein domain; proteins with this domain are involved in regulation of specific cellular processes, including the virulence of animal pathogens. Here we have examined the role of PilZ domain proteins in virulence and the regulation of virulence factor synthesis in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), the causal agent of black rot of crucifers. The Xcc genome encodes four proteins (XC0965, XC2249, XC2317 and XC3221) that have a PilZ domain. Mutation of XC0965, XC2249 and XC3221 led to a significant reduction of virulence in Chinese radish. Mutation of XC2249 and XC3221 led to a reduction in motility whereas mutation of XC2249 and XC0965 affected extracellular enzyme production. All mutant strains were unaffected in biofilm formation in vitro. The reduction of virulence following mutation of XC3221 could not be wholly attributed to an effect on motility as mutation of pilA, which abolishes motility, has a lesser effect on virulence. PMID:19019010

  6. Regulating global biodiversity: What is the problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Tim; Groom, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We distinguish between local problems of biodiversity loss and global ones, where international cooperation is required. Global biodiversity regulation involves choosing the optimal stopping rule regarding global land conversions, in order to ensure that some areas of unconverted natural reserves remain to support the production sector that exists on converted lands. The basic difficulty with implementing a solution to this global problem lies in the asymmetry in endowments between those stat...

  7. Crystal structure of the YajQ-family protein XC_3703 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhixin; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    As an important bacterial second messenger, bis-(3',5')-cyclic diguanylate (cyclic di-GMP or c-di-GMP) has been implicated in numerous biological activities, including biofilm formation, motility, survival and virulence. These processes are manipulated by the binding of c-di-GMP to its receptors. XC_3703 from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, which belongs to the YajQ family of proteins, has recently been identified as a potential c-di-GMP receptor. XC_3703, together with XC_2801, functions as a transcription factor activating virulence-related genes, which can be reversed by the binding of c-di-GMP to XC_3703. However, the structural basis of how c-di-GMP regulates XC_3703 remains elusive. In this study, the structure of XC_3703 was determined to 2.1 Å resolution using the molecular-replacement method. The structure of XC_3703 consists of two domains adopting the same topology, which is similar to that of the RNA-recognition motif (RRM). Arg65, which is conserved among the c-di-GMP-binding subfamily of the YajQ family of proteins, together with Phe80 in domain II, forms a putative c-di-GMP binding site. PMID:27599864

  8. Flavonoids from Lonchocarpus campestris (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new flavone named 3,4',5,6-tetramethoxy-[2, 3:7,8] furanoflavone besides the known flavonoids (2S,3R,4S)-3,4,5,8-tetramethoxy-[2,3:6,7]-furanoflavan, 3,6-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethylcromene-[2,3:7,8]-flavone, 3,5,6-trimethoxy-[2,3:7,8]-furanoflavone, 2,4',4,5-tetramethoxy-[2,3:6,7]-furanodihydroaurone, (2R,3S,4S)-3,4,5,6-tetramethoxy-[2,3:7,8]-furanoflavan and 3',4'-methylenedioxy-5,6-dimethoxy-[2,3:7,8]-furanoflavone were isolated from the root barks of Lonchocarpus campestris. The complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of the new furan flavonoid was performed using 1D and 2D pulse sequences, including COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. (author)

  9. Flavonoids from Lonchocarpus campestris (Leguminosae); Flavonoides de Lonchocarpus campestris (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L., E-mail: opessoa@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    A new flavone named 3,4',5,6-tetramethoxy-[2'', 3'':7,8] furanoflavone besides the known flavonoids (2S,3R,4S)-3,4,5,8-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':6,7]-furanoflavan, 3,6-dimethoxy-2'',2''-dimethylcromene-[2'',3'':7,8]-flavone, 3,5,6-trimethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavone, 2,4',4,5-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':6,7]-furanodihydroaurone, (2R,3S,4S)-3,4,5,6-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavan and 3',4'-methylenedioxy-5,6-dimethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavone were isolated from the root barks of Lonchocarpus campestris. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR assignments of the new furan flavonoid was performed using 1D and 2D pulse sequences, including COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. (author)

  10. Arbitrage and Competition in Global Financial Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    Regulatory arbitrage in financial markets refers to a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where this...... their standards solely to attract businesses and thereby impose externalities on the worldwide financial market by undermining financial stability as a global public good. Policymakers worldwide are experimenting with remedies to respond to the phenomenon. I introduce the importance of an effective...... institutions’ excessive risk-taking. If such risk-taking would be judged by market discipline instead of posing a risk to global financial stability, the main downside of regulatory competition could be restrained. Within the boundaries of such a system, competition could then operate and contribute to a...

  11. Transcriptional reprogramming and phenotypical changes associated with growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in cabbage xylem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Noël, Laurent D; SanCristobal, Magali; Danoun, Saida; Becker, Anke; Soreau, Paul; Arlat, Matthieu; Lauber, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    Xylem sap (XS) is the first environment that xylem phytopathogens meet in planta during the early infection steps. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), the causative agent of Brassicaceae black rot, colonizes the plant xylem vessels to ensure its multiplication and dissemination. Besides suppression of plant immunity, Xcc has to adapt its metabolism to exploit plant-derived nutrients present in XS. To study Xcc behaviour in the early infection steps, we used cabbage XS to analyse bacterial growth. Mineral and organic composition of XS were determined. Significant growth of Xcc in XS was allowed by the rapid catabolism of amino acids, sugars and organic acids, and it was accompanied by the formation of biofilm-like structures. Transcriptome analysis of Xcc cultivated in XS using cDNA microarrays revealed a XS-specific transcriptional reprogramming compared to minimal or rich media. More specifically, up-regulation of genes encoding transporters such as TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs), that could be associated with nutrient acquisition and detoxification, was observed. In agreement with the aggregation phenotype, expression of genes important for twitching motility and adhesion was up-regulated in XS. Taken together, our data show specific responses of Xcc to colonization of cabbage XS that could be important for the pathogenesis process and establish XS as a model medium to study mechanisms important for the early infection events. PMID:24784488

  12. Diffusible signal factor family signals provide a fitness advantage to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in interspecies competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyue; Wu, Jien; Yin, Wenfang; Li, Peng; Zhou, Jianuan; Chen, Shaohua; He, Fei; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2016-05-01

    Diffusible signal factor (DSF) represents a new class of widely conserved quorum sensing signals, which regulates various biological functions through intra- or interspecies signaling. The previous studies identified that there is an antagonistic interaction between Xanthomonas and Bacillus species bacteria in natural ecosystem, but the detailed molecular mechanism of interspecies competition is not clear. This study showed that Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) interfered with morphological transition and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis in mixed cultures, whereas abrogation of the DSF synthase RpfF reduced the interference. DSF inhibited B. thuringiensis cell division and sporulation through modulation of ftsZ, which encodes an important cell division protein in bacterial cells. In addition, RpfF is essential for production of six DSF-family signals in Xcc, which employ the same signaling pathways to regulate biological functions in Xcc and play similar effects on reduction of cell division, sporulation and antibiotic resistance of B. thuringiensis. Furthermore, abrogation of RpfF decreased the competitive capability of Xcc against B. thuringiensis on the surface of Chinese cabbage leaves. Our findings provide new insights into the role of DSF-family signals in interspecies competition and depict molecular mechanisms with which Xcc competes with B. thuringiensis. PMID:26913592

  13. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895 Dowson 1939, on Brassicas in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Radunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata is most commonly grown, although other brassicas,particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly producedsince recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing ofcollard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleraceaspecies and in the nearest relation with their wild ancestor – the sylvestris variety.Diseases are the main restrictive factors for successful production of these vegetables.Susceptibility of the cultivars and inadequate control often result in more or less damagedcrops in some plots.Causal agents of brassica diseases, especially bacterial, have not been investigated inMontenegro until 2009. Since the symptoms observed in 2009 were „V” shaped leaf edgenecrosis and black rot of vascular tissue, it was assumed that they were caused by plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.Samples of the infected plants were collected from different localities in Montenegro.Isolation and identification of the bacterium were performed using laboratory methodsaccording to Schaad (1980, Lelliott and Stead (1987 and Arsenijević (1997. Examinationof chosen bacterial isolates was conducted using both, classical bacteriological methods(examination of their pathogenic, morphological, cultivation and biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics, and ELISA test.The obtained results confirmed the presence of X.campestris pv. campestris (Pammel,1895 Dowson 1939, on cabbage, kale, broccoli and collard in Montenegro. This is the firstexperimental evidence that collard is the host of X. campestris pv. campestris in Montenegro.

  14. Global, Regional or Thematic Networks for Regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Moscow Conference in 2006 highlighted the importance of information networks and databases for nuclear safety and security regulatory activities and recommended broader use and sharing of nuclear safety information and knowledge. Today, the World Wide Web contains enormous amounts of valuable safety and security information. In this paper, that part of the worldwide web that contains nuclear safety and security information is called the 'Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network' (GNSSN). While this network supports many nuclear regulatory activities quite well, the effectiveness can further be enhanced. To this end, the IAEA and its Member States, supported by the G8 Nuclear Safety and Security Group, are now launching a web-based Portal, called RegNet (Portal) that will offer regulators a more effective direct access to authorized nuclear safety and security information. The RegNet-Portal builds on existing regional networks such as the Asian Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN), on thematic networks such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) web site or the Incident Reporting System (IRS) as well as on information available at sources of international organizations/bodies and their member states. The structure for RegNet has been deduced from today's system of resources and instruments that are used in international regulatory cooperation to achieve high levels of safety and security worldwide, i.e. from the 'Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime' (GNSSR). The concept of the RegNet-Portal is to establish and maintain common interfaces for direct access to respective information of Member States or International Organizations through (hyper) links to their web sites. The responsibility for the content of these web sites remains completely with the owners. The RegNet-Portal will now become operational. It will include systematic access to existing regional and thematic networks. Special attention will be given to information sharing on IRRS missions, generic

  15. Flower infection of Brassica oleracea with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris results in high levels of seed infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Heijden, van der L.

    2013-01-01

    During seed production, Brassica seed may become infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris after systemic colonization of plants upon leaf infection, or alternatively, after flower infection. Polytunnel experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to study the relative importance of these c

  16. Especificidade de hospedeiro nas interações Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brássicas Host specificity in interaction Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brassicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulândula Silva Miguel-Wruck

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Face às escassas informações acerca da variabilidade patogênica de isolados brasileiros de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, realizou-se um estudo para avaliar a especificidade patogênica de trinta e três isolados do patógeno, provenientes de várias regiões do Brasil e do exterior, a oito espécies de brássicas, através de inoculação por meio de injeção da suspensão bacteriana nas folhas. Desse total, 12 isolados foram obtidos de couve-comum (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nove de repolho (B. oleracea var. capitata, cinco de couve-flor (B. oleracea var. botrytis, dois de canola (B. napus, um de brócolos (B. oleracea var. italica, um de couve-chinesa (B. chinensis, um de couve-rábano (B. oleracea var. gongylodes e dois de rabanete (Raphanus sativus. A avaliação da patogenicidade dos isolados da bactéria, frente aos hospedeiros em estudo, demonstrou que 14 deles não apresentaram especificidade, originando sintomas em todas as diferentes plantas inoculadas. Os 19 isolados restantes, entretanto, apresentaram relativo grau de especificidade, não causando doença em uma ou mais das plantas inoculadas.Considering the lack of information in literature about the pathogenic variability of Brazilian isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a study was carried out to determine the pathogenic specificity of 33 isolates of this bacterium originated from several regions of Brazil and overseas to eight different Brassica species, through inoculation by means of injection of the bacterial suspension in leaves. From these isolates, 12 were obtained from collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nine from cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata, five from cauliflower (B. oleracea var. botrytis, two from canola (B. napus, one from broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica, one from Chinese cabbage (B. chinensis, one from kohlrabi (B. oleracea var. gongylodes and two from radish (Raphanus sativus. The pathogenicity of the bacterium

  17. Effectiveness of the IAEA regulations: Enabling global health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes and radiation technology are used around the world to advance global health. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease require a secure supply of radioisotopes, and transportation is a vital link in ensuring this secure supply. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) transport regulations have facilitated global health by providing a consistent framework for safe international transport. However, the complexity of regulations and inconsistent application have compromised the ability to supply essential radioisotopes around the world. IAEA, competent authorities and the industry need to work together to ensure that the needs of global health care are considered during the development and implementation of international transport regulations. (author)

  18. Secure web application development and global regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Glisson, W.B.; Glisson, L.M.; Welland, R.

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has been predominantly responsible for instigating radical paradigm transformations in today’s global information rich civilizations. Many societies have basic operational economical components that depend on Web enabled systems in order to support daily commercial activities. The acceptance of E-commerce as a valid channel for conducting business coupled with societal integration and dependence on Web enabled technology has instigated the development of local, nation...

  19. Promoter analysis of the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris gum operon directing biosynthesis of the xanthan polysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Katzen, F; Becker, A.; Zorreguieta, A; Pühler, A; Ielpi, L

    1996-01-01

    The Xanthomonas campestris gum gene cluster is composed of 12 genes designated gumB, -C, -D, -E, -F, -G, -H, -I, -J, -K, -L, and -M. The transcriptional organization of this gene cluster was analyzed by the construction of gum-lacZ transcriptional fusions in association with plasmid integration mutagenesis. This analysis, coupled with primer extension assays, indicated that the gum region was mainly expressed as an operon from a promoter located upstream of the first gene, gumB.

  20. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7]. PMID:17396957

  1. Legal Aspects of Global Warming Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Jančářová

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available After short introduction, the regulatory instruments aiming at greenhouse gasses reduction at the national and EC level are outlined. Attention is devoted to the EU emission trading scheme along with greenhouse gasses emission limitation and national allocation plans, joint implementation and clean development mechanisms, best available technology requirements, regulation of hydrofluorocarbons, energy efficiency and renewable sources of energy promotion and enforcement measures. Benefits and shortcomings of these instruments at the national level, particularly in the Czech Republic, are indicated.

  2. Lentinan promotes the root of Brassica CampestrisL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of lentinan on Brassica campestris L (rape. Spraying on the leaves of lentinan B. campestris L. at 0.05×10-6 g ml-1 concentration significantly promoted the root elongation (P<0.05. The results for the first time showed that lentinan could prolongate roots as a new plant hormone.

  3. pigB determines a diffusible factor needed for extracellular polysaccharide slime and xanthomonadin production in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    OpenAIRE

    Poplawsky, A. R.; Chun, W.

    1997-01-01

    Seven xanthomonadin transcriptional units (pigA through pigG) were identified by transposon saturation mutagenesis within an 18.6-kbp portion of the previously identified 25.4-kbp pig region from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (strain B-24). Since marker exchange mutant strains with insertions in one 3.7-kbp portion of pig could not be obtained, mutations in this region may be lethal to the bacterium. Complementation analyses with different insertion mutations further defined and confi...

  4. Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Tamar; Prizak, Roshan; Guet, Călin C; Barton, Nicholas H; Tkačik, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulation relies on the specificity of transcription factor (TF)-DNA interactions. Limited specificity may lead to crosstalk: a regulatory state in which a gene is either incorrectly activated due to noncognate TF-DNA interactions or remains erroneously inactive. As each TF can have numerous interactions with noncognate cis-regulatory elements, crosstalk is inherently a global problem, yet has previously not been studied as such. We construct a theoretical framework to analyse the effects of global crosstalk on gene regulation. We find that crosstalk presents a significant challenge for organisms with low-specificity TFs, such as metazoans. Crosstalk is not easily mitigated by known regulatory schemes acting at equilibrium, including variants of cooperativity and combinatorial regulation. Our results suggest that crosstalk imposes a previously unexplored global constraint on the functioning and evolution of regulatory networks, which is qualitatively distinct from the known constraints that act at the level of individual gene regulatory elements. PMID:27489144

  5. [Overview of global clinical data management regulations and standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Quality and integrity of clinical trials and associated data management is a basis on the scientific and rightly assessments of drug safety and efficacy. While both normalization and standardization of clinical trial procedures assure quality of clinical trials and the relevant data processes, they will drive and improve the efficiency and reliability of real-world deliverables in clinical trials in turn. Currently, the comprehensive standards and practices of clinical trials and associated data management are globally established better, and US and EMA have enacted and implemented adequate guidances and regulations well. China is in the initial stage of development of relevant regulations regarding clinical trials and associated data management. This review will focus on the above-mentioned global regulations and standards of clinical data management in the views of good clinical data management standpoints, making references to improve the Chinese regulative system of clinical data management. PMID:26911040

  6. Hospedeiros alternativos de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola Alternative hosts of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rosa Peixoto; Rosa L.R. Mariano; José Osmã T. Moreira; Ivanise O. Viana

    2007-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv), que causa o cancro bacteriano da videira, sobrevive em plantas infectadas, epifiticamente em órgãos da parte aérea e pode ser veiculada em mudas e/ou bacelos infectados. O trabalho teve como objetivo investigar possíveis hospedeiros alternativos do patógeno, visando fornecer subsídios para o manejo da doença. A partir das plantas invasoras Alternanthera tenella, Amaranthus sp., Glycine sp. e Senna obtusifolia com sintomas similares aos do cancro bact...

  7. Experimental evolution with a global regulator mutant in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Seyll, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    CsrA is a global regulator and the main player of the carbon storage regulator (Csr) network, a well- conserved regulatory network in the bacterial world. CsrA is involved in regulation of many physiological processes, including pathways of central carbon metabolism, biofilm formation, motility and virulence in pathogenic species. CsrA acts at the post-transcriptional level by binding specific sequences on its target mRNAs, leading to mRNA destabilization or stabilization. The majority of stu...

  8. Induced polyploidization in Brassica campestris L. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G; Dwivedi, K

    2014-01-01

    Present experimental design has been made up to obtain crop with higher ploidy level via synthetic polyploidization. Since ploidy manipulation is generally associated with the obtainment of some increased enviable traits of the crop and also provides them greater adaptability to unfavorable or harsh circumstances as compared to its diploids counterparts. Thus, herein present research autotetraploids of Brassica campestris L. have been lucratively achieved by the application of colchicine. Two methods of treatment were utilized i.e. seed treatment and seedling treatment. No polyploidy could be obtained through seed treatment while seedling treatment responded well towards polyploidy. However, the status of autotetraploidy has been confirmed by cytomorphological investigations of treated plants as against its diploids counterparts. For the purpose, morphological parameters such as increased stomata size, pollen diameter, flower size, reproductive organs whereas reduction in plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth, stomata frequency, number of flowers/inflorescence etc. were appraised. Further, cytological observations were made that had clearly revealed the doubling of genome in the autotetraploids as compared to diploids. Meanwhile, pollen fertility and size of pollen grains were evaluated as well. PMID:24818510

  9. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS and type III (T3 effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2 which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2 is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME. Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.

  10. Global Transient Stability and Voltage Regulation for Multimachine Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Mark; Hill, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses simultaneously the major fundamental and difficult issues of nonlinearity, uncertainty, dimensionality and globality to derive performance enhancing power system stability control. The main focus is on simultaneous enhancement of transient stability and voltage regulation of...... power systems. This problem arises from the practical concern that both frequency and voltage control are important indices of power system control and operation but they are ascribed to different stages of system operation, i.e. the transient and post transient period respectively. The Direct Feedback...... law is implemented to coordinate transient stabilizer and voltage regulator for each machine. Digital simulation studies show that global control scheme achieves unified transient stability and voltage regulation in the presence of parametric uncertainties and significant sudden changes in the network...

  11. Global Transient Stability and Voltage Regulation for Multimachine Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Mark; Hill, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses simultaneously the major fundamental and difficult issues of nonlinearity, uncertainty, dimensionality and globality to derive performance enhancing power system stability control. The main focus is on simultaneous enhancement of transient stability and voltage regulation of power systems. This problem arises from the practical concern that both frequency and voltage control are important indices of power system control and operation but they are ascribed to different sta...

  12. Aflatoxin regulations in a network of global maize trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Wu

    Full Text Available Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000-2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B(1, B(2, G(1, and G(2 differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards.

  13. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a putative multiple antibiotic resistance repressor protein (MarR) from Xanthomonas campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A putative repressor for the multiple antibiotic resistance operon from a plant pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å with good quality. The multiple antibiotic resistance operon (marRAB) is a member of the multidrug-resistance system. When induced, this operon enhances resistance of bacteria to a variety of medically important antibiotics, causing a serious global health problem. MarR is a marR-encoded protein that represses the transcription of the marRAB operon. Through binding with salicylate and certain antibiotics, however, MarR can derepress and activate the marRAB operon. In this report, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC1739, a putative MarR repressor protein present in the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a Gram-negative bacterium causing major worldwide disease of cruciferous crops, are described. The XC1739 crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.8 Å. They are orthorhombic and belong to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.5, b = 54.2 and c = 139.5 Å, respectively. They contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit from calculation of the self-rotation function

  14. Real time live imaging of phytopathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris MAFF106712 in 'plant sweet home'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto-Tomiyama, Chiharu; Furutani, Ayako; Ochiai, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Xanthomonas is one of the most widespread phytobacteria, causing diseases on a variety of agricultural plants. To develop novel control techniques, knowledge of bacterial behavior inside plant cells is essential. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a vascular pathogen, is the causal agent of black rot on leaves of Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the X. campestris pv. campestris stocks in the MAFF collection, we selected XccMAFF106712 as a model compatible pathogen for the A. thaliana reference ecotype Columbia (Col-0). Using modified green fluorescent protein (AcGFP) as a reporter, we observed real time XccMAFF106712 colonization in planta with confocal microscopy. AcGFP-expressing bacteria colonized the inside of epidermal cells and the apoplast, as well as the xylem vessels of the vasculature. In the case of the type III mutant, bacteria colonization was never detected in the xylem vessel or apoplast, though they freely enter the xylem vessel through the wound. After 9 days post inoculation with XccMAFF106712, the xylem vessel became filled with bacterial aggregates. This suggests that Xcc colonization can be divided into main four steps, (1) movement in the xylem vessel, (2) movement to the next cell, (3) adhesion to the host plant cells, and (4) formation of bacterial aggregates. The type III mutant abolished at least steps (1) and (2). Better understanding of Xcc colonization is essential for development of novel control techniques for black rot. PMID:24736478

  15. Global analysis of neuronal phosphoproteome regulation by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Yu

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are major components of the extracellular matrix which mediate inhibition of axonal regeneration after injury to the central nervous system (CNS. Several neuronal receptors for CSPGs have recently been identified; however, the signaling pathways by which CSPGs restrict axonal growth are still largely unknown. In this study, we applied quantitative phosphoproteomics to investigate the global changes in protein phosphorylation induced by CSPGs in primary neurons. In combination with isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ labeling, strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX fractionation, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC and LC-MS/MS, we identified and quantified 2214 unique phosphopeptides corresponding to 1118 phosphoproteins, with 118 changing significantly in abundance with CSPG treatment. The proteins that were regulated by CSPGs included key components of synaptic vesicle trafficking, axon guidance mediated by semaphorins, integrin signaling, cadherin signaling and EGF receptor signaling pathways. A significant number of the regulated proteins are cytoskeletal and related proteins that have been implicated in regulating neurite growth. Another highly represented protein category regulated by CSPGs is nucleic acid binding proteins involved in RNA post-transcriptional regulation. Together, by screening the overall phosphoproteome changes induced by CSPGs, this data expand our understanding of CSPG signaling, which provides new insights into development of strategies for overcoming CSPG inhibition and promoting axonal regeneration after CNS injury.

  16. Genome wide transcription start sites analysis of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris B100 with insights into the gum gene cluster directing the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharide xanthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Rabeaa S; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Rückert, Christian; Mentz, Almut; Wibberg, Daniel; Hublik, Gerd; Niehaus, Karsten; Pühler, Alfred

    2016-05-10

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the major producer of the exopolysaccharide xanthan, the commercially most important natural polysaccharide of microbial origin. The current work provides deeper insights into the yet uncharacterized transcriptomic features of the xanthan producing strain Xcc-B100. Towards this goal, RNA sequencing of a library based on the selective enrichment of the 5' ends of native transcripts was performed. This approach resulted in the genome wide identification of 3067 transcription start sites (TSSs) that were further classified based on their genomic positions. Among them, 1545 mapped upstream of an actively transcribed CDS and 1363 were classified as novel TSSs representing antisense, internal, and TSSs belonging to previously unidentified genomic features. Analyzing the transcriptional strength of primary and antisense TSSs revealed that in some instances antisense transcription seemed to be initiated at a higher level than its sense counterpart. Mapping the exact positions of TSSs aided in the identification of promoter consensus motifs, ribosomal binding sites, and enhanced the genome annotation of 159 in silico predicted translational start (TLS) sites. The global view on length distribution of the 5' untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) deduced from the data pointed to the occurrence of leaderless transcripts and transcripts with unusually long 5'-UTRs, in addition to identifying seven putative riboswitch elements for Xcc-B100. Concerning the biosynthesis of xanthan, we focused on the transcriptional organization of the gum gene cluster. Under the conditions tested, we present evidence for a complex transcription pattern of the gum genes with multiple TSSs and an obvious considerable role of antisense transcription. The gene gumB, encoding an outer membrane xanthan exporter, is presented here as an example for genes that possessed a strong antisense TSS. PMID:26975844

  17. Hospedeiros alternativos de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola Alternative hosts of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Peixoto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv, que causa o cancro bacteriano da videira, sobrevive em plantas infectadas, epifiticamente em órgãos da parte aérea e pode ser veiculada em mudas e/ou bacelos infectados. O trabalho teve como objetivo investigar possíveis hospedeiros alternativos do patógeno, visando fornecer subsídios para o manejo da doença. A partir das plantas invasoras Alternanthera tenella, Amaranthus sp., Glycine sp. e Senna obtusifolia com sintomas similares aos do cancro bacteriano da videira, coletadas em parreirais de Juazeiro e Petrolina, no Submédio São Francisco, foram isoladas bactérias semelhantes a Xcv. No entanto, nenhuma bactéria foi isolada de plantas de Commelina benghalensis e Azadirachta indica com sintomas semelhantes. A patogenicidade dos isolados bacterianos obtidos foi confirmada em plantas de A. tenella, Amaranthus sp., Glycine sp., S. obtusifolia e em mudas de videira cv. Red Globe, em condições de casa de vegetação. As plantas invasoras Chamaesyce hirta, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Eragrostis pilosa e Pilea sp., inoculadas artificialmente com os isolados Xcv1 e UnB1216, também desenvolveram sintomas típicos do cancro bacteriano.Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv, which causes the bacterial canker of grapevine, survives in infected plants as an epiphyte on aerial plant parts and may be carried in infected transplants and/or cuttings. This study was performed to investigate putative alternative hosts of the pathogen, aiming to find support for disease management. Bacteria similar to Xcv were isolated from the weeds Alternanthera tenella, Amaranthus sp., Glycine sp. and Senna obtusifolia showing canker-like symptoms and collected in vineyards of Juazeiro and Petrolina at the Submédio São Francisco. No bacteria were isolated from Commelina benghalensis and Azadirachta indica showing similar symptoms. The pathogenicity of the isolates was confirmed in plants of A. tenella, Amaranthus sp

  18. Cell shape regulates global histone acetylation in human mammaryepithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Beyec, Johanne; Xu, Ren; Lee, Sun-Young; Nelson, Celeste M.; Rizki, Aylin; Alcaraz, Jordi; Bissell, Mina J.

    2007-02-28

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell morphology and gene expression in vivo; these relationships are maintained in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of mammary epithelial cells. In the presence of laminin-rich ECM (lrECM), mammary epithelial cells round up and undergo global histone deacetylation, a process critical for their functional differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether lrECM-dependent cell rounding and global histone deacetylation are indeed part of a common physical-biochemical pathway. Using 3D cultures as well as nonadhesive and micropatterned substrata, here we showed that the cell 'rounding' caused by lrECM was sufficient to induce deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the absence of biochemical cues. Microarray and confocal analysis demonstrated that this deacetylation in 3D culture is associated with a global increase in chromatin condensation and a reduction in gene expression. Whereas cells cultured on plastic substrata formed prominent stress fibers, cells grown in 3D lrECM or on micropatterns lacked these structures. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D phenocopied the lrECM-induced cell rounding and histone deacetylation. These results reveal a novel link between ECM-controlled cell shape and chromatin structure, and suggest that this link is mediated by changes in the actin cytoskeleton.

  19. Interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Xanthomonas campestris, and Rhizobium sp. in the disease complex of chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    SIDDIQUI, Zaki Anwar; FATIMA, Munavvar; ALAM, Subha

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Meloidogyne incognita, Xanthomonas campestris, and Rhizobium sp., alone or in combination, on the disease complex in chickpea were examined. Individual inoculation with M. incognita and X. campestris caused significant reductions in plant growth, while inoculation with Rhizobium sp. resulted in a significant increase in plant growth. Inoculation with M. incognita and X. campestris together caused a greater reduction in plant growth than the damage caused by each of them alone. ...

  20. Globalization and the Environment: Determinants of Firm Self-Regulation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Christmann; Glen Taylor

    2001-01-01

    Critics assert that globalization is detrimental to the environment because it encourages location of polluting industries in countries with low environmental regulations. We suggest that globalization might also have positive environmental effects because global ties increase self-regulation pressures on firms in low-regulation countries. Using survey data from firms in China we find that multinational ownership, multinational customers, and exports to developed countries increase self-regul...

  1. IscR plays a role in oxidative stress resistance and pathogenicity of a plant pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuangthong, Mayuree; Jittawuttipoka, Thichakorn; Wisitkamol, Ratiphorn; Romsang, Adisak; Duang-nkern, Jintana; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2015-01-01

    Iron-sulfur ([Fe-S]) cluster is an essential cofactor of proteins involved in various physiological processes including cellular defense against oxidative stress. In Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), IscR plays a negative role in regulation of the transcription of [Fe-S] assembly genes, iscR-sufBCDS. The expression level of sufBCDS was up-regulated in an Xcc iscR mutant. In addition, the iscR promoter activity in an Xcc iscR mutant was also higher than the wild-type strain, indicating an autoregulatory circuit. Purified IscR was shown to bind at the iscR promoter region and three putative IscR binding sites were identified. The expression of iscR-suf operon was highly induced by oxidant treatments and iron limited conditions. The iscR mutant showed increased sensitivity toward hydrogen peroxide phenotype but, surprisingly, had hyper-resistant phenotype toward plumbagin compared to the wild-type strain. Most importantly, the iscR mutant was impaired in its ability to cause lesion on leaves of a compatible host plant, Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus). These results demonstrate that a transcription regulator gene, iscR, negatively regulates genes involved in [Fe-S] biosynthesis and plays a role in oxidative stress response and pathogenesis of Xcc. PMID:25200360

  2. The influence of a modified lipopolysaccharide O-antigen on the biosynthesis of xanthan in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris B100

    OpenAIRE

    Steffens, Tim; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Giampà, Marco; Hublik, Gerd; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Background The exopolysaccharide xanthan is a natural product which is extensively used in industry. It is a thickening agent in many fields, from oil recovery to the food sector. Xanthan is produced by the Gram negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). We analyzed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of three mutant strains of the Xcc wild type B100 to distinguish if the xanthan production can be increased when LPS biosynthesis is affected. Results The Xcc B100 O-antigen (OA) i...

  3. Expression of sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana enhances resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Leena; Mwaka, Henry; Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce Kateera

    2010-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is the most devastating disease of banana in the Great Lakes region of Africa. The pathogen's rapid spread has threatened the livelihood of millions of Africans who rely on banana fruit for food security and income. The disease is very destructive, infecting all banana varieties, including both East African Highland bananas and exotic types of banana. In the absence of natural host plant resistance among banana cultivars, the constitutive expression of the hypersensitivity response-assisting protein (Hrap) gene from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated for its ability to confer resistance to BXW. Transgenic lines expressing the Hrap gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of two banana cultivars: 'Sukali Ndiizi' and 'Mpologoma'. These lines were characterized by molecular analysis, and were challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum to analyse the efficacy of the Hrap gene against BXW. The majority of transgenic lines (six of eight) expressing Hrap did not show any symptoms of infection after artificial inoculation of potted plants in the screenhouse, whereas control nontransgenic plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study demonstrates that the constitutive expression of the sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. We describe the development of transgenic banana varieties resistant to BXW, which will boost the arsenal available to fight this epidemic disease and save livelihoods in the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. PMID:21029318

  4. Composition and functional properties of Lupinus campestris protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Martínez-Ayala, A L; Millán, F; Dávila-Ortíz, G

    2005-09-01

    Protein isolates from L. campestris and soybean seeds were prepared using isoelectric precipitation (PI) and micellization (MI) procedures. The amount of protein recovered was considerably higher with the isoelectric precipitation than with the micellization procedure (60% and 30%, respectively). Protein contents were higher than 90% in protein isolates. Antinutritional factors content (alkaloids, lectins, and tannins) were reduced to innocuous levels after protein isolate preparation. Minimum protein solubility for the precipitated lupin protein isolate (LPI) was at pH 4.0, and between pH 4 and 6 for the micellized lupin protein isolate (LMI), increasing at both extremes of the pH scale. Water absorption for the LMI was 1.3 ml/g of protein and its oil absorption 2.2 ml/g of protein. The LPI had 1.7 ml/g of protein in both water and oil absorption. Foaming capacity and stability was pH-dependent. Foaming capacity was higher at pH 2 and lower near the protein isoelectric points. Minimum protein concentration for gelation in LMI was 8% w/v at pH 4, while for LPI was 6% at pH 4 and 6. Amino acid composition in L. campestris flour and protein isolates was high in lysine and low in methionine. Most of the essential amino acids in lupin protein isolates were at acceptable levels compared to a reference pattern for infants and adults. The electrophoretic pattern of both protein isolates showed three bands with different mobilities, suggesting that the protein fractions belong to alpha-conglutin (11S-like protein), beta-conglutin (7S-like protein) and gamma-conglutin. It is proven that some of the functional properties of L. campestris protein isolates are similar to those soybean protein isolates recovered under equal conditions. PMID:16187011

  5. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of GumK, a membrane-associated glucuronosyltransferase from Xanthomonas campestris required for xanthan polysaccharide synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreras, Máximo [Fundación Instituto Leloir, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1405BWE Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bianchet, Mario A. [Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Ielpi, Luis, E-mail: lielpi@leloir.org.ar [Fundación Instituto Leloir, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1405BWE Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-09-01

    Crystallization of a membrane-associated glucuronosyltransferase. GumK is a membrane-associated inverting glucuronosyltransferase that is part of the biosynthetic route of xanthan, an industrially important exopolysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris. The enzyme catalyzes the fourth glycosylation step in the pentasaccharide-P-P-polyisoprenyl assembly, an oligosaccharide diphosphate lipid intermediate in xanthan biosynthesis. GumK has marginal homology to other glycosyltransferases (GTs). It belongs to the CAZy family GT 70, for which no structure is currently available, and indirect biochemical evidence suggests that it also belongs to the GT-B structural superfamily. Crystals of recombinant GumK from X. campestris have been grown that diffract to 1.9 Å resolution. Knowledge of the crystal structure of GumK will help in understanding xanthan biosynthesis and its regulation and will also allow a subsequent rational approach to enzyme design and engineering. The multiwavelength anomalous diffraction approach will be used to solve the phase problem.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of GumK, a membrane-associated glucuronosyltransferase from Xanthomonas campestris required for xanthan polysaccharide synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallization of a membrane-associated glucuronosyltransferase. GumK is a membrane-associated inverting glucuronosyltransferase that is part of the biosynthetic route of xanthan, an industrially important exopolysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris. The enzyme catalyzes the fourth glycosylation step in the pentasaccharide-P-P-polyisoprenyl assembly, an oligosaccharide diphosphate lipid intermediate in xanthan biosynthesis. GumK has marginal homology to other glycosyltransferases (GTs). It belongs to the CAZy family GT 70, for which no structure is currently available, and indirect biochemical evidence suggests that it also belongs to the GT-B structural superfamily. Crystals of recombinant GumK from X. campestris have been grown that diffract to 1.9 Å resolution. Knowledge of the crystal structure of GumK will help in understanding xanthan biosynthesis and its regulation and will also allow a subsequent rational approach to enzyme design and engineering. The multiwavelength anomalous diffraction approach will be used to solve the phase problem

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Xanthomonas campestris PNPase in the presence of c-di-GMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of S1-domain-truncated X. campestris PNPase were grown in the presence of c-di-GMP and diffracted to a resolution of 2.00 Å. Bacterial polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) is a 3′–5′ processive exoribonuclease that participates in mRNA turnover and quality control of rRNA precursors in many bacterial species. It also associates with the RNase E scaffold and other components to form a multi-enzyme RNA degradasome machinery that performs a wider regulatory role in degradation, quality control and maturation of mRNA and noncoding RNA. Several crystal structures of bacterial PNPases, as well as some biological activity studies, have been published. However, how the enzymatic activity of PNPase is regulated is less well understood. Recently, Escherichia coli PNPase was found to be a direct c-di-GMP binding target, raising the possibility that c-di-GMP may participate in the regulation of RNA processing. Here, the successful cloning, purification and crystallization of S1-domain-truncated Xanthomonas campestris PNPase (XcPNPaseΔS1) in the presence of c-di-GMP are reported. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 132.76, b = 128.38, c = 133.01 Å, γ = 93.3°, and diffracted to a resolution of 2.00 Å

  8. Global Standards in Action: Insights from Anti-Money Laundering Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hülsse, Rainer; Kerwer, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    As organizations have come under the increasing influence of global rules of all sorts, organization scholars have started studying the dynamics of global regulation. The purpose of this article is to identify and evaluate the contribution to this interdisciplinary field by the ‘Stockholm Centre for Organisational Research’. The latter’s key proposition is that while global regulation often consists of voluntary best practice rules it can nevertheless become highly influential under certain c...

  9. A proteomic analysis of seed development in Brassica campestri L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Li

    Full Text Available To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination, respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants.

  10. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  11. Production and cytogenetics of Brassica campestris-alboglabra chromosome addition lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B.Y.; Cheng, B.F.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke;

    1997-01-01

    Four different Brassica campestris-alboglabra monosomic addition lines (AA + 1 chromosome from C, 2n = 21) were obtained after consecutive backcrosses between resynthesized B. napus (AACC, 2n = 38) and the parental B. campestris (AA, 2n = 20) accession. The alien chromosomes of B. alboglabra (CC, 2...... occurred during the evolution of the two species. Intergenomic introgression was observed in the progenies of the addition lines. The introgression of an entire B. alboglabra marker synteny group into the B. campestris genome implied the possible occurrence of interspecific chromosomal substitution....

  12. Meio semi-seletivo para isolamento de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto Ana Rosa; Mariano Rosa de Lima Ramos; Viana Ivanise de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    O cancro bacteriano causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola é a fitobacteriose mais importante da videira no Submédio São Francisco. O isolamento de X. campestris pv. viticola de tecidos vegetais infectados é dificultado pela presença de contaminantes bacterianos, entre os quais Microbacterium barkeri. Objetivando-se a formulação de meio de cultura semi-seletivo, 22 isolados de X. campestris pv. viticola foram testados com relação a 30 antibióticos. O meio semi-seletivo NYDAM (extrato...

  13. Construction of lactose-utilizing Xanthomonas campestris and production of xanthan gum from whey.

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, J F; Tseng, Y. H.

    1990-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris possesses a low level of beta-galactosidase and therefore is not able to grow and produce significant amounts of xanthan gum in a medium containing lactose as the sole carbon source. In this study, a beta-galactosidase expression plasmid was constructed by ligating an X. campestris phage phi LO promoter with pKM005, a ColE1 replicon containing Escherichia coli lacZY genes and the lpp ribosome-binding site. It was then inserted into an IncP1 broad-host-ran...

  14. Analysis of outer membrane vesicle associated proteins isolated from the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehaus Karsten

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs are released from the outer membrane of many Gram-negative bacteria. These extracellular compartments are known to transport compounds involved in cell-cell signalling as well as virulence associated proteins, e.g. the cytolysine from enterotoxic E. coli. Results We have demonstrated that Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc releases OMVs into the culture supernatant during growth. A proteome study identified 31 different proteins that associate with the OMV fraction of which half are virulence-associated. A comparison with the most abundant outer membrane (OM proteins revealed that some proteins are enriched in the OMV fraction. This may be connected to differences in the LPS composition between the OMVs and the OM. Furthermore, a comparison of the OMV proteomes from two different culture media indicated that the culture conditions have an impact on the protein composition. Interestingly, the proteins that are common to both culture conditions are mainly involved in virulence. Conclusion Outer membrane vesicles released from the OM of Xcc contain membrane- and virulence-associated proteins. Future experiments will prove whether these structures can serve as "vehicles" for the transport of virulence factors into the host membrane.

  15. Global Financial Regulations:An Antidote to Economic Predicament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIN; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of public order in the international financial arena, asset bubbles and resource misallocations persisted over a long period of time and resulted in global financial crisis in 2008. Global financial rules, which can take on a role like that of WTO in the international trade, are urgently needed for global economic recovery. They will balance the pressure of economic restructuring between large and small countries, and push forward some countries’ domestic reforms which may hardly be implemented due to domestic politics.

  16. The Welfare Effects of Globalization with Labor Market Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Palokangas, Tapio K.

    2015-01-01

    I examine how globalization affects wages and welfare in a general equilibrium model of international trade with partly oligopolistic markets. Globalization is modeled as reducing trade costs or opening up shielded sectors to trade. There is a national or international common agency that determines minimum wages for the oligopolists, either directly or through supporting labor unions. The lobbies of employers and labor unions influence that agency, relating their prospective political contrib...

  17. Regulation and Supervision of The Global Financial System

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Denters

    2009-01-01

    International financial markets are supervised primarily by national authorities. However, national authorities are inherently incapable to regulate and supervise seamless globalised financial markets. To the extent international regulators exist, they constitute a disorderly patchwork of institutions. A proposal is made to create a system of regulators and supervisors under the umbrella of the World Financial Organisation. The WFO would encompass existing institutions and enhances internatio...

  18. Meio semi-seletivo para isolamento de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto Ana Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O cancro bacteriano causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola é a fitobacteriose mais importante da videira no Submédio São Francisco. O isolamento de X. campestris pv. viticola de tecidos vegetais infectados é dificultado pela presença de contaminantes bacterianos, entre os quais Microbacterium barkeri. Objetivando-se a formulação de meio de cultura semi-seletivo, 22 isolados de X. campestris pv. viticola foram testados com relação a 30 antibióticos. O meio semi-seletivo NYDAM (extrato de carne 3, peptona 5, glicose 10, extrato de levedura 5, ágar 18 e ampicilina 0,1 em g L-1 inibiu M. barkeri e bactérias fitopatogênicas podendo ser utilizado para isolar X. campestris pv. viticola de hospedeiros com infecção natural em campo.

  19. Clustering of Mutations Blocking Synthesis of Xanthan Gum by Xanthomonas campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, L.; Tansey, L.; Pollock, T J

    1987-01-01

    Mutations that block the synthesis of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris B1459S-4L-II were isolated as nonmucoid colonies after treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate. Complete libraries of DNA fragments from wild-type X. campestris were cloned into Escherichia coli by using a broad-host-range cosmid vector and then transferred into each mutant strain by conjugal mating. Cloned fragments that restored xanthan gum synthesis (Xgs+; mucoidy) were compared according to restriction pattern, DNA ...

  20. Antagonism of yeasts to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris on cabbage phylloplane in field Antagonismo de leveduras a Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris no filoplano de repolho em condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara M.P. Assis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty yeast isolates, obtained from cabbage phylloplane, were evaluated for antagonistic activity against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, in field. Plants of cabbage cv. Midori were pulverized simultaneously with suspensions of antagonists and pathogen. After 10 days, plants were evaluated through percentage of foliar area with lesions. Percentage of disease severity reduction (DSR% was also calculated. Yeast isolates LR32, LR42 and LR19 showed, respectively, 72, 75 and 79% of DSR. These antagonists were tested in seven different application periods in relation to pathogen inoculation (T1=4 d before; T2=simultaneously; T3=4 d after; T4=4 d before + simultaneously; T5=4 d after + simultaneously; T6=4 d before + 4 d after; T7=4 d before + simultaneously + 4 d after. The highest DSRs were showed by LR42 (71%, LR42 (67%, LR35 (69% and LR19 (68% in the treatments T7, T4, T5 and T6, which significantly differed from the others. The same yeast antagonists were also tested for black rot control using different cabbage cultivars (Fuyutoyo, Master-325, Matsukaze, Midori, Sekai I and Red Winner. The DSRs varied from 58 to 61%, and there was no significant difference among cultivars.Vinte isolados de leveduras, obtidos a partir do filoplano de repolho foram avaliados pela atividade antagônica contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, em condições de campo. Plantas de repolho cv. Midori foram pulverizadas simultaneamente com suspensões do antagonista e do patógeno. Após 10 dias, as plantas foram avaliadas através da porcentagem de área foliar infectada. A porcentagem de redução da severidade da doença (DSR%, também foi calculada. Os isolados de leveduras LR32, LR42 e LR19 apresentaram, respectivamente, 72, 75 e 79% de DSR. Estes isolados foram testados em sete diferentes períodos de aplicação dos antagonistas em relação a inoculação do patógeno. (T1=4d antes; T2=simultaneamente; T3=4 d após; T4=4 d antes + simultaneamente; T5

  1. Insights into the global regulation of anaerobic metabolism for improved biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    To improve the biohydrogen yield in bacterial dark fermentation, a new approach of global anaerobic regulation was introduced. Two cellular global regulators FNR and NarP were overexpressed in two model organisms: facultatively anaerobic Enterobacter aerogenes (Ea) and strictly anaerobic Clostridium paraputrificum (Cp). The overexpression of FNR and NarP greatly altered anaerobic metabolism and increased the hydrogen yield by 40%. Metabolic analysis showed that the global regulation caused more reducing environment inside the cell. To get a thorough understanding of the global metabolic regulation, more genes (fdhF, fhlA, ppk, Cb-fdh1, and Sc-fdh1) were overexpressed in different Ea and Cp mutants. For the first time, it demonstrated that there were approximately linear relationships between the relative change of hydrogen yield and the relative change of NADH yield or ATP yield. It implied that cellular reducing power and energy level played vital roles in the biohydrogen production. PMID:26476162

  2. Conformational changes associated with the binding of zinc acetate at the putative active site of XcTcmJ, a cupin from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Axelrod, Herbert L; Kozbial, Piotr; McMullan, Daniel; Krishna, S. Sri; Miller, Mitchell D.; Abdubek, Polat; Acosta, Claire; Astakhova, Tamara; Carlton, Dennis; Caruthers, Jonathan; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Elias, Ylva

    2009-01-01

    In the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the product of the tcmJ gene, XcTcmJ, encodes a protein belonging to the RmlC family of cupins. XcTcmJ was crystallized in a monoclinic space group (C2) in the presence of zinc acetate and the structure was determined to 1.6 Å resolution. Previously, the apo structure has been reported in the absence of any bound metal ion [Chin et al. (2006 ▶), Proteins, 65, 1046–1050]. The most significant difference between the apo structure and ...

  3. Global banking and national regulation: a conference summary

    OpenAIRE

    Cabray L. Haines; Calvin T. Ho

    2007-01-01

    Although banking across national borders has expanded rapidly, banking regulation remains nationally based. As a result, governments and financial institutions face significant challenges when instability arises. At the Chicago Fed’s International Banking Conference, participants explored cross-border banking issues and ways to improve the current system.

  4. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: L-Fuconate Dehydratase from Xanthomonas campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yew,W.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Rakus, J.; Pierce, R.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2006-01-01

    Many members of the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily have unknown functions. In this report the authors use both genome (operon) context and screening of a library of acid sugars to assign the L-fuconate dehydratase (FucD) function to a member of the mandelate racemase (MR) subgroup of the superfamily encoded by the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. ATCC 33913 genome (GI: 21233491). Orthologues of FucD are found in both bacteria and eukaryotes, the latter including the rTS beta protein in Homo sapiens that has been implicated in regulating thymidylate synthase activity. As suggested by sequence alignments and confirmed by high-resolution structures in the presence of active site ligands, FucD and MR share the same active site motif of functional groups: three carboxylate ligands for the essential Mg2+ located at the ends of th third, fourth, and fifth-strands in the (/)7-barrel domain (Asp 248, Glu 274, and Glu 301, respectively), a Lys-x-Lys motif at the end of the second-strand (Lys 218 and Lys 220), a His-Asp dyad at the end of the seventh and sixth-strands (His 351 and Asp 324, respectively), and a Glue at the end of the eighth-strand (Glu 382). The mechanism of the FucD reaction involves initial abstraction of the 2-proton by Lys 220, acid catalysis of the vinylogous-elimination of the 3-OH group by His 351, and stereospecific ketonization of the resulting 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-fuconate product. Screening of the library of acid sugars revealed substrate and functional promiscuity: In addition to L-fuconate, FucD also catalyzes the dehydration of L-galactonate, D-arabinonate, D-altronate, L-talonate, and D-ribonate. The dehydrations of L-fuconate, L-galactonate, and D-arabinonate are initiated by abstraction of the 2-protons by Lys 220. The dehydrations of L-talonate and D-ribonate are initiated by abstraction of the 2-protons by His 351; however, protonation of the enediolate intermediates by the conjugate acid of Lys 220 yields L

  5. Paper or Plastic? The Privatization of Global Forestry Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipschutz, Ronnie

    2005-01-01

    In 1992, representatives of 180 of the world’s nations met in Rio de Janeiro at the UN Conference on Environment and Development. Among the submissions debated and considered at the “Earth Summit,†as it was called, was one addressing sustainable forestry, with the unwieldy title "Non-legally binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests" Opposition to the Forest Principles was much...

  6. Local flow regulation and irrigation raise global human water consumption and footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-12-01

    Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 ± 979 km3/year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 ± 979 km3/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling.

