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Sample records for campestris global regulator

  1. The host plant metabolite glucose is the precursor of diffusible signal factor (DSF) family signals in Xanthomonas campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyue; Liu, Xiaoling; Wu, Ji'en; Lee, Jasmine; Chen, Shaohua; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2015-04-01

    Plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris produces cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid (diffusible signal factor [DSF]) as a cell-cell communication signal to regulate biofilm dispersal and virulence factor production. Previous studies have demonstrated that DSF biosynthesis is dependent on the presence of RpfF, an enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase, but the DSF synthetic mechanism and the influence of the host plant on DSF biosynthesis are still not clear. We show here that exogenous addition of host plant juice or ethanol extract to the growth medium of X. campestris pv. campestris could significantly boost DSF family signal production. It was subsequently revealed that X. campestris pv. campestris produces not only DSF but also BDSF (cis-2-dodecenoic acid) and another novel DSF family signal, which was designated DSF-II. BDSF was originally identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia to be involved in regulation of motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in B. cenocepacia. Functional analysis suggested that DSF-II plays a role equal to that of DSF in regulation of biofilm dispersion and virulence factor production in X. campestris pv. campestris. Furthermore, chromatographic separation led to identification of glucose as a specific molecule stimulating DSF family signal biosynthesis in X. campestris pv. campestris. (13)C-labeling experiments demonstrated that glucose acts as a substrate to provide a carbon element for DSF biosynthesis. The results of this study indicate that X. campestris pv. campestris could utilize a common metabolite of the host plant to enhance DSF family signal synthesis and therefore promote virulence. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Transmission of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in seed production crops of cauliflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, P.; Krijger, M.C.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Stevens, L.H.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Fernandes Vieira, J.; Amaral Villela, F.

    2014-01-01

    n 2011, two polytunnel greenhouse experiments were conducted on seed production farms, one under conventional conditions in the South-West (Rilland) and the other under organic conditions in the East (Voorst) of the Netherlands, to study transmission routes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

  3. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895 Dowson 1939, on Brassicas in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Radunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata is most commonly grown, although other brassicas,particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly producedsince recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing ofcollard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleraceaspecies and in the nearest relation with their wild ancestor – the sylvestris variety.Diseases are the main restrictive factors for successful production of these vegetables.Susceptibility of the cultivars and inadequate control often result in more or less damagedcrops in some plots.Causal agents of brassica diseases, especially bacterial, have not been investigated inMontenegro until 2009. Since the symptoms observed in 2009 were „V” shaped leaf edgenecrosis and black rot of vascular tissue, it was assumed that they were caused by plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.Samples of the infected plants were collected from different localities in Montenegro.Isolation and identification of the bacterium were performed using laboratory methodsaccording to Schaad (1980, Lelliott and Stead (1987 and Arsenijević (1997. Examinationof chosen bacterial isolates was conducted using both, classical bacteriological methods(examination of their pathogenic, morphological, cultivation and biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics, and ELISA test.The obtained results confirmed the presence of X.campestris pv. campestris (Pammel,1895 Dowson 1939, on cabbage, kale, broccoli and collard in Montenegro. This is the firstexperimental evidence that collard is the host of X. campestris pv. campestris in Montenegro.

  4. MicroRNAs from the parasitic plant Cuscuta campestris target host messenger RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Saima; Kim, Gunjune; Johnson, Nathan R; Wafula, Eric; Wang, Feng; Coruh, Ceyda; Bernal-Galeano, Vivian; Phifer, Tamia; dePamphilis, Claude W; Westwood, James H; Axtell, Michael J

    2018-01-03

    Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are obligate parasitic plants that obtain water and nutrients from the stems of host plants via specialized feeding structures called haustoria. Dodder haustoria facilitate bidirectional movement of viruses, proteins and mRNAs between host and parasite, but the functional effects of these movements are not known. Here we show that Cuscuta campestris haustoria accumulate high levels of many novel microRNAs (miRNAs) while parasitizing Arabidopsis thaliana. Many of these miRNAs are 22 nucleotides in length. Plant miRNAs of this length are uncommon, and are associated with amplification of target silencing through secondary short interfering RNA (siRNA) production. Several A. thaliana mRNAs are targeted by 22-nucleotide C. campestris miRNAs during parasitism, resulting in mRNA cleavage, secondary siRNA production, and decreased mRNA accumulation. Hosts with mutations in two of the loci that encode target mRNAs supported significantly higher growth of C. campestris. The same miRNAs that are expressed and active when C. campestris parasitizes A. thaliana are also expressed and active when it infects Nicotiana benthamiana. Homologues of target mRNAs from many other plant species also contain the predicted target sites for the induced C. campestris miRNAs. These data show that C. campestris miRNAs act as trans-species regulators of host-gene expression, and suggest that they may act as virulence factors during parasitism.

  5. Diffusible signal factor family signals provide a fitness advantage to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in interspecies competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyue; Wu, Jien; Yin, Wenfang; Li, Peng; Zhou, Jianuan; Chen, Shaohua; He, Fei; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2016-05-01

    Diffusible signal factor (DSF) represents a new class of widely conserved quorum sensing signals, which regulates various biological functions through intra- or interspecies signaling. The previous studies identified that there is an antagonistic interaction between Xanthomonas and Bacillus species bacteria in natural ecosystem, but the detailed molecular mechanism of interspecies competition is not clear. This study showed that Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) interfered with morphological transition and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis in mixed cultures, whereas abrogation of the DSF synthase RpfF reduced the interference. DSF inhibited B. thuringiensis cell division and sporulation through modulation of ftsZ, which encodes an important cell division protein in bacterial cells. In addition, RpfF is essential for production of six DSF-family signals in Xcc, which employ the same signaling pathways to regulate biological functions in Xcc and play similar effects on reduction of cell division, sporulation and antibiotic resistance of B. thuringiensis. Furthermore, abrogation of RpfF decreased the competitive capability of Xcc against B. thuringiensis on the surface of Chinese cabbage leaves. Our findings provide new insights into the role of DSF-family signals in interspecies competition and depict molecular mechanisms with which Xcc competes with B. thuringiensis. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Flower infection of Brassica oleracea with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris results in high levels of seed infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Heijden, van der L.

    2013-01-01

    During seed production, Brassica seed may become infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris after systemic colonization of plants upon leaf infection, or alternatively, after flower infection. Polytunnel experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to study the relative importance of these

  7. DNA polymorphism analysis of Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques using M13 and 16S rRNA primers, respectively, for genotyping of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris was studied. RAPD provided a simple, rapid, and ...

  8. USING Xanthomonas Campestris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Xanthan gum is a major biopolymer which finds a lot of applications industrially and domestically. ... gum was produced from pineapple peels using Xanthomonas campestris by ... producing microorganism is strongly influenced by the medium.

  9. Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch is a main renewable bio-resource with low price and mass production in Guangxi, China. It was used as carbon source in growing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 (Xcc 8004) for xanthan gum production in this study. The xanthan gum yield of gelatinized cassava starch was higher than that of ...

  10. The Host Plant Metabolite Glucose Is the Precursor of Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) Family Signals in Xanthomonas campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Yinyue; Liu, Xiaoling; Wu, Ji'en; Lee, Jasmine; Chen, Shaohua; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris produces cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid (diffusible signal factor [DSF]) as a cell-cell communication signal to regulate biofilm dispersal and virulence factor production. Previous studies have demonstrated that DSF biosynthesis is dependent on the presence of RpfF, an enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase, but the DSF synthetic mechanism and the influence of the host plant on DSF biosynthesis are still not clear. We show here that exogenous ad...

  11. The apo structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris shows an open active-site groove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champion, Elise; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Skov, Lars Kobberøe

    2009-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH-13) mainly contains starch-degrading or starch-modifying enzymes. Sucrose hydrolases utilize sucrose instead of amylose as the primary glucosyl donor. Here, the catalytic properties and X-ray structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris...... of GH-13. Comparisons with structures of the highly similar sucrose hydrolase from X. axonopodis pv. glycines most notably showed that residues Arg516 and Asp138, which form a salt bridge in the X. axonopodis sucrose complex and define part of the subsite -1 glucosyl-binding determinants...

  12. Over-expression of miR158 causes pollen abortion in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiming; Jiang, Jianxia; Hu, Ziwei; Lyu, Tianqi; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jingjing; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    We identified and cloned the two precursors of miR158 and its target gene in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, which both had high relative expression in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility, which was caused by the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage. These results first suggest the role of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in many important growth and development processes both in plants and animals by regulating the expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression. In this study, miR158, a Brassicaceae specific miRNA, was functionally characterized with regard to its role in pollen development of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Two family members of miR158 in B. campestris, namely bra-miR158a1 and bra-miR158a2, and their target gene bra027656, which encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing protein, were identified. Then, qRT-PCR analysis and GUS-reporter system revealed that both bra-miR158 and its target gene had relatively high expression levels in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility and pollen germination ratio, and the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage was also found in those deformed pollen grains, which led to pollen shrinking and collapse in later pollen development stage. These results first shed light on the importance of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

  13. Meio semi-seletivo para isolamento de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

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    Peixoto Ana Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O cancro bacteriano causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola é a fitobacteriose mais importante da videira no Submédio São Francisco. O isolamento de X. campestris pv. viticola de tecidos vegetais infectados é dificultado pela presença de contaminantes bacterianos, entre os quais Microbacterium barkeri. Objetivando-se a formulação de meio de cultura semi-seletivo, 22 isolados de X. campestris pv. viticola foram testados com relação a 30 antibióticos. O meio semi-seletivo NYDAM (extrato de carne 3, peptona 5, glicose 10, extrato de levedura 5, ágar 18 e ampicilina 0,1 em g L-1 inibiu M. barkeri e bactérias fitopatogênicas podendo ser utilizado para isolar X. campestris pv. viticola de hospedeiros com infecção natural em campo.

  14. Production and cytogenetics of Brassica campestris-alboglabra chromosome addition lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B.Y.; Cheng, B.F.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Four different Brassica campestris-alboglabra monosomic addition lines (AA + 1 chromosome from C, 2n = 21) were obtained after consecutive backcrosses between resynthesized B. napus (AACC, 2n = 38) and the parental B. campestris (AA, 2n = 20) accession. The alien chromosomes of B. alboglabra (CC, 2...

  15. Nutritive values of brassica campestris L. oil as affected by growth regulator treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, A.; Khan, N.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of plant growth regulators, viz. Indole acetic acid (IAA), Gibberellic acid (GA) and Abscisic acid (ABA) were studied on fatty acid compositions, glucosinolate content and protein content of Brassica campestris L subsp. Oleifera (common name yellow sarson). Growth regulators were applied in seed soaking solution as well as foliar spray during vegetative phase and at flowering stage. There were reductions in the amount of long chain fatty acids viz erucic acid, eicosenoic acid and increase in the amount of unsaturated fatty acid viz. linoleic acid by lAA applications. The stimulating effect of lAA which reduced amount of unsaturated fatty acid was more pronounced when applied as foliar spray at vegetative stage. But, foliar spray of ABA during flowering increased the concentration of linoleic acid and reduced the eicosenoic acid and erucic acid. The glucosinolate content was greater in seeds soaked in 10/sup -5/ M lAA than that of control but less in 10/sup -5/ M GA treated seeds than that of control. The ABA treatment (10/sup -5/M) increased the concentration of glucosinolates in the seeds IAA treatments (10/sup -5/M) increased the protein percentage in the seeds. Foliar application of GA (10/sup -5/M) during vegetative growth and ABA (10/sup -5/M) as seed soaking prior to sowing as well as foliar spry during flowering decreased the protein content of seeds. (author)

  16. Cultivar Variation in Hormonal Balance Is a Significant Determinant of Disease Susceptibility to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in Brassica napus

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    Md. Tabibul Islam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to directly elucidate cultivar variation in disease susceptibility and disease responses in relation to hormonal status in the interaction of Brassica napus cultivars and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc, the causal agent of black rot disease. Fully expanded leaves of six B. napus cultivars (cvs. Capitol, Youngsan, Saturnin, Colosse, Tamra, and Mosa were inoculated with Xcc. At 14 days post-inoculation with Xcc, cultivar variation in susceptibility or resistance was interpreted with defense responses as estimated by redox status, defensive metabolites, and expression of phenylpropanoid synthesis-related genes in relation to endogenous hormonal status. Disease susceptibility of six cultivars was distinguished by necrotic lesions in the Xcc-inoculated leaves and characterized concurrently based on the higher increase in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. Among these cultivars, as the susceptibility was higher, the ratios of abscisic acid (ABA/jasmonic acid (JA and salicylic acid (SA/JA tended to increase with enhanced expression of SA signaling regulatory gene NPR1 and transcriptional factor TGA1 and antagonistic suppression of JA-regulated gene PDF 1.2. In the resistant cultivar (cv. Capitol, accumulation of defensive metabolites with enhanced expression of genes involved in flavonoids (chalcone synthase, proanthocyanidins (anthocyanidin reductase, and hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulate-5-hydroxylase biosynthesis and higher redox status were observed, whereas the opposite results were obtained for susceptible cultivars (cvs. Mosa and Tamra. These results clearly indicate that cultivar variation in susceptibility to infection by Xcc was determined by enhanced alteration of the SA/JA ratio, as a negative regulator of redox status and phenylpropanoid synthesis in the Brasica napus–Xcc pathosystem.

  17. Cadmium-Induced Hydrogen Accumulation Is Involved in Cadmium Tolerance in Brassica campestris by Reestablishment of Reduced Glutathione Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Chen, Qin; Shen, Wenbiao; Shen, Zhenguo; Xia, Yan; Cui, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) was recently proposed as a therapeutic antioxidant and signaling molecule in clinical trials. However, the underlying physiological roles of H2 in plants remain unclear. In the present study, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize the physiological roles of H2 in enhancing the tolerance of Brassica campestris against cadmium (Cd). The results showed that both 50 μM CdCl2 and 50%-saturated HRW induced an increase of endogenous H2 in Brassica campestris seedlings, and HRW alleviated Cd toxicity related to growth inhibition and oxidative damage. Seedlings supplied with HRW exhibited increased root length and reduced lipid peroxidation, similar to plants receiving GSH post-treatment. Additionally, seedlings post-treated with HRW accumulated higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) and showed increased GST and GPX activities in roots. Molecular evidence illustrated that the expression of genes such as GS, GR1 and GR2, which were down-regulated following the addition of Cd, GSH or BSO, could be reversed to varying degrees by the addition of HRW. Based on these results, it could be proposed that H2 might be an important regulator for enhancing the tolerance of Brassica campestris seedlings against Cd, mainly by governing reduced glutathione homeostasis.

  18. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a putative multiple antibiotic resistance repressor protein (MarR) from Xanthomonas campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Zhi-Le; Li, Juo-Ning; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Gao, Fei Philip; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-01-01

    A putative repressor for the multiple antibiotic resistance operon from a plant pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å with good quality. The multiple antibiotic resistance operon (marRAB) is a member of the multidrug-resistance system. When induced, this operon enhances resistance of bacteria to a variety of medically important antibiotics, causing a serious global health problem. MarR is a marR-encoded protein that represses the transcription of the marRAB operon. Through binding with salicylate and certain antibiotics, however, MarR can derepress and activate the marRAB operon. In this report, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC1739, a putative MarR repressor protein present in the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a Gram-negative bacterium causing major worldwide disease of cruciferous crops, are described. The XC1739 crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.8 Å. They are orthorhombic and belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 39.5, b = 54.2 and c = 139.5 Å, respectively. They contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit from calculation of the self-rotation function

  19. Identification of genes differentially expressed in Mikania micrantha during Cuscuta campestris infection by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Mei; Staehelin, Christian; Zhang, Yi-Shun; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2009-09-01

    The influence of Cuscuta campestris on its host Mikania micrantha has been studied with respect to biomass accumulation, physiology and ecology. Molecular events of this parasitic plant-plant interaction are poorly understood, however. In this study, we identified novel genes from M. micrantha induced by C. campestris infection. Genes expressed upon parasitization by C. campestris at early post-penetration stages were investigated by construction and characterization of subtracted cDNA libraries from shoots and stems of M. micrantha. Three hundred and three presumably up-regulated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified and classified in functional categories, such as "metabolism", "cell defence and stress", "transcription factor", "signal transduction", "transportation" and "photosynthesis". In shoots and stems of infected M. micrantha, genes associated with defence responses and cell wall modifications were induced, confirming similar data from other parasitic plant-plant interactions. However, gene expression profiles in infected shoots and stems were found to be different. Compared to infected shoots, more genes induced in response to biotic and abiotic stress factors were identified in infected stems. Furthermore, database comparisons revealed a notable number of M. micrantha ESTs that matched genes with unknown function. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time RT-PCR of 21 genes (from different functional categories) showed significantly increased levels for 13 transcripts in response to C. campestris infection. In conclusion, this study provides an overview of genes from parasitized M. micrantha at early post-penetration stages. The acquired data form the basis for a molecular understanding of host reactions in response to parasitic plants.

  20. Immunity at Cauliflower Hydathodes Controls Systemic Infection by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Aude; Jauneau, Alain; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Martinez, Yves; Chiarenza, Serge; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Berthomé, Richard; Noël, Laurent D

    2017-06-01

    Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea ) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata. Because hydathodes are natural infection routes for several pathogens, we investigated hydathode infection by the adapted vascular phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris ( Xcc ), the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassicaceae. Microscopic observations of hydathodes six days postinoculation indicated a digestion of the epithem cells and a high bacterial multiplication. Postinvasive immunity was shown to limit pathogen growth in the epithem and is actively suppressed by the type III secretion system and its effector proteins. Altogether, these results give a detailed anatomic description of Brassicaceae hydathodes and highlight the efficient use of this tissue as an initial niche for subsequent vascular systemic dissemination of Xcc in distant plant tissues. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Antagonism of yeasts to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris on cabbage phylloplane in field Antagonismo de leveduras a Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris no filoplano de repolho em condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara M.P. Assis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty yeast isolates, obtained from cabbage phylloplane, were evaluated for antagonistic activity against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, in field. Plants of cabbage cv. Midori were pulverized simultaneously with suspensions of antagonists and pathogen. After 10 days, plants were evaluated through percentage of foliar area with lesions. Percentage of disease severity reduction (DSR% was also calculated. Yeast isolates LR32, LR42 and LR19 showed, respectively, 72, 75 and 79% of DSR. These antagonists were tested in seven different application periods in relation to pathogen inoculation (T1=4 d before; T2=simultaneously; T3=4 d after; T4=4 d before + simultaneously; T5=4 d after + simultaneously; T6=4 d before + 4 d after; T7=4 d before + simultaneously + 4 d after. The highest DSRs were showed by LR42 (71%, LR42 (67%, LR35 (69% and LR19 (68% in the treatments T7, T4, T5 and T6, which significantly differed from the others. The same yeast antagonists were also tested for black rot control using different cabbage cultivars (Fuyutoyo, Master-325, Matsukaze, Midori, Sekai I and Red Winner. The DSRs varied from 58 to 61%, and there was no significant difference among cultivars.Vinte isolados de leveduras, obtidos a partir do filoplano de repolho foram avaliados pela atividade antagônica contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, em condições de campo. Plantas de repolho cv. Midori foram pulverizadas simultaneamente com suspensões do antagonista e do patógeno. Após 10 dias, as plantas foram avaliadas através da porcentagem de área foliar infectada. A porcentagem de redução da severidade da doença (DSR%, também foi calculada. Os isolados de leveduras LR32, LR42 e LR19 apresentaram, respectivamente, 72, 75 e 79% de DSR. Estes isolados foram testados em sete diferentes períodos de aplicação dos antagonistas em relação a inoculação do patógeno. (T1=4d antes; T2=simultaneamente; T3=4 d após; T4=4 d antes + simultaneamente; T5

  2. Immunity at Cauliflower Hydathodes Controls Systemic Infection by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Aude; Jauneau, Alain; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Martinez, Yves; Chiarenza, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata. Because hydathodes are natural infection routes for several pathogens, we investigated hydathode infection by the adapted vascular phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc), the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassicaceae. Microscopic observations of hydathodes six days postinoculation indicated a digestion of the epithem cells and a high bacterial multiplication. Postinvasive immunity was shown to limit pathogen growth in the epithem and is actively suppressed by the type III secretion system and its effector proteins. Altogether, these results give a detailed anatomic description of Brassicaceae hydathodes and highlight the efficient use of this tissue as an initial niche for subsequent vascular systemic dissemination of Xcc in distant plant tissues. PMID:28184011

  3. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanira Donizeti Tebaldi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica foram avaliados, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre" inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes às plântulas foi avaliada usando semeadura em areia e meio de cultura contido em tubo de ensaio. Para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes foram realizados o teste padrão de germinação e os testes de vigor: envelhecimento acelerado, índice de velocidade de emergência, crescimento de plântulas e massa seca. De acordo com os resultados, o meio de cultura semi-seletivo NSCAA foi mais eficaz para detectar Xcc em sementes de brócolis; não houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos na taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes e Xcc não afetou a germinação e o vigor das sementes.The detection, transmission and the effect of Xanthomomas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds were evaluated. The seeds were obtained from inoculated field plants (`Baron', `Flórida', `Hana Midori Sakata', `Precoce Piracicaba de Verão', `Ramoso Santana' and `Sabre' genotypes with the bacterium. For the seed pathogen detection the semi-selective medium were used: starch for xanthomonads (SX agar, nutrient starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (NSCAA and basal starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (BSCAA; the bacteria seeds transmission percentage was evaluated using sand and test tube. The physiological seed quality was evaluated by the standard germination and vigor tests: the accelerated aging, speed of emergence, seedling growth and seedling dry weight. The

  4. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanira Donizete Tebaldi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica foram avaliadas, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre" inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes às plântulas foi avaliada usando semeadura em areia e meio de cultura contido em tubo de ensaio. Para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes foram realizados o teste padrão de germinação e os testes de vigor: envelhecimento acelerado, índice de velocidade de emergência, crescimento das plântulas e massa seca. De acordo com os resultados, o meio de cultura semi-seletivo NSCAA foi mais eficaz para detectar Xcc em sementes de brócolis; não houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos na taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes e Xcc não afetou a germinação e o vigor das sementes.The detection, transmission and the effect of Xanthomomas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds were evaluated. The seeds were obtained from inoculated field plants ('Baron', 'Flórida', 'Hana Midori Sakata', 'Precoce Piracicaba de Verão', 'Ramoso Santana' and 'Sabre' genotypes with the bacterium. For the seed pathogen detection the semi-selective medium were used: starch for xanthomonads (SX agar, nutrient starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (NSCAA and basal starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (BSCAA; the bacteria seeds transmission percentage was evaluated using sand and test tube. The physiological seed quality was evaluated by the standard germination and vigor tests: the accelerated aging, speed of emergence, seedling growth and seedling dry weight

  5. Glycerol as a carbon source for xantan production by Xanthomonas campestris isolates

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    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of xanthan biosynthesis depends on several factors, most importantly the genetic potential of the production microorganism and cultivation media composition. Cultivation media composition affects the yield and quality of the desired product as well as production costs. This is why many studies focus on finding cheap alternative raw materials, especially carbon sources, to replace commercially used glucose and sucrose. In addition to the Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 which is the primary industrial production microorganism, other Xanthomonas strains can produce xanthan as well. Under the same conditions, different strains produce different amounts of the biopolymer of varying quality. The aim of this paper is to compare producibility of phytopathogenic X. campestris strains, isolated from the environment with the reference X. campestris ATCC 13951 strain and to estimate the possibility of xanthan production using alternative glycerol-based media than the synthetic glucose-based media. Submerged cultivation on the medium based on glucose or glycerol (2.0 %w/v was performed using the reference strain and eight isolated X. campestris strains. In order to assess the success of biosynthesis, xanthan yield and rheological properties were determined. Strains isolated from the environment produced yields between 2.98 g/L and 12.17 g/L on the glucose-based medium and 1.68 g/L and 6.31 g/L on the glycerol-based medium. Additionally, X. campestris ATCC 13951 provided the highest yield when using glucose (13.24 g/L, as well as glycerol-based medium (7.44 g/L. The obtained results indicate that in the applied experimental conditions and using all tested strains, glycerol is viable as a carbon source for the production of xanthan.

  6. and Saccostomus campestris (Cricetomyinae) in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastric anatomy of two African cricetomyines is described and compared with that of the only African cricetine. The stomach of C. gambianus is more specialized than that of S. campestris and shows many parallels with that of M. albicaudatus. Both cricetomyines possess an oesophageal groove system which is absent ...

  7. Analysis of outer membrane vesicle associated proteins isolated from the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehaus Karsten

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs are released from the outer membrane of many Gram-negative bacteria. These extracellular compartments are known to transport compounds involved in cell-cell signalling as well as virulence associated proteins, e.g. the cytolysine from enterotoxic E. coli. Results We have demonstrated that Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc releases OMVs into the culture supernatant during growth. A proteome study identified 31 different proteins that associate with the OMV fraction of which half are virulence-associated. A comparison with the most abundant outer membrane (OM proteins revealed that some proteins are enriched in the OMV fraction. This may be connected to differences in the LPS composition between the OMVs and the OM. Furthermore, a comparison of the OMV proteomes from two different culture media indicated that the culture conditions have an impact on the protein composition. Interestingly, the proteins that are common to both culture conditions are mainly involved in virulence. Conclusion Outer membrane vesicles released from the OM of Xcc contain membrane- and virulence-associated proteins. Future experiments will prove whether these structures can serve as "vehicles" for the transport of virulence factors into the host membrane.

  8. Effect of Scarification, Self-Inhibition, and Sowing Depth on Seed Germination of Lupinus campestris Efecto de la Escarificación, Autoinhibición y Profundidad de Siembra sobre la Germinación de Semillas de Lupinus campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutiérrez Nava

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. grows in shallow fields and disturbed areas of Central Mexico. It has potential to improve soil fertility and as fodder. Seeds of L. campestris show dormancy, and the technology needed to increase its potential use requires information about conditions favouring seed germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed germination responseof L. campestris under controlled (laboratory and natural field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, 2 yr old seeds had a maximum germination percentage (50% when they were scarified with sulphuric acid for 90 min prior to sowing and when laboratory light (0.5 µmol m-2 s-1 was maintained during the diurnal period. Without scarification, only about 3% of the seeds germinated. Light in laboratory resulted in an increased seed germination as compared to darkness condition. In the field experiment 1 yr old seeds were used testing the following treatments: (a seed scarification (seeds scarified by 30 min immersion in sulphuric acid vs. not scarified, (b presence or absence of plants of L. campestris in plots before field experiments, and (c sowing depth (on soil surface and at 3 cm deep. The scarified seeds showed a germination percentage range between 50 and 64%, whereas non-scarified seeds had 9 to 16% germination. The seeds sowed in plots with or without plants of L. campestris (before the experiment germinated similarly, indicating no evidence of self-inhibition of germination. Three conclusions come out: (1 Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid effectively breaks dormancy in L. campestris seeds; (2 Direct sowing of scarified seeds (on the soil surface or at 3 cm depth resulted in a range of 50-64% of germination under field conditions; and (3 no evidence was obtained for self-inhibition or a positive interaction between preceding vegetation and seed germination of L. campestris.Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. crece en campos en descanso y

  9. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS and type III (T3 effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2 which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2 is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME. Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.

  10. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a conserved hypothetical protein XC1692 from Xanthomonas campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Huang, Zhao-Wei; Wei, Kun-Chou; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Gao, Fei Philip; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-01-01

    A conserved hypothetical protein XC1692 from X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant protein crystallized in a variety of forms and diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.45 Å. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris strain 17 is a Gram-negative yellow-pigmented pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. Its genome contains approximately 4500 genes, one third of which have no known structure and/or function yet are highly conserved among several different bacterial genuses. One of these gene products is XC1692 protein, containing 141 amino acids. It was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in a variety of forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffract to at least 1.45 Å resolution. They are hexagonal and belong to space group P6 3 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9, c = 71.0 Å. They contain one molecule per asymmetric unit

  11. Colonización radical por endófitos fúngicos en Trithrinax campestris (Arecaceae de ecosistemas semiáridos del centro de Argentina Root colonization by fungal endophytes in Trithrinax campestris (Arecaceae from semiarid ecosystems from Central Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A Lugo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En ecosistemas áridos y semiáridos las raíces de las plantas suelen formar simbiosis con hongos, los que les proporcionan nutrientes y agua. Poco se conoce sobre los hongos asociados a palmeras nativas y cómo éstos podrían estar relacionados entre ellos. Se describe y cuantifica la colonización radical de los simbiontes de Trithrinax campestris en poblaciones leve y fuertemente afectadas por el fuego. T. campestris fue colonizada por hongos micorrícico-arbusculares (HMA y endófitos septados oscuros (ESO. La colonización por HMA fue del tipo intermedio entre los tipos Arum y Paris. La colonización por HMA y ESO y la producción de pelos radicales, presentó diferencias entre las poblaciones estudiadas. Los resultados sugieren que en T. campestris la relación entre hongos simbiontes/producción de pelos radicales podrían estar relacionada con su alta tolerancia al fuego y la aridez.In arid and semiarid ecosystems, roots frequently form symbiosis with fungi that provides access to nutrients and water. Knowledge regarding the study of fungal symbionts colonizing native palms roots is still scarce. We described, quantified and compared fungal colonization in roots of Trithrinax campestris from two environmental situations: population with weak-burning-signs and population with strong-burning-signs. T. campestris was colonized by arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi (AMF and dark-septate-endophytes (DSE. AMF colonization was an intermediate type between Arum and Paris. The AMF and DSE colonization and root hair production differed between populations. Our results suggest that in T. campestris the relation between fungal-symbionts and root-hair-production might be related to tolerance to burning and aridity.

  12. Production of inulinase by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli using onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) peels in solid state cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyachamy, M; Khelawan, K; Pillay, D; Permaul, K; Singh, S

    2007-10-01

    To access inulinase production by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli using the submerged and solid state cultivation (SSC) methods. Various carbon sources, inulin-rich solid substrates and pure synthetic inulin were tested for their efficiency in inulinase induction. The highest inulinase production (17.42 IU ml(-1)) in submerged cultures of X. campestris was observed with inulin as a carbon source with an initial pH, temperature and agitation of 7.0, 37 degrees C and 150 rev min(-1) respectively. Among the various substrates, garlic peels (117 IU gds(-1)) and onion peels (101 IU gds(-1)) were found to be the best for inulinase production. The inulinase production level of X. campestris was 6.7-fold higher in garlic and 5.8-fold in onion, under optimized SSC conditions compared with the submerged culture. This is the first report on inulinase production from garlic and onion peels by X. campestris using SSC. SSC is an efficient method for inulinase production by X. campestris for commercial applications.

  13. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of aqueous extract of Artemisia campestris L. from Eastern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Ikram; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Wauters, Jean Noel; Assaidi, Asmae; Mekhfi, Hassane; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohammed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Frederich, Michel; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

    2017-07-12

    Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) has many traditional uses, among which treatment of diabetes and hypertension. This study was conducted in order to confirm the antihypertensive and hypotensive effects of A. campestris L. aqueous extract (AcAE) and to explore the underlying mechanism of action of its vasorelaxant effect, besides the acute toxicity. Also, the chemical composition of AcAE was investigated. the chemical content of AcAE was determined by using HPLC and NMR techniques. The antihypertensive effect was assessed indirectly by tail-cuff method on L-NAME induced hypertensive rats, while the hypotensive action was monitored intravenously by invasive method on normotensive rats. The vasorelaxant effect and vascular mechanism of action were studied in the presence of antagonists and blockers on aorta isolated from normotensive rats. On the other side, the acute toxicity was studied by oral feeding of extract to the mice. The global phytochemical profile of AcAE reveals the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. campestris L. infusion was characterized by mono- and di-cinnamoyl compounds, with 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic (isochlorogenic A) acid being the main compound, followed by 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant compound among flavonoids. The daily treatment with AcAE at 150mg/kg/day prevented the installation of hypertension on L-NAME hypertensive rats, and reduced SBP from 172mmHg up to 144mmHg. At the dose 40mg/kg, AcAE provoked reduction of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), without affecting the heart rate. Also, AcAE (10 -2 -2mg/ml) relaxed the precontracted aorta by 95.8±1.3%. The denudation and preincubation of aorta with atropine, calmidazolium, L-NAME, hydroxycobalamin, ODQ, 8-RP-Br-PET-cGMP, thapsigargin and verapamil attenuated the vasorelaxant response, while the pre-treatment with 4-AP, TEA, glibenclamide and BaCl 2 did not

  14. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  15. Temperature Effects on Cuscuta campestris Yunk. Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of biological characteristics of seeds and conditions for their germination havea major importance for planning and executing rational measures of weed control. Theaim of this study was to investigate the effect of different temperatures on germinationof C. campestris seeds. Three treatments (T1- storage at room temperature; T2 – exposureto 4°C for 30 days; T3 – scarification by concentrated sulphuric acid differing in manipulationwith seeds before germination were tested at different temperatures (5°C, 10°C, 15°C,20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C. Germinated seeds were counted daily for ten days andthe length of seedlings was measured on the last day. The results showed that differencesin germination of C. campestris seeds were very prominent between temperatures, as wellas between treatments T1, T2 and T3. Seeds failed to germinate at 5°C and 45°C in all treatments(T1, T2, T3. Germination ranged from 6.25 at 10°C to 96.88%, the highest percentage,achieved at 30°C.

  16. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC2382, an ApaG protein of unknown structure from Xanthomonas campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-01-01

    A putative ApaG gene product from X. campestris pv. campestris was overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 2.3 Å. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is the causative agent of black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. Its genome encodes approximately 4500 proteins, roughly one third of which have unknown function. XC2382 is one such protein, with a MW of 14.2 kDa. Based on a bioinformatics study, it was annotated as an ApaG gene product that serves multiple functions. The ApaG protein has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 2.30 Å. They are tetragonal and belong to space group P4 1/3 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.6, c = 122.9 Å. There are two, three or four molecules in the asymmetric unit

  17. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... females) to B. campestris resulted in a much lower seed set, average 0.7 seed per pollination. In the single backcross progeny where a large enough population (92 plants) was obtained for analysis, 33 B. napus specific RAPD markers were investigated to determine the extent of transfer of oilseed rape...

  18. Arabinogalactan Proteins Accumulate in the Cell Walls of Searching Hyphae of the Stem Parasitic Plants, Cuscuta campestris and Cuscuta japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Akitaka; Bera, Subhankar; Fujiwara, Daiki; Obayashi, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Aoki, Koh

    2017-11-01

    Stem parasitic plants (Cuscuta spp.) develop a specialized organ called a haustorium to penetrate their hosts' stem tissues. To reach the vascular tissues of the host plant, the haustorium needs to overcome the physical barrier of the cell wall, and the parasite-host interaction via the cell wall is a critical process. However, the cell wall components responsible for the establishment of parasitic connections have not yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution patterns of cell wall components at a parasitic interface using parasite-host complexes of Cuscuta campestris-Arabidopsis thaliana and Cuscuta japonica-Glycine max. We focused on arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), because AGPs accumulate in the cell walls of searching hyphae of both C. campestris and C. japonica. We found more AGPs in elongated haustoria than in pre haustoria, indicating that AGP accumulation is developmentally regulated. Using in situ hybridization, we identified five genes in C. campestris that encode hyphal-expressed AGPs that belong to the fasciclin-like AGP (FLA) family, which were named CcFLA genes. Three of the five CcFLA genes were expressed in the holdfast, which develops on the Cuscuta stem epidermis at the attachment site for the host's stem epidermis. Our results suggest that AGPs are involved in hyphal elongation and adhesion to host cells, and in the adhesion between the epidermal tissues of Cuscuta and its host. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Reliefs the Exposure Stress of Soils Arsenic on Brassica campestris L. Growth and Its Possible Mechanisms by Inoculation of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hong-xiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The over-accumulation of arsenic(Asin agricultural soils affects crop growth. Subsequently, the accumulated As can pose risk to human health via food-chain. It is urgent to develop technologies to relief the As exposure stress on crop growth and lower the As uptake by crop. In this study, Trichoderma asperellum SM -12F1, capable of As resistance and speciation transformation was used as experimental material. Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of inoculation on the growth of Brassica campestris L. in As-contaminated soils. The possible mechanisms of inoculation relieving As exposure stress and lowering As uptake were revealed. The results indicated that the growth of Brassica campestris L. was significantly inhibited in soils spiked with As of 120 mg· kg-1. Inoculation could significantly improve the growth of Brassica campestris L. and significantly decreased the As uptake and bioconcentration factor(BCFof Brassica campestris L. Compared with As-contaminated soils without inoculation, the As contents in the over-and under-ground part of Brassica campestris L. declined by 12.4% and 20.2%, respectively, and the BCF declined by 7.8%. Soil available As contents decreased by 15.7% after inoculation. Methylarsonic acid(MMAand dimethylarsinic acid(DMAwere detected in water extraction of soil and the shoot of Brassica campestris L. tissues, which indicated that inoculation could trigger soil As methylation and decrease soil As availability and toxicity. Furthermore, inoculation could effectively relief the As exposure stress on Brassica campestris L. growth by the response of antioxidant enzymes. The enzymes in Brassica campestris L. such as superoxide dismutase(SODand catalase(CAT, and the contents of glutathione(GSH, ascorbic acid(AsAand malondialdehyde(MDA, capable of reactive oxygen elimination, significantly enhanced during soil As exposure. However, inoculation lessened the activities or contents of SOD, CAT, GSH, and MDA

  20. Genome-Wide Identification, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Profiling Analysis of Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Genes in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pectin methylesterase inhibitor genes (PMEIs are a large multigene family and play crucial roles in cell wall modifications in plant growth and development. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the PMEI gene family in Brassica campestris, an important leaf vegetable, was performed. We identified 100 Brassica campestris PMEI genes (BcPMEIs, among which 96 BcPMEIs were unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes and nine tandem arrays containing 20 BcPMEIs were found. We also detected 80 pairs of syntenic PMEI orthologs. These findings indicated that whole-genome triplication (WGT and tandem duplication (TD were the main mechanisms accounting for the current number of BcPMEIs. In evolution, BcPMEIs were retained preferentially and biasedly, consistent with the gene balance hypothesis and two-step theory, respectively. The molecular evolution analysis of BcPMEIs manifested that they evolved through purifying selection and the divergence time is in accordance with the WGT data of B. campestris. To obtain the functional information of BcPMEIs, the expression patterns in five tissues and the cis-elements distributed in promoter regions were investigated. This work can provide a better understanding of the molecular evolution and biological function of PMEIs in B. campestris.

  1. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  2. Biological Functions of ilvC in Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Diffusible Signal Factor Family Production in Xanthomonas campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Kai-Huai Li; Yong-Hong Yu; Hui-Juan Dong; Wen-Bin Zhang; Jin-Cheng Ma; Hai-Hong Wang

    2017-01-01

    In bacteria, the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is tightly associated with branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) synthetic pathways. Although previous studies have reported on BCFAs biosynthesis, more detailed associations between BCAAs metabolism and BCFAs biosynthesis remain to be addressed. In this study, we deleted the ilvC gene, which encodes ketol-acid reductoisomerase in the BCAAs synthetic pathway, from the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) genome. We characte...

  3. A proteomic analysis of seed development in Brassica campestri L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Li

    Full Text Available To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination, respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants.

  4. Growth and xanthan production of Xanthomonas campestris depending on the N-source concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prell, A [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Lasik, J [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Konicek, J [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Sobotka, M [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Sys, J [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology

    1995-11-01

    Growth of X. campestris and production of xanthan were studied in several batch fermentations with different starting concentrations of N-source. The dependencies of growth, productivity and yields on initial N-source concentration were observed. The maximum yields in the course of cultivations were identified. (orig.)