  7. Global regulation by CsrA in Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhon, Sara D; Frye, Jonathan G; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Altier, Craig

    2003-06-01

    CsrA is a regulator of invasion genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. To investigate the wider role of CsrA in gene regulation, we compared the expression of Salmonella genes in a csrA mutant with those in the wild type using a DNA microarray. As expected, we found that expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) invasion genes was greatly reduced in the csrA mutant, as were genes outside the island that encode proteins translocated into eukaryotic cells by the SPI-1 type III secretion apparatus. The flagellar synthesis operons, flg and fli, were also poorly expressed, and the csrA mutant was aflagellate and non-motile. The genes of two metabolic pathways likely to be used by Salmonella in the intestinal milieu also showed reduced expression: the pdu operon for utilization of 1,2-propanediol and the eut operon for ethanolamine catabolism. Reduced expression of reporter fusions in these two operons confirmed the microarray data. Moreover, csrA was found to regulate co-ordinately the cob operon for synthesis of vitamin B12, required for the metabolism of either 1,2-propanediol or ethanolamine. Additionally, the csrA mutant poorly expressed the genes of the mal operon, required for transport and use of maltose and maltodextrins, and had reduced amounts of maltoporin, normally a dominant protein of the outer membrane. These results show that csrA controls a number of gene classes in addition to those required for invasion, some of them unique to Salmonella, and suggests a co-ordinated bacterial response to conditions that exist at the site of bacterial invasion, the intestinal tract of a host animal. PMID:12791144

  8. Global regulation of nucleotide biosynthetic genes by c-Myc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The c-Myc transcription factor is a master regulator and integrates cell proliferation, cell growth and metabolism through activating thousands of target genes. Our identification of direct c-Myc target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP coupled with pair-end ditag sequencing analysis (ChIP-PET revealed that nucleotide metabolic genes are enriched among c-Myc targets, but the role of Myc in regulating nucleotide metabolic genes has not been comprehensively delineated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that the majority of genes in human purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway were induced and directly bound by c-Myc in the P493-6 human Burkitt's lymphoma model cell line. The majority of these genes were also responsive to the ligand-activated Myc-estrogen receptor fusion protein, Myc-ER, in a Myc null rat fibroblast cell line, HO.15 MYC-ER. Furthermore, these targets are also responsive to Myc activation in transgenic mouse livers in vivo. To determine the functional significance of c-Myc regulation of nucleotide metabolism, we sought to determine the effect of loss of function of direct Myc targets inosine monophosphate dehydrogenases (IMPDH1 and IMPDH2 on c-Myc-induced cell growth and proliferation. In this regard, we used a specific IMPDH inhibitor mycophenolic acid (MPA and found that MPA dramatically inhibits c-Myc-induced P493-6 cell proliferation through S-phase arrest and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results demonstrate the direct induction of nucleotide metabolic genes by c-Myc in multiple systems. Our finding of an S-phase arrest in cells with diminished IMPDH activity suggests that nucleotide pool balance is essential for c-Myc's orchestration of DNA replication, such that uncoupling of these two processes create DNA replication stress and apoptosis.

  9. European Union Timber Regulation Impacts Global Hardwood Markets

    OpenAIRE

    PEPKE Ed; GIURCA Alexander; JONSSON KLAS HENRIK RAGNAR; Lovric, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Implemented in March 2013, the EU Timber Regulation is affecting hardwood exporters and importers. The EUTR requires proof of timber’s origin and legality to ensure that no illegal timber is imported into the EU. The EUTR is part of the EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan, with its specific goal to end illegal logging, thereby improving sustainability of forest resources. To this end the EU intends to block imports of any wood or wood product which comes from...

  10. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of silver in wild Agaricus campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J.; Danisiewicz, D. [Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    1995-07-01

    Silver is an element naturally occurring in small concentrations in different environmental sites. However, many anthropogenic sources of silver led to contamination of this element in soil surfaces, pastures, and coastal marine areas in different parts of the world. Estimates are that 40% of the 1.15x10{sup 4}t of silver produced annually worldwide, will escape into the environment. Due to municipal waste discharge and/or industrial effluents with high silver concentrations, 100 x above the background level have been reported in invertebrate species from polluted marine areas. The meta-stabile radioisotope, {sup 110m}Ag, is a main component of the liquid effluents from nuclear facilities under normal operating conditions. The presence of {sup 111}Ag and {sup 110m}Ag also has been widely found throughout Europe in the 1986 Chernobyl fallout. Silver ions are environmentally harmful. High toxic effects have been observed at low concentrations, especially in aquatic species. Species of lower fungi as well as the mushroom Agaricus bisporus are know to bioaccumulate high concentrations of silver when grown on an artificially enriched substrate. This study looks at the relationship between the silver content of soil and bioconcentration potential of wild Agaricus campestris from sites under different use and with different concentrations of heavy metals. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Integrated approach of regulate global temperature rises and climate changes for sustainable planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study emphasis the requirement of integrated approach for regulate the global temperature rises to protect the planet form climate changes and other system changes. It is clear that effect of global temperature increases, have already affected many physical and biological and human systems, This unbalances of global systems is more rapid after 1950' s increases of using environmental polluting energy sources with releasing the pollutants to global systems together with extra solar energy accumulation. How ever as a solution it is require to reduce pollutants and balance the energy level to optimum within the caring capacity. To protect the planet as a sustainable system with controlling temperature rises and other unbalances it is important to keep and protect the interrelationship of each and every system with protecting mechanisms. Therefore it is require integrated approach to establish protective mechanisms for each and every sectors of badly effecting with considering regional, national. international and global level.

  12. Aflatoxin Regulations and Global Pistachio Trade: Insights from Social Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R.; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations’ aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996–2010. The main pistachio produ...

  13. Effect of alcoholic extract of guaco (Mikania glomerata) on the control of dark rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris) in cauliflower/
    Avaliação da eficácia da tintura etanólica de guaco (Mikania glomerata) no controle da podridão negra (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris) em couve-flor

    OpenAIRE

    Kátia Regina Freitas Schwan-Estrada; Odair José Kuhn; Roberto Luiz Portz; Gilmar Franzener; José Renato Stangarlin; Sandra Cristina Vigo-Schultz

    2006-01-01

    With the use of irrigation and new hybrids of cauliflower, it is possible to get production during all the year with hight yield. However, the crop has been affected by diseases, as the dark rot caused by X. campestris pv. campestris. The objective of this research work was to study the potential of Mikania glomerata for the control of this disease. Alcoholic extract 50 ºGL of M. glomerata was evaluated regarding to: in vitro antimicrobial activity through bacterial growth in 100, 250, 500 an...

  14. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nilvanira Donizeti Tebaldi; Rita de Cássia Panizzi; Rubens Sader

    2007-01-01

    A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica) foram avaliados, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre") inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de tran...

  15. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nilvanira Donizete Tebaldi; Rita de Cássia Panizzi; Rubens Sader

    2007-01-01

    A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica) foram avaliadas, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre") inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de tran...

  16. Global discovery of erythroid long noncoding RNAs reveals novel regulators of red cell maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R.; Hu, Wenqian; Yuan, Bingbing; Shi, Jiahai; Park, Staphany S.; Gromatzky, Austin A.; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2014-01-01

    Global lncRNA discovery reveals novel erythroid-specific lncRNAs that are dynamically expressed and targeted by GATA1, TAL1, and KLF1.Multiple types of lncRNAs promote red cell maturation by regulating neighboring loci, including DLEU2 and a novel Band 3 enhancer lncRNA.

  17. Fairness through regulation? Reflections on a cosmopolitan approach to global finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Božina Beroš

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the last financial crisis a strong message prevails that ‘something’ has to be changed in the manner global finance is governed. What exactly this ‘something’ entails and what could constitute the ‘common ground’ of anticipated change is more difficult to determine. Many envisage future improvements of global financial governance by evoking deliberative democracy, political equality and cosmopolitanism. As financial regulation is the main instrument through which global finance is shaped and governed nowadays, these principles should then be transmitted to regulatory arrangements. This paper focuses on a new conceptual approach to regulatory and governance issues in global finance, by employing the philosophical idea of cosmopolitanism. It argues that although as a concept, cosmopolitanism cannot mitigate all the flaws attributed to contemporary finance, its development and extension to international financial regulation that is promulgated by institutions of the global financial system, would represent a worthwhile endeavour in making global finance more accountable and just in the eyes of many.

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazada Siddiqui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, Solanum nigrum Linn, were collected from different localities and screened for their antibacterial activity against phytopathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Among all the tested species, nine plant species viz Acacia nilotica, Ageratum conyzoied, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cleome viscose, Datura stramonium, Euphorbia hirta, Hyptis suaveolens, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Prosopis juliflora and Tridex procumbens showed medium to light antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Significant antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous extracts of Prosopsis juliflora, Hyptis suaveolens, Euphorbia hirta and Acacia nilotica

  19. Pathogenicity of EPS-deficient mutants (gumB-, gumD and gumE - ) of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) -deficient mutants of the pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, gumB - , gumD - and gumE- were constructed by Tn5 gusA5 mutagenesis in this study. The results of pathogenicity bioassay showed that three mutants had the obviously decreased pathogenicity on radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) leaves. Because dead body of the bacteria still caused symptoms, it seemed that some unknown factors on the bac terial cell surface might play certain roles in the pathogenicity of the pathogen. The extracted raw EPS could lead to the chlorotic symptom on radish leaves, and its virulence was increased with the increase of EPS dosage, which suggested that EPS was a main component that caused the danage on radish leaves.

  20. Minimal Phenotypic Test for Simple Differentiation of Xanthomonas Campestris from other Yellow-Pigmented Bacteria Isolated from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Soudi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Isolation of Xanthomonas campestris from soil has a wide range of applications from monitoring of phytopathogenic populations in soil to screening of improved xanthan-producing strains. Identification of Xanthomonas campestris and its pathovars requires pathogenicity tests in addition to phenotypic and molecular characterization.Materials and Methods: Thirty phenotypic tests were carried out on 57 yellow-pigmented bacterial isolates obtained from soil of cabbage farms after screening on Selective Xanthomonas (SX agar and transferring on Yeast Malt agar. Absorption spectra of pigments and capability of biopolymer production were determined for the isolates. Some characteristics of the biopolymer produced and presence of a X. campestris-specific gene marker were investigated for nine putative X. campestris isolates.Results: The present study introduces a set of simple phenotypic tests including urease, acid production from sucrose, mucoid growth on 5% sucrose, starch hydrolysis, growth in 4% NaCl, motility and utilization of asparagine as sole carbon and nitrogen source for quick and inexpensive tentative identification of Xanthomonas campestris. Validation of these tests was confirmed in 100% of the cases by characterization of bacterial exopolysaccharide as xanthan and production of genus-specific xanthomonadin pigment. Moreover, tracking of hrc gene among putative X. campestris isolates gave positive results in 80% of cases.Conclusion: The Minimal simple phenotypic tests facilitate the screening and differentiation of putative X. campestris isolates from other false bacterial strains isolated from soil on semiselective SX agar.

  1. Effect of seed-irradiation on morphological characters yield components of brassica campestris var. sarson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed of Brassica campestris (var. Sarson) were used to study the effect of radiation of different morphological and yield parameters. Survival percentage showed drastic decrease at higher doses (75 Kr and 100 Kr). Similarly all characters showed a trend of decrease with increasing dose. LD50 for Brassica was about 50 Kr. (author)

  2. Host Genotype and Hypersensitive Reaction Influence Population Levels of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians in Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Carolee T; Gebben, Samantha J; Goldman, Polly H; Trent, Mark; Hayes, Ryan J

    2015-03-01

    Dynamics of population sizes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians inoculated onto or into lettuce leaves were monitored on susceptible and resistant cultivars. In general, population growth was greater for susceptible (Clemente, Salinas 88, Vista Verde) than resistant (Batavia Reine des Glaces, Iceberg, Little Gem) cultivars. When spray-inoculated or infiltrated, population levels of X. campestris pv. vitians were consistently significantly lower on Little Gem than on susceptible cultivars, while differences in the other resistant cultivars were not consistently statistically significant. Populations increased at an intermediate rate on cultivars Iceberg and Batavia Reine des Glaces. There were significant positive correlations between bacterial concentration applied and disease severity for all cultivars, but bacterial titer had a significantly greater influence on disease severity in the susceptible cultivars than in Little Gem and an intermediate influence in Iceberg and Batavia Reine des Glaces. Infiltration of X. campestris pv. vitians strains into leaves of Little Gem resulted in an incompatible reaction, whereas compatible reactions were observed in all other cultivars. It appears that the differences in the relationship between population dynamics for Little Gem and the other cultivars tested were due to the hypersensitive response in cultivar Little Gem. These findings have implications for disease management and lettuce breeding because X. campestris pv. vitians interacts differently with cultivars that differ for resistance mechanisms. PMID:25302523

  3. Growth and xanthan production of Xanthomonas campestris depending on the N-source concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prell, A. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Lasik, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Konicek, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Sobotka, M. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Sys, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology

    1995-11-01

    Growth of X. campestris and production of xanthan were studied in several batch fermentations with different starting concentrations of N-source. The dependencies of growth, productivity and yields on initial N-source concentration were observed. The maximum yields in the course of cultivations were identified. (orig.)

  4. Study on the spectral response of Brassica Campestris L. leaf to the copper pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU SuHong; LIU XinHui; HOU Juan; CHI GuangYu; CUI BaoShan

    2008-01-01

    Brassica Campestis L. was cultivated in the soil at the laboratory. The red edge, the visual spectrum and the near-infrared spectrum of Brassica Campestis L. leaf were used to explore the spectral response of Brassica Campestis L. leaf to the copper stress. As the Cu content in the soil gets increased, the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be increased, and the chlorophyll level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be decreased. As a result, the visual spectral reflectance (A1) of Brassica Campestris L. leaf is increased, and the blue-shift (moving towards the shorter waveband) degree (S) of the red edge (the ascending region of the reflectivity at 680-740 nm) gets increased. However, the near-infrared spectral reflectance (A2) decreases. With the correlation coefficient R2 more than 0.95, these parameters of A1,A2 and S can be perfectly used to simulate and predict the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf.

  5. Study on the spectral response of Brassica Campestris L. leaf to the copper pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Brassica Campestis L. was cultivated in the soil at the laboratory. The red edge,the visual spectrum and the near-infrared spectrum of Brassica Campestis L. leaf were used to explore the spectral response of Brassica Campestis L. leaf to the copper stress. As the Cu content in the soil gets increased,the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be increased,and the chlorophyll level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be decreased. As a result,the visual spectral reflectance (A1) of Brassica Campestris L. leaf is increased,and the blue-shift (moving towards the shorter waveband) degree (S) of the red edge (the ascending region of the re-flectivity at 680―740 nm) gets increased. However,the near-infrared spectral re-flectance (A2) decreases. With the correlation coefficient R2 more than 0.95,these parameters of A1,A2 and S can be perfectly used to simulate and predict the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf.

  6. STANDARDIZATION OF METHODOLOGY FOR STUDYING PATHOGENECITY OF XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV ORYZAE TO RICE

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya Bhagat*, P Shukla and PK Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Rice is the most important food crop of India and its production has increased significantly during last few years. However, Infection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. Oryzae considerably decrease its productivity. It is important to study pathogenecity of causative organism before any defense strategy is decided. Present paper deals with standardization of technology for microscopic study of pathogen.

  7. Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas campestris JX, an Industrially Productive Strain for Xanthan Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Fei; Wang, Xia; Ma, Cuiqing; Yang, Chunyu; Tang, Hongzhi; Gai, Zhonghui; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris JX, a soil bacterium, is an industrially productive strain for xanthan gum. Here we present a 5.0-Mb assembly of its genome sequence. We have annotated 12 coding sequences (CDSs) responsible for xanthan gum biosynthesis, 346 CDSs encoding carbohydrate metabolism, and 69 CDSs related to virulence, defense, and plant disease.

  8. Global small RNA chaperone Hfq and regulatory small RNAs are important virulence regulators in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Quan; McNally, R Ryan; Sundin, George W

    2013-04-01

    Hfq is a global small RNA (sRNA) chaperone that interacts with Hfq-regulated sRNAs and functions in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. In this work, we identified Hfq to be a virulence regulator in the Gram-negative fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Deletion of hfq in E. amylovora Ea1189 significantly reduced bacterial virulence in both immature pear fruits and apple shoots. Analysis of virulence determinants in strain Ea1189Δhfq showed that Hfq exerts pleiotropic regulation of amylovoran exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, motility, and the type III secretion system (T3SS). Further characterization of biofilm regulation by Hfq demonstrated that Hfq limits bacterial attachment to solid surfaces while promoting biofilm maturation. Characterization of T3SS regulation by Hfq revealed that Hfq positively regulates the translocation and secretion of the major type III effector DspE and negatively controls the secretion of the putative translocator HrpK and the type III effector Eop1. Lastly, 10 Hfq-regulated sRNAs were identified using a computational method, and two of these sRNAs, RprA and RyhA, were found to be required for the full virulence of E. amylovora. PMID:23378513

  9. Post-Transcriptional Regulation by the Csr Global Regulatory System in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kazushi; 鈴木, 一史

    2007-01-01

    In many species of bacteria, the Csr (carbon storage regulator) global regulatory system coordinates the expression of various genes. In Escherichia coli, the central component of this system, CsrA, is a RNA-binding protein. The CsrA is a homodimer and binds to leader segments of target mRNAs, affecting their translation and stability. CsrA activity is regulated by two small non-coding RNAs, CsrB and CsrC. These RNAs contain multiple CsrA-binding sequences and act by sequestering CsrA. In thi...

  10. Combating global warming. Possible rules, regulations and administrative arrangements for a global market in CO2 emission entitlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When in 1991 the UNCTAD secretariat launched its research into the idea of controlling carbon dioxide emissions through a system of 'tradeable permits', there was little support for this approach. Some felt that the idea was premature and should not detract from efforts to introduce more conventional measures, such as environmental taxes and new regulations. However, in a few short years, the idea of using tradeable market-based instruments to combat global warming has gained widespread acceptance. The UNCTAD secretariat's 1992 study on a global system of tradeable carbon emission entitlements (UNCTAD/RDP/DFP/1), was widely regarded as a major breakthrough in this area. This study argued that tradeable permits were both an efficient means of controlling man-made carbon dioxide emissions at minimum cost, and an effective mechanism for transferring resources to developing countries and countries in transition, to help them to contribute to the international effort to abate emissions of greenhouse gases. The study contained a detailed assessment of key technical elements of a tradeable CO2 entitlements system, including permit allocation techniques, resource transfers, equity/distributional implications, institutional and administrative requirements. The present publication explores the institutional requirements for both policy-making and the organization of a global market in CO2 emission allowances. It shows that one can start with a simple pilot scheme based on the joint implementation of commitments, which constitutes the cornerstone of the Framework Convention, and evolve gradually to a more complete system on the basis of 'learning by doing'. Since the use of markets can dramatically lower the cost of controlling greenhouse gas emissions, it is clearly in the self-interest of major emitters to act as 'market leaders' willing to pioneer

  11. Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Gene Expression and Virulence and Reveals Role for Global Regulator Hfq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zuBentrup, K. Honer; Ramamurthy R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClellan, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumaras, P.; Norwood, K.; Nickerson, C. A.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.

  12. The Growth of Private Regulation of Labor Standards in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen

    2013-01-01

    , this literature focuses mainly on large firms and has ignored the growing integration of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) into global supply chains. Furthermore, the literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in SMEs primarily emphasizes domestic initiatives and not global challenges......Multinational corporations (MNCs) have come under pressure to adopt private regulatory initiatives such as supplier codes of conduct in order to address poor working conditions in global supply chain factories. While a well-known literature explores drivers and outcomes of such monitoring schemes....... Focusing on the Business for Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), this article examines the positions of private actors, who demand and supply private regulation as well as the positions of those firms, who are the targets of such schemes. As the BSCI has grown its membership, MNCs increasingly request...

  13. Global infant formula: monitoring and regulating the impacts to protect human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, George

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide promotion of infant formula and other commercial baby foods is leading to increased use of these products, raising concerns about their impact on the health of infants. These products are made and marketed through a global system that extends beyond the control of separate nations. As the industry is increasingly globalized, there is a growing need for guidance, monitoring, and regulation. This study suggests a path toward achieving better control of infant formula and other baby foods to ensure that infants and young children everywhere are well nourished. The negotiation of a new Optional Protocol on Children's Nutrition, to be linked to the most relevant human rights treaty, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, would bring the major issues relating to infant formula and other baby foods to the attention of the global community and all national governments. PMID:25784954

  14. Global regulator Anr represses PlcH phospholipase activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa when oxygen is limiting

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Angelyca A.; Daniels, Emily F.; Hammond, John H.; Willger, Sven D.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Haemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) is a potent virulence and colonization factor that is expressed at high levels by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the mammalian host. The phosphorylcholine liberated from phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin by PlcH is further catabolized into molecules that both support growth and further induce plcH expression. We have shown previously that the catabolism of PlcH-released choline leads to increased activity of Anr, a global transcriptional regulator that pro...

  15. Global Wordings and Local Meanings: Traditional Knowledge Regulation in India and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eimer, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    In many countries of the Global South, indigenous communities have learned how to make use of the local biodiversity. However, their traditional knowledge has aroused the attention of scientists, corporations, and environmental groups. Most of these actors only perceive traditional knowledge as useful raw material for their own purposes and disregard the indigenous customary rights which are associated with its dissemination. The resulting conflicts are shaped by national regulations and an i...

  16. A systems level predictive model for global gene regulation of methanogenesis in a hydrogenotrophic methanogen

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Sung Ho; Turkarslan, Serdar; Reiss, David J.; Pan, Min; Burn, June A.; Costa, Kyle C.; Lie, Thomas J.; Slagel, Joseph; Moritz, Robert L.; Hackett, Murray; Leigh, John A.; Baliga, Nitin S.

    2013-01-01

    Methanogens catalyze the critical methane-producing step (called methanogenesis) in the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. Here, we present the first predictive model of global gene regulation of methanogenesis in a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanococcus maripaludis. We generated a comprehensive list of genes (protein-coding and noncoding) for M. maripaludis through integrated analysis of the transcriptome structure and a newly constructed Peptide Atlas. The environment and gene-r...

  17. New Regional and Global HFC Projections and Effects of National Regulations and Montreal Protocol Amendment Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, G. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. New global scenarios of HFC emissions reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050, which corresponds to a projected growth from 2015 to 2050 which is 9% to 29% of that for CO2 over the same time period. New baseline scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. These projections are the first to comprehensively assess production and consumption of individual HFCs in multiple use sectors and geographic regions with emission estimates constrained by atmospheric observations. In 2050, in percent of global HFC emissions, China (~30%), India and the rest of Asia (~25%), Middle East and northern Africa (~10%), and USA (~10%) are the principal source regions; and refrigeration and stationary air conditioning are the major use sectors. National regulations to limit HFC use have been adopted recently in the European Union, Japan and USA, and four proposals have been submitted in 2015 to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries. The new HFC scenarios and effects of national regulations and Montreal Protocol amendment proposals will be presented.

  18. Competition between Pre-mRNAs for the splicing machinery drives global regulation of splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Munding, EM; Shiue, L; Katzman, S.; Donohue, J; Ares, M

    2013-01-01

    During meiosis in yeast, global splicing efficiency increases and then decreases. Here we provide evidence that splicing improves due to reduced competition for the splicing machinery. The timing of this regulation corresponds to repression and reactivation of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) during meiosis. In vegetative cells, RPG repression by rapamycin treatment also increases splicing efficiency. Downregulation of the RPG-dedicated transcription factor gene IFH1 genetically suppresses two ...

  19. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the global nitrogen regulator AmtR from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AmtR is a rare example of a member of the TetR family of bacterial transcription regulators that is not regulated by a small-molecule effector but by interaction with a protein named GlnK. Wild-type and SeMet-substituted AmtR have been produced and crystallized and preliminary electron-density maps have been obtained to 3.0 Å resolution. AmtR, a member of the TetR family of transcription regulators, is a global regulator of nitrogen control in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Unlike other TetR-family members, which are regulated by small-molecule effectors, AmtR is regulated by a protein called GlnK. It has been shown that a GlnK trimer has to become adenylylated prior to formation of a complex with AmtR. The physiological function of AmtR has been very well studied, but structural characterization of the mechanistic aspects of AmtR-regulated transcription has yet to be accomplished. AmtR has successfully been crystallized in space group P21212, with six molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 153.34, b = 163.10, c = 51.93 Å. Preliminary phases were obtained using Se-SAD

  20. INFLUENCE OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE BIOHERBICIDAL EFFICACY OF A Xanthomonas campestris ISOLATE ON COMMON COCKLEBUR ( Xanthium strumarium )

    OpenAIRE

    C. Douglas Boyette; Robert E. Hoagland

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse and controlled-environment studies were conducted to determine the effects of incubation temperature, dew period temperature, dew period duration, plant growth stage, and cell concentration on the bioherbicidal efficacy of a highly virulent isolate (LVA987) of the bacterial pathogen,Xanthomonas campestris, against Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur). X. campestris infected cocklebur at 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC but the disease achieved at 20ºC was not sufficient to cause high plant m...

  1. Genetic and Physical Analyses of a Cluster of Genes Essential for Xanthan Gum Biosynthesis in Xanthomonas campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, N E; Cleary, J M; Cabañas, D K; Rosen, I G; K.S. Kang

    1987-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris produces copious amounts of a complex exopolysaccharide, xanthan gum. Nonmucoid mutants, defective in synthesis of xanthan polysaccharide, were isolated after nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. To isolate genes essential for xanthan polysaccharide synthesis (xps), a genomic library of X. campestris DNA, partially digested with SalI and ligated into the broad-host-range cloning vector pRK293, was constructed in Escherichia coli. The pooled clone bank was conjugated en masse f...

  2. Global regulator SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and regulates T(H2 differentiation in Wnt-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimple Notani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, the conserved Wnt signalling cascade promotes the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which then associates with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs to activate target genes. Wnt/beta -catenin signalling is essential for T cell development and differentiation. Here we show that special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1, the T lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and global regulator, interacts with beta-catenin and recruits it to SATB1's genomic binding sites. Gene expression profiling revealed that the genes repressed by SATB1 are upregulated upon Wnt signalling. Competition between SATB1 and TCF affects the transcription of TCF-regulated genes upon beta-catenin signalling. GATA-3 is a T helper type 2 (T(H2 specific transcription factor that regulates production of T(H2 cytokines and functions as T(H2 lineage determinant. SATB1 positively regulated GATA-3 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB1 downregulated GATA-3 expression in differentiating human CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that SATB1 influences T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. In the presence of Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1, an inhibitor of Wnt signalling, GATA-3 is downregulated and the expression of signature T(H2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 is reduced, indicating that Wnt signalling is essential for T(H2 differentiation. Knockdown of beta-catenin also produced similar results, confirming the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in T(H2 differentiation. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and p300 acetyltransferase on GATA-3 promoter in differentiating T(H2 cells in a Wnt-dependent manner. SATB1 coordinates T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. The SATB1:beta-catenin complex activates a number of SATB1 regulated genes, and hence this study has potential to find novel Wnt responsive genes. These results demonstrate that SATB1

  3. Hydrogen Monitoring Requirements in the Global Technical Regulation on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Hartmann, Kevin; Bubar, Max; Post, Matthew; Boon-Brett, Lois; Weidner, Eveline; Moretto, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    The United Nations Global Technical Regulation (GTR) Number 13 (Global Technical Regulation on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles) is the defining document regulating safety requirements in hydrogen vehicles, and in particular fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). GTR Number 13 has been formally implemented and will serve as the basis for the national regulatory standards for FCEV safety in North America (Canada, United States), Japan, Korea, and the European Union. The GTR defines safety requirement for these vehicles, including specifications on the allowable hydrogen levels in vehicle enclosures during in-use and post-crash conditions and on the allowable hydrogen emissions levels in vehicle exhaust during certain modes of normal operation. However, in order to be incorporated into national regulations, that is, in order to be binding, methods to verify compliance to the specific requirements must exist. In a collaborative program, the Sensor Laboratories at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in the United States and the Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport in the Netherlands have been evaluating and developing analytical methods that can be used to verify compliance to the hydrogen release requirement as specified in the GTR.

  4. Global transcriptional control by glucose and carbon regulator CcpA in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Ana; Camiade, Emilie; Monot, Marc; Courtois, Emmanuelle; Barbut, Frédéric; Sernova, Natalia V; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Dupuy, Bruno

    2012-11-01

    The catabolite control protein CcpA is a pleiotropic regulator that mediates the global transcriptional response to rapidly catabolizable carbohydrates, like glucose in Gram-positive bacteria. By whole transcriptome analyses, we characterized glucose-dependent and CcpA-dependent gene regulation in Clostridium difficile. About 18% of all C. difficile genes are regulated by glucose, for which 50% depend on CcpA for regulation. The CcpA regulon comprises genes involved in sugar uptake, fermentation and amino acids metabolism, confirming the role of CcpA as a link between carbon and nitrogen pathways. Using combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and genome sequence analysis, we detected 55 CcpA binding sites corresponding to ∼140 genes directly controlled by CcpA. We defined the C. difficile CcpA consensus binding site (cre(CD) motif), that is, 'RRGAAAANGTTTTCWW'. Binding of purified CcpA protein to 19 target cre(CD) sites was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. CcpA also directly represses key factors in early steps of sporulation (Spo0A and SigF). Furthermore, the C. difficile toxin genes (tcdA and tcdB) and their regulators (tcdR and tcdC) are direct CcpA targets. Finally, CcpA controls a complex and extended regulatory network through the modulation of a large set of regulators. PMID:22989714

  5. Flavonóides O-glicosilados de Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae Glycosyl flavonoids from Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M.L. dos Santos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Do extrato butanólico de Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae foram isolados quatro flavonóides, todos O-glicosídeos da quercetina. Estas substâncias foram identificadas como 3-O-b-D-apiofuranosil-(1®2-galactopiranosil quercetina (1, 3-O-b-D-galactopiranosil quercetina (hiperina (2, 3-O-a-L-arabinopiranosil quercetina (guaijaverina (3 e 3-O-a-L-ramnopiranosil quercetina (quercitrina (4.O presente trabalho relata a presença destas substâncias pela primeira vez para esta espécie de Croton, cuja elucidação estrutural deu-se por espectroscopia em UV, EM e RMN, incluindo as técnicas bidimensionais: ¹H-¹H (2D NOESY, 2D COSY, ¹H-13C (2D HETCOR e 13C (APT, além de comparações com os dados da literatura.Four flavonoids were isolated from the butanolic extract of the aerial parts of Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae. These compounds were identified as 3-O-b-D-apiofuranosyl-(1®2-galactopyranoside quercetin (1, 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside quercetin (hyperin (2, 3-O-a-L-arabinopyranoside quercetin (guaijaverin (3 and 3-O-a-L-ramnopyranoside quercetin (quercitrin (4. They have been isolated for the first time from Croton campestris. Their structures were elucidated by UV, MS and NMR experiments including ¹H-¹H (2D NOESY, 2D COSY, ¹H-13C (2D HETCOR, 13C (APT and by comparison of the spectral data with those reported in the literature.

  6. Limpeza clonal de mudas de videira infectadas por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola Clonal cleaning of grapevine plants infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva; Natoniel Franklin de Melo; Elineide Barbosa de Souza; Ângela Katiusia Coelho; Rosa de Lima Ramos Mariano

    2013-01-01

    O cancro bacteriano da videira é causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv). Visando à limpeza clonal de mudas de 'Red Globe', foram estudados: tamanho ideal de ápices e gemas axilares para cultivo em meio de Galzy modificado (MGM); efeito da termoterapia (38ºC/30 dias); e ação de antibióticos na eliminação de Xcv em videiras infectadas. Os percentuais de contaminação por Xcv e de regeneração foram analisados, e as plantas obtidas foram indexadas em meio ágar nutritivo-dextrose-ext...

  7. Flavonóides O-glicosilados de Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae) Glycosyl flavonoids from Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paula M.L. dos Santos; Jan Schripsema; Ricardo M. Kuster

    2005-01-01

    Do extrato butanólico de Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae) foram isolados quatro flavonóides, todos O-glicosídeos da quercetina. Estas substâncias foram identificadas como 3-O-b-D-apiofuranosil-(1®2)-galactopiranosil quercetina (1), 3-O-b-D-galactopiranosil quercetina (hiperina) (2), 3-O-a-L-arabinopiranosil quercetina (guaijaverina) (3) e 3-O-a-L-ramnopiranosil quercetina (quercitrina) (4).O presente trabalho relata a presença destas substâncias pela primeira vez para esta espécie ...

  8. Effect of virulence and serial transfers of Xanthomonas campestris on xanthan gum production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitschke Marcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The virulence of six Xanthomonas campestris isolates was evaluated using the percentage of lesion area of leaves in Brassica oleraceae host plant, compared to diameter of colonies, xanthan production and gum viscosity. In terms of virulence, the isolates belonged to two statistically different groups: isolates B, UPF and C7 showed values between 52 and 69%, while isolates CF, C and strain B-1459 gave 0-30% of lesion area. Final xanthan concentration, gum viscosity and colony diameter did not correlate with virulence calculated by percentage of lesion area, showing that this parameter is not a good criterium for selection of potential xanthan producer isolates. Serial transfers of X. campestris isolates in host plant did not show a significant effect on "in vitro" production of xanthan or on viscosity levels, suggesting that the increasing interaction between plant and bacteria did not stimulate the increase in xanthan production and viscosity.

  9. HP1 Is Involved in Regulating the Global Impact of DNA Methylation on Alternative Splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuvi Yearim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The global impact of DNA methylation on alternative splicing is largely unknown. Using a genome-wide approach in wild-type and methylation-deficient embryonic stem cells, we found that DNA methylation can either enhance or silence exon recognition and affects the splicing of more than 20% of alternative exons. These exons are characterized by distinct genetic and epigenetic signatures. Alternative splicing regulation of a subset of these exons can be explained by heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1, which silences or enhances exon recognition in a position-dependent manner. We constructed an experimental system using site-specific targeting of a methylated/unmethylated gene and demonstrate a direct causal relationship between DNA methylation and alternative splicing. HP1 regulates this gene’s alternative splicing in a methylation-dependent manner by recruiting splicing factors to its methylated form. Our results demonstrate DNA methylation’s significant global influence on mRNA splicing and identify a specific mechanism of splicing regulation mediated by HP1.

  10. Global health security agenda and the international health regulations: moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Sorrell, Erin M; Kornblet, Sarah A; Fischer, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) in February 2014 capped over a decade of global efforts to develop new approaches to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases-part of the growing recognition that disease events, whether natural, accidental, or intentional, threaten not just public health, but national, regional, and global security interests. In 2005, the United States, along with other Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO), adopted the revised International Health Regulations [IHR (2005)]. The IHR (2005) conferred new responsibilities on WHO and the global health community to coordinate resources for capacity building and emergency response, and on the now-196 States Parties to develop the core capacities required to detect, assess, report, and respond to potential public health emergencies of international concern. Both GHSA and the IHR aim to elevate political attention and encourage participation, coordination, and collaboration by multiple stakeholders, while leveraging previously existing commitments and multilateral efforts. GHSA and the IHR (2005) are platforms for action; how efforts under each will complement each other remains unclear. Mechanisms that measure progress under these 2 overlapping frameworks will aid in focusing resources and in sustaining political momentum for IHR implementation after 2016. PMID:25254911

  11. Growth of Agaricus campestris NRRL 2334 in the Form of Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Antonio M.; Bailey, Valerie I.

    1985-01-01

    The production of pellets of the fungus Agaricus campestris NRRL 2334 was studied in submerged fermentation with peat extract as the main substrate source. Pellets up to 6 mm in diameter were obtained when the peat extract was diluted to reduce the concentration of growth inhibitors. Yeast extract and yeast extract plus glucose were the most effective nutrient supplements in the diluted peat extract media and stimulated the formation of large pellets which contained 44.4% crude protein, 2.8% ...

  12. Effect of virulence and serial transfers of Xanthomonas campestris on xanthan gum production

    OpenAIRE

    Nitschke Marcia; Rodrigues Vanessa

    2000-01-01

    The virulence of six Xanthomonas campestris isolates was evaluated using the percentage of lesion area of leaves in Brassica oleraceae host plant, compared to diameter of colonies, xanthan production and gum viscosity. In terms of virulence, the isolates belonged to two statistically different groups: isolates B, UPF and C7 showed values between 52 and 69%, while isolates CF, C and strain B-1459 gave 0-30% of lesion area. Final xanthan concentration, gum viscosity and colony diameter did not ...

  13. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS 2008 CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES FOR RUSSIAN MACROPRUDENTIAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Егор Николаевич Поляков

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the impact of volatility in global financial markets on the economy of developing countries and the analysis of factors contributing to a greater or lesser degree of vulnerability of the financial systems of developing countries in the global crisis of 2008-2010. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the global financial crisis on the economies of the two groups of developing countries of Southeast Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. On the basis of the analysis due to the dynamics of the main macroeconomic indicators of the Russian Federation during the acute phase of the crisis. The author presents an analysis of the vulnerability of the Russian economy in the event of possible instability in global financial markets at present. The author came to the conclusion that the main reason for which in 2009 the level of GDP growth Russia won 178 seats out of 184 countries, were 2 groups of errors. The first group of errors - errors are system of macro-prudential regulation made by the Central Bank from 2002 to 2007, such as: lack of control and regulation of borrowings of the private and banking sectors to foreign markets, as well as in the domestic market in foreign currency, the loss of control over domestic financial markets, such as: the interbank lending market, the stock market. The second group of errors - errors it committed securities during the crisis. The first error of the Central Bank - a rejection Vat refinance foreign debt of non-financial sector, resulting in an acute liquidity crisis. The second error is stretched for a few months, not a one-time devaluation of the ruble. Price of the second error was 200 billion USD, which the Central Bank lost and speculators earned.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-4

  14. Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玮丽

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.

  15. Global regulation of gene expression by the MafR protein of Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía eRuiz-Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is a natural inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract. However, as an opportunistic pathogen, it is able to colonize other host niches and cause life-threatening infections. Its adaptation to new environments involves global changes in gene expression. The EF3013 gene (here named mafR of E. faecalis strain V583 encodes a protein (MafR, 482 residues that has sequence similarity to global response regulators of the Mga/AtxA family. The enterococcal OG1RF genome also encodes the MafR protein (gene OG1RF_12293. In this work, we have identified the promoter of the mafR gene using several in vivo approaches. Moreover, we show that MafR influences positively the transcription of many genes on a genome-wide scale. The most significant target genes encode components of PTS-type membrane transporters, components of ABC-type membrane transporters, and proteins involved in the metabolism of carbon sources. Some of these genes were previously reported to be up-regulated during the growth of E. faecalis in blood and/or in human urine. Furthermore, we show that a mafR deletion mutant strain induces a significant lower degree of inflammation in the peritoneal cavity of mice, suggesting that enterococcal cells deficient in MafR are less virulent. Our work indicates that MafR is a global transcriptional regulator. It might facilitate the adaptation of E. faecalis to particular host niches and, therefore, contribute to its potential virulence.

  16. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalev Carmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues. In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions. In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions. Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.

  17. Low-Pressure Plasma Application for the Inactivation of the Seed-borne Pathogen Xanthomonas campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Terumi; Takai, Yuichiro; Mishima, Tomoko; Kawaradani, Mitsuo; Tanimoto, Hideo; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Misawa, Tatsuya; Kusakari, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-pressure plasma treatment on seed disinfection and the possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Seed-borne disease refers to plant diseases that are transmitted by seeds; seed disinfection is an important technique for prevention of such diseases. In this study, the effectiveness of low-pressure plasma treatment in the inactivation of the seed-borne plant pathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, inoculated on cruciferous seeds, was evaluated. The highest inactivation effect was observed when the treatment voltage and argon gas flow rate were 5.5 kV and 0.5 L/min, respectively. The viable cell number of X. campestris was 6.6 log cfu/seed before plasma treatment, and decreased by 3.9 log after 5 min of treatment and by 6.6 log after 40 min. Ethidium monoazide treatment and quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that both the cell membrane and target DNA region were damaged following 5 min of plasma treatment. Although both heat and ozone were generated during the plasma treatment, the contribution of both factors to the inactivation of X. campestris was small by itself in our low-pressure plasma system. Overall, we have shown that our low-pressure plasma system has great applicability to controlling plant pathogenic bacterium contamination of seeds. PMID:27009508

  18. Small scale production and characterization of xanthan gum synthesized by local isolates of Xanthomonas campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Rajesh; Alam, Md Jahangir; Salim, Mohammad; Ashrafee, Tamzida Shamim

    2016-02-01

    Xanthan gum is a commercially important microbial exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Xanthomonas campestris. X. campestris is a plant pathogen causing various plant diseases such as black rot of crucifers, bacterial leaf blight and citrus canker disease resulting in crop damage. In this study, we isolated efficient local bacterial isolates which are capable to produce xanthan gum utilizing different sources of carbon (maltose, sucrose and glucose). Bacterial isolates from different plant leaves and fruits were identified as Xanthomonas campestris based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Among the 23 isolates, 70% were capable of producing gum. Taro plant, considered as new bacterial host, also have the capability to produce xanthan gum. Production conditions of xanthan gum and their relative viscosity by these bacterial isolates were optimized using basal medium containing commercial carbon and nitrogen sources and various temperature and rotation. Highest level of xanthan gum (18.286 g/l) with relative viscosity (7.2) was produced (Host, Citrus macroptera) at 28 degrees C, pH 7.0, 150 rpm using sucrose as a carbon source at orbital shaker. Whereas, in lab fermenter, same conditions gave best result (19.587 g/l gum) with 7.8 relative viscosity. Chilled alcohol (96%) was used to recover the xanthan gum. FTIR studies also carried out for further confirmation of compatibility by detecting the chemical groups. PMID:26934783

  19. Lessons From The 2008 Global Financial Crisis: Imprudent Risk Management And Miss Calculated Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long H. Vo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Of the major shortcomings exposed during the 2008 global financial crisis, there are two aspects that have attracted much interest among academics: the under-appreciation of the complexity of new operations at large financial institutions and the inadequate oversight of basic prudential supervision by regulatory agencies. To provide a brief focus on elements of these aspects, this paper presents corresponding case studies involve the fall of two of the largest finance companies ever existed: American International Group and Lehman Brothers Holdings. A survey of related historical arguments shows that while AIG fails due largely to its extended involvement in the new Credit Default Swap contracts that enable gambling on defaults, the collapse of Lehman Brothers’ may be attributable to the misguiding capital adequacy regulations implied by the Basel II Accord. Though perhaps overly simplified, the conclusions from these two cases offer insights into the fundamental weaknesses of some primary contemporary risk management practices and regulations.

  20. Phosphorylated CpxR restricts production of the RovA global regulator in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfa Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RovA is a global transcriptional regulator of gene expression in pathogenic Yersinia. RovA levels are kept in check by a sophisticated layering of distinct transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. In the enteropathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis, we have previously reported that the extracytoplasmic stress sensing CpxA-CpxR two-component regulatory system modulates rovA expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized CpxR phosphorylation (CpxR∼P in vitro, and determined that phosphorylation was necessary for CpxR to efficiently bind to the PCR-amplified upstream regulatory region of rovA. The precise CpxR∼P binding site was mapped by a nuclease protection assay and directed mutagenesis confirmed that in vivo binding to the rovA promoter inhibits transcription. Reduced RovA production was most pronounced following CpxR∼P accumulation in the Yersinia cytoplasm during chronic Cpx pathway activation and by the indiscriminate phosphodonor action of acetyl phosphate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cpx pathway activation restricts levels of the RovA global regulator. The regulatory influence of CpxR∼P must therefore extend well beyond periplasmic quality control in the Yersinia envelope, to include genes involved in environmental survival and pathogenicity.

  1. Global regulator engineering significantly improved Escherichia coli tolerances toward inhibitors of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqing; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Yilu; Lin, Min; Lin, Zhanglin

    2012-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is regarded as the most viable source of feedstock for industrial biorefinery, but the harmful inhibitors generated from the indispensable pretreatments prior to fermentation remain a daunting technical hurdle. Using an exogenous regulator, irrE, from the radiation-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans, we previously showed that a novel global regulator engineering (GRE) approach significantly enhanced tolerances of Escherichia coli to alcohol and acetate stresses. In this work, an irrE library was subjected to selection under various stresses of furfural, a typical hydrolysate inhibitor. Three furfural tolerant irrE mutants including F1-37 and F2-1 were successfully obtained. The cells containing these mutants reached OD(600) levels of 4- to 16-fold of that for the pMD18T cells in growth assay under 0.2% (v/v) furfural stress. The cells containing irrE F1-37 and F2-1 also showed considerably reduced intracellular oxygen species (ROS) levels under furfural stress. Moreover, these two irrE mutants were subsequently found to confer significant cross tolerances to two other most common inhibitors, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF), vanillin, as well as real lignocellulosic hydrolysates. When evaluated in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with corn stover cellulosic hydrolysate (prepared with a solid loading of 30%), the cells containing the mutants exhibited lag phases markedly shortened by 24-44 h in comparison with the control cells. This work thus presents a promising step forward to resolve the inhibitor problem for E. coli. From the view of synthetic biology, irrE can be considered as an evolvable "part" for various stresses. Furthermore, this GRE approach can be extended to exploit other exogenous global regulators from extremophiles, and the native counterparts in E. coli, for eliciting industrially useful phenotypes. PMID:22684885

  2. Safety as high and as harmonized as reasonably achievable: Nuclear regulators facing globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation is being extensively scrutinized once again in light of the present debate on its role in sustainable development and on global security problems. Nuclear power is an important feature of today's energy supply. Commercial nuclear generation is a mature, established technology, having accumulated over 40 years of successful operation. Yet nuclear power raises passions as do few other energy issues. Within countries and among them, both support and opposition are strong. Loyola de Palacio, the European Union Commissioner responsible for energy and transport, summed up the dilemma very succinctly: Either we shut down the nuclear sector and give up on Kyoto, or we do not shut down the nuclear sector and we respect Kyoto. It is as simple as that: sometimes you have to put it crudely so that people understand. What is the role of nuclear regulators in this environment? The primary objective of government intervention into nuclear business is to allow humankind to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks emanating from nuclear sciences and their applications. Because both the nuclear power industry and the societal context within which it is regulated are dynamic, regulators must continuously assess their approaches to regulation to best achieve their regulatory mandate. This includes adjusting the boundaries of activity between the plant and the regulator. That is, working out the practical approaches that allow the power reactor operator/owner to achieve and maintain safety while allowing the regulatory body to assure itself and the public that appropriate levels of safety are achieved and maintained

  3. Checkpoint Kinases Regulate a Global Network of Transcription Factors in Response to DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Jaehnig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage activates checkpoint kinases that induce several downstream events, including widespread changes in transcription. However, the specific connections between the checkpoint kinases and downstream transcription factors (TFs are not well understood. Here, we integrate kinase mutant expression profiles, transcriptional regulatory interactions, and phosphoproteomics to map kinases and downstream TFs to transcriptional regulatory networks. Specifically, we investigate the role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae checkpoint kinases (Mec1, Tel1, Chk1, Rad53, and Dun1 in the transcriptional response to DNA damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate. The result is a global kinase-TF regulatory network in which Mec1 and Tel1 signal through Rad53 to synergistically regulate the expression of more than 600 genes. This network involves at least nine TFs, many of which have Rad53-dependent phosphorylation sites, as regulators of checkpoint-kinase-dependent genes. We also identify a major DNA damage-induced transcriptional network that regulates stress response genes independently of the checkpoint kinases.

  4. Trm9-Catalyzed tRNA Modifications Regulate Global Protein Expression by Codon-Biased Translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Deng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional modifications of transfer RNAs (tRNAs have long been recognized to play crucial roles in regulating the rate and fidelity of translation. However, the extent to which they determine global protein production remains poorly understood. Here we use quantitative proteomics to show a direct link between wobble uridine 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5 and 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio (mcm5s2 modifications catalyzed by tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9 in tRNAArg(UCU and tRNAGlu(UUC and selective translation of proteins from genes enriched with their cognate codons. Controlling for bias in protein expression and alternations in mRNA expression, we find that loss of Trm9 selectively impairs expression of proteins from genes enriched with AGA and GAA codons under both normal and stress conditions. Moreover, we show that AGA and GAA codons occur with high frequency in clusters along the transcripts, which may play a role in modulating translation. Consistent with these results, proteins subject to enhanced ribosome pausing in yeast lacking mcm5U and mcm5s2U are more likely to be down-regulated and contain a larger number of AGA/GAA clusters. Together, these results suggest that Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications play a significant role in regulating protein expression within the cell.

  5. Correlating global gene regulation to angiogenesis in the developing chick extra-embryonic vascular system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Javerzat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Formation of blood vessels requires the concerted regulation of an unknown number of genes in a spatial-, time- and dosage-dependent manner. Determining genes, which drive vascular maturation is crucial for the identification of new therapeutic targets against pathological angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: [corrected] We accessed global gene regulation throughout maturation of the chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM, a highly vascularized tissue, using pan genomic microarrays. Seven percent of analyzed genes showed a significant change in expression (>2-fold, FDR<5% with a peak occurring from E7 to E10, when key morphogenetic and angiogenic genes such as BMP4, SMO, HOXA3, EPAS1 and FGFR2 were upregulated, reflecting the state of an activated endothelium. At later stages, a general decrease in gene expression occurs, including genes encoding mitotic factors or angiogenic mediators such as CYR61, EPAS1, MDK and MYC. We identified putative human orthologs for 77% of significantly regulated genes and determined endothelial cell enrichment for 20% of the orthologs in silico. Vascular expression of several genes including ENC1, FSTL1, JAM2, LDB2, LIMS1, PARVB, PDE3A, PRCP, PTRF and ST6GAL1 was demonstrated by in situ hybridization. Up to 9% of the CAM genes were also overexpressed in human organs with related functions, such as placenta and lung or the thyroid. 21-66% of CAM genes enriched in endothelial cells were deregulated in several human cancer types (P<.0001. Interfering with PARVB (encoding parvin, beta function profoundly changed human endothelial cell shape, motility and tubulogenesis, suggesting an important role of this gene in the angiogenic process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study underlines the complexity of gene regulation in a highly vascularized organ during development. We identified a restricted number of novel genes enriched in the endothelium of different species and tissues, which may play crucial

  6. Model rules and regulations for a global CO2 emissions credit market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 21 April 1993, on the occasion of Earth Day, the United States affirmed its commitment to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000. In doing so, the United States joined the European Union (EU), Japan, and approximately 141 other countries that had either committed themselves to this international objective or subscribed to the general principles contained in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed at UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. The commitment of these three trading groups provides the basis for recommending that a market for tradeable carbon dioxide (CO2) emission entitlements among these groups be implemented as soon as an initial set of rules and regulations can be drafted. The goal of a tradeable CO2 entitlement or credit market is to lower the cost of limiting emissions. The Costs of CO2 emission abatement are lowered because the market encourages more emission reductions to be produced by the most efficient resources. The ability easily to selI CO2 credits created through large emission cuts allows cost recovery by, and incentives for, the most efficient sources of emission reductions. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate debate by providing model rules and regulations for a tradeable CO2 emission credit market. The trading rules and regulations proposed here are meant to initiate a process whereby participants will iterate toward a final set of rules and regulations. Therefore, our proposal should create a point of departure for further adjustments and transformation to the initial set of recommendations. A specific proposal will be advanced at this point in order to provide a basis for the conceptualization of this global market. Moreover, this specific proposal will help focus dialogue and may provide insight into the general recommendations presented in the balance of this paper

  7. Produção e caracterização de anticorpos policlonais contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola Production and characterization of polyclonal antibodies against Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    OpenAIRE

    João Sebastião de Paula Araujo; Fábio Bueno dos Reis Junior; Geraldo Baeta Cruz; Bruno Cardoso de Oliveira; Charles Frederick Robbs; Raul de Lucena Duarte Ribeiro; José Carlos Polidoro

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi a produção de anticorpos policlonais contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola e sua caracterização pelo método Elisa indireto. Os resultados apontaram a qualidade dos anticorpos policlonais produzidos, os quais mostraram-se altamente reativos e específicos para o patovar com potencial para ser empregado no diagnóstico da doença e em programas de certificação.The objective of this work was to produce polyclonal antibodies against Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitic...

  8. Chemical characterization of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains; Caracterizacao quimica de biopolimeros sintetizados por Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Angelita da S.; Vendruscolo, Claire T.; Furlan, Ligia [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia]. E-mail: angelita@ufpel.tche.br; claire@ufpel.tche.br; ligia@ufpel.tche.br; Galland, Griselda [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Qumica

    2001-07-01

    In this work we describe the characterisation of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by two Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains, in aerobic fermentation. By chromatography on TLC we could notice the presence of Mannose monomer in higher proportion in the 82 strain with relation to the another ones. The viscosity results showed the temperature dependence. The 06 and 82 strains had their viscosity increased whereas for the 87 strain we could observe a reduction with temperature increasing. The {sup 13}C NMR spectrum of 87 strain showed the characteristic signals at approximately 92.8, 70.4 and 61.4 ppm, attributed to C1, C4 and C6 from glucose monomer, with higher intensity. (author)

  9. Competition between pre-mRNAs for the splicing machinery drives global regulation of splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munding, Elizabeth M; Shiue, Lily; Katzman, Sol; Donohue, John Paul; Ares, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    During meiosis in yeast, global splicing efficiency increases and then decreases. Here we provide evidence that splicing improves due to reduced competition for the splicing machinery. The timing of this regulation corresponds to repression and reactivation of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) during meiosis. In vegetative cells, RPG repression by rapamycin treatment also increases splicing efficiency. Downregulation of the RPG-dedicated transcription factor gene IFH1 genetically suppresses two spliceosome mutations, prp11-1 and prp4-1, and globally restores splicing efficiency in prp4-1 cells. We conclude that the splicing apparatus is limiting and that pre-messenger RNAs compete. Splicing efficiency of a pre-mRNA therefore depends not just on its own concentration and affinity for limiting splicing factor(s), but also on those of competing pre-mRNAs. Competition between RNAs for limiting processing factors appears to be a general condition in eukaryotes for a variety of posttranscriptional control mechanisms including microRNA (miRNA) repression, polyadenylation, and splicing. PMID:23891561

  10. CD47 Receptor Globally Regulates Metabolic Pathways That Control Resistance to Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas W; Soto-Pantoja, David R; Schwartz, Anthony L; Sipes, John M; DeGraff, William G; Ridnour, Lisa A; Wink, David A; Roberts, David D

    2015-10-01

    Modulating tissue responses to stress is an important therapeutic objective. Oxidative and genotoxic stresses caused by ionizing radiation are detrimental to healthy tissues but beneficial for treatment of cancer. CD47 is a signaling receptor for thrombospondin-1 and an attractive therapeutic target because blocking CD47 signaling protects normal tissues while sensitizing tumors to ionizing radiation. Here we utilized a metabolomic approach to define molecular mechanisms underlying this radioprotective activity. CD47-deficient cells and cd47-null mice exhibited global advantages in preserving metabolite levels after irradiation. Metabolic pathways required for controlling oxidative stress and mediating DNA repair were enhanced. Some cellular energetics pathways differed basally in CD47-deficient cells, and the global declines in the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites characteristic of normal cell and tissue responses to irradiation were prevented in the absence of CD47. Thus, CD47 mediates signaling from the extracellular matrix that coordinately regulates basal metabolism and cytoprotective responses to radiation injury. PMID:26311851

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF ANTAGONISTS OF Xanthomonas campestris ISOLATED FROM RHIZOSPHERE ZONE OF BROCCOLI FARM AT KEMBANG MERTA VILLAGE, TABANAN, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Treesna Wulansari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to isolate and identify antagonists of Xanthomonas campestris from rhizosphere zone of broccoli plants. Soil samples were collected from broccoli farm located at Kembang Merta village, Tabanan, Bali. Isolation and identification of the antagonists were conducted at the Laboratory of Microbiology, Udayana University. Two fungal (Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride and two bacterial (Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. antagonists potentially to be developed as biocontrol agents of Xanthomonas campestris were successfully identified in this research

  12. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to perform the pest categorisation for Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, which is the causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato and pepper. X. campestris pv. vesicatoria is not a single taxonomic entity, and four separate species have been described:    X. vesicatoria, X. euvesicatoria, X. perforans and X. gardneri. These organisms can be accurately identified based on a range of discriminative methods. Detection methods are available for seeds. Among the four species described within X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, all except X. gardneri were reported to be present in the EU territory. The host plants (tomato and pepper are cultivated throughout Europe and conditions are conducive to disease development in open fields in southern Europe and in greenhouses. The disease causes a range of symptoms on aerial parts of plants including fruits. Contaminated seeds and transplants are responsible for long-distance dissemination of the pathogen. Control is mainly based on prevention and exclusion. Extraction of seeds from fruit debris using fermentation and acid treatments and thermotherapy treatments were shown to be effective in reducing the bacterial load in seed lots. No methods and chemical control agents are available that effectively control xanthomonads in infected crops. Although no recent data are available on economic losses caused by these pathogens in the EU, the organisms are considered important bacterial pathogens of tomato and pepper. Infections resulting in up to 30 % losses have been reported. Xanthomonads causing bacterial spot of tomato and pepper meet all criteria defined in International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM 21 and they also meet all ISPM 11 criteria, although X. vesicatoria, X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans are present in the EU territory.

  13. Distribution and harmfulness of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker at sugar beet fields in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002-2004, field surveys of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck e r in croplands were done in southwestern Slovakia. From among 150 localities surveyed, 80 were found infested by the field dodder. Within crop plants, C. campestris infested sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, alfalfa (Medicago sativa tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, potato (Solanum tuberosum, lentil (Lens esculenta, parsley (Pastinaca sativa and onion (Allium cepa. Besides the crops, 18 weed species were also recorded. The species from the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae were the most important and acted as a significant reservoir of field dodder in cropland. C. campestris was not found in cold climatic regions with altitude higher than 240 m. The impact of field dodder infestation on sugar beet yield was studied during the year of 2004 in two localities (Šalov and Žitavce in southwestern Slovakia. The presence of field dodder markedly reduced both, quantity and quality of sugar beet yield. Weight of heavily infested beets was reduced from 21.6 to 37.4% and sugar content from 12.0 to 15.2%. Such decline of both parameters was also recorded when field dodder was removed together with leaves of sugar beet during growing season at the end of July. The aim of the infested leaves removal was to decrease mass of field dodder seeds. Although the leaf area of sugar beet regenerates, the decrease of quality and quantity was observed. The decline was the same at both localities, no matter whether the fields were irrigated (Šalov or not (Žitavce.

  14. Interspecific Hybridization of Brassica campestris x B.Oleracea Through Ovary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-qing; SONG Wen-jian; TANG Gui-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun

    2004-01-01

    Using three varieties of Brassica campestris, Hauarad (708), Maoshan-3 (714) and Youbai (715),as the maternal plants and one variety of Brassica oleracea Jingfeng-1 (6012) as paternal plants, crosses were made to produce interspecific hybrids through ovary culture techniques.The ovaries from the cross between B. campestris × B.oleracea (708 × 6012 and 714 × 6012) were cultured and ovary culture was more effective in terms of obtained seeds when ovaries were cultured in vitro at 9 d after pollination (DAP). While for the cross of 715 × 6012, it was better when ovaries in vitro cultured at 12 DAP. Among three cross combinations, the cross of 714 × 6012 showed the best response and 43 seeds per ovary were obtained. Among the media studied, the ovaries from the cross of 708 × 6012 cultured on MS media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA × 0.1 mg L-1 NAA showed better response, and its rate of seeds per ovary reached 44.0%.While the ovaries from the other two crosses (714 × 6012 and 715 × 6012) showed the best response when cultured on B5 media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.2 mg L-1 NAA, and the rates of seeds per ovary reached 72.0 and 60.0%, respectively. All seeds obtained from the three cross combinations were cultured on the MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.05 mg L-1 NAA,and the seeds from the cross of 715 × 6012 showed the best germination response and the percentage of germinations reached 66.7%. The regenerated plantlets were obtained from these seedlings after cultured on the MS media supplemented with 0.05 mg L-1 NAA. Cytological study showed that these regenerated plants were all true hybrids of B.campestris × B.oleracea.

  15. Searching for a trace of Artemisia campestris pollen in the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Grewling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determinate whether Artemisia campestris was present in the vicinity of 8 pollen monitoring stations in Poland by examining temporal variations in daily average airborne Artemisia pollen data recorded by Hirst type volumetric traps. Three day moving averages of airborne Artemisia pollen were examined by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results show that Artemisia pollen seasons in Poland generally display similar unimodal patterns (correlation coefficients r > 0.900; P < 0.05. The only exception was the Artemisia pollen concentration noted in the outskirts of Poznań (Morasko, where the bimodal pattern was revealed. Correlations between Artemisia pollen data recorded at Poznań-Morasko and the other Polish sites were the lowest in the investigated dataset; this was particularly noticeable in the second part of pollen season (r ~0.730. We show that the typical bimodal pattern in Artemisia pollen seasons, which is characteristic of the presence of both A. vulgaris (first peak and A. campestris (second peak, does not occur at the majority of sites in Poland and is restricted to the outskirts of Poznań. In fact, it was noted that the pollen monitoring site in Poznań-Centre, just 8 km from Morasko, only exhibited one peak (attributed to A. vulgaris. This shows that the influence of A. campestris on airborne pollen season curves is limited and can be largely disregarded. In addition, this study supports previous records showing that the spatial distribution of airborne Artemisia pollen within a city (urban-rural gradient can vary markedly, depending on the species composition.

  16. Expanding the Role of FurA as Essential Global Regulator in Cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González

    Full Text Available In the nitrogen-fixing heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA plays a global regulatory role. Failures to eliminate wild-type copies of furA gene from the polyploid genome suggest essential functions. In the present study, we developed a selectively regulated furA expression system by the replacement of furA promoter in the Anabaena sp. chromosomes with the Co2+/Zn2+ inducible coaT promoter from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By removing Co2+ and Zn2+ from the medium and shutting off furA expression, we showed that FurA was absolutely required for cyanobacterial growth. RNA-seq based comparative transcriptome analyses of the furA-turning off strain and its parental wild-type in conjunction with subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were carried out in order to identify direct transcriptional targets and unravel new biological roles of FurA. The results of such approaches led us to identify 15 novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets belonging to different functional categories including detoxification and defences against oxidative stress, phycobilisome degradation, chlorophyll catabolism and programmed cell death, light sensing and response, heterocyst differentiation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, among others. Our analyses evidence novel interactions in the complex regulatory network orchestrated by FurA in cyanobacteria.

  17. Characterizing regulated reservoirs dynamics in regional to global scale hydrologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, E.; Yoon, Y.; Lee, H.; Pavelsky, T.; Allen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes and reservoirs are widely used for water supply and flood control resulting in regulated release of outflows that are nonconcurrent with inflows. In hydrologic modeling applications, accounting for the regulated behavior of reservoirs distributed throughout a river system poses a significant challenge because detailed reservoir operation rules or strategies can be difficult or not possible to obtain. Building on this problem, this study addresses the science questions: Can we model reservoir water storage changes and outlet discharges based on satellite measurements of river water surface elevation and inundated area, and How does repeat cycle, mission duration and measurement uncertainty impact our ability to characterize reservoir behavior? A modeling framework suitable for regional to global applications and based on the forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is presented. Although our framework can be combined with data assimilation techniques for real-time flood forecasting, our goal is to represent reservoir storage patterns in large-scale hydrologic models for simulating: (i) impacts of future climate and/or land cover conditions on water resources, and (ii) synthetic storm events (e.g., 100-yr flood) or event catalogs for flood hazard and risk assessments. In-situ and remotely sensed reservoir dynamics are presented for select locations in the Mississippi River Basin and used in the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model to simulate downstream flow dynamics.

  18. Expanding the Role of FurA as Essential Global Regulator in Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Andrés; Bes, M. Teresa; Peleato, M. Luisa; Fillat, María F.

    2016-01-01

    In the nitrogen-fixing heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA plays a global regulatory role. Failures to eliminate wild-type copies of furA gene from the polyploid genome suggest essential functions. In the present study, we developed a selectively regulated furA expression system by the replacement of furA promoter in the Anabaena sp. chromosomes with the Co2+/Zn2+ inducible coaT promoter from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By removing Co2+ and Zn2+ from the medium and shutting off furA expression, we showed that FurA was absolutely required for cyanobacterial growth. RNA-seq based comparative transcriptome analyses of the furA-turning off strain and its parental wild-type in conjunction with subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were carried out in order to identify direct transcriptional targets and unravel new biological roles of FurA. The results of such approaches led us to identify 15 novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets belonging to different functional categories including detoxification and defences against oxidative stress, phycobilisome degradation, chlorophyll catabolism and programmed cell death, light sensing and response, heterocyst differentiation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, among others. Our analyses evidence novel interactions in the complex regulatory network orchestrated by FurA in cyanobacteria. PMID:26967347

  19. Irradiation of mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) to extend their shelf-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) were irradiated with 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy, being then stored either at 10 deg C ± 1 deg C or at room temperature (20 deg C ± 2 deg C), with the purpose of determining the most convenient condition to extend their shelf-life. It is concluded that 3.0 kGy and 10 deg C are the most suitable for that, leading to the inhibition of cap opening and stem elongation, less darkening and no evidence of fungal development until 17th day. Subsequentely almost a duplication of their shelf-life was obtained. (Author)

  20. Genetic diversity analysis for agro-morphological and seed quality traits in rapeseed (brassica campestris l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred fourteen accessions of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) were evaluated at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan using cluster and principal component analyses during 2005 and 2006. Cluster analysis based on fifteen agro-morphological and six seed quality traits, divided 114 accessions into six and five clusters during 2005 and 2006, respectively. The first seven and five PCs with eigenvalues > 1 contributed 74.09% and 66.08% of the variability amongst accessions during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Nine important characters contributed positively to first two PCs during both the years 2005 and 2006. (author)

  1. Development of high yielding mutants of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection through gamma rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogeneous seeds of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection were treated with different doses of gamma rays (750, 1000 and 1250 Gy) to induce genetic variability for the selection of new genotypes with improved agronomic traits. After passing through different stages of selection, two promising mutants were selected for further studies. Two selected mutants along with 5 other entries including parent variety were evaluated for yield and yield components in yield trials for two consecutive years. The mutant TS96-752 was significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) superior to all other entries in grain yield but at par with FSD 86028-3

  2. Identificação de potenciais plantas hospedeiras alternativas de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    OpenAIRE

    Morgana Mateus Santos; Ana Rosa Peixoto; Esmailly de Sousa Pessoa; Marco Aurélio Gama; Rosa de Lima Ramos Mariano; Maria Angélica Guimarães Barbosa; Cristiane Domingos da Paz

    2014-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar possíveis hospedeiras alternativas de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv), visando a fornecer subsídios para o manejo do cancro bacteriano da videira. Vinte e seis espécies vegetais foram inoculadas artificialmente com o isolado Xcv3 e mantidas em condições de casa de vegetação, sendo avaliada a evolução sintomatológica da doença, como manchas necróticas angulares e lesões nas nervuras. O Xcv3 foi reisolado a partir de cada hospedeiro alternati...

  3. Sobrevivência de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola em tecido infectado de videira

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva; Erianne Fonseca de Menezes; Elineide Barbosa de Souza; Natoniel Franklin de Melo; Rosa de Lima Ramos Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Tecidos de plantas infectados constituem uma importante fonte de inóculo primário para fitobacterioses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a sobrevivência de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv), agente do cancro bacteriano da videira, em tecidos infectados na superfície do solo e durante a compostagem de restos de poda. Mudas de videira 'Festival' foram inoculadas com mutante resistente à rifampicina Xcv2Rif e mantidas em casa de vegetação até apresentarem alta severidade da doenç...

  4. Limpeza clonal de mudas de videira infectadas por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva; Natoniel Franklin de Melo; Elineide Barbosa de Souza; Ângela Katiusia Coelho; Rosa de Lima Ramos Mariano

    2013-01-01

    O cancro bacteriano da videira é causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv). Visando à limpeza clonal de mudas de 'Red Globe', foram estudados: tamanho ideal de ápices e gemas axilares para cultivo em meio de Galzy modificado (MGM); efeito da termoterapia (38ºC/30 dias); e ação de antibióticos na eliminação de Xcv em videiras infectadas. Os percentuais de contaminação por Xcv e de regeneração foram analisados, e as plantas obtidas foram indexadas em meio ágar nutritivo-dextrose-ext...

  5. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species. The...

  6. Production of High-Viscosity Whey Broths by a Lactose-Utilizing Xanthomonas campestris Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Robert D.; Bodie, Elizabeth A.

    1985-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris BB-1L was isolated by enrichment and selection by serial passage in a lactose-minimal medium. When BB-1L was subsequently grown in medium containing only 4% whey and 0.05% yeast extract, the lactose was consumed and broth viscosities greater than 500 cps at a 12 s−1 shear rate were produced. Prolonged maintenance in whey resulted in the loss of the ability of BB-1L to produce viscous broths in whey, indicating a reversion to preferential growth on whey protein, like the...

  7. Isolation of genes involved in Xanthomonas campestris pv-vesicatoria pathogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria is the causal agent of leaf spot on pepper and tomato. Four non-pathogenic mutants were isolated from the pathogenic strain 479/Na = after mutagenesis with NTG and UV. The mutants were screened through different pathogenicity tests. The plasmid pUFRO27 was used as a cloning vector. The genomic bank was introduced in a NGT-induced mutant by tri parental conjugation. Five clones that showed virulence response on tomato were isolated after several tests in hypocotiles. Three clones considered more aggressive were chosen after tests on seedlings and seeds. (author). 100 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs

  8. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanira Donizete Tebaldi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica foram avaliadas, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre" inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes às plântulas foi avaliada usando semeadura em areia e meio de cultura contido em tubo de ensaio. Para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes foram realizados o teste padrão de germinação e os testes de vigor: envelhecimento acelerado, índice de velocidade de emergência, crescimento das plântulas e massa seca. De acordo com os resultados, o meio de cultura semi-seletivo NSCAA foi mais eficaz para detectar Xcc em sementes de brócolis; não houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos na taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes e Xcc não afetou a germinação e o vigor das sementes.The detection, transmission and the effect of Xanthomomas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds were evaluated. The seeds were obtained from inoculated field plants ('Baron', 'Flórida', 'Hana Midori Sakata', 'Precoce Piracicaba de Verão', 'Ramoso Santana' and 'Sabre' genotypes with the bacterium. For the seed pathogen detection the semi-selective medium were used: starch for xanthomonads (SX agar, nutrient starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (NSCAA and basal starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (BSCAA; the bacteria seeds transmission percentage was evaluated using sand and test tube. The physiological seed quality was evaluated by the standard germination and vigor tests: the accelerated aging, speed of emergence, seedling growth and seedling dry weight

  9. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanira Donizeti Tebaldi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica foram avaliados, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre" inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes às plântulas foi avaliada usando semeadura em areia e meio de cultura contido em tubo de ensaio. Para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes foram realizados o teste padrão de germinação e os testes de vigor: envelhecimento acelerado, índice de velocidade de emergência, crescimento de plântulas e massa seca. De acordo com os resultados, o meio de cultura semi-seletivo NSCAA foi mais eficaz para detectar Xcc em sementes de brócolis; não houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos na taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes e Xcc não afetou a germinação e o vigor das sementes.The detection, transmission and the effect of Xanthomomas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds were evaluated. The seeds were obtained from inoculated field plants (`Baron', `Flórida', `Hana Midori Sakata', `Precoce Piracicaba de Verão', `Ramoso Santana' and `Sabre' genotypes with the bacterium. For the seed pathogen detection the semi-selective medium were used: starch for xanthomonads (SX agar, nutrient starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (NSCAA and basal starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (BSCAA; the bacteria seeds transmission percentage was evaluated using sand and test tube. The physiological seed quality was evaluated by the standard germination and vigor tests: the accelerated aging, speed of emergence, seedling growth and seedling dry weight. The

  10. Kinetic models for xanthan gum production using Xanthomonas campestris from molasses

    OpenAIRE

    S.L. GILANI; Najafpour, G.D.; H.D. HEYDARZADEH; H Zare

    2011-01-01

    The effects of media temperature, agitation rate and molasses concentration on the yield of fermentation in xanthan gum production process were investigated. Xanthan gum was produced in batch fermentation by Xanthomonas campestris PTCC 1473 from molasses. At 32 C, 500 rpm and media with 30 g/l of total sugar, maximum production of xanthan gum (17.1 g/l) was achieved. For the purity of the xanthan FTIR spectrum was obtained. The identified spectrum was compared with the commercial product. In...

  11. Location and cloning of the ketal pyruvate transferase gene of Xanthomonas campestris.

    OpenAIRE

    Marzocca, M P; Harding, N E; Petroni, E A; Cleary, J M; Ielpi, L

    1991-01-01

    Genes required for xanthan polysaccharide synthesis (xps) are clustered in a DNA region of 13.5 kb in the chromosome of Xanthomonas campestris. Plasmid pCHC3 containing a 12.4-kb insert of xps genes has been suggested to include a gene involved in the pyruvylation of xanthan gum (N.E. Harding, J.M. Cleary, D.K. Cabañas, I. G. Rosen, and K. S. Kang, J. Bacteriol. 169:2854-2861, 1987). An essential step toward understanding the biosynthesis of xanthan gum and to enable genetic manipulation of x...

  12. Impact on Asian firms of product-related environmental regulations through global supply chains : a study of firms in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Michida, Etsuyo; Ueki, Yasushi; Nabeshima, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the important role played by global supply chains in the adaptation to product-related environmental regulations imposed by importing countries, with a focus on chemicals management. By utilizing a unique data collected in Penang, Malaysia, we depict the supply chain structures and how differences among firms in participation to global supply chain link to differences in chemical management. We found that firms belonging to a supply chain are in a better position to ...

  13. Regulation for the Rest of Us? Global Social Activism, Corporate Citizenship, and the Disappearance of the Political

    OpenAIRE

    Lipschutz, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    In the context of globalization, transnational social regulation is increasingly the product of private (as opposed to public) interventions into the sphere of global trade. In recognition of the widespread failure of corporations to sufficiently address the socio-economic externalities borne by workers (inadequate wages, poor working conditions, forced overtime, child labor, and lack of the right to free association), various non-governmental organizations have begun to design and implement ...

  14. Hydrogen Regulation and Global Responses to Electron, Carbon and Nitrogen Sources of Methanococcus Maripaludis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, John A.

    2013-05-20

    Methanogens catalyze the critical, methane-producing step (called methanogenesis) in the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. This project has generated the first predictive model of global gene regulation of methanogenesis in a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanococcus maripaludis. We generated a comprehensive list of genes (protein-coding and non-coding) for M. maripaludis through integrated analysis of the transcriptome structure and a newly constructed Peptide Atlas. The environment and gene-regulatory influence network (EGRIN) model of the strain was constructed from a compendium of transcriptome data that was collected over 58 different steady-state and time course experiments that were performed in chemostats or batch cultures, under a spectrum of environmental perturbations that modulated methanogenesis. Analyses of the EGRIN model have revealed novel components of methanogenesis that included at least three additional protein-coding genes of previously unknown function as well as one non-coding RNA. We discovered that at least five regulatory mechanisms act in a combinatorial scheme to inter-coordinate key steps of methanogenesis with different processes such as motility, ATP biosynthesis, and carbon assimilation. Through a combination of genetic and environmental perturbation experiments we have validated the EGRIN-predicted role of two novel transcription factors in the regulation of phosphate-dependent repression of formate dehydrogenase – a key enzyme in the methanogenesis pathway. The EGRIN model demonstrates regulatory affiliations within methanogenesis as well as between methanogenesis and other cellular functions. In addition, we have published an analysis of transcriptome architecture in M. maripaludis and an analysis of the effects of H2 and formate on growth yield and regulation of methanogenesis in M. maripaludis.

  15. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways of...... reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  16. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  17. Global output regulation of a class of lower triangular nonlinear systems with unknown control direction via output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ranran

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the global output regulation problem of a class of lower triangular systems under measurement output feedback. A novel high-gain filter is proposed to estimate the unmeasured states of the systems. Furthermore, we integrate the robust stabilisation technique and Nussbaumgain technique to achieve asymptotic regulation when the control direction is unknown. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Xanthomonas campestris strains isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli were identified according to their pathogenicity, phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Pathogenicity was confirmed by the injection method with a hypodermic syringe into the mesophilic tissue of cabbage leaves. All strains were Gramnegative, aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, grew at 35°C, produced levan, H2S and indole, did not reduce nitrate, hydrolyzed Tween 80, starch, gelatin and esculin and did not show tolerance to 0.1 and 0.02% TTC. The strains produced acid from d-arabinose, arginine, dulcitol, galactose, d-glucose, maltose, mannose, sorbitol, sucrose and xylose. The genetic characterization was based on the sequence analyses of 16S rDNA and ERIC and BOX PCR. Strains of different pathovars were also used to compare PCR resulting patterns. BOX-PCR of the strains from kale and broccoli, obtained using (GTG5 primer, yielded patterns with a high similarity level to pathovar reference strain Xcc. The strains from cabbage yielded BOX and ERIC product patterns, distinguishing them from the other tested strains and reference strains. 16S rDNA of the representative strains was closely related to Xcc strain ATCC 33913. ERIC PCR and BOX using (GTG5 primer generated different Xcc patterns and were effective in distinguishing strains from different plant hosts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43010 i br. III46007

  19. Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus campestris and Agaricus xanthoderma: Characterization and Applications in Carbohydrate Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigl, Petra; Krondorfer, Iris; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2013-01-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is limited to a rather small group of litter-degrading basidiomycetes. The enzyme is unable to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor, using substituted benzoquinones and (organo) metal ions instead. PDH displays a broad substrate specificity and intriguing variations in regioselectivity, depending on substrate, enzyme source and reaction conditions. In contrast to the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (POx), PDHs from several sources are capable of oxidizing α- or β-1→4-linked di- and oligosaccharides, including lactose. PDH from A. xanthoderma is able to perform C-1 and C-2 oxidation, producing, in addition to lactobionic acid, 2-dehydrolactose, an intermediate for the production of lactulose, whereas PDH from A. campestris oxidizes lactose nearly exclusively at the C-1 position. In this work, we present the isolation of PDH-encoding genes from A. campestris (Ac) and A. xanthoderma (Ax) and a comparison of other so far isolated PDH-sequences. Secretory overexpression of both enzymes in Pichia pastoris was successful when using their native signal sequences with yields of 371 U·L-1 for AxPDH and 35 U·L-1 for AcPDH. The pure enzymes were characterized biochemically and tested for applications in carbohydrate conversion reactions of industrial relevance. PMID:24970179

  20. Susceptibility of Bean Genotypes to Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli in Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Todorović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of 17 bean genotypes were evaluated under greenhouse conditions for their reaction to X. campestris pv. phaseoli, the causal agent of common blight of beans, following leaf-spray inoculation with bacterial suspension (108 cfu/ml. The plants were evaluated based on the number of leaf lesions, and the disease severity index (DSI was calculated.The evaluated genotypes showed various levels of susceptibility to X. campestris pv. phaseoli strain VS-1. The results of both experiments showed that the cultivar Oreol was the most resistant. The genotypes: KB 142, HR-45, Tisa and Panonski tetovac also showed low susceptibility with DSI values in the first trial ranging from 2.27 to 3.60. The same genotypes, with the exception of Panonski tetovac, were also categorized as low-susceptible to the bacterium in the second experiment, having the DSI values between 2.27 and 3.60. Most genotypes (Slavonski žutozeleni, Zlatko, Biser, Sremac, Naya Nayahit were categorized as susceptible in the first experiment, including Panonski tetovac in the second one, while the genotypes Dvadesetica, Prelom and Oplenac displayed the highest susceptibility in both trials.

  1. Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus campestris and Agaricus xanthoderma: Characterization and Applications in Carbohydrate Conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens K. Peterbauer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH is a flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is limited to a rather small group of litter-degrading basidiomycetes. The enzyme is unable to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor, using substituted benzoquinones and (organo metal ions instead. PDH displays a broad substrate specificity and intriguing variations in regioselectivity, depending on substrate, enzyme source and reaction conditions. In contrast to the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (POx, PDHs from several sources are capable of oxidizing α- or β-1→4-linked di- and oligosaccharides, including lactose. PDH from A. xanthoderma is able to perform C-1 and C-2 oxidation, producing, in addition to lactobionic acid, 2-dehydrolactose, an intermediate for the production of lactulose, whereas PDH from A. campestris oxidizes lactose nearly exclusively at the C-1 position. In this work, we present the isolation of PDH-encoding genes from A. campestris (Ac and A. xanthoderma (Ax and a comparison of other so far isolated PDH-sequences. Secretory overexpression of both enzymes in Pichia pastoris was successful when using their native signal sequences with yields of 371 U·L−1 for AxPDH and 35 U·L−1 for AcPDH. The pure enzymes were characterized biochemically and tested for applications in carbohydrate conversion reactions of industrial relevance.

  2. Production of xanthan gum by free and immobilized cells of Xanthomonas campestris and Xanthomonas pelargonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknezhad, Seyyed Vahid; Asadollahi, Mohammad Ali; Zamani, Akram; Biria, Davoud

    2016-01-01

    Production of xanthan gum using immobilized cells of Xanthomonas campestris and Xanthomonas pelargonii grown on glucose or hydrolyzed starch as carbon sources was investigated. Calcium alginate (CA) and calcium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol-boric acid (CA-PVA) beads were used for the immobilization of cells. Xanthan titers of 8.2 and 9.2g/L were obtained for X. campestris cells immobilized in CA-PVA beads using glucose and hydrolyzed starch, respectively, whereas those for X. pelargonii were 8 and 7.9 g/L, respectively. Immobilized cells in CA-PVA beads were successfully employed in three consecutive cycles for xanthan production without any noticeable degradation of the beads whereas the CA beads were broken after the first cycle. The results of this study suggested that immobilized cells are advantageous over the free cells for xanthan production. Also it was shown that the cells immobilized in CA-PVA beads are more efficient than cells immobilized in CA beads for xanthan production. PMID:26526173

  3. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC229, a conserved hypothetical protein from Xanthomonas campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Kuo, Wei-Tien [Institute of Biochemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227,Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Cheng; Shr, Hui-Lin [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Core Facility for Protein Crystallography, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Lyu, Ping-Chiang [Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu,Taiwan (China); Wang, Andrew H.-J. [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Core Facility for Protein Crystallography, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Chou, Shan-Ho, E-mail: shchou@nchu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227,Taiwan (China)

    2005-07-01

    A conserved hypothetical protein XC229 from X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. A crystal of the purified recombinant protein diffracted to a resolution of 1.80 Å. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is a Gram-negative yellow-pigmented pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. Its genome contains approximately 4500 genes, roughly one third of which have no known structure and/or function. However, some of these unknown genes are highly conserved among several different bacterial genuses. XC229 is one such protein containing 134 amino acids. It was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.80 Å. It is cubic and belongs to space group I2{sub x}3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 106.8 Å. It contains one or two molecules per asymmetric unit.

  4. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of aqueous and methanol extracts of Nelsonia campestris in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan; Hadiza Lami Muhammad; Hussaini Anthony Makun; Musa Bola Busari; Abubakar Siddique Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of aqueous and methanol ex-tracts of Nelsonia campestris (N. campestris) in rats. Methods: Acute oral toxicity study of aqueous and methanol extracts was carried out by administration of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 600, 2 900 and 5 000 mg/kg body weight of N. campestris extracts to rats in the respective groups. Sub-acute toxicity study was conducted by oral administration of the extracts at daily doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight to another group of rats for 28 days, while rats in the control group received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Results: The LD50 of the N. campestris extracts in rats was determined to be greater than 5 000 mg/kg body weight. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the test groups administered with aqueous and methanol extracts in relation to the control group for serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO3−), serum albumin, total and conjugated bili-rubin. Similarly, mean organ-to-body weight ratio and all haematological parameters (white blood cell, red blood cell, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume) evaluated were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control. There was a significant increase (P Conclusions: Intake of high doses of this plant extracts may exhibit mild organ toxicity.

  5. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G.; Antoniêto, Amanda C. C.; Persinoti, Gabriela F.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N.

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor—XYR1—in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were upregulated in the presence of cellulose, while 367 and 188 were upregulated in sophorose and glucose, respectively. With respect to genes under the direct regulation of XYR1, 30 and 33 are exclusive to cellulose and sophorose, respectively. The most modulated genes in the Δxyr1 belong to Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), transcription factors, and transporters families. Moreover, we highlight the downregulation of transporters belonging to the MFS and ABC transporter families. Of these, MFS members were mostly downregulated in the presence of cellulose. In sophorose and glucose, the expression of these transporters was mainly upregulated. Our results revealed that MFS and ABC transporters could be new players in cellulose degradation and their role was shown to be carbon source-dependent. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of XYR1 to control cellulase gene expression in T. reesei in the presence of cellulosic material, thereby potentially enhancing its application in several biotechnology fields. PMID:26909077

  6. Self-regulating the early growth of black holes through global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Zoltán; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Perna, Rosalba

    2012-09-01

    A decade after their first discovery, the origin of giant supermassive black holes (SMBHs), with masses in excess of 109 Msolar, at redshifts as early as z > 6, remains a puzzle. One possibility is that stellar-mass ``seed'' BHs, left behind by the first stars, accrete gas at close to the Eddington limit during a large fraction (>~ 50%) of the time. While maintaining such a high accretion rate may itself be difficult, here we focus on another, less commonly discussed problem in this scenario: unless BH seed formation and growth are preferentially suppressed in less massive protogalaxies, the mass density in M~106Msolar SMBHs at z ~ 6 already exceeds the locally observed SMBH mass density by several orders of magnitude. We show that the X-rays from the earliest accreting BHs themselves can cause a self-regulation, by partially ionizing and heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). This ``global warming'' suppresses the formation and growth of subsequent generations of BHs in low-mass halos, and can produce excellent agreement with recent estimates of the z = 6 SMBH mass function, without impeding the growth of the largest (M>~109Msolar) holes, which reside in the most massive galaxies that formed first. The proposed gravitational-wave observatory eLISA could detect several tens of major mergers between SMBHs at z > 6.

  7. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G; Antoniêto, Amanda C C; Persinoti, Gabriela F; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor-XYR1-in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were upregulated in the presence of cellulose, while 367 and 188 were upregulated in sophorose and glucose, respectively. With respect to genes under the direct regulation of XYR1, 30 and 33 are exclusive to cellulose and sophorose, respectively. The most modulated genes in the Δxyr1 belong to Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), transcription factors, and transporters families. Moreover, we highlight the downregulation of transporters belonging to the MFS and ABC transporter families. Of these, MFS members were mostly downregulated in the presence of cellulose. In sophorose and glucose, the expression of these transporters was mainly upregulated. Our results revealed that MFS and ABC transporters could be new players in cellulose degradation and their role was shown to be carbon source-dependent. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of XYR1 to control cellulase gene expression in T. reesei in the presence of cellulosic material, thereby potentially enhancing its application in several biotechnology fields. PMID:26909077

  8. Structural and functional characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa global regulator AmpR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, Olivier; Zincke, Diansy; Merighi, Massimo; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Kumari, Hansi; Kong, Kok-Fai; Silva-Herzog, Eugenia; Narasimhan, Giri; Schneper, Lisa; Lory, Stephen; Mathee, Kalai

    2014-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a dreaded pathogen in many clinical settings. Its inherent and acquired antibiotic resistance thwarts therapy. In particular, derepression of the AmpC β-lactamase is a common mechanism of β-lactam resistance among clinical isolates. The inducible expression of ampC is controlled by the global LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) AmpR. In the present study, we investigated the genetic and structural elements that are important for ampC induction. Specifically, the ampC (PampC) and ampR (PampR) promoters and the AmpR protein were characterized. The transcription start sites (TSSs) of the divergent transcripts were mapped using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR), and strong σ(54) and σ(70) consensus sequences were identified at PampR and PampC, respectively. Sigma factor RpoN was found to negatively regulate ampR expression, possibly through promoter blocking. Deletion mapping revealed that the minimal PampC extends 98 bp upstream of the TSS. Gel shifts using membrane fractions showed that AmpR binds to PampC in vitro whereas in vivo binding was demonstrated using chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR). Additionally, site-directed mutagenesis of the AmpR helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif identified residues critical for binding and function (Ser38 and Lys42) and critical for function but not binding (His39). Amino acids Gly102 and Asp135, previously implicated in the repression state of AmpR in the enterobacteria, were also shown to play a structural role in P. aeruginosa AmpR. Alkaline phosphatase fusion and shaving experiments suggest that AmpR is likely to be membrane associated. Lastly, an in vivo cross-linking study shows that AmpR dimerizes. In conclusion, a potential membrane-associated AmpR dimer regulates ampC expression by direct binding. PMID:25182487

  9. Limpeza clonal de mudas de videira infectadas por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola Clonal cleaning of grapevine plants infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O cancro bacteriano da videira é causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv. Visando à limpeza clonal de mudas de 'Red Globe', foram estudados: tamanho ideal de ápices e gemas axilares para cultivo em meio de Galzy modificado (MGM; efeito da termoterapia (38ºC/30 dias; e ação de antibióticos na eliminação de Xcv em videiras infectadas. Os percentuais de contaminação por Xcv e de regeneração foram analisados, e as plantas obtidas foram indexadas em meio ágar nutritivo-dextrose-extrato de levedura-ampicilina (NYDAM, seguindo-se teste de patogenicidade. O cultivo de explantes com 3 mm possibilitou a obtenção de plantas livres da bactéria, com regeneração 14,3 vezes maior que explantes com 1 mm. A termoterapia de mudas infectadas, associada ao cultivo in vitro, não eliminou o patógeno. O cultivo de explantes com 10 mm, durante 40 dias em MGM + cefotaxima (300 mg L-1, proporcionou limpeza clonal das mudas. A indexação de plantas de videira regeneradas in vitro, quanto à infecção por Xcv utilizando NYDAM, seguida de teste de patogenicidade, é uma alternativa econômica e eficiente para produção de mudas de alta qualidade fitossanitária.Bacterial canker is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv. In order to eliminate Xcv from 'Red Globe' plants it was studied: optimal size of meristem tips and axillary buds for cultivation in modified Galzy's medium (MGM; effects of thermotherapy (38ºC/30 days; and action of antibiotics in the elimination of Xcv in infected grapevines. The percentages of contamination by Xcv and regeneration were analyzed and plants obtained were indexed using the semi-selective culture medium nutrient agar-dextrose-yeast extract-ampicilin (NYDAM followed by a pathogenicity test. The cultivation of 3 mm explants permitted to obtain plants free of bacteria with regeneration 14.3 times higher than 1 mm explants. The thermotherapy of infected plants associated to the in vitro culture

  10. Effect of the Antisense BcMF12 Driven by the BcA9 Promoter on Gene Silencing in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The study analyzed the silencing of BcMF12 gene regulated by BcA9 promoter in the transgenic pakchoi and confirmed the effect of antisense BcMF12 gene on the pollen development. A conserved BcMF12 gene fragment was amplified from the cDNA of flower buds in pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis) and was fused to the anther specific BcA9 promoter. The plant antisense expression vector was constructed and then introduced into pakchoi via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic plants were screened by antibiotics and molecular analysis. PCR and Southern blot revealed that the antisense BcMF12-GUS fusion gene regulated by BcA9 promoter was integrated into transgenic plants. Northern blot suggested that the expression of BcMF12 gene was down-regulated significantly. The pollen germination rate of transgenic plants with antisense BcMF12 gene decreased as compared with that of the control plants. The expression of the gene BcMF12 related to the pollen development was inhibited by the antisense BcMF12 driven by BcA9 promoter, which consequently affected the pollen development in pakchoi.

  11. IVF policy and global/local politics: the making of multiple-embryo transfer regulation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory trajectory of multiple-embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Taiwan. Taking a latecomer to policy-making as the case, it argues the importance of conceptualizing the global/local dynamics in policy-making for assisted reproductive technology (ART). The conceptual framework is built upon recent literature on standardization, science policy, and global assemblage. I propose three interrelated features that reveal the "global in the local": (1) the power relationships among stakeholders, (2) the selected global form that involved actors drew upon, and (3) the re-contextualized assemblage made of local networks. Data included archives, interviews, and participant observation. In different historical periods the specific stakeholders selected different preferred global forms for Taiwan, such as Britain's code of ethics in the 1990s, the American guideline in the early 2000s, and the European trend in the mid-2000s. The global is heterogeneous. The failure to transfer the British regulation, the revision of the American guideline by adding one more embryo than it specified, and the gap between the cited European trend and the "no more than four" in Taiwan's 2007 Human Reproduction Law all show that the local network further transforms the selected global form, confining it to rhetoric only or tailoring it to local needs. Overall, Taiwanese practitioners successfully maintained their medical autonomy to build a 'flexible standardization'. Multiple pregnancy remains the most common health risk of IVF in Taiwan. PMID:22607747

  12. EMERGING TRENDS IN REGULATORY DEVELOPMENTS FOR BIOSIMILARS: RECENT ADVANCES IN GLOBAL AND INDIAN REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Kalpesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biopharmaceutical drugs have outperformed the pharmaceutical market as a whole largely due to two factors: they address areas of clinical need that are unmanageable with conventional therapeutics (including cancers and they are able to command a premium price. With expiry of patent of many biopharmaceutical drugs, the potential of a sizeable market will attract several generic companies. However the process to develop essentially generic version of biopharmaceuticals (biosimilars is more complex than that of developing a generic copy of a chemical-based compound. These products are approved through an abbreviated route which relies on limited safety and efficacy data enabling the generic companies to keep the production costs low and pass on the price benefit to the patient and make the product affordable to the masses. There are no common regulatory pathways and many countries have published guidelines and it is still evolving in other countries. WHO (World Health Organization, Europe and recently USA have published guidelines for the development and marketing of biosimilar products. These products undergo extensive head to head comparability testing with the reference biopharmaceutical product to show their similarity to the reference product in terms of quality, efficacy and safety. Regulators and administrators of different countries need to strike a balance in cost-to-benefit versus risks that are perceived for these products, keeping in mind global regulatory issues. India's biotechnology industry has been growing towards new heights in conjunction with the economic evolution. The practical way forward for approval of biosimilars in India would have to be unique to the Indian context as it should balance the scientific aspects and consider needs and limitation of the country.

  13. Mitochondrial Complex I Is a Global Regulator of Secondary Metabolism, Virulence and Azole Sensitivity in Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Mike; Johns, Anna; Davies, Emma; Fraczek, Marcin; Mabey Gilsenan, Jane; Kurbatova, Natalya; Keays, Maria; Kapushesky, Misha; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Denning, David W.; Bowyer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recent estimates of the global burden of fungal disease suggest that that their incidence has been drastically underestimated and that mortality may rival that of malaria or tuberculosis. Azoles are the principal class of antifungal drug and the only available oral treatment for fungal disease. Recent occurrence and increase in azole resistance is a major concern worldwide. Known azole resistance mechanisms include over—expression of efflux pumps and mutation of the gene encoding the target protein cyp51a, however, for one of the most important fungal pathogens of humans, Aspergillus fumigatus, much of the observed azole resistance does not appear to involve such mechanisms. Here we present evidence that azole resistance in A. fumigatus can arise through mutation of components of mitochondrial complex I. Gene deletions of the 29.9KD subunit of this complex are azole resistant, less virulent and exhibit dysregulation of secondary metabolite gene clusters in a manner analogous to deletion mutants of the secondary metabolism regulator, LaeA. Additionally we observe that a mutation leading to an E180D amino acid change in the 29.9 KD subunit is strongly associated with clinical azole resistant A. fumigatus isolates. Evidence presented in this paper suggests that complex I may play a role in the hypoxic response and that one possible mechanism for cell death during azole treatment is a dysfunctional hypoxic response that may be restored by dysregulation of complex I. Both deletion of the 29.9 KD subunit of complex I and azole treatment alone profoundly change expression of gene clusters involved in secondary metabolism and immunotoxin production raising potential concerns about long term azole therapy. PMID:27438017

  14. A Surfactant-Induced Functional Modulation of a Global Virulence Regulator from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhendu Mandal

    Full Text Available Triton X-100 (TX-100, a useful non-ionic surfactant, reduced the methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus significantly. Many S. aureus proteins were expressed in the presence of TX-100. SarA, one of the TX-100-induced proteins, acts as a global virulence regulator in S. aureus. To understand the effects of TX-100 on the structure, and function of SarA, a recombinant S. aureus SarA (rSarA and its derivative (C9W have been investigated in the presence of varying concentrations of this surfactant using various probes. Our data have revealed that both rSarA and C9W bind to the cognate DNA with nearly similar affinity in the absence of TX-100. Interestingly, their DNA binding activities have been significantly increased in the presence of pre-micellar concentration of TX-100. The increase of TX-100 concentrations to micellar or post-micellar concentration did not greatly enhance their activities further. TX-100 molecules have altered the secondary and tertiary structures of both proteins to some extents. Size of the rSarA-TX-100 complex appears to be intermediate to those of rSarA and TX-100. Additional analyses show a relatively moderate interaction between C9W and TX-100. Binding of TX-100 to C9W has, however, occurred by a cooperative pathway particularly at micellar and higher concentrations of this surfactant. Taken together, TX-100-induced structural alteration of rSarA and C9W might be responsible for their increased DNA binding activity. As TX-100 has stabilized the somewhat weaker SarA-DNA complex effectively, it could be used to study its structure in the future.

  15. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  16. Linking high-resolution metabolic flux phenotypes and transcriptional regulation in yeast modulated by the global regulator Gcn4p

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moxley, Joel F.; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Antoniewicz, Maciek R.;

    2009-01-01

    Genome sequencing dramatically increased our ability to understand cellular response to perturbation. Integrating system-wide measurements such as gene expression with networks of protein protein interactions and transcription factor binding revealed critical insights into cellular behavior. Howe...... integrated approach focusing on metabolic measurements will facilitate construction of more realistic models of cellular regulation for understanding diseases and constructing strains for industrial applications....... regulator Gcn4p. Although mRNA expression alone did not directly predict metabolic response, this correlation improved through incorporating a network-based model of amino acid biosynthesis (from r = 0.07 to 0.80 for mRNA-flux agreement). The model provides evidence of general biological principles......: rewiring of metabolic flux (i.e., use of different reaction pathways) by transcriptional regulation and metabolite interaction density (i.e., level of pairwise metabolite-protein interactions) as a key biosynthetic control determinant. Furthermore, this model predicted flux rewiring in studies of follow...

  17. Caracterização de isolados de Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris de sistemas de produção orgânico e reação de brássicas à podridão-negra Characterization of strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris from organic farming systems and reaction of brassicas to black rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Andréa dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Noventa isolados de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc de brássicas oriundas de sistemas de produção orgânico das Zonas da Mata e Agreste de Pernambuco foram caracterizados com base na sensibilidade a antibióticos e sulfato de cobre e atividade de esterase. A maioria apresentou alta sensibilidade à tetraciclina (76,6%, eritromicina (63,3% e estreptomicina (63,3%, resistência à amoxicilina (70%, gentamicina (40,0% e norfloxacin (45,5% e média sensibilidade (44,4% ou resistência (44,4% à neomicina. Cinqüenta e cinco isolados de Xcc foram resistentes ao sulfato de cobre na concentração de 50 mg/mL e todos foram sensíveis ao produto na concentração de 200 mg/mL. Atividade de esterase foi apresentada por 92,22% dos isolados. A análise Euclidiana por ligação simples evidenciou variabilidade entre os isolados separando-os em sete grupos de similaridade. Foi estudada também a reação de 14 cultivares de brássicas à podridão-negra, utilizando o isolado "B21" de Xcc. As cultivares diferiram significativamente entre si em relação ao período de incubação, incidência e severidade final da doença. Os maiores valores de severidade final da doença foram verificados em brócolos "Ramoso", couve-flor "Bola de Neve" e "Piracicaba de Verão", e repolho "Chato de Quintal". Os híbridos de couve-chinesa "AF 70", "AF 72", "AF 69" e "AF 66" mostraram-se altamente resistentes à doença, enquanto que brócolos "Ramoso" e "Precoce Piracicaba", couve-flor "Piracicaba de Verão" e "Híbrido Cindy" e repolho "60 Dias" foram medianamente resistentes.Ninety strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc from brassicas grown under organic farming systems in the "Mata" and "Agreste" regions of Pernambuco, Brazil, were characterized based upon sensitivity to antibiotics and copper sulfate, and esterase activity. Most of the strains showed high sensitivity to tetracycline (76.6%, erythromycin (63.3% and streptomycin (63

  18. Soxhlet-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion to extract flavonoids from rape (Brassica campestris) bee pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuangqin; Tu, Xijuan; Dong, Jiangtao; Long, Peng; Yang, Wenchao; Miao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Wenbin; Wu, Zhenhong

    2015-11-15

    Soxhlet-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (SA-MSPD) method was developed to extract flavonoids from rape (Brassica campestris) bee pollen. Extraction parameters including the extraction solvent, the extraction time, and the solid support conditions were investigated and optimized. The best extraction yields were obtained using ethanol as the extraction solvent, silica gel as the solid support with 1:2 samples to solid support ratio, and the extraction time of one hour. Comparing with the conventional solvent extraction and Soxhlet method, our results show that SA-MSPD method is a more effective technique with clean-up ability. In the test of six different samples of rape bee pollen, the extracted content of flavonoids was close to 10mg/g. The present work provided a simple and effective method for extracting flavonoids from rape bee pollen, and it could be applied in the studies of other kinds of bee pollen. PMID:26454344

  19. Genetic linkage map of Brassica campestris L.using AFLP and RAPD markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钢; 陈杭; 等

    2002-01-01

    A genetic linkage map comprised of 131 loci was constructed with an F2 population derived from an inter-subspecific cross between Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis cv.aijiaohang” and ssp.rapifera cv.,”'isihai”.The genetic map included 93 RAPD loci,36 AFLP loci and 2 morphological loci organized into 10 main linkage groups(LGs) and 2 small groups,covering 1810.9cM with average distance between adjacent markers being approximately 13.8cM.The map is suitable for identification of molecular markers linked to important agronomic traits.QTL analysis,and even for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs of Chinese cabbage and turnip.