  5. Effects of foliar dressing of selenite and silicate alone or combined with different soil ameliorants on the accumulation of As and Cd and antioxidant system in Brassica campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongzhen; Wang, Yongjiu; Zheng, Xiangqun; Cheng, Weimin; Shi, Rongguang; Feng, Renwei

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using a combined technology to synchronously reduce As and Cd accumulation in the edible parts of Brassica campestris. The results showed that a foliar application of selenite (Se) and silicon (Si) combined with soil ameliorants (including Ca-Mg-P fertilizer, sodium silicate and red mud) showed limited effects on the growth of B. campestris. The As concentration in the leaves of B. campestris in all treatments was below the Chinese safety standard. When sodium silicate and Ca-Mg-P fertilizer were added to the soil, the additional foliar application of Se and Si could in some cases help further reduce the concentrations of As and Cd in the leaves of B. campestris. However, when red mud was applied to the soil, the foliar application of Se and Si enhanced the Cd concentration in the leaves of B. campestris. In most cases, high levels of soil ameliorants plus foliar application of Se and Si significantly enhanced the As concentrations in both the soil solution and the roots of B. campestris but reduced the soil solution Cd concentration and the leaf As concentration. Most of the treatments reduced the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration in the leaves of B. campestris, and the foliar application of Se and Si helped the soil ameliorants alleviate the oxidative stress resulting from As and Cd exposure. In this study, several treatments significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). However, the enzymes peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were not induced by most treatments. In summary, the combined treatment of 1gkg -1 Ca-Mg-P fertilizer plus foliar spraying 2mmolL -1 sodium selenite was most effective in reducing the Cd concentration and a rather strong ability to reduce the As concentration and trigger the activities of SOD and APX in the leaves of B. campestris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure of XC6422 from Xanthomonas campestris at 1.6 Å resolution: a small serine α/β-hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chao-Yu; Chin, Ko-Hsin [Institute of Biochemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227,Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Cheng; Wang, Andrew H.-J. [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Core Facility for Protein Crystallography, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Chou, Shan-Ho, E-mail: shchou@nchu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227,Taiwan (China)

    2006-06-01

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein from X. campestris has been determined to a resolution of 1.6 Å. The determined X. campestris structure shows that it belongs to the superfamily of serine α/β hydrolase, with an extra strand preceding the first β-strand to lead to extensive subunit interactions in the crystal. XC6422 is a conserved hypothetical protein from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc), a Gram-negative yellow-pigmented pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. The protein consists of 220 amino acids and its structure has been determined to 1.6 Å resolution using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method. Although it has very low sequence identity to protein sequences in the PDB (less than 20%), the determined structure nevertheless shows that it belongs to the superfamily of serine α/β-hydrolases, with an active site that is fully accessible to solvent owing to the absence of a lid domain. Modelling studies with the serine esterase inhibitor E600 indicate that XC6422 adopts a conserved Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad common to this superfamily and has a preformed oxyanion hole for catalytic activation. These structural features suggest that XC6422 is most likely to be a hydrolase active on a soluble ester or a small lipid. An extra strand preceding the first β-strand in the canonical α/β-hydrolase fold leads to extensive subunit interactions between XC6422 monomers, which may explain why XC6422 crystals of good diffraction quality can grow to dimensions of up to 1.5 mm in a few days.

  7. Distribution and harmfulness of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker at sugar beet fields in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002-2004, field surveys of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck e r in croplands were done in southwestern Slovakia. From among 150 localities surveyed, 80 were found infested by the field dodder. Within crop plants, C. campestris infested sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, alfalfa (Medicago sativa tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, potato (Solanum tuberosum, lentil (Lens esculenta, parsley (Pastinaca sativa and onion (Allium cepa. Besides the crops, 18 weed species were also recorded. The species from the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae were the most important and acted as a significant reservoir of field dodder in cropland. C. campestris was not found in cold climatic regions with altitude higher than 240 m. The impact of field dodder infestation on sugar beet yield was studied during the year of 2004 in two localities (Šalov and Žitavce in southwestern Slovakia. The presence of field dodder markedly reduced both, quantity and quality of sugar beet yield. Weight of heavily infested beets was reduced from 21.6 to 37.4% and sugar content from 12.0 to 15.2%. Such decline of both parameters was also recorded when field dodder was removed together with leaves of sugar beet during growing season at the end of July. The aim of the infested leaves removal was to decrease mass of field dodder seeds. Although the leaf area of sugar beet regenerates, the decrease of quality and quantity was observed. The decline was the same at both localities, no matter whether the fields were irrigated (Šalov or not (Žitavce.

  8. Identification of Isolates that Cause a Leaf Spot Disease of Brassicas as Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani and Pathogenic and Genetic Comparison with Related Pathovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, J G; Everett, B; Roberts, S J

    2006-07-01

    ABSTRACT Twenty-five Xanthomonas isolates, including some isolates received as either X. campestris pv. armoraciae or pv. raphani, caused discrete leaf spot symptoms when spray-inoculated onto at least one Brassica oleracea cultivar. Twelve of these isolates and four other Xanthomonas isolates were spray- and pin-inoculated onto 21 different plant species/cultivars including horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), radish (Raphanus sativus), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The remaining 13 leaf spot isolates were spray-inoculated onto a subset of 10 plant species/cultivars. The leaf spot isolates were very aggressive on several Brassica spp., radish, and tomato causing leaf spots and dark sunken lesions on the middle vein, petiole, and stem. Based on the differential reactions of several Brassica spp. and radish cultivars, the leaf spot isolates were divided into three races, with races 1 and 3 predominating. A differential series was established to determine the race-type of isolates and a gene-for-gene model based on the interaction of two avirulence genes in the pathogen races and two matching resistance genes in the differential hosts is proposed. Repetitive-DNA polymerase chain reaction-based fingerprinting was used to assess the genetic diversity of the leaf spot isolates and isolates of closely related Xanthomonas pathovars. Although there was variability within each race, the leaf spot isolates were clustered separately from the X. campestris pv. campestris isolates. We propose that X. campestris isolates that cause a nonvascular leaf spot disease on Brassica spp. should be identified as pv. raphani and not pv. armoraciae. Race-type strains and a neopathotype strain for X. campestris pv. raphani are proposed.

  9. Effect of seed-irradiation on morphological characters yield components of brassica campestris var. sarson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.S.; Ahmad, S.

    1996-01-01

    Seed of Brassica campestris (var. Sarson) were used to study the effect of radiation of different morphological and yield parameters. Survival percentage showed drastic decrease at higher doses (75 Kr and 100 Kr). Similarly all characters showed a trend of decrease with increasing dose. LD50 for Brassica was about 50 Kr. (author)

  10. Conformational changes associated with the binding of zinc acetate at the putative active site of XcTcmJ, a cupin from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, Herbert L.; Kozbial, Piotr; McMullan, Daniel; Krishna, S. Sri; Miller, Mitchell D.; Abdubek, Polat; Acosta, Claire; Astakhova, Tamara; Carlton, Dennis; Caruthers, Jonathan; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Elias, Ylva; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Grant, Joanna C.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Morse, Andrew T.; Murphy, Kevin D.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Tien, Henry J.; Trout, Christina V.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; White, Aprilfawn; Xu, Qingping; Zubieta, Chloe; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of an RmlC-type cupin with zinc acetate bound at the putative active site reveals significant differences from a previous structure without any bound ligand. The functional implications of the ligand-induced conformational changes are discussed. In the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the product of the tcmJ gene, XcTcmJ, encodes a protein belonging to the RmlC family of cupins. XcTcmJ was crystallized in a monoclinic space group (C2) in the presence of zinc acetate and the structure was determined to 1.6 Å resolution. Previously, the apo structure has been reported in the absence of any bound metal ion [Chin et al. (2006 ▶), Proteins, 65, 1046–1050]. The most significant difference between the apo structure and the structure of XcTcmJ described here is a reorganization of the binding site for zinc acetate, which was most likely acquired from the crystallization solution. This site is located in the conserved metal ion-binding domain at the putative active site of XcTcmJ. In addition, an acetate was also bound within coordination distance of the zinc. In order to accommodate this binding, rearrangement of a conserved histidine ligand is required as well as several nearby residues within and around the putative active site. These observations indicate that binding of zinc serves a functional role in this cupin protein

  11. Caracterização de isolados de Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris de sistemas de produção orgânico e reação de brássicas à podridão-negra Characterization of strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris from organic farming systems and reaction of brassicas to black rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Andréa dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Noventa isolados de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc de brássicas oriundas de sistemas de produção orgânico das Zonas da Mata e Agreste de Pernambuco foram caracterizados com base na sensibilidade a antibióticos e sulfato de cobre e atividade de esterase. A maioria apresentou alta sensibilidade à tetraciclina (76,6%, eritromicina (63,3% e estreptomicina (63,3%, resistência à amoxicilina (70%, gentamicina (40,0% e norfloxacin (45,5% e média sensibilidade (44,4% ou resistência (44,4% à neomicina. Cinqüenta e cinco isolados de Xcc foram resistentes ao sulfato de cobre na concentração de 50 mg/mL e todos foram sensíveis ao produto na concentração de 200 mg/mL. Atividade de esterase foi apresentada por 92,22% dos isolados. A análise Euclidiana por ligação simples evidenciou variabilidade entre os isolados separando-os em sete grupos de similaridade. Foi estudada também a reação de 14 cultivares de brássicas à podridão-negra, utilizando o isolado "B21" de Xcc. As cultivares diferiram significativamente entre si em relação ao período de incubação, incidência e severidade final da doença. Os maiores valores de severidade final da doença foram verificados em brócolos "Ramoso", couve-flor "Bola de Neve" e "Piracicaba de Verão", e repolho "Chato de Quintal". Os híbridos de couve-chinesa "AF 70", "AF 72", "AF 69" e "AF 66" mostraram-se altamente resistentes à doença, enquanto que brócolos "Ramoso" e "Precoce Piracicaba", couve-flor "Piracicaba de Verão" e "Híbrido Cindy" e repolho "60 Dias" foram medianamente resistentes.Ninety strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc from brassicas grown under organic farming systems in the "Mata" and "Agreste" regions of Pernambuco, Brazil, were characterized based upon sensitivity to antibiotics and copper sulfate, and esterase activity. Most of the strains showed high sensitivity to tetracycline (76.6%, erythromycin (63.3% and streptomycin (63

  12. PECTATE LYASE-LIKE 9 from Brassica campestris is associated with intine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Yao, Lina; Yu, Youjian; Liang, Ying; Jiang, Jianxia; Ye, Nenghui; Miao, Ying; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-12-01

    Brassica campestris pectate lyase-like 9 (BcPLL9) was previously identified as a differentially expressed gene both in buds during late pollen developmental stage and in pistils during fertilization in Chinese cabbage. To characterize the gene's function, antisense-RNA lines of BcPLL9 (bcpll9) were constructed in Chinese cabbage. Self- and cross-fertilization experiments harvested half seed yields when bcpll9 lines were used as pollen donors. In vivo and in vitro pollen germination assays showed that nearly half of the pollen tubes in bcpll9 were irregular with shorter length and uneven surface. Aniline blue staining identified abnormal accumulation of a specific bright blue unknown material in the bcpll9 pollen portion. Scanning electron microscopy observation verified the abnormal outthrust material to be near the pollen germinal furrows. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the internal endintine layer was overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine. This abnormally formed intine likely induced the wavy structure and growth arrest of the pollen tube in half of the bcpll9 pollen grains, which resulted in less seed yields. Collectively, this study presented a novel PLL gene that has an important function in B. campestris intine formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rhizosphere competent Mesorhizobiumloti MP6 induces root hair curling, inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and enhances growth of Indian mustard (Brassica campestris Mesorhizobium loti MP6 rizosférico competente induz encurvamento do pelo daraiz, inibe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e estimula o crescimento de mostarda indiana (Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Chandra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain Mesorhizobium loti MP6, isolated from root nodules of Mimosa pudica induced growth and yield of Brassica campestris. The isolate MP6 secreted hydroxamate type siderophore in Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS agar medium. Production of hydrocyanic acid (HCN, indole acetic acid (IAA and phosphate solubilizing ability was also recorded under normal growth conditions. Root hair curling was observed through simple glass-slide technique. In vitro study showed a significant increase in population of M. loti MP6 in rhizosphere due to root exudates of B. campestris. In dual culture technique the strain showed a strong antagonistic effect against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a white rot pathogen of Brassica campestris. The growth of S. sclerotiorum was inhibited by 75% after prolonged incubation. Efficient root colonization of mustard seedlings was confirmed by using a streptomycin-resistant marker M. loti MP6strep+. The M. loti MP6 coated seeds proved enhanced seed germination, early vegetative growth and grain yield as compared to control. Also, a drastic decline (99% in the incidence of white rot was observed due to application of M. loti MP6.A cepa bacteriana Mesorhizobium loti MP6 isolada de nódulos de raiz de Mimosa pudica induziu o crescimento e o rendimento de Brassica campestris. A cepa MP6 secretou sideróforo do tipo hidroxamato em meio sólido Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS. Em condições normais de crescimento, a cepa foi também capaz de produzir de ácido cianídrico (HCN e acido indolacético (AIA e solubilizar fosfato. O encurvamento do pelo da raiz foi observado usando a simples técnica de lâmina e lamínula. Estudos in vitro mostraram um aumento significativo na população de M. loti MP6 na rizosfera devido aos exsudatos de B. campestris. Empregando-se técnica de co-cultura, a cepa mostrou um grande efeito antagônico contra o fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, o patógeno da podridão branca de Brassica campestris. Ap

  14. Preferential exclusion of hybrids in mixed pollinations between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. campestris (Brassicaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Østergård, Hanne

    1997-01-01

    amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Using data on the proportion of fully developed seeds and the proportion of these seeds that were hybrids, a statistical model was constructed to estimate the fitness of conspecific and heterospecific pollen and the survival of conspecific and heterospecific zygotes...... for competition between male gametophytes and/or seeds within pods. To test whether competition influences the success of hybridization, pollen from the two species was mixed in different proportions and applied to stigmas of both species. The resulting seeds were scored for paternity by isozyme and randomly...... to seeds. B. campestris pollen in B. napus styles had a significantly lower fitness than the conspecific pollen, whereas no difference between pollen types was found in B. campestris styles. Hybrid zygotes survived to significantly lower proportions than conspecific zygotes in both species, with the lowest...

  15. Chemical characterization of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains; Caracterizacao quimica de biopolimeros sintetizados por Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Angelita da S.; Vendruscolo, Claire T.; Furlan, Ligia [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia]. E-mail: angelita@ufpel.tche.br; claire@ufpel.tche.br; ligia@ufpel.tche.br; Galland, Griselda [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Qumica

    2001-07-01

    In this work we describe the characterisation of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by two Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains, in aerobic fermentation. By chromatography on TLC we could notice the presence of Mannose monomer in higher proportion in the 82 strain with relation to the another ones. The viscosity results showed the temperature dependence. The 06 and 82 strains had their viscosity increased whereas for the 87 strain we could observe a reduction with temperature increasing. The {sup 13}C NMR spectrum of 87 strain showed the characteristic signals at approximately 92.8, 70.4 and 61.4 ppm, attributed to C1, C4 and C6 from glucose monomer, with higher intensity. (author)

  16. Franjas marginales de Brassica campestris L. (nabo) en cultivo de repollo. Efecto sobre pulgones y sus parasitoides: Título abreviado: Franjas marginales de Brassica campestris L. ....

    OpenAIRE

    Curis, M. C; Saravia Steudtner, F; Favaro, J. C; Sánchez, D; Bertolaccini, I

    2014-01-01

    La diversidad vegetal en los agroecosistemas afecta la dinámica poblacional de las plagas y de sus enemigos naturales, siendo una alternativa de control el uso de franjas trampa en algunos cultivos. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar como una franja marginal de Brassicas campestris L. (Brassicales, Brassicaceae), afecta a la población de los pulgones de B. oleracea var. capitata y de sus parasitoides. El estudio se llevó a cabo en Santa Fe, a partir de febrero de 2012. Se estableció en un...

  17. Análisis comparativo de los caracteres epidérmicos en Flourensia campestris y F. oolepis (Asteraceae Comparative analysis of the epidermal characters in Flourensia campestris and F. oolepis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Delbón

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se examinaron y compararon cuantitativamente las epidermis foliares de Flourensia campestris Griseb. y F. oolepis S. F. Blake, especies endémicas que crecen en las sierras de Córdoba, Argentina. Para ello, se seleccionaron cinco variables: número de células epidérmicas propiamente dichas, estomas, tricomas glandulares y eglandulares e índice estomático. Los resultados obtenidos se evaluaron por métodos estadísticos; ellos indican que hay diferencias significativas entre ambas especies en las variables frecuencia de estomas, de células propiamente dichas, de tricomas glandulares e índice estomático. Estos datos podrían ser de interés para su reconocimiento cuando se dispone de muestras pequeñas o fragmentos.This study provides comparative analyses of foliar epidermis in Flourensia campestris Griseb. and F. oolepis S. F. Blake, endemic species that grow in Córdoba, Argentina. Five variables were selected: number of epidermal cells, stomata, glandular and eglandular trichomes and stomatal index. Results were evaluated by statistical methods; they show that there are significant differences between the variables of both species; these data could be of interest for their identification, when only are available small samples and fragments.

  18. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``GTSR'') and the Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``TSR'') to expand the scope of...

  19. The Effect of Field Dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck. on Morphological and Fluorescence Parameters of Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Vrbničanin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the parasitic flowering plant known as field dodder (Cuscuta campestrisYunck. on morphological and fluorescence parameters of infested giant ragweed(Ambrosia trifida L. plants was examined under controlled conditions. The parameters ofchlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, Fv, Fm, ETR and IF were measured on infested (Iand non-infested (N A. trifida plants over a period of seven days, beginning with the day ofinfestation. Morphological parameters (plant height, dry and fresh weight were measuredon the last day of fluorescence measurements. C. campestris was found to affect the height,fresh and dry weight of the infested A. trifida plants, causing significant reduction in plantheight and dry weight. Field dodder also affected several parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence(Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII and Fv in infested A. trifida plants.

  20. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers of the Brassica alboglabra chromosome of a B. campestris-alboglabra addition line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Chen, B.Y.; Cheng, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    The alien C-genome chromosome in a Brassica campestris-alboglabra monosomic addition line was characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The alien chromosome carried three loci, E(c), W-c and Lap-1C, controlling synthesis of erucic acid, white flower colour and a fast...

  1. Effect of alcoholic extract of guaco (Mikania glomerata on the control of dark rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in cauliflower/ Avaliação da eficácia da tintura etanólica de guaco (Mikania glomerata no controle da podridão negra (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris em couve-flor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina Freitas Schwan-Estrada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available With the use of irrigation and new hybrids of cauliflower, it is possible to get production during all the year with hight yield. However, the crop has been affected by diseases, as the dark rot caused by X. campestris pv. campestris. The objective of this research work was to study the potential of Mikania glomerata for the control of this disease. Alcoholic extract 50 ºGL of M. glomerata was evaluated regarding to: in vitro antimicrobial activity through bacterial growth in 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1 of the alcoholic extract; induction of local or systemic resistance in 25 days old cauliflower, with spray of alcoholic extract concomitantly and three days before the inoculation with the pathogen (water and bordeau mixture were used as control; peroxidases activity in leaves of cauliflower treated and not treated, and harvested concomitantly, 24, 48 and 72 hours after spraying the alcoholic extract and also after inoculation. The alcoholic extract of M. glomerata showed inhibition of the bacterial growth in vitro at the concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1. The concentrations of 500 mg L-1 and 1000 mg L-1 inhibited 24% and 38% of the bacterial growth. This inhibition could be due to antibacterial compounds in the alcoholic extract. An inhibition of the disease in vivo occurred only in the leaves treated with 100 and 500 mg L-1 of alcoholic extract when applied concomitantly with the bacteria. This result was similar to bordeau mixture, indicating a control by direct antimicrobial activity. There was no systemic resistence induction for all treatments. The peroxidases induction was due to infectious pathogen process and not to the treatments with alcoholic extract. The results indicate the potential of M. glomerata alcoholic extract for the preventive control of cauliflower dark rot disease.Com a prática da irrigação e novos híbridos de couve-flor, é possível produzir durante todo o ano e com alta produtividade. Mas, a cultura tem

  2. PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 is associated with pollen wall development in Brassica campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Yao, Lina; Yu, Youjian; Lv, Meiling; Miao, Ying; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-11-01

    PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 (PLL10) was previously identified as one of the differentially expressed genes both in microspores during the late pollen developmental stages and in pistils during the fertilization process in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Here, antisense-RNA was used to study the functions of BcPLL10 in Chinese cabbage. Abnormal pollen was identified in the transgenic lines (bcpll10-4, -5, and -6). In fertilization experiments, fewer seeds were harvested when the antisense-RNA lines were used as pollen donor. In vivo and in vitro pollen germination assays less germinated pollen tubes were observed in bcpll10 lines. Scanning electron microscopy observation verified that the tryphine materials were over accumulated around the pollen surface and sticked them together in bcpll10. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the internal endintine was overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine, and disturbed the normal proportional distribution of the two layers in the non-germinal furrow region; and no obvious demarcation existed between them in the germinal furrow region in the bcpll10 pollen. Collectively, this study presented a novel PLL gene that played an important role during the pollen wall development in B. campestris, which may also possess potential importance for male sterility usage in agriculture. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus campestris and Agaricus xanthoderma: Characterization and Applications in Carbohydrate Conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens K. Peterbauer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH is a flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is limited to a rather small group of litter-degrading basidiomycetes. The enzyme is unable to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor, using substituted benzoquinones and (organo metal ions instead. PDH displays a broad substrate specificity and intriguing variations in regioselectivity, depending on substrate, enzyme source and reaction conditions. In contrast to the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (POx, PDHs from several sources are capable of oxidizing α- or β-1→4-linked di- and oligosaccharides, including lactose. PDH from A. xanthoderma is able to perform C-1 and C-2 oxidation, producing, in addition to lactobionic acid, 2-dehydrolactose, an intermediate for the production of lactulose, whereas PDH from A. campestris oxidizes lactose nearly exclusively at the C-1 position. In this work, we present the isolation of PDH-encoding genes from A. campestris (Ac and A. xanthoderma (Ax and a comparison of other so far isolated PDH-sequences. Secretory overexpression of both enzymes in Pichia pastoris was successful when using their native signal sequences with yields of 371 U·L−1 for AxPDH and 35 U·L−1 for AcPDH. The pure enzymes were characterized biochemically and tested for applications in carbohydrate conversion reactions of industrial relevance.

  4. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: L-Fuconate Dehydratase from Xanthomonas campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yew,W.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Rakus, J.; Pierce, R.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2006-01-01

    Many members of the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily have unknown functions. In this report the authors use both genome (operon) context and screening of a library of acid sugars to assign the L-fuconate dehydratase (FucD) function to a member of the mandelate racemase (MR) subgroup of the superfamily encoded by the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. ATCC 33913 genome (GI: 21233491). Orthologues of FucD are found in both bacteria and eukaryotes, the latter including the rTS beta protein in Homo sapiens that has been implicated in regulating thymidylate synthase activity. As suggested by sequence alignments and confirmed by high-resolution structures in the presence of active site ligands, FucD and MR share the same active site motif of functional groups: three carboxylate ligands for the essential Mg2+ located at the ends of th third, fourth, and fifth-strands in the (/)7-barrel domain (Asp 248, Glu 274, and Glu 301, respectively), a Lys-x-Lys motif at the end of the second-strand (Lys 218 and Lys 220), a His-Asp dyad at the end of the seventh and sixth-strands (His 351 and Asp 324, respectively), and a Glue at the end of the eighth-strand (Glu 382). The mechanism of the FucD reaction involves initial abstraction of the 2-proton by Lys 220, acid catalysis of the vinylogous-elimination of the 3-OH group by His 351, and stereospecific ketonization of the resulting 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-fuconate product. Screening of the library of acid sugars revealed substrate and functional promiscuity: In addition to L-fuconate, FucD also catalyzes the dehydration of L-galactonate, D-arabinonate, D-altronate, L-talonate, and D-ribonate. The dehydrations of L-fuconate, L-galactonate, and D-arabinonate are initiated by abstraction of the 2-protons by Lys 220. The dehydrations of L-talonate and D-ribonate are initiated by abstraction of the 2-protons by His 351; however, protonation of the enediolate intermediates by the conjugate acid of Lys 220 yields L

  5. USA IN THE EMERGING SYSTEM OF GLOBAL FINANCIAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Kulakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the globalizing world of fi nancial and economic interdependence, a polycentric, multi-level, and hierarchical system of global financial regulation is emerging. The article highlights two vectors of recent development in international fi nancial regulation: the rise of cooperation through the mechanisms of the Group of Twenty (G-20 on the one hand, and the efforts to maintain the US leading role in global fi nance, on the other hand. In the circumstances of the global fi nancial crisis of 2008, the G-20 countries initiated an international reform of fi nancial regulation. According to G-20 decisions, international standardsetting organizations developed transnational regulatory regimes in the fi elds of banking, derivatives and bankruptcy resolution, and the states now implement these regimes in their jurisdictions. The so-called “soft law system”, which is not legally binding, allows the states to sustain national sovereignty in their fi nancial policy. The United States play a leading role in the international fi nancial reform, as well as in the shaping of the global fi nancial regulation system. The American regulators push for extraterritorial application of the US norms and take other unilateral actions on the international arena. The article also touches upon legitimacy problems of the emerging system of global fi nancial regulation. The most important constrains are the excessive infl uence of the fi nancial industry (“regulatory capture”, the weakness of civil society participation, and also the fact that for the rest of the world the American norms lack legitimacy, as they are adopted by regulators assigned by offi cials elected by population of a foreign territory.

  6. Irradiation of mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) to extend their shelf-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1990-01-01

    Mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) were irradiated with 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy, being then stored either at 10 deg C ± 1 deg C or at room temperature (20 deg C ± 2 deg C), with the purpose of determining the most convenient condition to extend their shelf-life. It is concluded that 3.0 kGy and 10 deg C are the most suitable for that, leading to the inhibition of cap opening and stem elongation, less darkening and no evidence of fungal development until 17th day. Subsequentely almost a duplication of their shelf-life was obtained. (Author) [es

  7. Induced polyploidization in Brassica campestris L. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G; Dwivedi, K

    2014-01-01

    Present experimental design has been made up to obtain crop with higher ploidy level via synthetic polyploidization. Since ploidy manipulation is generally associated with the obtainment of some increased enviable traits of the crop and also provides them greater adaptability to unfavorable or harsh circumstances as compared to its diploids counterparts. Thus, herein present research autotetraploids of Brassica campestris L. have been lucratively achieved by the application of colchicine. Two methods of treatment were utilized i.e. seed treatment and seedling treatment. No polyploidy could be obtained through seed treatment while seedling treatment responded well towards polyploidy. However, the status of autotetraploidy has been confirmed by cytomorphological investigations of treated plants as against its diploids counterparts. For the purpose, morphological parameters such as increased stomata size, pollen diameter, flower size, reproductive organs whereas reduction in plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth, stomata frequency, number of flowers/inflorescence etc. were appraised. Further, cytological observations were made that had clearly revealed the doubling of genome in the autotetraploids as compared to diploids. Meanwhile, pollen fertility and size of pollen grains were evaluated as well.

  8. Cell wall-bound invertase limits sucrose export and is involved in symptom development and inhibition of photosynthesis during compatible interaction between tomato and Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocal, Nurcan; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2008-11-01

    Cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv) plays an important role in carbohydrate partitioning and regulation of sink-source interaction. There is increasing evidence that pathogens interfere with sink-source interaction, and induction of cw-Inv activity has frequently been shown in response to pathogen infection. To investigate the role of cw-Inv, transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants silenced for the major leaf cw-Inv isoforms were generated and analyzed during normal growth and during the compatible interaction with Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria. Under normal growth conditions, activities of sucrolytic enzymes as well as photosynthesis and respiration were unaltered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. However, starch levels of source leaves were strongly reduced, which was most likely caused by an enhanced sucrose exudation rate. Following X. campestris pv vesicatoria infection, cw-Inv-silenced plants showed an increased sucrose to hexose ratio in the apoplast of leaves. Symptom development, inhibition of photosynthesis, and expression of photosynthetic genes were clearly delayed in transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. In addition, induction of senescence-associated and pathogenesis-related genes observed in infected wild-type plants was abolished in cw-Inv-silenced tomato lines. These changes were not associated with decreased bacterial growth. In conclusion, cw-Inv restricts carbon export from source leaves and regulates the sucrose to hexose ratio in the apoplast. Furthermore, an increased apoplastic hexose to sucrose ratio can be linked to inhibition of photosynthesis and induction of pathogenesis-related gene expression but does not significantly influence bacterial growth. Indirectly, bacteria may benefit from low invertase activity, since the longevity of host cells is raised and basal defense might be dampened.

  9. Tranformasi Fragmen Dna Kromosom Xanthomonas Campestris ke dalam Escherichia Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Mangunwardoyo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on DNA transformation of Xanthomonas campestris into Escherichia coli DH5αα using plasmid vector Escherichia coli (pUC19. was carried out. DNA chromosome was isolated using CTAB method, alkali lysis method was used to isolate DNA plasmid. Both of DNA plasmid and chromosome were digested using restriction enzyme EcoRI. Competent cell was prepared with CaCl2 and heat shock method for transformation procedure. The result revealed transformation obtain 5 white colonies, with transformation frequency was 1,22 x 10-8 colony/competent cell. Electrophoresis analysis showed the DNA fragment (insert in range 0.5 – 7,5 kb. Further research should be carried out to prepare the genomic library to obtain better result of transformant.

  10. Inducible Expression of the De-Novo Designed Antimicrobial Peptide SP1-1 in Tomato Confers Resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areli Herrera Diaz

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are small peptides with less than 50 amino acids and are part of the innate immune response in almost all organisms, including bacteria, vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. AMPs are active against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. The inducible expression of AMPs in plants is a promising approach to combat plant pathogens with minimal negative side effects, such as phytotoxicity or infertility. In this study, inducible expression of the de-novo designed AMP SP1-1 in Micro Tom tomato protected tomato fruits against bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The peptide SP1-1 was targeted to the apoplast which is the primary infection site for plant pathogens, by fusing SP1-1 peptide to the signal peptide RsAFP1 of radish (Raphanus sativus. The pathogen inducibility of the expression was enabled by using an optimized inducible 4XW2/4XS promoter. As a result, the tomato fruits of independently generated SP1-1 transgenic lines were significantly more resistant to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria than WT tomato fruits. In transgenic lines, bacterial infection was reduced up to 65% in comparison to the infection of WT plants. Our study demonstrates that the combination of the 4XW2/4XS cis-element from parsley with the synthetic antimicrobial peptide SP1-1 is a good alternative to protect tomato fruits against infections with X. campestris pv. vesicatoria.

  11. Development of immunofluorescence colony staining (IFC) for detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis in tomato seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, J.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.

    2006-01-01

    Immunofluorescence colony-staining (IFC) is based on sample pour plating in combination with immunofluorescence staining for recognition of the target colony. IFC was optimised for detecting Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) in

  12. Dissecting specific and global transcriptional regulation of bacterial gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerosa, Luca; Kochanowski, Karl; Heinemann, Matthias; Sauer, Uwe

    Gene expression is regulated by specific transcriptional circuits but also by the global expression machinery as a function of growth. Simultaneous specific and global regulation thus constitutes an additional-but often neglected-layer of complexity in gene expression. Here, we develop an

  13. Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Tamar; Prizak, Roshan; Guet, Călin C.; Barton, Nicholas H.; Tkačik, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulation relies on the specificity of transcription factor (TF)–DNA interactions. Limited specificity may lead to crosstalk: a regulatory state in which a gene is either incorrectly activated due to noncognate TF–DNA interactions or remains erroneously inactive. As each TF can have numerous interactions with noncognate cis-regulatory elements, crosstalk is inherently a global problem, yet has previously not been studied as such. We construct a theoretical framework to analyse the effects of global crosstalk on gene regulation. We find that crosstalk presents a significant challenge for organisms with low-specificity TFs, such as metazoans. Crosstalk is not easily mitigated by known regulatory schemes acting at equilibrium, including variants of cooperativity and combinatorial regulation. Our results suggest that crosstalk imposes a previously unexplored global constraint on the functioning and evolution of regulatory networks, which is qualitatively distinct from the known constraints that act at the level of individual gene regulatory elements. PMID:27489144

  14. The inheritance of resistance to bacterial leaf spot of lettuce caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians in three lettuce cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce yields can be reduced by the disease bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) and host resistance is the most feasible method to reduce disease losses. The cultivars La Brillante, Pavane, and Little Gem express an incompatible host-pathogen in...

  15. Biological Functions of ilvC in Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Diffusible Signal Factor Family Production in Xanthomonas campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Huai Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria, the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs is tightly associated with branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs synthetic pathways. Although previous studies have reported on BCFAs biosynthesis, more detailed associations between BCAAs metabolism and BCFAs biosynthesis remain to be addressed. In this study, we deleted the ilvC gene, which encodes ketol-acid reductoisomerase in the BCAAs synthetic pathway, from the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc genome. We characterized gene functions in BCFAs biosynthesis and production of the diffusible signal factor (DSF family signals. Disruption of ilvC caused Xcc to become auxotrophic for valine and isoleucine, and lose the ability to synthesize BCFAs via carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, ilvC mutant reduced the ability to produce DSF-family signals, especially branched-chain DSF-family signals, which might be the main reason for Xcc reduction of pathogenesis toward host plants. In this report, we confirmed that BCFAs do not have major functions in acclimatizing Xcc cells to low temperatures.

  16. Deduction of upstream sequences of Xanthomonas campestris flagellar genes responding to transcription activation by FleQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, R.-M.; Yang, T.-C.; Yang, S.-H.; Tseng, Y.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), a close relative to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is the pathogen causing black rot in cruciferous plants. In P. aeruginosa, FleQ serves as a cognate activator of σ 54 in transcription from several σ 54 -dependent promoters of flagellar genes. These P. aeruginosa promoters have been analyzed for FleQ-binding sequences; however, no consensus was deduced. Xcc, although lacks fleSR, has a fleQ homologue residing among over 40 contiguously clustered flagellar genes. A fleQ mutant, Xc17fleQ, constructed by insertional mutation is deficient in FleQ protein, non-flagellated, and immobile. Transcriptional fusion assays on six putative σ 54 -dependent promoters of the flagellar genes, fliE, fliQ, fliL, flgG, flgB, and flhF, indicated that each of them is also FleQ dependent. Each of these promoters has a sequence with weak consensus to 5'-gaaacCCgccgCcgctTt-3', immediately upstream of the predicted σ 54 -binding site, with an imperfect inverted repeat containing a GC-rich center flanked by several A and T at 5'- and 3'-ends, respectively. Replacing this region in fliE promoter with a HindIII recognition sequence abolished the transcription, indicating that this region responds to transcription activation by FleQ

  17. Volatiles and Nonvolatiles in Flourensia campestris Griseb. (Asteraceae), How Much Do Capitate Glandular Trichomes Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Leonardo A; López, Daniela; Silva, Mariana P; López Rivilli, Marisa J; Tourn, Mónica G; Cantero, Juan J; Scopel, Ana L

    2018-03-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll. Two (-)-HAA accompanying surface secreted products: compounds 4-hydroxyacetophenone (piceol; 1) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (2), which were isolated and fully characterized (GC/MS, NMR), were present in the volatiles found in GTs. The essential oils of fresh leaves revealed ca. 33% monoterpenes, 26% hydrocarbon- and 30% oxygenated sesquiterpenes, most of them related to cadinene and bisabolene derivatives. Present results suggest a main role of GTs in determining the volatile and nonvolatile composition of F. campestris leaves. Based on the known activities of the compounds identified, it can be suggested that GTs in F. campestris would play key ecological functions in plant-pathogen and plant-plant interactions. In addition, the strikingly high contribution of compounds derived from cadinene and bisabolene pathways, highlights the potential of this species as a source of high-valued bioproducts. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Baby leaf lettuce germplasm enhancement: developing diverse populations with resistance to bacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby leaf lettuce cultivars with resistance to bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) are needed to reduce crop losses. The objectives of this research were to assess the genetic diversity for BLS resistance in baby leaf lettuce cultivars and to select early gen...

  19. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De León, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards. The classification of the policy was reviewed by a country expert. Results The search identified 68 countries that regulate e-cigarettes: 22 countries regulate e-cigarettes using existing regulations; 25 countries enacted new policies to regulate e-cigarettes; 7 countries made amendments to existing legislation; 14 countries use a combination of new/amended and existing regulation. Common policies include a minimum-age-of-purchase, indoor-use (vape-free public places) bans and marketing restrictions. Few countries are applying a tax to e-cigarettes. Conclusions A range of regulatory approaches are being applied to e-cigarettes globally; many countries regulate e-cigarettes using legislation not written for e-cigarettes. PMID:27903958

  20. Chemical characterization of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Angelita da S.; Vendruscolo, Claire T.; Furlan, Ligia; Galland, Griselda

    2001-01-01

    In this work we describe the characterisation of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by two Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains, in aerobic fermentation. By chromatography on TLC we could notice the presence of Mannose monomer in higher proportion in the 82 strain with relation to the another ones. The viscosity results showed the temperature dependence. The 06 and 82 strains had their viscosity increased whereas for the 87 strain we could observe a reduction with temperature increasing. The 13 C NMR spectrum of 87 strain showed the characteristic signals at approximately 92.8, 70.4 and 61.4 ppm, attributed to C1, C4 and C6 from glucose monomer, with higher intensity. (author)

  1. Influence of agitation and aeration in xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strain 101 Influencia de la agitación y la aireación en la producción de xantano por Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni cepa 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Borges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Production, viscosity, and chemical composition of xanthan synthesized by bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strain 101 were evaluated in bioreactor systems. During the process, the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa and the biomass were determined and the pH was monitored. The cultures were grown in a 3 l bioreactor, with aeration and agitation varying as follows: conditions (A 300 rpm, 3 vvm and (B 200 rpm, 2 vvm, at 28 °C. Our results showed that gum production was dependent on kLa, with a maximum yield of 8.15 g/l at 300 rpm, 3 vvm, 54 h of fermentation, kLa 21.4/h, while biomass was not affected. All aqueous solutions of 3% (w/v xanthans synthesized showed a pseudoplastic behavior. The highest viscosity was reached under the strongest aeration/agitation conditions. All xanthan samples contained glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and glucuronic acid as their main components. The highest agitation and aeration rates used under condition A (300 rpm and 3 vvm favorably influenced the yield and viscosity of the xanthan produced by bacterium X. campestris pv pruni 101 at different fermentation times.Se evaluó la producción, viscosidad y composición química del xantano sintetizado por la bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni cepa 101 en un fermentador. Durante el proceso se controló el pH y se determinaron el coeficiente de transferencia de masa de oxígeno (kLa y la producción de masa celular seca. Los cultivos se realizaron en un fermentador de 3 l variando la aireación y la agitación, en las siguientes condiciones: (A 300 rpm, 3 vvm y (B 200 rpm, 2 vvm; a 28 °C. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la producción de goma fue dependiente del kLa, con un rendimiento máximo de 8,15 g/l a 300 rpm y 3 vvm a las 54 h de fermentación, kLa de 21,4/h, mientras que la producción de biomasa no se afectó. Todas las soluciones acuosas de xantano al 3% (m/v sintetizadas presentaron comportamiento pseudoplástico. La mayor

  2. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chang, Wen-Te; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Ying-Chih; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2016-12-07

    Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CC EtOH ). The hepatoprotective effect of CC EtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CC EtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl₄ were significantly reduced by CC EtOH . In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CC EtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury.