  20. Chemical characterization of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we describe the characterisation of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by two Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains, in aerobic fermentation. By chromatography on TLC we could notice the presence of Mannose monomer in higher proportion in the 82 strain with relation to the another ones. The viscosity results showed the temperature dependence. The 06 and 82 strains had their viscosity increased whereas for the 87 strain we could observe a reduction with temperature increasing. The 13C NMR spectrum of 87 strain showed the characteristic signals at approximately 92.8, 70.4 and 61.4 ppm, attributed to C1, C4 and C6 from glucose monomer, with higher intensity. (author)

  1. Optimization of medium composition for the production of compounds effective against Xanthomonas campestris by bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol agents are a very promising alternative to synthetic pesticides that are presently used to control plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic microorganisms. Members of the Bacillus genera are soil bacteria that produce significant quantities of agriculturally important bioactive compounds. Production of these compounds can be improved by changing the nutritional and environmental conditions. The aim of this study was the optimization of medium composition, using response surface methodology, for the production of compounds effective against Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. To study the production of antimicrobial compounds by selected Bacillus strain, the producing microorganisms were cultivated on nutrient broth. The inhibition zone diameter of 18.0 mm obtained by the diffusion-disc method indicated that the used Bacillus subtilis strain produces compounds with antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951. To optimize the composition of the cultivation medium in terms of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphates content, experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design, and optimization of multiple responses was performed using the concept of desirability function. The developed model predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (26.23 mm against tested phytopathogen is achieved when the initial content of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphate were 50.00 g/L, 2.85 g/L and 11.00 g/L, respectively. To minimize the consumption of medium components and costs of effluents processing, additional optimization set was made. The techno-economic analysis of the obtained results has to be done to select optimal medium composition for industrial production of antimicrobial compounds.

  2. 78 FR 38055 - Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation Program (U18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Tobacco Control Act and related regulations, guidance, and other educational information. To implement the... research and produce technical papers on various issues of relevance to tobacco product regulation, e.g... Control Act and related regulations, guidance, and other educational information. C....

  3. Money Laundering, Corruption and Growth: An Empirical Rationale for a Global Convergence on Anti-Money Laundering Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante Veiga, Luiz Humberto; de Andrade, Joaquim Pinto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the impact of anti-money laundering regulations on growth and, it examines the rationale for a global adoption of these rules. The empirical results have led us to confirm a positive relation between low corruption levels and high investment and growth. We approached the impact on growth of money laundering prevention (MLP) initiatives in two ways: first, by verifying that the existence of these initiatives affects the perception of corruption. Second...

  4. MOPS-1.0: towards a model for the regulation of the global oceanic nitrogen budget by marine biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriest, I.; Oschlies, A.

    2015-09-01

    Global models of the oceanic nitrogen cycle are subject to many uncertainties regarding the representation of the relevant biogeochemical processes and of the feedbacks between nitrogen sources and sinks that determine space- and timescales on which the global nitrogen budget is regulated. We investigate these aspects using a global model of ocean biogeochemistry that explicitly considers phosphorus and nitrogen, including pelagic denitrification and nitrogen fixation as sink and source terms of fixed nitrogen, respectively. The model explores different parameterizations of organic matter sinking speed, oxidant affinity of oxic and suboxic remineralization, and regulation of nitrogen fixation by temperature and different stoichiometric ratios. Examination of the initial transient behavior of different model setups initialized from observed biogeochemical tracer distributions reveal changes in simulated nitrogen inventories and fluxes particularly during the first centuries. Millennial timescales have to be resolved in order to bring all biogeochemical and physical processes into a dynamically consistent steady state. Analysis of global properties suggests that not only particularly particle sinking speed but also the parameterization of denitrification determine the extent of oxygen minimum zones, global nitrogen fluxes, and hence the oceanic nitrogen inventory. However, the ways and directions in which different parameterizations of particle sinking, nitrogen fixation, and denitrification affect the global diagnostics are different suggesting that these may, in principle, be constrained independently from each other. Analysis of the model misfit with respect to observed biogeochemical tracer distributions and fluxes suggests a particle flux profile close to the one suggested by Martin et al. (1987). Simulated pelagic denitrification best agrees with the lower values between 59 and 84 Tg N yr-1 recently estimated by other authors.

  5. Molecular characterization of Brazilian strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola by rep-PCR fingerprinting Caracterização molecular de isolados brasileiros de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola através de rep-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Loiselene C. Trindade; Mirtes F Lima; Marisa A.S.V. Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial canker of grapevine (Vitis vinifera), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola was first detected in Brazil in 1998, affecting grapevines in the São Francisco river basin, state of Pernambuco. The disease was also reported in Juazeiro, Bahia and later in Piauí and Ceará. Due to its limited geographical distribution and relatively recent detection in Brazil, very little is known about the pathogen's biology and diversity. Repetitive DNA based-PCR (rep-PCR) profiles were generate...

  6. Regulating Extraction in Africa: Towards a Framework for Accountability in the Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Gamil Besada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how revenue flows from the extractive sector can have substantial multiplier effects on the rest of the economy in resource-endowed countries in the Global South. The aim is to demonstrate that in order to fully benefit from extraction practices, countries in the Global South must adopt measures to address issues such as weak governance, the exploitative practices of foreign investors, mismanagement, corruption, undervaluation of mineral assets, revenue mismanagement, and various forms of taxation manipulation and evasion. Through literature examples in various African countries, this research concludes that the Global South should focus on constructing national regulatory frameworks that emphasise revenue transparency.

  7. The Effect of Field Dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck. on Morphological and Fluorescence Parameters of Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Vrbničanin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the parasitic flowering plant known as field dodder (Cuscuta campestrisYunck. on morphological and fluorescence parameters of infested giant ragweed(Ambrosia trifida L. plants was examined under controlled conditions. The parameters ofchlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, Fv, Fm, ETR and IF were measured on infested (Iand non-infested (N A. trifida plants over a period of seven days, beginning with the day ofinfestation. Morphological parameters (plant height, dry and fresh weight were measuredon the last day of fluorescence measurements. C. campestris was found to affect the height,fresh and dry weight of the infested A. trifida plants, causing significant reduction in plantheight and dry weight. Field dodder also affected several parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence(Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII and Fv in infested A. trifida plants.

  8. International Maritime Transport Sector Regulation Systems and their Impact on World Shipping and Global Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grzelakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of two nowadays existing global regulatory systems of the world maritime transport sector on international shipping industry and global trade development. The author has focused on the characterization of the autonomous regulatory system represented in this sector by freight market with typical for it mechanism as well as on public regulatory system expressed in form of the existing international regulatory scheme introduced by IMO and other international organizations. Both regulatory mechanisms has been analyzed and viewed in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their influence upon shipping industry and global commodity markets. At the end, the results of functioning of both regulatory subsystems have been assessed with the aim to indicate how they are able to create growth potential for the world maritime transport and trade sector as well as the global economy.

  9. Regulation and Supervision of The Global Financial System. A Proposal for Institutional Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Denters, H.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    nternational financial markets are supervised primarily by national authorities. However, national authorities are inherently incapable to regulate and supervise seamless globalised financial markets. To the extent international regulators exist, they constitute a disorderly patchwork of institutions. A proposal is made to create a system of regulators and supervisors under the umbrella of the World Financial Organisation. The WFO would encompass existing institutions and enhances internation...

  10. Overcoming interspecific incompatibility in the cross Brassica campestris ssp. japonica x Brassica oleracea var. botrytis using irradiated mentor pollen page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross B. campestris ssp. japonica x B. oleracea var. botrytis fails due to incompatibility barrier at the stigma. To realize this cross, irradiated compatible pollen (mentor pollen) was used before the incompatible pollination. The presence of mentor pollen stimulated the incompatible pollen to germinate and effect fertilization and seed set. One hybrid was thus obtained. Most of the seeds were inviable. Of the 5 plants raised one was a hybrid and 4 resembled the female parent. 1 tab., 7 refs

  11. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Mandana Behbahani

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative ...

  12. Global transcriptional regulation by H-NS and its biological influence on the virulence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Baoshan; Zhang, Qiufen; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Aiping; Yao, Yu-Feng; Ni, Jinjing

    2016-08-22

    As a global transcriptional regulator, H-NS, the histone-like nucleoid-associated DNA-binding and bridging protein, plays a wide range of biological roles in bacteria. In order to determine the role of H-NS in regulating gene transcription and further find out the biological significance of this protein in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), we conducted transcriptome analysis of hns mutant by RNA sequencing. A total of 983 genes were identified to be regulated by H-NS in EHEC. 213 and 770 genes were down-regulated and up-regulated in the deletion mutant of hns, respectively. Interestingly, 34 of 97 genes on virulence plasmid pO157 were down-regulated by H-NS. Although the deletion mutant of hns showed a decreased survival rate in macrophage compared with the wild type strain, it exhibited the higher ability to colonize mice gut and became more virulent to BALB/c mice. The BALB/c mice infected with the deletion mutant of hns showed a lower survival rate, and a higher bacterial burden in the gut, compared with those infected with wild type strain, especially when the gut microbiota was not disturbed by antibiotic administration. These findings suggest that H-NS plays an important role in virulence of EHEC by interacting with host gut microbiota. PMID:27173635

  13. INFLUENCE OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE BIOHERBICIDAL EFFICACY OF A Xanthomonas campestris ISOLATE ON COMMON COCKLEBUR ( Xanthium strumarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Douglas Boyette

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse and controlled-environment studies were conducted to determine the effects of incubation temperature, dew period temperature, dew period duration, plant growth stage, and cell concentration on the bioherbicidal efficacy of a highly virulent isolate (LVA987 of the bacterial pathogen,Xanthomonas campestris, against Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur. X. campestris infected cocklebur at 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC but the disease achieved at 20ºC was not sufficient to cause high plant mortality. Plant mortality was also significantly lower in plants that were exposed to < 12 h of dew, or at dew temperatures of 15 or 35 ºC. Plants at the 0-4 leaf stage were controlled more efficaciously than older plants and increasing cell concentration from 10^5 to 10^9 cells ml^-1 resulted in higher mortality and biomass reduction levels. Results indicate that X. campestris can infect and kill cocklebur over a wide range of temperature, dew period, and inoculum levels and, therefore has potential as a bioherbicidal agent against common cocklebur.

  14. The LysR-type transcription factor PacR is a global regulator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Anabaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picossi, Silvia; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria perform water-splitting photosynthesis and are important primary producers impacting the carbon and nitrogen cycles at global scale. They fix CO2 through ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo) and have evolved a distinct CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) that builds high CO2 concentrations in the vicinity of RuBisCo favouring its carboxylase activity. Filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena fix CO2 in photosynthetic vegetative cells, which donate photosynthate to heterocysts that rely on a heterotrophic metabolism to fix N2 . CCM elements are induced in response to inorganic carbon limitation, a cue that exposes the photosynthetic apparatus to photodamage by over-reduction. An Anabaena mutant lacking the LysR-type transcription factor All3953 grew poorly and dies under high light. The rbcL operon encoding RuBisCo was induced upon carbon limitation in the wild type but not in the mutant. ChIP-Seq analysis was used to globally identify All3953 targets under carbon limitation. Targets include, besides rbcL, genes encoding CCM elements, photorespiratory pathway- photosystem- and electron transport-related components, and factors, including flavodiiron proteins, with a demonstrated or putative function in photoprotection. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected All3953 targets showed regulation in the wild type but not in the mutant. All3953 (PacR) is a global regulator of carbon assimilation in an oxygenic photoautotroph. PMID:25684321

  15. Aantekening: om globale omgewingsreg en -regulering in die antroposeen te herbedink

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzé, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The word anthropocene describes a new geological epoch that follows the holocene epoch. It is the signifier of the period in which people have a devastating and overwhelming impact on the earth and its systems. The anthropocene also describes the new context in which we are going to have to consider how we should deal with the effects of global anthropogenic ecological change by means of, among others, global environmental law and governance. In the anthropocene we have to deal with a new sit...

  16. Global Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Human Skeletal Muscle Reveals a Network of Exercise-Regulated Kinases and AMPK Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Nolan J; Parker, Benjamin L; Chaudhuri, Rima; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Kleinert, Maximilian; Humphrey, Sean J; Yang, Pengyi; Holliday, Mira; Trefely, Sophie; Fazakerley, Daniel J; Stöckli, Jacqueline; Burchfield, James G; Jensen, Thomas E; Jothi, Raja; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; James, David E

    2015-11-01

    Exercise is essential in regulating energy metabolism and whole-body insulin sensitivity. To explore the exercise signaling network, we undertook a global analysis of protein phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle biopsies from untrained healthy males before and after a single high-intensity exercise bout, revealing 1,004 unique exercise-regulated phosphosites on 562 proteins. These included substrates of known exercise-regulated kinases (AMPK, PKA, CaMK, MAPK, mTOR), yet the majority of kinases and substrate phosphosites have not previously been implicated in exercise signaling. Given the importance of AMPK in exercise-regulated metabolism, we performed a targeted in vitro AMPK screen and employed machine learning to predict exercise-regulated AMPK substrates. We validated eight predicted AMPK substrates, including AKAP1, using targeted phosphoproteomics. Functional characterization revealed an undescribed role for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of AKAP1 in mitochondrial respiration. These data expose the unexplored complexity of acute exercise signaling and provide insights into the role of AMPK in mitochondrial biochemistry. PMID:26437602

  17. Quantitative analysis of proteome and lipidome dynamics reveals functional regulation of global lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casanovas, Albert; Sprenger, Richard R; Tarasov, Kirill; Ruckerbauer, David E; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Jensen, Ole N; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-01-01

    architecture and processes during physiological adaptations in yeast. Our results reveal that activation of cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling supports mitochondrial biogenesis in the transition from fermentative to respiratory metabolism, that down-regulation of de novo sterol synthesis machinery prompts...... of peroxisomal biogenesis, via the heterodimeric Oaf1/Pip2 transcription factor. Our work demonstrates the pivotal role of lipid metabolism in adaptive processes and provides a resource to investigate its regulation at the cellular level....

  18. Effects of the global regulator CsrA on the BarA/UvrY two-component signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Martha I; Alvarez, Adrian F; Chavez, Ricardo Gonzalez; Romeo, Tony; Merino, Enrique; Georgellis, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    The hybrid sensor kinase BarA and its cognate response regulator UvrY, members of the two-component signal transduction family, activate transcription of CsrB and CsrC noncoding RNAs. These two small RNAs act by sequestering the RNA binding protein CsrA, which posttranscriptionally regulates translation and/or stability of its target mRNAs. Here, we provide evidence that CsrA positively affects, although indirectly, uvrY expression, at both the transcriptional and translational levels. We also demonstrate that CsrA is required for properly switching BarA from its phosphatase to its kinase activity. Thus, the existence of a feedback loop mechanism that involves the Csr and BarA/UvrY global regulatory systems is exposed. PMID:25535275

  19. PIRACY REGULATION AND THE FILIPINO’S HISTORICAL RESPONSE TO GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando B. Tolentino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines the racial discourse of Moros and Moro-profiling by the state in piracy—sea piracy in olden times and media piracy in contemporary times. Moro piracy becomes a local cosmopolitanism in the Philippines’ attempt to integrate in various eras of global capitalism. From the analysis of media piracy, the Moro “dibidi” (pirated DVD seller becomes the body that mediates between the Filipinos’ middle-class fantasy of a branded lifestyle and the reality that most Filipinos do not have full access to global consumerism. Using a cultural studies framework, the essay draws a connection between seemingly unlinked events and sources, allowing for a historical and social dialog, past and present, to mix, creating junctures for sites of dialog and critique.

  20. The tools of globalization. Ways of regulating and the structure of the international regime for pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Demortain, David

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between regulatory globalization and neoliberal standard-setting arrangements building on industry capacities and responsibilities. Focusing on international pharmacovigilance, it recounts the history of the World Health Organization programme for the international drug monitoring, to shed light and explain the concomitant rise of the International Conference on Harmonization and of its standards. It shows that the neoliberalization of a regime or in...

  1. The Consequences of the Global Financial Crisis: The Rhetoric of Reform and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Wyn; Wilson, Graham K.

    2012-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) is the most serious economic crisis since the Great Depression. Many books have explored its causes, but this book systematically explores its consequences. The focus is primarily on the policy and political consequences of the GFC. This book asks how governments responded to the challenge and what the political consequences of the combination of the GFC itself and policy responses to it have been. Based on workshops held in the United States and the United K...

  2. Rent Regulation in Jamaica: Socialist Past, Global reality, Inaction and the Working Class

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mills; P.A. Bourne; Peters, D.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence has established the association between rent control and crises such as oil and World wars; yet the Jamaican governments have not reintroduced rent control and updated the Rent Restriction Act despite global recession, oil and food crises and increased poverty. The objectives of this work are: 1) To conduct a documentary analysis of prior research on the extent of the problem, and these will provide an understanding and a content for the current work; 2) To identify the iss...

  3. Effects of global crisis on structural policies and financial regulations: the comparison of OECD economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Karaaslan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Global crisis that has affected all economies has also given harms for financial and structural bodies of economies. Near after this financial crisis, governments took different responsibilities to overcome this phenomenon. In this context, priorities in overcoming the crisis have concentrated on the macroeconomic adjustments and regulatory precautions. Measures should have taken by the governments of OECD economies in line of macroeconomic adjustment and crisis exit strategies are outlined briefly.

  4. Lessons From The 2008 Global Financial Crisis: Imprudent Risk Management And Miss Calculated Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Long H. Vo

    2015-01-01

    Of the major shortcomings exposed during the 2008 global financial crisis, there are two aspects that have attracted much interest among academics: the under-appreciation of the complexity of new operations at large financial institutions and the inadequate oversight of basic prudential supervision by regulatory agencies. To provide a brief focus on elements of these aspects, this paper presents corresponding case studies involve the fall of two of the largest finance companies ever existed: ...

  5. Promoter Analysis Reveals Globally Differential Regulation of Human Long Non-Coding RNA and Protein-Coding Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2014-10-02

    Transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes is increasingly well-understood on a global scale, yet no comparable information exists for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes, which were recently recognized to be as numerous as protein-coding genes in mammalian genomes. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of the promoters of human lncRNA and protein-coding genes, finding global differences in specific genetic and epigenetic features relevant to transcriptional regulation. These two groups of genes are hence subject to separate transcriptional regulatory programs, including distinct transcription factor (TF) proteins that significantly favor lncRNA, rather than coding-gene, promoters. We report a specific signature of promoter-proximal transcriptional regulation of lncRNA genes, including several distinct transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Experimental DNase I hypersensitive site profiles are consistent with active configurations of these lncRNA TFBS sets in diverse human cell types. TFBS ChIP-seq datasets confirm the binding events that we predicted using computational approaches for a subset of factors. For several TFs known to be directly regulated by lncRNAs, we find that their putative TFBSs are enriched at lncRNA promoters, suggesting that the TFs and the lncRNAs may participate in a bidirectional feedback loop regulatory network. Accordingly, cells may be able to modulate lncRNA expression levels independently of mRNA levels via distinct regulatory pathways. Our results also raise the possibility that, given the historical reliance on protein-coding gene catalogs to define the chromatin states of active promoters, a revision of these chromatin signature profiles to incorporate expressed lncRNA genes is warranted in the future.

  6. Structure of global buyer-supplier networks and its implications for conflict minerals regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structure of global inter-firm linkages using a dataset that contains information on business partners for about 400,000 firms worldwide, including all the firms listed on the major stock exchanges. Among the firms, we examine three networks, which are based on customer-supplier, licensee-licensor, and strategic alliance relationships. First, we show that these networks all have scale-free topology and that the degree distribution for each follows a power law with an exponent of 1.5. The shortest path length is around six for all three networks. Second, we show through community structure analysis that the firms comprise a community with those firms that belong to the same industry but different home countries, indicating the globalization of firms' production activities. Finally, we discuss what such production globalization implies for the proliferation of conflict minerals (i.e., minerals extracted from conflict zones and sold to firms in other countries to perpetuate fighting) through g...

  7. Photosynthetic carbon fixation characteristics of fruiting structures of Brassica campestris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of key enzymes of the Calvin cycle and C4 metabolism, rates of CO2 fixation, and the initial products of photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation were determined in the podwall, seed coat (fruiting structures), and the subtending leaf (leaf below a receme) of Brassica campestris L. cv Toria. Compared to activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and other Calvin cycle enzymes, e.g. NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, the activities of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase and other enzymes of C4 metabolism, viz. NADP-malate dehydrogenase, NADP-malic enzyme, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, were generally much higher in seed than in podwall and leaf. Podwall and leaf were comparable to each other. Pulse-chase experiments showed that in seed the major product of 14CO2 assimilation was malate (in short time), whereas in podwall and leaf, the label initially appeared in 3-PGA. With time, the label moved to sucrose. In contrast to legumes, Brassica pods were able to fix net CO2 during light. However, respiratory losses were very high during the dark period

  8. Bioconversion from crude glycerin by Xanthomonas campestris 2103: xanthan production and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Brandão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production and rheological properties of xanthan gum from crude glycerin fermentation, a primary by-product of the biodiesel industry with environmental and health risks, were evaluated. Batch fermentations (28 °C/250 rpm /120 h were carried out using crude glycerin, 0.01% urea and 0.1% KH2PO4, (% w/v, and compared to a sucrose control under the same operational conditions, using Xanthomonas campestris strain 2103 isolate from Brazil. Its maximal production by crude glycerin fermentation was 7.23±0.1 g·L-1 at 120 h, with an apparent viscosity of 642.57 mPa·s, (2 % w/v, 25 °C, 25 s-1, 70% and 30% higher than from sucrose fermentation, respectively. Its molecular weight varied from 28.2 to 36.2×10(6 Da. The Ostwald-de-Waele model parameters (K and n indicated a pseudoplastic behavior at all concentrations (0.5 to 2.0 %, w/v and temperatures (25-85 °C, while its consistency index indicated promising rheological properties for drilling fluid applications. Therefore, crude glycerin has potential as a cost-effective and alternative substrate for non-food grade xanthan production.

  9. Effect of alcoholic extract of guaco (Mikania glomerata on the control of dark rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in cauliflower/ Avaliação da eficácia da tintura etanólica de guaco (Mikania glomerata no controle da podridão negra (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris em couve-flor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina Freitas Schwan-Estrada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available With the use of irrigation and new hybrids of cauliflower, it is possible to get production during all the year with hight yield. However, the crop has been affected by diseases, as the dark rot caused by X. campestris pv. campestris. The objective of this research work was to study the potential of Mikania glomerata for the control of this disease. Alcoholic extract 50 ºGL of M. glomerata was evaluated regarding to: in vitro antimicrobial activity through bacterial growth in 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1 of the alcoholic extract; induction of local or systemic resistance in 25 days old cauliflower, with spray of alcoholic extract concomitantly and three days before the inoculation with the pathogen (water and bordeau mixture were used as control; peroxidases activity in leaves of cauliflower treated and not treated, and harvested concomitantly, 24, 48 and 72 hours after spraying the alcoholic extract and also after inoculation. The alcoholic extract of M. glomerata showed inhibition of the bacterial growth in vitro at the concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1. The concentrations of 500 mg L-1 and 1000 mg L-1 inhibited 24% and 38% of the bacterial growth. This inhibition could be due to antibacterial compounds in the alcoholic extract. An inhibition of the disease in vivo occurred only in the leaves treated with 100 and 500 mg L-1 of alcoholic extract when applied concomitantly with the bacteria. This result was similar to bordeau mixture, indicating a control by direct antimicrobial activity. There was no systemic resistence induction for all treatments. The peroxidases induction was due to infectious pathogen process and not to the treatments with alcoholic extract. The results indicate the potential of M. glomerata alcoholic extract for the preventive control of cauliflower dark rot disease.Com a prática da irrigação e novos híbridos de couve-flor, é possível produzir durante todo o ano e com alta produtividade. Mas, a cultura tem

  10. Changes in Protein, Nonnutritional Factors, and Antioxidant Capacity during Germination of L. campestris Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jiménez Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in SDS-PAGE proteins patterns, oligosaccharides and phenolic compounds of L. campestris seeds, were evaluated during nine germination days. SDS-PAGE pattern showed 12 bands in the original protein seeds, while in the samples after 1–9 germination days, the proteins located in the range of 28–49 and 49–80 kDa indicated an important reduction, and there was an increase in bands about 27 kDa. On the other hand, oligosaccharides showed more than 50% of decrease in its total concentration after 4 germination days; nevertheless after the fifth day, the oligosaccharides concentration increases and rises more than 30% of the original concentration. Phenolic compounds increased their concentration since the first germination day reaching until 450% more than the original seed level. The obtained results are related with liberation or increase of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties, allowing us to suggest that the germination would be used to produce legume foods for human consumption with better nutraceutical properties.

  11. Sapfluxnet: a global database of sap flow measurements to unravel the ecological factors of transpiration regulation in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Steppe, Kathy; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel; Mahecha, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Plant transpiration is one of the main components of the global water cycle, it controls land energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and exerts strong feedbacks on regional and global climate. At the same time, plant productivity, growth and survival are severely constrained by water availability, which is expected to decline in many areas of the world because of global-change driven increases in drought conditions. While global surveys of drought tolerance traits at the organ level are rapidly increasing our knowledge of the diversity in plant functional strategies to cope with drought stress, a whole-plant perspective of drought vulnerability is still lacking. Sap flow measurements using thermal methods have now been applied to measure seasonal patterns in water use and the response of transpiration to environmental drivers across hundreds of species of woody plants worldwide, covering a wide range of climates, soils and stand structural characteristics. Here, we present the first effort to build a global database of sub-daily, tree-level sap flow (SAPFLUXNET) that will be used to improve our understanding of physiological and structural determinants of plant transpiration and to further investigate the role of vegetation in controlling global water balance. We already have the expression of interest of data contributors representing >115 globally distributed sites, > 185 species and > 700 trees, measured over at least one growing season. However, the potential number of available sites and species is probably much higher given that > 2500 sap flow-related papers have been identified in a Scopus literature search conducted in November 2015. We will give an overview of how data collection, harmonisation and quality control procedures are implemented within the project. We will also discuss potential analytical strategies to synthesize hydroclimatic controls on sap flow into biologically meaningful traits related to whole-plant transpiration

  12. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  13. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market. PMID:23794245

  14. PIRACY REGULATION AND THE FILIPINO’S HISTORICAL RESPONSE TO GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rolando B. Tolentino

    2009-01-01

    The essay examines the racial discourse of Moros and Moro-profiling by the state in piracy—sea piracy in olden times and media piracy in contemporary times. Moro piracy becomes a local cosmopolitanism in the Philippines’ attempt to integrate in various eras of global capitalism. From the analysis of media piracy, the Moro “dibidi” (pirated DVD) seller becomes the body that mediates between the Filipinos’ middle-class fantasy of a branded lifestyle and the reality that most Filipinos do not ha...

  15. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G.; Antoniêto, Amanda C. C.; Persinoti, Gabriela F.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N.

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor—XYR1—in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were...

  16. Global Introduction of New Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Drugs—Balancing Regulation with Urgent Patient Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    New treatments for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are urgently needed. Two new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have recently been released, and several new drugs and treatment regimens are in the pipeline. Misuse of TB drugs is a principal cause of drug resistance. As new drugs and regimens reach the market, the need to make them available to patients must be balanced with regulation of their use so that resistance to the new drugs can be prevented. To foster the rational use of new drugs, we propose 1) expanding/strengthening the capacity for drug susceptibility testing, beginning with countries with a high TB burden; 2) regulating prescribing practices by banning over-the-counter sale of TB drugs and enacting an accreditation system whereby providers must be certified to prescribe new drugs; and 3) decentralizing MDR TB care in rural communities by employing trained community health workers, using promising mobile technologies, and enlisting the aid of civil society organizations. PMID:26889711

  17. Global Introduction of New Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Drugs-Balancing Regulation with Urgent Patient Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy; Ben Amor, Yanis

    2016-03-01

    New treatments for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are urgently needed. Two new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have recently been released, and several new drugs and treatment regimens are in the pipeline. Misuse of TB drugs is a principal cause of drug resistance. As new drugs and regimens reach the market, the need to make them available to patients must be balanced with regulation of their use so that resistance to the new drugs can be prevented. To foster the rational use of new drugs, we propose 1) expanding/strengthening the capacity for drug susceptibility testing, beginning with countries with a high TB burden; 2) regulating prescribing practices by banning over-the-counter sale of TB drugs and enacting an accreditation system whereby providers must be certified to prescribe new drugs; and 3) decentralizing MDR TB care in rural communities by employing trained community health workers, using promising mobile technologies, and enlisting the aid of civil society organizations. PMID:26889711

  18. Global survey of cell death mechanisms reveals metabolic regulation of ferroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kenichi; Skouta, Rachid; Kaplan, Anna; Yang, Wan Seok; Hayano, Miki; Dixon, Scott J; Brown, Lewis M; Valenzuela, Carlos A; Wolpaw, Adam J; Stockwell, Brent R

    2016-07-01

    Apoptosis is one type of programmed cell death. Increasingly, non-apoptotic cell death is recognized as being genetically controlled, or 'regulated'. However, the full extent and diversity of alternative cell death mechanisms remain uncharted. Here we surveyed the landscape of pharmacologically accessible cell death mechanisms. In an examination of 56 caspase-independent lethal compounds, modulatory profiling showed that 10 compounds induced three different types of regulated non-apoptotic cell death. Optimization of one of those ten resulted in the discovery of FIN56, a specific inducer of ferroptosis. Ferroptosis has been found to occur when the lipid-repair enzyme GPX4 is inhibited. FIN56 promoted degradation of GPX4. FIN56 also bound to and activated squalene synthase, an enzyme involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis, independent of GPX4 degradation. These discoveries show that dysregulation of lipid metabolism is associated with ferroptosis. This systematic approach is a means to discover and characterize novel cell death phenotypes. PMID:27159577

  19. Enhancing Social Responsibility within Global Supply Chains: Is Legal Regulation the Optimal Solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Peterková

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper was presented at the first meeting of the NSU study group “Conceptions of ethical and social values in post-secular society: Towards a new ethical imagination in a cosmopolitan world society”, held on January 28-30, 2011 at Copenhagen Business School. First, this paper examines the voluntary (ethical v. mandatory (legal basis of corporate social responsibility (CSR. Second, it examines the relationship between CSR, law and business ethics. Third, it tries to answer the question if there is a need for a hard[2] legal regulation of CSR within international supply relationships or if ethical norms, e.g. expressed in the form of self-regulation, may better serve the purpose. And finally, it suggests possible ways for the future development of suitable regulatory methods for enhancing social standards within international supply chains. The questions are approached solely from the perspectives of legal theory and socio-legal analysis.

  20. Implementation of global IFRS in the national accounting regulations, with special reference to Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgieva-Trajkovska, Olivera; Kostadinovski, Aleksandar; Dimitrova, Janka

    2013-01-01

    The process of adoption of IFRS is required by national accounting regulation of the countries, in order to harmonize the financial reporting standards and presentation of financial statements for external use. Conversation from national to IFRS has represented much more than a change in accounting rules and companies main concern is to understand the extent to which accounting differences between national standards and International financial reporting standards could affect their reported p...

  1. Glucose Transporter 8 (GLUT8) Regulates Enterocyte Fructose Transport and Global Mammalian Fructose Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    DeBosch, Brian J.; Chi, Maggie; Moley, Kelle H.

    2012-01-01

    Enterocyte fructose absorption is a tightly regulated process that precedes the deleterious effects of excess dietary fructose in mammals. Glucose transporter (GLUT)8 is a glucose/fructose transporter previously shown to be expressed in murine intestine. The in vivo function of GLUT8, however, remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate enhanced fructose-induced fructose transport in both in vitro and in vivo models of enterocyte GLUT8 deficiency. Fructose exposure stimulated [14C]-fructose uptake ...

  2. Rif1 is a global regulator of timing of replication origin firing in fission yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Hayano, Motoshi; Kanoh, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Seiji; Renard-Guillet, Claire; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Masai, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication initiates are multiple genomic loci. In this study, Masai and colleagues identify the conserved telomere-binding protein Rif1 as a crucial factor in determining origin firing and timing. Deletion of Rif1, which is found to bind nontelomeric chromosome arms independently of Taz1, leads to extensive deregulation of origin firing. Rif1 is thus identified as an essential regulator of the replication timing program during the cell cycle.

  3. Establishment of an in vitro system for studies on the induced resistance of cotton to Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum Estabelecimento de sistema in vitro para estudos da resistência induzida à Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum em algodoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADILSON KENJI KOBAYASHI

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro system for studying the resistance response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. to Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum was investigated. Cell suspension cultures, established from hypocotyl-derived callus of cotton cultivar 101-102B, were treated with bacterial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS extracted from the incompatible race 18 of X. campestris pv. malvacearum. EPS at 600 mug/mL caused pronounced darkening of the suspension cultures, as indicative of cell death, 48 hours after incubation. Protein electrophoresis analysis of the time course of EPS-treated cells showed differential accumulation of several protein bands after 12-24 hours. The time course of protein accumulation and cell death was consistent with an elicitor-mediated hypersensitive response.Desenvolveu-se um sistema in vitro para estudar a resistência do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. à Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum. Foram utilizados calos originados a partir de hipocótilos da cultivar de algodoeiro 101-102B para estabelecer culturas de células em suspensão, as quais foram tratadas com polissacarídeos extracelulares bacterianos (EPS extraídos da raça incompatível 18 de X. campestris pv. malvacearum. O tratamento com EPS, na concentração de 600 mig/mL, causou acentuado escurecimento das culturas em suspensão, indicativo de morte celular, 48 horas após a incubação. A análise temporal do perfil eletroforético de proteínas extraídas das células tratadas com EPS mostrou um acúmulo diferencial de diversas proteínas após 12-24 horas. O acúmulo de proteínas e a morte celular ao longo do período estudado foram consistentes com um padrão de resposta de hipersensibilidade causada por elicitores.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction characterization of the XccFimXEAL–c-di-GMP and XccFimXEAL–c-di-GMP–XccPilZ complexes from Xanthomonas campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of the XccFimXEAL–c-di-GMP and SeMet-XccFimXEAL–c-di-GMP–XccPilZ complexes from X. campestris diffracted to resolutions of 2.5 and 2.7 Å, respectively. c-di-GMP is a major secondary-messenger molecule in regulation of bacterial pathogenesis. Therefore, the c-di-GMP-mediated signal transduction network is of considerable interest. The PilZ domain was the first c-di-GMP receptor to be predicted and identified. However, every PilZ domain binds c-di-GMP with a different binding affinity. Intriguingly, a noncanonical PilZ domain has recently been found to serve as a mediator to link FimXEAL to the PilB or PilT ATPase to control the function of type IV pili (T4P). It is thus essential to determine the structure of the FimXEAL–PilZ complex in order to determine how the binding of c-di-GMP to the FimXEAL domain induces conformational change of the adjoining noncanonical PilZ domain, which may transmit information to PilB or PilT to control T4P function. Here, the preparation and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the XccFimXEAL–c-di-GMP and XccFimXEAL–c-di-GMP–XccPilZ complexes from Xcc (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campesteris) are reported. Detailed studies of these complexes may allow a more thorough understanding of how c-di-GMP transmits its effects through the degenerate EAL domain and the noncanonical PilZ domain

  5. LeuO is a global regulator of gene expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Shane C.; Espinosa, Elena; Hokamp, Karsten;

    2012-01-01

    to the TN11A motif common to LysR‐type transcription factors. It differed in some details from a motif that we composed for Escherichia coli LeuO binding sites; 1263 and 1094 LeuO binding site locations were predicted in the S. Typhimurium SL1344 and E. coli MG1655 genomes respectively. Despite...... were distributed across both the core and the horizontally acquired genome, and included housekeeping genes and genes known to contribute to virulence. Sixty‐eight LeuO targets were co‐bound by the global repressor protein, H‐NS. Thus, while LeuO may function as an H‐NS antagonist, these functions are...

  6. The contribution of Utility-Scale Solar Energy to the global climate regulation and its effects on local ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Marco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One solution to mitigate climate change can be the production of renewable energy. In this context, the aims of this paper are: (1 the identification of local unsuitable areas for the installation of Utility-Scale Solar Energy (USSE in a municipality in southern Italy; (2 the assessment of the effects of their installation on local natural CO2 sequestration and on avoided CO2; and (3 the evaluation of their contribution to the global climate regulation through scenario analysis. Since 2007, 82 authorizations have been obtained for the installation of USSE in the municipality and 42 over 64 already completed have been installed in unsuitable areas. For what concerns the remaining USSE, two short-term scenarios are analysed in order to take into account their contribution in terms of climate regulation service. The first scenario is called Business As Usual with new planned USSE installed by 2014 also in unsuitable areas, and the second one with the new USSE installed only in suitable areas identified in this study. Surprisingly, Scenario 2 is characterized by a reduced natural capacity to sequester CO2 emissions and by a lower contribution of vegetation in providing the ecosystem service climate regulation in comparison with Scenario 1.

  7. Improving acetate tolerance of Escherichia coli by rewiring its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqing Chong

    Full Text Available The presence of acetate exceeding 5 g/L is a major concern during E. coli fermentation due to its inhibitory effect on cell growth, thereby limiting high-density cell culture and recombinant protein production. Hence, engineered E. coli strains with enhanced acetate tolerance would be valuable for these bioprocesses. In this work, the acetate tolerance of E. coli was much improved by rewiring its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP, which is reported to regulate 444 genes. Error-prone PCR method was employed to modify crp and the mutagenesis libraries (~3×10(6 were subjected to M9 minimal medium supplemented with 5-10 g/L sodium acetate for selection. Mutant A2 (D138Y was isolated and its growth rate in 15 g/L sodium acetate was found to be 0.083 h(-1, much higher than that of the control (0.016 h(-1. Real-time PCR analysis via OpenArray(® system revealed that over 400 CRP-regulated genes were differentially expressed in A2 with or without acetate stress, including those involved in the TCA cycle, phosphotransferase system, etc. Eight genes were chosen for overexpression and the overexpression of uxaB was found to lead to E. coli acetate sensitivity.

  8. PSR1 Is a Global Transcriptional Regulator of Phosphorus Deficiency Responses and Carbon Storage Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajhaiya, Amit K; Dean, Andrew P; Zeef, Leo A H; Webster, Rachel E; Pittman, Jon K

    2016-03-01

    Many eukaryotic microalgae modify their metabolism in response to nutrient stresses such as phosphorus (P) starvation, which substantially induces storage metabolite biosynthesis, but the genetic mechanisms regulating this response are poorly understood. Here, we show that P starvation-induced lipid and starch accumulation is inhibited in a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant lacking the transcription factor Pi Starvation Response1 (PSR1). Transcriptomic analysis identified specific metabolism transcripts that are induced by P starvation but misregulated in the psr1 mutant. These include transcripts for starch and triacylglycerol synthesis but also transcripts for photosynthesis-, redox-, and stress signaling-related proteins. To further examine the role of PSR1 in regulating lipid and starch metabolism, PSR1 complementation lines in the psr1 strain and PSR1 overexpression lines in a cell wall-deficient strain were generated. PSR1 expression in the psr1 lines was shown to be functional due to rescue of the psr1 phenotype. PSR1 overexpression lines exhibited increased starch content and number of starch granules per cell, which correlated with a higher expression of specific starch metabolism genes but reduced neutral lipid content. Furthermore, this phenotype was consistent in the presence and absence of acetate. Together, these results identify a key transcriptional regulator in global metabolism and demonstrate transcriptional engineering in microalgae to modulate starch biosynthesis. PMID:26704642

  9. Genetics of xanthan production in Xanthomonas campestris: the xanA and xanB genes are involved in UDP-glucose and GDP-mannose biosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Köplin, R; Arnold, W.; Hötte, B; Simon, R; Wang, G; Pühler, A

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 3.4-kb EcoRI-PstI DNA fragment of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris revealed two open reading frames, which were designated xanA and xanB. The genes xanA and xanB encode proteins of 448 amino acids (molecular weight of 48,919) and 466 amino acids (molecular weight of 50,873), respectively. These genes were identified by analyzing insertion mutants which were known to be involved in xanthan production. Specific tests for the activities of enzymes involved in th...

  10. Global regulation of gene expression in response to cysteine availability in Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gaelle

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine has a crucial role in cellular physiology and its synthesis is tightly controlled due to its reactivity. However, little is known about the sulfur metabolism and its regulation in clostridia compared with other firmicutes. In Clostridium perfringens, the two-component system, VirR/VirS, controls the expression of the ubiG operon involved in methionine to cysteine conversion in addition to the expression of several toxin genes. The existence of links between the C. perfringens virulence regulon and sulfur metabolism prompted us to analyze this metabolism in more detail. Results We first performed a tentative reconstruction of sulfur metabolism in C. perfringens and correlated these data with the growth of strain 13 in the presence of various sulfur sources. Surprisingly, C. perfringens can convert cysteine to methionine by an atypical still uncharacterized pathway. We further compared the expression profiles of strain 13 after growth in the presence of cystine or homocysteine that corresponds to conditions of cysteine depletion. Among the 177 genes differentially expressed, we found genes involved in sulfur metabolism and controlled by premature termination of transcription via a cysteine specific T-box system (cysK-cysE, cysP1 and cysP2 or an S-box riboswitch (metK and metT. We also showed that the ubiG operon was submitted to a triple regulation by cysteine availability via a T-box system, by the VirR/VirS system via the VR-RNA and by the VirX regulatory RNA. In addition, we found that expression of pfoA (theta-toxin, nagL (one of the five genes encoding hyaluronidases and genes involved in the maintenance of cell redox status was differentially expressed in response to cysteine availability. Finally, we showed that the expression of genes involved in [Fe-S] clusters biogenesis and of the ldh gene encoding the lactate dehydrogenase was induced during cysteine limitation. Conclusion Several key functions for the

  11. Global Introduction of New Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Drugs—Balancing Regulation with Urgent Patient Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Timothy; Ben Amor, Yanis

    2016-01-01

    New treatments for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are urgently needed. Two new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have recently been released, and several new drugs and treatment regimens are in the pipeline. Misuse of TB drugs is a principal cause of drug resistance. As new drugs and regimens reach the market, the need to make them available to patients must be balanced with regulation of their use so that resistance to the new drugs can be prevented. To foster the rational use of ...

  12. Posttranscriptional regulation on a global scale: Form and function of Csr/Rsm systems

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo, Tony; Vakulskas, Christopher A.; Babitzke, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Originally described as a repressor of gene expression in the stationary phase of growth, CsrA (RsmA) regulates primary and secondary metabolic pathways, biofilm formation, motility, virulence circuitry of pathogens, quorum sensing, and stress response systems by binding to conserved sequences in its target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or turnover. While the binding of CsrA to RNA is understood at an atomic level, new mechanisms of gene activation and repression by this protein ar...

  13. Global identification of genes regulated by estrogen signaling and demethylation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Estrogen signaling and demethylation can both control gene expression in breast cancers. ► Cross-talk between these mechanisms is investigated in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ► 137 genes are influenced by both 17β-estradiol and demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. ► A set of genes is identified as targets of both estrogen signaling and demethylation. ► There is no direct molecular interplay of mediators of estrogen and epigenetic signaling. -- Abstract: Estrogen signaling and epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are involved in regulation of gene expression in breast cancers. Here we investigated a potential regulatory cross-talk between these two pathways by identifying their common target genes and exploring underlying molecular mechanisms in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the expression of approximately 140 genes was influenced by both 17β-estradiol (E2) and a demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC). Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggests that these genes are involved in intracellular signaling cascades, regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Based on previously reported association with breast cancer, estrogen signaling and/or DNA methylation, CpG island prediction and GO analysis, we selected six genes (BTG3, FHL2, PMAIP1, BTG2, CDKN1A and TGFB2) for further analysis. Tamoxifen reverses the effect of E2 on the expression of all selected genes, suggesting that they are direct targets of estrogen receptor. Furthermore, DAC treatment reactivates the expression of all selected genes in a dose-dependent manner. Promoter CpG island methylation status analysis revealed that only the promoters of BTG3 and FHL2 genes are methylated, with DAC inducing demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation directs repression of these genes in MCF-7 cells. In a further analysis of the potential interplay between estrogen signaling and DNA methylation, E2 treatment

  14. Global identification of genes regulated by estrogen signaling and demethylation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnik, Milica, E-mail: milica.putnik@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Zhao, Chunyan, E-mail: chunyan.zhao@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Gustafsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.gustafsson@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Science and Engineering Research Center Bldg, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5056 (United States); Dahlman-Wright, Karin, E-mail: karin.dahlman-wright@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen signaling and demethylation can both control gene expression in breast cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross-talk between these mechanisms is investigated in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 137 genes are influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol and demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A set of genes is identified as targets of both estrogen signaling and demethylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no direct molecular interplay of mediators of estrogen and epigenetic signaling. -- Abstract: Estrogen signaling and epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are involved in regulation of gene expression in breast cancers. Here we investigated a potential regulatory cross-talk between these two pathways by identifying their common target genes and exploring underlying molecular mechanisms in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the expression of approximately 140 genes was influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and a demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine (DAC). Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggests that these genes are involved in intracellular signaling cascades, regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Based on previously reported association with breast cancer, estrogen signaling and/or DNA methylation, CpG island prediction and GO analysis, we selected six genes (BTG3, FHL2, PMAIP1, BTG2, CDKN1A and TGFB2) for further analysis. Tamoxifen reverses the effect of E2 on the expression of all selected genes, suggesting that they are direct targets of estrogen receptor. Furthermore, DAC treatment reactivates the expression of all selected genes in a dose-dependent manner. Promoter CpG island methylation status analysis revealed that only the promoters of BTG3 and FHL2 genes are methylated, with DAC inducing demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation directs repression of

  15. Coral resilience to ocean acidification and global warming through pH up-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Falter, Jim; Trotter, Julie; Montagna, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly rising levels of atmospheric CO2 are not only causing ocean warming, but also lowering seawater pH hence the carbonate saturation state of the oceans, on which many marine organisms depend to calcify their skeletons(1,2). Using boron isotope systematics(3), we show how scleractinian corals up-regulate pH at their site of calcification such that internal changes are approximately one-half of those in ambient seawater. This species-dependent pH-buffering capacity enables aragonitic cora...

  16. RBFox2 Binds Nascent RNA to Globally Regulate Polycomb Complex 2 Targeting in Mammalian Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chaoliang; Xiao, Rui; Chen, Liang; Cui, Hanwei; Zhou, Yu; Xue, Yuanchao; Hu, Jing; Zhou, Bing; Tsutsui, Taiki; Qiu, Jinsong; Li, Hairi; Tang, Liling; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2016-06-16

    Increasing evidence suggests that diverse RNA binding proteins (RBPs) interact with regulatory RNAs to regulate transcription. RBFox2 is a well-characterized pre-mRNA splicing regulator, but we now encounter an unexpected paradigm where depletion of this RBP induces widespread increase in nascent RNA production in diverse cell types. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) reveals extensive interaction of RBFox2 with chromatin in a nascent RNA-dependent manner. Bayesian network analysis connects RBFox2 to Polycomb complex 2 (PRC2) and H3K27me3, and biochemical experiments demonstrate the ability of RBFox2 to directly interact with PRC2. Strikingly, RBFox2 inactivation eradicates PRC2 targeting on the majority of bivalent gene promoters and leads to transcriptional de-repression. Together, these findings uncover a mechanism underlying the enigmatic association of PRC2 with numerous active genes, highlight the importance of gene body sequences to gauge transcriptional output, and suggest nascent RNAs as critical signals for transcriptional feedback control to maintain homeostatic gene expression in mammalian genomes. PMID:27211866

  17. Hierarchical regulation of the genome: global changes in nucleosome organization potentiate genome response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Brittany S.; Druliner, Brooke R.; Vera, Daniel L.; Avey, Denis; Zhu, Fanxiu; Dennis, Jonathan H.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosome occupancy is critically important in regulating access to the eukaryotic genome. Few studies in human cells have measured genome-wide nucleosome distributions at high temporal resolution during a response to a common stimulus. We measured nucleosome distributions at high temporal resolution following Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) reactivation using our newly developed mTSS-seq technology, which maps nucleosome distribution at the transcription start sites (TSS) of all human genes. Nucleosomes underwent widespread changes in organization 24 hours after KSHV reactivation and returned to their basal nucleosomal architecture 48 hours after KSHV reactivation. The widespread changes consisted of an indiscriminate remodeling event resulting in the loss of nucleosome rotational phasing signals. Additionally, one in six TSSs in the human genome possessed nucleosomes that are translationally remodeled. 72% of the loci with translationally remodeled nucleosomes have nucleosomes that moved to positions encoded by the underlying DNA sequence. Finally we demonstrated that these widespread alterations in nucleosomal architecture potentiated regulatory factor binding. These descriptions of nucleosomal architecture changes provide a new framework for understanding the role of chromatin in the genomic response, and have allowed us to propose a hierarchical model for chromatin-based regulation of genome response. PMID:26771136

  18. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 μg/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 μg/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 μg/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 μg/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 μg/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia

  19. Regulation of global gene expression in human Loa loa infection is a function of chronicity.

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    Cathy Steel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human filarial infection is characterized by downregulated parasite-antigen specific T cell responses but distinct differences exist between patients with longstanding infection (endemics and those who acquired infection through temporary residency or visits to filarial-endemic regions (expatriates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To characterize mechanisms underlying differences in T cells, analysis of global gene expression using human spotted microarrays was conducted on CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells from microfilaremic Loa loa-infected endemic and expatriate patients. Assessment of unstimulated cells showed overexpression of genes linked to inflammation and caspase-associated cell death, particularly in endemics, and enrichment of the Th1/Th2 canonical pathway in endemic CD4(+ cells. However, pathways within CD8(+ unstimulated cells were most significantly enriched in both patient groups. Antigen (Ag-driven gene expression was assessed to microfilarial Ag (MfAg and to the nonparasite Ag streptolysin O (SLO. For MfAg-driven cells, the number of genes differing significantly from unstimulated cells was greater in endemics compared to expatriates (p<0.0001. Functional analysis showed a differential increase in genes associated with NFkB (both groups and caspase activation (endemics. While the expatriate response to MfAg was primarily a CD4(+ pro-inflammatory one, the endemic response included CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells and was linked to insulin signaling, histone complexes, and ubiquitination. Unlike the enrichment of canonical pathways in CD8(+ unstimulated cells, both groups showed pathway enrichment in CD4(+ cells to MfAg. Contrasting with the divergent responses to MfAg seen between endemics and expatriates, the CD4(+ response to SLO was similar; however, CD8(+ cells differed strongly in the nature and numbers (156 [endemics] vs 36 [expatriates] of genes with differential expression. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest several important pathways are

  20. Control of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli on Bean_Using Copper Compounds and Plant Activator

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    Biljana Todorović

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of several new formulations of copper compounds, namely Cuprozin 35 WP (copper-oxychloride, Cuproxat (copper-sulphate, Funguran OH (copper-hydroxideand the plant activator Bion(acibenzolar-S-methyl, and their combinations with dithiocarbamates(Dithane M-70 was estimated in controlling Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (artificial inoculation in field conditions in two localities during 2006. In the locality Zemun, the efficacy of copper compounds ranged from 92.7% to 98.5%. The plant activator Bion 50 WG exhibited similar efficacy (94.4-97.1%. Combinations of Funguran OH and Dithane M-70, applied at different concentrations, also showed high efficacy (98.3-99.3%, as well as the combinations of Bion 50 WG and the other bactericides (95.5-96.8%. There was no significantdifference between the efficacies achieved by the compounds applied individually and their combinations, except Cuproxat, which exhibited decreased efficacy at lower concentration. In the locality Smederevska Palanka, the efficacy of copper compounds was 95.0-98.2%, while Bion achieved 96.8-97.7% efficacy. Combinations of copper-hydroxide(Funguran OH and dithiocarbamates (Dithane M-70 also showed high efficacy (98.1-99.4% but without a significant difference. The efficacy of combinations of Bion and copper-hydroxide, and Bion and mancozeb was 97.9-98.9%. There was no significant difference in the efficacies of the bactericides tested or the efficacies of their combinations in that locality.Our investigation confirmed high efficacy of acibenzolar-S-methyl, which was equal to the efficacy of standard bactericide treatment. This compound therefore offers a very good alternative to conventional chemicals used for controlling bacterial diseases in beans.