  3. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Huang Peng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CCEtOH. The hepatoprotective effect of CCEtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CCEtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl4 were significantly reduced by CCEtOH. In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CCEtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury.

  4. New high yielding mutant varieties of mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. yellow sarson)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Das, M.L.; Pathan, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Mutation breeding work at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture has been successful with the development of a number of promising mutants and with the release of two mutant varieties of mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Yellow Sarson), Agrani and Safal, for commercial cultivation in Bangladesh. The mutant varieties have higher seed and oil yield with higher biomass production, tolerance to Alternaria blight and aphid under field conditions. The average seed yield of the varieties is 1726 and 1754 kg/ha as compared to 1447 kg/ha of the best check Sonali. These varieties have 42-43 per cent oil in the seed. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Genetic diversity analysis for agro-morphological and seed quality traits in rapeseed (brassica campestris l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, M.; Ajmal, S.U.; Munir, M.; Ghafoor, A.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred fourteen accessions of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) were evaluated at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan using cluster and principal component analyses during 2005 and 2006. Cluster analysis based on fifteen agro-morphological and six seed quality traits, divided 114 accessions into six and five clusters during 2005 and 2006, respectively. The first seven and five PCs with eigenvalues > 1 contributed 74.09% and 66.08% of the variability amongst accessions during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Nine important characters contributed positively to first two PCs during both the years 2005 and 2006. (author)

  6. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  7. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Behbahani

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A. The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  8. Global pharmaceutical regulation: the challenge of integration for developing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzola, Anthony; Sweet, Cassandra M

    2016-12-20

    This paper has set out to map the state of pharmaceutical regulation in the developing world through the construction of cross-national indices drawing from World Health Organization data. The last two decades have been characterized by deep changes for the pharmaceutical sector, including the complete transformation of intellectual property systems at the behest of the World Trade Organization and the consolidation of global active ingredient suppliers in China and India. Although the rules for ownership of medicine have been set and globally implemented, we know surprisingly little about how the standards for market entrance and regulation of pharmaceutical products have changed at the national level. How standardized are national pharmaceutical market systems? Do we find homogeneity or variation across the developing world? Are their patterns for understanding why some countries have moved closer to one global norm for pharmaceutical regulation and others have developed hybrid models for oversight of this sector? Access to medicine is a core tool in public health. This paper gauges the levels of standards in public and private generics markets for developing countries building on national-level pharmaceutical market surveys for 78 countries to offer three indicators of market oversight: State Regulatory Infrastructure, Monitoring the Private Market and Public Quality Control. Identifying the different variables that affect a state's institutional capacity and current standard level offers new insights to the state of pharmaceuticals in the developing world. It is notable that there are very few (none at the time of this paper) studies that map out the new global terrain for pharmaceutical regulation in the post-TRIPS context. This paper uses item response theory to develop original indicators of pharmaceutical regulation. We find remarkable resistance to the implementation of global pharmaceutical norms for quality standards in developing states and in

  9. Produção de goma xantana por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris a partir de casca de cacau ou soro de leite Production of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris strains native from bark cocoa or whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis de M. Diniz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a otimização do processo de produção de goma xantana a partir de casca de cacau ou soro de leite como fonte de carbono, e determinou-se o rendimento da goma obtida pela bioconversão de casca de cacau e soro de leite com a Xanthomonas campestris 1182. A goma foi produzida em meios com potássio e nitrogênio a 25 °C, 250 rpm por 120 horas. Os rendimentos foram: 2,335 g.L-1 para a sacarose; 4,995 g.L-1 para a casca de cacau seca e 12,01 g.L-1 utilizando soro de leite. Portanto, é viável a produção de goma xantana utilizando fontes de carbono como a casca de cacau e o soro de leite.The optimization of the production process of xanthan gum from cocoa husks or milk whey as carbon source was studied, and the production rate of gum obtained by the bioconversion of cocoa pods and whey was determined, using Xanthomonas campestris 1182. The gum was produced in a medium with potassium and nitrogen at 25 °C, 250 rpm for 120 hours. The results were: 2.335 g.L-1 for sucrose; 4.995 g.L-1 for cocoa dry pods and 12.01 g.L-1 using whey. Therefore, the production of xanthan gum is feasible upon using carbon sources such as cocoa hulls and whey.

  10. Cloning of a two-component signal transduction system of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strain BXPF65

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, JWYF; Maynard, Scott; Goodwin, PH

    1998-01-01

    A putative two-component signal transduction system was amplified and cloned from the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans isolate BXPF65. The 620 bp amplified fragment was sequenced and analyzed with the BLAST Enhanced Alignment Utility (BEAUTY). BEAUTY...... that the putative histidine kinase has homology with conserved “transmitter” domains of sensor proteins in two-component signal transduction systems. RFLP analysis using the putative signal transduction system showed polymorphisms among the strains....

  11. Limpeza clonal de mudas de videira infectadas por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola Clonal cleaning of grapevine plants infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O cancro bacteriano da videira é causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv. Visando à limpeza clonal de mudas de 'Red Globe', foram estudados: tamanho ideal de ápices e gemas axilares para cultivo em meio de Galzy modificado (MGM; efeito da termoterapia (38ºC/30 dias; e ação de antibióticos na eliminação de Xcv em videiras infectadas. Os percentuais de contaminação por Xcv e de regeneração foram analisados, e as plantas obtidas foram indexadas em meio ágar nutritivo-dextrose-extrato de levedura-ampicilina (NYDAM, seguindo-se teste de patogenicidade. O cultivo de explantes com 3 mm possibilitou a obtenção de plantas livres da bactéria, com regeneração 14,3 vezes maior que explantes com 1 mm. A termoterapia de mudas infectadas, associada ao cultivo in vitro, não eliminou o patógeno. O cultivo de explantes com 10 mm, durante 40 dias em MGM + cefotaxima (300 mg L-1, proporcionou limpeza clonal das mudas. A indexação de plantas de videira regeneradas in vitro, quanto à infecção por Xcv utilizando NYDAM, seguida de teste de patogenicidade, é uma alternativa econômica e eficiente para produção de mudas de alta qualidade fitossanitária.Bacterial canker is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv. In order to eliminate Xcv from 'Red Globe' plants it was studied: optimal size of meristem tips and axillary buds for cultivation in modified Galzy's medium (MGM; effects of thermotherapy (38ºC/30 days; and action of antibiotics in the elimination of Xcv in infected grapevines. The percentages of contamination by Xcv and regeneration were analyzed and plants obtained were indexed using the semi-selective culture medium nutrient agar-dextrose-yeast extract-ampicilin (NYDAM followed by a pathogenicity test. The cultivation of 3 mm explants permitted to obtain plants free of bacteria with regeneration 14.3 times higher than 1 mm explants. The thermotherapy of infected plants associated to the in vitro culture

  12. Local and global responses in complex gene regulation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masa; Selvarajoo, Kumar; Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    An exacerbated sensitivity to apparently minor stimuli and a general resilience of the entire system stay together side-by-side in biological systems. This apparent paradox can be explained by the consideration of biological systems as very strongly interconnected network systems. Some nodes of these networks, thanks to their peculiar location in the network architecture, are responsible for the sensitivity aspects, while the large degree of interconnection is at the basis of the resilience properties of the system. One relevant feature of the high degree of connectivity of gene regulation networks is the emergence of collective ordered phenomena influencing the entire genome and not only a specific portion of transcripts. The great majority of existing gene regulation models give the impression of purely local ‘hard-wired’ mechanisms disregarding the emergence of global ordered behavior encompassing thousands of genes while the general, genome wide, aspects are less known. Here we address, on a data analysis perspective, the discrimination between local and global scale regulations, this goal was achieved by means of the examination of two biological systems: innate immune response in macrophages and oscillating growth dynamics in yeast. Our aim was to reconcile the ‘hard-wired’ local view of gene regulation with a global continuous and scalable one borrowed from statistical physics. This reconciliation is based on the network paradigm in which the local ‘hard-wired’ activities correspond to the activation of specific crucial nodes in the regulation network, while the scalable continuous responses can be equated to the collective oscillations of the network after a perturbation.

  13. Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: insights from social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations.

  14. Optimization of medium composition for the production of compounds effective against Xanthomonas campestris by bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol agents are a very promising alternative to synthetic pesticides that are presently used to control plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic microorganisms. Members of the Bacillus genera are soil bacteria that produce significant quantities of agriculturally important bioactive compounds. Production of these compounds can be improved by changing the nutritional and environmental conditions. The aim of this study was the optimization of medium composition, using response surface methodology, for the production of compounds effective against Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. To study the production of antimicrobial compounds by selected Bacillus strain, the producing microorganisms were cultivated on nutrient broth. The inhibition zone diameter of 18.0 mm obtained by the diffusion-disc method indicated that the used Bacillus subtilis strain produces compounds with antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951. To optimize the composition of the cultivation medium in terms of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphates content, experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design, and optimization of multiple responses was performed using the concept of desirability function. The developed model predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (26.23 mm against tested phytopathogen is achieved when the initial content of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphate were 50.00 g/L, 2.85 g/L and 11.00 g/L, respectively. To minimize the consumption of medium components and costs of effluents processing, additional optimization set was made. The techno-economic analysis of the obtained results has to be done to select optimal medium composition for industrial production of antimicrobial compounds.

  15. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative ...

  16. Global health security and the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Otavio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global nuclear proliferation, bioterrorism, and emerging infections have challenged national capacities to achieve and maintain global security. Over the last century, emerging infectious disease threats resulted in the development of the preliminary versions of the International Health Regulations (IHR of the World Health Organization (WHO. The current HR(2005 contain major differences compared to earlier versions, including: substantial shifts from containment at the border to containment at the source of the event; shifts from a rather small disease list (smallpox, plague, cholera, and yellow fever required to be reported, to all public health threats; and shifts from preset measures to tailored responses with more flexibility to deal with the local situations on the ground. The new IHR(2005 call for accountability. They also call for strengthened national capacity for surveillance and control; prevention, alert, and response to international public health emergencies beyond the traditional short list of required reporting; global partnership and collaboration; and human rights, obligations, accountability, and procedures of monitoring. Under these evolved regulations, as well as other measures, such as the Revolving Fund for vaccine procurement of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, global health security could be maintained in the response to urban yellow fever in Paraguay in 2008 and the influenza (H1N1 pandemic of 2009-2010.

  17. Fairness through regulation? Reflections on a cosmopolitan approach to global finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Božina Beroš

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the last financial crisis a strong message prevails that ‘something’ has to be changed in the manner global finance is governed. What exactly this ‘something’ entails and what could constitute the ‘common ground’ of anticipated change is more difficult to determine. Many envisage future improvements of global financial governance by evoking deliberative democracy, political equality and cosmopolitanism. As financial regulation is the main instrument through which global finance is shaped and governed nowadays, these principles should then be transmitted to regulatory arrangements. This paper focuses on a new conceptual approach to regulatory and governance issues in global finance, by employing the philosophical idea of cosmopolitanism. It argues that although as a concept, cosmopolitanism cannot mitigate all the flaws attributed to contemporary finance, its development and extension to international financial regulation that is promulgated by institutions of the global financial system, would represent a worthwhile endeavour in making global finance more accountable and just in the eyes of many.

  18. A sensor kinase recognizing the cell-cell signal BDSF (cis-2-dodecenoic acid) regulates virulence in Burkholderia cenocepacia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Y.; Yang, Liang; Twomey, K.B.

    2010-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris. The mechanism of perception of this signal and the range of functions regulated in B. cenocepacia are, however, unknown. A screen for transposon mutants unable to respond to exogenous signal identified BCAM0227 as a potential BDSF sensor. BCAM0227 is a histidine sensor kinase...... with an input domain unrelated to that of RpfC, the DSF sensor found in xanthomonads. Transcriptome profiling established the scope of the BDSF regulon and demonstrated that the sensor controls expression of a subset of these genes. A chimeric sensor kinase in which the input domain of BCAM0227 replaced...... the input domain of RpfC was active in BDSF signal perception when expressed in X. campestris. Mutation of BCAM0227 gave rise to reduced cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary cells and reduced virulence to Wax moth larvae and in the agar-bead mouse model of pulmonary infection. The findings identify BCAM...

  19. Fair Trade: Social Regulation in Global Food Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…

  20. Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Tamar; Prizak, Roshan; Guet, Calin; Barton, Nicholas H.; Tkacik, Gasper

    Gene activity is mediated by the specificity of binding interactions between special proteins, called transcription factors, and short regulatory sequences on the DNA, where different protein species preferentially bind different DNA targets. Limited interaction specificity may lead to crosstalk: a regulatory state in which a gene is either incorrectly activated due to spurious interactions or remains erroneously inactive. Since each protein can potentially interact with numerous DNA targets, crosstalk is inherently a global problem, yet has previously not been studied as such. We construct a theoretical framework to analyze the effects of global crosstalk on gene regulation, using statistical mechanics. We find that crosstalk in regulatory interactions puts fundamental limits on the reliability of gene regulation that are not easily mitigated by tuning proteins concentrations or by complex regulatory schemes proposed in the literature. Our results suggest that crosstalk imposes a previously unexplored global constraint on the functioning and evolution of regulatory networks, which is qualitatively distinct from the known constraints that act at the level of individual gene regulatory elements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant agreement Nr. 291734 (T.F.) and ERC Grant Nr. 250152 (N.B.).

  1. Cloning, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of XC2981 from Xanthomonas campestris, a putative CutA1 protein involved in copper-ion homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chien-Hung; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Gao, Fei Philip; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Shr, Hui-Lin; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2006-01-01

    A probable copper-ion tolerance protein from the plant pathogen X. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Divalent metal ions play key roles in all living organisms, serving as cofactors for many proteins involved in a variety of electron-transfer activities. However, copper ions are highly toxic when an excessive amount is accumulated in a cell. CutA1 is a protein found in all kingdoms of life that is believed to participate in copper-ion tolerance in Escherichia coli, although its specific function remains unknown. Several crystal structures of multimeric CutA1 with different rotation angles and degrees of interaction between trimer interfaces have been reported. Here, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC2981, a possible CutA1 protein present in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris, are reported. The XC2981 crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.6 Å. They are cubic and belong to space group I23, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 130.73 Å

  2. Local flow regulation and irrigation raise global human water consumption and footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-12-04

    Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 ± 979 km(3)/year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 ± 979 km(3)/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Development of high yielding mutants of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection through gamma rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.A.; Siddiqui, M.A.; Khan, M.K.R.; Khatri, A.; Khan, I.A.; Dahar, N.A.; Khanzada, M.H.; Khan, R.

    2003-01-01

    Homogeneous seeds of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection were treated with different doses of gamma rays (750, 1000 and 1250 Gy) to induce genetic variability for the selection of new genotypes with improved agronomic traits. After passing through different stages of selection, two promising mutants were selected for further studies. Two selected mutants along with 5 other entries including parent variety were evaluated for yield and yield components in yield trials for two consecutive years. The mutant TS96-752 was significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) superior to all other entries in grain yield but at par with FSD 86028-3

  4. Biological control of dodder (Cuscuta campestris L. by fungi pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fallahpour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite weeds are the most important yield reducing factors, and among them dodder (Cuscuta campestris L. is an obligate parasite of many plant families. In order to find a suitable biocontrol agent for dodder a study was conducted based on a randomized complete design with four replications at research greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2007-2009. Diseased dodders sampled from sugarbeet farms of Chenaran, Iran. After culturing and isolating exiting fungi from infected tissues of dodder, Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp. and Colletotrichum sp. were recognized. Inoculation of isolates was carried out with concenteration of 1×108 spores per ml sterile water at different growth stages of dodder in labratoary and greenhouse. Among different fungi, isolate of 323 of F. oxysporum showed an effective control on germination of dodder seeds and the highest level of plant pathogencity was before the contact of dodder with host and infection in older plants decreased. Infection of this isolate with crops such as sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L., alfalfa (Medigago sativa L., basil (Ocimum basilicum L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. showed no symptoms.

  5. Overcoming interspecific incompatibility in the cross Brassica campestris ssp. japonica x Brassica oleracea var. botrytis using irradiated mentor pollen page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarla, N.

    1988-01-01

    The cross B. campestris ssp. japonica x B. oleracea var. botrytis fails due to incompatibility barrier at the stigma. To realize this cross, irradiated compatible pollen (mentor pollen) was used before the incompatible pollination. The presence of mentor pollen stimulated the incompatible pollen to germinate and effect fertilization and seed set. One hybrid was thus obtained. Most of the seeds were inviable. Of the 5 plants raised one was a hybrid and 4 resembled the female parent. 1 tab., 7 refs

  6. Multiplex PCR for specific and robust detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum in pure culture and infected plant material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed a pathovar-specific PCR for the detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), the cause of banana xanthomonas wilt, by amplification of a 265-bp region of the gene encoding the general secretion pathway protein D (GspD). A distinct DNA fragment......-specific PCR was successfully multiplexed with internal control primers targeting 16S rDNA for application on DNA from bacterial cultures and with primers targeting plant mitochondrial 26S rDNA for application on DNA extracted from plant material. Diagnostic discrimination of healthy and infected plants...

  7. Effects of Drought and Salinity Stresses on Germination Characteristics of Dodder (Cuscuta campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghanbari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the germination characteristics of dodder (Cuscuta campestris under drought and salinity stress conditions, two laboratory's experiment were conducted. Experiments were conducted in completely randomized design with 4 replications. The treatments, for salinity and drought stress were six potential levels (0,-3, -6, -9, -12 and -15 bar of NaCl and five potential levels (0, -3, -6, -9 and -12 bar of PEG 6000 respectively. Results showed that increasing drought and salinity stress significantly germination rate and germination percentage, plumule and radicle length, plumule of Dodder and its radicle fresh weight decreased. However ratio of radicle to plumule and root to shoot were increased (P≤0.01. It seems that among the characters, plumule length is more sensitive to drought and salinity stresses. In addition, germination of dodder was tolernt to drought stress more than salinity stresses.

  8. Arbitrage and Competition in Global Financial Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    Regulatory arbitrage in financial markets refers to a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where...... institutions’ excessive risk-taking. If such risk-taking would be judged by market discipline instead of posing a risk to global financial stability, the main downside of regulatory competition could be restrained. Within the boundaries of such a system, competition could then operate and contribute...... their standards solely to attract businesses and thereby impose externalities on the worldwide financial market by undermining financial stability as a global public good. Policymakers worldwide are experimenting with remedies to respond to the phenomenon. I introduce the importance of an effective special...

  9. Role of Glycolytic Intermediates in Global Regulation and Signal Transduction. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J.C.

    2000-05-08

    The goal of this project is to determine the role of glycolytic intermediates in regulation of cell physiology. It is known that many glycolytic intermediates are involved in regulation of enzyme activities at the kinetic level. However, little is known regarding the role of these metabolites in global regulation and signal transduction. This project aims to investigate the role of glycolytic intermediates in the regulation of gene expression.

  10. Photosynthetic carbon fixation characteristics of fruiting structures of Brassica campestris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, H.R.; Sheoran, I.S.; Singh, R.

    1987-01-01

    Activities of key enzymes of the Calvin cycle and C 4 metabolism, rates of CO 2 fixation, and the initial products of photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation were determined in the podwall, seed coat (fruiting structures), and the subtending leaf (leaf below a receme) of Brassica campestris L. cv Toria. Compared to activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and other Calvin cycle enzymes, e.g. NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, the activities of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase and other enzymes of C 4 metabolism, viz. NADP-malate dehydrogenase, NADP-malic enzyme, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, were generally much higher in seed than in podwall and leaf. Podwall and leaf were comparable to each other. Pulse-chase experiments showed that in seed the major product of 14 CO 2 assimilation was malate (in short time), whereas in podwall and leaf, the label initially appeared in 3-PGA. With time, the label moved to sucrose. In contrast to legumes, Brassica pods were able to fix net CO 2 during light. However, respiratory losses were very high during the dark period

  11. Plate tectonic regulation of global marine animal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffos, Andrew; Finnegan, Seth; Peters, Shanan E.

    2017-05-01

    Valentine and Moores [Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Nature 228:657-659] hypothesized that plate tectonics regulates global biodiversity by changing the geographic arrangement of continental crust, but the data required to fully test the hypothesis were not available. Here, we use a global database of marine animal fossil occurrences and a paleogeographic reconstruction model to test the hypothesis that temporal patterns of continental fragmentation have impacted global Phanerozoic biodiversity. We find a positive correlation between global marine invertebrate genus richness and an independently derived quantitative index describing the fragmentation of continental crust during supercontinental coalescence-breakup cycles. The observed positive correlation between global biodiversity and continental fragmentation is not readily attributable to commonly cited vagaries of the fossil record, including changing quantities of marine rock or time-variable sampling effort. Because many different environmental and biotic factors may covary with changes in the geographic arrangement of continental crust, it is difficult to identify a specific causal mechanism. However, cross-correlation indicates that the state of continental fragmentation at a given time is positively correlated with the state of global biodiversity for tens of millions of years afterward. There is also evidence to suggest that continental fragmentation promotes increasing marine richness, but that coalescence alone has only a small negative or stabilizing effect. Together, these results suggest that continental fragmentation, particularly during the Mesozoic breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, has exerted a first-order control on the long-term trajectory of Phanerozoic marine animal diversity.

  12. Morphological characterization of local landraces of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var toria of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salik Ram Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var toria is the main source of edible oil for Nepalese people. 54 rapeseed lines were collected from different hilly district of Nepal ranging from 987 m to 2550 m altitude. These lines were planted in augmented design for its traits characterization in Khumaltar 2013. Different traits of local rapeseed were characterized, and evaluated. NGRC 02778 performed better followed by SR-02 than local checks Morang-2, Chitwan Local and Unnati in terms of yield, days to maturity and pest infestation. Similarly, genotype SR-18 was late and SR-16 was earlier in terms of days to maturity. In conclusion, SR-02 was found better genotype based on different characteristics measured among all local rapeseeds planted in Khumaltar 2013. Thus SR-2 can be used as parents in crossing material for further breeding purposes and it can also be tested in further trial.

  13. Future development of global regulations of Chinese herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tai-Ping; Deal, Greer; Koo, Hoi-Lun; Rees, Daryl; Sun, He; Chen, Shaw; Dou, Jin-Hui; Makarov, Valery G; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Shikov, Alexander N; Kim, Yeong Shik; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Chang, Yuan Shiun; Jia, William; Dias, Alberto; Wong, Vivian Chi-Woon; Chan, Kelvin

    2012-04-10

    GP-TCM is the first EU-funded Coordination Action consortium dedicated to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. One of the key deliverables of the Work Package 7 in GP-TCM was to investigate information of the existing requirements for registration of TCM products listed by global regulatory bodies. The paper aims to collate data and draw comparison of these regulations. Case studies are also presented to illustrate the problems involved in registering TCM products in different regions worldwide. A collaborative network task force was established during the early stage of the GP-TCM project and operated through exchanges, teleconferences and focused discussions at annual meetings. The task force involved coordinators, academics who are actively involved with R&D of Chinese herbal medicines, experts on monographic standards of Chinese materia medica, representatives from regulatory agencies, experts from industries in marketing Chinese medicines/herbal medicines and natural products. The co-ordinators took turns to chair teleconferences, led discussions on specific issues at AGM discussion sessions, at joint workshops with other work-packages such as WP1 (quality issues), WP3 (toxicology issues) and WP6 (clinical trial issues). Collectively the authors were responsible for collating discussion outcomes and updating written information. A global overview of regulations on herbal registration has been compiled during the three years of the consortium. The regulatory requirements for registration of herbal products in the EU and China were compared, and this is extended to other regions/countries: Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. A wide variation of the regulations for the categories of herbal products exists: food (functional food, novel foods, dietary food for special medical purpose, foods for particular nutritional use, food supplement); cosmetic, traditional herbal medicine products; herbal

  14. Chokepoints global private regulation on the Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Tusikov, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    In January 2012, millions participated in the now-infamous "Internet blackout" against the Stop Online Piracy Act, protesting the power it would have given intellectual property holders over the Internet. However, while SOPA's withdrawal was heralded as a victory for an open Internet, a small group of corporations, tacitly backed by the US and other governments, have implemented much of SOPA via a series of secret, handshake agreements. Drawing on extensive interviews, Natasha Tusikov details the emergence of a global regime in which large Internet firms act as regulators for powerful intellec

  15. Formulação de meios de cultivo à base de soro de leite para a produção de goma xantana por X. Campestris C7L Formulation of whey-based media for xanthan gum production by X. Campestris C7L isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia NITSCHKE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A goma xantana é um polissacarídeo microbiano de grande significado comercial especialmente para a indústria de alimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de xantana em diferentes meios de cultura à base de soro de leite utilizando o isolado Xanthomonas campestris C7L. Dentre as formulações testadas o meio de soro de leite integral produziu maior viscosidade e concentração final de xantana. Um sistema combinando soro integral (0,35% de proteína e soro filtrado (0,18%de proteína foi proposto. Na primeira fase em soro integral a produção de xantana foi de 13g/L e 45% de rendimento,enquanto que na segunda fase utilizando-se soro filtrado obteve-se um total de 28g/L de xantana e 75% de rendimento. O rendimento geral do processo foi de 55% e a viscosidade final do meio atingiu 18000cP. As soluções de xantana produzidas em soro de leite apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico característicos deste tipo de polímero. O isolado C7L demonstrou capacidade de produzir gomas de alta viscosidade e qualidade em soro de leite, constituindo uma alternativa promissora para a produção industrial de goma xantana a partir deste subproduto.Xanthan gum is a microbial polysaccharide of great commercial interest, especially in the food industry. The aim of this work was the evaluation of xanthan gum production from different whey - based media by a lactose utilizing Xanthomonas campestris C7L isolate. Three whey media formulations were tested: unfiltered whey, filtered whey and hydrolyzed whey. The medium composed of unfiltered whey showed the highest viscosities and xanthan concentrations. A two stage fermentation strategy, combining unfiltered whey (0,35% protein and filtered whey (0,18% protein, was proposed. The first stage, using unfiltered whey medium, showed a xanthan production of 12g/L and a 45% yield. The second stage, with filtered whey addition, gave final xanthan concentration of 28g/L and a 75% yield

  16. Globalization of health insecurity: the World Health Organization and the new International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2006-12-01

    The transnational spread of communicable and non-communicable diseases has opened new vistas in the discourse of global health security. Emerging and re-emerging pathogens, according to exponents of globalization of public health, disrespect the geo-political boundaries of nation-states. Despite the global ramifications of health insecurity in a globalizing world, contemporary international law still operates as a classic inter-state law within an international system exclusively founded on a coalition of nation-states. This article argues that the dynamic process of globalization has created an opportunity for the World Health Organization to develop effective synergy with a multiplicity of actors in the exercise of its legal powers. WHO's legal and regulatory strategies must transform from traditional international legal approaches to disease governance to a "post-Westphalian public health governance": the use of formal and informal sources from state and non-state actors, hard law (treaties and regulations) and soft law (recommendations and travel advisories) in global health governance. This article assesses the potential promise and problems of WHO's new International Health Regulations (IHR) as a regulatory strategy for global health governance and global health security.

  17. Interaction of the phage-xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dowson at the eletronic microscopy level, Virazole effect and radioautographic study of the phage action on the host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittolin, I.M.

    1982-04-01

    A bacteriophage from the cabbage tissue infected with Xanthomonas campestris is described. The infection process is studied through a negative staining technique (PTA) and ultrathin section. The effect of Virazole, an antivirus agent, is tested. Radioautography showed that the phage presented a reasonable domain on the bacterial host genome since the beginning of the treatment. Sorological reactions indicated the induction of specific antibodies for the phage. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Producão de goma xantana por X. Campestris ATCC 13951 utilizando soro de queijo desproteinado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Sobenes G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A goma xantana é um biopolímero microbiano producido pela bactéria Xanthomonas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a produção de goma xantana por processo fermentativo utilizando a linhagem X. campestris ATCC 13951 e como fonte de carbono: soro de queijo desproteinado suplementado com extrato de levedura e sulfato de amônia como fontes de nitrogênio; soro de queijo desproteinado suplementado só com extrato de levedura como fonte de nitrogênio e só soro de queijo desproteinado sem suplementos, tempo de fermentação de 72h para os três meios. Dos meios em análise aquele constituido apenas por soro de queijo desproteinado, atingiu o maior rendimento com valor de 58% e a melhor qualidade de goma.

  19. Increased Global Interaction Across Functional Brain Modules During Cognitive Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Felix; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Xie, Xiyao; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Meng, Chun; Sorg, Christian

    2017-07-13

    Cognitive emotion regulation (CER) enables humans to flexibly modulate their emotions. While local theories of CER neurobiology suggest interactions between specialized local brain circuits underlying CER, e.g., in subparts of amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), global theories hypothesize global interaction increases among larger functional brain modules comprising local circuits. We tested the global CER hypothesis using graph-based whole-brain network analysis of functional MRI data during aversive emotional processing with and without CER. During CER, global between-module interaction across stable functional network modules increased. Global interaction increase was particularly driven by subregions of amygdala and cuneus-nodes of highest nodal participation-that overlapped with CER-specific local activations, and by mPFC and posterior cingulate as relevant connector hubs. Results provide evidence for the global nature of human CER, complementing functional specialization of embedded local brain circuits during successful CER. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Bioconversion from crude glycerin by Xanthomonas campestris 2103: xanthan production and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Brandão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production and rheological properties of xanthan gum from crude glycerin fermentation, a primary by-product of the biodiesel industry with environmental and health risks, were evaluated. Batch fermentations (28 °C/250 rpm /120 h were carried out using crude glycerin, 0.01% urea and 0.1% KH2PO4, (% w/v, and compared to a sucrose control under the same operational conditions, using Xanthomonas campestris strain 2103 isolate from Brazil. Its maximal production by crude glycerin fermentation was 7.23±0.1 g·L-1 at 120 h, with an apparent viscosity of 642.57 mPa·s, (2 % w/v, 25 °C, 25 s-1, 70% and 30% higher than from sucrose fermentation, respectively. Its molecular weight varied from 28.2 to 36.2×10(6 Da. The Ostwald-de-Waele model parameters (K and n indicated a pseudoplastic behavior at all concentrations (0.5 to 2.0 %, w/v and temperatures (25-85 °C, while its consistency index indicated promising rheological properties for drilling fluid applications. Therefore, crude glycerin has potential as a cost-effective and alternative substrate for non-food grade xanthan production.

  1. Metal accumulation in a potential winter vegetable mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with different types of waters in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z. I.; Ahmad, K.; Yasmeen, S.; Ashfaq, A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the harmful effects of metal-enriched vegetables a comprehensive study was conducted to appraise the extent of accumulation of different metals in mustard (Brassica campestris L.). The vegetable was treated with ground water, sewage water and canal water irrigation in areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Metals and metalloids observed in all three sites treated with sewage, canal and ground water were As, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Mo, Se and Zn were observed in the sites treated with ground, sewage and canal waters as well as the vegetable grown therein. The metal concentration observed in water samples was: Fe>Zn >Pb> Ni> Mo> Cu> As> Se, the order in the soil was: As >Pb> Fe > Ni > Mo > Cu > Zn > Se, while the order in the vegetable was: Zn > Fe> Cu> Ni> Mo>Pb> As> Se. The values of bio-concentration factor varied from 0.09-15.47 mg kg-1. Correlation was positively significant for Brassica campestris and soil except Ni and Se which showed positive non significant correlation. Pollution load index was observed to be in the following order: As >Pb> Ni > Mo >Fe > Cu > Se > Zn in the sites GWI, CWI and CWI. Fe and Zn (0.169) showed highest value of daily intake of metal (DIM), while Se (0.003) showed lowest value in crop of all three sites GWI, CWI and CWI. The health risk index and EF ranged from 0.24-69.86 mg day/sup -1/and 0.134-14.12 mg day/sup -1/, respectively. Overall, the vegetable treated with sewage water may have considerable impact on food quality and in turn on the health of people consuming it. (author)

  2. Xanthomonas campestris RpfB is a Fatty Acyl-CoA Ligase Required to Counteract the Thioesterase Activity of the RpfF Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hongkai; Yu, Yonghong; Dong, Huijuan; Wang, Haihong; Cronan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), the proteins encoded by the rpf (regulator of pathogenicity factor) gene cluster produce and sense a fatty acid signal molecule called diffusible signaling factor (DSF, 2(Z)-11-methyldodecenoic acid). RpfB was reported to be involved in DSF processing and was predicted to encode an acyl-CoA ligase. We report that RpfB activates a wide range of fatty acids to their CoA esters in vitro. Moreover, RpfB can functionally replace the paradigm bacterial acyl-CoA ligase, Escherichia coli FadD, in the E. coli β-oxidation pathway and deletion of RpfB from the Xcc genome results in a strain unable to utilize fatty acids as carbon sources. An essential RpfB function in the pathogenicity factor pathway was demonstrated by the properties of a strain deleted for both the rpfB and rpfC genes. The ΔrpfB ΔrpfC strain grew poorly and lysed upon entering stationary phase. Deletion of rpfF, the gene encoding the DSF synthetic enzyme, restored normal growth to this strain. RpfF is a dual function enzyme that synthesizes DSF by dehydration of a 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) fatty acid synthetic intermediate and also cleaves the thioester bond linking DSF to ACP. However, the RpfF thioesterase activity is of broad specificity and upon elimination of its RpfC inhibitor RpfF attains maximal activity and its thioesterase activity proceeds to block membrane lipid synthesis by cleavage of acyl-ACP intermediates. This resulted in release of the nascent acyl chains to the medium as free fatty acids. This lack of acyl chains for phospholipid synthesis results in cell lysis unless RpfB is present to counteract the RpfF thioesterase activity by catalyzing uptake and activation of the free fatty acids to give acyl-CoAs that can be utilized to restore membrane lipid synthesis. Heterologous expression of a different fatty acid activating enzyme, the Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase, replaced RpfB in counteracting the effects of

  3. Comparative transcript profiling of fertile and sterile flower buds from multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Liu, Zhiyong; Ji, Ruiqin; Feng, Hui

    2017-10-01

    We studied the underlying causes of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to pollen sterility between fertile and sterile flower buds. In this work, we verified the stages of sterility microscopically and then performed transcriptome analysis of mRNA isolated from fertile and sterile buds using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform sequencing. Approximately 80% of ~229 million high-quality paired-end reads were uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In sterile buds, 699 genes were significantly up-regulated and 4096 genes were down-regulated. Among the DEGs, 28 pollen cell wall-related genes, 54 transcription factor genes, 45 phytohormone-related genes, 20 anther and pollen-related genes, 212 specifically expressed transcripts, and 417 DEGs located on linkage group A07 were identified. Six transcription factor genes BrAMS, BrMS1, BrbHLH089, BrbHLH091, BrAtMYB103, and BrANAC025 were identified as putative sterility-related genes. The weak auxin signal that is regulated by BrABP1 may be one of the key factors causing pollen sterility observed here. Moreover, several significantly enriched GO terms such as "cell wall organization or biogenesis" (GO:0071554), "intrinsic to membrane" (GO:0031224), "integral to membrane" (GO:0016021), "hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds" (GO:0016788), and one significantly enriched pathway "starch and sucrose metabolism" (ath00500) were identified in this work. qRT-PCR, PCR, and in situ hybridization experiments validated our RNA-seq transcriptome analysis as accurate and reliable. This study will lay the foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) that underly sterility and provide valuable information for studying multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in the Chinese cabbage line 'AB01'.

  4. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  5. Regulation of the csgD promoter by global regulators HN-S, IHF, and RpoS in E. coli O157:H7 isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Curli production is essential for the biofilm formation in E. coli and Salmonella. The control of expression of CsgD, the key regulator of the curli operon, is very complex, and has been shown to be regulated by several global regulators and is influenced by various growth and stress...

  6. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheo Shankar Pandey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named Xanthomonas iron binding regulator of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon's involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in

  7. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sheo Shankar; Patnana, Pradeep Kumar; Lomada, Santosh Kumar; Tomar, Archana; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named X anthomonas iron binding regulator) of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon’s involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in Xanthomonads in

  8. Chloroplast Redox Status Modulates Genome-Wide Plant Responses during the Non-host Interaction of Tobacco with the Hemibiotrophic Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Pierella Karlusich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-host resistance is the most ample and durable form of plant resistance against pathogen infection. It includes induction of defense-associated genes, massive metabolic reprogramming, and in many instances, a form of localized cell death (LCD at the site of infection, purportedly designed to limit the spread of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic microorganisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been proposed to act as signals for LCD orchestration. They are produced in various cellular compartments including chloroplasts, mitochondria and apoplast. We have previously reported that down-regulation of ROS build-up in chloroplasts by expression of a plastid-targeted flavodoxin (Fld suppressed LCD in tobacco leaves inoculated with the non-host bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv, while other defensive responses were unaffected, suggesting that chloroplast ROS and/or redox status play a major role in the progress of LCD. To better understand these effects, we compare here the transcriptomic alterations caused by Xcv inoculation on leaves of Fld-expressing tobacco plants and their wild-type siblings. About 29% of leaf-expressed genes were affected by Xcv and/or Fld. Surprisingly, 5.8% of them (1,111 genes were regulated by Fld in the absence of infection, presumably representing pathways responsive to chloroplast ROS production and/or redox status during normal growth conditions. While the majority (∼75% of pathogen-responsive genes were not affected by Fld, many Xcv responses were exacerbated, attenuated, or regulated in opposite direction by expression of this protein. Particularly interesting was a group of 384 genes displaying Xcv responses that were already triggered by Fld in the absence of infection, suggesting that the transgenic plants had a larger and more diversified suite of constitutive defenses against the attacking microorganism compared to the wild type. Fld modulated many genes involved in pathogenesis, signal

  9. Desenvolvimento vegetativo de Mentha campestris Schur e produção de mentol em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e épocas de colheita Vegetative development of Mentha campestris Schur and menthol production in different row spaces and harvest times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de óleos essenciais nas plantas aromáticas é influenciada por fatores bióticos e abióticos. A demanda por esses produtos tem aumentado, sendo os óleos essenciais do gênero Mentha de grande interesse nas indústrias farmacêutica, de cosméticos, alimentícia e agrícola, principalmente em função do composto mentol. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de três espaçamentos de plantio (0,60 x 0,15 m; 0,60 x 0,30 m e 0,60 x 0,45 m e duas épocas de colheita (60 e 90 dias após o plantio na espécie Mentha campestris Schur. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro de Estações Experimentais do Canguiri-UFPR, em Pinhais-PR, no período de janeiro a abril de 2008. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Houve diferença significativa para todas as variáveis analisadas. As massas secas de folhas, ramos e total foram maiores que na primeira época. Para a biomassa seca de folhas foram observados maiores valores no menor espaçamento de plantio. O rendimento de óleo essencial foi maior na segunda época de colheita e nos espaçamentos maiores. A produtividade do óleo também foi maior na segunda época de colheita, porém no espaçamento mais adensado. Pode-se concluir como recomendação para M. campestris Schur o espaçamento 0,60 x 0,15 m e colheita aos 90 dias, por terem atingido maior biomassa, rendimento de óleo essencial e produtividade de mentol por hectare.Essential oil production in aromatic plants is influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. The demand for these products has increased, and essential oils from the genus Mentha have been of great interest for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agronomic industries, especially because of the compound menthol. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three row spaces (0.60 x 0.15 m; 0.60 x 0.30 m and 0.60 x 0.45 m and two harvest times (60 and 90 days after planting on the species Mentha campestris Schur. The

  10. Internet governance and global self regulation: theoretical and empirical building blocks for a general theory of self regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vey Mestdagh, C.; Rijgersberg, R.

    2010-01-01

    The following exposition sets out to identify the basic theoretical and empirical building blocks for a general theory of self-regulation. It uses the Internet as an empirical basis since its global reach and technical characteristics create interdependencies between actors that transcend national

  11. Arabidopsis wat1 (walls are thin1)-mediated resistance to the bacterial vascular pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum, is accompanied by cross-regulation of salicylic acid and tryptophan metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denancé, N.; Ranocha, P.; Oria, N.; Barlet, X.; Rivière, M.P.; Yadeta, K.A.; Hoffmann, L.; Perreau, F.; Clément, G.; Maia-Grondard, A.; Berg, van den G.C.M.; Savelli, B.; Fournier, S.; Aubert, Y.; Pelletier, S.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Molina, A.; Jouanin, L.; Marco, Y.; Goffner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation of Arabidopsis WAT1 (Walls Are Thin1), a gene required for secondary cell-wall deposition, conferred broad-spectrum resistance to vascular pathogens, including the bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and the fungi Verticillium dahliae and

  12. Proteomics Reveals Global Regulation of Protein SUMOylation by ATM and ATR Kinases during Replication Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Munk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that protect eukaryotic DNA during the cumbersome task of replication depend on the precise coordination of several post-translational modification (PTM-based signaling networks. Phosphorylation is a well-known regulator of the replication stress response, and recently an essential role for SUMOs (small ubiquitin-like modifiers has also been established. Here, we investigate the global interplay between phosphorylation and SUMOylation in response to replication stress. Using SUMO and phosphoproteomic technologies, we identify thousands of regulated modification sites. We find co-regulation of central DNA damage and replication stress responders, of which the ATR-activating factor TOPBP1 is the most highly regulated. Using pharmacological inhibition of the DNA damage response kinases ATR and ATM, we find that these factors regulate global protein SUMOylation in the protein networks that protect DNA upon replication stress and fork breakage, pointing to integration between phosphorylation and SUMOylation in the cellular systems that protect DNA integrity.

  13. Structure of a Novel N-acetyl-L-citrulline Deacetylase from Xanthomonas campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi,D.; Yu, X.; Roth, L.; Tuchman, M.; Allewell, N.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of a novel acetylcitrulline deacetylase from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris has been solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) using crystals grown from selenomethionine-substituted protein and refined at 1.75 {angstrom} resolution. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contains one monomer consisting of two domains, a catalytic domain and a dimerization domain. The catalytic domain is able to bind a single Co(II) ion at the active site with no change in confirmation. the dimerization domain forms an interface between two monomers related by a crystallographic two-fold symmetry axis. The interface is maintained by hydrophobic interactions between helices and hydrogen bonding between two {beta} strands that form a continuous {beta} sheet across the dimer interface. Because the dimers are also related by two-fold crystallographic axes, they pack together across the crystal via the dimerization domain, suggesting that higher order oligomers may form in solution. The polypeptide fold of the monomer is similar to the fold of Pseudomonas sp. carboxypeptidase G2 and Neisseria meningitidis succinyl diaminopimelate desuccinylase. Structural comparison among these enzymes allowed modeling of substrate binding and suggests a possible catalytic mechanism, in which Glu130 functions as a bifunctional general acid-base catalyst and the metal ion polarizes the carbonyl of the acetyl group.

  14. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Carmel; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2012-04-18

    Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues.In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions.In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions.Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.

  15. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalev Carmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues. In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions. In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions. Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.

  16. Xanthan biosynthesis by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 on wastewaters from white grape processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from grape processing in wineries are characterized by large seasonal fluctuations in volume and composition, and are often discarded into environment with little or no treatment. The biotechnological production of valuable products is the most promising alternative for reducing the negative environmental impact and recycling these effluents. Results from previous study show that mixed winery wastewaters, after additional optimization of the medium preparation, may be a suitable raw material for industrial xanthan production. Therefore, the aim of this work was to examine the possibility of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 on mixed wastewaters from different stages of white grape processing in winery with initial sugars content of 20 g/L. In addition to the media characteristics and indicators of biopolymer quality, raw xanthan yield and degree of sugars conversion into product were determined in order to examine the success of performed bioprocess. The results for biopolymer yield (14.66 g/L and sugars conversion into desired product (70.21% obtained in applied experimental conditions confirm that wastewaters from white grape processing have a great potential to be used as a substrate for xanthan biosynthesis.

  17. Effect of 60Co γ irradiation with seed and shoot-tip of Brassica campestris L. var on its culture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Feixiong; Yu Rangcai; Pan Ruichi

    2003-01-01

    The survival rate in vitro of shoot-tips of Brassica campestris L. var from seeds irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays decreased with the increase of dose. Irradiation inhibited proliferation of shoot-tip, induction of callus from cotyledons and differentiation of the callus. The age of explant contributed to the effect of irradiation in the culture. Irradiation stimulated the proliferation of shoot-tip with dose less than 50 Gy. Based on the effect of irradiation in the tissue culture, the effective dose recommended was about 200 Gy for seeds, 50-100 Gy for pre-soaked germinating seeds and 40-70 Gy for shoot-tips in vitro, respectively

  18. A Suppressor of the Menadione-Hypersensitive Phenotype of a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli oxyR Mutant Reveals a Novel Mechanism of Toxicity and the Protective Role of Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Whangsuk, Wirongrong; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2003-01-01

    We isolated menadione-resistant mutants of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli oxyR (oxyRXp). The oxyRR2Xp mutant was hyperresistant to the superoxide generators menadione and plumbagin and was moderately resistant to H2O2 and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Analysis of enzymes involved in oxidative-stress protection in the oxyRR2Xp mutant revealed a >10-fold increase in AhpC and AhpF levels, while the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and the organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr) were not significantly altered. Inactivation of ahpC in the oxyRR2Xp mutant resulted in increased sensitivity to menadione killing. Moreover, high levels of expression of cloned ahpC and ahpF in the oxyRXp mutant complemented the menadione hypersensitivity phenotype. High levels of other oxidant-scavenging enzymes such as catalase and SOD did not protect the cells from menadione toxicity. These data strongly suggest that the toxicity of superoxide generators could be mediated via organic peroxide production and that alkyl hydroperoxide reductase has an important novel function in the protection against the toxicity of these compounds in X. campestris. PMID:12591894

  19. Post-Transcriptional Regulation by the Csr Global Regulatory System in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kazushi; 鈴木, 一史

    2007-01-01

    In many species of bacteria, the Csr (carbon storage regulator) global regulatory system coordinates the expression of various genes. In Escherichia coli, the central component of this system, CsrA, is a RNA-binding protein. The CsrA is a homodimer and binds to leader segments of target mRNAs, affecting their translation and stability. CsrA activity is regulated by two small non-coding RNAs, CsrB and CsrC. These RNAs contain multiple CsrA-binding sequences and act by sequestering CsrA. In thi...

  20. Limpeza clonal de mudas de videira infectadas por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O cancro bacteriano da videira é causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv. Visando à limpeza clonal de mudas de 'Red Globe', foram estudados: tamanho ideal de ápices e gemas axilares para cultivo em meio de Galzy modificado (MGM; efeito da termoterapia (38ºC/30 dias; e ação de antibióticos na eliminação de Xcv em videiras infectadas. Os percentuais de contaminação por Xcv e de regeneração foram analisados, e as plantas obtidas foram indexadas em meio ágar nutritivo-dextrose-extrato de levedura-ampicilina (NYDAM, seguindo-se teste de patogenicidade. O cultivo de explantes com 3 mm possibilitou a obtenção de plantas livres da bactéria, com regeneração 14,3 vezes maior que explantes com 1 mm. A termoterapia de mudas infectadas, associada ao cultivo in vitro, não eliminou o patógeno. O cultivo de explantes com 10 mm, durante 40 dias em MGM + cefotaxima (300 mg L-1, proporcionou limpeza clonal das mudas. A indexação de plantas de videira regeneradas in vitro, quanto à infecção por Xcv utilizando NYDAM, seguida de teste de patogenicidade, é uma alternativa econômica e eficiente para produção de mudas de alta qualidade fitossanitária.

  1. Overexpression of stress-related genes in Cuscuta campestris in response to host defense reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rezaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Herb dodder ( Cuscuta spp. is one of the most important parasitic plants that can severely affect crop yields in the world. So far, interactions of this parasitic plant with hosts were not investigated adequately. Here, we conducted a differential expression analyzes and identified a number of genes that were differentially expressed in haustorium tissue compared with the stem of Cuscuta campestris growing on Alfalfa. We obtained 439 cDNA fragments from haustoria (parasite-host connection zone and stems (25 cm away from connections zones using the cDNA-AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism method with eight different primer combinations. Of 439 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs that were detected, 145 fragments were identified as differentially expressed genes. Five TDF sequences were similar to known functional genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, respiration, and stress responses. Genes encoding DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase, potential heme-binding protein, lysine-specific demethylase 5A were selected for qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR analyzes confirmed the results obtained using cDNA-AFLP. Our findings shed light on the elicitation of dodder defense responses in the connection zone to overcome plant defense reactions.

  2. Globalization of environmental regulations for offshore E & P operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the enduring legacies of the Rio Environmental Summit of 1992 (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED) is Agenda 21 (Chapter 17 - Protection of the Oceans), which among other things called for the assessment of the need for a global authority to regulate offshore Exploration & Production (E&P) discharges, emissions and safety. Despite advice to the contrary from the International Maritime Organization (IMO), interest is building within the European community for the standardization of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international frameworks or forums have been mentioned as possible candidates. These include the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 (UNCLOS); London Convention 1972 (LC 1972) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL) 73/78. International offshore oil and gas operators operate within requirements of regional conventions under the United Nations Environmental Program`s (UNEP) - Regional Seas Program. Domestic offshore operations are undertaken under the auspices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Minerals Management Service.

  3. Global regulation of gene expression by the MafR protein of Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía eRuiz-Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is a natural inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract. However, as an opportunistic pathogen, it is able to colonize other host niches and cause life-threatening infections. Its adaptation to new environments involves global changes in gene expression. The EF3013 gene (here named mafR of E. faecalis strain V583 encodes a protein (MafR, 482 residues that has sequence similarity to global response regulators of the Mga/AtxA family. The enterococcal OG1RF genome also encodes the MafR protein (gene OG1RF_12293. In this work, we have identified the promoter of the mafR gene using several in vivo approaches. Moreover, we show that MafR influences positively the transcription of many genes on a genome-wide scale. The most significant target genes encode components of PTS-type membrane transporters, components of ABC-type membrane transporters, and proteins involved in the metabolism of carbon sources. Some of these genes were previously reported to be up-regulated during the growth of E. faecalis in blood and/or in human urine. Furthermore, we show that a mafR deletion mutant strain induces a significant lower degree of inflammation in the peritoneal cavity of mice, suggesting that enterococcal cells deficient in MafR are less virulent. Our work indicates that MafR is a global transcriptional regulator. It might facilitate the adaptation of E. faecalis to particular host niches and, therefore, contribute to its potential virulence.

  4. Alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity in horses: clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutarbush, S M

    2013-07-27

    The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited.

  5. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Nitrogen Application in Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xiong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the influence of drought stress on the growth and nitrogen nutrition status of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L. at different nitrogen (N levels, the changes in N accumulation and enzyme activities involved in N assimilation were investigated. The drought was induced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG under hydroponic culture conditions. Pakchoi seedlings were exposed to a modified nutrient solution with different nitrogen concentration (N1, N2, and N3 represent 2, 9 and 18 mM NaNO3, respectively and osmotic potential (W1, W2 and W3 represent 0, 60 and 120 g·L−1 PEG 6000 in a full factorial, replicated randomized block design. A short time (seven days of drought stress caused a significant decline in plant water content, transpiration rate, shoot biomass and shoot nitrogen concentration. Increasing N availability considerably alleviate drought stress by increasing the content of total free amino acids in the roots, promoting the acceleration of root biomass accumulation, and improving the activities of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1 and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2 which would reduce moisture limitations. The results suggested that pakchoi supplied with relative higher N had better growth performance under drought stress.

  6. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 μg/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 μg/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 μg/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 μg/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 μg/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia

  7. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS 2008 CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES FOR RUSSIAN MACROPRUDENTIAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Егор Николаевич Поляков

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the impact of volatility in global financial markets on the economy of developing countries and the analysis of factors contributing to a greater or lesser degree of vulnerability of the financial systems of developing countries in the global crisis of 2008-2010. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the global financial crisis on the economies of the two groups of developing countries of Southeast Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. On the basis of the analysis due to the dynamics of the main macroeconomic indicators of the Russian Federation during the acute phase of the crisis. The author presents an analysis of the vulnerability of the Russian economy in the event of possible instability in global financial markets at present. The author came to the conclusion that the main reason for which in 2009 the level of GDP growth Russia won 178 seats out of 184 countries, were 2 groups of errors. The first group of errors - errors are system of macro-prudential regulation made by the Central Bank from 2002 to 2007, such as: lack of control and regulation of borrowings of the private and banking sectors to foreign markets, as well as in the domestic market in foreign currency, the loss of control over domestic financial markets, such as: the interbank lending market, the stock market. The second group of errors - errors it committed securities during the crisis. The first error of the Central Bank - a rejection Vat refinance foreign debt of non-financial sector, resulting in an acute liquidity crisis. The second error is stretched for a few months, not a one-time devaluation of the ruble. Price of the second error was 200 billion USD, which the Central Bank lost and speculators earned.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-4

  8. New Regional and Global HFC Projections and Effects of National Regulations and Montreal Protocol Amendment Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, G. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. New global scenarios of HFC emissions reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050, which corresponds to a projected growth from 2015 to 2050 which is 9% to 29% of that for CO2 over the same time period. New baseline scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. These projections are the first to comprehensively assess production and consumption of individual HFCs in multiple use sectors and geographic regions with emission estimates constrained by atmospheric observations. In 2050, in percent of global HFC emissions, China (~30%), India and the rest of Asia (~25%), Middle East and northern Africa (~10%), and USA (~10%) are the principal source regions; and refrigeration and stationary air conditioning are the major use sectors. National regulations to limit HFC use have been adopted recently in the European Union, Japan and USA, and four proposals have been submitted in 2015 to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries. The new HFC scenarios and effects of national regulations and Montreal Protocol amendment proposals will be presented.

  9. Global parameter estimation for thermodynamic models of transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimenov, Yerzhan; Ay, Ahmet; Samee, Md Abul Hassan; Dresch, Jacqueline M; Sinha, Saurabh; Arnosti, David N

    2013-07-15

    Deciphering the mechanisms involved in gene regulation holds the key to understanding the control of central biological processes, including human disease, population variation, and the evolution of morphological innovations. New experimental techniques including whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis have enabled comprehensive modeling approaches to study gene regulation. In many cases, it is useful to be able to assign biological significance to the inferred model parameters, but such interpretation should take into account features that affect these parameters, including model construction and sensitivity, the type of fitness calculation, and the effectiveness of parameter estimation. This last point is often neglected, as estimation methods are often selected for historical reasons or for computational ease. Here, we compare the performance of two parameter estimation techniques broadly representative of local and global approaches, namely, a quasi-Newton/Nelder-Mead simplex (QN/NMS) method and a covariance matrix adaptation-evolutionary strategy (CMA-ES) method. The estimation methods were applied to a set of thermodynamic models of gene transcription applied to regulatory elements active in the Drosophila embryo. Measuring overall fit, the global CMA-ES method performed significantly better than the local QN/NMS method on high quality data sets, but this difference was negligible on lower quality data sets with increased noise or on data sets simplified by stringent thresholding. Our results suggest that the choice of parameter estimation technique for evaluation of gene expression models depends both on quality of data, the nature of the models [again, remains to be established] and the aims of the modeling effort. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the physiological changes in the rice plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Minoru; Samejima, Shin-ichi; Hosokawa, Daijiro

    1980-01-01

    Accumulation of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates in rice leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae was studied by using autoradiography for the purpose of elucidating the movement of nutrients from healthy tissues to the infected parts. When rice plants were exposed to 14 CO 2 immediately after inoculation, 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates did not accumulate in and around the inoculated spots of leaves until the lesions became visible, i.e., approximately 7 days after inoculation. When the leaves were exposed to 14 CO 2 before visible lesions appeared, 2 and 5 days after inoculation, the assimilates did not accumulate in the inoculated areas, but apparently accumulated in the lesions 24 hr later on from the exposure of leaves with visible lesions. In the newly formed lesions, accumulation site corresponded to the yellow streak parts of lesions along leaf veins. In the large and old lesions, assimilates hardly any accumulated in the center of lesions, grayish-white in color, but accumulated in the border parts of lesions adjacent to healthy tissues which are developing and yellow streak in symptoms. (author)

  11. Linker Histone Phosphorylation Regulates Global Timing of Replication Origin Firing*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiriet, Christophe; Hayes, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the presence of linker histone in all eukaryotes, the primary function(s) of this histone have been difficult to clarify. Knock-out experiments indicate that H1s play a role in regulation of only a small subset of genes but are an essential component in mouse development. Here, we show that linker histone (H1) is involved in the global regulation of DNA replication in Physarum polycephalum. We find that genomic DNA of H1 knock-down cells is more rapidly replicated, an effect due at least in part to disruption of the native timing of replication fork firing. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that H1 is transiently lost from replicating chromatin via a process facilitated by phosphorylation. Our results suggest that linker histones generate a chromatin environment refractory to replication and that their transient removal via protein phosphorylation during S phase is a critical step in the epigenetic regulation of replication timing. PMID:19015270

  12. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael C; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Yates, John R; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Highly conserved among eukaryotic cells, the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of carbon metabolism. To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite levels in wild type, Δsnf1, Δsnf4, and Δsnf1Δsnf4 knockout strains. Using four newly developed computational tools, including novel DOGMA sub-network analysis, we showed the benefits of three-level ome-data integration to uncover the global Snf1 kinase role in yeast. We for the first time identified Snf1's global regulation on gene and protein expression levels, and showed that yeast Snf1 has a far more extensive function in controlling energy metabolism than reported earlier. Additionally, we identified complementary roles of Snf1 and Snf4. Similar to the function of AMPK in humans, our findings showed that Snf1 is a low-energy checkpoint and that yeast can be used more extensively as a model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the global regulation of AMPK in mammals, failure of which leads to metabolic diseases. PMID:19888214

  13. Policy Approaches for Regulating Alcohol Marketing in a Global Context: A Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is responsible for 3.3 million deaths globally or nearly 6% of all deaths. Alcohol use contributes to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, as well as violence and injuries. The purpose of this review is to discuss, in the context of the expansion of transnational alcohol corporations and harms associated with alcohol use, policy options for regulating exposure to alcohol marketing. We first provide an overview of the public health problem of harmful alcohol consumption and describe the association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. We then discuss the growth and concentration of global alcohol corporations and their marketing practices in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in higher-income societies. We review the use and effectiveness of various approaches for regulating alcohol marketing in various countries before discussing challenges and opportunities to protect public health.

  14. Global regulator SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and regulates T(H2 differentiation in Wnt-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimple Notani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, the conserved Wnt signalling cascade promotes the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which then associates with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs to activate target genes. Wnt/beta -catenin signalling is essential for T cell development and differentiation. Here we show that special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1, the T lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and global regulator, interacts with beta-catenin and recruits it to SATB1's genomic binding sites. Gene expression profiling revealed that the genes repressed by SATB1 are upregulated upon Wnt signalling. Competition between SATB1 and TCF affects the transcription of TCF-regulated genes upon beta-catenin signalling. GATA-3 is a T helper type 2 (T(H2 specific transcription factor that regulates production of T(H2 cytokines and functions as T(H2 lineage determinant. SATB1 positively regulated GATA-3 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB1 downregulated GATA-3 expression in differentiating human CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that SATB1 influences T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. In the presence of Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1, an inhibitor of Wnt signalling, GATA-3 is downregulated and the expression of signature T(H2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 is reduced, indicating that Wnt signalling is essential for T(H2 differentiation. Knockdown of beta-catenin also produced similar results, confirming the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in T(H2 differentiation. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and p300 acetyltransferase on GATA-3 promoter in differentiating T(H2 cells in a Wnt-dependent manner. SATB1 coordinates T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. The SATB1:beta-catenin complex activates a number of SATB1 regulated genes, and hence this study has potential to find novel Wnt responsive genes. These results demonstrate that SATB1

  15. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Lipid Oxidation in Rape (Brassica campestris L. Bee Pollen Added to Salami during Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the antioxidant effect of rape (Brassica campestris L. bee pollen (RBP on salami during processing. Eight flavonoids in RBP ethanol extract were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS analysis, and quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol were the major bioactive compounds. The RBP ethanol extract exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity than 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tertramethylchromancarboxylic acid (trolox at the same concentration. The salami with 0.05% RBP extract had higher catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities than that of the control throughout the processing time (p < 0.05. Significant decreases in peroxide value (POV and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS were obtained in the final salami product with 0.05% RBP ethanol extract or 1% RBP (p < 0.05. These results suggested that RBP could improve oxidative stability and had a good potential as a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid oxidation.

  16. Quantitative analysis of proteome and lipidome dynamics reveals functional regulation of global lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casanovas, Albert; Sprenger, Richard R; Tarasov, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating how and to what extent lipid metabolism is remodeled under changing conditions is essential for understanding cellular physiology. Here, we analyzed proteome and lipidome dynamics to investigate how regulation of lipid metabolism at the global scale supports remodeling of cellular...

  17. Contribution of rpfB to cell-to-cell signal synthesis, virulence, and vector transmission of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Killiny, Nabil; Newman, Karyn L; Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Ionescu, Michael; Lindow, Steven E

    2012-04-01

    In Xylella fastidiosa the fatty acid signal molecule diffusible signaling factor (DSF) is produced and sensed by components of the regulation of pathogenicity factors (rpf) cluster; lack of DSF production in RpfF mutants results in a non-vector-transmissible phenotype yet cells are hypervirulent to grape. rpfB has not been characterized in Xylella fastidiosa, although its homolog has been suggested to be required for DSF synthesis in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. We show that RpfB is involved in DSF processing in both Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas campestris, affecting the profile of DSF-like fatty acids observed in thin-layer chromatography. Although three fatty acids whose production is dependent on RpfF were detected in Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas campestris wild-type strains, their respective rpfB mutants accumulated primarily one chemical species. Although no quantifiable effect of rpfB on plant colonization by Xylella fastidiosa was found, insect colonization and transmission was reduced. Thus, RpfB apparently is involved in DSF processing, and like Xanthomonas campestris, Xylella fastidiosa also produces multiple DSF molecules. It is possible that Xylella fastidiosa coordinates host vector and plant colonization by varying the proportions of different forms of DSF signals via RpfB.

  18. The Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopJ targets the host cell proteasome to suppress salicylic-acid mediated plant defence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suayib Üstün

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv requires type III effector proteins (T3Es for virulence. After translocation into the host cell, T3Es are thought to interact with components of host immunity to suppress defence responses. XopJ is a T3E protein from Xcv that interferes with plant immune responses; however, its host cellular target is unknown. Here we show that XopJ interacts with the proteasomal subunit RPT6 in yeast and in planta to inhibit proteasome activity. A C235A mutation within the catalytic triad of XopJ as well as a G2A exchange within the N-terminal myristoylation motif abolishes the ability of XopJ to inhibit the proteasome. Xcv ΔxopJ mutants are impaired in growth and display accelerated symptom development including tissue necrosis on susceptible pepper leaves. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 restored the ability of the Xcv ΔxopJ to attenuate the development of leaf necrosis. The XopJ dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced levels of salicylic acid (SA and changes in defence- and senescence-associated gene expression. Necrosis upon infection with Xcv ΔxopJ was greatly reduced in pepper plants with reduced expression of NPR1, a central regulator of SA responses, demonstrating the involvement of SA-signalling in the development of XopJ dependent phenotypes. Our results suggest that XopJ-mediated inhibition of the proteasome interferes with SA-dependent defence response to attenuate onset of necrosis and to alter host transcription. A central role of the proteasome in plant defence is discussed.

  19. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The global regulator LaeA controls production of citric acid and endoglucanases in Aspergillus carbonarius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The global regulatory protein LaeA is known for regulating the production of many kinds of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species, as well as sexual and asexual reproduction, and morphology. In Aspergillus carbonarius, it has been shown that LaeA regulates production of ochratoxin. We have ...

  1. Cell shape regulates global histone acetylation in human mammaryepithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Beyec, Johanne; Xu, Ren; Lee, Sun-Young; Nelson, Celeste M.; Rizki, Aylin; Alcaraz, Jordi; Bissell, Mina J.

    2007-02-28

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell morphology and gene expression in vivo; these relationships are maintained in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of mammary epithelial cells. In the presence of laminin-rich ECM (lrECM), mammary epithelial cells round up and undergo global histone deacetylation, a process critical for their functional differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether lrECM-dependent cell rounding and global histone deacetylation are indeed part of a common physical-biochemical pathway. Using 3D cultures as well as nonadhesive and micropatterned substrata, here we showed that the cell 'rounding' caused by lrECM was sufficient to induce deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the absence of biochemical cues. Microarray and confocal analysis demonstrated that this deacetylation in 3D culture is associated with a global increase in chromatin condensation and a reduction in gene expression. Whereas cells cultured on plastic substrata formed prominent stress fibers, cells grown in 3D lrECM or on micropatterns lacked these structures. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D phenocopied the lrECM-induced cell rounding and histone deacetylation. These results reveal a novel link between ECM-controlled cell shape and chromatin structure, and suggest that this link is mediated by changes in the actin cytoskeleton.

  2. Building Responsive and Responsible Financial Regulators in the Aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iglesias Rodriguez, P.

    2015-01-01

    The global financial crisis that started in 2007 sparked several academic debates about the role that financial sector regulators played in the crisis and prompted policy reforms in the financial supervision architectures of several countries. This book focuses on the question of what

  3. Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Gene Expression and Virulence and Reveals Role for Global Regulator Hfq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zuBentrup, K. Honer; Ramamurthy R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClellan, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; hide

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.

  4. Proteomics Reveals Global Regulation of Protein SUMOylation by ATM and ATR Kinases during Replication Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stephanie; Sigurðsson, Jón Otti; Xiao, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms that protect eukaryotic DNA during the cumbersome task of replication depend on the precise coordination of several post-translational modification (PTM)-based signaling networks. Phosphorylation is a well-known regulator of the replication stress response, and recently an essentia....... They analyze changes in the SUMO and phosphoproteome after MMC and hydroxyurea treatments and find that the DNA damage response kinases ATR and ATM globally regulate SUMOylation upon replication stress and fork breakage....

  5. Formulação de meios de cultivo à base de soro de leite para a produção de goma xantana por X. Campestris C7L

    OpenAIRE

    NITSCHKE,Marcia; RODRIGUES,Vanessa; SCHINATTO,Lisiane Fiorio

    2001-01-01

    A goma xantana é um polissacarídeo microbiano de grande significado comercial especialmente para a indústria de alimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de xantana em diferentes meios de cultura à base de soro de leite utilizando o isolado Xanthomonas campestris C7L. Dentre as formulações testadas o meio de soro de leite integral produziu maior viscosidade e concentração final de xantana. Um sistema combinando soro integral (0,35% de proteína) e soro filtrado (0,18%de prote...

  6. The bacterial response regulator ArcA uses a diverse binding site architecture to regulate carbon oxidation globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan M Park

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of maintaining redox homeostasis for cellular viability, how cells control redox balance globally is poorly understood. Here we provide new mechanistic insight into how the balance between reduced and oxidized electron carriers is regulated at the level of gene expression by mapping the regulon of the response regulator ArcA from Escherichia coli, which responds to the quinone/quinol redox couple via its membrane-bound sensor kinase, ArcB. Our genome-wide analysis reveals that ArcA reprograms metabolism under anaerobic conditions such that carbon oxidation pathways that recycle redox carriers via respiration are transcriptionally repressed by ArcA. We propose that this strategy favors use of catabolic pathways that recycle redox carriers via fermentation akin to lactate production in mammalian cells. Unexpectedly, bioinformatic analysis of the sequences bound by ArcA in ChIP-seq revealed that most ArcA binding sites contain additional direct repeat elements beyond the two required for binding an ArcA dimer. DNase I footprinting assays suggest that non-canonical arrangements of cis-regulatory modules dictate both the length and concentration-sensitive occupancy of DNA sites. We propose that this plasticity in ArcA binding site architecture provides both an efficient means of encoding binding sites for ArcA, σ(70-RNAP and perhaps other transcription factors within the same narrow sequence space and an effective mechanism for global control of carbon metabolism to maintain redox homeostasis.

  7. Metformin regulates global DNA methylation via mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyàs, E; Fernández-Arroyo, S; Verdura, S; García, R Á-F; Stursa, J; Werner, L; Blanco-González, E; Montes-Bayón, M; Joven, J; Viollet, B; Neuzil, J; Menendez, J A

    2018-02-15

    The anti-diabetic biguanide metformin may exert health-promoting effects via metabolic regulation of the epigenome. Here we show that metformin promotes global DNA methylation in non-cancerous, cancer-prone and metastatic cancer cells by decreasing S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a strong feedback inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent DNA methyltransferases, while promoting the accumulation of SAM, the universal methyl donor for cellular methylation. Using metformin and a mitochondria/complex I (mCI)-targeted analog of metformin (norMitoMet) in experimental pairs of wild-type and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-, serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2)- and mCI-null cells, we provide evidence that metformin increases the SAM:SAH ratio-related methylation capacity by targeting the coupling between serine mitochondrial one-carbon flux and CI activity. By increasing the contribution of one-carbon units to the SAM from folate stores while decreasing SAH in response to AMPK-sensed energetic crisis, metformin can operate as a metabolo-epigenetic regulator capable of reprogramming one of the key conduits linking cellular metabolism to the DNA methylation machinery.

  8. Evaluation of the radioimmunoassay, indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and dot blot assay for the identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, E; Belden, E L; Roth, D

    1985-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA), an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a dot-blot modification of the ELISA were evaluated for detection and identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (X. c. pv. phaseoli). RIA and the dot blot tests were specific for X. c. pv. phaseoli; however, significant cross reactions occurred in the indirect competitive ELISA when using anti-X. c. pv. phaseoli antiserum against other closely related bacteria. The sensitivity level of all procedures for X. c. pv. phaseoli was approximately l0/sup 5/ colony forming unitsmL. All procedures were unsatisfactory in reliably detecting low levels of X. c. pv. phaseoli directly from extracts of bean seed. However when used in conjunction with ilution plating the dot blot assay and the RIA would be useful in specifically identifying X. c. pv. phaseoli. The relative merits of these tests for identification of X. c. pv. phaseoli are discussed.

  9. Linking high-resolution metabolic flux phenotypes and transcriptional regulation in yeast modulated by the global regulator Gcn4p

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moxley, Joel F.; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Antoniewicz, Maciek R.

    2009-01-01

    . However, the potential of systems biology approaches is limited by difficulties in integrating metabolic measurements across the functional levels of the cell despite their being most closely linked to cellular phenotype. To address this limitation, we developed a model-based approach to correlate m......RNA and metabolic flux data that combines information from both interaction network models and flux determination models. We started by quantifying 5,764 mRNAs, 54 metabolites, and 83 experimental C-13-based reaction fluxes in continuous cultures of yeast under stress in the absence or presence of global regulator...... of metabolic flux (i.e., use of different reaction pathways) by transcriptional regulation and metabolite interaction density (i.e., level of pairwise metabolite-protein interactions) as a key biosynthetic control determinant. Furthermore, this model predicted flux rewiring in studies of follow...

  10. RNAi Reveals Phase-Specific Global Regulators of Human Somatic Cell Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xu Delon Toh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms at work continues to hamper efforts to maximize reprogramming efficiency. Here, we present a systematic genome-wide RNAi screen to determine the global regulators during the early stages of human reprogramming. Our screen identifies functional repressors and effectors that act to impede or promote the reprogramming process. Repressors and effectors form close interacting networks in pathways, including RNA processing, G protein signaling, protein ubiquitination, and chromatin modification. Combinatorial knockdown of five repressors (SMAD3, ZMYM2, SFRS11, SAE1, and ESET synergistically resulted in ∼85% TRA-1-60-positive cells. Removal of the novel splicing factor SFRS11 during reprogramming is accompanied by rapid acquisition of pluripotency-specific spliced forms. Mechanistically, SFRS11 regulates exon skipping and mutually exclusive splicing of transcripts in genes involved in cell differentiation, mRNA splicing, and chromatin modification. Our study provides insights into the reprogramming process, which comprises comprehensive and multi-layered transcriptional, splicing, and epigenetic machineries.

  11. Analysis of Hydroxy Fatty Acids from the Pollen of Brassica campestris L. var. oleifera DC. by UPLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Yun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS was used to determine 7 hydroxy fatty acids in the pollen of Brassica campestris L. var. oleifera DC. All the investigated hydroxy fatty acids showed strong deprotonated molecular ions [M–H]−, which underwent two major fragment pathways of the allyl scission and the β-fission of the alcoholic hydroxyl group. By comparison of their molecular ions and abundant fragment ions with those of reference compounds, they were tentatively assigned as 15,16-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (1, 10,11,12-trihydroxy-(7Z,14Z-heptadecadienoic acid (2, 7,15,16-trihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (3, 15,16-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (4, 15-hydroxy-6Z,9Z,12Z-octadecatrienoic acid (5, 15-hydroxy-9Z,12Z- octadecadienoic acid (6, and 15-hydroxy-12Z-octadecaenoic acid (7, respectively. Compounds 3, 5, and 7 are reported for the first time.

  12. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  13. Lvr, a Signaling System That Controls Global Gene Regulation and Virulence in Pathogenic Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikarla, Haritha; Wunder, Elsio A.; Mechaly, Ariel E.; Mehta, Sameet; Wang, Zheng; Santos, Luciane; Bisht, Vimla; Diggle, Peter; Murray, Gerald; Adler, Ben; Lopez, Francesc; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Groisman, Eduardo; Picardeau, Mathieu; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Ko, Albert I.

    2018-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease with more than 1 million cases annually. Currently there is lack of evidence for signaling pathways involved during the infection process of Leptospira. In our comprehensive genomic analysis of 20 Leptospira spp. we identified seven pathogen-specific Two-Component System (TCS) proteins. Disruption of two these TCS genes in pathogenic Leptospira strain resulted in loss-of-virulence in a hamster model of leptospirosis. Corresponding genes lvrA and lvrB (leptospira virulence regulator) are juxtaposed in an operon and are predicted to encode a hybrid histidine kinase and a hybrid response regulator, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of lvr mutant strains with disruption of one (lvrB) or both genes (lvrA/B) revealed global transcriptional regulation of 850 differentially expressed genes. Phosphotransfer assays demonstrated that LvrA phosphorylates LvrB and predicted further signaling downstream to one or more DNA-binding response regulators, suggesting that it is a branched pathway. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that lvrA and lvrB evolved independently within different ecological lineages in Leptospira via gene duplication. This study uncovers a novel-signaling pathway that regulates virulence in pathogenic Leptospira (Lvr), providing a framework to understand the molecular bases of regulation in this life-threatening bacterium. PMID:29600195

  14. Genetic damage induced by a food coloring dye (sunset yellow) on meristematic cells of Brassica campestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Kshama; Kumar, Girjesh

    2015-01-01

    We have performed the present piece of work to evaluate the effect of synthetic food coloring azo dye (sunset yellow) on actively dividing root tip cells of Brassica campestris L. Three doses of azo dye were administered for the treatment of actively dividing root tip cells, namely, 1%, 3%, and 5%, for 6-hour duration along with control. Mitotic analysis clearly revealed the azo dye induced endpoint deviation like reduction in the frequency of normal divisions in a dose dependent manner. Mitotic divisions in the control sets were found to be perfectly normal while dose based reduction in MI was registered in the treated sets. Azo dye has induced several chromosomal aberrations (genotoxic effect) at various stages of cell cycle such as stickiness of chromosomes, micronuclei formation, precocious migration of chromosome, unorientation, forward movement of chromosome, laggards, and chromatin bridge. Among all, stickiness of chromosomes was present in the highest frequency followed by partial genome elimination as micronuclei. The present study suggests that extensive use of synthetic dye should be forbidden due to genotoxic and cytotoxic impacts on living cells. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess potential hazardous effects of these dyes on other test systems like human and nonhuman biota for better scrutiny.

  15. Development of manganese toxicity in pasture legumes under extreme climatic conditions. [Trifolium subterraneum; Medicago sativa; Brassica campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siman, A; Cradock, F W; Hudson, A W

    1974-08-01

    Manganese levels and pH in soil were measured on limed and unlimed plots at bi-monthly intervals for two years at five field sites with lucerne (Medicago sativa) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) and related to rainfall and temperature. Pot experiments with lucerne, subterranean clover and rape (Brassica campestris) were used to confirm the results of the field experiments. Manganese toxicity developed in lucerne and subterranean clover under waterlogged conditions after heavy rain on the slightly acid soils (pH 4.7-5.5). Lucerne also showed manganese toxicity on the same soils in summer after extended hot, dry conditions. The maximum available manganese was 210 ..mu..g/g in the waterlogged soil (0-15 cm) the 128 ..mu..g/g in the heat affected soil. Lime treatment of 2240 kg/ha reduced the maximum available manganese to 148 ..mu..g/g in waterlogged plots and to 47 ..mu..g/g in the heat affected plots but failed to correct manganese toxicity. However, lime corrected toxicity symptoms under less severe conditions. In the pot experiments, available manganese reached 270 ..mu..g/g after 2 weeks artificial waterlogging and 68 ..mu..g/g after 2 weeks dry heat exposure. 12 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Regulation of Neurospora Catalase-3 by global heterochromatin formation and its proximal heterochromatin region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Dong, Qing; Ding, Zhaolan; Gai, Kexin; Han, Xiaoyun; Kaleri, Farah Naz; He, Qun; Wang, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Catalase-3 (CAT-3) constitutes the main catalase activity in growing hyphae of Neurospora crassa, and its activity increases during exponential growth or is induced under different stress conditions. Although extensive progress has been made to identify catalase regulators, the regulation mechanism of CAT-3 at the chromatin level still remains unclear. Here, we aim at investigating the molecular regulation mechanisms of cat-3 at the chromatin level. We found that CAT-3 protein levels increased in mutants defective in proper global heterochromatin formation. Bioinformatics analysis identified a 5-kb AT-rich sequence adjacent to the cat-3 promoter as a heterochromatin region because of its enrichment of H3K9me3 and HP1. Expression of CAT-3 was induced by H 2 O 2 treatment in wild-type and such change occurred along with the accumulation of histone H3 acetylation at 5-kb heterochromatin boundaries and cat-3 locus, but without alteration of its H3K9me3 repressive modification. Moreover, disruption of 5-kb heterochromatin region results in elevated cat-3 expression, and higher levels of cat-3 expression were promoted by the combination with global heterochromatin defective mutants. Interestingly, the molecular weight and activity bands of CAT-3 protein are different in heterochromatin defective mutants compared with those in wild-type, suggesting that its N-terminal processing and modification may be altered. Our study indicates that the local chromatin structure creates a heterochromatin repressive environment to repress nearby gene expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. IVF policy and global/local politics: the making of multiple-embryo transfer regulation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory trajectory of multiple-embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Taiwan. Taking a latecomer to policy-making as the case, it argues the importance of conceptualizing the global/local dynamics in policy-making for assisted reproductive technology (ART). The conceptual framework is built upon recent literature on standardization, science policy, and global assemblage. I propose three interrelated features that reveal the "global in the local": (1) the power relationships among stakeholders, (2) the selected global form that involved actors drew upon, and (3) the re-contextualized assemblage made of local networks. Data included archives, interviews, and participant observation. In different historical periods the specific stakeholders selected different preferred global forms for Taiwan, such as Britain's code of ethics in the 1990s, the American guideline in the early 2000s, and the European trend in the mid-2000s. The global is heterogeneous. The failure to transfer the British regulation, the revision of the American guideline by adding one more embryo than it specified, and the gap between the cited European trend and the "no more than four" in Taiwan's 2007 Human Reproduction Law all show that the local network further transforms the selected global form, confining it to rhetoric only or tailoring it to local needs. Overall, Taiwanese practitioners successfully maintained their medical autonomy to build a 'flexible standardization'. Multiple pregnancy remains the most common health risk of IVF in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De Le?n, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product d...