  1. Improving ethanol tolerance of Escherichia coli by rewiring its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP.

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    Huiqing Chong

    Full Text Available A major challenge in bioethanol fermentation is the low tolerance of the microbial host towards the end product bioethanol. Here we report to improve the ethanol tolerance of E. coli from the transcriptional level by engineering its global transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP, which is known to regulate over 400 genes in E. coli. Three ethanol tolerant CRP mutants (E1- E3 were identified from error-prone PCR libraries. The best ethanol-tolerant strain E2 (M59T had the growth rate of 0.08 h(-1 in 62 g/L ethanol, higher than that of the control at 0.06 h(-1. The M59T mutation was then integrated into the genome to create variant iE2. When exposed to 150 g/l ethanol, the survival of iE2 after 15 min was about 12%, while that of BW25113 was <0.01%. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis (RT-PCR on 444 CRP-regulated genes using OpenArray® technology revealed that 203 genes were differentially expressed in iE2 in the absence of ethanol, whereas 92 displayed differential expression when facing ethanol stress. These genes belong to various functional groups, including central intermediary metabolism (aceE, acnA, sdhD, sucA, iron ion transport (entH, entD, fecA, fecB, and general stress response (osmY, rpoS. Six up-regulated and twelve down-regulated common genes were found in both iE2 and E2 under ethanol stress, whereas over one hundred common genes showed differential expression in the absence of ethanol. Based on the RT-PCR results, entA, marA or bhsA was knocked out in iE2 and the resulting strains became more sensitive towards ethanol.

  2. Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation, and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, John B; Corsi, Camilla; Van Emon, Jeanette M; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Hamilton, Denis J; Howard, Cody J; Hunter, Robert; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Kleter, Gijs A; Kookana, Rai S; Lalah, Joseph O; Leggett, Michael; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Peranginangin, Natalia; Rubin, Baruch; Saha, Bipul; Shakil, Najam A

    2016-01-13

    To provide sufficient food and fiber to the increasing global population, the technologies associated with crop protection are growing ever more sophisticated but, at the same time, societal expectations for the safe use of crop protection chemistry tools are also increasing. The goal of this perspective is to highlight the key issues that face future leaders in crop protection, based on presentations made during a symposium titled "Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century", held in conjunction with the IUPAC 13th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry in San Francisco, CA, USA, during August 2014. The presentations highlighted the fact that leaders in crop protection must have a good basic scientific training and understand new and evolving technologies, are aware of the needs of both developed and developing countries, and have good communication skills. Concern is expressed over the apparent lack of resources to meet these needs, and ideas are put forward to remedy these deficiencies. PMID:25855233

  3. Global functional analysis of nucleophosmin in Taxol response, cancer, chromatin regulation, and ribosomal DNA transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of lung cancer response to chemotherapeutic agents showed the accumulation of a Taxol-induced protein that reacted with an anti-phospho-MEK1/2 antibody. Mass spectroscopy identified the protein as nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM), a multifunctional protein with diverse roles: ribosome biosynthesis, p53 regulation, nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling, and centrosome duplication. Our work demonstrates that following cellular exposure to mitosis-arresting agents, NPM is phosphorylated and its chromatographic property is altered, suggesting changes in function during mitosis. To determine the functional relevance of NPM, its expression in tumor cells was reduced by siRNA. Cells with reduced NPM were treated with Taxol followed by microarray profiling accompanied by gene/protein pathway analyses. These studies demonstrate several expected and unexpected consequences of NPM depletion. The predominant downstream effectors of NPM are genes involved in cell proliferation, cancer, and the cell cycle. In congruence with its role in cancer, NPM is over-expressed in primary malignant lung cancer tissues. We also demonstrate a role for NPM in the expression of genes encoding SET (TAF1β) and the histone methylase SET8. Additionally, we show that NPM is required for a previously unobserved G2/M upregulation of TAF1A, which encodes the rDNA transcription factor TAFI48. These results demonstrate multi-faceted functions of NPM that can affect cancer cells

  4. A random six-phase switch regulates pneumococcal virulence via global epigenetic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Ana Sousa; Chai, Melissa H; Atack, John M; Furi, Leonardo; De Ste Croix, Megan; Haigh, Richard; Trappetti, Claudia; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Shewell, Lucy K; Boitano, Matthew; Clark, Tyson A; Korlach, Jonas; Blades, Matthew; Mirkes, Evgeny; Gorban, Alexander N; Paton, James C; Jennings, Michael P; Oggioni, Marco R

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the world's foremost bacterial pathogen in both morbidity and mortality. Switching between phenotypic forms (or 'phases') that favour asymptomatic carriage or invasive disease was first reported in 1933. Here, we show that the underlying mechanism for such phase variation consists of genetic rearrangements in a Type I restriction-modification system (SpnD39III). The rearrangements generate six alternative specificities with distinct methylation patterns, as defined by single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylomics. The SpnD39III variants have distinct gene expression profiles. We demonstrate distinct virulence in experimental infection and in vivo selection for switching between SpnD39III variants. SpnD39III is ubiquitous in pneumococci, indicating an essential role in its biology. Future studies must recognize the potential for switching between these heretofore undetectable, differentiated pneumococcal subpopulations in vitro and in vivo. Similar systems exist in other bacterial genera, indicating the potential for broad exploitation of epigenetic gene regulation. PMID:25268848

  5. Post-transcriptional regulation on a global scale: form and function of Csr/Rsm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Tony; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Babitzke, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Originally described as a repressor of gene expression in the stationary phase of growth, CsrA (RsmA) regulates primary and secondary metabolic pathways, biofilm formation, motility, virulence circuitry of pathogens, quorum sensing and stress response systems by binding to conserved sequences in its target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or turnover. While the binding of CsrA to RNA is understood at an atomic level, new mechanisms of gene activation and repression by this protein are still emerging. In the γ-proteobacteria, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) use molecular mimicry to sequester multiple CsrA dimers away from mRNA. In contrast, the FliW protein of Bacillus subtilis inhibits CsrA activity by binding to this protein, thereby establishing a checkpoint in flagellum morphogenesis. Turnover of CsrB and CsrC sRNAs in Escherichia coli requires a specificity protein of the GGDEF-EAL domain superfamily, CsrD, in addition to the housekeeping nucleases RNase E and PNPase. The Csr system of E. coli contains extensive autoregulatory circuitry, which governs the expression and activity of CsrA. Interaction of the Csr system with transcriptional regulatory networks results in a variety of complex response patterns. This minireview will highlight basic principles and new insights into the workings of these complex eubacterial regulatory systems. PMID:22672726

  6. A novel bifunctional N-acetylglutamate synthase-kinase from Xanthomonas campestris that is closely related to mammalian N-acetylglutamate synthase

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    Tuchman Mendel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In microorganisms and plants, the first two reactions of arginine biosynthesis are catalyzed by N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS and N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK. In mammals, NAGS produces an essential activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase I, the first enzyme of the urea cycle, and no functional NAGK homolog has been found. Unlike the other urea cycle enzymes, whose bacterial counterparts could be readily identified by their sequence conservation with arginine biosynthetic enzymes, mammalian NAGS gene was very divergent, making it the last urea cycle gene to be discovered. Limited sequence similarity between E. coli NAGS and fungal NAGK suggests that bacterial and eukaryotic NAGS, and fungal NAGK arose from the fusion of genes encoding an ancestral NAGK (argB and an acetyltransferase. However, mammalian NAGS no longer retains any NAGK catalytic activity. Results We identified a novel bifunctional N-acetylglutamate synthase and kinase (NAGS-K in the Xanthomonadales order of gamma-proteobacteria that appears to resemble this postulated primordial fusion protein. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that xanthomonad NAGS-K is more closely related to mammalian NAGS than to other bacterial NAGS. We cloned the NAGS-K gene from Xanthomonas campestis, and characterized the recombinant NAGS-K protein. Mammalian NAGS and its bacterial homolog have similar affinities for substrates acetyl coenzyme A and glutamate as well as for their allosteric regulator arginine. Conclusion The close phylogenetic relationship and similar biochemical properties of xanthomonad NAGS-K and mammalian NAGS suggest that we have identified a close relative to the bacterial antecedent of mammalian NAGS and that the enzyme from X. campestris could become a good model for mammalian NAGS in structural, biochemical and biophysical studies.

  7. Xanthomonas campestris cell-cell signalling molecule DSF (diffusible signal factor) elicits innate immunity in plants and is suppressed by the exopolysaccharide xanthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Akanksha; Nizampatnam, Narasimha Rao; Kondreddy, Anil; Pradhan, Binod Bihari; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2015-11-01

    Several secreted and surface-associated conserved microbial molecules are recognized by the host to mount the defence response. One such evolutionarily well-conserved bacterial process is the production of cell-cell signalling molecules which regulate production of multiple virulence functions by a process known as quorum sensing. Here it is shown that a bacterial fatty acid cell-cell signalling molecule, DSF (diffusible signal factor), elicits innate immunity in plants. The DSF family of signalling molecules are highly conserved among many phytopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Xanthomonas as well as in opportunistic animal pathogens. Using Arabidopsis, Nicotiana benthamiana, and rice as model systems, it is shown that DSF induces a hypersensitivity reaction (HR)-like response, programmed cell death, the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds, hydrogen peroxide production, and the expression of the PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 (PR-1) gene. Furthermore, production of the DSF signalling molecule in Pseudomonas syringae, a non-DSF-producing plant pathogen, induces the innate immune response in the N. benthamiana host plant and also affects pathogen growth. By pre- and co-inoculation of DSF, it was demonstrated that the DSF-induced plant defence reduces disease severity and pathogen growth in the host plant. In this study, it was further demonstrated that wild-type Xanthomonas campestris suppresses the DSF-induced innate immunity by secreting xanthan, the main component of extracellular polysaccharide. The results indicate that plants have evolved to recognize a widely conserved bacterial communication system and may have played a role in the co-evolution of host recognition of the pathogen and the communication machinery. PMID:26248667

  8. FUS-mediated regulation of alternative RNA processing in neurons: insights from global transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akio; Takeda, Jun-Ichi; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-05-01

    Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is an RNA-binding protein that is causally associated with oncogenesis and neurodegeneration. Recently, the role of FUS in neurodegeneration has been extensively studied, because mutations in FUS are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the FUS protein has been identified as a major component of intracellular inclusions in neurodegenerative disorders including ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. FUS is a key molecule in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing including processes such as pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing and polyadenylation. Interaction of FUS with various components of the transcription machinery, spliceosome, and the 3'-end processing machinery has been identified. Furthermore, recent advances in high-throughput transcriptomic profiling approaches have enabled us to determine the mechanisms of FUS-dependent RNA processing networks at a cellular level. These analyses have revealed that depletion of FUS in neuronal cells affects alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of thousands of mRNAs. Gene ontology analysis has suggested that FUS-modulated genes are implicated in neuronal functions and development. CLIP-seq of FUS has shown that FUS is frequently clustered around these alternative sites of nascent RNA. ChIP-seq of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) has demonstrated that an interaction between FUS and nascent RNA downregulates local transcriptional activity of RNAP II, which is critically involved in RNA processing. Both alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation are fundamental processes by which cells expand their transcriptomic diversity, and are particularly essential in the nervous system. Dependence of transcriptomic diversity on FUS makes the nervous system vulnerable to neurodegeneration, when FUS is functionally compromised. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:330-340. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1338 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26822113

  9. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  10. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Behbahani

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A. The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  11. Cloning, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of XC1258, a CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from Xanthomonas campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from the plant pathogen X. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. CN-hydrolase superfamily proteins are involved in a wide variety of non-peptide carbon–nitrogen hydrolysis reactions, producing some important natural products such as auxin, biotin, precursors of antibiotics etc. These reactions all involve attack on a cyano or carbonyl carbon by a conserved novel catalytic triad Glu-Lys-Cys through a thiol acylenzyme intermediate. However, classification into the CN-hydrolase superfamily based on sequence similarity alone is not straightforward and further structural data are necessary to improve this categorization. Here, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC1258, a CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (Xcc), are reported. The SeMet-substituted XC1258 crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.73 Å. They are orthorhombic and belong to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 143.8, b = 154.63, c = 51.3 Å, respectively

  12. Laboratory-evolved mutants of an exogenous global regulator, IrrE from Deinococcus radiodurans, enhance stress tolerances of Escherichia coli.

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    Tingjian Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tolerance of cells toward different stresses is very important for industrial strains of microbes, but difficult to improve by the manipulation of single genes. Traditional methods for enhancing cellular tolerances are inefficient and time-consuming. Recently, approaches employing global transcriptional or translational engineering methods have been increasingly explored. We found that an exogenous global regulator, irrE from an extremely radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans, has the potential to act as a global regulator in Escherichia coli, and that laboratory-evolution might be applied to alter this regulator to elicit different phenotypes for E. coli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To extend the methodology for strain improvement and to obtain higher tolerances toward different stresses, we here describe an approach of engineering irrE gene in E. coli. An irrE library was constructed by randomly mutating the gene, and this library was then selected for tolerance to ethanol, butanol and acetate stresses. Several mutants showing significant tolerances were obtained and characterized. The tolerances of E. coli cells containing these mutants were enhanced 2 to 50-fold, based on cell growth tests using different concentrations of alcohols or acetate, and enhanced 10 to 100-fold based on ethanol or butanol shock experiments. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS assays showed that intracellular ROS levels were sharply reduced for cells containing the irrE mutants. Sequence analysis of the mutants revealed that the mutations distribute cross all three domains of the protein. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first time that an exogenous global regulator has been artificially evolved to suit its new host. The successes suggest the possibility of improving tolerances of industrial strains by introducing and engineering exogenous global regulators, such as those from extremophiles. This new approach can

  13. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of XC847, a 3′-5′ oligoribonuclease from Xanthomonas campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A DEDDh-type 3′-5′ oligoribonuclease from the plant pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å with good quality. Oligoribonucleases are essential components of RNA and DNA metabolism and close homologues of genes encoding them are found not only in prokaryotes but also in a wide range of eukaryotes, including yeast and humans. Inactivation of the oligoribonuclease gene (orn) can result in cellular lethality. Despite their important biological function, they have been studied little from a structural point of view. In this report, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC847, a DEDDh-type 3′-5′ oligoribonuclease from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a Gram-negative bacterium causing major worldwide disease of cruciferous crops, is described. The XC847 crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 2.1 Å. They are tetragonal and belong to space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 67.5, c = 89.8 Å. One molecule is present per asymmetric unit

  14. Fertilization in Brassica campestris ssp.pekinensis and its duration of each stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jie; SHEN Jiaheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the process of fertilization in Brassica campestris ssp.pekinensis and the duration of each stage.The results are as follows:(1)Pollen germinates on stigma 2-3 h after pollination.(2)4-8 h after pollination,pollen tube grows in the style.(3)8-14 h after pollination,pollen tube grows in the ovary and gets into the ovule via the micropyle.(4)16 h after pollination,one sperm nucleus moves to the egg and enters it.(5)The sperm nucleus adheres to the nuclear membrane of the egg 18 h after pollination.(6)20 h after pollination,it enters the egg nucleus and male chromatin gradually disperses and 24 h after pollination,a male nucleolus appears.A large female nucleolus and a small male nucleolus occur in the nucleus of the fertilized egg,and zygote formed.The dispersing of sperm chromatin in the egg nucleus takes about 4 h.(7)32--34 h after pollination,the division of zygote begins.The dormancy stage of the zygote lasts for about 8-10 h.(8)The pair polar nuclei lie in the chalazal end of the egg betbre fertilization,which may fuse into a secondary nucleus or not.(9)16-18 h after pollination,the sperm nucleus moves to the polar nuclei or the secondary nucleus.18 h after pollination,the sperm nucleus adheres to the nuclear membrane of the polar nuclei or that of the secondary nucleus.(10)20 h after pollination,the sperm nucleus enters one of the polar nuclei or the secondary nucleus and a triple fusion takes place.The process of fusion is similar to the karyogamy but faster.The dispersing of the sperm chromatin in the polar nucleus or secondary nucleus takes about 2 h.(11)22 h after pollination,the primary endosperm nucleus formed.The female and male nucleoli cannot fuse with each other betbre mitotic division of the primary endosperm nucleus.(12)24 h after pollination,the division of the primary endosperm nucleus actually takes place.

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of brassica napus/brassica campestris progenies using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic diversity and relationship of F2 segregating progenies of interspecific crosses between B. napus N-501/B. campestris C-118 were studied. A set of 90 genotypes (2 parental lines and their 88 F2 progenies) was characterized separately using 24 microsatellite or SSR markers to cover the diversity as broadly as possibly present in them. In initial screening only 12 out of 24 SSR primers combination amplified DNA fragments, while the remaining 12 SSR primers did not amplify DNA fragment therefore those 12 SSR molecular markers were not used for further analysis. The 12 SSR primer combinations generated a total of 33 alleles, of that 32 were polymorphic loci, whereas only one was monomorphic locus. Primers BRMS-19 and BRMS-40 were highly polymorphic producing 4 bands each. Primer Ra2-D04 was less polymorphic and it produced only one band. The proportion of polymorphic loci was 95.83% which indicates high genetic diversity among the progenies. The average number of polymorphic alleles per locus was 2.66. The PIC values ranged from 0.395 for primer Ra2-E03 to 0.726 for primer BRMS-019 with an average genetic diversity (PIC value) of 0.584 per locus. Seven primers showed PIC values above 0.5 (50%) indicating high genetic diversity in the studied plant materials. Pair-wise similarity indices among 90 genotypes ranged from 0.3 to 0.95. Dendrogram obtained through UPGMA clustering of F2 progenies depicted eight main groups using similarity coefficient of 0.70. The progenies could be similar to their parents if they have the same banding patterns as that of the parents and could be distinguished from each other by the combination of fragments which are repeatedly present in one progeny and absent in the other. Considerable genetic diversity has been found among the F2 segregating progenies and their parents using SSR markers thus, SSR analysis proved to be a useful tool. (author)

  16. Colonización radical por endófitos fúngicos en Trithrinax campestris (Arecaceae de ecosistemas semiáridos del centro de Argentina Root colonization by fungal endophytes in Trithrinax campestris (Arecaceae from semiarid ecosystems from Central Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A Lugo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En ecosistemas áridos y semiáridos las raíces de las plantas suelen formar simbiosis con hongos, los que les proporcionan nutrientes y agua. Poco se conoce sobre los hongos asociados a palmeras nativas y cómo éstos podrían estar relacionados entre ellos. Se describe y cuantifica la colonización radical de los simbiontes de Trithrinax campestris en poblaciones leve y fuertemente afectadas por el fuego. T. campestris fue colonizada por hongos micorrícico-arbusculares (HMA y endófitos septados oscuros (ESO. La colonización por HMA fue del tipo intermedio entre los tipos Arum y Paris. La colonización por HMA y ESO y la producción de pelos radicales, presentó diferencias entre las poblaciones estudiadas. Los resultados sugieren que en T. campestris la relación entre hongos simbiontes/producción de pelos radicales podrían estar relacionada con su alta tolerancia al fuego y la aridez.In arid and semiarid ecosystems, roots frequently form symbiosis with fungi that provides access to nutrients and water. Knowledge regarding the study of fungal symbionts colonizing native palms roots is still scarce. We described, quantified and compared fungal colonization in roots of Trithrinax campestris from two environmental situations: population with weak-burning-signs and population with strong-burning-signs. T. campestris was colonized by arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi (AMF and dark-septate-endophytes (DSE. AMF colonization was an intermediate type between Arum and Paris. The AMF and DSE colonization and root hair production differed between populations. Our results suggest that in T. campestris the relation between fungal-symbionts and root-hair-production might be related to tolerance to burning and aridity.

  17. BRIDGING THE GAP OF INDIAN REGULATIONS AND MAJOR GLOBAL REGULATIONS FOR BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDIES WITH EMPHASIS ON ADAPTIVE SEQUENTIAL DESIGN AND TWO-STAGE BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDIES

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    Shah Kalpesh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The cost of healthcare has been escalating globally during the last two decades, and this has prompted efforts in most countries to reduce those costs. Because of the importance of generic drugs in healthcare, it is imperative that the pharmaceutical quality and in vivo performance of generic drugs be reliably assessed. Because generic drugs would be interchanged with innovator products in the market place, it must be demonstrated that the safety and efficacy of generics are comparable to the safety and efficacy of the corresponding innovator drugs. The concept of bioavailability (BA and bioequivalence (BE has been accepted worldwide by the pharmaceutical industry and national regulatory authorities for over 20 years and is applied to new as well as generic products. As a result, thousands of high-quality generic drugs at reduced costs have become available in every corner of the globe. The assessment of BE is not a simple issue, however, and much of the research has been done in recent years to develop new and more effective approaches to the assessment of BE. There are several approaches to assess BE and each regulatory authority has its own regulations/guidance for conducting BA/BE studies before approving generic products for marketing in their country. Therefore, a thorough understanding is required of these BA/BE concepts and basic regulatory requirements for conduct of BA/BE studies. In this article, the regulatory guidelines are compared on the basis of various parameters involving the clinical conduct of the BA/BE studies. Harmonization of these approaches may decrease the number of in vivo bioequivalence studies and avoid unnecessary drug exposure to humans. Another upcoming approach for conduct of bioequivalence studies is Adaptive design, which is a relatively new approach. This innovation is becoming accepted by the regulators and has been taken up by the pharmaceutical industry to reduce product development times and costs. There

  18. Molecular characterization of Brazilian strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola by rep-PCR fingerprinting Caracterização molecular de isolados brasileiros de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola através de rep-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loiselene C. Trindade

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial canker of grapevine (Vitis vinifera, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola was first detected in Brazil in 1998, affecting grapevines in the São Francisco river basin, state of Pernambuco. The disease was also reported in Juazeiro, Bahia and later in Piauí and Ceará. Due to its limited geographical distribution and relatively recent detection in Brazil, very little is known about the pathogen's biology and diversity. Repetitive DNA based-PCR (rep-PCR profiles were generated from purified bacterial DNA of 40 field strains of X. campestris pv. viticola, collected between 1998 and 2001 in the states of Pernambuco, Bahia and Piauí. Combined analysis of the PCR patterns obtained with primers REP, ERIC and BOX, showed a high degree of similarity among Brazilian strains and the Indian type strain NCPPB 2475. Similar genomic patterns with several diagnostic bands, present in all strains, could be detected. Fingerprints were distinct from those of strains representing other pathovars and from a yellow non-pathogenic isolate from grape leaves. The polymorphism observed among the Brazilian strains allowed their separation into five subgroups, although with no correlation with cultivar of origin, geographic location or year collected.O cancro bacteriano da videira (Vitis vinifera, causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola, foi primeiramente detectado no Brasil em 1998, em parreirais no município de Petrolina, Vale do São Francisco, Pernambuco. A doença foi também observada em Juazeiro, Bahia, e mais tarde nos estados de Piauí e Ceará. Devido à sua limitada distribuição geográfica e relativamente recente detecção no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre a biologia e diversidade do patógeno. Padrões genômicos de rep-PCR foram gerados a partir do DNA purificado de 40 isolados de X. campestris pv. viticola, coletados entre 1998 e 2001, em diferentes localidades dos estados de Pernambuco, Bahia e Piauí. A análise combinada

  19. Reação de clones de videira a Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola, baseada nos componentes epidemiológicos do cancro bacteriano Reaction of grapevine clones to Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola, based on epidemiological components of bacterial canker

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rosa Peixoto Nascimento; Sami Jorge Michereff; Rosa de Lima Ramos Mariano; Ivanise Oliveira Viana

    2006-01-01

    O cancro bacteriano, causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv), é a doença bacteriana mais importante da videira na região do Submédio São Francisco. A reação de 20 clones de videira, sendo 13 de copa e sete de porta-enxerto, foi avaliada quanto à resistência ao patógeno, em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com a suspensão do isolado Xcv1 (A570=108UFC mL-1), incubadas em casa de vegetação e observadas diariamente quanto aos componentes epidemiológicos do cancro bacte...

  20. Interplay between pathway-specific and global regulation of the fumonisin gene cluster in the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, Sarah M; Sieber, Christian M K; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2016-07-01

    The rice pathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Besides the gibberellins, causing the bakanae effect in infected rice seedlings, the fungus produces several mycotoxins and pigments. Among the 47 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters identified in the genome of F. fujikuroi, the fumonisin gene cluster (FUM) shows very high homology to the FUM cluster of the main fumonisin producer Fusarium verticillioides, a pathogen of maize. Despite the high level of cluster gene conservation, total fumonisin FB1 and FB2 levels (FBx) produced by F. fujikuroi were only 1-10 % compared to F. verticillioides under inducing conditions. Nitrogen repression was found to be relevant for wild-type strains of both species. However, addition of germinated maize kernels activated the FBx production only in F. verticillioides, reflecting the different host specificity of both wild-type strains. Over-expression of the pathway-specific transcription factor Fum21 in F. fujikuroi strongly activated the FUM cluster genes leading to 1000-fold elevated FBx levels. To gain further insights into the nitrogen metabolite repression of FBx biosynthesis, we studied the impact of the global nitrogen regulators AreA and AreB and demonstrated that both GATA-type transcription factors are essential for full activation of the FUM gene cluster. Loss of one of them obstructs the pathway-specific transcription factor Fum21 to fully activate expression of FUM cluster genes. PMID:26966024

  1. The crystal structure of the global anaerobic transcriptional regulator FNR explains its extremely fine-tuned monomer-dimer equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volbeda, Anne; Darnault, Claudine; Renoux, Oriane; Nicolet, Yvain; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    The structure of the dimeric holo-fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator (FNR) from Aliivibrio fischeri has been solved at 2.65 Å resolution. FNR globally controls the transition between anaerobic and aerobic respiration in facultative anaerobes through the assembly/degradation of its oxygen-sensitive [4Fe-4S] cluster. In the absence of O2, FNR forms a dimer and specifically binds to DNA, whereas in its presence, the cluster is degraded causing FNR monomerization and DNA dissociation. We have used our crystal structure and the information previously gathered from numerous FNR variants to propose that this process is governed by extremely fine-tuned interactions, mediated by two salt bridges near the amino-terminal cluster-binding domain and an "imperfect" coiled-coil dimer interface. [4Fe-4S] to [2Fe-2S] cluster degradation propagates a conformational signal that indirectly causes monomerization by disrupting the first of these interactions and unleashing the "unzipping" of the FNR dimer in the direction of the carboxyl-terminal DNA binding domain. PMID:26665177

  2. The Staphylococcus aureus Global Regulator MgrA Modulates Clumping and Virulence by Controlling Surface Protein Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi A Crosby

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that causes devastating infections in a wide range of locations within the body. One of the defining characteristics of S. aureus is its ability to form clumps in the presence of soluble fibrinogen, which likely has a protective benefit and facilitates adhesion to host tissue. We have previously shown that the ArlRS two-component regulatory system controls clumping, in part by repressing production of the large surface protein Ebh. In this work we show that ArlRS does not directly regulate Ebh, but instead ArlRS activates expression of the global regulator MgrA. Strains lacking mgrA fail to clump in the presence of fibrinogen, and clumping can be restored to an arlRS mutant by overexpressing either arlRS or mgrA, indicating that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory pathway. We used RNA-seq to show that MgrA represses ebh, as well as seven cell wall-associated proteins (SraP, Spa, FnbB, SasG, SasC, FmtB, and SdrD. EMSA analysis showed that MgrA directly represses expression of ebh and sraP. Clumping can be restored to an mgrA mutant by deleting the genes for Ebh, SraP and SasG, suggesting that increased expression of these proteins blocks clumping by steric hindrance. We show that mgrA mutants are less virulent in a rabbit model of endocarditis, and virulence can be partially restored by deleting the genes for the surface proteins ebh, sraP, and sasG. While mgrA mutants are unable to clump, they are known to have enhanced biofilm capacity. We demonstrate that this increase in biofilm formation is partially due to up-regulation of SasG, a surface protein known to promote intercellular interactions. These results confirm that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory cascade, and that they control expression of a number of genes important for virulence, including those for eight large surface proteins.

  3. The Staphylococcus aureus Global Regulator MgrA Modulates Clumping and Virulence by Controlling Surface Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Heidi A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Merriman, Joseph A.; King, Jessica M.; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that causes devastating infections in a wide range of locations within the body. One of the defining characteristics of S. aureus is its ability to form clumps in the presence of soluble fibrinogen, which likely has a protective benefit and facilitates adhesion to host tissue. We have previously shown that the ArlRS two-component regulatory system controls clumping, in part by repressing production of the large surface protein Ebh. In this work we show that ArlRS does not directly regulate Ebh, but instead ArlRS activates expression of the global regulator MgrA. Strains lacking mgrA fail to clump in the presence of fibrinogen, and clumping can be restored to an arlRS mutant by overexpressing either arlRS or mgrA, indicating that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory pathway. We used RNA-seq to show that MgrA represses ebh, as well as seven cell wall-associated proteins (SraP, Spa, FnbB, SasG, SasC, FmtB, and SdrD). EMSA analysis showed that MgrA directly represses expression of ebh and sraP. Clumping can be restored to an mgrA mutant by deleting the genes for Ebh, SraP and SasG, suggesting that increased expression of these proteins blocks clumping by steric hindrance. We show that mgrA mutants are less virulent in a rabbit model of endocarditis, and virulence can be partially restored by deleting the genes for the surface proteins ebh, sraP, and sasG. While mgrA mutants are unable to clump, they are known to have enhanced biofilm capacity. We demonstrate that this increase in biofilm formation is partially due to up-regulation of SasG, a surface protein known to promote intercellular interactions. These results confirm that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory cascade, and that they control expression of a number of genes important for virulence, including those for eight large surface proteins. PMID:27144398

  4. Produção de goma xantana por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris a partir de casca de cacau ou soro de leite Production of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris strains native from bark cocoa or whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis de M. Diniz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a otimização do processo de produção de goma xantana a partir de casca de cacau ou soro de leite como fonte de carbono, e determinou-se o rendimento da goma obtida pela bioconversão de casca de cacau e soro de leite com a Xanthomonas campestris 1182. A goma foi produzida em meios com potássio e nitrogênio a 25 °C, 250 rpm por 120 horas. Os rendimentos foram: 2,335 g.L-1 para a sacarose; 4,995 g.L-1 para a casca de cacau seca e 12,01 g.L-1 utilizando soro de leite. Portanto, é viável a produção de goma xantana utilizando fontes de carbono como a casca de cacau e o soro de leite.The optimization of the production process of xanthan gum from cocoa husks or milk whey as carbon source was studied, and the production rate of gum obtained by the bioconversion of cocoa pods and whey was determined, using Xanthomonas campestris 1182. The gum was produced in a medium with potassium and nitrogen at 25 °C, 250 rpm for 120 hours. The results were: 2.335 g.L-1 for sucrose; 4.995 g.L-1 for cocoa dry pods and 12.01 g.L-1 using whey. Therefore, the production of xanthan gum is feasible upon using carbon sources such as cocoa hulls and whey.

  5. INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE BY BIOCONTROL AGENTS AGAINST BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF COTTON CAUSED BY XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. MALVACEARUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjana S. Ramachandrappa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioagents such as Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from cotton rhizosphere soil and tested individually for their effectiveness in controlling bacterial blight of cotton caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Xcm. Talc based formulations were prepared and used for seed treatment at different concentrations for assessing their ability to stimulate plant growth and to control bacterial blight disease. Among bioagents, P. fluorescens and T. harzianum proved to be effective in controlling disease under field conditions.  Other than direct action, these bioagents triggered the defense related enzymes involved in synthesis of phenols. Higher activity of peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase and b-1,3-glucanase was observed in P. fluorescens and T. harzianum treated cotton plants after challenge inoculation with Xcm. Seed treatment with these bioagents enhanced the seed germination and growth parameters against blight disease and they also induced systemic resistance in plant for defense mechanisms. 

  6. Genome-wide sequencing reveals two major sub-lineages in the genetically monomorphic pathogen xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasukira, Arthur; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Thwaites, Richard; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Aritua, Valente; Kubiriba, Jerome; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray; Studholme, David J

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm) is the causal agent of banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW). This disease has devastated economies based on banana and plantain crops (Musa species) in East Africa. Here we use genome-wide sequencing to discover a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among East African isolates of Xcm. These SNPs have potential as molecular markers for phylogeographic studies of the epidemiology and spread of the pathogen. Our analysis reveals two major sub-lineages of the pathogen, suggesting that the current outbreaks of BXW on Musa species in the region may have more than one introductory event, perhaps from Ethiopia. Also, based on comparisons of genome-wide sequence data from multiple isolates of Xcm and multiple strains of X. vasicola pathovar vasculorum, we identify genes specific to Xcm that could be used to specifically detect Xcm by PCR-based methods. PMID:24704974

  7. Global analysis of the eukaryotic pathways and networks regulated by Salmonella typhimurium in mouse intestinal infection in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yinglin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute enteritis caused by Salmonella is a public health concern. Salmonella infection is also known to increase the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand how Salmonella works in targeting eukaryotic pathways in intestinal infection. However, the global physiological function of Salmonella typhimurium in intestinal mucosa in vivo is unclear. In this study, a whole genome approach combined with bioinformatics assays was used to investigate the in vivo genetic responses of the mouse colon to Salmonella. We focused on the intestinal responses in the early stage (8 hours and late stage (4 days after Salmonella infection. Results Of the 28,000 genes represented on the array, our analysis of mRNA expression in mouse colon mucosa showed that a total of 856 genes were expressed differentially at 8 hours post-infection. At 4 days post-infection, a total of 7558 genes were expressed differentially. 23 differentially expressed genes from the microarray data was further examined by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis identified that the most significant pathway associated with the differentially expressed genes in 8 hours post-infection is oxidative phosphorylation, which targets the mitochondria. At the late stage of infection, a series of pathways associated with immune and inflammatory response, proliferation, and apoptosis were identified, whereas the oxidative phosphorylation was shut off. Histology analysis confirmed the biological role of Salmonella, which induced a physiological state of inflammation and proliferation in the colon mucosa through the regulation of multiple signaling pathways. Most of the metabolism-related pathways were targeted by down-regulated genes, and a general repression process of metabolic pathways was observed. Network analysis supported IFN-γ and TNF-α function as mediators of the immune/inflammatory response for host defense against pathogen

  8. ADJUSTMENT OF THE ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS ACCORDING TO THE NEW REQUIREMENTS ENTAILED BY GLOBALIZATION AND THE ACCESSION OF ROMANIA TO THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Constantin Gabriel BUDACIA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of inter-state relations and, ultimately, globalization imply the removal of some restrictions, the harmonization of certain regulations which would favor the development of trade exchanges, the expansion of multilateral cooperation, the transfer of technologies, the improvement and accessibility of the international financial-monetary system. As each element of the economic system, accountancy has to undergo changes and adjustments to the new trend of globalization, namely harmonization and integration, try to firstly adjust to local changes generated by the accession and adjustment of Romania to the EU and to international changes.

  9. Can the financialized atmosphere be effectively regulated? A critical analysis of the proposed Australian carbon pollution reduction scheme as a complex market solution to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windsor, C. [Bond Univ. (Australia); McNicholas, P. [Monash Univ. (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    A large body of scientific evidence indicates that global warming from human induced greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is producing harmful climate change that will lead to global environmental and economic catastrophe within 10 years. The threat of human induced global warming has been on the international and public policy agenda for several years; for example on 11 December 1998, government representatives of 108 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) an international agreement to reduce global warming or the Kyoto Protocol, with the then exception of the Australian and the United States (U.S.) governments. International action on GHG emissions reduction was thwarted by U.S. and Australian goverments. The then Australian government (1996-2007) surreptitiously funding by vested interests such as the coal industry, had no intention to act even though scientific evidence reported that Australia had begun to experience the detrimental effects of global warming. To fulfil an electoral promise, the center left Labor government signed the Kyoto Protocol on 3 December 2007. To deal with the global warming crisis, the Australian government has proposed an emissions trading scheme now officially called the 'Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme' or CPRS. The proposed scheme is a cap and trade market mechanism that purportedly encourages businesses to operate more efficiently, thus reducing GHG emissions through price signalling in a government instigated market. Hence credible, transparent and efficient information underpins such a market in a post-Keynes deregulated world. The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the integrity of using current financial and reporting regulation that will oversee and monitor the veracity of newly commoditized carbon financial products, particularly since the global financial crisis has exposed significant financial regulatory weaknesses. Further we contend that current corporate

  10. The acylation and phosphorylation pattern of lipid A from Xanthomonas Campestris strongly influence its ability to trigger the innate immune response in arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Garozzo, Domenico;

    2008-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are major components of the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria. LPSs comprise a hydrophilic heteropolysaccharide (formed by the core oligosaccharide and the O-specific polysaccharide) that is covalently linked to the glycolipid moiety lipid A, which anchors these...... Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) can elicit defense responses in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we have extended these studies by analysis of the structure and biological activity of LPS from a nonpathogenic Xcc mutant, strain 8530. We show that this Xcc strain is defective in core...... in Arabidopsis, or to prevent the hypersensitive response (HR) that is caused by avirulent bacteria as the lipid A from the wild-type could. This suggests that Xcc has the capacity to modify the structure of the lipid A to reduce its activity as a PAMP. We speculate that such effects might occur in...

  11. Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, M. B.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; O' Malley, K.; Ruiz, A.

    2012-09-01

    Automobile manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Asia project a 2015 release of commercial hydrogen fuel cell powered light-duty road vehicles. These vehicles will be for general consumer applications, albeit initially in select markets but with much broader market penetration expected by 2025. To assure international harmony, North American, European, and Asian regulatory representatives are striving to base respective national regulations on an international safety standard, the Global Technical Regulation (GTR), Hydrogen Fueled Vehicle, which is part of an international agreement pertaining to wheeled vehicles and equipment for wheeled vehicles.

  12. Origins and Evolution of Brassica campestris L.in China%白菜型油菜在中国的起源与进化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何余堂; 陈宝元; 傅廷栋; 李殿荣; 涂金星

    2003-01-01

    以云南长角(甘蓝型油菜,B.napus)、青海牛尾梢(芥菜型油菜,B.juncea)、汕头芥蓝(B.alboglabra)和黑芥(B.nigra cy giebra)为参照品种,对不同地理来源的82份白菜型油菜(B.campestris L.)资源进行了形态学鉴定和RAPD分子标记分析.利用分子进化遗传分析软件(MEGA)构建白菜型油菜的系统发育树,以揭示白菜型油菜在我国的起源与进化.分析表明:北方小油菜(B.campestris var.oleifera)的起源早于南方油白菜(B.chinensis var.oleifera);冬油菜(Winter type B.campestris var.oleifera)的起源早于春油菜(Spring type B.campestris var.oleifera);关中蔓菁是起源较早的北方小油菜.陕西可能是北方小油菜的起源地,后来逐渐分化出广泛种植于甘肃、青海等地的春油菜;南方油白菜可能起源于云南、贵州、四川、湖北等地.形态性状与分子标记相结合,可用于研究白菜型油菜的起源与进化.

  13. Interaction of the phage-xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dowson at the eletronic microscopy level, Virazole effect and radioautographic study of the phage action on the host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bacteriophage from the cabbage tissue infected with Xanthomonas campestris is described. The infection process is studied through a negative staining technique (PTA) and ultrathin section. The effect of Virazole, an antivirus agent, is tested. Radioautography showed that the phage presented a reasonable domain on the bacterial host genome since the beginning of the treatment. Sorological reactions indicated the induction of specific antibodies for the phage. (M.A.C.)

  14. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, bio-control agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern recognition receptor ...

  15. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino) and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Cheng-Zhen; Li Ying; Zhang Shu-Ning; Zheng Jin-Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36) were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary) were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid pl...

  16. Mergers during the first and second phase of globalization: Success, insider trading, and the role of regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    The merger wave that took place during the first phase of globalization, which lasted from 1895 to 1914, changed the industrial structure in Europe and the U.S. remarkably. Therefore, it is of great importance to assess whether mergers were successful during this period. Noteworthy, studies that evaluate the success of mergers during the first phase of globalization are still lacking for Germany. One may argue that this statement is false and could refer to Huerkamp (1979). However, he define...

  17. Global regulation of virulence and the stress response by CsrA in the highly adapted human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, F.M.; Loughlin, M.F.; Fainberg, H.P.;

    2004-01-01

    Although successful and persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa depends on the ability to respond to changing environmental conditions and co-ordinate the expression of virulence factors during the course of infection, Helicobacter pylori possesses relatively few transcriptional regulators....... We therefore investigated the contribution of the regulatory protein CsrA to global gene regulation in this important human pathogen. CsrA was necessary for full motility and survival of H. pylori under conditions of oxidative stress. Loss of csrA expression deregulated the oxidant...... NapA protein was produced in the mutant strain. Finally, H. pylori strains deficient in the production of CsrA were significantly attenuated for virulence in a mouse model of infection. This work provides evidence that CsrA has a broad role in regulating the physiology of H. pylori in response to...

  18. Effect of Scarification, Self-Inhibition, and Sowing Depth on Seed Germination of Lupinus campestris Efecto de la Escarificación, Autoinhibición y Profundidad de Siembra sobre la Germinación de Semillas de Lupinus campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutiérrez Nava

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. grows in shallow fields and disturbed areas of Central Mexico. It has potential to improve soil fertility and as fodder. Seeds of L. campestris show dormancy, and the technology needed to increase its potential use requires information about conditions favouring seed germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed germination responseof L. campestris under controlled (laboratory and natural field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, 2 yr old seeds had a maximum germination percentage (50% when they were scarified with sulphuric acid for 90 min prior to sowing and when laboratory light (0.5 µmol m-2 s-1 was maintained during the diurnal period. Without scarification, only about 3% of the seeds germinated. Light in laboratory resulted in an increased seed germination as compared to darkness condition. In the field experiment 1 yr old seeds were used testing the following treatments: (a seed scarification (seeds scarified by 30 min immersion in sulphuric acid vs. not scarified, (b presence or absence of plants of L. campestris in plots before field experiments, and (c sowing depth (on soil surface and at 3 cm deep. The scarified seeds showed a germination percentage range between 50 and 64%, whereas non-scarified seeds had 9 to 16% germination. The seeds sowed in plots with or without plants of L. campestris (before the experiment germinated similarly, indicating no evidence of self-inhibition of germination. Three conclusions come out: (1 Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid effectively breaks dormancy in L. campestris seeds; (2 Direct sowing of scarified seeds (on the soil surface or at 3 cm depth resulted in a range of 50-64% of germination under field conditions; and (3 no evidence was obtained for self-inhibition or a positive interaction between preceding vegetation and seed germination of L. campestris.Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. crece en campos en descanso y

  19. Global phosphoproteomic analysis of human skeletal muscle reveals a network of exercise-regulated kinases and AMPK substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffman, Nolan J; Parker, Benjamin L; Chaudhuri, Rima;

    2015-01-01

    importance of AMPK in exercise-regulated metabolism, we performed a targeted in vitro AMPK screen and employed machine learning to predict exercise-regulated AMPK substrates. We validated eight predicted AMPK substrates, including AKAP1, using targeted phosphoproteomics. Functional characterization revealed...

  20. A Csr-type regulatory system, including small non-coding RNAs, regulates the global virulence regulator RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis through RovM.

    OpenAIRE

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Böhme, Katja; Rohde, Manfred; Dersch, Petra

    2008-01-01

    The MarR-type regulator RovA controls expression of virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in response to environmental signals. Using a genetic strategy to discover components that influence rovA expression, we identified new regulatory factors with homology to components of the carbon storage regulator system (Csr). We showed that overexpression of a CsrB- or a CsrC-type RNA activates rovA, whereas a CsrA-like protein represses RovA synthesis. We further demonstrate that influence o...

  1. A Csr-type regulatory system, including small non-coding RNAs, regulates the global virulence regulator RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis through RovM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Böhme, Katja; Rohde, Manfred; Dersch, Petra

    2008-06-01

    The MarR-type regulator RovA controls expression of virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in response to environmental signals. Using a genetic strategy to discover components that influence rovA expression, we identified new regulatory factors with homology to components of the carbon storage regulator system (Csr). We showed that overexpression of a CsrB- or a CsrC-type RNA activates rovA, whereas a CsrA-like protein represses RovA synthesis. We further demonstrate that influence of the Csr system on rovA is indirect and occurs through control of the LysR regulator RovM, which inhibits rovA transcription. The CsrA protein had also a major influence on the motility of Yersinia, which was independent of RovM. The CsrB and CsrC RNAs are differentially expressed in Yersinia. CsrC is highly induced in complex but not in minimal media, indicating that medium-dependent rovM expression is mediated through CsrC. CsrB synthesis is generally very low. However, overexpression of the response regulator UvrY was found to activate CsrB production, which in turn represses CsrC synthesis independent of the growth medium. In summary, the post-transcriptional Csr-type components were shown to be key regulators in the co-ordinated environmental control of physiological processes and virulence factors, which are crucial for the initiation of Yersinia infections. PMID:18430141

  2. Relative degree of susceptibility and resistance of different brassica campestris l. genotypes against aphid myzus persicae- a field investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field evaluation of twenty three Brassica campestris L. genotypes was conducted for aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance during 2008 crop season. The parameters used to assess tolerance of germplasm lines included pest population during growth season and grain yield at crop maturity. Aphids showed obvious preferences for all of the germplasm investigated; however, the evaluation for resistance to pest identified several genotypes with variable potential for tolerance and sensitivity. Estimated grain yield also varied significantly due to variable pest intensity noted, and seemed to be more appropriately dependent on the pest population conditions at the experimental site. Among the germplasm, the estimation obtained regarding both the parameters sorted out MM-II/02-3 and MM-I285 genotypes as most tolerant due to less pest infestation and damage. Peak infestations by aphid caused severe crop fatalities on S-9-S-97-0.75+75/55 and S-9-1006/95 genotypes, affecting the seed weight and resulting an immense reduction in grain Brassica genotypes appeared to be governed by means of varietals characteristics of diverse germplasms. The result of resistance test conducted under field environment is an effective and consistent approach in the practical selection of crop lines resistant or partially resistant to pests for use in future breeding programs. (author)

  3. Effects of low temperature on the sugar and ascorbic acid contents of komatsuna (Brassica campestris L.) under limited solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of low temperature on the sugar and ascorbic acid contents of Komatsuna (Brassica campestris L.) plants grown under limited solar radiation in the greenhouse were evaluated. Komatsuna plants were grown in a greenhouse in which the mean air temperature was maintained between 13 degree C and 15 degree C (defined as the 'cool temperature' condition). The solar radiation in the greenhouse fluctuated between 2 and 4 MJ/m2. day-l during the experiment. When Komatsuna plants grew to about 20 cm height, they were transferred to a greenhouse in which the mean air temperature fluctuated between 2 degree C and 3 degree C (defined as the 'cold temperature' or 'cold treatment'). The total sugar contents in leaf blades and in petioles of Komatsuna plants increased rapidly as a function of the cold treatment. The total ascorbic acid content in the leaf blades increased rapidly after the initiation of cold treatment, whereas that content in the petioles increased gradually. On the other hand, the composition of the leaf blades and petioles in the Komatsuna plants did not change when grown continuously in the cool plot. The data show that cold treatment promoted the per unit area production of the total sugar and total ascorbic acid. These results indicate that cold treatment could improve the nutritional qualities of Komatsuna plants, even under limited solar radiation in winter,

  4. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  5. The effect of hydrodynamic stress on the growth of Xanthomonas campestris cultures in a stirred and sparged tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ochoa, F; Gomez, E; Alcon, A; Santos, V E

    2013-07-01

    The specific growth and the xanthan production rates by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris under different shear levels in shake flasks and in a stirred and sparged tank bioreactor have been studied. The shake flask has been used as a reference for studying the shear effects. An effectiveness factor expressed by the ratio of the observed growth rate and the growth rate without oxygen limitation or cell damage was calculated in both modes of cultures. It was observed that the effectiveness factor was strongly dependent on the operational conditions. A strong oxygen transfer limitation at low stirring rates, indicated by a 54 % decrease in the effectiveness factor was observed. In contrast, at higher stirrer speed, cell damage was caused by hydrodynamic stress in the turbulent bulk of the broth, yielding again a decrease in the effectiveness factor values for stirrer speeds higher than 500 rpm. Cell morphological changes were also observed depending on the agitation conditions, differences in morphology being evident at high shear stress. PMID:23010723

  6. Overexpression of a eukaryotic glutathione reductase gene from Brassica campestris improved resistance to oxidative stress in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutathione reductase (GR) plays an essential role in a cell's defense against reactive oxygen metabolites by sustaining the reduced status of an important antioxidant glutathione. We constructed a recombinant plasmid based on the expression vector pET-18a that overexpresses a eukaryotic GR from Brassica campestris (BcGR) in Escherichia coli. For comparative analyses, E. coli GR (EcGR) was also subcloned in the same manner. The transformed E. coli with the recombinant constructs accumulated a high level of GR transcripts upon IPTG induction. Also, Western blot analysis showed overproduction of the BcGR protein in a soluble fraction of the transformed E. coli extract. When treated with oxidative stress generating reagents such as paraquat, salicylic acid, and cadmium, the BcGR overproducing E. coli exhibited a higher level of growth and survival rate than the control E. coli strain, but it was not as high as the E. coli strain transformed with the inducible EcGR. The translated amino acid sequences of BcGR and EcGR share 37.3% identity but all the functionally known important residues are conserved. It appears that eukaryotic BcGR functions in a prokaryotic system by providing protection against oxidative damages in E. coli

  7. Genetic Damage Induced by a Food Coloring Dye (Sunset Yellow on Meristematic Cells of Brassica campestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshama Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed the present piece of work to evaluate the effect of synthetic food coloring azo dye (sunset yellow on actively dividing root tip cells of Brassica campestris L. Three doses of azo dye were administered for the treatment of actively dividing root tip cells, namely, 1%, 3%, and 5%, for 6-hour duration along with control. Mitotic analysis clearly revealed the azo dye induced endpoint deviation like reduction in the frequency of normal divisions in a dose dependent manner. Mitotic divisions in the control sets were found to be perfectly normal while dose based reduction in MI was registered in the treated sets. Azo dye has induced several chromosomal aberrations (genotoxic effect at various stages of cell cycle such as stickiness of chromosomes, micronuclei formation, precocious migration of chromosome, unorientation, forward movement of chromosome, laggards, and chromatin bridge. Among all, stickiness of chromosomes was present in the highest frequency followed by partial genome elimination as micronuclei. The present study suggests that extensive use of synthetic dye should be forbidden due to genotoxic and cytotoxic impacts on living cells. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess potential hazardous effects of these dyes on other test systems like human and nonhuman biota for better scrutiny.