  19. Structure of Rot, a global regulator of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuwei; Fan, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Xuguang; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2014-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile pathogen that can infect human tissue by producing a large arsenal of virulence factors that are tightly regulated by a complex regulatory network. Rot, which shares sequence similarity with SarA homologues, is a global regulator that regulates numerous virulence genes. However, the recognition model of Rot for the promoter region of target genes and the putative regulation mechanism remain elusive. In this study, the 1.77 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of Rot is reported. The structure reveals that two Rot molecules form a compact homodimer, each of which contains a typical helix-turn-helix module and a β-hairpin motif connected by a flexible loop. Fluorescence polarization results indicate that Rot preferentially recognizes AT-rich dsDNA with ~30-base-pair nucleotides and that the conserved positively charged residues on the winged-helix motif are vital for binding to the AT-rich dsDNA. It is proposed that the DNA-recognition model of Rot may be similar to that of SarA, SarR and SarS, in which the helix-turn-helix motifs of each monomer interact with the major grooves of target dsDNA and the winged motifs contact the minor grooves. Interestingly, the structure shows that Rot adopts a novel dimerization model that differs from that of other SarA homologues. As expected, perturbation of the dimer interface abolishes the dsDNA-binding ability of Rot, suggesting that Rot functions as a dimer. In addition, the results have been further confirmed in vivo by measuring the transcriptional regulation of α-toxin, a major virulence factor produced by most S. aureus strains.

  20. GERMINATION TEST IN SEEDS OF MELOTHRIA CAMPESTRIS (NAUDIN H. SCHAEF. & S.S. RENNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CARINA DA SILVA CÂNDIDO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado occupies 25% of the Brazilian territory and is the second largest biome in South America, second only to the Amazon Rainforest. Hence, studies on the native species of the Cerrado are important for implementing conservation strategies. In this context, knowledge of the requirements and conditions for germination of seeds of these native species is essential. The Cerrado watermelon ( Melothria campestris (Naudin H. Schaef. & S.S. Renner is a plant that is not cultivated, but has been used in revegetation projects in the countryside of the Cerrado because its fruits are fed upon by fauna in times of food shortage. The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate methodology for the germination of the Cerrado watermelon, by identifying the best - suited substrate, the optimal temperature, and the corresponding time taken for germination . The treatments consisted of four substrates: in a paper roll, on paper, in sand, and on sand; and four temperatures: 20, 25, and 30 °C (maintained constant, and a fourth temperature treatment that alternated 20 - 30 °C. The effect of the substrates and temperatures on seed performance was evaluated using the germination test, speed index, and average time for germination. The experimental design was fully randomized, with treatments distributed in a 4 × 4 (substrates × temperatures factorial scheme, with four replications. Our results show that the temperature of 20 °C had a negative influence on germination in all substrates. Further, we found that the germination of the Cerrado watermelon seeds was best in a paper roll or on sand substrate, maintained at a constant temperature of 30 °C, or when temperature was alternated 20 - 30 °C, and the time required for germination stabilization was 30 days.

  1. Neoliberalism and the regulation of global labor mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Globalization involves the international expansion of market relations and the global pursuit of economic liberalism. The essential factor in this process is commodification, including the commodification of human labor. Globalization integrates an increasing proportion of the world population

  2. The Global Acetylome of the Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae V52 Reveals Lysine Acetylation of Major Transcriptional Regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Lezyk, Mateusz Jakub

    2018-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is recognized as an important reversible post translational modification in all domains of life. While its primary roles appear to reside in metabolic processes, lysine acetylation has also been implicated in regulating pathogenesis in bacteria. Several global lysine...... acetylome analyses have been carried out in various bacteria, but thus far there have been no reports of lysine acetylation taking place in the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination...... in direct regulation of virulence in V. cholerae were acetylated. In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable resource for in-depth studies of the impact of lysine acetylation in pathogenesis and other cellular processes....

  3. Enhancing E. coli tolerance towards oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Basak

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage to microbial hosts often occurs under stressful conditions during bioprocessing. Classical strain engineering approaches are usually both time-consuming and labor intensive. Here, we aim to improve E. coli performance under oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP, which can directly or indirectly regulate redox-sensing regulators SoxR and OxyR, and other ~400 genes in E. coli. Error-prone PCR technique was employed to introduce modifications to CRP, and three mutants (OM1~OM3 were identified with improved tolerance via H(2O(2 enrichment selection. The best mutant OM3 could grow in 12 mM H(2O(2 with the growth rate of 0.6 h(-1, whereas the growth of wild type was completely inhibited at this H(2O(2 concentration. OM3 also elicited enhanced thermotolerance at 48°C as well as resistance against cumene hydroperoxide. The investigation about intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, which determines cell viability, indicated that the accumulation of ROS in OM3 was always lower than in WT with or without H(2O(2 treatment. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis has shown not only CRP-regulated genes have demonstrated great transcriptional level changes (up to 8.9-fold, but also RpoS- and OxyR-regulated genes (up to 7.7-fold. qRT-PCR data and enzyme activity assay suggested that catalase (katE could be a major antioxidant enzyme in OM3 instead of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase or superoxide dismutase. To our knowledge, this is the first work on improving E. coli oxidative stress resistance by reframing its transcription machinery through its native global regulator. The positive outcome of this approach may suggest that engineering CRP can be successfully implemented as an efficient strain engineering alternative for E. coli.

  4. A Flexible Binding Site Architecture Provides New Insights into CcpA Global Regulation in Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Lu; Huang, He; Yang, Chen; Yang, Sheng; Gu, Yang; Jiang, Weihong

    2017-01-24

    Catabolite control protein A (CcpA) is the master regulator in Gram-positive bacteria that mediates carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and carbon catabolite activation (CCA), two fundamental regulatory mechanisms that enable competitive advantages in carbon catabolism. It is generally regarded that CcpA exerts its regulatory role by binding to a typical 14- to 16-nucleotide (nt) consensus site that is called a catabolite response element (cre) within the target regions. However, here we report a previously unknown noncanonical flexible architecture of the CcpA-binding site in solventogenic clostridia, providing new mechanistic insights into catabolite regulation. This novel CcpA-binding site, named cre var , has a unique architecture that consists of two inverted repeats and an intervening spacer, all of which are variable in nucleotide composition and length, except for a 6-bp core palindromic sequence (TGTAAA/TTTACA). It was found that the length of the intervening spacer of cre var can affect CcpA binding affinity, and moreover, the core palindromic sequence of cre var is the key structure for regulation. Such a variable architecture of cre var shows potential importance for CcpA's diverse and fine regulation. A total of 103 potential cre var sites were discovered in solventogenic Clostridium acetobutylicum, of which 42 sites were picked out for electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), and 30 sites were confirmed to be bound by CcpA. These 30 cre var sites are associated with 27 genes involved in many important pathways. Also of significance, the cre var sites are found to be widespread and function in a great number of taxonomically different Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogens, suggesting their global role in Gram-positive bacteria. In Gram-positive bacteria, the global regulator CcpA controls a large number of important physiological and metabolic processes. Although a typical consensus CcpA-binding site, cre, has been identified, it remains

  5. Overexpression of a eukaryotic glutathione reductase gene from Brassica campestris improved resistance to oxidative stress in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho-Sung; Lee, In-Ae; Lee, Hyoshin; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Jo, Jinki

    2005-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR) plays an essential role in a cell's defense against reactive oxygen metabolites by sustaining the reduced status of an important antioxidant glutathione. We constructed a recombinant plasmid based on the expression vector pET-18a that overexpresses a eukaryotic GR from Brassica campestris (BcGR) in Escherichia coli. For comparative analyses, E. coli GR (EcGR) was also subcloned in the same manner. The transformed E. coli with the recombinant constructs accumulated a high level of GR transcripts upon IPTG induction. Also, Western blot analysis showed overproduction of the BcGR protein in a soluble fraction of the transformed E. coli extract. When treated with oxidative stress generating reagents such as paraquat, salicylic acid, and cadmium, the BcGR overproducing E. coli exhibited a higher level of growth and survival rate than the control E. coli strain, but it was not as high as the E. coli strain transformed with the inducible EcGR. The translated amino acid sequences of BcGR and EcGR share 37.3% identity but all the functionally known important residues are conserved. It appears that eukaryotic BcGR functions in a prokaryotic system by providing protection against oxidative damages in E. coli

  6. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula

    2009-01-01

    Highly conserved among eukaryotic cells, the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of carbon metabolism. To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite...

  7. Effects of ambient and elevated level of ozone on Brassica campestris L. with special reference to yield and oil quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

    2012-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O(3)) has become a serious threat to growth and yield of important agricultural crops over Asian regions including India. Effect of elevated O(3) (ambient+10ppb) was studied on Brassica campestris L. (cv. Sanjukta and Vardan) in open top chambers under natural field conditions. Eight hourly mean ambient O(3) concentration varied from 26.3ppb to 69.5ppb during the growth period. Plants under O(3) exposure showed reductions in photosynthetic rate, reproductive parameters, yield as well as seed and oil quality. Cultivar Sanjukta showed more reduction in photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive structures and seed and oil quality. However, total yield was more affected in Vardan. Exposure of O(3) increased the degree of unsaturation and level of PUFA, ω-6fatty acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid in oil indicating the deterioration of its quality. The study further confirmed that there is a correspondence between O(3) induced change in photosynthetic processes, reproductive development and yield and did not find any compensatory response in the final yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is Green Regulation Effective or a Failure: Comparative Analysis between Bangladesh Bank (BB Green Guidelines and Global Reporting Initiative Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Kaium Masud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Green reporting and green regulation have been commonly used in the sustainability movement. This study evaluates Bangladesh Bank’s (BB’s green regulation by considering the global reporting initiative (GRI of environmental regulation along with self-determined content to justify BB’s institutional effort in the banking sector. The analytical study has considered secondary data of all listed banks on the Dhaka Stock Exchange between 2013 to 2016. A multi-theoretical framework has been adopted in which the research is comprised of institutional, stakeholder, and legitimacy theories. Considering the analytical research, we have drawn-up a green reporting score and undertaken SWOT analysis. The results of the study have identified the narrow coverage of BB’s regulation and strategic limitations. Moreover, the findings of the study show that banking companies disclosed more green information in line with BB’s regulation. Furthermore, our analysis has found the lack of transparency of green reporting in terms of absent global reporting as well as external verification. Additionally, we have documented that BB’s regulation falls into a legitimacy threat owing to political, corporate, and social responsibility. Therefore, we concluded that for BB to overcome all possible weaknesses and threats, it should consider all possible opportunities for a holistic international reporting framework while taking into account a transparent financial sector.

  9. Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus Vulgaris l. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Navarrete

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de México. Durante 1995 se evaluó la reacción de genotipos de frijol de diversos origenes a Xcp, bajo condiciones de invernadero en el Campo Experimental del Valle de México, del INIFAP. Se realizaron tres experimentos con a120, b44 y csiete genotipos de frijol. Las plantas se inocularon por corte con navajas en la etapa V3, a y b con una mezcla de nueve cepas de Xcp y el c, con cada una de siete cepas con diferente grado de patogenicidad. La severidad se evaluó 20 días después de la inoculación, por comparación con una escala visual de nueve grados. Los datos se analizaron bajo un diseño completamente al azar. En a, los genotipos que mostraron reacción de resistencia a Xcp fueron: A 36, A 475, G 5686, G 11867, Harowood, SEA 14, XAN 266, MCD 4012 y REN 27. En b los genotipos resistentes fueron: Sequía Durango, Taylor y XAN 30. En los experimentos anteriores la severidad de la enfermedad mostró una distribución normal, con el máximo número de genotipos en el grado de severidad cinco en a y seis en b. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el uso de mezclas de cepas de bacterias con diferente patogenicidad es eficiente para identificar genotipos de frijol resistentes a Xcp. Los genotipos resistentes identificados en el último experimento, mostraron respuesta diferencial e interacciones genotipo por cepa. REN 27 y SEA 14 mostraron resistencia a las cepas utilizadas

  10. The influence of globalization on medical regulation: a descriptive analysis of international medical graduates registered through alternative licensure routes in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Wendy; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Thakkar, Niels; Martimianakis, Maria Athina (Tina); Faulkner, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The increasing globalization of the medical profession has influenced health policy, health human resource planning, and medical regulation in Canada. Since the early 2000s, numerous policy initiatives have been created to facilitate the entry of international medical graduates (IMGs) into the Canadian workforce. In Ontario, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO) developed alternative licensure routes to increase the ability of qualified IMGs to obtain licenses to practice. The current study provides demographic and descriptive information about the IMGs registered through the CPSO’s alternative licensure routes between 2000 and 2012. An analysis of the characteristics and career trajectories of all IMGs practicing in the province sheds light on broader globalization trends and raises questions about the future of health human resource planning in Canada. As the medical profession becomes increasingly globalized, health policy and regulation will continue to be influenced by trends in international migration, concerns about global health equity, and the shifting demographics of the Canadian physician workforce. Implications for future policy development in the complex landscape of medical education and practice are discussed. PMID:28344705

  11. The influence of globalization on medical regulation: a descriptive analysis of international medical graduates registered through alternative licensure routes in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Wendy; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Thakkar, Niels; Martimianakis, Maria Athina Tina; Faulkner, Dan

    2016-12-01

    The increasing globalization of the medical profession has influenced health policy, health human resource planning, and medical regulation in Canada. Since the early 2000s, numerous policy initiatives have been created to facilitate the entry of international medical graduates (IMGs) into the Canadian workforce. In Ontario, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO) developed alternative licensure routes to increase the ability of qualified IMGs to obtain licenses to practice. The current study provides demographic and descriptive information about the IMGs registered through the CPSO's alternative licensure routes between 2000 and 2012. An analysis of the characteristics and career trajectories of all IMGs practicing in the province sheds light on broader globalization trends and raises questions about the future of health human resource planning in Canada. As the medical profession becomes increasingly globalized, health policy and regulation will continue to be influenced by trends in international migration, concerns about global health equity, and the shifting demographics of the Canadian physician workforce. Implications for future policy development in the complex landscape of medical education and practice are discussed.

  12. The influence of globalization on medical regulation: a descriptive analysis of international medical graduates registered through alternative licensure routes in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Yen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing globalization of the medical profession has influenced health policy, health human resource planning, and medical regulation in Canada. Since the early 2000s, numerous policy initiatives have been created to facilitate the entry of international medical graduates (IMGs into the Canadian workforce. In Ontario, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO developed alternative licensure routes to increase the ability of qualified IMGs to obtain licenses to practice. The current study provides demographic and descriptive information about the IMGs registered through the CPSO’s alternative licensure routes between 2000 and 2012. An analysis of the characteristics and career trajectories of all IMGs practicing in the province sheds light on broader globalization trends and raises questions about the future of health human resource planning in Canada. As the medical profession becomes increasingly globalized, health policy and regulation will continue to be influenced by trends in international migration, concerns about global health equity, and the shifting demographics of the Canadian physician workforce. Implications for future policy development in the complex landscape of medical education and practice are discussed.

  13. Genetic diversity analysis of brassica napus/brassica campestris progenies using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, L.; Farhatullah, A.; Iqbal, S.; Kanwal, M.; Nawaz, I.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationship of F2 segregating progenies of interspecific crosses between B. napus N-501/B. campestris C-118 were studied. A set of 90 genotypes (2 parental lines and their 88 F2 progenies) was characterized separately using 24 microsatellite or SSR markers to cover the diversity as broadly as possibly present in them. In initial screening only 12 out of 24 SSR primers combination amplified DNA fragments, while the remaining 12 SSR primers did not amplify DNA fragment therefore those 12 SSR molecular markers were not used for further analysis. The 12 SSR primer combinations generated a total of 33 alleles, of that 32 were polymorphic loci, whereas only one was monomorphic locus. Primers BRMS-19 and BRMS-40 were highly polymorphic producing 4 bands each. Primer Ra2-D04 was less polymorphic and it produced only one band. The proportion of polymorphic loci was 95.83% which indicates high genetic diversity among the progenies. The average number of polymorphic alleles per locus was 2.66. The PIC values ranged from 0.395 for primer Ra2-E03 to 0.726 for primer BRMS-019 with an average genetic diversity (PIC value) of 0.584 per locus. Seven primers showed PIC values above 0.5 (50%) indicating high genetic diversity in the studied plant materials. Pair-wise similarity indices among 90 genotypes ranged from 0.3 to 0.95. Dendrogram obtained through UPGMA clustering of F2 progenies depicted eight main groups using similarity coefficient of 0.70. The progenies could be similar to their parents if they have the same banding patterns as that of the parents and could be distinguished from each other by the combination of fragments which are repeatedly present in one progeny and absent in the other. Considerable genetic diversity has been found among the F2 segregating progenies and their parents using SSR markers thus, SSR analysis proved to be a useful tool. (author)

  14. Global self-esteem, goal achievement orientations, and self-determined behavioural regulations in a physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Hagger, Martin S

    2007-01-15

    We examined a theoretical model of global self-esteem that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. The model hypothesized that self-determined or autonomous motives would mediate the influence of achievement goal orientation on global self-esteem. The adapted version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (Mullan et al., 1997), the Perception of Success Questionnaire (Roberts & Balague, 1991), and Rosenberg's (1965) self-esteem scales were administered to 634 high school students aged 11 - 15 years. A structural equation model supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that autonomous motives mediated the effect of goal orientations on global self-esteem. The results suggest that generalized motivational orientations influence self-esteem by affecting autonomous motivation and is consistent with theory that suggests that experiences relating to intrinsic motivation are the mechanism by which global motivational orientations are translated into adaptive outcomes like self-esteem. The findings suggest that physical activity interventions that target autonomous motives in physical activity contexts are likely to enhance young people's general self-esteem.

  15. Studies on the physiological changes in the rice plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. of oryzae, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Minoru; Samejima, Shin-ichi; Hayashi, Nobuo; Hosokawa, Daijiro

    1980-01-01

    The translocation and accumulation of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates in rice plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae were investigated. Approximately the same quantities of assimilates were detected in healthy and infected leaves 1 day after photosynthesis, but 1.7 times as much as healthy leaves assimilates were still remained in infected leaves 7 days after photosynthesis. Much more 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates were generally detected in leaf blade than in leaf sheath or in root within 1 day after photosynthesis, but detected in leaf sheath than in leaf blade later than 2 days after photosynthesis. The rates of translocation of 14 C-assimilates from leaf blade to leaf sheath were lower in inoculated rice plants than in healthy ones. In both healthy and inoculated leaves of susceptible and resistant cultivars, there was a tendency that 14 C-sugar contents decreased, but 14 C-organic acid and -amino acid contents increased gradually after photosynthesis. Incorporation of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates into invading bacterial cells which were separated from leaf tissues by the methods of leakage and Millipore filtration was not detected immediately after photosynthesis, but became apparent 5 days after photosynthesis. The leakage of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates from leaf tissues into bathing solution was about 4 times higher in infected leaves than in healthy ones 5 days after photosynthesis, suggesting that the permeability in infected leaf tissues would increase. (author)

  16. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, G.Z.; Tofique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  17. Morphological and biochemical characterization of xanthomonas campestris (pammel) dawson pv. Sesame and it's management by bacterial antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.F.; Haq, M.I.U.; Tahir, M.I.; Khan, M.A.; Ali, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Isolates of Xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dawson pv. sesami (Xcs) were collected from various locations in Pakistan and were characterized using several biochemical tests including; (KOH) string test, gram staining, H/sub 2/S production, catalase activity, oxidation/fermentation of glucose, oxidase activity and nitrate reduction. The isolates were positive in tests for KOH string assay, H/sub 2/S, catalase and showed negative reactions in gram staining, oxidase test and nitrate reduction while oxidative utilization of glucose was observed. To develop biological control for the pathogen we isolated numerous bacteria from the rhizosphere of sesame plants and screened them for antagonism against the pathogen using the zone inhibition method. Out of 87 isolates, 9 isolates were inhibitory to the pathogen in vitro. Pseudomonas fluorescens ID-3 exhibited the highest zone of inhibition i.e. 7.97mm. All antagonistic isolates were tested for disease control under greenhouse conditions. Four sesame lines that were found to be moderately resistant in previous studies (i.e. 95001, 96007, 96019, and 20003) were selected for evaluating biocontrol efficacy. The isolates were found to control the disease and reduced severity to 3% compared to untreated plants. The isolate P. fluorescens ID-3 was considered to provide the best disease control with each cultivar. Average biocontrol efficiency (BE) of ID-3 was 78.25% while the best BE was obtained in line 96019, i.e. 81%. (author)

  18. Aconitase B is required for optimal growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Kirchberg

    Full Text Available The aerobic plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv colonizes the intercellular spaces of pepper and tomato. One enzyme that might contribute to the successful proliferation of Xcv in the host is the iron-sulfur protein aconitase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and might also sense reactive oxygen species (ROS and changes in cellular iron levels. Xcv contains three putative aconitases, two of which, acnA and acnB, are encoded by a single chromosomal locus. The focus of this study is aconitase B (AcnB. acnB is co-transcribed with two genes, XCV1925 and XCV1926, encoding putative nucleic acid-binding proteins. In vitro growth of acnB mutants was like wild type, whereas in planta growth and symptom formation in pepper plants were impaired. While acnA, XCV1925 or XCV1926 mutants showed a wild-type phenotype with respect to bacterial growth and in planta symptom formation, proliferation of the acnB mutant in susceptible pepper plants was significantly impaired. Furthermore, the deletion of acnB led to reduced HR induction in resistant pepper plants and an increased susceptibility to the superoxide-generating compound menadione. As AcnB complemented the growth deficiency of an Escherichia coli aconitase mutant, it is likely to be an active aconitase. We therefore propose that optimal growth and survival of Xcv in pepper plants depends on AcnB, which might be required for the utilization of citrate as carbon source and could also help protect the bacterium against oxidative stress.

  19. Promoter Analysis Reveals Globally Differential Regulation of Human Long Non-Coding RNA and Protein-Coding Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2014-10-02

    Transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes is increasingly well-understood on a global scale, yet no comparable information exists for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes, which were recently recognized to be as numerous as protein-coding genes in mammalian genomes. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of the promoters of human lncRNA and protein-coding genes, finding global differences in specific genetic and epigenetic features relevant to transcriptional regulation. These two groups of genes are hence subject to separate transcriptional regulatory programs, including distinct transcription factor (TF) proteins that significantly favor lncRNA, rather than coding-gene, promoters. We report a specific signature of promoter-proximal transcriptional regulation of lncRNA genes, including several distinct transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Experimental DNase I hypersensitive site profiles are consistent with active configurations of these lncRNA TFBS sets in diverse human cell types. TFBS ChIP-seq datasets confirm the binding events that we predicted using computational approaches for a subset of factors. For several TFs known to be directly regulated by lncRNAs, we find that their putative TFBSs are enriched at lncRNA promoters, suggesting that the TFs and the lncRNAs may participate in a bidirectional feedback loop regulatory network. Accordingly, cells may be able to modulate lncRNA expression levels independently of mRNA levels via distinct regulatory pathways. Our results also raise the possibility that, given the historical reliance on protein-coding gene catalogs to define the chromatin states of active promoters, a revision of these chromatin signature profiles to incorporate expressed lncRNA genes is warranted in the future.

  20. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Allelopatic effect of different caster bean organs (Ricinus communis L. on reducing germination and growth of dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Seyyedi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dodder (Cascuta campestris Yuncker is an annual parasitic plant from the Convolvulaceae family (Mishra et al., 2007. It wraps around many adjacent dicot and a few monocot plants, penetrates in their vascular tissue and exploits photosynthates, nutrients and water (Lanini & Kogan, 2005. Consequently, the growth, vigor and production of the host plant will be severely reduced (Nadler-Hasasr & Rubin, 2003. Dodder is not able to complete its cycle, if it is not attached to a host. Therefore, it is entirely dependent on its host for supplying water, assimilates and minerals (Mishra et al., 2007. Considering the nature of dodder habit, it is rarely possible to completely control dodder by using different chemical herbicides (Lanini & Kogan, 2005. In addition, because of increasing the environmental concerns caused by applying synthetic herbicides, there is considerable attention to alternative strategies for weeds management (Batish et al., 2002; Bowmik & Inderjit, 2003. In recent years, allelopathic plants, an alternative strategy for weed management, have received massive attention (Narwal, 2010; Jamil et al., 2009. Due to the importance of dodder as a parasitic weed, this research was conducted with the purpose of studying the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts and decay durations of caster bean (Ricinus communis L. organs on germination and emergence of dodder. Materials and methods The current study was conducted based on three separate experiments using a completely randomized design (CRD with factorial arrangement with three replications. The first experiment was conducted in petri dishes and consisted of caster bean organs at four levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without inflorescence and their aqueous extract concentrations at 11 levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10%. The second experiment was conducted in pots and factors were caster bean organs at 4 levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without

  2. A Bacterial Receptor PcrK Senses the Plant Hormone Cytokinin to Promote Adaptation to Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Recognition of the host plant is a prerequisite for infection by pathogenic bacteria. However, how bacterial cells sense plant-derived stimuli, especially chemicals that function in regulating plant development, remains completely unknown. Here, we have identified a membrane-bound histidine kinase of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, PcrK, as a bacterial receptor that specifically detects the plant cytokinin 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP. 2iP binds to the extracytoplasmic region of PcrK to decrease its autokinase activity. Through a four-step phosphorelay, 2iP stimulation decreased the phosphorylation level of PcrR, the cognate response regulator of PcrK, to activate the phosphodiesterase activity of PcrR in degrading the second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid. 2iP perception by the PcrK-PcrR remarkably improves bacterial tolerance to oxidative stress by regulating the transcription of 56 genes, including the virulence-associated TonB-dependent receptor gene ctrA. Our results reveal an evolutionarily conserved, inter-kingdom signaling by which phytopathogenic bacteria intercept a plant hormone signal to promote adaptation to oxidative stress. : How pathogenic bacteria use receptors to recognize the signals of the host plant is unknown. Wang et al. have identified a bacterial receptor histidine kinase that specifically senses the plant hormone cytokinin. Through a four-step phosphorelay, cytokinin perception triggers degradation of a second messenger, c-di-GMP, to activate the bacterial response to oxidative stress. Keywords: histidine kinase, ligand, cytokinin, autokinase activity, phosphorelay, response regulator, two-component signal transduction system, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, virulence, oxidative stress

  3. A microRNA feedback loop regulates global microRNA abundance during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Sachi; Pincus, Zachary; de Lencastre, Alexandre; Slack, Frank J

    2018-02-01

    Expression levels of many microRNAs (miRNAs) change during aging, notably declining globally in a number of organisms and tissues across taxa. However, little is known about the mechanisms or the biological relevance for this change. We investigated the network of genes that controls miRNA transcription and processing during C. elegans aging. We found that miRNA biogenesis genes are highly networked with transcription factors and aging-associated miRNAs. In particular, miR-71, known to influence life span and itself up-regulated during aging, represses alg-1 /Argonaute expression post-transcriptionally during aging. Increased ALG-1 abundance in mir-71 loss-of-function mutants led to globally increased miRNA expression. Interestingly, these mutants demonstrated widespread mRNA expression dysregulation and diminished levels of variability both in gene expression and in overall life span. Thus, the progressive molecular decline often thought to be the result of accumulated damage over an organism's life may be partially explained by a miRNA-directed mechanism of age-associated decline. © 2018 Inukai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  4. Strengthening global health security by embedding the International Health Regulations requirements into national health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Hans; Martín-Moreno, Jose Maria; Emiroglu, Nedret; Rodier, Guenael; Kelley, Edward; Vujnovic, Melitta; Permanand, Govin

    2018-01-01

    The International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005, as the overarching instrument for global health security, are designed to prevent and cope with major international public health threats. But poor implementation in countries hampers their effectiveness. In the wake of a number of major international health crises, such as the 2014 Ebola and 2016 Zika outbreaks, and the findings of a number of high-level assessments of the global response to these crises, it has become clear that there is a need for more joined-up thinking between health system strengthening activities and health security efforts for prevention, alert and response. WHO is working directly with its Member States to promote this approach, more specifically around how to better embed the IHR (2005) core capacities into the main health system functions. This paper looks at how and where the intersections between the IHR and the health system can be best leveraged towards developing greater health system resilience. This merging of approaches is a key component in pursuit of Universal Health Coverage and strengthened global health security as two mutually reinforcing agendas.

  5. Relative degree of susceptibility and resistance of different brassica campestris l. genotypes against aphid myzus persicae- a field investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Field evaluation of twenty three Brassica campestris L. genotypes was conducted for aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance during 2008 crop season. The parameters used to assess tolerance of germplasm lines included pest population during growth season and grain yield at crop maturity. Aphids showed obvious preferences for all of the germplasm investigated; however, the evaluation for resistance to pest identified several genotypes with variable potential for tolerance and sensitivity. Estimated grain yield also varied significantly due to variable pest intensity noted, and seemed to be more appropriately dependent on the pest population conditions at the experimental site. Among the germplasm, the estimation obtained regarding both the parameters sorted out MM-II/02-3 and MM-I285 genotypes as most tolerant due to less pest infestation and damage. Peak infestations by aphid caused severe crop fatalities on S-9-S-97-0.75+75/55 and S-9-1006/95 genotypes, affecting the seed weight and resulting an immense reduction in grain Brassica genotypes appeared to be governed by means of varietals characteristics of diverse germplasms. The result of resistance test conducted under field environment is an effective and consistent approach in the practical selection of crop lines resistant or partially resistant to pests for use in future breeding programs. (author)

  6. The global nitrogen regulator, FNR1, regulates fungal nutrition-genes and fitness during Fusarium oxysporum pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divon, Hege Hvattum; Ziv, Carmit; Davydov, Olga; Yarden, Oded; Fluhr, Robert

    2006-11-01

    SUMMARY Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne pathogen that infects plants through the roots and uses the vascular system for host ingress. Specialized for this route of infection, F. oxysporum is able to adapt to the scarce nutrient environment in the xylem vessels. Here we report the cloning of the F. oxysporum global nitrogen regulator, Fnr1, and show that it is one of the determinants for fungal fitness during in planta growth. The Fnr1 gene has a single conserved GATA-type zinc finger domain and is 96% and 48% identical to AREA-GF from Gibberella fujikuroi, and NIT2 from Neurospora crassa, respectively. Fnr1 cDNA, expressed under a constitutive promoter, was able to complement functionally an N. crassa nit-2(RIP) mutant, restoring the ability of the mutant to utilize nitrate. Fnr1 disruption mutants showed high tolerance to chlorate and reduced ability to utilize several secondary nitrogen sources such as amino acids, hypoxanthine and uric acid, whereas growth on favourable nitrogen sources was not affected. Fnr1 disruption also abolished in vitro expression of nutrition genes, normally induced during the early phase of infection. In an infection assay on tomato seedlings, infection rate of disruption mutants was significantly delayed in comparison with the parental strain. Our results indicate that FNR1 mediates adaptation to nitrogen-poor conditions in planta through the regulation of secondary nitrogen acquisition, and as such acts as a determinant for fungal fitness during infection.

  7. Combating global warming. Possible rules, regulations and administrative arrangements for a global market in CO2 emission entitlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    When in 1991 the UNCTAD secretariat launched its research into the idea of controlling carbon dioxide emissions through a system of 'tradeable permits', there was little support for this approach. Some felt that the idea was premature and should not detract from efforts to introduce more conventional measures, such as environmental taxes and new regulations. However, in a few short years, the idea of using tradeable market-based instruments to combat global warming has gained widespread acceptance. The UNCTAD secretariat's 1992 study on a global system of tradeable carbon emission entitlements (UNCTAD/RDP/DFP/1), was widely regarded as a major breakthrough in this area. This study argued that tradeable permits were both an efficient means of controlling man-made carbon dioxide emissions at minimum cost, and an effective mechanism for transferring resources to developing countries and countries in transition, to help them to contribute to the international effort to abate emissions of greenhouse gases. The study contained a detailed assessment of key technical elements of a tradeable CO 2 entitlements system, including permit allocation techniques, resource transfers, equity/distributional implications, institutional and administrative requirements. The present publication explores the institutional requirements for both policy-making and the organization of a global market in CO 2 emission allowances. It shows that one can start with a simple pilot scheme based on the joint implementation of commitments, which constitutes the cornerstone of the Framework Convention, and evolve gradually to a more complete system on the basis of 'learning by doing'. Since the use of markets can dramatically lower the cost of controlling greenhouse gas emissions, it is clearly in the self-interest of major emitters to act as 'market leaders' willing to pioneer

  8. Model rules and regulations for a global CO2 emissions credit market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandor, R.L.; Cole, J.B.; Kelly, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    On 21 April 1993, on the occasion of Earth Day, the United States affirmed its commitment to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000. In doing so, the United States joined the European Union (EU), Japan, and approximately 141 other countries that had either committed themselves to this international objective or subscribed to the general principles contained in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed at UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. The commitment of these three trading groups provides the basis for recommending that a market for tradeable carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission entitlements among these groups be implemented as soon as an initial set of rules and regulations can be drafted. The goal of a tradeable CO 2 entitlement or credit market is to lower the cost of limiting emissions. The Costs of CO 2 emission abatement are lowered because the market encourages more emission reductions to be produced by the most efficient resources. The ability easily to selI CO 2 credits created through large emission cuts allows cost recovery by, and incentives for, the most efficient sources of emission reductions. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate debate by providing model rules and regulations for a tradeable CO 2 emission credit market. The trading rules and regulations proposed here are meant to initiate a process whereby participants will iterate toward a final set of rules and regulations. Therefore, our proposal should create a point of departure for further adjustments and transformation to the initial set of recommendations. A specific proposal will be advanced at this point in order to provide a basis for the conceptualization of this global market. Moreover, this specific proposal will help focus dialogue and may provide insight into the general recommendations presented in the balance of this paper

  9. Structure analysis of the global metabolic regulator Crc from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Zhang, Heng; Gao, Zeng-Qiang; Xu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Quan-Sheng; Dong, Yu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The global metabolic regulator catabolite repression control (Crc) has recently been found to modulate the susceptibility to antibiotics and virulence in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and been suggested as a nonlethal target for novel antimicrobials. In P. aeruginosa, Crc couples with the CA motifs from the small RNA CrcZ to form a post-transcriptional regulator system and is removed from the 5'-end of the target mRNAs. In this study, we first reported the crystal structure of Crc from P. aeruginosa refined to 2.20 Å. The structure showed that it consists of two halves with similar overall topology and there are 11 β strands surrounded by 13 helices, forming a four-layered α/β-sandwich. The circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that it is thermostable in solution and shares similar characteristics to that in crystal. Comprehensive structural analysis and comparison with the homologies of Crc showed high similarity with several known nucleases and consequently may be classified into a member exodeoxyribonuclease III. However, it shows distinct substrate specificity (RNA as the preferred substrate) compared to these DNA endonucleases. Structural comparisons also revealed potential RNA recognition and binding region mainly consisting of five flexible loops. Our structure study provided the basis for the future application of Crc as a target to develop new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Differential modulation of global and local neural oscillations in REM sleep by homeostatic sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bowon; Kocsis, Bernat; Hwang, Eunjin; Kim, Youngsoo; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W; Choi, Jee Hyun

    2017-02-28

    Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases. This pattern followed a common rule despite marked topographic differences. The findings suggest that REM sleep slow oscillations may translate top-down homeostatic control to widely separated brain regions whereas fast oscillations synchronizing local neuronal ensembles escape this global command. These patterns of EEG oscillation changes are interpreted to reconcile two prevailing theories of the function of sleep, synaptic homeostasis and sleep dependent memory consolidation.

  11. Untreated pain, narcotics regulation, and global health ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas B; Fraser, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    Pain management is marginalized or ignored, with millions of people worldwide unnecessarily living with untreated pain. Reducing global inequalities in untreated pain requires a concerted global effort, say Veronique Fraser and colleagues, which must attend to the complexity of pain and promote multimodal, multidisciplinary pain management.

  12. [Involvement of the global regulators GrrS, RpoS, and SplIR in formation of biofilms in Serratia plymuthica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, Iu V; Voloshina, P V; Liu, X; Ovadis, M I; Berg, G; Chernin, L S; Khmel', I A

    2010-05-01

    Most bacteria exist in the natural environment as biofilms, multicellular communities attached to hard surfaces. Biofilms have a characteristic architecture and are enclosed in the exopolymer matrix. Bacterial cells in biofilms are extremely resistant to antibacterial factors. It was shown in this work that the GrrA/GrrS system of global regulators of gene expression and the sigma S subunit of RNA polymerase (RpoS) play a significant role in positive regulation of biofilm formation in the rhizospheric bacterium Serratia plymuthica IC1270. Inactivation of grrS and rpoS genes resulted in an up to six-to-sevenfold and four-to-fivefold reduction in biofilm formation, respectively. Mutations in the grrS gene decreased the capacity of the bacterium for swarming motility. The splIR Quorum Sensing (QS) system was shown to negatively influence the biofilm formation. Transfer of the recombinant plasmid containing cloned genes splI/splR of S. plymuthica HRO-C48 into S. plymuthica IC1270 cells led to a twofold decrease of their ability to form biofilms. Inactivation of the splI gene coding for the synthase of N-acyl-homoserine lactones in S. plymuthica HRO-C48 resulted in a 2-2.5-fold increase in the level of biofilm formation, whereas the inclusion of plasmid carrying the cloned splI/splR genes into these mutant cells restored the biofilm formation to the normal level. The results obtained demonstrate that the formation of biofilms in S. plymuthica is positively regulated by the GrrA/GrrS and RpoS global regulators and is negatively regulated by the SplIR QS system.