  8. Studies on the physiological changes in the rice plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. of oryzae, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The translocation and accumulation of 14C-photosynthetic assimilates in rice plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae were investigated. Approximately the same quantities of assimilates were detected in healthy and infected leaves 1 day after photosynthesis, but 1.7 times as much as healthy leaves assimilates were still remained in infected leaves 7 days after photosynthesis. Much more 14C-photosynthetic assimilates were generally detected in leaf blade than in leaf sheath or in root within 1 day after photosynthesis, but detected in leaf sheath than in leaf blade later than 2 days after photosynthesis. The rates of translocation of 14C-assimilates from leaf blade to leaf sheath were lower in inoculated rice plants than in healthy ones. In both healthy and inoculated leaves of susceptible and resistant cultivars, there was a tendency that 14C-sugar contents decreased, but 14C-organic acid and -amino acid contents increased gradually after photosynthesis. Incorporation of 14C-photosynthetic assimilates into invading bacterial cells which were separated from leaf tissues by the methods of leakage and Millipore filtration was not detected immediately after photosynthesis, but became apparent 5 days after photosynthesis. The leakage of 14C-photosynthetic assimilates from leaf tissues into bathing solution was about 4 times higher in infected leaves than in healthy ones 5 days after photosynthesis, suggesting that the permeability in infected leaf tissues would increase. (author)

  9. SENP3 regulates the global protein turnover and the Sp1 level via antagonizing SUMO2/3-targeted ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Sang, Jing; Ren, Yanhua; Liu, Kejia; Liu, Xinyi; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Haolu; Wang, Jian; Orian, Amir; Yang, Jie; Yi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    SUMOylation is recently found to function as a targeting signal for the degradation of substrates through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. RNF4 is the most studied human SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase. However, the relationship between SUMO proteases, SENPs, and RNF4 remains obscure. There are limited examples of the SENP regulation of SUMO2/3-targeted proteolysis mediated by RNF4. The present study investigated the role of SENP3 in the global protein turnover related to SUMO2/3-targeted ubiquitination and focused in particular on the SENP3 regulation of the stability of Sp1. Our data demonstrated that SENP3 impaired the global ubiquitination profile and promoted the accumulation of many proteins. Sp1, a cancer-associated transcription factor, was among these proteins. SENP3 increased the level of Sp1 protein via antagonizing the SUMO2/3-targeted ubiquitination and the consequent proteasome-dependent degradation that was mediated by RNF4. De-conjugation of SUMO2/3 by SENP3 attenuated the interaction of Sp1 with RNF4. In gastric cancer cell lines and specimens derived from patients and nude mice, the level of Sp1 was generally increased in parallel to the level of SENP3. These results provided a new explanation for the enrichment of the Sp1 protein in various cancers, and revealed a regulation of SUMO2/3 conjugated proteins whose levels may be tightly controlled by SENP3 and RNF4. PMID:26511642

  10. Phosphorylation Events in the Multiple Gene Regulator of Group A Streptococcus Significantly Influence Global Gene Expression and Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanson, Misu; Makthal, Nishanth; Gavagan, Maire; Cantu, Concepcion; Olsen, Randall J.; Musser, James M.; Kumaraswami, Muthiah

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing analysis of ∼800 strains of group A Streptococcus (GAS) found that the gene encoding the multiple virulence gene regulator of GAS (mga) is highly polymorphic in serotype M59 strains but not in strains of other serotypes. To help understand the molecular mechanism of gene regulation by Mga and its contribution to GAS pathogenesis in serotype M59 GAS, we constructed an isogenic mga mutant strain. Transcriptome studies indicated a significant regulatory influence of Mga a...

  11. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula;

    2009-01-01

    levels in wild type, Deltasnf1, Deltasnf4, and Deltasnf1Deltasnf4 knockout strains. Using four newly developed computational tools, including novel DOGMA sub-network analysis, we showed the benefits of three-level ome-data integration to uncover the global Snf1 kinase role in yeast. We for the first time...

  12. Proteomic Analysis of a Global Regulator GacS Sensor Kinase in the Rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Hong; Kim, Yong Hwan; Anderson, Anne J; Kim, Young Cheol

    2014-06-01

    The GacS/GacA system in the root colonizer Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 is a key regulator of many traits relevant to the biocontrol function of this bacterium. Proteomic analysis revealed 12 proteins were down-regulated in a gacS mutant of P. chlororaphis O6. These GacS-regulated proteins functioned in combating oxidative stress, cell signaling, biosynthesis of secondary metabolism, and secretion. The extent of regulation was shown by real-time RT-PCR to vary between the genes. Mutants of P. chlororaphis O6 were generated in two GacS-regulated genes, trpE, encoding a protein involved in tryptophan synthesis, and prnA, required for conversion of tryptophan to the antimicrobial compound, pyrrolitrin. Failure of the trpE mutant to induce systemic resistance in tobacco against a foliar pathogen causing soft rot, Pectobacterium carotovorum SCCI, correlated with reduced colonization of root surfaces implying an inadequate supply of tryptophan to support growth. Although colonization was not affected by mutation in the prnA gene, induction of systemic resistance was reduced, suggesting that pyrrolnitrin was an activator of plant resistance as well as an antifungal agent. Study of mutants in the other GacS-regulated proteins will indicate further the features required for biocontrol-activity in this rhizobacterium. PMID:25289007

  13. Limited functional conservation of a global regulator among related bacterial genera: Lrp in Escherichia, Proteus and Vibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Vaz Betsy M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial genome sequences are being determined rapidly, but few species are physiologically well characterized. Predicting regulation from genome sequences usually involves extrapolation from better-studied bacteria, using the hypothesis that a conserved regulator, conserved target gene, and predicted regulator-binding site in the target promoter imply conserved regulation between the two species. However many compared organisms are ecologically and physiologically diverse, and the limits of extrapolation have not been well tested. In E. coli K-12 the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp affects expression of ~400 genes. Proteus mirabilis and Vibrio cholerae have highly-conserved lrp orthologs (98% and 92% identity to E. coli lrp. The functional equivalence of Lrp from these related species was assessed. Results Heterologous Lrp regulated gltB, livK and lrp transcriptional fusions in an E. coli background in the same general way as the native Lrp, though with significant differences in extent. Microarray analysis of these strains revealed that the heterologous Lrp proteins significantly influence only about half of the genes affected by native Lrp. In P. mirabilis, heterologous Lrp restored swarming, though with some pattern differences. P. mirabilis produced substantially more Lrp than E. coli or V. cholerae under some conditions. Lrp regulation of target gene orthologs differed among the three native hosts. Strikingly, while Lrp negatively regulates its own gene in E. coli, and was shown to do so even more strongly in P. mirabilis, Lrp appears to activate its own gene in V. cholerae. Conclusion The overall similarity of regulatory effects of the Lrp orthologs supports the use of extrapolation between related strains for general purposes. However this study also revealed intrinsic differences even between orthologous regulators sharing >90% overall identity, and 100% identity for the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif

  14. The Global Response Regulator ExpA Controls Virulence Gene Expression through RsmA-Mediated and RsmA-Independent Pathways in Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    OpenAIRE

    Broberg, M.; G. W. Lee; Nykyri, J.; Lee, Y. H.; Pirhonen, M.; Palva, E. T.

    2014-01-01

    ExpA (GacA) is a global response regulator that controls the expression of major virulence genes, such as those encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) in the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193. Several studies with pectobacteria as well as related phytopathogenic gammaproteobacteria, such as Dickeya and Pseudomonas, suggest that the control of virulence by ExpA and its homologues is executed partly by modulating the activity of RsmA, an RNA-binding postt...

  15. Use of a Two-Color Genetic Screen To Identify a Domain of the Global Regulator Lrp That Is Specifically Required for pap Phase Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenbach, Linda; Braaten, Bruce; Tucker, Julie; Krabbe, Margareta; Low, David

    1998-01-01

    The global regulator Lrp plays a central role as both a repressor and an activator in Pap phase variation. Unlike most other members of the Lrp regulon such as ilvIH, activation of papBA transcription requires the coregulator PapI and is methylation dependent. We developed a two-color genetic screen to identify Lrp mutations that inhibit Pap phase variation but still activate ilvIH transcription, reasoning that such mutations might identify PapI binding or methylation-responsive domains. Amin...

  16. Transcriptome meta-analysis reveals common differential and global gene expression profiles in cystic fibrosis and other respiratory disorders and identifies CFTR regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Luka A; Botelho, Hugo M; Sousa, Lisete; Falcao, Andre O; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-11-01

    A meta-analysis of 13 independent microarray data sets was performed and gene expression profiles from cystic fibrosis (CF), similar disorders (COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IPF: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, asthma), environmental conditions (smoking, epithelial injury), related cellular processes (epithelial differentiation/regeneration), and non-respiratory "control" conditions (schizophrenia, dieting), were compared. Similarity among differentially expressed (DE) gene lists was assessed using a permutation test, and a clustergram was constructed, identifying common gene markers. Global gene expression values were standardized using a novel approach, revealing that similarities between independent data sets run deeper than shared DE genes. Correlation of gene expression values identified putative gene regulators of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, of potential therapeutic significance. Our study provides a novel perspective on CF epithelial gene expression in the context of other lung disorders and conditions, and highlights the contribution of differentiation/EMT and injury to gene signatures of respiratory disease. PMID:26225835

  17. The 'constructive regulation' of phosphates and phosphogypsum : a new, evidence-based approach to regulating a NORM industry vital to the global community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IAEA has included phosphate production among twelve NORM industries identified for scrutiny and possible regulation. 'Wet' production results in 1) phosphoric acid, as phosphate essential for world-wide food production; and 2) phosphogypsum (PG), which in some countries is used in both agriculture and construction. Phosphate deposits contain 238U and 232Th and their decay products; some have sufficient U content for commercial recovery. This puts the industry within the scope of the IAEA Fundamental Safety Principles, and of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS). Phosphogypsum is a test case for defining and managing NORM industry residues and wastes as typical activity concentrations are extremely low but worldwide stockpiles amount to billions of tonnes. In some jurisdictions, phosphogypsum is regulated as a hazardous, radioactive waste rather than as a resource - with costly results. The phosphate industry is undergoing its most profound change since World War II, led by surging demand from Brazil, Russia, India and China, Established production centres, such as Morocco, are increasing capacity; major new facilities are being built, such as Ma'aden, Saudi Arabia. In consequence, many local jurisdictions face unfamiliar challenges and seek guidance on how to proceed. New research both on phosphate and phosphogypsum has significantly changed our understanding of the domain. A five year study of phosphogypsum use in Huelva, Spain, presents a model of a coherent, evidence-based approach, grounded in sound policy, good science and best practices. The 'constructive regulation' approach builds directly on evidence and lessons learned from a long, continuous tradition of PG use in Spain, Brazil and the United States. It draws on the results of the Stack Free by '53? project to modify John Nash's cooperative game and bargaining theory as a basis for defining a new sustainable point of equilibrium in which phosphogypsum production and consumption are

  18. The 'constructive regulation' of phosphates and phosphogypsum. A new, evidence-based approach to regulating a NORM industry vital to the global community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA has included phosphate production among twelve NORM industries identified for scrutiny and possible regulation. 'Wet' production results in 1. phosphoric acid, as phosphate essential for world-wide food production; and 2. phosphogypsum (PG), which in some countries is used in both agriculture and construction. Phosphate deposits contain 238U and 232Th and their decay products; some have sufficient U content for commercial recovery. This puts the industry within the scope of the IAEA Fundamental Safety Principles, and of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS). Phosphogypsum is a test case for defining and managing NORM industry residues and wastes as typical activity concentrations are extremely low but worldwide stockpiles amount to billions of tonnes. In some jurisdictions, phosphogypsum is regulated as a hazardous, radioactive waste rather than as a resource - with costly results. The phosphate industry is undergoing its most profound change since World War II, led by surging demand from Brazil, Russia, India and China, Established production centres, such as Morocco, are increasing capacity; major new facilities are being built, such as Ma'aden, Saudi Arabia. In consequence, many local jurisdictions face unfamiliar challenges and seek guidance on how to proceed. New research both on phosphate and phosphogypsum has significantly changed our understanding of the domain. A five year study of phosphogypsum use in Huelva, Spain, presents a model of a coherent, evidence-based approach, grounded in sound policy, good science and best practices. The 'constructive regulation' approach builds directly on evidence and lessons learned from a long, continuous tradition of PG use in Spain, Brazil and the United States. It draws on the results of the Stack Free by '53? project to modify John Nash's cooperative game and bargaining theory as a basis for defining a new sustainable point of equilibrium in which phosphogypsum production and consumption are in balance

  19. Global genomic profiling reveals an extensive p53-regulated autophagy program contributing to key p53 responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kenzelmann Broz, Daniela; Spano Mello, Stephano; Bieging, Kathryn T.; Jiang, Dadi; Rachel L Dusek; Brady, Colleen A.; Sidow, Arend; Attardi, Laura D.

    2013-01-01

    To gain new insights into p53 biology, Kenzelmann Broz et al. used high-throughput sequencing to analyze global p53 transcriptional networks in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts in response to DNA damage. This approach identified autophagy genes as direct p53 target genes. p53-induced autophagy was important for both p53-dependent apoptosis and transformation suppression by p53. These data highlight an intimate connection between p53 and autophagy and suggest that autophagy contributes to p53-...

  20. Beyond capital controls: the regulation of foreign currency derivatives markets in South Korea and Brazil after the global financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Fritz; Daniela Prates

    2013-01-01

    Besides the management of capital flows, some emerging economies have been facing policy dilemmas related to foreign (nonresident) and domestic (residents) operations of Foreign Currency (FX) derivatives in the post-global crisis setting. In a context of abundant liquidity and historical low interest rates in the advanced economies, searching for yield foreign investors as well as domestic agents generally obtain huge profits, through these markets, from the interest rate differentials betwee...

  1. Crystal Structures of the Reduced, Sulfenic Acid, and Mixed Disulfide Forms of SarZ, a Redox Active Global Regulator in Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poor, Catherine B.; Chen, Peng R.; Duguid, Erica; Rice, Phoebe A.; He, Chuan; (UC)

    2010-01-20

    SarZ is a global transcriptional regulator that uses a single cysteine residue, Cys{sup 13}, to sense peroxide stress and control metabolic switching and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. SarZ belongs to the single-cysteine class of OhrR-MgrA proteins that play key roles in oxidative resistance and virulence regulation in various bacteria. We present the crystal structures of the reduced form, sulfenic acid form, and mixed disulfide form of SarZ. Both the sulfenic acid and mixed disulfide forms are structurally characterized for the first time for this class of proteins. The Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid modification is stabilized through two hydrogen bonds with surrounding residues, and the overall DNA-binding conformation is retained. A further reaction of the Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid with an external thiol leads to formation of a mixed disulfide bond, which results in an allosteric change in the DNA-binding domains, disrupting DNA binding. Thus, the crystal structures of SarZ in three different states provide molecular level pictures delineating the mechanism by which this class of redox active regulators undergoes activation. These structures help to understand redox-mediated virulence regulation in S. aureus and activation of the MarR family proteins in general.

  2. Global climate regulation and border adjustment mechanisms: the case of carbon importers inclusion in the european trading scheme; Regulation climatique globale: quels mecanismes d'inclusion des importateurs de carbone en Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The creation of an inclusion mechanism applied to imports whose production process increases significantly the global climate risk is looked upon as a solution to a collective-action problem. Such a mechanism would provide those States that will sign the next United Nations Convention on Climate Change with a potential remedy if and when gaps between quantified objects, to which all are committed, entail significant competition distortions. Whether this mechanism assumes the form of an external carbon tax or consists in including importers in the European system of CO{sub 2} quota exchanges, it would surely respond to the re-distributive need generated by global warming, provided that the proceeds are used to help bring industrial production in developing countries up to standard. These restrictive measures aimed at preserving the planet are probably compatible with the extraordinary regimes applied by the WTO, which already uses exogenous non-trade norms to arbitrate conflicts. This would validate further the legitimacy of authority transfers onto the WTO, whose scope of legal authority increases constantly, along with that of conflicts that stem from collective preferences. (author)

  3. 双孢蘑菇和蘑菇的ITS-RFLP分析%Studies on Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris Using ITS-RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 刘勇; 赵小青; 王一; 王泽生

    2012-01-01

    对采自四川和西藏的双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)和蘑菇(A.campestris)9个野生菌株,以及双孢蘑菇5个栽培菌株为材抖,进行了ITS-RFLP分析.结果表明,ITS-PCR条带约为750 bp,5种限制性内切酶(MspⅠ、HinfⅠ、HaeⅡ、AulⅠ、TaqⅠ)的ITS-RFLP分析结果为,只有4种限制性内切酶(HinfⅠ、HaeⅡ、AulⅠ、TaqⅠ)产生多态性条带,但完全能将双孢蘑菇和蘑菇区分的限制性内切酶为TaqⅠ;对5种限制性内切酶的ITS-RFLP分析数据进行聚类结果为,在相似系数为0.615水平以下分为2个类群,并将双孢蘑菇和蘑菇区分开;在相似系数为0.915水平上,供试的11个野生和栽培双孢蘑菇菌株分为3个亚类群.%14 Agaricus strains, including 9 wild strains of Agaricus bisporus or Agaricus campestris and 4 cultivation strains of Agaricus bisporus , were studied by using ITS-RFLP. The results showed that a band with 750 bp from the strains was respectively amplified by the primer combination of ITS4 and ITS5 , and polymorphic bands were obtained after digestive treatments with restriction enzymes of Hinf Ⅰ , Hae Ⅱ , Aul Ⅰ , Taq Ⅰ , but no polymorphic bands produced with Msp Ⅰ, and Agaricus bisporus strains could be distinguished from Agaricus campestris strains only using Taq Ⅰ . The cluster results indicated that strains of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris could be distinguished and divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of O.615, and the strains of Agaricus bisporus were divided into three subgroups at similarity coefficient of 0.915.

  4. Multiplex PCR for specific and robust detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum in pure culture and infected plant material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves;

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed a pathovar-specific PCR for the detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), the cause of banana xanthomonas wilt, by amplification of a 265-bp region of the gene encoding the general secretion pathway protein D (GspD). A distinct DNA fragment of the...... subsequently demonstrated in tests on artificially inoculated screenhouse cultivars of banana and field bananas with and without symptoms sampled from different parts of Uganda. This study therefore demonstrated a robust and specific Xcm diagnostic tool with the added advantage of applying internal PCR...

  5. Effects of Different Cadmium Levels on Active Oxygen Metabolism and H2O2-Scavenging System in Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guang-wen; ZHU Zhu-jun; FANG Xue-zhi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different Cd (Cadmium) levels on generation of active oxygen speceies(AOS) and H2O2-scavenging system in the leaves of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensiswere studied. The results showed that O2 generation rate, and H2O2 content were enhancedand malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased with the increase of Cd concentrations inthe growth medium. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbatereductase (DR) and glutathione reductase (GR) were promoted by the addition of Cd.Exposed to Cd also increased the contents of ascorbate (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) in theleaves.

  6. Role of nitrification inhibitor DMPP( 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) in NO3--N accumulation in greengrocery( Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis )and vegetable soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chao; WU Liang-huan; JU Xiao-tang; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2005-01-01

    The influence of nitrification inhibitor(NI) 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on nitrate accumulation in greengrocery( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) and vegetable soil at surface layer were investigated in field experiments in 2002 and 2003.Results showed that NI DMPP took no significant effect on yields of edible parts of greengrocery, but it could significantly decrease NO3- -N concentration in greengrccery and in vegetable soil at surface layer. In addition, NI DMPP could reduce the NO3--N concentration during the prophase stage of storage.

  7. Quantification des contraintes nutritionnelles et métaboliques associées à la production de gomme xanthane par Xanthomonas campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Létisse, Fabien

    2000-01-01

    La production industrielle de gomme xanthane, polysaccharide présentant des caractéristiques rhéologiques exceptionnelles, est réalisée en cultures discontinues aérobies de Xanthomonas campestris, Le travail présenté dans cette thèse évalue l'influence des paramètres environnementaux et physiologiques sur la biosynthèse de la gomme dans le cadre d'un procédé industriel. L'analyse macro-cinétique de la production de xanthane sur saccharose montre une phase de croissance rapide s...

  8. GLOBALIZATION AND BUSINESS ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  9. An index-based framework for assessing patterns and trends in river fragmentation and flow regulation by global dams at multiple scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global number of dam constructions has increased dramatically over the past six decades and is forecast to continue to rise, particularly in less industrialized regions. Identifying development pathways that can deliver the benefits of new infrastructure while also maintaining healthy and productive river systems is a great challenge that requires understanding the multifaceted impacts of dams at a range of scales. New approaches and advanced methodologies are needed to improve predictions of how future dam construction will affect biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and fluvial geomorphology worldwide, helping to frame a global strategy to achieve sustainable dam development. Here, we respond to this need by applying a graph-based river routing model to simultaneously assess flow regulation and fragmentation by dams at multiple scales using data at high spatial resolution. We calculated the cumulative impact of a set of 6374 large existing dams and 3377 planned or proposed dams on river connectivity and river flow at basin and subbasin scales by fusing two novel indicators to create a holistic dam impact matrix for the period 1930–2030. Static network descriptors such as basin area or channel length are of limited use in hierarchically nested and dynamic river systems, so we developed the river fragmentation index and the river regulation index, which are based on river volume. These indicators are less sensitive to the effects of network configuration, offering increased comparability among studies with disparate hydrographies as well as across scales. Our results indicate that, on a global basis, 48% of river volume is moderately to severely impacted by either flow regulation, fragmentation, or both. Assuming completion of all dams planned and under construction in our future scenario, this number would nearly double to 93%, largely due to major dam construction in the Amazon Basin. We provide evidence for the importance of considering small to medium

  10. Accounting for global-mean warming and scaling uncertainties in climate change impact studies: application to a regulated lake system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A probabilistic assessment of climate change and related impacts should consider a large range of potential future climate scenarios. State-of-the-art climate models, especially coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models and Regional Climate Models (RCMs cannot, however, be used to simulate such a large number of scenarios. This paper presents a methodology for obtaining future climate scenarios through a simple scaling methodology. The projections of several key meteorological variables obtained from a few regional climate model runs are scaled, based on different global-mean warming projections drawn in a probability distribution of future global-mean warming. The resulting climate change scenarios are used to drive a hydrological and a water management model to analyse the potential climate change impacts on a water resources system. This methodology enables a joint quantification of the climate change impact uncertainty induced by the global-mean warming scenarios and the regional climate response. It is applied to a case study in Switzerland, a water resources system formed by three interconnected lakes located in the Jura Mountains. The system behaviour is simulated for a control period (1961–1990 and a future period (2070–2099. The potential climate change impacts are assessed through a set of impact indices related to different fields of interest (hydrology, agriculture and ecology. The results obtained show that future climate conditions will have a significant influence on the performance of the system and that the uncertainty induced by the inter-RCM variability will contribute to much of the uncertainty of the prediction of the total impact. These CSRs cover the area considered in the 2001–2004 EU funded project SWURVE.

  11. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type-3 Effector XopB Inhibits Plant Defence Responses by Interfering with ROS Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priller, Johannes Peter Roman; Reid, Stephen; Konein, Patrick; Dietrich, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85–10 (Xcv) translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es) into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum) to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA) and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Expression of xopB in Arabidopsis thaliana promoted the growth of the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 strain. This was paralleled by a decreased SA-pool and a lower induction of SA-dependent PR gene expression. The expression pattern of early flg22-responsive marker genes indicated that MAPK signalling was not altered in the presence of XopB. However, XopB inhibited the flg22-triggered burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, the transcript accumulation of AtOXI1, a ROS-dependent marker gene, was reduced in xopB-expressing Arabidopsis plants as well as callose deposition. The lower ROS production correlated with a low level of basal and flg22-triggered expression of apoplastic peroxidases and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD. Conversely, deletion of xopB in Xcv caused a higher production of ROS in leaves of susceptible pepper plants. Together our results demonstrate that XopB modulates ROS responses and might thereby compromise plant defence. PMID:27398933

  12. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type-3 Effector XopB Inhibits Plant Defence Responses by Interfering with ROS Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Peter Roman Priller

    Full Text Available The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10 (Xcv translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR genes. Expression of xopB in Arabidopsis thaliana promoted the growth of the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 strain. This was paralleled by a decreased SA-pool and a lower induction of SA-dependent PR gene expression. The expression pattern of early flg22-responsive marker genes indicated that MAPK signalling was not altered in the presence of XopB. However, XopB inhibited the flg22-triggered burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Consequently, the transcript accumulation of AtOXI1, a ROS-dependent marker gene, was reduced in xopB-expressing Arabidopsis plants as well as callose deposition. The lower ROS production correlated with a low level of basal and flg22-triggered expression of apoplastic peroxidases and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD. Conversely, deletion of xopB in Xcv caused a higher production of ROS in leaves of susceptible pepper plants. Together our results demonstrate that XopB modulates ROS responses and might thereby compromise plant defence.

  13. Global climate regulation and border adjustment mechanisms: the case of carbon importers inclusion in the european trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creation of an inclusion mechanism applied to imports whose production process increases significantly the global climate risk is looked upon as a solution to a collective-action problem. Such a mechanism would provide those States that will sign the next United Nations Convention on Climate Change with a potential remedy if and when gaps between quantified objects, to which all are committed, entail significant competition distortions. Whether this mechanism assumes the form of an external carbon tax or consists in including importers in the European system of CO2 quota exchanges, it would surely respond to the re-distributive need generated by global warming, provided that the proceeds are used to help bring industrial production in developing countries up to standard. These restrictive measures aimed at preserving the planet are probably compatible with the extraordinary regimes applied by the WTO, which already uses exogenous non-trade norms to arbitrate conflicts. This would validate further the legitimacy of authority transfers onto the WTO, whose scope of legal authority increases constantly, along with that of conflicts that stem from collective preferences. (author)

  14. Global regulation of photosynthesis and respiration by FnrL: the first two targets in the tetrapyrrole pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchane, Soufian; Picaud, Martine; Therizols, Pierre; Reiss-Husson, Françoise; Astier, Chantal

    2007-03-01

    Fnr is a regulator that controls the expression of a variety of genes in response to oxygen limitation in bacteria. To assess the role of Fnr in photosynthesis in Rubrivivax gelatinosus, a strain carrying a null mutation in fnrL was constructed. It was unable to grow anaerobically in the light, but, intriguingly, it was able to produce photosynthetic complexes under high oxygenation conditions. The mutant lacked all c-type cytochromes normally detectable in microaerobically-grown wild type cells and accumulated coproporphyrin III. These data suggested that the pleiotropic phenotype observed in FNR is primarily due to the control at the level of the HemN oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III dehydrogenase. hemN expression in trans partially suppressed the FNR phenotype, as it rescued heme and cytochrome syntheses. Nevertheless, these cells were photosynthetically deficient, and pigment analyses showed that they were blocked at the level of Mg(2+)-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester. Expression of both hemN and bchE in the FNR mutant restored synthesis of Mg(2+)-protochlorophyllide. We, therefore, conclude that FnrL controls respiration by regulating hemN expression and controls photosynthesis by regulating both hemN and bchE expression. A comprehensive picture of the control points of microaerobic respiration and photosynthesis by FnrL is provided, and the prominent role of this factor in activating alternative gene programs after reduction of oxygen tension in facultative aerobes is discussed. PMID:17178720

  15. Global Metabolic Regulation of the Snow Alga Chlamydomonas nivalis in Response to Nitrate or Phosphate Deprivation by a Metabolome Profile Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Chlamydomonas nivalis, a model species of snow algae, was used to illustrate the metabolic regulation mechanism of microalgae under nutrient deprivation stress. The seed culture was inoculated into the medium without nitrate or phosphate to reveal the cell responses by a metabolome profile analysis using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS. One hundred and seventy-one of the identified metabolites clustered into five groups by the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA model. Among them, thirty of the metabolites in the nitrate-deprived group and thirty-nine of the metabolites in the phosphate-deprived group were selected and identified as “responding biomarkers” by this metabolomic approach. A significant change in the abundance of biomarkers indicated that the enhanced biosynthesis of carbohydrates and fatty acids coupled with the decreased biosynthesis of amino acids, N-compounds and organic acids in all the stress groups. The up- or down-regulation of these biomarkers in the metabolic network provides new insights into the global metabolic regulation and internal relationships within amino acid and fatty acid synthesis, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA and the Calvin cycle in the snow alga under nitrate or phosphate deprivation stress.

  16. Global Metabolic Regulation of the Snow Alga Chlamydomonas nivalis in Response to Nitrate or Phosphate Deprivation by a Metabolome Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Jun-Hui; Wei, Dong; Chen, Feng; Chen, Gu

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, Chlamydomonas nivalis, a model species of snow algae, was used to illustrate the metabolic regulation mechanism of microalgae under nutrient deprivation stress. The seed culture was inoculated into the medium without nitrate or phosphate to reveal the cell responses by a metabolome profile analysis using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). One hundred and seventy-one of the identified metabolites clustered into five groups by the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model. Among them, thirty of the metabolites in the nitrate-deprived group and thirty-nine of the metabolites in the phosphate-deprived group were selected and identified as "responding biomarkers" by this metabolomic approach. A significant change in the abundance of biomarkers indicated that the enhanced biosynthesis of carbohydrates and fatty acids coupled with the decreased biosynthesis of amino acids, N-compounds and organic acids in all the stress groups. The up- or down-regulation of these biomarkers in the metabolic network provides new insights into the global metabolic regulation and internal relationships within amino acid and fatty acid synthesis, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and the Calvin cycle in the snow alga under nitrate or phosphate deprivation stress. PMID:27171077

  17. Inactivation of the global regulator LaeA in Monascus ruber results in a species-dependent response in sporulation and secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingpei; Cai, Li; Shao, Yanchun; Zhou, Youxiang; Li, Mu; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-03-01

    The nuclear regulator LaeA has been proven to globally govern fungal development and secondary metabolism, but its function may be species-dependent, even though its amino acid sequences are well conserved in numerous fungi. Herein we identified the LaeA in Monascus ruber M7 (MrLaeA), and verified its role to mediate growth, sporulation and secondary metabolism. Results showed that the radial growth rate of the selected MrlaeA knock-out mutant (MrΔlaeA-22) was significantly faster than that of the parental strain M. ruber M7, and growth was accompanied by the formation of an abnormal colony phenotype with more abundant aerial hyphae. Interestingly, conidia production of the MrΔlaeA-22 strain was about thrice that of M. ruber M7, but ascospores were not observed in the MrΔlaeA-22 strain. Additionally, compared to M. ruber M7, MrΔlaeA-22 exhibited drastically reduced production of multiple secondary metabolites, especially those of the six well-known Monascus pigments and citrinin. Simultaneously, the selected MrlaeA complementation strain (MrΔlaeA::laeA-45) nearly recovered the capacity for sporulation and secondary metabolism observed in the parental strain. These results demonstrate that MrLaeA regulates not only secondary metabolism, but also asexual and sexual differentiation in M. ruber, but some of its regulation appears to differ from other fungi. PMID:26895858

  18. Global Metabolic Regulation of the Snow Alga Chlamydomonas nivalis in Response to Nitrate or Phosphate Deprivation by a Metabolome Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Jun-Hui; Wei, Dong; Chen, Feng; Chen, Gu

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, Chlamydomonas nivalis, a model species of snow algae, was used to illustrate the metabolic regulation mechanism of microalgae under nutrient deprivation stress. The seed culture was inoculated into the medium without nitrate or phosphate to reveal the cell responses by a metabolome profile analysis using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). One hundred and seventy-one of the identified metabolites clustered into five groups by the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model. Among them, thirty of the metabolites in the nitrate-deprived group and thirty-nine of the metabolites in the phosphate-deprived group were selected and identified as “responding biomarkers” by this metabolomic approach. A significant change in the abundance of biomarkers indicated that the enhanced biosynthesis of carbohydrates and fatty acids coupled with the decreased biosynthesis of amino acids, N-compounds and organic acids in all the stress groups. The up- or down-regulation of these biomarkers in the metabolic network provides new insights into the global metabolic regulation and internal relationships within amino acid and fatty acid synthesis, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and the Calvin cycle in the snow alga under nitrate or phosphate deprivation stress. PMID:27171077

  19. Arabidopsis plastid AMOS1/EGY1 integrates abscisic acid signaling to regulate global gene expression response to ammonium stress

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2012-10-12

    Ammonium (NH4 +) is a ubiquitous intermediate of nitrogen metabolism but is notorious for its toxic effects on most organisms. Extensive studies of the underlying mechanisms of NH4 + toxicity have been reported in plants, but it is poorly understood how plants acclimate to high levels of NH4 +. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, ammonium overly sensitive1 (amos1), that displays severe chlorosis under NH4 + stress. Map-based cloning shows amos1 to carry a mutation in EGY1 (for ethylene-dependent, gravitropism-deficient, and yellow-green-like protein1), which encodes a plastid metalloprotease. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that among the genes activated in response to NH4 +, 90% are regulated dependent on AMOS1/ EGY1. Furthermore, 63% of AMOS1/EGY1-dependent NH4 +-activated genes contain an ACGTG motif in their promoter region, a core motif of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements. Consistent with this, our physiological, pharmacological, transcriptomic, and genetic data show that ABA signaling is a critical, but not the sole, downstream component of the AMOS1/EGY1-dependent pathway that regulates the expression of NH4 +-responsive genes and maintains chloroplast functionality under NH4 + stress. Importantly, abi4 mutants defective in ABA-dependent and retrograde signaling, but not ABA-deficient mutants, mimic leaf NH4 + hypersensitivity of amos1. In summary, our findings suggest that an NH4 +-responsive plastid retrograde pathway, which depends on AMOS1/EGY1 function and integrates with ABA signaling, is required for the regulation of expression of the presence of high NH4 + levels. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Valois, F-X; Pontier, Stéphanie M

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27014638

  1. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: think globally, act locally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F-X eCampbell-Valois

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA, which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed.

  2. Zwei bemerkenswerte Orobanche-Funde in Mitteldeutschland : Orobanche artemisiae-campestris Vaucher ex Gaudin am Wendelstein bei Nebra (Sachsen-Anhalt) und Orobanche bohemica Čelak. am Spaten bei Hemleben (Thüringen)

    OpenAIRE

    Pusch, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Es werden zwei bemerkenswerte Orobanche-Funde in Mitteldeutschland vorgestellt. Zum einen wird über einen Fund der in Sachsen-Anhalt seit Jahrzehnten verschollen geglaubten Panzer-Sommerwurz (Orobanche artemisiae-campestris) bei Wendelstein und zum anderen über einen weiteren Thüringer Nachweis der Böhmischen Sommerwurz (Orobanche bohemica) bei Hemleben berichtet.

  3. The global response regulator ExpA controls virulence gene expression through RsmA-mediated and RsmA-independent pathways in Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, M; Lee, G W; Nykyri, J; Lee, Y H; Pirhonen, M; Palva, E T

    2014-03-01

    ExpA (GacA) is a global response regulator that controls the expression of major virulence genes, such as those encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) in the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193. Several studies with pectobacteria as well as related phytopathogenic gammaproteobacteria, such as Dickeya and Pseudomonas, suggest that the control of virulence by ExpA and its homologues is executed partly by modulating the activity of RsmA, an RNA-binding posttranscriptional regulator. To elucidate the extent of the overlap between the ExpA and RsmA regulons in P. wasabiae, we characterized both regulons by microarray analysis. To do this, we compared the transcriptomes of the wild-type strain, an expA mutant, an rsmA mutant, and an expA rsmA double mutant. The microarray data for selected virulence-related genes were confirmed through quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR). Subsequently, assays were performed to link the observed transcriptome differences to changes in bacterial phenotypes such as growth, motility, PCWDE production, and virulence in planta. An extensive overlap between the ExpA and RsmA regulons was observed, suggesting that a substantial portion of ExpA regulation appears to be mediated through RsmA. However, a number of genes involved in the electron transport chain and oligogalacturonide metabolism, among other processes, were identified as being regulated by ExpA independently of RsmA. These results suggest that ExpA may only partially impact fitness and virulence via RsmA. PMID:24441162

  4. Reconstruction of the yeast protein-protein interaction network involved in nutrient sensing and global metabolic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Jens

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several protein-protein interaction studies have been performed for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using different high-throughput experimental techniques. All these results are collected in the BioGRID database and the SGD database provide detailed annotation of the different proteins. Despite the value of BioGRID for studying protein-protein interactions, there is a need for manual curation of these interactions in order to remove false positives. Results Here we describe an annotated reconstruction of the protein-protein interactions around four key nutrient-sensing and metabolic regulatory signal transduction pathways (STP operating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reconstructed STP network includes a full protein-protein interaction network including the key nodes Snf1, Tor1, Hog1 and Pka1. The network includes a total of 623 structural open reading frames (ORFs and 779 protein-protein interactions. A number of proteins were identified having interactions with more than one of the protein kinases. The fully reconstructed interaction network includes all the information available in separate databases for all the proteins included in the network (nodes and for all the interactions between them (edges. The annotated information is readily available utilizing the functionalities of network modelling tools such as Cytoscape and CellDesigner. Conclusions The reported fully annotated interaction model serves as a platform for integrated systems biology studies of nutrient sensing and regulation in S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, we propose this annotated reconstruction as a first step towards generation of an extensive annotated protein-protein interaction network of signal transduction and metabolic regulation in this yeast.

  5. Regulation of plasmid-encoded isoprene metabolism in Rhodococcus, a representative of an important link in the global isoprene cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Andrew T; Khawand, Myriam El; Rhodius, Virgil A; Fengler, Kevin A; Miller, Michael C; Whited, Gregg M; McGenity, Terry J; Murrell, J Colin

    2015-09-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) form an important part of the global carbon cycle, comprising a significant proportion of net ecosystem productivity. They impact atmospheric chemistry and contribute directly and indirectly to greenhouse gases. Isoprene, emitted largely from plants, comprises one third of total VOCs, yet in contrast to methane, which is released in similar quantities, we know little of its biodegradation. Here, we report the genome of an isoprene degrading isolate, Rhodococcus sp. AD45, and, using mutagenesis shows that a plasmid-encoded soluble di-iron centre isoprene monooxygenase (IsoMO) is essential for isoprene metabolism. Using RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to analyse cells exposed to isoprene or epoxyisoprene in a substrate-switch time-course experiment, we show that transcripts from 22 contiguous genes, including those encoding IsoMO, were highly upregulated, becoming among the most abundant in the cell and comprising over 25% of the entire transcriptome. Analysis of gene transcription in the wild type and an IsoMO-disrupted mutant strain showed that epoxyisoprene, or a subsequent product of isoprene metabolism, rather than isoprene itself, was the inducing molecule. We provide a foundation of molecular data for future research on the environmental biological consumption of this important, climate-active compound. PMID:25727256

  6. The DtxR protein acting as dual transcriptional regulator directs a global regulatory network involved in iron metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüser Andrea T

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge about complete bacterial genome sequences opens the way to reconstruct the qualitative topology and global connectivity of transcriptional regulatory networks. Since iron is essential for a variety of cellular processes but also poses problems in biological systems due to its high toxicity, bacteria have evolved complex transcriptional regulatory networks to achieve an effective iron homeostasis. Here, we apply a combination of transcriptomics, bioinformatics, in vitro assays, and comparative genomics to decipher the regulatory network of the iron-dependent transcriptional regulator DtxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Results A deletion of the dtxR gene of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 led to the mutant strain C. glutamicum IB2103 that was able to grow in minimal medium only under low-iron conditions. By performing genome-wide DNA microarray hybridizations, differentially expressed genes involved in iron metabolism of C. glutamicum were detected in the dtxR mutant. Bioinformatics analysis of the genome sequence identified a common 19-bp motif within the upstream region of 31 genes, whose differential expression in C. glutamicum IB2103 was verified by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Binding of a His-tagged DtxR protein to oligonucleotides containing the 19-bp motifs was demonstrated in vitro by DNA band shift assays. At least 64 genes encoding a variety of physiological functions in iron transport and utilization, in central carbohydrate metabolism and in transcriptional regulation are controlled directly by the DtxR protein. A comparison with the bioinformatically predicted networks of C. efficiens, C. diphtheriae and C. jeikeium identified evolutionary conserved elements of the DtxR network. Conclusion This work adds considerably to our currrent understanding of the transcriptional regulatory network of C. glutamicum genes that are controlled by DtxR. The DtxR protein has a major role in controlling the

  7. Improved restriction landmark cDNA scanning and its application to global analysis of genes regulated by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayumi, K; Yaoi, T; Kawai, J; Kojima, S; Watanabe, S; Suzuki, H

    1998-07-30

    Restriction landmark cDNA scanning (RLCS) is a novel method by which more than 1000 genes can be simultaneously and quantitatively displayed as two-dimensional gel spots. Here we present an adaptation that allows an individual spot to correspond to a unique gene species without redundancy in more than two gel patterns. Using this improved RLCS, we examined global changes on the gene expression of PC12 cells before and after treatment with nerve growth factor. Among a total of 3000 spots, 21 (0.70%) and 91 (3.03%) spots newly appeared and became more intense with treatment. On the other hand, 15 (0.50%) and 44 (1.47%) spots disappeared, becoming less intense with treatment. These observations suggest that approx. 6% of the detected PC12 genes are up-(3.73%) or down-(1.97%) regulated when the cells differentiate to neuronal cells. In comparison with the results obtained using the expressed-sequence-tag approach, previously reported by Lee et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92 (1995) 8303-8307), RLCS should be useful for quantitatively examining the global change of differentially expressed genes of various expression levels. PMID:9714711

  8. Output-Feedback Adaptive SP-SD-Type Control with an Extended Continuous Adaptation Algorithm for the Global Regulation of Robot Manipulators with Bounded Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela J. López-Araujo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an output‐feedback adaptive SP‐SD‐type control scheme for the global position stabilization of robot manipulators with bounded inputs is proposed. Compared with the output‐feedback adaptive approaches previously developed in a bounded‐ input context, the proposed velocity‐free feedback controller guarantees the adaptive regulation objective globally (i.e. for any initial condition, avoiding discontinuities throughout the scheme, preventing the inputs from reaching their natural saturation bounds and imposing no saturation-avoidance restrictions on the choice of the P and D control gains. Moreover, through its extended structure, the adaptation algorithm may be configured to evolve either in parallel (independently or interconnected to the velocity estimation (motion dissipation auxiliary dynamics, giving an additional degree of design flexibility. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is not restricted to the use of a specific saturation function to achieve the required boundedness, but may involve any one within a set of smooth and non‐smooth (Lipschitz‐continuous bounded passive functions that include the hyperbolic tangent and the conventional saturation as particular cases. Experimental results on a 3‐ degree‐of‐freedom manipulator corroborate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  9. Modulation of global low-frequency motions underlies allosteric regulation: demonstration in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Rodgers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Allostery is a fundamental process by which ligand binding to a protein alters its activity at a distinct site. There is growing evidence that allosteric cooperativity can be communicated by modulation of protein dynamics without conformational change. The mechanisms, however, for communicating dynamic fluctuations between sites are debated. We provide a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low-frequency dynamics without a change in structure. We have generated coarse-grained models that describe the protein backbone motions of the CRP/FNR family transcription factors, CAP of Escherichia coli and GlxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The latter we demonstrate as a new exemplar for allostery without conformation change. We observe that binding the first molecule of cAMP ligand is correlated with modulation of the global normal modes and negative cooperativity for binding the second cAMP ligand without a change in mean structure. The theory makes key experimental predictions that are tested through an analysis of variant proteins by structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. Quantifying allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein "design space" that identified the inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, through analyzing CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. This finding provides a link between the position of CRP/FNR transcription factors within the allosteric free energy landscapes and evolutionary selection pressures. Our study therefore reveals significant features of the mechanistic basis for allostery. Changes in low-frequency dynamics correlate with allosteric effects on ligand binding without the requirement for a defined spatial pathway. In addition to evolving suitable three-dimensional structures, CRP/FNR family transcription factors have

  10. Guanosine tetraphosphate as a global regulator of bacterial RNA synthesis: a model involving RNA polymerase pausing and queuing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, H; Ehrenberg, M

    1995-05-17

    A recently reported comparison of stable RNA (rRNA, tRNA) and mRNA synthesis rates in ppGpp-synthesizing and ppGpp-deficient (delta relA delta spoT) bacteria has suggested that ppGpp inhibits transcription initiation from stable RNA promoters, as well as synthesis of (bulk) mRNA. Inhibition of stable RNA synthesis occurs mainly during slow growth of bacteria when cytoplasmic levels of ppGpp are high. In contrast, inhibition of mRNA occurs mainly during fast growth when ppGpp levels are low, and it is associated with a partial inactivation of RNA polymerase. To explain these observations it has been proposed that ppGpp causes transcriptional pausing and queuing during the synthesis of mRNA. Polymerase queuing requires high rates of transcription initiation in addition to polymerase pausing, and therefore high concentrations of free RNA polymerase. These conditions are found in fast growing bacteria. Furthermore, the RNA polymerase queues lead to a promoter blocking when RNA polymerase molecules stack up from the pause site back to the (mRNA) promoter. This occurs most frequently at pause sites close to the promoter. Blocking of mRNA promoters diverts RNA polymerase to stable RNA promoters. In this manner ppGpp could indirectly stimulate synthesis of stable RNA at high growth rates. In the present work a mathematical analysis, based on the theory of queuing, is presented and applied to the global control of transcription in bacteria. This model predicts the in vivo distribution of RNA polymerase over stable RNA and mRNA genes for both ppGpp-synthesizing and ppGpp-deficient bacteria in response to different environmental conditions. It also shows how small changes in basal ppGpp concentrations can produce large changes in the rate of stable RNA synthesis. PMID:7539631

  11. Determination of Heavy Metal and Radioactivity in Agaricus campestris Mushroom Collected from Kahramanmaraş and Erzurum Proviences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenur Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, radioactivity and heavy metals accumulations in Agaricus campestris mushroom collected from Kahramanmaraş and Erzurum provinces was determined. HPGe gamma detector was used for the determination of radioactivity concentrations. Heavy metal content was measured using a ICP-MS. As radioactive element; natural (238U, 232Th 40K and artificial radionuclide (137Cs concentrations were determined. The values of the committed effective dose were calculated. Same measurements were made in soils. Absorbed dose and excess lifetime cancer risk were calculated. Amount of Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Pb206, Pb207 and Pb208 as heavy metals of mushrooms were determined. 238U, 232Th, 40K activity concentrations of mushroom collected from Erzurum was determined as 12.1 ± 0.8, 11.7 ± 0.9, 497.7 ± 17.8 Bq/kg, respectively and 137Cs was not detected by system. 232Th and 40K activity concentrations of mushroom collected from Kahramanmaraş was determined as 13.4 ± 0.5, 134.9 ± 6.3 Bq/kg, respectively, 238U and 137Cs was not detected by system similarly. The value of the committed effective dose collected from Erzurum and Kahramanmaraş were calculated as 75 and 29 μSv respectively and these values were found lower than 290 μSv accepted as world average. Absorbed dose and risk of lifetime cancer for Erzurum was determined as 37.39 nGy/h, 16.5 x 10-5; absorbed dose and excess lifetime cancer risk for Kahramanmaraş was determined as 30.92 nGy/h, 13.3 x 10-5 respectively. Amount of daily intake for each heavy metal was calculated. Radionuclide activity concentrations and accumulations of heavy metal were not founded threaten level to healthy, except from arsenic As (0.025 and 0.039 mg/kg in mushroom collected from both provinces. They were found a bit higher than upper limit (0.015 mg/kg in report which is prepared World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO jointly.

  12. Rethinking the roles of CRP, cAMP, and sugar-mediated global regulation in the Vibrionaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Deanna M; Stabb, Eric V

    2016-02-01

    Many proteobacteria modulate a suite of catabolic genes using the second messenger cyclic 3', 5'-AMP (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Together, the cAMP-CRP complex regulates target promoters, usually by activating transcription. In the canonical model, the phosphotransferase system (PTS), and in particular the EIIA(Glc) component for glucose uptake, provides a mechanistic link that modulates cAMP levels depending on glucose availability, resulting in more cAMP and activation of alternative catabolic pathways when glucose is unavailable. Within the Vibrionaceae, cAMP-CRP appears to play the classical role in modulating metabolic pathways; however, it also controls functions involved in natural competence, bioluminescence, pheromone signaling, and colonization of animal hosts. For this group of marine bacteria, chitin is an ecologically relevant resource, and chitin's monomeric sugar N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) supports robust growth while also triggering regulatory responses. Recent studies with Vibrio fischeri indicate that NAG and glucose uptake share EIIA(Glc), yet the responses of cAMP-CRP to these two carbon sources are starkly different. Moreover, control of cAMP levels appears to be more dominantly controlled by export and degradation. Perhaps more surprisingly, although CRP may require cAMP, its activity can be controlled in response to glucose by a mechanism independent of cAMP levels. Future studies in this area promise to shed new light on the role of cAMP and CRP. PMID:26215147

  13. Influence of Applying Pig Manure on Arsenic Content of Soil and Brassica campestris%施用猪粪对土壤和菜心砷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭来真; 刘琳琳; 吕清瑶; 李延

    2011-01-01

    采用盆栽试验的方法,研究施用猪粪对土壤和菜心砷含量的影响.结果表明,随猪粪施用量的增加,土壤全砷、有效态砷和菜心砷含量均提高,且均与猪粪施用量呈极显著的正相关.施用猪粪的同一处理相比较,第2茬土壤全砷、有效态砷和菜心砷含量均高于第1茬.相关分析表明,施用猪粪导致土壤有效态砷含量提高是菜心砷含量增加的主要原因,土壤有效态砷含量可以作为衡量猪粪安全施用的指标.%Pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of applying pig manure on arsenic content of soil and Brassica campestris. The results showed that the content of total, available arsenic in soil and in Brassica campestris increased with pig manure dose raised from 5 g/kg to 60 g/kg. There existed positively significant correlation between the content of total, available arsenic in soil, arsenic in Brassica campestris and pig manure dose. The content of total, available arsenic in soil and in Brassica campestris of second harvest were higher than those of the previous harvest. Statistics analysis showed the uptake coefficient of extractable arsenic content in soil was higher than that of soil total arsenic content, indicating that the increasing of extractable arsenic content in soil coursed by application of pig dung made the increasing of the arsenic content in Brassica campestris. Soil extractable arsenic content could be used as safety index of pig manure application.