  13. Are herbicide-resistant crops the answer to controlling Cuscuta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler-Hassar, Talia; Shaner, Dale L; Nissen, Scott; Westra, Phill; Rubin, Baruch

    2009-07-01

    Herbicide-resistant crop technology could provide new management strategies for the control of parasitic plants. Three herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) genotypes were used to examine the response of attached Cuscuta campestris Yuncker to glyphosate, imazamox and glufosinate. Cuscata campestris was allowed to establish on all oilseed rape genotypes before herbicides were applied. Unattached seedlings of C. campestris, C. subinclusa Durand & Hilg. and C. gronovii Willd. were resistant to imazamox and glyphosate and sensitive to glufosinate, indicating that resistance initially discovered in C. campestris is universal to all Cuscuta species. Glufosinate applied to C. campestris attached to glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape had little impact on the parasite, while imazamox completely inhibited C. campestris growth on the imidazolinone-resistant host. The growth of C. campestris on glyphosate-resistant host was initially inhibited by glyphosate, but the parasite recovered and resumed growth within 3-4 weeks. The ability of C. campestris to recover was related to the quality of interaction between the host and parasite and to the resistance mechanism of the host. The parasite was less likely to recover when it had low compatibility with the host, indicating that parasite-resistant crops coupled with herbicide resistance could be highly effective in controlling Cuscuta. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Globalization and business ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  15. State - Level Regulation's Effectiveness in Addressing Global Climate Change and Promoting Solar Energy Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Carla Joy

    Paper 1, Local Solutions to Global Problems: Climate Change Policies and Regulatory Jurisdiction, considers the efficacy of various types of environmental regulations when they are applied locally to pollutants whose damages extend beyond the jurisdiction of the local regulators. Local regulations of a global pollutant may be ineffective if producers and consumers can avoid them by transacting outside the reach of the local regulator. In many cases, this may involve the physical relocation of the economic activity, a problem often referred to as "leakage." This paper highlights another way in which local policies can be circumvented: through the shuffling of who buys from whom. The paper maintains that the problems of reshuffling are exacerbated when the options for compliance with the regulations are more flexible. Numerical analyses is presented demonstrating that several proposed policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions from the California electricity sector may have very little effect on carbon emissions if they are applied only within that state. Paper 1 concludes that although local subsidies for energy efficiency, renewable electricity, and transportation biofuels constitute attempts to pick technology winners, they may be the only mechanisms that local jurisdictions, acting alone, have at their disposal to address climate change. Paper 2, Pass-Through of Solar PV Incentives to Consumers: The Early Years of California's Solar PV Incentives, examines the pass through of incentives to California solar PV system owners. The full post-subsidy price consumers pay for solar power is a key metric of the success of solar PV incentive programs and of overall PV market performance. This study examines the early years of California's most recent wave of distributed solar PV incentives (2000-2008) to determine the pass-through of incentives. Examination of this period is both intellectually and pragmatically important due to the high level of incentives provided and

  16. Technological application of an extracellular cell lytic enzyme in xanthan gum clarification Aplicação tecnológica de uma enzima celulolítica para clarificação de goma xantana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Shastry

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An extracellular cell lytic enzyme from Pseudomonas sp. was active on heat killed cells of Xanthomonas campestris. The lytic activity caused enzymatic digestion of X.campestris xanthan gum. Digestion was effective for highly viscous native xanthan 2.0% (w/v and 2.5% (w/v commercial Sigma xanthan. Scanning electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE observations confirmed the cell lytic action on X.campestris cells.Uma enzima extracelular celulolítica produzida por Pseudomonas sp. foi ativa sobre células de Xanthomonas campestris mortas pelo calor. A atividade lítica causou a digestão enzimática de goma xantana de X. campestris. A digestão foi eficiente tanto para xantana nativa altamante viscosa (2,0% w/v como para xantana comercial Sigma (2,5% w/v. Observações por microscopia eletrônica de varredura demonstraram a ação celulolítica sobre células de X. campestris.

  17. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2009-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O 3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O 3 . - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  18. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-03-15

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

  19. Money Laundering, Corruption and Growth: An Empirical Rationale for a Global Convergence on Anti-Money Laundering Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante Veiga, Luiz Humberto; Andrade, Joaquim Pinto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the impact of anti-money laundering regulations on growth and, it examines the rationale for a global adoption of these rules. The empirical results have led us to confirm a positive relation between low corruption levels and high investment and growth. We approached the impact on growth of money laundering prevention (MLP) initiatives in two ways: first, by verifying that the existence of these initiatives affects the perception of corruption. Second...

  20. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  1. CytR Is a Global Positive Regulator of Competence, Type VI Secretion, and Chitinases in Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit S Watve

    Full Text Available The facultative pathogen Vibrio cholerae transitions between its human host and aquatic reservoirs where it colonizes chitinous surfaces. Growth on chitin induces expression of chitin utilization genes, genes involved in DNA uptake by natural transformation, and a type VI secretion system that allows contact-dependent killing of neighboring bacteria. We have previously shown that the transcription factor CytR, thought to primarily regulate the pyrimidine nucleoside scavenging response, is required for natural competence in V. cholerae. Through high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq, we show that CytR positively regulates the majority of competence genes, the three type VI secretion operons, and the four known or predicted chitinases. We used transcriptional reporters and phenotypic analysis to determine the individual contributions of quorum sensing, which is controlled by the transcription factors HapR and QstR; chitin utilization that is mediated by TfoX; and pyrimidine starvation that is orchestrated by CytR, toward each of these processes. We find that in V. cholerae, CytR is a global regulator of multiple behaviors affecting fitness and adaptability in the environment.

  2. Global Systems-Level Analysis of Hfq and SmpB Deletion Mutants in Salmonella: Implications for Virulence and Global Protein Translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansong, Charles; Yoon, Hyunjin; Porwollik, Steffen; Mottaz-Brewer, Heather; Petritis, Brianne O.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Adkins, Joshua N.; Mcclelland, Michael; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-03-11

    In recent years the profound importance of sRNA-mediated translational/post-transcriptional regulation has been increasingly appreciated. However, the global role played by translational regulation in control of gene expression has never been elucidated in any organism for the simple reason that global proteomics methods required to accurately characterize post-transcriptional processes and the knowledge of translational control mechanisms have only become available within the last few years. The proteins Hfq and SmpB are essential for the biological activity of a range of regulatory sRNAs and thus provide a means to identify potential targets of sRNA regulation. We performed a sample-matched global proteomics and transcriptional analysis to examine the role of Hfq and SmpB in global protein translation and virulence using the Salmonella typhimurium model system. Samples were analyzed from bacteria grown under four different conditions; two laboratory conditions and two that are thought to mimic the intracellular environment. We show that mutants of hfq and smpB directly or indirectly modulate at least 20% and 4% of all Salmonella proteins, respectively, with limited correlation between transcription and protein expression. This is the first report suggesting that SmpB could be a general translational regulator. The broad spectrum of proteins modulated by Hfq was also surprising including central metabolism, LPS biosynthesis, two-component regulatory systems, quorum sensing, SP1-TTSS, oxidative stress, fatty acid metabolism, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism, envelope stress, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, amino acid biosynthesis, peptide transport, and motility.. The extent of global regulation of translation by Hfq is unexpected, with profound effects in all stages of Salmonella’s life cycle. Our results represent the first global systems-level analysis of translational regulation; the elucidated potential targets of sRNA regulation from our analysis will

  3. Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and cover crops on seed germination and early establishment of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarić-Krsmanović Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial cultures: Bacillus licheniformis (MO1, B. pumilus (MO2, and B. amyloliquefaciens (MO3, isolated from manure; B. megatherium ZP6 (MO4 isolated from maize rhizosphere; Azotobacter chroococcum Ps1 (MO5 and Pseudomonas fluorescens (MO6, were used to test the influence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on seed germination and germination rate of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunk.. Also, to examine the effect of host seeds on germination and initial growth of seedlings of field dodder plants in the dark and under white light, the seeds of four host plants were used (watermelon, red clover, alfalfa and sugar beet. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a ten-day period and the length of seedlings was measured on the final day. The results show that treatments MO3, MO4 and MO6 had inhibitory effects (15%, 65% and 52%, respectively, while treatments MO1, MO2 and MO5 had stimulating effects (3%, 3% and 19%, respectively on seed germination of field dodder. The data for host seeds show that light was a significant initial factor (83-95%, control 95% for stimulating seed germination of field dodder plants, apart from host presence (73-79%, control 80%.

  4. Globalization and protection of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina A.V.; Somogyi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unionists and politicians frequently claim that globalization lowers employment protection of workers. This paper tests this hypothesis in a panel of 28 OECD countries from 1985 to 2003, differentiating between three dimensions of globalization and two labor market segments. While overall globalization is shown to loosen protection of the regularly employed, it increases regulation in the segment of limited-term contracts. We find economic and political globalization to drive deregulation ...

  5. Examining the global health arena: strengths and weaknesses of a convention approach to global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffeld, Just Balstad; Siem, Harald; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2010-01-01

    The article comprises a conceptual framework to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of a global health convention. The analyses are inspired by Lawrence Gostin's suggested Framework Convention on Global Health. The analytical model takes a starting-point in events tentatively following a logic sequence: Input (global health funding), Processes (coordination, cooperation, accountability, allocation of aid), Output (definition of basic survival needs), Outcome (access to health services), and Impact (health for all). It then examines to what degree binding international regulations can create order in such a sequence of events. We conclude that a global health convention could be an appropriate instrument to deal with some of the problems of global health. We also show that some of the tasks preceding a convention approach might be to muster international support for supra-national health regulations, negotiate compromises between existing stakeholders in the global health arena, and to utilize WHO as a platform for further discussions on a global health convention. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  6. Global identification of bursicon-regulated genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beerntsen Brenda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bursicon is a heterodimer neuropeptide responsible for regulating cuticle sclerotization and wing expansion in several insect species. Recent studies indicate that the action of bursicon is mediated by a specific G protein-coupled receptor DLGR2 and the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. However, little is known regarding the genes that are regulated by bursicon. The identification of bursicon-regulated genes is the focus of this investigation. Results We used DNA microarray analysis to identify bursicon-regulated genes in neck-ligated flies (Drosophila melanogaster that received recombinant bursicon (r-bursicon. Fifty four genes were found to be regulated by bursicon 1 h post r-bursicon injection, 52 being up-regulated and 2 down-regulated while 33 genes were influenced by r-bursicon 3 h post-injection (24 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated genes. Analysis of these genes by inference from the fly database http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu revealed that these genes encode proteins with diverse functions, including cell signaling, gene transcription, DNA/RNA binding, ion trafficking, proteolysis-peptidolysis, metabolism, cytoskeleton formation, immune response and cell-adhesion. Twenty eight genes randomly selected from the microarray-identified list were verified by real time PCR (qPCR which supported the microarray data. Temporal response studies of 13 identified and verified genes by qPCR revealed that the temporal expression patterns of these genes are consistent with the microarray data. Conclusion Using r-bursicon, we identified 87 genes that are regulated by bursicon, 30 of which have no previously known function. Most importantly, all genes randomly selected from the microarray-identified list were verified by real time PCR. Temporal analysis of 13 verified genes revealed that the expression of these genes was indeed induced by bursicon and correlated well with the cuticle sclerotization process. The composite data suggest that

  7. Global DNA methylation synergistically regulates the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Johnson, Jacqueline; St John, Justin C

    2018-05-02

    Replication of mitochondrial DNA is strictly regulated during differentiation and development allowing each cell type to acquire its required mtDNA copy number to meet its specific needs for energy. Undifferentiated cells establish the mtDNA set point, which provides low numbers of mtDNA copy but sufficient template for replication once cells commit to specific lineages. However, cancer cells, such as those from the human glioblastoma multiforme cell line, HSR-GBM1, cannot complete differentiation as they fail to enforce the mtDNA set point and are trapped in a 'pseudo-differentiated' state. Global DNA methylation is likely to be a major contributing factor, as DNA demethylation treatments promote differentiation of HSR-GBM1 cells. To determine the relationship between DNA methylation and mtDNA copy number in cancer cells, we applied whole genome MeDIP-Seq and RNA-Seq to HSR-GBM1 cells and following their treatment with the DNA demethylation agents 5-azacytidine and vitamin C. We identified key methylated regions modulated by the DNA demethylation agents that also induced synchronous changes to mtDNA copy number and nuclear gene expression. Our findings highlight the control exerted by DNA methylation on the expression of key genes, the regulation of mtDNA copy number and establishment of the mtDNA set point, which collectively contribute to tumorigenesis.

  8. Identification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in pak choi varieties (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-ESI-MSn and NMR and their quantification by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum, Britta; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Wolff, Christian; Herges, Rainer; Zhu, Zhujun; Schwarz, Karin

    2007-10-03

    Twenty-eight polyphenols (11 flavonoid derivatives and 17 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) were detected in different cultivars of the Chinese cabbage pak choi ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n). Kaempferol was found to be the major flavonoid in pak choi, glycosylated and acylated with different compounds. Smaller amounts of isorhamnetin were also detected. A structural determination was carried out by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy for the main compound, kaempferol-3-O-hydroxyferuloylsophoroside-7-O-glucoside, for the first time. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were identified as different esters of quinic acid, glycosides, and malic acid. The latter ones are described for the first time in cabbages. The content of polyphenols was determined in 11 cultivars of pak choi, with higher concentrations present in the leaf blade than in the leaf stem. Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, particularly malic acid derivatives, are present in both the leaf blade and leaf stem, whereas flavonoid levels were determined only in the leaf blade.

  9. Future-proofing global health: Governance of priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Belinda; Cohen, I Glenn; Davies, Sara E; Gostin, Lawrence O; Hill, Peter S; Mankad, Aditi; Phelan, Alexandra L

    2018-05-01

    The year 2015 was a significant anniversary for global health: 15 years since the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals and the creation of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, followed two years later by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. 2015 was also the 10-year anniversary of the adoption of the International Health Regulations (May 2005) and the formal entering into force of the Framework Convention on the Tobacco Control (February 2005). The anniversary of these frameworks and institutions illustrates the growth and contribution of 'global' health diplomacy. Each initiative has also revealed on-going issues with compliance, sustainable funding and equitable attention in global health governance. In this paper, we present four thematic challenges that will continue to challenge prioritisation within global health governance into the future unless addressed: framing and prioritising within global health governance; identifying stakeholders of the global health community; understanding the relationship between health and behaviour; and the role of governance and regulation in supporting global health.

  10. Global SUMO proteome responses guide gene regulation, mRNA biogenesis, and plant stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eMazur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO is a key regulator of abiotic stress, disease resistance and development in plants. The identification of >350 plant SUMO targets has revealed many processes modulated by SUMO and potential consequences of SUMO on its targets. Importantly, highly related proteins are SUMO-modified in plants, yeast, and metazoans. Overlapping SUMO targets include heat-shock proteins, transcription regulators, histones, histone-modifying enzymes, proteins involved in DNA damage repair, but also proteins involved in mRNA biogenesis and nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Proteomics studies indicate key roles for SUMO in gene repression by controlling histone (deacetylation activity at genomic loci. The responsible heavily sumoylated transcriptional repressor complexes are recruited by EAR (Ethylene-responsive element binding factor [ERF]-associated Amphiphilic Repression-motif containing transcription factors in plants. These transcription factors are not necessarily themselves a SUMO target. Conversely, SUMO acetylation prevents binding of downstream partners by preventing binding of SIMs (SUMO-interaction peptide motifs presents in these partners, while SUMO acetylation has emerged as mechanism to recruit specifically bromodomains; bromodomain are generally linked with gene activation. These findings strengthen the idea of a bidirectional sumo-/acetylation switch in gene regulation. Quantitative proteomics has highlighted that global sumoylation provides a dynamic response to protein damage involving SUMO chain-mediated protein degradation, but also SUMO E3 ligase-dependent transcription of HSP (Heat-shock protein genes. With these insights in SUMO function and novel technical advancements, we can now study SUMO dynamics in responses to (abiotic stress in plants.

  11. The liberal battlefields of global business regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Macdonald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The global justice movement has often been associated with opposition to the broad programme of ‘neoliberalism’ and associated patterns of ‘corporate globalisation’, creating a widespread impression that this movement is opposed to liberalism more broadly conceived. Our goal in this article is to challenge this widespread view. By engaging in critical interpretive analysis of the contemporary ‘corporate accountability’ movement, we argue that the corporate accountability agenda is not opposed to the core values of a liberal project. Rather, it is seeking to reconfigure the design of liberal institutions of individual rights-protection, adjusting these for new material conditions associated with economic globalisation, under which powerful corporations alongside states now pose direct and significant threats to individual rights. This activist agenda is, therefore, much less radical in its challenge to the prevailing liberal global order than it may initially appear, since it functions to buttress rather than corrode many core normative commitments underpinning the liberal political project.

  12. Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, M. B.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; O' Malley, K.; Ruiz, A.

    2012-09-01

    Automobile manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Asia project a 2015 release of commercial hydrogen fuel cell powered light-duty road vehicles. These vehicles will be for general consumer applications, albeit initially in select markets but with much broader market penetration expected by 2025. To assure international harmony, North American, European, and Asian regulatory representatives are striving to base respective national regulations on an international safety standard, the Global Technical Regulation (GTR), Hydrogen Fueled Vehicle, which is part of an international agreement pertaining to wheeled vehicles and equipment for wheeled vehicles.

  13. Global regulators ExpA (GacA) and KdgR modulate extracellular enzyme gene expression through the RsmA-rsmB system in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyytiäinen, H; Montesano, M; Palva, E T

    2001-08-01

    The production of the main virulence determinants, the extracellular plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, and hence virulence of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora is controlled by a complex regulatory network. One of the global regulators, the response regulator ExpA, a GacA homolog, is required for transcriptional activation of the extracellular enzyme genes of this soft-rot pathogen. To elucidate the mechanism of ExpA control as well as interactions with other regulatory systems, we isolated second-site transposon mutants that would suppress the enzyme-negative phenotype of an expA (gacA) mutant. Inactivation of kdgR resulted in partial restoration of extracellular enzyme production and virulence to the expA mutant, suggesting an interaction between the two regulatory pathways. This interaction was mediated by the RsmA-rsmB system. Northern analysis was used to show that the regulatory rsmB RNA was under positive control of ExpA. Conversely, the expression of rsmA encoding a global repressor was under negative control of ExpA and positive control of KdgR. This study indicates a central role for the RsmA-rsmB regulatory system during pathogenesis, integrating signals from the ExpA (GacA) and KdgR global regulators of extracellular enzyme production in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora.

  14. Strategies for restoration of deep-water coral ecosystems based on a global survey of oil and gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, E. E.; Jones, D.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry is one of the most active agents of the global industrialization of the deep sea. The wide array of impacts following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted the need for a systematic review of existing regulations both in US waters and internationally. Within different exclusive economic zones, there are a wide variety of regulations regarding the survey of deep-water areas prior to leasing and the acceptable set-back distances from vulnerable marine ecosystems once they are discovered. There are also varying mitigation strategies for accidental release of oil and gas, including active monitoring systems, temporary closings of oil and gas production, and marine protected areas. The majority of these regulations are based on previous studies of typical impacts from oil and gas drilling, rather than accidental releases. However, the probability of an accident from standard operations increases significantly with depth. The Oil & Gas working group of the Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative is an international partnership of scientists, managers, non-governmental organizations, and industry professionals whose goal is to review existing regulations for the oil & gas industry and produce a best practices document to advise both developed and developing nations on their regulatory structure as energy development moves into deeper waters.

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_003902 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thomonas ... campestris pv. campestris str. ATCC 33913] ... Length = 247 ... Query: 49 ... LNPFVPVQF...PLKLVDRRMLAPTVAHCQFLRDDGQPLDFQPGQFIQIHFQYADGTDAKRSY 108 ... LNPFVPVQFPLKLV...DRRMLAPTVAHCQFLRDDGQPLDFQPGQFIQIHFQYADGTDAKRSY Sbjct: 1 ... LNPFVPVQFPLKLVDRRMLAPTVAHCQFLRDDGQPLDFQPGQFIQIHFQY

  16. An index-based framework for assessing patterns and trends in river fragmentation and flow regulation by global dams at multiple scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grill, Günther; Lehner, Bernhard; Lumsdon, Alexander E; Zarfl, Christiane; MacDonald, Graham K; Reidy Liermann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The global number of dam constructions has increased dramatically over the past six decades and is forecast to continue to rise, particularly in less industrialized regions. Identifying development pathways that can deliver the benefits of new infrastructure while also maintaining healthy and productive river systems is a great challenge that requires understanding the multifaceted impacts of dams at a range of scales. New approaches and advanced methodologies are needed to improve predictions of how future dam construction will affect biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and fluvial geomorphology worldwide, helping to frame a global strategy to achieve sustainable dam development. Here, we respond to this need by applying a graph-based river routing model to simultaneously assess flow regulation and fragmentation by dams at multiple scales using data at high spatial resolution. We calculated the cumulative impact of a set of 6374 large existing dams and 3377 planned or proposed dams on river connectivity and river flow at basin and subbasin scales by fusing two novel indicators to create a holistic dam impact matrix for the period 1930–2030. Static network descriptors such as basin area or channel length are of limited use in hierarchically nested and dynamic river systems, so we developed the river fragmentation index and the river regulation index, which are based on river volume. These indicators are less sensitive to the effects of network configuration, offering increased comparability among studies with disparate hydrographies as well as across scales. Our results indicate that, on a global basis, 48% of river volume is moderately to severely impacted by either flow regulation, fragmentation, or both. Assuming completion of all dams planned and under construction in our future scenario, this number would nearly double to 93%, largely due to major dam construction in the Amazon Basin. We provide evidence for the importance of considering small to medium

  17. Metrological traceability and harmonization of medical tests: a quantum leap forward is needed to keep pace with globalization and stringent IVD-regulations in the 21st century!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbaert, Christa; Smit, Nico; Gillery, Philippe

    2018-05-07

    In our efforts to advance the profession and practice of clinical laboratory medicine, strong coordination and collaboration are needed more than ever before. At the dawn of the 21st century, medical laboratories are facing many unmet clinical needs, a technological revolution promising a plethora of better biomarkers, financial constraints, a growing scarcity of well-trained laboratory technicians and a sharply increasing number of International Organization for Standardization guidelines and new regulations to which medical laboratories should comply in order to guarantee safety and effectiveness of medical test results. Although this is a global trend, medical laboratories across continents and countries are in distinct phases and experience various situations. A universal underlying requirement for safe and global use of medical test results is the standardization and harmonization of test results. Since two decades and after a number of endeavors on standardization/harmonization of medical tests, it is time to reflect on the effectiveness of the approaches used. To keep laboratory medicine sustainable, viable and affordable, clarification of the promises of metrological traceability of test results for improving sick and health care, realization of formal commitment among all stakeholders of the metrological traceability chain and preparation of a joint and global plan for action are essential prerequisites. Policy makers and regulators should not only overwhelm the diagnostic sector with oversight and regulations but should also create the conditions by establishing a global professional forum for anchoring the metrological traceability concept in the medical test domain. Even so, professional societies should have a strong voice in their (inter-) national governments to negotiate long-lasting public policy commitment and funds for global standardization of medical tests.

  18. Salutogenesis, globalization, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Theodor Dierk; Lehmann, Nadja

    2011-12-01

    Achieving successful communication in transcultural contexts means integrating emotional communication patterns into a global context. Professional, rational communication is characteristic of the cultural dimension, and emotions are characteristic of the direct, interpersonal dimension of human existence. Humans strive to achieve coherence in all dimensions of their lives; this goal is in the end the most essential aspect of psychophysical self-regulation. A major role in integrating emotional needs and cultural features in global coherence is played by the attractor 'global affinity'. The transitions from emotional coherence to cultural coherence, and likewise from cultural coherence to global coherence, can cause considerable insecurity as well as psychological problems, which previously went by the name 'adjustment disorders'. However, instead of pathologizing these processes, we should understand them in a salutogenic sense as challenges important for both individual and collective development. The development of more coherence is regulated by the neuropsychological approach and avoidance system. This system can be consciously fostered by directing our attention to the commonalities of all human beings. Such a global salutogenic orientation furthers both communication and creativity in teamwork. This article introduces a consequent salutogenic and evolutionary systemic view of transcultural communication and demonstrates its effectiveness in a number of case examples.

  19. Production of the quinone-methide triterpene maytenin by in vitro adventitious roots of Peritassa campestris (Cambess.) A.C.Sm. (Celastraceae) and rapid detection and identification by APCI-IT-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Tiago Antunes; dos Santos, Vânia A F F M; Inácio, Marielle Cascaes; Pina, Edieidia Souza; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Furlan, Maysa

    2013-01-01

    Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Peritassa campestris (Celastraceae) was achieved from seed cotyledons cultured in semisolid Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with 2% sucrose, 0.01% PVP, and 4.0 mg L⁻¹ IBA. Culture period on accumulation of biomass and quinone-methide triterpene maytenin in adventitious root were investigated. The accumulation of maytenin in these roots was compared with its accumulation in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse (one year old). A rapid detection and identification of maytenin by direct injection into an atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer (APCI-IT-MS/MS) were performed without prior chromatographic separation. In vitro, the greatest accumulation of biomass occurred within 60 days of culture. The highest level of maytenin--972.11  μ g·g⁻¹ dry weight--was detected at seven days of cultivation; this value was 5.55-fold higher than that found in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse.

  20. Production of the Quinone-Methide Triterpene Maytenin by In Vitro Adventitious Roots of Peritassa campestris (Cambess. A.C.Sm. (Celastraceae and Rapid Detection and Identification by APCI-IT-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antunes Paz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Peritassa campestris (Celastraceae was achieved from seed cotyledons cultured in semisolid Woody Plant Medium (WPM supplemented with 2% sucrose, 0.01% PVP, and 4.0 mg L−1 IBA. Culture period on accumulation of biomass and quinone-methide triterpene maytenin in adventitious root were investigated. The accumulation of maytenin in these roots was compared with its accumulation in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse (one year old. A rapid detection and identification of maytenin by direct injection into an atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer (APCI-IT-MS/MS were performed without prior chromatographic separation. In vitro, the greatest accumulation of biomass occurred within 60 days of culture. The highest level of maytenin—972.11 μg·g−1 dry weight—was detected at seven days of cultivation; this value was 5.55-fold higher than that found in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse.

  1. Global control of reaction wheel pendulum through energy regulation and extended linearization of the state variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Montoya-Giraldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and simulation of a global controller for the Reaction Wheel Pendulum system using energy regulation and extended linearization methods for the state feedback. The proposed energy regulation is based on the gradual reduction of the energy of the system to reach the unstable equilibrium point. The signal input for this task is obtained from the Lyapunov stability theory. The extended state feedback controller design is used to get a smooth nonlinear function that extends the region of operation to a bigger range, in contrast with the static linear state feedback obtained through the method of approximate linearization around an operating point. The general designed controller operates with a switching between the two control signals depending upon the region of operation; perturbations are applied in the control signal and the (simulated measured variables to verify the robustness and efficiency of the controller. Finally, simulations and tests using the model of the reaction wheel pendulum system, allow to observe the versatility and functionality of the proposed controller in the entire operation region of the pendulum.

  2. The E. coli Global Regulator DksA Reduces Transcription during T4 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patterson-West

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage T4 relies on host RNA polymerase to transcribe three promoter classes: early (Pe, requires no viral factors, middle (Pm, requires early proteins MotA and AsiA, and late (Pl, requires middle proteins gp55, gp33, and gp45. Using primer extension, RNA-seq, RT-qPCR, single bursts, and a semi-automated method to document plaque size, we investigated how deletion of DksA or ppGpp, two E. coli global transcription regulators, affects T4 infection. Both ppGpp0 and ΔdksA increase T4 wild type (wt plaque size. However, ppGpp0 does not significantly alter burst size or latent period, and only modestly affects T4 transcript abundance, while ΔdksA increases burst size (2-fold without affecting latent period and increases the levels of several Pe transcripts at 5 min post-infection. In a T4motAam infection, ΔdksA increases plaque size and shortens latent period, and the levels of specific middle RNAs increase due to more transcription from Pe’s that extend into these middle genes. We conclude that DksA lowers T4 early gene expression. Consequently, ΔdksA results in a more productive wt infection and ameliorates the poor expression of middle genes in a T4motAam infection. As DksA does not inhibit Pe transcription in vitro, regulation may be indirect or perhaps requires additional factors.

  3. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  4. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hester, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10 -3 range

  5. An Investigation of Adolescent Girls' Global Self-Concept, Physical Self-Concept, Identified Regulation, and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Emily Kristin; Garn, Alex C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among identified regulation, physical self-concept, global self-concept, and leisure-time physical activity with a sample of middle and high school girls (N = 319) enrolled in physical education. Based on Marsh's theory of self-concept, it was hypothesized that a) physical self-concept would mediate the…

  6. Production of Mushroom Mycelium as a Protein and Fat Source in Submerged Culture in Medium of Vinasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falanghe, H.

    1962-01-01

    Of ten mushroom cultures investigated, only Agaricus campestris, Boletus indecisus, and Tricholoma nudum were capable of growing in submerged culture in medium of vinasse with added salts. Higher fermentative efficiencies were found under these conditions than in medium containing molasses or waste sulfite liquor. A. campestris showed a better capacity to produce protein but, since B. indecisus is capable of developing greater mycelium weight, its fermentative efficiencies are comparable. Both microorganisms could be grown in medium of vinasse with greatly varied amounts, producing higher mycelial weight in media with greater vinasse. The capacity of B. indecisus and A. campestris to utilize the noncarbohydrate fraction in total solids, instead of the total carbohydrates when they are in smaller amount, was observed in medium containing vinasse. B. indecisus and A. campestris were easily separated by filtration from the medium, although T. nudum was difficult to separate by this procedure. In experiments with A. campestris, the adaptative capacity of the organism to vinasse was demonstrated. PMID:13962715

  7. A global bioheat model with self-tuning optimal regulation of body temperature using Hebbian feedback covariance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, M L; Ng, E Y K

    2005-12-01

    In the lower brain, body temperature is continually being regulated almost flawlessly despite huge fluctuations in ambient and physiological conditions that constantly threaten the well-being of the body. The underlying control problem defining thermal homeostasis is one of great enormity: Many systems and sub-systems are involved in temperature regulation and physiological processes are intrinsically complex and intertwined. Thus the defining control system has to take into account the complications of nonlinearities, system uncertainties, delayed feedback loops as well as internal and external disturbances. In this paper, we propose a self-tuning adaptive thermal controller based upon Hebbian feedback covariance learning where the system is to be regulated continually to best suit its environment. This hypothesis is supported in part by postulations of the presence of adaptive optimization behavior in biological systems of certain organisms which face limited resources vital for survival. We demonstrate the use of Hebbian feedback covariance learning as a possible self-adaptive controller in body temperature regulation. The model postulates an important role of Hebbian covariance adaptation as a means of reinforcement learning in the thermal controller. The passive system is based on a simplified 2-node core and shell representation of the body, where global responses are captured. Model predictions are consistent with observed thermoregulatory responses to conditions of exercise and rest, and heat and cold stress. An important implication of the model is that optimal physiological behaviors arising from self-tuning adaptive regulation in the thermal controller may be responsible for the departure from homeostasis in abnormal states, e.g., fever. This was previously unexplained using the conventional "set-point" control theory.

  8. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects related to (perceived) overpopulation of wildlife

  9. Identification of salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles campestris-like mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwatapron Sor-suwan

    Full Text Available Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles campestris-like, a potential malaria vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were used. Results showed that 19 major proteins were significantly depleted in three to four day-old mosquitoes fed on a first blood meal. For the mosquitoes fed the second blood meal on day 14 after the first blood meal, 14 major proteins were significantly decreased in amount. The significantly depleted proteins in both groups included apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase/apyrase, D7, D7-related 1, short form D7r1, gSG6, anti-platelet protein, serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3, putative sil1, cyclophilin A, hypothetical protein Phum_PHUM512530, AGAP007618-PA, and two non-significant hit proteins. To our knowledge, this study presents for the first time the salivary gland proteins that are involved in the second blood feeding on the day corresponding to the transmission period of the sporozoites to new mammalian hosts. This information serves as a basis for future work concerning the possible role of these proteins in the parasite transmission and the physiological processes that occur during the blood feeding.

  10. Identification of salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles campestris-like mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sor-suwan, Sriwatapron; Jariyapan, Narissara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Phumee, Atchara; Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Intakhan, Nuchpicha; Chanmol, Wetpisit; Bates, Paul A; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2014-01-01

    Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles campestris-like, a potential malaria vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were used. Results showed that 19 major proteins were significantly depleted in three to four day-old mosquitoes fed on a first blood meal. For the mosquitoes fed the second blood meal on day 14 after the first blood meal, 14 major proteins were significantly decreased in amount. The significantly depleted proteins in both groups included apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase/apyrase, D7, D7-related 1, short form D7r1, gSG6, anti-platelet protein, serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3, putative sil1, cyclophilin A, hypothetical protein Phum_PHUM512530, AGAP007618-PA, and two non-significant hit proteins. To our knowledge, this study presents for the first time the salivary gland proteins that are involved in the second blood feeding on the day corresponding to the transmission period of the sporozoites to new mammalian hosts. This information serves as a basis for future work concerning the possible role of these proteins in the parasite transmission and the physiological processes that occur during the blood feeding.

  11. Global Structural Flexibility of Metalloproteins Regulates Reactivity of Transition Metal Ion in the Protein Core: An Experimental Study Using Thiol-subtilisin as a Model Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Takashi; Kono, Takamasa; Shobu, Isamu; Ishida, Masaya; Gonda, Katsuya; Hirota, Shun

    2018-02-21

    The functions of metal-containing proteins (metalloproteins) are determined by the reactivities of transition metal ions at their active sites. Because protein macromolecular structures have several molecular degrees of freedom, global structural flexibility may also regulate the properties of metalloproteins. However, the influence of this factor has not been fully delineated in mechanistic studies of metalloproteins. Accordingly, we have investigated the relationship between global protein flexibility and the characteristics of a transition metal ion in the protein core using thiol-subtilisin (tSTL) with a Cys-coordinated Cu 2+ ion as a model system. Although tSTL has two Ca 2+ -binding sites, the Ca 2+ -binding status hardly affects its secondary structure. Nevertheless, guanidinium-induced denaturation and amide H/D exchange indicated the increase in the structural flexibility of tSTL by the removal of bound Ca 2+ ions. Electron paramagnetic resonance and absorption spectral changes have revealed that the protein flexibility determines the characteristics of a Cu 2+ ion in tSTL. Therefore, global protein flexibility should be recognized as an important factor that regulates the properties of metalloproteins. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Globalization and deficit and limitations of global governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Character and dynamics of relationships in international politics, in which the stronger return to real politics content in the functioning of the foreign policy of the great powers, unequivocally affirms that globalization does not work to its declining power that is less credible design concept of modern world society. The global financial collapse that hit the world in 2008 is a convincing indication that most of the globalization is discredited. The belief in one humanity is becoming a less desirable concept. At the same time, with the increase in global issues that require solving, there are numerous human activities that involve unique or international regulation. The world is increasingly one homeostatic system of interdependent parts of a continent where many aspects of the borders between countries are difficult or even impossible to sustain. Hence the importance of global factors, some of which will fully depend on the articulation of individual and community life of people in the future, stressing the importance of the issue of joint management to ensure global peace and security and promote the prosperity around the world in a universally acceptable and effective way. Therefore, the demonstrated substantial shortcomings of global governance of the world, although they discourage belief in humanity, did not reduce the objective need for global access to many amenities of modern human existence. Many aspects of security, ranging from the security of the individual to the energy and environmental security in modern conditions are not conceivable without international access. However, global security management has been associated with numerous limitations and challenges.

  13. Global analysis of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in response to drought stress in Sorghum.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Anireddy [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ben-Hur, Asa [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Abiotic stresses including drought are major limiting factors of crop yields and cause significant crop losses. Acquisition of stress tolerance to abiotic stresses requires coordinated regulation of a multitude of biochemical and physiological changes, and most of these changes depend on alterations in gene expression. The goal of this work is to perform global analysis of differential regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing, and their relationship with chromatin landscape in drought sensitive and tolerant cultivars. our Iso-Seq study revealed transcriptome-wide full-length isoforms at an unprecedented scale with over 11000 novel splice isoforms. Additionally, we uncovered alternative polyadenylation sites of ~11000 expressed genes and many novel genes. Overall, Iso-Seq results greatly enhanced sorghum gene annotations that are not only useful in analyzing all our RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and ATAC-seq data but also serve as a great resource to the plant biology community. Our studies identified differentially expressed genes and splicing events that are correlated with the drought-resistant phenotype. An association between alternative splicing and chromatin accessibility was also revealed. Several computational tools developed here (TAPIS and iDiffIR) have been made freely available to the research community in analyzing alternative splicing and differential alternative splicing.

  14. THE NONLINEAR IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON CORRUPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jayoti Das; Cassandra DiRienzo

    2009-01-01

    Some researchers have argued that globalization has increased the opportunity for corrupt practices, while others state that globalization has lead to a decrease in corruption as countries wishing to join the global economy must comply with international anti-corruption rules and regulations. This study empirically explores this paradox using the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and the Konjunkturforschungsstelle (KOF) globalization Index. The results suggest that a nonlinear relationship e...

  15. Toward a System of Global Accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.

    2016-01-01

    Post-Fukushima, the public expects and demands that nuclear regulators and operators worldwide have used lessons learned to identify and implement important actions and measures to prevent a similar event from happening again. Considerable work has been done at the national and international levels to achieve this. However, verifying the adequacy and appropriateness of measures taken in each country requires an enhanced level of global accountability that does not presently exist. The current global nuclear regulatory safety framework is based on the principle of national sovereignty and the result is that the world lacks a forum for publicizing safety concerns, beyond the national regulator, to the highest levels of government within member states. This runs the risk of significant deficiencies or non-compliance with internationally approved practices continuing unchecked even though some parties are aware of them. This also applies to flagging cases of insufficiently independent regulators or identifying inadequately prepared regulators in new nuclear countries. There are many vehicles for enhancing this transparency, e.g., WANO/INPO, regional regulatory fora, and international organizations including the OECD/NEA and IAEA. The world has never been more interconnected and it is time that the nuclear sector leverages this reality and adopts a system of global accountability for nuclear safety. (author)

  16. Interaction effects on uptake and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances and cadmium in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fan, Ziyan; Sun, Lihui; Zhou, Tao; Xing, Yuliang; Liu, Lifen

    2017-03-01

    A vegetation study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and Cadmium (Cd) on soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil. Soil urease activities were inhibited significantly but catalase activities were promoted significantly by interaction of PFASs and Cd which had few effects on sucrase activities. Joint stress with PFASs and Cd decreased the biomass of plants and chlorophyll (Chl) content in both wheat and rapeseed, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were increased in wheat but inhibited in rapeseed compared with single treatments. The bioconcentration abilities of PFASs in wheat and rapeseed were decreased, and the translocation factor of PFASs was decreased in wheat but increased in rapeseed with Cd addition. The bioaccumulation and translocation abilities of Cd were increased significantly in both wheat and rapeseed with PFASs addition. These findings suggested important evidence that the co-existence of PFASs and Cd reduced the bioavailability of PFASs while enhanced the bioavailability of Cd in soil, which increased the associated environmental risk for Cd but decreased for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A global regulatory science agenda for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmgren, Lindsay; Li, Xuguang; Wilson, Carolyn; Ball, Robert; Wang, Junzhi; Cichutek, Klaus; Pfleiderer, Michael; Kato, Atsushi; Cavaleri, Marco; Southern, James; Jivapaisarnpong, Teeranart; Minor, Philip; Griffiths, Elwyn; Sohn, Yeowon; Wood, David

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Collaboration and development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan provides a catalyst and unique opportunity for regulators worldwide to develop and propose a global regulatory science agenda for vaccines. Regulatory oversight is critical to allow access to vaccines that are safe, effective, and of assured quality. Methods used by regulators need to constantly evolve so that scientific and technological advances are applied to address challenges such as new products and technologies, and also to provide an increased understanding of benefits and risks of existing products. Regulatory science builds on high-quality basic research, and encompasses at least two broad categories. First, there is laboratory-based regulatory science. Illustrative examples include development of correlates of immunity; or correlates of safety; or of improved product characterization and potency assays. Included in such science would be tools to standardize assays used for regulatory purposes. Second, there is science to develop regulatory processes. Illustrative examples include adaptive clinical trial designs; or tools to analyze the benefit-risk decision-making process of regulators; or novel pharmacovigilance methodologies. Included in such science would be initiatives to standardize regulatory processes (e.g., definitions of terms for adverse events [AEs] following immunization). The aim of a global regulatory science agenda is to transform current national efforts, mainly by well-resourced regulatory agencies, into a coordinated action plan to support global immunization goals. This article provides examples of how regulatory science has, in the past, contributed to improved access to vaccines, and identifies gaps that could be addressed through a global regulatory science agenda. The article also identifies challenges to implementing a regulatory science agenda and proposes strategies and actions to fill these gaps. A global regulatory science agenda will enable

  18. Impact of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc on glucose catabolism in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrenoud, Annik; Sauer, Uwe

    2005-05-01

    Even though transcriptional regulation plays a key role in establishing the metabolic network, the extent to which it actually controls the in vivo distribution of metabolic fluxes through different pathways is essentially unknown. Based on metabolism-wide quantification of intracellular fluxes, we systematically elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc for aerobic glucose catabolism in batch cultures of Escherichia coli. Knockouts of ArcB, Cra, Fnr, and Mlc were phenotypically silent, while deletion of the catabolite repression regulators Crp and Cya resulted in a pronounced slow-growth phenotype but had only a nonspecific effect on the actual flux distribution. Knockout of ArcA-dependent redox regulation, however, increased the aerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity by over 60%. Like aerobic conditions, anaerobic derepression of TCA cycle enzymes in an ArcA mutant significantly increased the in vivo TCA flux when nitrate was present as an electron acceptor. The in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate that ArcA-dependent transcriptional regulation directly or indirectly controls TCA cycle flux in both aerobic and anaerobic glucose batch cultures of E. coli. This control goes well beyond the previously known ArcA-dependent regulation of the TCA cycle during microaerobiosis.