  14. A direct link between the global regulator PhoP and the Csr regulon in Y. pseudotuberculosis through the small regulatory RNA CsrC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Aaron M; Schuster, Franziska; Kathrin Heroven, Ann; Heine, Wiebke; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of the global response regulator PhoP on the complex regulatory cascade controlling expression of early stage virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis via the virulence regulator RovA. Our analysis revealed the following novel features: (1) PhoP activates expression of the CsrC RNA in Y. pseudotuberculosis, leading to activation of RovA synthesis through the CsrABC-RovM cascade, (2) activation of csrC transcription is direct and PhoP is shown to bind to two separate PhoP box-like sites, (3) PhoP-mediated activation results in transcription from two different promoters closely downstream of the PhoP binding sites, leading to two distinct CsrC RNAs, and (4) the stability of the CsrC RNAs differs significantly between the Y. pseudotuberculosis strains YPIII and IP32953 due to a 20 nucleotides insertion in CsrC(IP32953), which renders the transcript more susceptible to degradation. In summary, our study showed that PhoP-mediated influence on the regulatory cascade controlling the Csr system and RovA in Y. pseudotuberculosis varies within the species, suggesting that the Csr system is a focal point to readjust and adapt the genus to different hosts and reservoirs. PMID:24786463

  15. Global identification of genes and pathways regulated by Akt during activation of T helper cells [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/107

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cheng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that Akt differentially modulated a subset of NF-kB target genes during T cell activation. In the current study, we further explored the broader effects of Akt inhibition on T cell gene induction. Global microarray analysis was used to characterize T helper cell transcriptional responses following antigen receptor stimulation in the absence or presence of Akti1/2 (an allosteric inhibitor which targets Akt1 and Akt2, to identify novel targets dependent upon Akt and obtain a more comprehensive view of Akt-sensitive genes in T helper cells. Pathway analysis of microarray data from a CD4+ T cell line revealed effects on gene networks involving ribosomal and T cell receptor signaling pathways associated with Akti1/2 treatment. Using real-time PCR analysis, we validated differential regulation of several genes in these pathways, including Ier3, Il13, Klf6, Egr1, Ccl1 and Ccl4, among others. Additionally, transcription factor target gene (TFactS analysis revealed that NF-kB and Myc were the most significantly enriched transcription factors among Akt-dependent genes after T cell receptor and CD28 stimulation. Akt activation elicited increases in the enrichment of NF-kB- and Myc-targeted genes. The present study has identified a diverse set of genes, and possible mechanisms for their regulation, that are dependent on Akt during T cell activation.

  16. Rhizosphere competent Mesorhizobiumloti MP6 induces root hair curling, inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and enhances growth of Indian mustard (Brassica campestris Mesorhizobium loti MP6 rizosférico competente induz encurvamento do pelo daraiz, inibe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e estimula o crescimento de mostarda indiana (Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Chandra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain Mesorhizobium loti MP6, isolated from root nodules of Mimosa pudica induced growth and yield of Brassica campestris. The isolate MP6 secreted hydroxamate type siderophore in Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS agar medium. Production of hydrocyanic acid (HCN, indole acetic acid (IAA and phosphate solubilizing ability was also recorded under normal growth conditions. Root hair curling was observed through simple glass-slide technique. In vitro study showed a significant increase in population of M. loti MP6 in rhizosphere due to root exudates of B. campestris. In dual culture technique the strain showed a strong antagonistic effect against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a white rot pathogen of Brassica campestris. The growth of S. sclerotiorum was inhibited by 75% after prolonged incubation. Efficient root colonization of mustard seedlings was confirmed by using a streptomycin-resistant marker M. loti MP6strep+. The M. loti MP6 coated seeds proved enhanced seed germination, early vegetative growth and grain yield as compared to control. Also, a drastic decline (99% in the incidence of white rot was observed due to application of M. loti MP6.A cepa bacteriana Mesorhizobium loti MP6 isolada de nódulos de raiz de Mimosa pudica induziu o crescimento e o rendimento de Brassica campestris. A cepa MP6 secretou sideróforo do tipo hidroxamato em meio sólido Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS. Em condições normais de crescimento, a cepa foi também capaz de produzir de ácido cianídrico (HCN e acido indolacético (AIA e solubilizar fosfato. O encurvamento do pelo da raiz foi observado usando a simples técnica de lâmina e lamínula. Estudos in vitro mostraram um aumento significativo na população de M. loti MP6 na rizosfera devido aos exsudatos de B. campestris. Empregando-se técnica de co-cultura, a cepa mostrou um grande efeito antagônico contra o fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, o patógeno da podridão branca de Brassica campestris. Ap

  17. RegA, an AraC-like protein, is a global transcriptional regulator that controls virulence gene expression in Citrobacter rodentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Emily; Yang, Ji; Tauschek, Marija; Kelly, Michelle; Wakefield, Matthew J; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Robins-Browne, Roy M

    2008-11-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is an attaching and effacing pathogen which causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia in mice. Infection with C. rodentium serves as a model for infection of humans with enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. To identify novel colonization factors of C. rodentium, we screened a signature-tagged mutant library of C. rodentium in mice. One noncolonizing mutant had a single transposon insertion in an open reading frame (ORF) which we designated regA because of its homology to genes encoding members of the AraC family of transcriptional regulators. Deletion of regA in C. rodentium resulted in markedly reduced colonization of the mouse intestine. Examination of lacZ transcriptional fusions using promoter regions of known and putative virulence-associated genes of C. rodentium revealed that RegA strongly stimulated transcription of two newly identified genes located close to regA, which we designated adcA and kfcC. The cloned adcA gene conferred autoaggregation and adherence to mammalian cells to E. coli strain DH5alpha, and a kfc mutation led to a reduction in the duration of intestinal colonization, but the kfc mutant was far less attenuated than the regA mutant. These results indicated that other genes of C. rodentium whose expression required activation by RegA were required for colonization. Microarray analysis revealed a number of RegA-regulated ORFs encoding proteins homologous to known colonization factors. Transcription of these putative virulence determinants was activated by RegA only in the presence of sodium bicarbonate. Taken together, these results show that RegA is a global regulator of virulence in C. rodentium which activates factors that are required for intestinal colonization. PMID:18765720

  18. Métodos de preservação e crescimento de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola em meio de cultura variando temperatura, pH e concentração de NaCl Preservation methods and growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola in culture medium varying temperature, pH and NaCl concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ana R. P. Nascimento; Rosa L.R. Mariano; Marco A. S. Gama

    2005-01-01

    A bactéria fitopatogênica Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv) causa o cancro bacteriano da videira (Vitis vinifera), que ocasiona grandes prejuízos à viticultura no Brasil. Os métodos de dessecação em papel de filtro (DPF), repicagens periódicas (RP), água destilada esterilizada (ADE) e folhas herborizadas (FH) foram utilizados para preservar duas estirpes de Xcv durante 12 meses. As variáveis viabilidade e patogenicidade foram avaliadas mensalmente e estimadas pela obtenção de crescime...

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the role of GlnR in Streptomyces venezuelae provides new insights into global nitrogen regulation in actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibb Mervyn J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GlnR is an atypical response regulator found in actinomycetes that modulates the transcription of genes in response to changes in nitrogen availability. We applied a global in vivo approach to identify the GlnR regulon of Streptomyces venezuelae, which, unlike many actinomycetes, grows in a diffuse manner that is suitable for physiological studies. Conditions were defined that facilitated analysis of GlnR-dependent induction of gene expression in response to rapid nitrogen starvation. Microarray analysis identified global transcriptional differences between glnR+ and glnR mutant strains under varying nitrogen conditions. To differentiate between direct and indirect regulatory effects of GlnR, chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP using antibodies specific to a FLAG-tagged GlnR protein, coupled with microarray analysis (ChIP-chip, was used to identify GlnR binding sites throughout the S. venezuelae genome. Results GlnR bound to its target sites in both transcriptionally active and apparently inactive forms. Thirty-six GlnR binding sites were identified by ChIP-chip analysis allowing derivation of a consensus GlnR-binding site for S. venezuelae. GlnR-binding regions were associated with genes involved in primary nitrogen metabolism, secondary metabolism, the synthesis of catabolic enzymes and a number of transport-related functions. Conclusions The GlnR regulon of S. venezuelae is extensive and impacts on many facets of the organism's biology. GlnR can apparently bind to its target sites in both transcriptionally active and inactive forms.

  20. Effect of 60Co γ irradiation with seed and shoot-tip of Brassica campestris L. var on its culture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival rate in vitro of shoot-tips of Brassica campestris L. var from seeds irradiated by 60Co γ-rays decreased with the increase of dose. Irradiation inhibited proliferation of shoot-tip, induction of callus from cotyledons and differentiation of the callus. The age of explant contributed to the effect of irradiation in the culture. Irradiation stimulated the proliferation of shoot-tip with dose less than 50 Gy. Based on the effect of irradiation in the tissue culture, the effective dose recommended was about 200 Gy for seeds, 50-100 Gy for pre-soaked germinating seeds and 40-70 Gy for shoot-tips in vitro, respectively

  1. Nitrogen Dioxide-Induced Responses in Brassica campestris Seedlings: The Role of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Modulation of Antioxidative Level and Induced Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-yan; XU Xin; HAO Lin; CAO Jun

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the responses of Brassica campestris seedlings to an acute level of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in a plant growth chamber, and examines whether pretreating plants with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) will alleviate NO2-caused injury. Twenty-eight-day-old B. campestris plants sprayed with 10 mmol L-1 H2O2 aqueous solution (corresponding to approximate 1.0 mg H2O2 per single plant) were exposed to different concentrations of NO2 (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μL L-1, respectively) for 24 h under controlled environment. To measure the plant biomass, the plants were fumigated with the same NO2 concentrations as mentioned above for 7 h per day (8.00-15.00) for 7 days. As a control, charcoal filtered air alone was applied. Data were collected on plant biomass, total chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, nitrate and nitrate reductase (NR), antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate (ASA), and malondialdehyde (MDA),immediately after exposure. The results showed that exposure to a moderate dose of NO2 (e.g., 0.25 μL L-1) had a favorable effect on plants, and the dry weight of the above-ground part increased, whereas the exposure to high NO2 concentrations (e.g., 0.5 μL L-1 or higher) caused a reduction in the plant biomass and the total chlorophyll, when compared with the control. In addition, at 0.5 μL L-1 or higher NO2 concentrations, prominent increases in the MDA level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and NR activities were observed. Exposure to 1 μL L-1 and higher NO2 resulted in necroses appearing on older leaves, and an increase in catalase (CAT) activity, decrease in ASA content, increased accumulation of NO3-, and reduction in photosynthesis, when compared with the controls. No changes were detected in stomatal conductance under NO2 fumigation. The pretreatment with 10 mmol L-1 H2O2 alleviated significantly NO2- caused biomass decrease and photosynthetic inhibition when compared with H2O2-untreated plants. Under NO2 fumigation, further

  2. Monosomic Addition Lines of Flowering Chinese Cabbage (B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis L. H. Bailey)-Chinese Kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra L. H. Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-ne; ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; MAN Hong; LIU Hai-he; SHEN Shu-xing

    2008-01-01

    Interspecific alien addition lines have played significant roles in gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and chromosomal homoeological identification between closely related species. Selection of alien addition lines was conducted by karyotype analysis and morphological observation with the reference of parents. Triploid interspecies hybrid (AAC, 2n=3x=29) was obtained from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis Qinglu 9601 (tetraploid, AAAA, 2n=4x=40)×B. oleracea vat. alboglabra Baihua 9705 (diploid, CC, 2n=2x=18) by immature hybrid embryo culture in vitro. Five different alien monosomic addition lines (AA+C2, AA+C3, AA+C4, AA+C6, AA+C7) were obtained from the backcross progenies of AAC×AA. Each alien monosomic addition line has some specific morphological characters. It is feasible to obtain alien addition lines from the progenies of AAC×AA by karyotype analysis and morphological observation based on the reference of parents.

  3. The global regulator CodY is required for the fitness of Bacillus cereus in various laboratory media and certain beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Ákos T

    2016-07-01

    The impact of gene mutations on the growth of the cells can be studied using pure cultures. However, the importance of certain proteins and pathways can be also examined via co-culturing wild type and its mutant derivative. Here, the relative fitness of a mutant strain that lacks the global nitrogen regulator, CodY, was examined in Bacillus cereus, a food poisoning Gram-positive bacterium. Fitness measurements revealed that the ΔcodY strain was outcompeted when cocultured with the wild-type ATCC 14579 under various rich laboratory medium, and also when inoculated in certain beverages. In nutrient-poor minimal medium, the ΔcodY mutant had comparable fitness to the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the relative fitness of the ΔcodY strain was antagonistic when it was cultivated in apple or orange juices due to unknown properties of these beverages, highlighting the importance of chemical composition of the test medium during the bacterial fitness measurements. PMID:27190142

  4. Post-translational Serine/Threonine Phosphorylation and Lysine Acetylation: A Novel Regulatory Aspect of the Global Nitrogen Response Regulator GlnR in S. coelicolor M145

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rafat; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Tiffert, Yvonne; Heberer, Martin; Meky, Mohamed; Ahmed, Yousra; Matthews, Arne; Krysenko, Sergii; Jakobi, Marco; Hinder, Markus; Moore, Jane; Okoniewski, Nicole; Maček, Boris; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Bera, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Soil-dwelling Streptomyces bacteria such as S.coelicolor have to constantly adapt to the nitrogen (N) availability in their habitat. Thus, strict transcriptional and post-translational control of the N-assimilation is fundamental for survival of this species. GlnR is a global response regulator that controls transcription of the genes related to the N-assimilation in S. coelicolor and other members of the Actinomycetales. GlnR represents an atypical orphan response regulator that is not activated by the phosphorylation of the conserved aspartate residue (Asp 50). We have applied transcriptional analysis, LC-MS/MS analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) to understand the regulation of GlnR in S. coelicolor M145. The expression of glnR and GlnR-target genes was revisited under four different N-defined conditions and a complex N-rich condition. Although, the expression of selected GlnR-target genes was strongly responsive to changing N-concentrations, the glnR expression itself was independent of the N-availability. Using LC-MS/MSanalysis we demonstrated that GlnR was post-translationally modified. The post-translational modifications of GlnR comprise phosphorylation of the serine/threonine residues and acetylation of lysine residues. In the complex N-rich medium GlnR was phosphorylated on six serine/threonine residues and acetylated on one lysine residue. Under defined N-excess conditions only two phosphorylated residues were detected whereas under defined N-limiting conditions no phosphorylation was observed. GlnR phosphorylation is thus clearly correlated with N-rich conditions. Furthermore, GlnR was acetylated on four lysine residues independently of the N-concentration in the defined media and on only one lysine residue in the complex N-rich medium. Using EMSAs we demonstrated that phosphorylation inhibited the binding of GlnR to its targets genes, whereas acetylation had little influence on the formation of GlnR-DNA complex. This study clearly

  5. Complex regulation of the DnaJ homolog CbpA by the global regulators sigmaS and Lrp, by the specific inhibitor CbpM, and by the proteolytic degradation of CbpM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Matthew R; Wickner, Sue

    2008-08-01

    CbpA is a DnaJ homolog that functions as a DnaK cochaperone. Several cellular processes, including growth at low and high temperatures and septum formation during cell division, require either CbpA or DnaJ. CbpA is encoded in an operon with the gene for CbpM, which is a specific in vivo and in vitro inhibitor of CbpA. Here, we have cooverexpressed CbpA with CbpM in a DeltacbpAM DeltadnaJ strain and examined the resulting phenotypes. Under these conditions, sufficient free CbpA activity was present to support growth at low temperatures, but not at high temperatures. Defects in cell division and in lambda replication were also partially complemented by CbpA when cooverexpressed with CbpM. Utilizing reporter fusions, we demonstrated that the cbpAM operon was maximally transcribed at the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase. Transcription was controlled by the sigma(S) and Lrp global regulators, and both leucine availability and growth temperature influenced transcription. CbpA and CbpM accumulated to similar levels in stationary phase, approximately 2,300 monomers per cell. When not bound to CbpA, CbpM was unstable and was degraded by the Lon and ClpAP proteases. These data demonstrate that CbpA activity is controlled at multiple levels. PMID:18502857

  6. Role of Edible Fungi Bio-Processor in Increasing the Output of the Cultivated Agaricus Campestris%食用菌生物激活处理器在四孢蘑菇栽培中的增产效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑全; 刘宇鹏; 马云侠; 毛贵阳; 郜白银

    2002-01-01

    将四孢蘑菇(Agaricus campestris)用食用菌生物激活处理器制得的"双磁水"浇、喷后产量增加了40%以上,菇体硬实、菌盖厚、菌柄短粗且推迟开伞时间,鲜菇氨基酸和维生素C含量明显增多.

  7. Global profiling of histone and DNA methylation reveals epigenetic-based regulation of gene expression during epithelial to mesenchymal transition in prostate cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wen-Cheng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we reported extensive gene expression reprogramming during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT of primary prostate cells. Here we investigated the hypothesis that specific histone and DNA methylations are involved in coordination of gene expression during EMT. Results Genome-wide profiling of histone methylations (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 and DNA methylation (DNAMe was applied to three cell lines at different stages of a stepwise prostate cell model involving EMT and subsequent accumulation of malignant features. Integrated analyses of epigenetic promoter modifications and gene expression changes revealed strong correlations between the dynamic changes of histone methylations and gene expression. DNA methylation was weaker associated with global gene repression, but strongly correlated to gene silencing when genes co-modified by H3K4me3 were excluded. For genes labeled with multiple epigenetic marks in their promoters, the level of transcription was associated with the net signal intensity of the activating mark H3K4me3 minus the repressive marks H3K27me3 or DNAMe, indicating that the effect on gene expression of bivalent marks (H3K4/K27me3 or H3K4me3/DNAMe depends on relative modification intensities. Sets of genes, including epithelial cell junction and EMT associated fibroblast growth factor receptor genes, showed corresponding changes concerning epigenetic modifications and gene expression during EMT. Conclusions This work presents the first blueprint of epigenetic modifications in an epithelial cell line and the progeny that underwent EMT and shows that specific histone methylations are extensively involved in gene expression reprogramming during EMT and subsequent accumulation of malignant features. The observation that transcription activity of bivalently marked genes depends on the relative labeling intensity of individual marks provides a new view of quantitative regulation of epigenetic modification.

  8. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa CreBC two-component system plays a major role in the response to β-lactams, fitness, biofilm growth, and global regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Laura; Moyà, Bartolomé; Juan, Carlos; Mulet, Xavier; Blázquez, Jesús; Oliver, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous versatile environmental microorganism with a remarkable ability to grow under diverse environmental conditions. Moreover, P. aeruginosa is responsible for life-threatening infections in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients, as the extraordinary capacity of this pathogen to develop antimicrobial resistance dramatically limits our therapeutic arsenal. Its large genome carries an outstanding number of genes belonging to regulatory systems, including multiple two-component sensor-regulator systems that modulate the response to the different environmental stimuli. Here, we show that one of two systems, designated CreBC (carbon source responsive) and BlrAB (β-lactam resistance), might be of particular relevance. We first identified the stimuli triggering the activation of the CreBC system, which specifically responds to penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP4) inhibition by certain β-lactam antibiotics. Second, through an analysis of a large comprehensive collection of mutants, we demonstrate an intricate interconnection between the CreBC system, the peptidoglycan recycling pathway, and the expression of the concerning chromosomal β-lactamase AmpC. Third, we show that the CreBC system, and particularly its effector inner membrane protein CreD, plays a major role in bacterial fitness and biofilm development, especially in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactams. Finally, global transcriptomics reveals broad regulatory functions of CreBC in basic physiological aspects, particularly anaerobic respiration, in both the presence and absence of antibiotics. Therefore, the CreBC system is envisaged as a potentially interesting target for improving the efficacy of β-lactams against P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:24936599

  9. Seleção de genótipos de pimentão resistentes à Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye. sob condições naturais de infecção Selection of pepper genotypes resistant to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye. under natural condictions of plant infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Noda; Francisco Manoares Machado; Ayrton Luiz Urizzi Martins

    2003-01-01

    Devido à ocorrência de epidemias severas de pústula bacteriana ou mancha bacteriana no pimentão, causada pela bactéria Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye., o cultivo do pimentão na várzea do Rio Solimões, próximo à Manaus, encontra-se em decadência. O INPA, desde 1976, desenvolve um Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Pimentão visando incorporar resistência ao patógeno. Neste trabalho são relatados os resultados obtidos em três ensaios, nas áreas de terra firme e várzea do E...

  10. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  11. Global Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the technology and classification of global monitoring, shows the relationship between the global monitoring and geographic information monitoring, presents the cause-and-effect diagram of global monitoring. The paper discloses the value of the time series for global monitoring, offers a functional diagram of the global monitoring system, gives the main characteristics of global monitoring.

  12. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  13. Differential Expression Analysis of Genic Male Sterility A/B Lines in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi(Brassica Campestris ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-qin; CAO Jia-shu; FU Qing-gong; YU Xiao-lin; YE Wan-zhi; XIANG Xun

    2003-01-01

    To determine differential expression of genic male sterility A/B lines in Chinese cabbage-pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino var. communis Teen et Lee), we used the RNA fingerprinting technique, cDNA-AFLP analysis, in different developmental stages and different tissues. While no obvious differential expressions were observed in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes, some differential expressions were found in alabstrums of A/B lines and among leaves, scapes and alabstrums. We analyzed the alabstrums collected in different developmental stages with 10 primer combinations. We got a unique band between middle size alabstrums and large alabstrums in B line in one of the ten pair primers, and in another one pair, one band reflecting a higher gene-expression level in A line than that in B line was obtained. No unique bands were found with the other primer combinations. The bands reflecting different gene-expression level were confirmed by Northern hybridization. The results indicated that cDNA-AFLP was a suitable tool for studying differential expression of genic male sterility in plants. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of soluble proteins further verified the difference in A/B lines.

  14. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Summary Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, bio-control agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21 mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar ‘Gonja manjaya’ (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic plants in the glass house for resistance against Xcm. About fifty percent of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa. PMID:24612254

  15. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa. PMID:24612254

  16. Effect of Mentha spicata L. and Artemisia campestris extracts on the shelf life and quality of vacuum-packed refrigerated sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Kuley, Esmeray; Bendeddouche, Badis; Ozogul, Fatih

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extracts obtained from Mentha spicata and Artemisia campestris on the shelf life and the quality of vacuum-packed sardine fillets stored at 3 ± 1°C for a period of 21 days. The three groups were tested were VC, control group; VM, group treated with 1 % mint extract; and VA, group treated with 1 % artemisia extract. The observed shelf life of sardine fillets was 10 days for control samples, whereas the combination of vacuum packaging with mint and artemisia extracts extended the product's shelf life to 17 days. Among the chemical indices determined, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were significantly lower in VM samples. Total volatile base nitrogen was maintained at low levels in VA samples until 17 days of chilled storage. Results of aerobic plate counts and coliform counts showed the existence of a reduced growth in VA group, whereas lactic acid bacteria did not show a significant difference among groups. Natural extract treatments combined with vacuum packaging showed lower microbiological and chemical indices, indicating that the presence of phenolic compounds in mint and artemisia extracts and the removal of oxygen in the pack retarded lipid oxidation and reduced the growth of microorganisms, which resulted in preventing spoilage and extending the product's shelf life. PMID:24112571

  17. Activation of glycerol metabolism in Xanthomonas campestris by adaptive evolution to produce a high-transparency and low-viscosity xanthan gum from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zichao; Wu, Jianrong; Zhu, Li; Zhan, Xiaobei

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have focused on using crude glycerol from biodiesel to obtain valuable products, but few of these studies have focused on obtaining polysaccharides. A mutant strain of Xanthomonas campestris CCTCC M2015714 that could use glycerol to produce high-transparency and low-viscosity xanthan gum was obtained by adaptive evolution, and the yield of xanthan gum reached 11.0g/L. We found that transcriptional levels of genes related to glycerol metabolism (glpF, glpK, glpD, and fbp) in the mutant strain were all higher than those from the parent strain. Using 5g/L sucrose or glucose as starter substrate, cell growth time decreased from 36h to 24h and xanthan gum yield increased. Moreover, the mutant strain can tolerate high titer glycerol, and its activity was not affected by the impurities in crude glycerol. All these results proved that crude glycerol from biodiesel industries can be used for xanthan gum production. PMID:27030959

  18. Promotion by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid of Germination of Pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. communis Tsen et Lee) Seeds Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Ju WANG; Wei-Bing JIANG; Hui LIU; Wei-Qin LIU; Lang KANG; Xi-Lin HOU

    2005-01-01

    The seed germination and seedling growth of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var.communis Tsen et Lee cv. Hanxiao) were not significantly inhibited until the concentration of NaCl was increased to150 mmol/L. Treatment of pakchoi seeds with exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10.00 mg/L, promoted seed germination when seeds were stressed by salinity, whereas levulinic acid (LA), an inhibitor of ALA dehydrase, significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth, suggesting that metabolism of ALA into porphyrin compounds was necessary for seed germination and seedling growth. Determination of respiratory rate during seed germination showed that ALA increased seed respiration under both normal conditions and salt stress. Furthermore, salt stress decreased levels of endogenous ALA, as well as heme, in etiolated seedlings. More salt-tolerant cultivars of pakchoi contained higher relative levels of endogenous ALA and heme under conditions of salt stress.These results indicate that salt stress may inhibit the biosynthesis of endogenous ALA and then heme,which is necessary for seed germination, and treatment of seeds with exogenous ALA prior to germination may be associated with the biosynthesis of heme.

  19. Analysis of Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis (L.) Makino var.tai-tsai Hort Karyotype%薹菜的核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋廷宇; 韩文妍; 吴春燕; 宋述尧; 何启伟

    2012-01-01

    The chromosome number and kapyotype analysis of Tai-tsai [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis ( L.) Makino var. tai-tsai Hort ] were studied by using root-tip squashing method in order to obtain accurate cytogenetic information. The results showed that the chromosome number of Tai-tsai diploids is 2n=20, and its karyotype formula is K (In ) =2X=20=7M+2T+St, the composition of relative length of chromosome is 2n=20=2L+4M2+4S, and the chromosome karyotype was 2A.%采用根尖压片法对薹菜进行染色体数目和核型分析.结果表明:薹菜为二倍体,染色体数2n=20,核型公式为K(2n)=2X=20=7M+2T+St,染色体相对长度组成为2n=20=2L+4M2+4S,染色体组型为2A型.

  20. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  1. Global products price differential between countries in the context of European Union trade regulations. The case of e-commerce markets

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Pestkowski

    2015-01-01

    In the age of globalization, development of economic integration, trade liberalization, Internet and technological progress particularly in ways of distribution, we may expect that global homogeneous products will have equal price in the common currency on every market around the world. Despite the fact that in the modern world economy there is a high opportunity to make the law of one price work, in reality we can observe price differences between countries. This paper concerns the problem o...

  2. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  3. Global power production scenarios to 2100 and the dual role of forests: accelerated climate damage or regulating and provisioning ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg

    bioelectricity from forest biomass and the associated environmental impacts are outlined using LCA unit process data. The power production is used as a simplified proxy for the global energy supply. It is assumed that the most suitable land under each scenario is reserved for food production, and that changes in......The worlds' electrical power production is depending on the current energy infrastructure, and future investments in new power supply facilities using renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Continued growth in power production in the 21st century will cause global environmental change (GEC......). GEC with climate change as an important driver will affect the environment and the economy in multiple ways that can be summarized as losses of biodiversity and changing ecosystem services (ES), but with very diverse temporal and spatial impacts. In a simple global growth model for power production...

  4. OECD/NEA International Conference on Global Nuclear Safety Enhancement Organised in co-operation with the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) of Japan On the Occasion of the 50. Anniversary of Japan Joining the OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 8 April 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, an international conference on enhancing global nuclear safety was held by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD), in co-operation with the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) of Japan. This document brings together the 12 presentations (slides) given at this conference organized in 3 sessions: 1 - Opening Session: Opening Remarks (S. Tanaka); Statement by L.E. Echavarri; Session 1 - Global Safety Enhancements: USNRC Actions in Response to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (W.C. Ostendorff); Synergy of National and International Regulatory Efforts to Enhance Global Nuclear Safety (A. Viktorovich Ferapontov); Global Safety Enhancements, The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN)'s position (J.L. Lachaume); Nuclear Safety and Security Commission builds up safety and security (G.H. Yoo); Session 2 - Learning from Experience to Improve Safety: Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident and Responses in New Regulatory Requirements (T. Fuketa); NEA Activities to Enhance the Nuclear Regulatory Framework (L.E. Echavarri); Learning from Experience to Improve Safety - its importance, its mechanisms and its challenges (J.E. Lyons); Learning from Experience to Improve Nuclear Safety - A Perspective from the UK (M. Weightman); Conclusions and Closing Remarks (A. Gurria, H. Ishihara)

  5. Biocatalytic Synthesis of a-Arbutin by the Intracellular Crude Enzyme from Xanthomonas Campestris%野油菜黄单胞菌胞内粗酶液催化合成α-熊果苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣英; 严伟; 李群良; 姚评佳; 魏远安; 唐纪良

    2012-01-01

    Biocatalytic synthesis of α-arbutin by the intracellular crude enzyme from Xanthomonas campes-tris pv. campestris 8004 was studied. The effects of hydroquinone concentration,reactant molar ratio,buffer solution pH value,reaction time and cell concentration on the reaction were investigated. The results showed that the optimum reaction conditions were as follows: the reaction temperature was 35℃ ,the rotational speed was 180 r·min-1,hydroquinone concentration was 40 mmol· L-1 ,the molar ratio of hydroquinone to sucrose was 1:30,the buffer solution pH value was 7.0,the reaction time was 36 h,the cell concentration was 80 mg·mL-1 . Under above conditions,α-arbutin content reached 6. 58 mg·mL-1 ,the selectivity of hydroquinone was 66%,and the conversion rate of hydroquinone was 91%.%利用野油菜黄单胞菌(Xanthomonas campestris pv.campestris) 8004胞内粗酶液生物催化合成α-熊果苷,察了对苯二酚浓度、反应物摩尔比、缓冲溶液pH值、反应时间、菌体浓度等因素对反应的影响.确定最佳反应条件为:应温度35℃、摇床转速180 r·min-1、对苯二酚浓度40mmol·L-1、对苯二酚与蔗糖的摩尔比1∶30、缓冲溶液pH7.0、反应时间36 h、菌体浓度80 mg·mL-1,在此条件下,α-熊果苷含量达到6.58mg· mL-1、对苯二酚选择性为66 %对苯二酚转化率为91%.

  6. Desenvolvimento vegetativo de Mentha campestris Schur e produção de mentol em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e épocas de colheita Vegetative development of Mentha campestris Schur and menthol production in different row spaces and harvest times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de óleos essenciais nas plantas aromáticas é influenciada por fatores bióticos e abióticos. A demanda por esses produtos tem aumentado, sendo os óleos essenciais do gênero Mentha de grande interesse nas indústrias farmacêutica, de cosméticos, alimentícia e agrícola, principalmente em função do composto mentol. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de três espaçamentos de plantio (0,60 x 0,15 m; 0,60 x 0,30 m e 0,60 x 0,45 m e duas épocas de colheita (60 e 90 dias após o plantio na espécie Mentha campestris Schur. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro de Estações Experimentais do Canguiri-UFPR, em Pinhais-PR, no período de janeiro a abril de 2008. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Houve diferença significativa para todas as variáveis analisadas. As massas secas de folhas, ramos e total foram maiores que na primeira época. Para a biomassa seca de folhas foram observados maiores valores no menor espaçamento de plantio. O rendimento de óleo essencial foi maior na segunda época de colheita e nos espaçamentos maiores. A produtividade do óleo também foi maior na segunda época de colheita, porém no espaçamento mais adensado. Pode-se concluir como recomendação para M. campestris Schur o espaçamento 0,60 x 0,15 m e colheita aos 90 dias, por terem atingido maior biomassa, rendimento de óleo essencial e produtividade de mentol por hectare.Essential oil production in aromatic plants is influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. The demand for these products has increased, and essential oils from the genus Mentha have been of great interest for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agronomic industries, especially because of the compound menthol. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three row spaces (0.60 x 0.15 m; 0.60 x 0.30 m and 0.60 x 0.45 m and two harvest times (60 and 90 days after planting on the species Mentha campestris Schur. The

  7. Characterization of a novel gene, BcMF7, that is expressed preferentially in pollen of Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li; CAO JiaShu; ZHANG YuChao; YE YiQun

    2007-01-01

    Pollen formation is important for plant sexual reproduction, To identify the genes that are involved in pollen formation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling in the flower buds of both male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type plants of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis showed that the mmc mutation resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. BcMF7, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was further characterized.The BcMF7 gene has 1161 bp in length with two introns. The full-length BcMF7 cDNA has 609 bp in length and encodes a protein of 129 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of BcMF7 protein shares no similarity to any function-known protein in Swiss-Prot database, but has 8 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 2 casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites, 2 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites,2 N-glycosylation sites and 2 N-myristoylation sites. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis showed that BcMF7 was expressed exclusively in pollen. The expression signal of BcMF7 was first detected at the tetrad stage of microspore development, reached a peak level at the uninucleate stage,and decreased to a slightly low level at the mature pollen stage. All these results show that BcMF7 may play a certain role in the signal transduction during pollen development.

  8. Characterization of a novel gene, BcMF7,that is expressed preferentially in pollen of Brassica campestris L.ssp. chinensis Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollen formation is important for plant sexual reproduction. To identify the genes that are involved in pollen formation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling in the flower buds of both male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type plants of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinen-sis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analy-sis showed that the mmc mutation resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. BcMF7, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was further characterized. The BcMF7 gene has 1161 bp in length with two introns. The full-length BcMF7 cDNA has 609 bp in length and encodes a protein of 129 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of BcMF7 protein shares no similarity to any function-known protein in Swiss-Prot database, but has 8 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 2 casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, 2 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites, 2 N-glycosylation sites and 2 N-myristoylation sites. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis showed that BcMF7 was expressed exclusively in pollen. The expression signal of BcMF7 was first detected at the tetrad stage of microspore development, reached a peak level at the uninucleate stage, and decreased to a slightly low level at the mature pollen stage. All these results show that BcMF7 may play a certain role in the signal transduction during pollen development.

  9. Complex regulation of the global regulatory gene csrA: CsrA-mediated translational repression, transcription from five promoters by Eσ70 and EσS, and indirect transcriptional activation by CsrA

    OpenAIRE

    Yakhnin, Helen; Yakhnin, Alexander V.; Baker, Carol S.; Sineva, Elena; Berezin, Igor; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2011-01-01

    CsrA of Escherichia coli is an RNA binding protein that globally regulates gene expression by repressing translation and/or altering the stability of target transcripts. Here we explored mechanisms that control csrA expression. Four CsrA binding sites were predicted upstream of the csrA initiation codon, one of which overlapped its Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Results from gel shift, footprint, toeprint and in vitro translation experiments indicate that CsrA binds to these four sites and represse...

  10. Variant histone H2A.Z is globally localized to the promoters of inactive yeast genes and regulates nucleosome positioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available H2A.Z is an evolutionary conserved histone variant involved in transcriptional regulation, antisilencing, silencing, and genome stability. The mechanism(s by which H2A.Z regulates these various biological functions remains poorly defined, in part due to the lack of knowledge regarding its physical location along chromosomes and the bearing it has in regulating chromatin structure. Here we mapped H2A.Z across the yeast genome at an approximately 300-bp resolution, using chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with tiling microarrays. We have identified 4,862 small regions--typically one or two nucleosomes wide--decorated with H2A.Z. Those "Z loci" are predominantly found within specific nucleosomes in the promoter of inactive genes all across the genome. Furthermore, we have shown that H2A.Z can regulate nucleosome positioning at the GAL1 promoter. Within HZAD domains, the regions where H2A.Z shows an antisilencing function, H2A.Z is localized in a wider pattern, suggesting that the variant histone regulates a silencing and transcriptional activation via different mechanisms. Our data suggest that the incorporation of H2A.Z into specific promoter-bound nucleosomes configures chromatin structure to poise genes for transcriptional activation. The relevance of these findings to higher eukaryotes is discussed.

  11. Globalization and protection of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina AV; Somogyi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unionists and politicians frequently claim that globalization lowers employment protection of workers. This paper tests this hypothesis in a panel of 28 OECD countries from 1985 to 2003, differentiating between three dimensions of globalization and two labor market segments. While overall globalization is shown to loosen protection of the regularly employed, it increases regulation in the segment of limited-term contracts. We find economic and political globalization to drive deregulation ...

  12. Use of an in vivo titration method to study a global regulator: effect of varying Lrp levels on expression of gltBDF in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, D. W.; Blumenthal, R M; Matthews, R G

    1996-01-01

    Most studies of global regulatory proteins are performed in vitro or involve phenotypic comparisons between wild-type and mutant strains. We report the use of strains in which the gene for the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (lrp) is transcribed from isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible promoters for the purpose of continuously varying the in vivo concentration of Lrp. To obtain a broad range of Lrp concentrations, strains were employed that contained the lrp fusion e...

  13. Globalization Nationalized

    OpenAIRE

    Mazlish Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Globalism and globalization have been seen as competitors to other allegiances, namely regionalism and nationalism. A look at recent efforts at reconceptualizing global history in China, Korea and the U.S., however, suggests that this competition is overdrawn, and that nationalist agendas in particular have found their way into global studies.

  14. Control of Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Action by Serine 517 of Perilipin A Globally Regulates Protein Kinase A-stimulated Lipolysis in Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorylation of the lipid droplet-associated protein perilipin A (Peri A) mediates the actions of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) to stimulate triglyceride hydrolysis (lipolysis) in adipocytes. Studies addressing how Peri A PKA sites regulate adipocyte lipolysis have relied on non-ad...

  15. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  16. Against globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Baggesgaard, Mads Anders; Philipsen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts. Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  17. 进一步推进武汉市洪山菜薹产业化实施方案%Implementation Plan on Promoting Industrial Development of Hongshan Brassica campestris in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程耀明; 朱林耀; 马幼菊; 姜正军

    2013-01-01

      武汉市洪山菜薹实施了品牌保护和开发,实现了市场化和产业化运作,但仍存在原产地环境质量不断恶化、提纯复壮工作未形成长效机制、企业龙头作用未能充分发挥等问题。今后,应从土壤环境质量、品种资源保护、市场开发等各方面齐心协力,确保洪山菜薹产业持续健康发展。%Though we implemented the brand protection and development strategy, market-oriented and industrial operation in the production of Hongshan Brassica campestris, many problems were still existed, such as worsening of environment, unsustainable developing of purification and rejuvenation work and failing to give full play to the leading role of enterprises. Therefore we should improve the quality of soil and environment, protect species resources and develop new markets as well, to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of Hongshan B. campestris industry.

  18. BcMF26a and BcMF26b Are Duplicated Polygalacturonase Genes with Divergent Expression Patterns and Functions in Pollen Development and Pollen Tube Formation in Brassica campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Meiling; Yu, Youjian; Jiang, Jingjing; Song, Limin; Liang, Ying; Ma, Zhiming; Xiong, Xingpeng; Cao, Jiashu

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the cell wall hydrolytic enzymes involving in pectin degradation. A comparison of two highly conserved duplicated PG genes, namely, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 26a (BcMF26a) and BcMF26b, revealed the different features of their expression patterns and functions. We found that these two genes were orthologous genes of At4g33440, and they originated from a chromosomal segmental duplication. Although structurally similar, their regulatory and intron sequences largely diverged. QRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of BcMF26b was higher than that of BcMF26a in almost all the tested organs and tissues in Brassica campestris. Promoter activity analysis showed that, at reproductive development stages, BcMF26b promoter was active in tapetum, pollen grains, and pistils, whereas BcMF26a promoter was only active in pistils. In the subcellular localization experiment, BcMF26a and BcMF26b proteins could be localized to the cell wall. When the two genes were co-inhibited, pollen intine was formed abnormally and pollen tubes could not grow or stretch. Moreover, the knockout mutants of At4g33440 delayed the growth of pollen tubes. Therefore, BcMF26a/b can participate in the construction of pollen wall by modulating intine information and BcMF26b may play a major role in co-inhibiting transformed plants. PMID:26153985

  19. BcMF26a and BcMF26b Are Duplicated Polygalacturonase Genes with Divergent Expression Patterns and Functions in Pollen Development and Pollen Tube Formation in Brassica campestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Lyu

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase (PG is one of the cell wall hydrolytic enzymes involving in pectin degradation. A comparison of two highly conserved duplicated PG genes, namely, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 26a (BcMF26a and BcMF26b, revealed the different features of their expression patterns and functions. We found that these two genes were orthologous genes of At4g33440, and they originated from a chromosomal segmental duplication. Although structurally similar, their regulatory and intron sequences largely diverged. QRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of BcMF26b was higher than that of BcMF26a in almost all the tested organs and tissues in Brassica campestris. Promoter activity analysis showed that, at reproductive development stages, BcMF26b promoter was active in tapetum, pollen grains, and pistils, whereas BcMF26a promoter was only active in pistils. In the subcellular localization experiment, BcMF26a and BcMF26b proteins could be localized to the cell wall. When the two genes were co-inhibited, pollen intine was formed abnormally and pollen tubes could not grow or stretch. Moreover, the knockout mutants of At4g33440 delayed the growth of pollen tubes. Therefore, BcMF26a/b can participate in the construction of pollen wall by modulating intine information and BcMF26b may play a major role in co-inhibiting transformed plants.

  20. 野油菜黄单胞菌低温分泌黄原胶微细结构特征和化学特性%THE TINY STRUCTURE AND CHEMICAL PROPERTY FXANTHANSECRED BY XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS UNDER LOW TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁虎欣; 查满武

    2001-01-01

    首次发现28℃培养至对数期且未分泌黄原胶的野油菜黄单胞菌(Xanthomonas campestris)移至4℃低温培养仍合成分泌黄原胶。黄原胶低温分泌最微细的结构单位是微丝,多根微丝进一步组成纤维、类似双螺旋或纤维束等级结构形式。低温分泌的黄原胶与28℃常温分泌的黄原胶相比有相同的化学组成与结构,但分子量、丙酮酸含量低。%We first find Xanthomonas campestris N. K-01 which don't produce xanthan at 28℃ cansynthesize and secrete the xanthan under low temperature (4℃). Little string is the most minute unit of the secreted under low temperature. Many little strings ecreted by bacterium cell extend to form a wider xanthan fiber. When depart from cell, xanthan fiber either twine to form double helix of bundle together. They are both advanced structures of the xanthan strings. Xanthan secreted under 4℃ has the same chemical composition and structure as that under 28℃, but lower moleculer weight and lower pyruvate content.

  1. Global Metabolic Regulation of the Snow Alga Chlamydomonas nivalis in Response to Nitrate or Phosphate Deprivation by a Metabolome Profile Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Na Lu; Jun-Hui Chen; Dong Wei; Feng Chen; Gu Chen

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, Chlamydomonas nivalis, a model species of snow algae, was used to illustrate the metabolic regulation mechanism of microalgae under nutrient deprivation stress. The seed culture was inoculated into the medium without nitrate or phosphate to reveal the cell responses by a metabolome profile analysis using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). One hundred and seventy-one of the identified metabolites clustered into five groups by the orthogonal pa...

  2. Periodizing Globalization: Histories of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Nederveen Pieterse Jan

    2012-01-01

    The article outlines the analytics and criteria that inform periodizing globalization. It criticizes presentist and Eurocentric views on globalization, the contemporary view, the modernity view (1800 plus) or the capitalism view (1500 plus). It discusses approaches to world history and how globalization fits in. Understandings of globalization, such as multicentric and centrist perspectives, and units of analysis affect how timelines of globalization are established. Taking into account globa...

  3. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced by...... rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  4. Identification of Dietetically Absorbed Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) Bee Pollen MicroRNAs in Serum of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan; Dai, Guan-Hai; Ren, Ze-Ming; Tong, Ye-Ling; Yang, Feng; Zhu, Yong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNA that, through mediating posttranscriptional gene regulation, play a critical role in nearly all biological processes. Over the last decade it has become apparent that plant miRNAs may serve as a novel functional component of food with therapeutic effects including anti-influenza and antitumor. Rapeseed bee pollen has good properties in enhancing immune function as well as preventing and treating disease. In this study, we identified the exogenous miRNAs from rapeseed bee pollen in mice blood using RNA-seq technology. We found that miR-166a was the most highly enriched exogenous plant miRNAs in the blood of mice fed with rapeseed bee pollen, followed by miR-159. Subsequently, RT-qPCR results confirmed that these two miRNAs also can be detected in rapeseed bee pollen. Our results suggested that food-derived exogenous miRNAs from rapeseed bee pollen could be absorbed in mice and the abundance of exogenous miRNAs in mouse blood is dependent on their original levels in the rapeseed bee pollen. PMID:27597967

  5. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight—had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated ($r = -0.69$) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was $y = 0.074x_{8} + 1.819x_{9} + 6.72x_{12} - 60.78 (R^{2} = 0.993)$, where $x_{8}$, $x_{9}$ and $x_{12}$ represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and

  6. PEMANASAN GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Triana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemanasan global (global warming pada dasarnya merupakan fenomena peningkatan temperature global dari tahun ke tahun karena terjadinya efek rumah kaca (greenhouse effect yang disebabkan oleh meningkatnya emisi gas-gas seperti karbondioksida (CO2, metana (CH4, dinitrooksida (N2O dan CFC sehingga energy matahari terperangkap dalam atmosfer bumi. Berbagai literatur menunjukkan kenaikan temperatur global termasuk Indonesia yang terjadi pada kisaran 1,5 – 40 °C pada akhir abad 21.

  7. Global Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of Globalism," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of global education for today's schools. "Global Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and issues in this…

  8. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  9. Global Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Approaches taken by a school science department to implement a global science curriculum using a range of available resources are outlined. Problems with current curriculum approaches, alternatives to an ethnocentric curriculum, advantages of global science, and possible strategies for implementing a global science policy are discussed. (27…

  10. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  11. Bioactivity of Several Bactericides against Xanthomonas campestris pv.citri%几种杀菌剂对柑桔溃疡病的生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙惠敏; 李保同; 郭明程; 陈慈相; 谢金招; 刘德力

    2011-01-01

    为筛选防治柑桔溃疡病的有效药剂,按大田推荐使用浓度,用抑菌圈法测定17种非铜药剂和5种含铜药剂对柑桔溃疡病的毒力,并研究7种非铜药剂田间防治效果.结果表明,代森锰锌、福美双、福美双·溴菌腈、农用链霉素、金核霉素和琥胶肥酸铜·乙磷铝·硫酸锌抑菌作用最强,其次为福美双·福美锌、大蒜素、络氨铜·络氨锌和盐酸吗啉胍·乙酸铜,过氧乙酸、噻唑锌、春雷菌素、中生菌素、琥珀酸铜和噻菌铜有微弱的抑菌作用,百菌清、多菌灵、苯醚甲环唑、叶青双、复硝酚钠和井冈霉素无抑菌作用.大田试验结果表明,30%金核霉素WP 500 mg/L和72%农用链霉素WP 200 mg/L处理对柑桔溃病的防效分别为76.34%和74.94%,显著优于其它药剂处理;80%代森锰锌WP 2000 mg/L、50%福美双WP 400 mg/L和50%福美双·溴菌腈WP 500 mg/L处理对柑桔溃病的防效分别为70.36%、66.55%和69.37%,与对照含铜药剂20%噻菌铜SC 67 mg/L处理无显著差异;大蒜素和叶青双对柑桔溃病防效较差,6%大蒜素EC 120 mg/L和20%叶青双WP 400 mg/L处理对柑桔溃病的防效分别为41.84%和21.82%,显著低于对照含铜药剂20%噻菌铜SC 67 mg/L处理.%In order to screen effective bactericides against Xanthomonas camprestris pv. citri, the toxicity of 17 non - copper fungicides and 5 copper fungicides against the strain of X. campestris pv. citri in the greenhouse were determined by the method of inhibition zone, and the efficacy of 7 non - copper fungicides in the field was tested. The results showed that manzoceb, thiram, thiram -bromothalonil, agricultural streptomycin, aureonucleomycin and DT -fosetyl -aluminium -zinc suffate had the strongest inhibitory effect on the pathogen, thiram- ziram, allicin, cupric tetramminosuffate- zinc tetramminosuffate and moroxydine hydrochloride- cupric acetate had relatively strong inhibitory effect, peracetic acid, Zn thiazole, Kasugamycin, Zhong

  12. The RNA-Binding Chaperone Hfq Is an Important Global Regulator of Gene Expression in Pasteurella multocida and Plays a Crucial Role in Production of a Number of Virulence Factors, Including Hyaluronic Acid Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégroz, Marianne; Kleifeld, Oded; Wright, Amy; Powell, David; Harrison, Paul; Adler, Ben; Harper, Marina; Boyce, John D

    2016-05-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of a number of economically important animal diseases, including avian fowl cholera. Numerous P. multocida virulence factors have been identified, including capsule, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and filamentous hemagglutinin, but little is known about how the expression of these virulence factors is regulated. Hfq is an RNA-binding protein that facilitates riboregulation via interaction with small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules and their mRNA targets. Here, we show that a P. multocida hfq mutant produces significantly less hyaluronic acid capsule during all growth phases and displays reduced in vivo fitness. Transcriptional and proteomic analyses of the hfq mutant during mid-exponential-phase growth revealed altered transcript levels for 128 genes and altered protein levels for 78 proteins. Further proteomic analyses of the hfq mutant during the early exponential growth phase identified 106 proteins that were produced at altered levels. Both the transcript and protein levels for genes/proteins involved in capsule biosynthesis were reduced in the hfq mutant, as were the levels of the filamentous hemagglutinin protein PfhB2 and its secretion partner LspB2. In contrast, there were increased expression levels of three LPS biosynthesis genes, encoding proteins involved in phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine addition to LPS, suggesting that these genes are negatively regulated by Hfq-dependent mechanisms. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence that Hfq plays a crucial role in regulating the global expression of P. multocida genes, including the regulation of key P. multocida virulence factors, capsule, LPS, and filamentous hemagglutinin. PMID:26883595

  13. Final Report [Regulated mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis: A global analysis of differential control by hormones and the circadian clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Pamela J.