  19. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.310 Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. The term specially...

  1. Coordinated Regulation of the EIIMan and fruRKI Operons of Streptococcus mutans by Global and Fructose-Specific Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Chakraborty, Brinta; Farivar, Tanaz; Burne, Robert A

    2017-11-01

    The glucose/mannose-phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease EII Man encoded by manLMN in the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans has a dominant influence on sugar-specific, CcpA-independent catabolite repression (CR). Mutations in manL affect energy metabolism and virulence-associated traits, including biofilm formation, acid tolerance, and competence. Using promoter::reporter fusions, expression of the manLMN and the fruRKI operons, encoding a transcriptional regulator, a fructose-1-phosphate kinase and a fructose-PTS permease EII Fru , respectively, was monitored in response to carbohydrate source and in mutants lacking CcpA, FruR, and components of EII Man Expression of genes for EII Man and EII Fru was directly regulated by CcpA and CR, as evinced by in vivo and in vitro methods. Unexpectedly, not only was the fruRKI operon negatively regulated by FruR, but also so was manLMN Carbohydrate transport by EII Man had a negative influence on expression of manLMN but not fruRKI In agreement with the proposed role of FruR in regulating these PTS operons, loss of fruR or fruK substantially altered growth on a number of carbohydrates, including fructose. RNA deep sequencing revealed profound changes in gene regulation caused by deletion of fruK or fruR Collectively, these findings demonstrate intimate interconnection of the regulation of two major PTS permeases in S. mutans and reveal novel and important contributions of fructose metabolism to global regulation of gene expression. IMPORTANCE The ability of Streptococcus mutans and other streptococcal pathogens to survive and cause human diseases is directly dependent upon their capacity to metabolize a variety of carbohydrates, including glucose and fructose. Our research reveals that metabolism of fructose has broad influences on the regulation of utilization of glucose and other sugars, and mutants with changes in certain genes involved in fructose metabolism display profoundly different abilities to grow and

  2. A Flexible Binding Site Architecture Provides New Insights into CcpA Global Regulation in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catabolite control protein A (CcpA is the master regulator in Gram-positive bacteria that mediates carbon catabolite repression (CCR and carbon catabolite activation (CCA, two fundamental regulatory mechanisms that enable competitive advantages in carbon catabolism. It is generally regarded that CcpA exerts its regulatory role by binding to a typical 14- to 16-nucleotide (nt consensus site that is called a catabolite response element (cre within the target regions. However, here we report a previously unknown noncanonical flexible architecture of the CcpA-binding site in solventogenic clostridia, providing new mechanistic insights into catabolite regulation. This novel CcpA-binding site, named crevar, has a unique architecture that consists of two inverted repeats and an intervening spacer, all of which are variable in nucleotide composition and length, except for a 6-bp core palindromic sequence (TGTAAA/TTTACA. It was found that the length of the intervening spacer of crevar can affect CcpA binding affinity, and moreover, the core palindromic sequence of crevar is the key structure for regulation. Such a variable architecture of crevar shows potential importance for CcpA’s diverse and fine regulation. A total of 103 potential crevar sites were discovered in solventogenic Clostridium acetobutylicum, of which 42 sites were picked out for electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs, and 30 sites were confirmed to be bound by CcpA. These 30 crevar sites are associated with 27 genes involved in many important pathways. Also of significance, the crevar sites are found to be widespread and function in a great number of taxonomically different Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogens, suggesting their global role in Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. Oligarchy versus Democracy and Regulation versus Deregulation under the Globalization Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru-Alexandru BODISLAV

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available On capitalism that is created under the pressure of globalization there are created many economic systems that derived into a new model: the asymmetric model created from propriety rights’ perspective and the influence of interest groups, an asymmetric model that is called “oligarchy”(1. For a better understanding of oligarchy we consider an oligarchic society, where the political power is in the hands of the producers of goods, that tend to protect their propriety rights, but this way they create entry barriers, destroying the propriety rights of future potential producers. Capitalism was and is stressed by the (deregulation phenomena created by the competition which is shaped through globalization. With ease we can go from (deregulating to oligarchic pressure, which from the globalization’s perspective can give birth to the lagging or decoupling in the global economic system. This paper researches these two cases and inserts them into the global framework to result the evolution of society’s members’ welfare.

  4. Ketamine and international regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Tang, Yi-Lang; Hao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic commonly used in low-income countries and has recently been shown to be effective for treatment-resistant depression. However, the illicit manufacturing, trafficking, and nonmedical use of ketamine are increasing globally, and its illicit use poses major public health challenges in many countries. To review the nonmedical use of ketamine in selected countries and its regulatory control. We conducted a review of literature identified from searches of the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979-2016) and PubMed databases, supplemented by additional references identified by the authors. Special attention was given to the regulation of ketamine. Illicit manufacturing, trafficking, and use of ketamine appear to have begun on a large scale in several Asian nations, and it has subsequently spread to other regions. Regulations governing availability of ketamine vary across countries, but there is a clear trend toward tighter regulations. As nonmedical use of ketamine and its harmful consequences have worsened globally, stricter controls are necessary. Appropriate regulation of ketamine is important for international efforts to control ketamine's cross-border trafficking and its nonmedical use.

  5. Globalization of the energy sector - a U.S. regulator`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallaur, Carolita [Offshore Minerals Management, U.S. Department of the Interior (United States)

    1998-12-01

    This publication relates to globalization of the energy sector addressing issues of significant importance to the United States. The author touches upon a number of activities MMS (Mineral Management Service) is involved in with a focus on a joint project being engaged in with NPD (Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) to help the Russian Federation develop a safety and environment regime for its offshore. The aim of the project are national standards that set requirements for local and regional governments, safety and environment requirements that conform to international standards, apply to both Russian and foreign firms, and sharing of best practices between NPD, MMS and Russian authorities

  6. The Kontiki of Global Accounting.

    OpenAIRE

    George Mickhail

    2000-01-01

    Global financial reporting is experiencing a “credibility crisis” due to concerns about the quality of reporting of financial results by corporations, which has been eroding in the rush to meet market expectations. This controversy highlights the need to examine the increasing expectation of ‘harmonisation’ by stock exchanges around the world, companies seeking global capital flows and the financial statement users. Meanwhile, securities regulators attempt to redefine their accounting standar...

  7. The Growth of Private Regulation of Labor Standards in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen

    2013-01-01

    Multinational corporations (MNCs) have come under pressure to adopt private regulatory initiatives such as supplier codes of conduct in order to address poor working conditions in global supply chain factories. While a well-known literature explores drivers and outcomes of such monitoring schemes...... requirements in global supply chains even though compliance is a “mission impossible” for many smaller firms. As a result of this development, the private regulatory system is facing growing strain.......Multinational corporations (MNCs) have come under pressure to adopt private regulatory initiatives such as supplier codes of conduct in order to address poor working conditions in global supply chain factories. While a well-known literature explores drivers and outcomes of such monitoring schemes......, this literature focuses mainly on large firms and has ignored the growing integration of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) into global supply chains. Furthermore, the literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in SMEs primarily emphasizes domestic initiatives and not global challenges. Focusing...

  8. Contract & agency labour: beyond self-regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A paper about the regulation of contract labour. Academic and legal aspects as well as case studies of global union federation work to organise and regulate contract labour in Thailand, Pakistan, Colombia, South Korea and at international level.

  9. The global environment: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolba, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Global environmental chemistry today involves a rapidly expanding need both for new research and for the development of an interdiciplinary approach to the multiplicity of interconnected environmental problems. Every ecosystem shows signs of damage: growing quantities of wastes; decreasing water supplies; soil degradation; coastal zone deterioration; deforestation and climatic change; global warming due to ozone depletion. Solutions must involve a cooperative and holistic global effort in three areas: scientific understanding of how the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes regulate the total Earth system; public policy implications including closer liaison between scientists and policymakers;and understanding of the state of the global environment, what is going wrong, why, and whether it is getting worse

  10. Sapfluxnet: a global database of sap flow measurements to unravel the ecological factors of transpiration regulation in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Steppe, Kathy; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel; Mahecha, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Plant transpiration is one of the main components of the global water cycle, it controls land energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and exerts strong feedbacks on regional and global climate. At the same time, plant productivity, growth and survival are severely constrained by water availability, which is expected to decline in many areas of the world because of global-change driven increases in drought conditions. While global surveys of drought tolerance traits at the organ level are rapidly increasing our knowledge of the diversity in plant functional strategies to cope with drought stress, a whole-plant perspective of drought vulnerability is still lacking. Sap flow measurements using thermal methods have now been applied to measure seasonal patterns in water use and the response of transpiration to environmental drivers across hundreds of species of woody plants worldwide, covering a wide range of climates, soils and stand structural characteristics. Here, we present the first effort to build a global database of sub-daily, tree-level sap flow (SAPFLUXNET) that will be used to improve our understanding of physiological and structural determinants of plant transpiration and to further investigate the role of vegetation in controlling global water balance. We already have the expression of interest of data contributors representing >115 globally distributed sites, > 185 species and > 700 trees, measured over at least one growing season. However, the potential number of available sites and species is probably much higher given that > 2500 sap flow-related papers have been identified in a Scopus literature search conducted in November 2015. We will give an overview of how data collection, harmonisation and quality control procedures are implemented within the project. We will also discuss potential analytical strategies to synthesize hydroclimatic controls on sap flow into biologically meaningful traits related to whole-plant transpiration

  11. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_003902 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003902 gi|21229523 >1p6rA 5 81 4 80 4e-10 ... ref|NP_635440.1| methicillin resista...nce protein [Xanthomonas campestris pv. ... campestris str. ATCC 33913] gb|AAM39364.1| methicillin ...

  13. Globalization and protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panahandeh, M.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years two trends have come into conflict in the international arena. The first is the globalization of economy and the second is the increased public concern over the environmental impact of economic activities and awareness of the global dimensions of many environmental problems. Nowadays confrontation of the issue of globalization and economic liberalization and protect of the environment is a matter of heated debate and environmentalists see globalization posing a threat to environment standards. The effects of liberalization on environment in the developing world have been analyzed from the perspective of the pollution- have hypothesis. The hypothesis suggests that the liberalization encourages a spatial displacement of the so-called d irty o r pollution- intensive industries from the developed countries with stricter environmental regulations to their preferential location in developing countries which enjoy minimal environmental regulations or capacity for environmental monitoring and enforcement. It also suggests that economic policies which promote foreign investment in the natural resources of developing countries will increase rates of natural-resource extraction in the developing world. according to the theory, the translational firms will employ cheep technologies in developing countries which are not environmental sound and no longer permitted to use in the industrialized world

  14. NEW INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REGULATION: NECESSITY OR REQUIRED BY CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojocari Anatol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The global economic and financial crisis showed the limits faced by the international financial system. International financial regulations in general, and especially the banking sector regulations, should be refined and adapted to build a stronger and stable international financial system. We analyze the main trends in international regulations: the proposed amendments on capital requirements, the introduction of a global standard for liquidity and indebtedness, the winding-up directive, as well as their impact on the Romanian financial system.

  15. Survival of pathogens of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea Gemifera group) in crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Vlaswinkel, M.E.T.; Groenenboom-de Haas, B.H.; Kastelein, P.; Hoof, van R.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Krijger, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mycosphaerella brassicicola (ringspot), Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae (dark leaf spot) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (black spot) can infect leaves of Brussels sprouts resulting in yield losses. Infections of outer leaves of sprouts cause severe losses in quality. Crop

  16. Cosmetic Surgery: Regulatory Challenges in a Global Beauty Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Danielle; Mullock, Alex

    2017-02-28

    The market for cosmetic surgery tourism is growing with an increase in people travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. While the reasons for seeking cosmetic surgery abroad may vary the most common reason is financial, but does cheaper surgery abroad carry greater risks? We explore the risks of poorly regulated cosmetic surgery to society generally before discussing how harm might be magnified in the context of cosmetic tourism, where the demand for cheaper surgery drives the market and makes surgery accessible for increasing numbers of people. This contributes to the normalisation of surgical enhancement, creating unhealthy cultural pressure to undergo invasive and risky procedures in the name of beauty. In addressing the harms of poorly regulated surgery, a number of organisations purport to provide a register of safe and ethical plastic surgeons, yet this arguably achieves little and in the absence of improved regulation the risks are likely to grow as the global market expands to meet demand. While the evidence suggests that global regulation is needed, the paper concludes that since a global regulatory response is unlikely, more robust domestic regulation may be the best approach. While domestic regulation may increase the drive towards foreign providers it may also have a symbolic effect which will reduce this drive by making people more aware of the dangers of surgery, both to society and individual physical wellbeing.

  17. Markets, religion, regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Most recent scholarship on moral economies or religious markets argues for the compatibility of economies/markets and religious practices in particular national or regional contexts. However, over the last couple of decades or so religious markets have entered a new phase characterized by new forms...... of regulation, certification and standardization on a global scale. Building on research on global kosher (a Hebrew term meaning “fit” or “proper”), halal (an Arabic word that literally means “permissible” or “lawful”) and Hindu vegetarianism this paper argues that these economies or markets to a large extent...... are conditioned by and themselves condition forms of transnational governmentality, that is, new and often overlapping practices of government and grassroots politics. I explore religious economies and markets at three interrelated levels of the social scale: state and non-state regulation, the marketplace...

  18. Efeito do tratamento de bacelos de videira 'Red Globe' no controle do cancro bacteriano causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Rosa Naue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A disseminação de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv, agente do cancro bacteriano da videira, ocorre, dentre outras formas, por meio de mudas e bacelos infectados. Foi estudada a obtenção de material propagativo livre do patógeno, testando a eficiência do tratamento de bacelos com termoterapia, bactericidas e sanitizantes. Os isolados de Xcv foram testados quanto à patogenicidade e realizado o teste de sensibilidade in vitro aos produtos, em diferentes concentrações. A erradicação de Xcv em bacelos de videira foi testada em experimentos com termoterapia (50ºC por 30 e 40 min; 53ºC por 5 e 10 min; bactericidas [oxitetraciclina+sulfato de cobre (150+2.000; 165+2.200; 180+2.400 e 195+2.600 mg L-1 de H2O e oxitetraciclina (600; 700; 800 e 900 mg L-1]; e sanitizantes [cloreto de dodecildimetil amônio (600; 1.200; 1.800; 2.400 e 3.000 µL L-1; hipoclorito de sódio (5.000; 10.000; 20.000; 30.000 e 40.000 µL L-1 e cloreto de benzalcônio (125; 167;250; 334 e 500 µL L-1]. Foram avaliados período de incubação, incidência e severidade da doença. O bactericida oxitetraciclina e os sanitizantes cloreto de dodecildimetil amônio e hipoclorito de sódio proporcionaram os maiores halos de inibição de Xcv in vitro. No entanto, apesar dos diversos tratamentos testados, não foi possível recomendar tratamento termoterápico ou produto que erradicasse Xcv de bacelos infectados. Porém, ficou confirmada a grande importância destes na disseminação do agente do cancro bacteriano da videira.

  19. Manager of financial globalization? The European Union in global anti-money laundering and international accounting standard setting

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgers, Sven

    2014-01-01

    How does the European Union (EU) perform in international financial regulation? According to various scholars the global financial architecture has been shaped by the USA and the EU. But whereas the USA is without doubt the dominant actor or even described as hegemon in writing the rules for the global political economy and global financial markets, the EU seems to be a special kind of actor. The European Union is not only one of the biggest single financial markets in the world but also has ...

  20. Global ethics: the nature and purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. M. Sulima

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the factors of forming, the essence and importance of a global ethic as a moral regulator of intercultural interaction in the modern global society. The current global ethics built around basic common goals - peace and dignity of people, social justice, individual freedom, cultural pluralism, sustainable development - and allow plans to achieve different objectives, functioning set of identities and nationalities. It lies in increasing awareness of common fate, common human and social rights, interests, shared vulnerability to global environmental, social and political crises of necessity, consequent, to find common solutions and act on the basis of cultural dialogue and cooperation.

  1. Modulating the Global Response Regulator, LuxO of V. cholerae Quorum Sensing System Using a Pyrazine Dicarboxylic Acid Derivative (PDCApy: An Antivirulence Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hema

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative pathogen which causes acute diarrhoeal disease, cholera by the expression of virulence genes through quorum sensing (QS mechanism. The QS circuit of V. cholerae is controlled by the global quorum regulator, LuxO, which at low cell density (LCD state produces major virulence factors such as, toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP and cholera toxin (CT to mediate infection. On the contrary, at the high cell density (HCD state the virulent genes are downregulated and the vibrios are detached from the host intestinal epithelial cells, promoted by HapA protease. Hence, targeting the global regulator LuxO would be a promising approach to modulate the QS to curtail V. cholerae pathogenesis. In our earlier studies, LuxO targeted ligand, 2,3 pyrazine dicarboxylic acid (PDCA and its derivatives having desired pharmacophore properties were chemically synthesized and were shown to have biofilm inhibition as well as synergistic activity with the conventionally used antibiotics. In the present study, the QS modulatory effect of the PDCA derivative with pyrrolidine moiety designated as PDCApy against the V. cholerae virulence gene expression was analyzed at various growth phases. The data significantly showed a several fold reduction in the expression of the genes, tcp and ct whereas the expression of hapR was upregulated at the LCD state. In addition, PDCApy reduced the adhesion and invasion of the vibrios onto the INT407 intestinal cell lines. Collectively, our data suggest that PDCApy could be a potential QS modulator (QSM for the antivirulence therapeutic approach.

  2. Ideological Hegemony and Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Ford Brown

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze libertarian discourse from the perspective of regulation theory, a~ a hegemonic ideology that underlies the emergence of a new mode of regulation. Within this general theoretical approach, I will also employ frames from regime theory as developed by international relations scholars, as well as the "epistemic community" approach from the same discipline. I want to suggest that free-market ideology could engender the emergence of rationalized global governance in order ...

  3. Global regulation of robots using only position measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Harry; Berghuis, Harry; Nijmeijer, Henk

    1993-01-01

    In this note we propose a simple solution to the regulation problem of rigid robots based on the availability of only joint position measurements. The controller consists of two parts: (1) a gravitation compensation, (2) a linear dynamic first-order compensator. The gravitation compensation part can

  4. CLP Regulation and the transport of dangerous goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Benassai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulations concerning different modes of transport of dangerous goods are well harmonized at global level: they were then looked at as a model for developing Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS, (on which CLP Regulations is based. Transport regulations do not cover some hazard classes, such as germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, having been evaluated that such hazards are not relevant in transport because in general, in case of accident, no repeated and prolonged exposure takes place. Other differences with CLP Regulation are related to the use of "building block approach". Transport labels, which were used as a basis for GHS, can be used, instead of CLP pictograms, on packages during transport.

  5. EU effect: Exporting emission standards for vehicles through the global market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, M; Janssens-Maenhout, G; Guizzardi, D; Galmarini, S

    2016-12-01

    Emission data from EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research), rather than economic data, are used to estimate the effect of policies and of the global exports of policy-regulated goods, such as vehicles, on global emissions. The results clearly show that the adoption of emission standards for the road transport sector in the two main global markets (Europe and North America) has led to the global proliferation of emission-regulated vehicles through exports, regardless the domestic regulation in the country of destination. It is in fact more economically convenient for vehicle manufacturers to produce and sell a standard product to the widest possible market and in the greatest possible amounts. The EU effect (European Union effect) is introduced as a global counterpart to the California effect. The former is a direct consequence of the penetration of the EURO standards in the global markets by European and Japanese manufacturers, which effectively export the standard worldwide. We analyze the effect on PM 2.5 emissions by comparing a scenario of non-EURO standards against the current estimates provided by EDGAR. We find that PM 2.5 emissions were reduced by more than 60% since the 1990s worldwide. Similar investigations on other pollutants confirm the hypothesis that the combined effect of technological regulations and their diffusion through global markets can also produce a positive effect on the global environment. While we acknowledge the positive feedback, we also demonstrate that current efforts and standards will be totally insufficient should the passenger car fleets in emerging markets reach Western per capita figures. If emerging countries reach the per capita vehicle number of the USA and Europe under current technological conditions, then the world will suffer pre-1990 emission levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The regulation of appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Druce, M; Bloom, S R

    2006-01-01

    The worsening global obesity epidemic, particularly the increase in childhood obesity, has prompted research into the mechanisms of appetite regulation. Complex pathways modulate energy balance, involving appetite centres in the hypothalamus and brain stem, and hormonal signals of energy status released by the gut and by the periphery. Better understanding of appetite regulation improves understanding of the aetiology of obesity. Manipulation of this homoeostatic system offers potentially use...

  7. Environmental Upgrading in Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, René Taudal; Ponte, Stefano; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Ports are crucial hubs in the functioning of the global economy, and maritime transport is a major emitter of air pollutants. Ports have considerable potential for promoting environmental upgrading in maritime transport and along global value chains more generally, but so far have been only...... partially successful in doing so. We examine results, limitations and future potential of voluntary initiatives that have been carried out by selected European and North American port authorities, which are considered frontrunners in environmental management. Drawing from the insights of global value chain...... their organizational and physical boundaries: by lowering tool implementation complexity through stronger collaboration within global value chains; and by enhancing emission visibility through alliances with cargo-owners and regulators....

  8. Changes of Global Infectious Disease Governance in 2000s: Rise of Global Health Security and Transformation of Infectious Disease Control System in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyung CHOI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in

  9. Changes of Global Infectious Disease Governance in 2000s: Rise of Global Health Security and Transformation of Infectious Disease Control System in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-12-01

    This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH) was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC) was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in disease control. The

  10. Regulation of alcohol marketing: a global view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Maxwell, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The marketing of alcohol produces a new challenge for policy development internationally, in part because of the increase in the use of new, unmeasured technologies. Many of these new developments are, as yet, relatively invisible in the policy arena. New approaches in branding, the utilization of marketing opportunities via branded events and new products provide additional complexity to attempts to monitor and to restrict the impact of marketing on young people and other vulnerable groups. Current attempts to restrict marketing globally, which rely primarily on voluntary codes and focus on traditional media, are inadequate to these challenges. A new statutory framework is required to enable the monitoring and control of the full marketing mix in ways which match the sophistication of the marketing efforts themselves.

  11. Assessment of cadmium accumulation, toxicity, and tolerance in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae plants--implications for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    This study, based on a greenhouse pot culture experiment conducted with 15-day-old rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. cv. Pusa Gold; family Brassicaceae) and moong bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv. Pusa Ratna; family Fabaceae) plants treated with cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) soil), investigates their potential for Cd accumulation and tolerance, and dissects the underlying basic physiological/biochemical mechanisms. In both species, plant dry mass decreased, while Cd concentration of both root and shoot increased with increase in soil Cd. Roots harbored a higher amount of Cd (vs. shoot) in B. campestris, while the reverse applied to V. radiata. By comparison, root Cd concentration was higher in B. campestris than in V. radiata. The high Cd concentrations in B. campestris roots and V. radiata shoots led to significant elevation in oxidative indices, as measured in terms of electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, and lipid peroxidation. Both plants displayed differential adaptation strategies to counteract the Cd burden-caused anomalies in their roots and shoots. In B. campestris, increasing Cd burden led to a significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content but a significant increase in activities of GSH reductase (GR), GSH peroxidase (GPX), and GSH sulfotransferase (GST). However, in V. radiata, increasing Cd burden caused significant increase in GSH content and GR activity, but a significant decline in activities of GPX and GST. Cross talks on Cd burden of tissues and the adapted Cd tolerance strategies against Cd burden-accrued toxicity indicated that B. campestris and V. radiata are good Cd stabilizer and Cd extractor, respectively, wherein a fine tuning among the major components (GR, GPX, GST, GSH) of the GSH redox system helped the plants to counteract differentially the Cd load-induced anomalies in tissues. On the whole, the physiological/biochemical characterization of the B. campestris and V. radiata responses to varying Cd

  12. The global energy industry: is competition among suppliers ensured?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regibeau, P.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, many factors have affected the effective degree of competition in coal, electricity, gas and oil. This paper concentrates on the effects of globalization, regulatory reform, privatization and inter-fuel mergers. While demand side globalization has led to increased competition, greater supply side globalization might lead to more collusive behaviour in sectors such as coal and electricity. Regulatory reform has helped foster competition in the US gas market and in several electricity markets. Still, regulators have imposed insufficient vertical separation and the regulation of international electricity transmission remains problematic. Privatization is very useful in enforcing initial changes in industry structure. Inter-fuel mergers might entail efficiency gains but they also raise significant issues for competition policy authorities. (orig.)

  13. Remarks - Global energy outlook and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The author presents a global energy outlook, for the period 1990-2010. Then, he presents some views on the subject of externalities, some regulations and proscriptions about internalization of costs are detailed. (TEC)

  14. Expression of the alaE gene is positively regulated by the global regulator Lrp in response to intracellular accumulation of l-alanine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Kohei; Sato, Kazuki; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Makino, Yumiko; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The alaE gene in Escherichia coli encodes an l-alanine exporter that catalyzes the active export of l-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. In our previous study, alaE expression was shown to increase in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (Ala-Ala). In this study, the global regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) was identified as an activator of the alaE gene. A promoter less β-galactosidase gene was fused to an alaE upstream region (240 nucleotides). Cells that were lacZ-deficient and harbored this reporter plasmid showed significant induction of β-galactosidase activity (approximately 17-fold) in the presence of 6 mM l-alanine, l-leucine, and Ala-Ala. However, a reporter plasmid possessing a smaller alaE upstream region (180 nucleotides) yielded transformants with strikingly low enzyme activity under the same conditions. In contrast, lrp-deficient cells showed almost no β-galactosidase induction, indicating that Lrp positively regulates alaE expression. We next performed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a DNase I footprinting assay using purified hexahistidine-tagged Lrp (Lrp-His). Consequently, we found that Lrp-His binds to the alaE upstream region spanning nucleotide -161 to -83 with a physiologically relevant affinity (apparent K D , 288.7 ± 83.8 nM). Furthermore, the binding affinity of Lrp-His toward its cis-element was increased by l-alanine and l-leucine, but not by Ala-Ala and d-alanine. Based on these results, we concluded that the gene expression of the alaE is regulated by Lrp in response to intracellular levels of l-alanine, which eventually leads to intracellular homeostasis of l-alanine concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The contradictory impact of globalization and migration on gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Globalization and migration have increased diversities and inequalities within and between nation-states and have created new problems regarding public policies intented to regulate political and socio-economic problems on national and global levels. Globalization and increased migration thus rep...... represent a thoeretical, normative and political challenge to understanding how gender and diversity at the national level are linked to processes of globalization. This article identifies some of the many issues involved in the Asia-Nordic 'local-global dialectic'....

  16. The Global Regulator Spx Functions in the Control of Organosulfur Metabolism in Bacillus subtilis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soon-Yong; Reyes, Dindo; Leelakriangsak, Montira; Zuber, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Spx is a global transcriptional regulator of the oxidative stress response in Bacillus subtilis. Its target is RNA polymerase, where it contacts the α subunit C-terminal domain. Recently, evidence was presented that Spx participates in sulfate-dependent control of organosulfur utilization operons, including the ytmI, yxeI, ssu, and yrrT operons. The yrrT operon includes the genes that function in cysteine synthesis from S-adenosylmethionine through intermediates S-adenosylhomocysteine, ribosylhomocysteine, homocysteine, and cystathionine. These operons are also negatively controlled by CymR, the repressor of cysteine biosynthesis operons. All of the operons are repressed in media containing cysteine or sulfate but are derepressed in medium containing the alternative sulfur source, methionine. Spx was found to negatively control the expression of these operons in sulfate medium, in part, by stimulating the expression of the cymR gene. In addition, microarray analysis, monitoring of yrrT-lacZ fusion expression, and in vitro transcription studies indicate that Spx directly activates yrrT operon expression during growth in medium containing methionine as sole sulfur source. These experiments have uncovered additional roles for Spx in the control of gene expression during unperturbed, steady-state growth. PMID:16885442

  17. A global comparative overview of the legal regulation of stem cell research and therapy: Lessons for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodie Slabbert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell research and its potential translation to regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and cell and gene therapy, have led to controversy and debates similar to the calls nearly 25 years ago for a ban involving recombinant DNA. Global legislative efforts in this field have been characterised by many legal, ethical and practical challenges, stemming from conflicting views regarding human embryonic research and cloning. National policy and regulatory developments have primarily been shaped by different understandings of relevant scientific objectives, as well as those relating to the moral and legal status of the human embryo, which have been used to justify or limit a range of permissible activities. Legal obscurity in this field, a consequence of inconsistent or vague legislative responses at a national and international level, leads to negative results, which include, among others, ethical violations; lack of collaboration and co-operation among researchers across national borders; stunted scientific progress; lack of public trust in stem cell research; proliferation of untested ‘stem cell therapies’; and safety issues. The purpose of this article is to explore the legal regulation of stem cell research and therapy globally, by comparing the permissibility of specific stem cell research activities in 35 selected jurisdictions, followed by a comparison of the regulatory approaches with regard to stem cell-based products in the European Union and the USA. A clearer understanding of the global regulatory framework will assist in formulating more effective legal responses at a national level and in navigating the uncertainties and risks associated with this complex and evolving scientific field.

  18. Phosphatase Rtr1 Regulates Global Levels of Serine 5 RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Phosphorylation and Cotranscriptional Histone Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gerald O; Fox, Melanie J; Smith-Kinnaman, Whitney R; Gogol, Madelaine; Fleharty, Brian; Mosley, Amber L

    2016-09-01

    In eukaryotes, the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpb1 contains a heptapeptide repeat sequence of (Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7)n that undergoes reversible phosphorylation through the opposing action of kinases and phosphatases. Rtr1 is a conserved protein that colocalizes with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and has been shown to be important for the transition from elongation to termination during transcription by removing RNAPII CTD serine 5 phosphorylation (Ser5-P) at a selection of target genes. In this study, we show that Rtr1 is a global regulator of the CTD code with deletion of RTR1 causing genome-wide changes in Ser5-P CTD phosphorylation and cotranscriptional histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-resolution microarrays, we show that RTR1 deletion results in global changes in RNAPII Ser5-P levels on genes with different lengths and transcription rates consistent with its role as a CTD phosphatase. Although Ser5-P levels increase, the overall occupancy of RNAPII either decreases or stays the same in the absence of RTR1 Additionally, the loss of Rtr1 in vivo leads to increases in H3K36me3 levels genome-wide, while total histone H3 levels remain relatively constant within coding regions. Overall, these findings suggest that Rtr1 regulates H3K36me3 levels through changes in the number of binding sites for the histone methyltransferase Set2, thereby influencing both the CTD and histone codes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Emerging Global Political Economy and Implications for the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world has been transformed into a global political economy as a result of the unprecedented level of interconnectedness of political, economic, social and technological forces that permeate the contemporary global system. This paper identifies trade regulations, technology and capitalism as core factors responsible for ...

  20. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    ) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, and hierarchy - which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws...... to highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This paper highlights how Global Wealth Chains intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies, family property trusts......This working paper creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...

  1. Global Picture of Protein Regulation in Response to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) Stress of Two Brassica parachinensis Cultivars Differing in DBP Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Ming; Huang, He-Biao; Du, Huan; Xiang, Lei; Mo, Ce-Hui; Li, Yan-Wen; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Hui; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2018-05-09

    iTRAQ analysis was used to map the proteomes of two Brassica parachinensis cultivars that differed in dibutyl phthalate (DBP) accumulation. A total of 5699 proteins were identified to obtain 152 differentially regulated proteins, of which 64 and 48 were specific to a high- and a low-DBP-accumulation cultivar, respectively. Genotype-specific biological processes were involved in coping with DBP stress, accounting for the variation in DBP tolerance and accumulation. Formation of high DBP accumulation in B. parachinensis might attribute to the more effective regulation of protein expression in physiology and metabolism, including (a) enhanced cell wall biosynthesis and modification, (b) better maintenance of photosynthesis and energy balance, (c) greatly improved total capacity for antioxidation and detoxification, and (d) enhanced cellular transport and signal transduction. Our novel findings contribute to a global picture of DBP-induced alterations of protein profiles in crops and provide valuable information for the development of molecular-assisted breeds of low-accumulation cultivars.

  2. 77 FR 35944 - Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... international standards for regulating futures, swaps, options, and derivatives markets, as well as..., competitive, and financially sound futures and options markets. Meetings of the Global Markets Advisory... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee AGENCY...

  3. Regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis by the global regulator CcpA and the local regulator FabT in Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Faustoferri, R.C.; Hubbard, C.J.; Santiago, B.; Buckley, A.A.; Seifert, T.B.; Quivey, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    SMU.1745c, encoding a putative transcriptional regulator of the MarR family, maps to a location proximal to the fab gene cluster in Streptococcus mutans. Deletion of the SMU.1745c (fabTSm) coding region resulted in a membrane fatty acid composition comprised of longer-chained, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), compared with the parent strain. Previous reports have indicated a role for FabT in regulation of genes in the fab gene cluster in other organisms, through binding to a palindromic DNA seq...

  4. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  5. 75 FR 33788 - Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... appropriate international standards for regulating futures and derivatives markets, as well as intermediaries... financially sound futures and options markets. Meetings of the Global Markets Advisory Committee are open to... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee AGENCY...

  6. Global regulator SoxR is a negative regulator of efflux pump gene expression and affects antibiotic resistance and fitness in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ruobing; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-01

    SoxR is a global regulator contributing to multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. However, the contribution of SoxR to antibiotic resistance and fitness in Acinetobacter baumannii has not yet been studied. Comparisons of molecular characteristics were performed between 32 multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates and 11 susceptible isolates. A soxR overexpression mutant was constructed, and its resistance phenotype was analyzed. The impact of SoxR on efflux pump gene expression was measured at the transcription level. The effect of SoxR on the growth and fitness of A. baumannii was analyzed using a growth rate assay and an in vitro competition assay. The frequency of the Gly39Ser mutation in soxR was higher in multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, whereas the soxS gene was absent in all strains analyzed. SoxR overexpression led to increased susceptibility to chloramphenicol (4-fold), tetracycline (2-fold), tigecycline (2-fold), ciprofloxacin (2-fold), amikacin (2-fold), and trimethoprim (2-fold), but it did not influence imipenem susceptibility. Decreased expression of abeS (3.8-fold), abeM (1.3-fold), adeJ (2.4-fold), and adeG (2.5-fold) were correlated with soxR overexpression (P baumannii.

  7. Regulation of water resources for sustaining global future socioeconomic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; SHI, H.; Sivakumar, B.

    2016-12-01

    With population projections indicating continued growth during this century, socio-economic problems (e.g., water, food, and energy shortages) will be most likely to occur, especially if proper planning, development, and management strategies are not adopted. In the present study, firstly, we explore the vital role of dams in promoting economic growth through analyzing the relationship between dams and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at both global and national scales. Secondly, we analyze the current situation of global water scarcity based on the data representing water resources availability, dam development, and the level of economic development. Third, with comprehensive consideration of population growth as the major driving force, water resources availability as the basic supporting factor, and topography as the important constraint, this study addresses the question of dam development in the future and predicts the locations of future dams around the world.

  8. The Challenge of Global Poliomyelitis Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Julie R; Cochi, Stephen L; Orenstein, Walter A

    2015-12-01

    In the United States during the 1950's, polio was on the forefront of every provider and caregiver's mind. Today, most providers in the United States have never seen a case. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), which began in 1988 has reduced the number of cases by over 99%. The world is closer to achieving global eradication of polio than ever before but as long as poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world, every country is vulnerable. The global community can support the polio eradication effort through continued vaccination, surveillance, enforcing travel regulations and contributing financial support, partnerships and advocacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Global Metabolic Regulation of the Snow Alga Chlamydomonas nivalis in Response to Nitrate or Phosphate Deprivation by a Metabolome Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Jun-Hui; Wei, Dong; Chen, Feng; Chen, Gu

    2016-05-10

    In the present work, Chlamydomonas nivalis, a model species of snow algae, was used to illustrate the metabolic regulation mechanism of microalgae under nutrient deprivation stress. The seed culture was inoculated into the medium without nitrate or phosphate to reveal the cell responses by a metabolome profile analysis using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). One hundred and seventy-one of the identified metabolites clustered into five groups by the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model. Among them, thirty of the metabolites in the nitrate-deprived group and thirty-nine of the metabolites in the phosphate-deprived group were selected and identified as "responding biomarkers" by this metabolomic approach. A significant change in the abundance of biomarkers indicated that the enhanced biosynthesis of carbohydrates and fatty acids coupled with the decreased biosynthesis of amino acids, N-compounds and organic acids in all the stress groups. The up- or down-regulation of these biomarkers in the metabolic network provides new insights into the global metabolic regulation and internal relationships within amino acid and fatty acid synthesis, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and the Calvin cycle in the snow alga under nitrate or phosphate deprivation stress.

  10. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    liability and (3) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, an d hierarchy – which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous...... international tax laws to highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This article highlights how Global Wealth Cha ins intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies......This introduction to the Special Issue creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains...

  11. Conserved regulators of nucleolar size revealed by global phenotypic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumüller, Ralph A; Gross, Thomas; Samsonova, Anastasia A; Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Buckner, Michael; Founk, Karen; Hu, Yanhui; Sharifpoor, Sara; Rosebrock, Adam P; Andrews, Brenda; Winston, Fred; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-08-20

    Regulation of cell growth is a fundamental process in development and disease that integrates a vast array of extra- and intracellular information. A central player in this process is RNA polymerase I (Pol I), which transcribes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in the nucleolus. Rapidly growing cancer cells are characterized by increased Pol I-mediated transcription and, consequently, nucleolar hypertrophy. To map the genetic network underlying the regulation of nucleolar size and of Pol I-mediated transcription, we performed comparative, genome-wide loss-of-function analyses of nucleolar size in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster coupled with mass spectrometry-based analyses of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter. With this approach, we identified a set of conserved and nonconserved molecular complexes that control nucleolar size. Furthermore, we characterized a direct role of the histone information regulator (HIR) complex in repressing rRNA transcription in yeast. Our study provides a full-genome, cross-species analysis of a nuclear subcompartment and shows that this approach can identify conserved molecular modules.