    2010-03-18

    The long-term goal of this research was to better understand the influence of mRNA stability on gene regulation, particularly in response to hormones and the circadian clock. The primary aim of this project was to examine this using DNA microarrays, small RNA analysis and other approaches. We accomplished these objectives, although we were only able to detect small changes in mRNA stability in response to these stimuli. However, the work also contributed to a major breakthrough allowing the identification of small RNAs on a genomic scale in eukaryotes. Moreover, the project prompted us to develop a new way to analyze mRNA decay genome wide. Thus, the research was hugely successful beyond our objectives.

  14. Global quantitative proteomics reveal up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response proteins upon depletion of eIF5A in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Ajeet; Mandal, Swati; Park, Myung Hee

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation factor, eIF5A, is a translation factor essential for protein synthesis, cell growth and animal development. By use of a adenoviral eIF5A shRNA, we have achieved an effective depletion of eIF5A in HeLa cells and undertook in vivo comprehensive proteomic analyses to examine the effects of eIF5A depletion on the total proteome and to identify cellular pathways influenced by eIF5A. The proteome of HeLa cells transduced with eIF5A shRNA was compared with that of scramble shRNA-transduced counterpart by the iTRAQ method. We identified 972 proteins consistently detected in three iTRAQ experiments and 104 proteins with significantly altered levels (protein ratio ≥1.5 or ≤0.66, p-value ≤0.05) at 72 h and/or 96 h of Ad-eIF5A-shRNA transduction. The altered expression levels of key pathway proteins were validated by western blotting. Integration of functional ontology with expression data of the 104 proteins revealed specific biological processes that are prominently up- or down-regulated. Heatmap analysis and Cytoscape visualization of biological networks identified protein folding as the major cellular process affected by depletion of eIF5A. Our unbiased, quantitative, proteomic data demonstrate that the depletion of eIF5A leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress, an unfolded protein response and up-regulation of chaperone expression in HeLa cells. PMID:27180817

  15. Cloning of the cDNA for the TATA-binding protein-associated factorII170 subunit of transcription factor B-TFIID reveals homology to global transcription regulators in yeast and Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Jan A.; Borst, Jan Willem; van der Vliet, Peter C.; Gentz, Reiner; Timmers, H. Th. Marc

    1997-01-01

    The human transcription factor B-TFIID is comprised of TATA-binding protein (TBP) in complex with one TBP-associated factor (TAF) of 170 kDa. We report the isolation of the cDNA for TAFII170. By cofractionation and coprecipitation experiments, we show that the protein encoded by the cDNA encodes the TAF subunit of B-TFIID. Recombinant TAFII170 has (d)ATPase activity. Inspection of its primary structure reveals a striking homology with genes of other organisms, yeast MOT1, and Drosophila moira, which belongs to the Trithorax group. Both homologs were isolated in genetic screens as global regulators of pol II transcription. This supports our classification of B-TFIID as a pol II transcription factor and suggests that specific TBP–TAF complexes perform distinct functions during development. PMID:9342322

  16. Binding of the global response regulator protein CovR to the sag promoter of Streptococcus pyogenes reveals a new mode of CovR-DNA interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinxin; Gusa, Asiya A; Scott, June R; Churchward, Gordon

    2005-11-25

    CovR (CsrR) is a response regulator of gene expression in Streptococcus pyogenes. It regulates approximately 15% of the genome, including the genes encoding several streptococcal virulence factors, and acts primarily as a repressor rather than an activator of transcription. We showed that in vitro, CovR is sufficient to repress transcription from the sag promoter, which directs the expression of streptolysin S, a hemolysin that can damage the membranes of eukaryotic cells and subcellular organelles. Repression was stimulated 10-fold by phosphorylation of CovR with acetyl phosphate. In contrast to binding at the has and cov promoters, which direct the expression of genes involved in capsule biosynthesis and of CovR itself, binding of CovR to Psag was highly cooperative. CovR bound to two extended regions of Psag, an upstream region overlapping the -35 and -10 promoter elements and a downstream region overlapping the translation initiation signals of the sagA gene. Each of these regions contains only a single consensus CovR binding sequence, ATTARA, which at the has promoter defines individual sites to which CovR binds non-cooperatively. At Phas and Pcov the T residues in the sequence ATTARA are important for CovR binding. However, using uracil interference experiments we find that although the ATTARA sequence in the Psag upstream region contains thymine residues important for CovR binding, important thymine residues in the Psag downstream region are located outside this sequence. Furthermore, again in contrast to its behavior at the has and cov promoters where phosphorylation of CovR leads to a 2-3-fold increase in DNA binding affinity, binding of CovR to the sag promoter was stimulated 8-32-fold by phosphorylation. We suggest that these differences in CovR binding mean that individual promoters will be repressed at different intracellular levels of phosphorylated CovR, permitting differences in the response of members of the CovR regulon to environmental and

  17. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. T...

  18. Global identification of genes and pathways regulated by Akt during activation of T helper cells [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/14h

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that Akt differentially modulated a subset of NF-kB target genes during T cell activation. In the current study, we further explored the broader effects of Akt inhibition on T cell gene induction. Global microarray analysis was used to characterize T helper cell transcriptional responses following antigen receptor stimulation in the absence or presence of Akti1/2 (an allosteric inhibitor which targets Akt1 and Akt2, to identify novel targets dependent upon Akt and obtain a more comprehensive view of Akt-sensitive genes in Th2 helper T cells. Pathway analysis of microarray data from a CD4+ Th2 T cell line revealed effects on gene networks involving ribosomal and T cell receptor signaling pathways associated with Akti1/2 treatment. Using real-time PCR analysis, we validated the differential regulation of several genes in these pathways, including Ier3, Il13, Egr1, Ccl1 and Ccl4, among others. Additionally, transcription factor target gene (TFactS analysis revealed that NF-kB and Myc were the most significantly enriched transcription factors among Akt-dependent genes after T cell receptor and CD28 stimulation. Akt activation elicited increases in the enrichment of NF-kB- and Myc-targeted genes. The present study has identified a diverse set of genes, and possible mechanisms for their regulation, that are dependent on Akt during T cell activation.

  19. 野油菜黄单胞菌反枝苋致病菌毒素的分离和结构分析%Isolation and Characterization of a Phytotoxin from Xanthomonas campestris pv. retroflexus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明智; 徐凌; 孙自伶; 李永泉

    2007-01-01

    A phytotoxin from Xanthomonas campestris pv. retroflexus was isolated using a chromatographer and HPLC, and the components were identified to be a mixture of minor molecular compounds including organic acids and cyclo-(proline-phenylalanine). The greenhouse cultivation test was used to determine the influence of the isolated fractions on the growth of target weed redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L). The experimental results demonstrated that the cyclo-(Pro-Phe) had the weed inhibit activity obviously on dicotyledonous weed and the mixture with six organic acids showed stronger bioactivity. Further, greenhouse and field test were processed, and the test showed that the use of the toxin appeared to have the potential to be developed further as a bioherbicide system to control weedy grasses.

  20. Global Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Thien Nguyen; Lukas Schmid; Mariano Croce

    2014-01-01

    The recent fiscal crisis in the EU and the slow-down of the BRICS countries have raised world-wide concerns about future global growth prospects. We examine the role of doubts about both local and foreign economic shocks by constructing an international endogenous growth model with technology diffusion across countries. In this setting, endogenous technology spillovers generate global growth shocks. When agents have concerns for robustness, country-specific shocks (1) alter global entropy, an...

  1. Global Sourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Stančíková, Katarína

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is to examine the Global Sourcing purchasing strategy as an instrument of reducing the acquisition costs of the company. Globalization has brought increased competition and pressure on reduction of purchase prices in all sectors of the world economy. The use of international trade market is currently an integral part of almost every business strategy. The concept of Global Sourcing consists not only in the use of international markets and the acquisition of...

  2. Global panopticon

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary panopticon infrastructure and technologies are deployed to secure citizens using video surveillance, biometrics, labelling technologies, satellites and the global fibre network. This is an expanding business sector.

  3. Salutogenesis, globalization, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Theodor Dierk; Lehmann, Nadja

    2011-12-01

    Achieving successful communication in transcultural contexts means integrating emotional communication patterns into a global context. Professional, rational communication is characteristic of the cultural dimension, and emotions are characteristic of the direct, interpersonal dimension of human existence. Humans strive to achieve coherence in all dimensions of their lives; this goal is in the end the most essential aspect of psychophysical self-regulation. A major role in integrating emotional needs and cultural features in global coherence is played by the attractor 'global affinity'. The transitions from emotional coherence to cultural coherence, and likewise from cultural coherence to global coherence, can cause considerable insecurity as well as psychological problems, which previously went by the name 'adjustment disorders'. However, instead of pathologizing these processes, we should understand them in a salutogenic sense as challenges important for both individual and collective development. The development of more coherence is regulated by the neuropsychological approach and avoidance system. This system can be consciously fostered by directing our attention to the commonalities of all human beings. Such a global salutogenic orientation furthers both communication and creativity in teamwork. This article introduces a consequent salutogenic and evolutionary systemic view of transcultural communication and demonstrates its effectiveness in a number of case examples. PMID:22272595

  4. Global analysis of estrogen receptor beta binding to breast cancer cell genome reveals an extensive interplay with estrogen receptor alpha for target gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa Maria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα and beta (ERβ are transcription factors (TFs that mediate estrogen signaling and define the hormone-responsive phenotype of breast cancer (BC. The two receptors can be found co-expressed and play specific, often opposite, roles, with ERβ being able to modulate the effects of ERα on gene transcription and cell proliferation. ERβ is frequently lost in BC, where its presence generally correlates with a better prognosis of the disease. The identification of the genomic targets of ERβ in hormone-responsive BC cells is thus a critical step to elucidate the roles of this receptor in estrogen signaling and tumor cell biology. Results Expression of full-length ERβ in hormone-responsive, ERα-positive MCF-7 cells resulted in a marked reduction in cell proliferation in response to estrogen and marked effects on the cell transcriptome. By ChIP-Seq we identified 9702 ERβ and 6024 ERα binding sites in estrogen-stimulated cells, comprising sites occupied by either ERβ, ERα or both ER subtypes. A search for TF binding matrices revealed that the majority of the binding sites identified comprise one or more Estrogen Response Element and the remaining show binding matrixes for other TFs known to mediate ER interaction with chromatin by tethering, including AP2, E2F and SP1. Of 921 genes differentially regulated by estrogen in ERβ+ vs ERβ- cells, 424 showed one or more ERβ site within 10 kb. These putative primary ERβ target genes control cell proliferation, death, differentiation, motility and adhesion, signal transduction and transcription, key cellular processes that might explain the biological and clinical phenotype of tumors expressing this ER subtype. ERβ binding in close proximity of several miRNA genes and in the mitochondrial genome, suggests the possible involvement of this receptor in small non-coding RNA biogenesis and mitochondrial genome functions. Conclusions Results indicate that the

  5. Global Uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  6. Born globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2013-01-01

    Internationalisering er ofte en gradvis proces, men nogle typer af nyetablerede små og mellemstore virksomheder formår at blive globale på kort tid......Internationalisering er ofte en gradvis proces, men nogle typer af nyetablerede små og mellemstore virksomheder formår at blive globale på kort tid...

  7. Global fordeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2015-01-01

    Øgede globale økologiske distributionskonflikter i kraft af neoliberal globalisering drevet af kravet om økonomisk vækst......Øgede globale økologiske distributionskonflikter i kraft af neoliberal globalisering drevet af kravet om økonomisk vækst...

  8. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  9. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10-3 range

  10. Global NATO or global partnerships?

    OpenAIRE

    Koschut, Simon

    2007-01-01

    "NATO needs to define its global purpose if it wishes to address global threats. What is the prospect of NATO going global and how will it affect NATO's future course? In the run-up to the NATO Summit in Riga in November 2006, a debate on both sides of the Atlantic has now evolved over NATO's global engagement that touches on the very foundations of NATO's original purpose and definition. Critically, the debate is no longer about wether NATO should go 'out of area or out of business' but whet...

  11. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  12. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the...

  13. Global Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  14. Sleep locally, act globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Lima, Steven L; Lesku, John A

    2012-10-01

    In most animals, sleep is considered a global brain and behavioral state. However, recent intracortical recordings have shown that aspects of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness can occur simultaneously in different parts of the cortex in mammals, including humans. Paradoxically, however, NREM sleep still manifests as a global behavioral shutdown. In this review, the authors examine this paradox from an evolutionary perspective. On the basis of strategic modeling, they suggest that in animals with brains composed of heavily interconnected and functionally interdependent units, a global regulator of sleep maintains the behavioral shutdown that defines sleep and thereby ensures that local use-dependent functions are performed in a safe and efficient manner. This novel perspective has implications for understanding deficits in human cognitive performance resulting from sleep deprivation, sleep disorders such as sleepwalking, changes in consciousness that occur during sleep, and the function of sleep itself. PMID:22572533

  15. Global Transcriptional Regulation of Backbone Genes in Broad-Host-Range Plasmid RA3 from the IncU Group Involves Segregation Protein KorB (ParB Family).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinska, Anna; Godziszewska, Jolanta; Wojciechowska, Anna; Ludwiczak, Marta; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2016-04-01

    The KorB protein of the broad-host-range conjugative plasmid RA3 from the IncU group belongs to the ParB family of plasmid and chromosomal segregation proteins. As a partitioning DNA-binding factor, KorB specifically recognizes a 16-bp palindrome which is an essential motif in the centromere-like sequence parSRA3, forms a segrosome, and together with its partner IncC (ParA family) participates in active DNA segregation ensuring stable plasmid maintenance. Here we show that by binding to this palindromic sequence, KorB also acts as a repressor for the adjacent mobC promoter driving expression of the mobC-nicoperon, which is involved in DNA processing during conjugation. Three other promoters, one buried in the conjugative transfer module and two divergent promoters located at the border between the replication and stability regions, are regulated by KorB binding to additional KorB operators (OBs). KorB acts as a repressor at a distance, binding to OBs separated from their cognate promoters by between 46 and 1,317 nucleotides. This repressor activity is facilitated by KorB spreading along DNA, since a polymerization-deficient KorB variant with its dimerization and DNA-binding abilities intact is inactive in transcriptional repression. KorB may act as a global regulator of RA3 plasmid functions in Escherichia coli, since its overexpression in transnegatively interferes with mini-RA3 replication and stable maintenance of RA3. PMID:26850301

  16. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  17. Global transcription regulation of RK2 plasmids: a case study in the combined use of dynamical mathematical models and statistical inference for integration of experimental data and hypothesis exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christopher M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IncP-1 plasmids are broad host range plasmids that have been found in clinical and environmental bacteria. They often carry genes for antibiotic resistance or catabolic pathways. The archetypal IncP-1 plasmid RK2 is a well-characterized biological system, with a fully sequenced and annotated genome and wide range of experimental measurements. Its central control operon, encoding two global regulators KorA and KorB, is a natural example of a negatively self-regulated operon. To increase our understanding of the regulation of this operon, we have constructed a dynamical mathematical model using Ordinary Differential Equations, and employed a Bayesian inference scheme, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, as a way of integrating experimental measurements and a priori knowledge. We also compared MCMC and Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA as approaches for determining the sensitivity of model parameters. Results We identified two distinct sets of parameter values, with different biological interpretations, that fit and explain the experimental data. This allowed us to highlight the proportion of repressor protein as dimers as a key experimental measurement defining the dynamics of the system. Analysis of joint posterior distributions led to the identification of correlations between parameters for protein synthesis and partial repression by KorA or KorB dimers, indicating the necessary use of joint posteriors for correct parameter estimation. Using MCA, we demonstrated that the system is highly sensitive to the growth rate but insensitive to repressor monomerization rates in their selected value regions; the latter outcome was also confirmed by MCMC. Finally, by examining a series of different model refinements for partial repression by KorA or KorB dimers alone, we showed that a model including partial repression by KorA and KorB was most compatible with existing experimental data. Conclusions We

  18. A global view of regulations affecting nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2010-01-01

    The 2000s have been characterized by an unprecedented exploration into research and development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Despite a slow start, new regulatory initiatives are popping up like mushrooms internationally. Many of these initiatives have yet to materialize themselves...

  19. Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Antipas T. S. Massawe

    2012-01-01

    Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the collective deployment in each of the determinant countries to enable mitigation of the greenhouse gases build-up caused global warming.

  20. Global safety

    OpenAIRE

    DeTombe, Dorien J.

    2010-01-01

    Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy relat...

  1. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels....... The boundaries of firms and countries are increasingly porous and imprecise, because firms use alliances and outsourcing, and countries are rarely technologically self-sufficient. On the other hand, locations remain distinct and idiosyncratic, with innovation systems remaining largely nationally bound...... makers and managers on industrial policy as well as the organisation of research and development by firms....

  2. Another globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of the architecture of the international institutional system and the promotion of those economical policies which must ensure the stability world-wide economy and the amelioration of the international equity.

  3. On Globalisation of Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Wessels

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the opinion that financial regulation should be dealt with on a national, and not on a global scale is criticised. The objections against global regulation are discussed and dismissed. The greater good of a solid global system is inconsistent with maintaining the full force of national social or economic policies. Bob Wessels submits that the best way forward is to look for (a combination of the best methods of regulation on the basis of geography, the nature of regulation itself (hard law, best practices, guidelines, the function of certain rules in relation to the goals or the expectations they aim to address and the character of these rules. A parallel is drawn with the way in which cross-border insolvencies are regulated, including solutions from practitioners in the global insolvency of Lehman Brothers Group of Companies. Given the essential role courts play the presence of new rules of the international insolvency should be supported by more robust rules for the cross-border judicial coordination of cross-border cases, such as a convention. The body of financial regulation should be guided by international accepted principles and guidelines and international regulation and national implementation should reflect a balance between what is necessary in the light of the past events, while still leaving room for fair national demands and policies. The allocation of clear responsibility and authority to regulating bodies should warrant an efficient and effective answer for what, at the core, is a global problem, related to international financial markets.

  4. Response of Stomata to Global Climate Changes and the Underlying Regulation Mechanism of Stress Responses%植物气孔对全球环境变化的响应及其调控防御机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春娟; 夏晓剑; 师恺; 周艳虹; 喻景权

    2012-01-01

    Stomata are the primary conduits of water loss and gas exchange of plants and play important roles in the interaction between plants and environment. In the context of dramatic environmental changes such as increase of air CO2 concentration, global warming and frequently drought stress, the paper analyzes the great contribution of stomata function to global water and carbon cycles. Based on this, we summarized changes of morphological development and physiological functions in response to high air CO2, drought, soil salinity, and pathogen infection. We also analyzed the involvement of abscisic acid (ABA), Ca2+, H2O2, nitric oxide (NO) and light signaling in the regulation of stomatal functioning. Finally, we proposed strategy to control the water use efficiency without inhibition of photosynthesis and biomass accumulation by manipulating environmental conditions in practice.%气孔是植物与环境发生联系的重要门户,控制着植物与外界的气体和水分交换.本文针对全球大气CO2浓度升高、气候变暖、干旱加剧等环境问题,分析了气孔对全球水循环、碳循环的重要贡献.系统总结了气孔的形态发育和生理功能对大气高CO2浓度、干旱、土壤盐渍化、病虫害等的响应及其调控防御机制.综述了脱落酸(ABA)、Ca2+、H2O2、一氧化氮(NO)和光信号调控气孔运动的分子机制.从理论和实践两方面,提出了通过调控气孔运动协调CO2同化和水分散失的矛盾,在不影响光合效率的前提下提高水分利用率等未来的研究方向.

  5. Global Sourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Mol; R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob); P.R. Beije (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSince the early 1990s international - or even global - outsourcing of intermediate products from suppliers has been propagated as a key means to improve the performance of firms. It is argued that becoming more lean and internationally focused is beneficial for the buyer as we

  6. Globalizing Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    countries to keep up the process of globalization may be substantial, and the economic gains for such countries from adjusting to a more internationally integrated world economy are clear. However, in small- population economies, especially social-democratic welfare states, the internal pressure to...

  7. Global overeksponering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    - idet min lillebror er blandt de anholdte; og mine forældre derfor skulle være blandt de skyldige. Hvilket har fået mig til at fare i blækhuset, med en alternativ forklaringsmodel, der ikke handler om skyld. Kulturen omkring Ungdomshuset er globalt orienteret, og derfor meget sensible overfor global...... forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... også sig selv og sin omverden igennem en global optik. Ungdommen af i dag er som børn vokset op i et samfund og dannelseskultur, der ikke har været globalt orienteret, hvor demokratiske værdier som frihed, lighed, menneskerettigheder her hersket i det socialdemokratiske projekt om sammenhængskraft. Og...

  8. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2016-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries.......This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably and...

  9. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  10. Globalizing America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Thomas L.; Boyd, Gavin

    An argument that globalization is an ungoverned integration process in which US firms are agents of structural change. It describes the benefits and costs (for example, generating pressure for protection of US home markets), and reviews the expansion of interdependencies between the US and others....

  11. Global militarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; Global Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.

  12. BRICS COUNTRIES IN GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Lunev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization remains the crucial trend of global development, and it is especially evident in economic sphere. Apart from it, political, informational and cultural globalizations are actively discussed. The rapid development of global market, initiated by the West, paradoxically, fostered redistribution of economic influence towards the non-Western countries and primarily to Asia. Therefore, the record of participation of BRICS states (China and India, primarily in global processes is instructive. These two countries achieve significant developmental successes due to their integration in world economy without abandoning active participation of their government in regulation of economic and social activities. Analysis of the strategies adopted of other BRICS countries could appear quite useful for Russia. 

  13. Amazonia and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

    Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

  14. Ideological Hegemony and Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Ford Brown

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze libertarian discourse from the perspective of regulation theory, a~ a hegemonic ideology that underlies the emergence of a new mode of regulation. Within this general theoretical approach, I will also employ frames from regime theory as developed by international relations scholars, as well as the "epistemic community" approach from the same discipline. I want to suggest that free-market ideology could engender the emergence of rationalized global governance in order ...

  15. Global Kamasan

    OpenAIRE

    Siobhan Campbell

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe painting tradition of Kamasan is often cited as an example of theresilience of traditional Balinese culture in the face of globalisation andthe emergence of new forms of art and material culture. This articleexplores the painting tradition of Kamasan village in East Bali and it’srelationship to the collecting of Balinese art. While Kamasan paintingretains important social and religious functions in local culture, thevillage has a history of interactions between global and local pl...

  16. Globalization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIZU, RYUEI

    1992-01-01

    History of overseas strategies of Japanese firms can be divided into three periods; until 1960's, when import and export were the main focus; from 1970's to the first half of 1980's, when establishing overseas bases was a major interest for clear purposes of reducing labor cost, averting trade conflicts, or securing natural resources; and after 1985, when strategy started to be formulated from more global viewpoint in order to cope with new situation arising from stronger yen and Japan having...

  17. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Austria the CO2 emissions increased by 5.9 % from 1990 to 1999, the other greenhouse gases by 2.6 %. The Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Environment and Water Management, in cooperation with other ministries and the countries, has worked out an action plan for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to meet the targets of the Kyoto protocol. This study analyzes the greenhouse gas emissions in Austria, in the European Union and globally. The measured emission values throughout Austria and in the other European countries are given in tables, the environmental impact for Austria and globally is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental emission control in Austria, the European Union and worldwide are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the greenhouse gas emissions is analysed. (a.n.)

  18. Study on character evolution and cladistic taxonomy of wild rapes (Brassica campestris and B. juncea)in Tibet%西藏野生油菜性状演化与分支分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建林; 常天军; 成海宏; 方华丽

    2008-01-01

    以西藏野生白菜型油菜(Brassica campestris L.)和野生芥菜型油菜(B. judea Czern. et Coss.)的39个形态学性状为依据,以醉蝶花(Cleome spinosa Jacq.)为外类群,确定了性状的祖征和衍征.应用最大同步法,对35个西藏野生油菜种源的性状演化与分支分类进行了研究.结果表明,野生白菜型油菜和野生芥菜型油菜的基生叶、薹茎叶和花器官性状既有同期演化性状也有非同期演化性状;而伸长茎叶的所有性状均为非同期演化性状,有各自独特的演化规则.西藏野生白菜型油菜分为藏东野生白菜型油菜和藏中野生白菜型油菜2个组,野生芥菜型油菜分为藏中西野生芥菜型油菜和藏南野生芥菜型油菜2个组,各自沿不同的路线演化.

  19. Production of the Quinone-Methide Triterpene Maytenin by In Vitro Adventitious Roots of Peritassa campestris (Cambess. A.C.Sm. (Celastraceae and Rapid Detection and Identification by APCI-IT-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antunes Paz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Peritassa campestris (Celastraceae was achieved from seed cotyledons cultured in semisolid Woody Plant Medium (WPM supplemented with 2% sucrose, 0.01% PVP, and 4.0 mg L−1 IBA. Culture period on accumulation of biomass and quinone-methide triterpene maytenin in adventitious root were investigated. The accumulation of maytenin in these roots was compared with its accumulation in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse (one year old. A rapid detection and identification of maytenin by direct injection into an atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer (APCI-IT-MS/MS were performed without prior chromatographic separation. In vitro, the greatest accumulation of biomass occurred within 60 days of culture. The highest level of maytenin—972.11 μg·g−1 dry weight—was detected at seven days of cultivation; this value was 5.55-fold higher than that found in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse.

  20. Energy globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  1. Governing Global Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    in helping elites avoid taxes and other forms of regulation. The study documents how the means through which they achieve this objective - shifting billions in private capital wealth between Asia, Africa, India and Europe - and how this affects the balance of regional economic power. Drawing from an...... institutionalist perspective, the paper examines three ways in which wealth managers, both individually and through their professional society, influence regional competition for power and wealth: 1) by finding loopholes in existing policies that limit the global flow of capital; 2) by lobbying national and...

  2. Contract & agency labour: beyond self-regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A paper about the regulation of contract labour. Academic and legal aspects as well as case studies of global union federation work to organise and regulate contract labour in Thailand, Pakistan, Colombia, South Korea and at international level.

  3. Global Noise and Global Englishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Pennycook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA, alluding to Tricia Rose’s US rap-music book, Black Noise, aims to do much more than merely extend the reach of the study of rap and hip-hop beyond the USA, as its subtitle might suggest. While acknowledging the importance of the work of both Rose and Potter, this collection’s editor, Tony Mitchell, contests their respective views that rap and hip-hop are essentially expressions of African-American culture, and that all forms of rap and hip-hop derive from these origins. He argues that these forms have become ‘a vehicle for global youth affiliations and a tool for reworking local iden- tity all over the world’.

  4. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  5. Global environmental policy; Globale Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varwick, J. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    For some years, the interest in global environmental problems and global environmental policy increased substantially. In order to prevent a sustainable and irreversible damage of the global ecological systems, it requires an ecological restructuring of the economy of the industrial nations and a environmental compatible development in the developing countries. Under this aspect, the book under consideration dedicates itself to this problem by means of five scientific contributions: (a) The principle sustainability (Felix Ekardt); (b) Climate change as a world problem (Andreas Rechkemmer); (c) The role of the pioneer of the European Union in the international climate policy: Successes and challenges (Sebastian Oberthuer); (d) Cause for conflict water (Tobias Lindenberg); (e) Environmental political instruments in theory and practice (Johanna Reichenbach/Till Requate). Instruction practice also is concerned with a cross section topic consisting of environmental and European politics: Competent instructions concerning to the European Union - an instruction series for the secondary school I (George Wiesseno, Valentin Eck). Two forum contributions go beyond the topic: (a) Against rigid (society-)political borders in the science (Tim Engartner); (b) Elections in Hamburg - Schwarz-Gruen as new coalition model for the federation? In the column 'the current topic' Gotthard Breit reports on the protests against China on the occasion of the Olympic Games 2008. The author focuses some strangenesses in the debate and pleads for a sober view of the topic. With a report on 'the Beutelsbacher discussions' at 18th to 20th February, 2008, Timo Web finishes this book.

  6. Global teaching of global seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  7. The global environment: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global environmental chemistry today involves a rapidly expanding need both for new research and for the development of an interdiciplinary approach to the multiplicity of interconnected environmental problems. Every ecosystem shows signs of damage: growing quantities of wastes; decreasing water supplies; soil degradation; coastal zone deterioration; deforestation and climatic change; global warming due to ozone depletion. Solutions must involve a cooperative and holistic global effort in three areas: scientific understanding of how the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes regulate the total Earth system; public policy implications including closer liaison between scientists and policymakers;and understanding of the state of the global environment, what is going wrong, why, and whether it is getting worse

  8. Alternative polyadenylation: New insights from global analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Recent global studies revealed that mRNA alternative polyadenylation (APA) is widespread in eukaryotic transcriptomes and is an important mechanism for gene regulation. APA deregulation has been found in a variety of diseases. This article reviews recent progress in the field and provides a global perspective on the prevalence, mechanisms, and functional impact of APA.

  9. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  10. Global Islamophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Asal, Houda

    2014-01-01

    Alors que la littérature sur le sujet demeure lacunaire en France, les ouvrages en anglais portant sur l’islamophobie se sont multipliés de manière significative ces dernières années. De qualités inégales, ces publications montrent, si ce n’est l’intérêt du public, du moins celui du monde de l’édition pour ce sujet. L’ouvrage collectif Global Islamophobia, Muslims and Moral Panic in the West, dirigé par George Morgan and Scott Poynting, paru aux éditions Ashgate en 2012, se démarque par son a...

  11. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEF was set up as a pilot programme in 1991 to provide grant and concessional funds to developing countries for projects and activities that aim to protect the global environment. In March 1994, participating governments successfully concluded negotiations to restructure the Facility. The Core Fund of the GEF was also replenished with over $2 billion to be committed over a three-year period. GEF resources are available for projects that address climate change, biological diversity, international waters and depletion of the ozone layer. Activities addressing land degradation, primarily desertification and deforestation, as they relate to the four areas, are also eligible for funding. The GEF is jointly implemented by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Bank

  12. Going Global

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    asset-holding trust from a tool of medieval English landowners into a mainstay of contemporary international finance. Drawing on interviews with 61 wealth management professionals in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas, this article uses their accounts of the diffusion and deployment of trusts to......This study links theories of relationality and institutional change to deepen understanding of professionals’ role in globalization. In previous institutional research, it has been conventional to treat professionals as agents of firms or transnational organizations, and institutional change as the...... result of planned, strategic ‘professional projects’. By bringing a relational analysis to bear on the problem of institutional change, this study reasserts the theoretical significance of individual agency and everyday interactions between professionals and their clients, peers, and organizational...

  13. Global gamesmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves. PMID:12747163

  14. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  15. EDTA 对镉胁迫下小白菜幼苗保护酶活性的影响%Effects of EDTA on the Protective Enzymatic Activities of Brassica Campestris L.chinensis under Cadmium Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 郝振萍

    2015-01-01

    以3种小白菜为试验材料,探讨了乙二胺四乙酸(EDTA)对镉胁迫下小白菜幼苗保护酶活性的影响。结果表明:外施一定浓度的 EDTA 后,可以缓解镉胁迫对小白菜造成的伤害;当 EDTA 浓度为7.5 mmol·L-1时,小白菜 SOD、POD 酶活性最高,MDA 含量最低;当 EDTA 浓度为5 mmol·L-1时,CAT 酶活性最高;不同品种抗性表现不同,供试的3种小白菜品种中,抗热605的抗性最强。%Three species of Brassica campestris L.chinesis were used in this study to learn the effects of EDTA on the protective enzymatic activities of seedling under cadmium stress.The results showed that EDTA reduced the hurt from cadmium stress under special concentration. When the EDTA concentration was 7.5 mmol·L-1 ,the activities of SOD and POD were at their highest level and the content of MDA was the lowest.When the EDTA concentration was 5 mmol·L-1 ,the activity of CAT was the highest.Different species showed different reactions to cadmium stress,among which kangre 605 was the best during three species.

  16. 野油菜黄单胞菌中gumD基因的过表达对产黄原胶的影响%Effect of by overexpressing gumD in Xanthomonas campestris on the xanthan gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂兰; 张晓元; 陈晓燕; 朱希强; 凌沛学

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To improve the yield and quality of xanthan gum by overexpressing gumD in Xanthomonas campestris 58 ( Xc58 ). Methods By PCR amplification, plasmid construction, triparental conjugation and other methods,pBBR-gumD was transformed into the original strain Xc58. Results Compared with Xc58,the recombinant strain Xc58-D has increased by 11. 19% in the yield of xanthan gum, by 6.31% increased in viscosity,by 20. 21 % increased in molecular weight,and by 77. 07% increased in acetyl content, but 6. 34% decreased in pyruvate content. Conclusion The recombinant strain has a higher yield and improves the quality of xanthan gum.%目的 在野油菜黄单胞茵58(Xc58)中过量表达产胶基因gumD,提高黄原胶发酵产量和质量.方法 通过PCR扩增、重组质粒构建、三亲本接合等方法,将重组质粒pBBR-gumD转入原始茵Xc58.结果 工程茵与原始茵相比,黄原胶产量提高11.19%,黏度提高6.31%,重均分子质量提高20.21%,乙酰基含量提高77.07%,丙酮酸含量下降6.34%.结论 改造后的菌株的黄原胶发酵产量和质量都较原始茵株有所提高.

  17. Globalization Measurement: Notes on Common Globalization Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    SAMIMI, Parisa; Guan Choo LIM; Abdul Aziz BUANG

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a broad concept casually used to describe a variety of phenomena that reflect increased economic, social and political interdependence of countries. Despite the increasing awareness on globalization, it is interesting to note that there is no any universally accepted definition and there is no standard measurement for globalization. Along with the growing number of countries participating in globalized world, there have been increasing concerns related to the globalization an...

  18. cambio global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alonso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un avance significativo dentro del área de la ecología sólo se podrá lograr con la adopción generalizada de un sistema basado en el uso compartido de los datos entre científicos. Esta práctica, apoyada por el desarrollo de metadatos precisos que acompañen a los propios datos, conseguirá aumentar la escala temporal y espacial de los objetos de estudio, ventajas evidentes en un área en la que cuestiones de carácter global como el estudio de los efectos del cambio climático van adquiriendo cada vez mayor importancia. En la actualidad existen numerosos grupos de científicos que trabajan voluntariamente en el desarrollo de herramientas que faciliten a los científicos la documentación y el almacenaje de sus datos. Asimismo, Internet está demostrando ser un potente instrumento para compartirlos. Aprovechar estos recursos es decisión nuestra.

  19. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO2 and NOx which cause acid rain, and CO2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  20. Ideological Hegemony and Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ford Brown

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze libertarian discourse from the perspective of regulation theory, a~ a hegemonic ideology that underlies the emergence of a new mode of regulation. Within this general theoretical approach, I will also employ frames from regime theory as developed by international relations scholars, as well as the "epistemic community" approach from the same discipline. I want to suggest that free-market ideology could engender the emergence of rationalized global governance in order to maintain free trade, property rights, and other regulatory concerns of the emerging mode of accumulation, and that such a world state could conceivably extend liberalism's life by carrying liberalism to its extreme.

  1. Regulating Biodiversity: What is the Problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Swanson; Ben Groom

    2012-01-01

    We distinguish between local problems of biodiversity loss and global ones, where international cooperation is required. Global biodiversity regulation involves choosing the optimal stopping rule regarding global land conversions, in order to ensure that some areas of unconverted natural reserves remain to support the production sector that exists on converted lands. The basic difficulty with implementing a solution to this global problem lies in the asymmetry in endowments between those stat...

  2. Global Warming on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  3. The politics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author)

  4. 78 FR 38069 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Register on February 6, 2012 (77 FR 5681), promulgated the regulation to establish Global Entry as an... FR 17492.) Travelers who wish to participate in Global Entry must apply via the CBP Global Entry Web..., New York (JFK); George Bush Intercontinental Airport, Houston, Texas (IAH); Washington...

  5. The contradictory impact of globalization and migration on gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Globalization and migration have increased diversities and inequalities within and between nation-states and have created new problems regarding public policies intented to regulate political and socio-economic problems on national and global levels. Globalization and increased migration thus...

  6. Electric power globalization and reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to define the economic and political forces of the electric power sector regulation restructuring

  7. Global sea level linked to global temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeer, M.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple relationship linking global sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to global mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a global climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future global temperat...

  8. Markets, religion, regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    of regulation, certification and standardization on a global scale. Building on research on global kosher (a Hebrew term meaning “fit” or “proper”), halal (an Arabic word that literally means “permissible” or “lawful”) and Hindu vegetarianism this paper argues that these economies or markets to a...... large extent are conditioned by and themselves condition forms of transnational governmentality, that is, new and often overlapping practices of government and grassroots politics. I explore religious economies and markets at three interrelated levels of the social scale: state and non-state regulation......Most recent scholarship on moral economies or religious markets argues for the compatibility of economies/markets and religious practices in particular national or regional contexts. However, over the last couple of decades or so religious markets have entered a new phase characterized by new forms...

  9. Globalization and protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years two trends have come into conflict in the international arena. The first is the globalization of economy and the second is the increased public concern over the environmental impact of economic activities and awareness of the global dimensions of many environmental problems. Nowadays confrontation of the issue of globalization and economic liberalization and protect of the environment is a matter of heated debate and environmentalists see globalization posing a threat to environment standards. The effects of liberalization on environment in the developing world have been analyzed from the perspective of the pollution- have hypothesis. The hypothesis suggests that the liberalization encourages a spatial displacement of the so-called dirtyor pollution- intensive industries from the developed countries with stricter environmental regulations to their preferential location in developing countries which enjoy minimal environmental regulations or capacity for environmental monitoring and enforcement. It also suggests that economic policies which promote foreign investment in the natural resources of developing countries will increase rates of natural-resource extraction in the developing world. according to the theory, the translational firms will employ cheep technologies in developing countries which are not environmental sound and no longer permitted to use in the industrialized world

  10. GLOBALIZATION IN WORLD ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Garifullina, A.; Ilyasova, I.

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is objective process of formation, development and action of new world, global system. Undoubtedly, consequences of globalization can carry both positive, and negative character, however to it isn’t present alternative

  11. Globalization and inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has disintegrat

  12. Global Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    insight from the literature about business models, international product policy, international entry modes and globalization into a conceptual model of relevant design elements of global business models, enabling global business model innovation to deal with differences in a downstream perspective...

  13. The Evidence on Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is blamed for many socio-economic shortcomings. I discuss the consequences of globalization by surveying the empirical globalization literature. My focus is on the KOF indices of globalization (Dreher 2006a and Dreher et al. 2008a), that have been used in more than 100 studies. Early studies using the KOF index reported correlations between globalization and several outcome variables. Studies published more recently identify causal effects. The evidence shows that globalization ...

  14. Security Components of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Iftode

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contrib...

  15. Cosmic global strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the following topics: Global Strings; The Gravitational field of a straight global string; How do global strings behave? The axion cosmological energy density; Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; and Electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields

  16. GLOBALIZATION AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Arye L. Hillman

    2008-01-01

    Globalization enhances efficiency and economic growth and expands the domain of personal contact and communication. Nonetheless, globalization has also evoked discontent because of claimed social injustice. The relation between globalization and social justice therefore merits attention, in order to identify whether justifications for discontent are present and, if there are reasons for discontent, to establish whether globalization should be blamed.

  17. Globalization and international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlica Slobodan I.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses main characteristics of integration and globalization as economic phenomena. Basic characteristics of the contemporary wave of globalization were compared with the characteristics of the first wave of globalization (1870-1913). Two waves of globalization have important similarities. Ignoring of data from economic history became a source of myths about processes in modern world economy.

  18. China and Global Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2007-01-01

    To enhance global governance has become more urgent with rapid development of globalization in the post-Cold War years. China has benefited from the process of globalization and hence should make greater contribution to the global governance in the future.

  19. Cosmic global strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikivie, P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: Global Strings; The Gravitational field of a straight global string; How do global strings behave The axion cosmological energy density; Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; and Electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields.

  20. THE NATURE AND PROBLEMS OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Janno Reiljan; Ele Reiljan

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this working paper is to point out major ways of regulating the global economy in order to increase impact of foreign trade, credits and (foreign) investments on economic growth and welfare. Some basic problems that occur in the process of balancing economic development are studied. The nature of economic globalization is determined at the beginning of the article. After this, the role of international trade, foreign direct investments and development assistance is studied. F...

  1. Global cities in the global corporate network

    OpenAIRE

    William K. Carroll

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s two separate literatures—one focused on global cities, the other on transnational corporate interlocking—have explored issues of hierarchy and networking within the global political economy. I present an analysis of how major cities and interlocking corporate directorates are articulated together into a global network. Findings indicate that the network is concentrated in the main world cities in a way that reinforces the northern transatlantic economic system. However, the st...

  2. Multiple Patterns of Regulation and Overexpression of a Ribonuclease-Like Pathogenesis-Related Protein Gene, OsPR10a, Conferring Disease Resistance in Rice and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siou-Luan; Chen, Jyh-Lang; Jiang, Jian-Zhi; Chen, Bo-Hong; Hou, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Ruey-Shyang; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Ho, Shin-Lon

    2016-01-01

    An abundant 17 kDa RNase, encoded by OsPR10a (also known as PBZ1), was purified from Pi-starved rice suspension-cultured cells. Biochemical analysis showed that the range of optimal temperature for its RNase activity was 40–70°C and the optimum pH was 5.0. Disulfide bond formation and divalent metal ion Mg2+ were required for the RNase activity. The expression of OsPR10a::GUS in transgenic rice was induced upon phosphate (Pi) starvation, wounding, infection by the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), leaf senescence, anther, style, the style-ovary junction, germinating embryo and shoot. We also provide first evidence in whole-plant system, demonstrated that OsPR10a-overexpressing in rice and Arabidopsis conferred significant level of enhanced resistance to infection by the pathogen Xoo and Xanthomona campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), respectively. Transgenic rice and Arabidopsis overexpressing OsPR10a significantly increased the length of primary root under phosphate deficiency (-Pi) condition. These results showed that OsPR10a might play multiple roles in phosphate recycling in phosphate-starved cells and senescing leaves, and could improve resistance to pathogen infection and/or against chewing insect pests. It is possible that Pi acquisition or homeostasis is associated with plant disease resistance. Our findings suggest that gene regulation of OsPR10a could act as a good model system to unravel the mechanisms behind the correlation between Pi starvation and plant-pathogen interactions, and also provides a potential application in crops disease resistance. PMID:27258121

  3. GLOBAL RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Er.Kirtesh Jailia,; Mrs.Manisha jailia; Er.Priyanka Jailia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are going to discuss about the concept of Global relationship management. This is an important concept because now a day the whole business community is moving globally, means the geographical boundaries are of no more concern for the business communities. The global thinking of the business communities leads to the global relationship hence it is important for them to effectively manage such global relationship so that they can achieve what they want. The main concern is ove...

  4. The Challenge of Global Poliomyelitis Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Julie R; Cochi, Stephen L; Orenstein, Walter A

    2015-12-01

    In the United States during the 1950's, polio was on the forefront of every provider and caregiver's mind. Today, most providers in the United States have never seen a case. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), which began in 1988 has reduced the number of cases by over 99%. The world is closer to achieving global eradication of polio than ever before but as long as poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world, every country is vulnerable. The global community can support the polio eradication effort through continued vaccination, surveillance, enforcing travel regulations and contributing financial support, partnerships and advocacy. PMID:26610419

  5. Planning for the Next Global Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Allen G P; Crowe, Suzanne M; Tyndall, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    In order to mitigate human and financial losses as a result of future global pandemics, we must plan now. As the Ebola virus pandemic declines, we must reflect on how we have mismanaged this recent international crisis and how we can better prepare for the next global pandemic. Of great concern is the increasing frequency of pandemics occurring over the last few decades. Clearly, the window of opportunity to act is closing. This editorial discusses many issues including priority emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases; the challenges of meeting international health regulations; the strengthening of global health systems; global pandemic funding; and the One Health approach to future pandemic planning. We recommend that the global health community unites to urgently address these issues in order to avoid the next humanitarian crisis. PMID:26253461

  6. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    This working paper creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance......, and global-scale corporate tax avoidance.......) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, and hierarchy - which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws to...... highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This paper highlights how Global Wealth Chains intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies, family property trusts...

  7. Planning for the Next Global Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G.P. Ross

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate human and financial losses as a result of future global pandemics, we must plan now. As the Ebola virus pandemic declines, we must reflect on how we have mismanaged this recent international crisis and how we can better prepare for the next global pandemic. Of great concern is the increasing frequency of pandemics occurring over the last few decades. Clearly, the window of opportunity to act is closing. This editorial discusses many issues including priority emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases; the challenges of meeting international health regulations; the strengthening of global health systems; global pandemic funding; and the One Health approach to future pandemic planning. We recommend that the global health community unites to urgently address these issues in order to avoid the next humanitarian crisis.

  8. Telomerase Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes-Rojas, Catherine; Dorothy E Shippen

    2011-01-01

    The intimate connection between telomerase regulation and human disease is now well established. The molecular basis for telomerase regulation is highly complex and entails multiple layers of control. While the major target of enzyme regulation is the catalytic subunit TERT, the RNA subunit of telomerase is also implicated in telomerase control. In addition, alterations in gene dosage and alternative isoforms of core telomerase components have been described. Finally, telomerase localization,...

  9. Radiation regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  10. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  11. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Wereldwijd overzicht van dierenwelzijnswetgeving, praktijken en percepties, met voorbeeldstudies over kippenvlees uit Brazilië en Thailand, eieren uit India en de Verenigde Staten, welzijnswetgeving voor kweekvis en welzijnsaspecten van (vermeende) overpopulatie van wilde dieren.Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects r...

  12. GOVERNMENT ROLE DURING THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Suleymanov, Elchin; Alirzayev, Elvin

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated government hand in the Global Financial Crisis. Before, during and after crisis government attempted to solve and avoid the turmoil. But did he succeed? Beginning with low interest rates set by FED, US government political pressures to enable more Americans to buy homes, unrestrained financial system despite of regulations and fines, human greedy were the main reasons for Great Recession. More than 30 years of deregulation and reliance on self-regulation by fi...

  13. Basel III, BIS and Global Financial Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haider

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the following aspects of global financial governance: • Proposed BASEL III reforms for more stringent capital requirements and their implications for the developing world in particular. • BIS proposals for better regulation of financial derivatives, including commodities futures, by moving away from OTC transactions towards organized exchanges. The Basel reforms and the BIS proposals for regulating the derivatives markets have many positive features. However, ...

  14. Globalization and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  15. A global regulatory science agenda for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmgren, Lindsay; Li, Xuguang; Wilson, Carolyn; Ball, Robert; Wang, Junzhi; Cichutek, Klaus; Pfleiderer, Michael; Kato, Atsushi; Cavaleri, Marco; Southern, James; Jivapaisarnpong, Teeranart; Minor, Philip; Griffiths, Elwyn; Sohn, Yeowon; Wood, David

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Collaboration and development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan provides a catalyst and unique opportunity for regulators worldwide to develop and propose a global regulatory science agenda for vaccines. Regulatory oversight is critical to allow access to vaccines that are safe, effective, and of assured quality. Methods used by regulators need to constantly evolve so that scientific and technological advances are applied to address challenges such as new products and technologies, and also to provide an increased understanding of benefits and risks of existing products. Regulatory science builds on high-quality basic research, and encompasses at least two broad categories. First, there is laboratory-based regulatory science. Illustrative examples include development of correlates of immunity; or correlates of safety; or of improved product characterization and potency assays. Included in such science would be tools to standardize assays used for regulatory purposes. Second, there is science to develop regulatory processes. Illustrative examples include adaptive clinical trial designs; or tools to analyze the benefit-risk decision-making process of regulators; or novel pharmacovigilance methodologies. Included in such science would be initiatives to standardize regulatory processes (e.g., definitions of terms for adverse events [AEs] following immunization). The aim of a global regulatory science agenda is to transform current national efforts, mainly by well-resourced regulatory agencies, into a coordinated action plan to support global immunization goals. This article provides examples of how regulatory science has, in the past, contributed to improved access to vaccines, and identifies gaps that could be addressed through a global regulatory science agenda. The article also identifies challenges to implementing a regulatory science agenda and proposes strategies and actions to fill these gaps. A global regulatory science agenda will enable

  16. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets. PMID:22345253

  17. COMPETING CONCEPTIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions. The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization. The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internation-alization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate conceptions of the global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research. Globalization studies can be categorized on the basis of four research clusters:1. The world-systems approach; 2. The global

  18. Global gene expression profiling of Yersinia pestis replicating inside macrophages reveals the roles of a putative stress-induced operon in regulating type III secretion and intracellular cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuto, Hana S; Svetlanov, Anton; Palmer, Lance E; Karzai, A Wali; Bliska, James B

    2010-09-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a facultative intracellular pathogen. Previous studies have indicated that the ability of Y. pestis to survive inside macrophages may be critical during the early stages of plague pathogenesis. To gain insights into the biology of intracellular Y. pestis and its environment following phagocytosis, we determined the genome-wide transcriptional profile of Y. pestis KIM5 replicating inside J774.1 macrophage-like cells using DNA microarrays. At 1.5, 4, and 8 h postinfection, a total of 801, 464, and 416 Y. pestis genes were differentially regulated, respectively, compared to the level of gene expression of control bacteria grown in tissue culture medium. A number of stress-response genes, including those involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species, as well as several metabolic genes involved in macromolecule synthesis, were significantly induced in intracellular Y. pestis, consistent with the presence of oxidative stress and nutrient starvation inside Yersinia-containing vacuoles. A putative stress-induced operon consisting of y2313, y2315, and y2316 (y2313-y2316), and a previously unidentified open reading frame, orfX, was studied further on the basis of its high level of intracellular expression. Mutant strains harboring either deletion, Deltay2313-y2316 or DeltaorfX, exhibited diverse phenotypes, including reduced effector secretion by the type III secretion system, increased intracellular replication, and filamentous morphology of the bacteria growing inside macrophages. The results suggest a possible role for these genes in regulating cell envelope characteristics in the intracellular environment. PMID:20566693

  19. Sustainable Global Sourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Mena, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Global trading has been a way of life for hundreds, if not thousands of years, but it is only recently that the environmental and social implications of global sourcing decisions are being taken more seriously.

  20. Global Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 12 16 18 20 22 25 4 Global Health and Aging Preface The world is facing ... stages of economic development and with varying resources. Global efforts are required to understand and find cures ...