  12. Conserved Regulators of Nucleolar Size Revealed by Global Phenotypic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumüller, Ralph A.; Gross, Thomas; Samsonova, Anastasia A.; Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Buckner, Michael; Founk, Karen; Hu, Yanhui; Sharifpoor, Sara; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Andrews, Brenda; Winston, Fred; Perrimon, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth is a fundamental process in development and disease that integrates a vast array of extra- and intracellular information. A central player in this process is RNA polymerase I (Pol I), which transcribes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in the nucleolus. Rapidly growing cancer cells are characterized by increased Pol I–mediated transcription and, consequently, nucleolar hypertrophy. To map the genetic network underlying the regulation of nucleolar size and of Pol I–mediated transcription, we performed comparative, genome-wide loss-of-function analyses of nucleolar size in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster coupled with mass spectrometry–based analyses of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter. With this approach, we identified a set of conserved and nonconserved molecular complexes that control nucleolar size. Furthermore, we characterized a direct role of the histone information regulator (HIR) complex in repressing rRNA transcription in yeast. Our study provides a full-genome, cross-species analysis of a nuclear subcompartment and shows that this approach can identify conserved molecular modules. PMID:23962978

  13. High-resolution detection of DNA binding sites of the global transcriptional regulator GlxR in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungwirth, Britta; Sala, Claudia; Kohl, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    of the 6C non-coding RNA gene and to non-canonical DNA binding sites within protein-coding regions. The present study underlines the dynamics within the GlxR regulon by identifying in vivo targets during growth on glucose and contributes to the expansion of knowledge of this important transcriptional......The transcriptional regulator GlxR has been characterized as a global hub within the gene-regulatory network of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with a specific anti-GlxR antibody and subsequent high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) was applied to C. glutamicum to get new...... mapping of these data on the genome sequence of C. glutamicum, 107 enriched DNA fragments were detected from cells grown with glucose as carbon source. GlxR binding sites were identified in the sequence of 79 enriched DNA fragments, of which 21 sites were not previously reported. Electrophoretic mobility...

  14. The Staphylococcus aureus Global Regulator MgrA Modulates Clumping and Virulence by Controlling Surface Protein Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi A Crosby

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that causes devastating infections in a wide range of locations within the body. One of the defining characteristics of S. aureus is its ability to form clumps in the presence of soluble fibrinogen, which likely has a protective benefit and facilitates adhesion to host tissue. We have previously shown that the ArlRS two-component regulatory system controls clumping, in part by repressing production of the large surface protein Ebh. In this work we show that ArlRS does not directly regulate Ebh, but instead ArlRS activates expression of the global regulator MgrA. Strains lacking mgrA fail to clump in the presence of fibrinogen, and clumping can be restored to an arlRS mutant by overexpressing either arlRS or mgrA, indicating that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory pathway. We used RNA-seq to show that MgrA represses ebh, as well as seven cell wall-associated proteins (SraP, Spa, FnbB, SasG, SasC, FmtB, and SdrD. EMSA analysis showed that MgrA directly represses expression of ebh and sraP. Clumping can be restored to an mgrA mutant by deleting the genes for Ebh, SraP and SasG, suggesting that increased expression of these proteins blocks clumping by steric hindrance. We show that mgrA mutants are less virulent in a rabbit model of endocarditis, and virulence can be partially restored by deleting the genes for the surface proteins ebh, sraP, and sasG. While mgrA mutants are unable to clump, they are known to have enhanced biofilm capacity. We demonstrate that this increase in biofilm formation is partially due to up-regulation of SasG, a surface protein known to promote intercellular interactions. These results confirm that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory cascade, and that they control expression of a number of genes important for virulence, including those for eight large surface proteins.

  15. Genetically modified foods as global public goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Herrero Olarte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available "Genetically modified (GM food has become very important in the field of research, as a result of its expansion in recent decades. As the right to food is a human right, it cannot be left in the hands of private sector developments exclusively, due to the capacity of the public sector to limit or drive it, and in any case, contributing to food safety. To achieve this, and for its cross-border development, GM needs to be treated as Global Public Goods (GPG, defined as pure or impure public goods that cannot be provided or regulated from a national or regional level, but from a global perspective. Its definition as GPG, and the fact of being public goods, assumes greater involvement by the public sector for its supply or regulation. It is therefore necessary to analyze the positive and negative externalities generated by transgenic foods becoming public goods, but from a global perspective. The difficulty is, that according to the author, GMs are positive or negative, so that there is no consensus to restrict and even prevent them or encourage them. But, there is a consensus on some key issues of GM food, such as improving productivity, contributing to the reduction of the species, the dependence of farmers, or monopoly companies with the patent. Identifying these issues can serve to initiate the appropriate regulation."

  16. Sensing the environment: regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin's neuroendocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir M; Steketee, Jeffery D

    2012-01-01

    endings to alert the brain on changes in the epidermal or dermal environments, or alternatively to activate other coordinating centers by direct (spinal cord) neurotransmission without brain involvement. Furthermore, rapid and reciprocal communications between epidermal and dermal and adnexal compartments are also mediated by neurotransmission including antidromic modes of conduction. In conclusion, skin cells and skin as an organ coordinate and/or regulate not only peripheral but also global homeostasis.

  17. Post-Modernity and Consumerism in the Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Moreira Kloper Mendonça

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of bibliographic research , aiming to address the issues relevant for the understanding of the subject " globalization and consumption front postmodernity ." The postmodern society is a globalized and consumerist society and the individual must be protected since it vulnerable to consumer market dictates in this globalized era . And in this respect , the law comes to the important role of regulating these consumer relations for the protection of vulnerable and hypervulnerable people such as the elderly and children .

  18. Medical devices regulations, standards and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishna, Seeram; Wang, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Medical Devices and Regulations: Standards and Practices will shed light on the importance of regulations and standards among all stakeholders, bioengineering designers, biomaterial scientists and researchers to enable development of future medical devices. Based on the authors' practical experience, this book provides a concise, practical guide on key issues and processes in developing new medical devices to meet international regulatory requirements and standards. Provides readers with a global perspective on medical device regulationsConcise and comprehensive information on how to desig

  19. The Analysis of the Impact of Globalization on Employment in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryshkin Vadym O.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is analyzing the impact of globalization on employment in Ukraine and studying foreign experience in regulation of the labor market under conditions of globalization. The theoretical aspects of employment of population at the stage of market transformation of economy have been analyzed. The comprehensive analysis of the current state of employment in Ukraine has been conducted. The dynamics of the main indicators of employment of population and labor migration has been considered and analyzed. The shortcomings in the mechanism of employment regulation are revealed and measures to overcome them on the basis of the positive experience of developed countries are proposed. The necessity of adapting the foreign experience to the Ukrainian realities and the possibility of its use in the national territory is justified. The main tasks of the state policy on regulating the employment of Ukraine’s population under conditions of globalization are presented.

  20. EFFICACITE DE L'HYDROXYDE DE CUIVRE CONTRE LA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repository Agriculture : 70081962. Idrissou-Touré M. 2014. Test d'efficacité du fongi- cide « IDEFIX 40 WP hydroxyde de cuivre. 65,6 g/100 g » contre la nervation noire du chou causée par Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Mémoire de. Master professionnel en Sciences et. Techniques de Production Végétale, Uni-.

  1. Global regulation of mRNA translation and stability in the early Drosophila embryo by the Smaug RNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linan; Dumelie, Jason G; Li, Xiao; Cheng, Matthew Hk; Yang, Zhiyong; Laver, John D; Siddiqui, Najeeb U; Westwood, J Timothy; Morris, Quaid; Lipshitz, Howard D; Smibert, Craig A

    2014-01-07

    Smaug is an RNA-binding protein that induces the degradation and represses the translation of mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo. Smaug has two identified direct target mRNAs that it differentially regulates: nanos and Hsp83. Smaug represses the translation of nanos mRNA but has only a modest effect on its stability, whereas it destabilizes Hsp83 mRNA but has no detectable effect on Hsp83 translation. Smaug is required to destabilize more than one thousand mRNAs in the early embryo, but whether these transcripts represent direct targets of Smaug is unclear and the extent of Smaug-mediated translational repression is unknown. To gain a panoramic view of Smaug function in the early embryo, we identified mRNAs that are bound to Smaug using RNA co-immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization to DNA microarrays. We also identified mRNAs that are translationally repressed by Smaug using polysome gradients and microarrays. Comparison of the bound mRNAs to those that are translationally repressed by Smaug and those that require Smaug for their degradation suggests that a large fraction of Smaug's target mRNAs are both translationally repressed and degraded by Smaug. Smaug directly regulates components of the TRiC/CCT chaperonin, the proteasome regulatory particle and lipid droplets, as well as many metabolic enzymes, including several glycolytic enzymes. Smaug plays a direct and global role in regulating the translation and stability of a large fraction of the mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo, and has unanticipated functions in control of protein folding and degradation, lipid droplet function and metabolism.

  2. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-01-01

    Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regul...

  3. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bonner, C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters analyzes the development of global liquidity standards, their objectives as well as their interaction with capital standards. The analysis suggests that regulating capital is associated with declinin...

  4. A globally integrated climate policy for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Brunnee, J.; Duff, D.G.; Green, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book explored policy ideas and options from various perspectives, including science, law, political science, economics and sociology. The costs, opportunities and imperatives to participate in international diplomatic initiatives were considered along with the opportunities of regional global carbon markets. Canada's current policy on climate change negotiations have been focused on domestic regulation and incentives for technological responses and the setting of a domestic carbon price. The sense of urgency about global warming was discussed and the need for action to respond to the threat of global climate change was emphasized. The book also reviewed Canada's role in international climate policies and presented parameters and imperatives for global regime building in Canada. Domestic policy tools were also reviewed along with policy obstacles and opportunities. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Recent Activities on Global Nuclear Safety Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kun-Woo; Park, Jeong-Seop; Kim, Do-Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    Recently, rapid progress on the globalization of the nuclear safety issues is being made in IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and its member states. With the globalization, the need for international cooperation among international bodies and member states continues to grow for resolving these universal nuclear safety issues. Furthermore, the importance of strengthening the global nuclear safety regime is emphasized through various means, such as efforts in application of IAEA safety standards to all nuclear installations in the world and in strengthening the code of conduct and the convention on nuclear safety. In this regards, it is important for us to keep up with the activities related with the global nuclear safety regime as an IAEA member state and a leading country in nuclear safety regulation

  6. The Current Approaches to the Harmonization of Interests of Participants of Competitive Relationships at the Global Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvydanenko Oleg A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The key problems of development of participants of global competitive relationships, approaches to harmonization of their interests have been considered. The article defines essence of the global system of regulation of competitive relationships, the technology of its formation, improvement and development, taking into account the reasonable assemblage of relevant principles. The main tasks and processes of formation of the competitive culture in the context of globalization changes have been highlighted. The strategic directions of improvement of the system of regulation of competitive relationships in accordance with transformation of external conditions of development of globalizing space and strengthening of international character of competition have been specified. The organizational-economic mechanism of the system of regulation of competitive relationships has been provided.

  7. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    competition are a reality in today’s global financial market, and the financial sector is different from their traditional fields of application: the ease of arbitrage, the fragility of banking and the risks involved are exceptional. Most importantly, regulatory arbitrage does not or only rarely occurs......The decades-long discussion on the merits of regulatory competition appears in a new light on the global financial market. There are a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities...

  8. Regulation of metabolic networks by small molecule metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Minoru

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to regulate metabolism is a fundamental process in living systems. We present an analysis of one of the mechanisms by which metabolic regulation occurs: enzyme inhibition and activation by small molecules. We look at the network properties of this regulatory system and the relationship between the chemical properties of regulatory molecules. Results We find that many features of the regulatory network, such as the degree and clustering coefficient, closely match those of the underlying metabolic network. While these global features are conserved across several organisms, we do find local differences between regulation in E. coli and H. sapiens which reflect their different lifestyles. Chemical structure appears to play an important role in determining a compounds suitability for use in regulation. Chemical structure also often determines how groups of similar compounds can regulate sets of enzymes. These groups of compounds and the enzymes they regulate form modules that mirror the modules and pathways of the underlying metabolic network. We also show how knowledge of chemical structure and regulation could be used to predict regulatory interactions for drugs. Conclusion The metabolic regulatory network shares many of the global properties of the metabolic network, but often varies at the level of individual compounds. Chemical structure is a key determinant in deciding how a compound is used in regulation and for defining modules within the regulatory system.

  9. Implications of differences in bioanalytical regulations between Canada, USA and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mark E

    2011-02-01

    To complete globally, pharmaceutical companies desire to use bioanalytical data and reports as a single version for all filings; not revising for specific countries or regions. Historically, this meant following the US FDA and International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guidance/guidelines; finding them sufficient to achieve global acceptance. However, a growing challenge of the past decade has been additional country-specific and regional regulations that have been released. The differences between the bioanalytical regulations among countries have been recognized as a challenge to the pharmaceutical industry and its CRO partners. Harmonization of the regulations at a global level has been the subject of a number of recent articles and editorials, and the topic has been vigorously discussed at several conferences over the past year. Since all have been in agreement about the need to harmonize regulations, this article will not focus on harmonization but rather it will provide a comparison of the USA/Canadian regulations versus those of South America, in particular Brazil, noting the additional work needed to achieve compliance with country-specific regulations. All countries discussed have specific guidance or regulations on clinical bioequivalence studies, and due to the higher standards for these studies, the regulations for bioequivalence studies will be used as the basis for comparison in the article.

  10. Real time expression of ACC oxidase and PR-protein genes mediated by Methylobacterium spp. in tomato plants challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, W J; Kim, K Y; Lee, Y W; Sundaram, S P; Lee, Y; Sa, T M

    2014-07-15

    Biotic stress like pathogenic infection increases ethylene biosynthesis in plants and ethylene inhibitors are known to alleviate the severity of plant disease incidence. This study aimed to reduce the bacterial spot disease incidence in tomato plants caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (XCV) by modulating stress ethylene with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse condition, Methylobacterium strains inoculated and pathogen challenged tomato plants had low ethylene emission compared to pathogen infected ones. ACC accumulation and ACC oxidase (ACO) activity with ACO related gene expression increased in XCV infected tomato plants over Methylobacterium strains inoculated plants. Among the Methylobacterium spp., CBMB12 resulted lowest ACO related gene expression (1.46 Normalized Fold Expression), whereas CBMB20 had high gene expression (3.42 Normalized Fold Expression) in pathogen challenged tomato. But a significant increase in ACO gene expression (7.09 Normalized Fold Expression) was observed in the bacterial pathogen infected plants. In contrast, Methylobacterium strains enhanced β-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activities in pathogen challenged tomato plants. The respective increase in β-1,3-glucanase related gene expressions due to CBMB12, CBMB15, and CBMB20 strains were 66.3, 25.5 and 10.4% higher over pathogen infected plants. Similarly, PAL gene expression was high with 0.67 and 0.30 Normalized Fold Expression, in pathogen challenged tomato plants inoculated with CBMB12 and CBMB15 strains. The results suggest that ethylene is a crucial factor in bacterial spot disease incidence and that methylobacteria with ACC deaminase activity can reduce the disease severity with ultimate pathogenesis-related protein increase in tomato. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. REGULATION OF NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Muravyeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks into the diverse aspects of qualifications system regulation, designed for balancing the supply and demand in the labor and educational service markets. Both the objects and mechanisms of such regulation are described. Special attention is given to institutions, involved in regulation of qualifications, and their jurisdiction. Another emphasis is on the industry-related regulation of qualifications which proved to be effective both on the national and European level. Such structures were first established on the national levels to regulate the qualifications and ensure their comparability and compatibility, given the economic globalization and growing labor and academic mobility. The author points out the role of the ministries of education and labor in maintaining a steady qualifications system, and outlines the positive experience of Great Britain using the industry councils for continuing development of qualifications system.

  12. OxyR of Haemophilus parasuis is a global transcriptional regulator important in oxidative stress resistance and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yongping; Wen, Yiping; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Wu, Rui; Zhao, Qin; Liu, Mafeng; Huang, Yong; Yan, Qigui; Han, Xinfeng; Ma, Xiaoping; Dai, Ke; Ding, Lingqiang; Liu, Sitong; Yang, Jian

    2018-02-15

    Haemophilus parasuis is an opportunistic pathogen and the causative agent of Glässer's disease in swine. This disease has high morbidity and mortality rates in swine populations, and is responsible for major economic losses worldwide. Survival of H. parasuis within the host requires mechanisms for coping with oxidative stress conditions. In many bacteria, OxyR is known to mediate protection against oxidative stress; however, little is known about the role of OxyR in H. parasuis. In the current study, an oxyR mutant strain was constructed in H. parasuis strain SC1401 and designated H. parasuis SC1401∆oxyR. The oxyR mutant strain had a slower growth rate and impaired biofilm formation compared to the wild type strain. Complementation restored the growth-associated phenotypes to wild type levels. Oxidative stress susceptibility testing, using a range of concentrations of H 2 O 2 , indicated that H. parasuis SC1401∆oxyR was more sensitive to oxidative stress than the wild type strain. RNA sequencing transcriptome analysis comparing H. parasuis SC1401 with H. parasuis SC1401∆oxyR identified 466 differentially expressed genes. These genes were involved in a wide range of biological processes, including: oxidative stress, transcriptional regulation, and DNA replication, recombination, and repair. These findings provide a foundation for future research to examine the role of OxyR as a global transcriptional regulator and to better define its role in oxidative stress resistance in H. parasuis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Foreign experience of regulating international trade transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international experience of state regulating international trade transactions; nature, directions and contradictions of contemporary processes of globalization are defined; components of regulatory and incentive means in system of state supporting foreign trade activity of commodity producers are considered; general provisions for the improvement of state regulation mechanisms of export-import activities in Ukraine are determined.

  14. Hard work in soft regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnen, Pernille; Hasle, Peter; Helbo Jespersen, Anne

    Certified occupational health and safety management (OHSM) systems have become a global instrument in the regulation of work environment. However, their actual impact on occupational health and safety – in particular on ‘softer’ psychosocial areas of the working environment – has been questioned...

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-29

    MEDITSINSKAYA BIOTEKHNOLOGIYA, No 11, Nov 85) 20 Xanthomonas Campestris Pv. Oryzae, Rice Seed Bacteriosis Pathogen in the Ukraine (I.B, Koroleva...ethylene, and are active in a series of bioassays on auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins. Nevertheless, according to the character of their biological...CAMPESTRIS PV. ORYZAE, RICE SEED BACTERIOSIS PATHOGEN IN THE UKRAINE Kiev MIKROBIOLOGICHESKIY ZHURNAL in Russian Vol 47, No 6, Nov-Dec 85 (manuscript

  16. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains (GWCs) are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in International Political Economy and Economic Geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...... innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This article highlights how GWCs intersect with value chains, and provides brief case examples of wealth chains and how they interact.......This article offers a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains (GWCs) are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in International Political Economy and Economic Geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...... capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of GWC governance – Market, Modular, Relational, Captive, and Hierarchy – which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws to highly complex and flexible...

  17. Ideological Hegemony and Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ford Brown

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze libertarian discourse from the perspective of regulation theory, a~ a hegemonic ideology that underlies the emergence of a new mode of regulation. Within this general theoretical approach, I will also employ frames from regime theory as developed by international relations scholars, as well as the "epistemic community" approach from the same discipline. I want to suggest that free-market ideology could engender the emergence of rationalized global governance in order to maintain free trade, property rights, and other regulatory concerns of the emerging mode of accumulation, and that such a world state could conceivably extend liberalism's life by carrying liberalism to its extreme.

  18. "With human health it's a global thing": Canadian perspectives on ethics in the global governance of an influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alison K; Smith, Maxwell J; McDougall, Christopher W; Bensimon, Cécile; Perez, Daniel Felipe

    2015-03-01

    We live in an era where our health is linked to that of others across the globe, and nothing brings this home better than the specter of a pandemic. This paper explores the findings of town hall meetings associated with the Canadian Program of Research on Ethics in a Pandemic (CanPREP), in which focus groups met to discuss issues related to the global governance of an influenza pandemic. Two competing discourses were found to be at work: the first was based upon an economic rationality and the second upon a humanitarian rationality. The implications for public support and the long-term sustainability of new global norms, networks, and regulations in global public health are discussed.

  19. Global gene expression in muscle from fasted/refed trout reveals up-regulation of genes promoting myofibre hypertrophy but not myofibre production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Le Cam, Aurelie; Rallière, Cécile; Montfort, Jérôme

    2017-06-07

    Compensatory growth is a phase of rapid growth, greater than the growth rate of control animals, that occurs after a period of growth-stunting conditions. Fish show a capacity for compensatory growth after alleviation of dietary restriction, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are unknown. To learn more about the contribution of genes regulating hypertrophy (an increase in muscle fibre size) and hyperplasia (the generation of new muscle fibres) in the compensatory muscle growth response in fish, we used high-density microarray analysis to investigate the global gene expression in muscle of trout during a fasting-refeeding schedule and in muscle of control-fed trout displaying normal growth. The compensatory muscle growth signature, as defined by genes up-regulated in muscles of refed trout compared with control-fed trout, showed enrichment in functional categories related to protein biosynthesis and maturation, such as RNA processing, ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis, ribosome biogenesis, translation and protein folding. This signature was also enriched in chromatin-remodelling factors of the protein arginine N-methyl transferase family. Unexpectedly, functional categories related to cell division and DNA replication were not inferred from the molecular signature of compensatory muscle growth, and this signature contained virtually none of the genes previously reported to be up-regulated in hyperplastic growth zones of the late trout embryo myotome and to potentially be involved in production of new myofibres, notably genes encoding myogenic regulatory factors, transmembrane receptors essential for myoblast fusion or myofibrillar proteins predominant in nascent myofibres. Genes promoting myofibre growth, but not myofibre formation, were up-regulated in muscles of refed trout compared with continually fed trout. This suggests that a compensatory muscle growth response, resulting from the stimulation of hypertrophy but not the stimulation of hyperplasia

  20. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  1. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Radunsky, K.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Austria the CO 2 emissions increased by 5.9 % from 1990 to 1999, the other greenhouse gases by 2.6 %. The Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Environment and Water Management, in cooperation with other ministries and the countries, has worked out an action plan for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to meet the targets of the Kyoto protocol. This study analyzes the greenhouse gas emissions in Austria, in the European Union and globally. The measured emission values throughout Austria and in the other European countries are given in tables, the environmental impact for Austria and globally is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental emission control in Austria, the European Union and worldwide are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the greenhouse gas emissions is analysed. (a.n.)

  2. Ethical leadership and regulation in the business scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Álvarez Arce

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly integrated global business arena, local singularities still play a crucial role in many aspects. Business ethics is affected by this duality in profound ways. Legislators have tried to provide uniform ethical guidelines for transnational companies. In this effort to streamline the ethical management of the multinational corporation, regulation could be thought of as an attempt to reduce the role of the leader. We argue that this solution mistakenly presumes a high degree of uniformity across countries. In this paper, we consider how different legal traditions can be used to explain the divergences in implementation and configuration of ethics hotlines. We find that although national regulators established a legal standard (Sarbanes Oxley Act for global companies, significant differences exist across legal traditions, which sometimes go even deeper, to region and country specific nuances. Legal regulation may never substitute a leader in ethical matters.

  3. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation and Supervision of The Global Financial System. A Proposal for Institutional Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, H.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    nternational financial markets are supervised primarily by national authorities. However, national authorities are inherently incapable to regulate and supervise seamless globalised financial markets. To the extent international regulators exist, they constitute a disorderly patchwork of

  5. Regulation of online pharmacy: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, Paul

    2003-02-01

    This article argues that existing Australian regulations do not adequately cover online pharmacies or Internet advertising of medicines and that existing penalties and sanctions are often ineffective, potentially placing public health and safety at risk. Suggestions are made for future regulatory approaches. It is concluded that as well as an effective program of public education, cautious domestic legislative reform is necessary to ensure specific regulation of Australian online pharmacy practice and Internet advertising of medicines. In addition, the global nature of the Internet demands international co-operation and increased regulator and consumer vigilance.

  6. The Impact of Globalization on Career and Technical Education in Taiwan, Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert T. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of globalization on career and technical education in Taiwan, Republic of China. Globalization has been characterized as a fundamental process of change. Especially after our country joined the WTO in 2001, the effects of globalization and the WTO regulations compelled career and technical…

  7. Globalization in the post - colonial world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new interpretation of globalization within the boundaries of the author’s concept of soft globalization, which exploits a normatively attractive alternative to the concept of the Empire. It is argued here that the conditions of development of contemporary post - colonial world communities do not require any unification in the form of the Empire, but instead the creation of a non repressive mechanism of social regulation - the implementation of a form of soft globalization, a globalization with a mental form are expedient here. Historically, globalization occurred in a strict material(i.e. economical and military form that prompted the conditions for the evolution of civilization as the Empire: a case in which the development of the world occurs under the power of a single dominating state. Imperialistic politics leads to colonial politics formation. The history of the phenomena of civilization shows many instances of Empire globalization. Globalization in the Empire form was already observed at the time of the Roman Empire. At this time processes of development inside the Empire were manifestations of globalization in its highest cultural shape. But ancient Rome was also a social and political experiment that acquired the attributes of a purely material globalization in the end, and historically brought about the irreversible crash of the Roman Empire itself. Contemporary fluctuations referring to the process of globalization can be registered in the US’s attempts of material domination inside this or that existing case of civilization, which causes colonialism appearance. The main idea stressed in the paper is that only a mental globalization could succeed in the end.

  8. From Protectionism to Neo-Protectionism: New Dimensions of Liberal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchenko Volodymyr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the main concepts of the policy of protectionism. It was proved that the shaded or semi-open nature of protectionism of the 21st century model does not fall under classical manifestations of protectionism recorded in the WTO documents, and therefore further hybridization of its forms actualizes the need for their classification in order to attract the attention of the scientific community to new challenges to the global regulation of the system of international economic relations. It was discovered, that protectionism in the process of economical globalization has evolved from trade policy based on introduction of tariff limitations, and later from non-tariff protection instruments, into a complex comprehensive state mechanism for increasing competitiveness of the national economy in the process of globalization, which we call neo-protectionism. Was provided a classification of neo-protectionism and were singled out forms of manifestation of each of its types. Were established country features of neo-protectionism policy. Was established that flexibility of tools for implementing neo-protectionism policy, absence of a unified approach to interpreting the methods of achieving goals announced by the state, differences in priorities and unity of the goals of all instruments, which are to stimulate restoration of economic growth, can be considered as determinative signs of new regulation. It was found that state intervention becomes an inherent characteristic of liberal politics. Was observed that neo-protectionism with its flexible instruments becomes a policy of reducing asymmetric distribution of benefits from globalization and reaction to global imbalances, which again emphasizes the thesis that state participation in regulation of economic processes is an objective reality, and we are witnessing transformation of the previously announced trend towards deregulation into re-regulation.

  9. Incremental passivity and output regulation for switched nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongbo; Zhao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies incremental passivity and global output regulation for switched nonlinear systems, whose subsystems are not required to be incrementally passive. A concept of incremental passivity for switched systems is put forward. First, a switched system is rendered incrementally passive by the design of a state-dependent switching law. Second, the feedback incremental passification is achieved by the design of a state-dependent switching law and a set of state feedback controllers. Finally, we show that once the incremental passivity for switched nonlinear systems is assured, the output regulation problem is solved by the design of global nonlinear regulator controllers comprising two components: the steady-state control and the linear output feedback stabilising controllers, even though the problem for none of subsystems is solvable. Two examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Risk, regulation and biotechnology: the case of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2014-07-03

    The global regulation of products of biotechnology is increasingly divided. Regulatory decisions for genetically modified (GM) crops in North America are predictable and efficient, with numerous countries in Latin and South America, Australia and Asia following this lead. While it might have been possible to argue that Europe's regulations were at one time based on real concerns about minimizing risks and ensuring health and safety, it is increasingly apparent that the entire European Union (EU) regulatory system for GM crops and foods is now driven by political agendas. Countries within the EU are at odds with each other as some have commercial production of GM crops, while others refuse to even develop regulations that could provide for the commercial release of GM crops. This divide in regulatory decision-making is affecting international grain trade, creating challenges for feeding an increasing global population.

  11. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  12. The politics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, N.

    1991-01-01

    The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author)

  13. Global Supply and Demand of Opioids for Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnumpurath, Sreekumar; Julien, Natasha; Kodumudi, Gopal; Kunnumpurath, Anamika; Kodumudi, Vijay; Vadivelu, Nalini

    2018-04-04

    The goal of this review is to evaluate the global supply and demand of opioids used for pain management and discuss how it relates to the utilization of opioids around the world. The purpose of the review is also to determine the factors that contribute to inappropriate pain management. The total global production of opium for opioid manufacturing is enough to supply the growing global demands. However, licit opioids are only consumed by 20% of the world population. Most people throughout the world had no access to opioid analgesics for pain relief in case of need. Opioid misuse and abuse is not only a phenomena plague by the USA but globally across many countries. Many countries have a lack of availability of opioids, contributing factors being strict government regulations limiting access, lack of knowledge of the efficacy of opioid analgesics in treating acute and chronic pain and palliative care, and the stigma that opioids are highly addictive. For the countries in which opioids are readily available and prescribed heavily, diversion, misuse, abuse, and the resurgence of heroin have become problems leading to morbidity and mortality. It is pertinent to find a balance between having opioids accessible to patients in need, with ensuring that opioids are regulated along with other illicit drugs to decrease abuse potential.

  14. RegA, an AraC-Like Protein, Is a Global Transcriptional Regulator That Controls Virulence Gene Expression in Citrobacter rodentium▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Emily; Yang, Ji; Tauschek, Marija; Kelly, Michelle; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Robins-Browne, Roy M.

    2008-01-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is an attaching and effacing pathogen which causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia in mice. Infection with C. rodentium serves as a model for infection of humans with enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. To identify novel colonization factors of C. rodentium, we screened a signature-tagged mutant library of C. rodentium in mice. One noncolonizing mutant had a single transposon insertion in an open reading frame (ORF) which we designated regA because of its homology to genes encoding members of the AraC family of transcriptional regulators. Deletion of regA in C. rodentium resulted in markedly reduced colonization of the mouse intestine. Examination of lacZ transcriptional fusions using promoter regions of known and putative virulence-associated genes of C. rodentium revealed that RegA strongly stimulated transcription of two newly identified genes located close to regA, which we designated adcA and kfcC. The cloned adcA gene conferred autoaggregation and adherence to mammalian cells to E. coli strain DH5α, and a kfc mutation led to a reduction in the duration of intestinal colonization, but the kfc mutant was far less attenuated than the regA mutant. These results indicated that other genes of C. rodentium whose expression required activation by RegA were required for colonization. Microarray analysis revealed a number of RegA-regulated ORFs encoding proteins homologous to known colonization factors. Transcription of these putative virulence determinants was activated by RegA only in the presence of sodium bicarbonate. Taken together, these results show that RegA is a global regulator of virulence in C. rodentium which activates factors that are required for intestinal colonization. PMID:18765720

  15. RegA, an AraC-like protein, is a global transcriptional regulator that controls virulence gene expression in Citrobacter rodentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Emily; Yang, Ji; Tauschek, Marija; Kelly, Michelle; Wakefield, Matthew J; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Robins-Browne, Roy M

    2008-11-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is an attaching and effacing pathogen which causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia in mice. Infection with C. rodentium serves as a model for infection of humans with enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. To identify novel colonization factors of C. rodentium, we screened a signature-tagged mutant library of C. rodentium in mice. One noncolonizing mutant had a single transposon insertion in an open reading frame (ORF) which we designated regA because of its homology to genes encoding members of the AraC family of transcriptional regulators. Deletion of regA in C. rodentium resulted in markedly reduced colonization of the mouse intestine. Examination of lacZ transcriptional fusions using promoter regions of known and putative virulence-associated genes of C. rodentium revealed that RegA strongly stimulated transcription of two newly identified genes located close to regA, which we designated adcA and kfcC. The cloned adcA gene conferred autoaggregation and adherence to mammalian cells to E. coli strain DH5alpha, and a kfc mutation led to a reduction in the duration of intestinal colonization, but the kfc mutant was far less attenuated than the regA mutant. These results indicated that other genes of C. rodentium whose expression required activation by RegA were required for colonization. Microarray analysis revealed a number of RegA-regulated ORFs encoding proteins homologous to known colonization factors. Transcription of these putative virulence determinants was activated by RegA only in the presence of sodium bicarbonate. Taken together, these results show that RegA is a global regulator of virulence in C. rodentium which activates factors that are required for intestinal colonization.

  16. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  17. Global warming -- Science and anti-science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preining, O. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria). Inst. for Experimental Physics]|[Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wien (Austria). Clean Air Commission

    1995-06-01

    The global warming debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom environmental problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global warming debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global warming is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global warming issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.

  18. Creating a Global Law Graduate: The Need, Benefits and Practical Approaches to Internationalise the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Carmel; McNamara, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly integrated world has facilitated important international and trans-border trends, such as a progressively connected global economy, a significant growth in transnational business transactions and an increase in global regulation of global issues. Such globalisation has had a transformational impact on the legal profession in a…

  19. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  20. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  1. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2008-01-15

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  2. Competition, Regulation and Development Research Forum ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many developing countries have adopted market-oriented reforms as a part of the globalization and liberalization process. However, due to market distortions, the need to ensure proper access to essential services requires effective regulation. Accordingly, developing countries are legislating or revising their ...

  3. Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingquan

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the Regulatory Network are: - to contribute to the effectiveness of nuclear regulatory systems; - to contribute to continuous enhancements, and - to achieve and promote radiation and nuclear safety and security by: • Enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of international cooperation in the regulation of nuclear and radiation safety of facilities and activities; • Enabling adequate access by regulators to relevant safety and security information; • Promoting dissemination of information on safety and security issues as well as information of good practices for addressing and resolving these issues; • Enabling synergies among different web based networks with a view to strengthening and enhancing the global nuclear safety framework and serving the specific needs of regulators and international organizations; • Providing additional information to the public on international regulatory cooperation in safety and security matters

  4. July: "Soils are living: Overview of soil biodiversity, global issues, and new resources"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The July poster will provide an overview of soil biology and the many ecosystem functions that soil organisms drive including their impact on global biodiversity, climate regulation, soil health/stability, and plant growth. Five main global issues related to soil biodiversity will be presented such ...

  5. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  6. Effects of RoHs and REACH regulations on firm-level production and export, and the role of global value chains : the cases of Malaysia and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Otsuki, Tsunehiro; Honda, Keiichiro; Michida, Etsuyo; Nabeshima, Kaoru; Ueki, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses firm-level data to examine the impact of foreign chemical safety regulations such as RoHS and REACH on the production costs and export performance of firms in Malaysia and Vietnam. This paper also investigates the role of global value chains in enhancing the likelihood that a firm complies with RoHS and REACH. We find that in addition to the initial setup costs for compliance, EU RoHS (REACH) implementation imposes on firms additional variable production costs by requiring add...

  7. Outcome and value uncertainties in global-change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammitt, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Choices among environmental policies can be informed by analysis of the potential physical, biological, and social outcomes of alternative choices, and analysis of social preferences among these outcomes. Frequently, however, the consequences of alternative policies cannot be accurately predicted because of substantial outcome uncertainties concerning physical, chemical, biological, and social processes linking policy choices to consequences. Similarly, assessments of social preferences among alternative outcomes are limited by value uncertainties arising from limitations of moral principles, the absence of economic markets for many environmental attributes, and other factors. Outcome and value uncertainties relevant to global-change policy are described and their magnitudes are examined for two cases: stratospheric-ozone depletion and global climate change. Analysis of information available in the mid 1980s, when international ozone regulations were adopted, suggests that contemporary uncertainties surrounding CFC emissions and the atmospheric response were so large that plausible ozone depletion, absent regulation, ranged from negligible to catastrophic, a range that exceeded the plausible effect of the regulations considered. Analysis of climate change suggests that, important as outcome uncertainties are, uncertainties about values may be even more important for policy choice. 53 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Tackling the global NCD crisis: innovations in law and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bryan; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2013-01-01

    35 million people die annually of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), 80% of them in low- and middle-income countries - representing a marked epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases and from richer to poorer countries. The total number of NCDs is projected to rise by 17% over the coming decade, absent significant interventions. The NCD epidemic poses unique governance challenges: the causes are multifactorial, the affected populations diffuse, and effective responses require sustained multi-sectorial cooperation. The authors propose a range of regulatory options available at the domestic level, including stricter food labeling laws, regulation of food advertisements, tax incentives for healthy lifestyle choices, changes to the built environment, and direct regulation of food and drink producers. Given the realities of globalization, such interventions require global cooperation. In 2011, the UN General Assembly held a High-level meeting on NCDs, setting a global target of a 25% reduction in premature mortality from NCDs by 2025. Yet concrete plans and resource commitments for reaching this goal are not yet in the offing, and the window is rapidly closing for achieving these targets through prevention - as opposed to treatment, which is more costly. Innovative global governance for health is urgently needed to engage private industry and civil society in the global response to the NCD crisis. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. International Maritime Transport Sector Regulation Systems and their Impact on World Shipping and Global Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grzelakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of two nowadays existing global regulatory systems of the world maritime transport sector on international shipping industry and global trade development. The author has focused on the characterization of the autonomous regulatory system represented in this sector by freight market with typical for it mechanism as well as on public regulatory system expressed in form of the existing international regulatory scheme introduced by IMO and other international organizations. Both regulatory mechanisms has been analyzed and viewed in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their influence upon shipping industry and global commodity markets. At the end, the results of functioning of both regulatory subsystems have been assessed with the aim to indicate how they are able to create growth potential for the world maritime transport and trade sector as well as the global economy.

  10. Cryptocurrencies & the Challenge of Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacbs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent explosive development of new forms of digital currency opens up unprecedented opportunities and poses significant regulatory challenges. This new form of digital currency lowers the costs and other barriers to the global movement of money, international trade, foreign investment and speculation, while simultaneously enhancing the anonymity on which tax evasion, money-laundering and other illegal activities thrive. It also liberates the creation of money and regulation of economic activities from the political control of national governments and central banks. Since the value of a currency is related to the size of the population, strength of the economy and value of transactions that utilize it, a basket of cryptocurrencies could emerge as the first prototype of a world currency whose value is backed by the total productive capacity of the entire human community. Moreover, the triad of Internet, distributed ledger technologies and cryptocurrencies could serve as the basis for the development of new global economic potentials in a manner similar and a degree far exceeding the economic impact of the World Wide Web over the past two decades. At the same time, the rapid deployment of cryptocurrencies could have profound impact on the capacity of governments to tax transactions, income and wealth, one of the main pillars of the modern nation state. The development of autonomous global cryptocurrencies could dramatically reduce the control and effectiveness of existing regulatory mechanisms at the national level and generate considerable pressure for the evolution of more effective institutions for global governance. They could provide compelling incentives for national governments to enhance international cooperation and strengthen the functioning of international institutions to fill the regulatory void. International organizations will play an important role in harnessing the potentials and minimizing the risks arising from the growing

  11. Stabilization and regulation of nonlinear systems a robust and adaptive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    The core of this textbook is a systematic and self-contained treatment of the nonlinear stabilization and output regulation problems. Its coverage embraces both fundamental concepts and advanced research outcomes and includes many numerical and practical examples. Several classes of important uncertain nonlinear systems are discussed. The state-of-the art solution presented uses robust and adaptive control design ideas in an integrated approach which demonstrates connections between global stabilization and global output regulation allowing both to be treated as stabilization problems. Stabilization and Regulation of Nonlinear Systems takes advantage of rich new results to give students up-to-date instruction in the central design problems of nonlinear control, problems which are a driving force behind the furtherance of modern control theory and its application. The diversity of systems in which stabilization and output regulation become significant concerns in the mathematical formulation of practical contr...

  12. THE ROLE AND PLACE TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytvynenko Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. At present, transnational corporations (TNCs are leading the world economy. Each year, the number of TNCs increases, which increases their share in the global economy as a whole. The largest investment projects in the world are concentrated in such corporations, which are a major impetus for the development of countries in which all the capacities of transnational corporations are located. Through the structure of TNCs there are financial and commodity flows that are crucial for the development and improvement of the world economy. The above shows that the study and further research of transnational corporations in the globalization processes is an actual topic of the present. Purpose. The purpose of the paper is to study the peculiarities and trends of the activities of transnational corporations in the conditions of globalization of the world economy. Results. The basis of the new global economic system are TNCs that have large financial resources, implement advanced technologies, have significant spatial markets and conduct an active, globally, investment policy. Conclusions. A transnational corporation is part of the world economy, which is subject to the laws of the development of TNCs and reflects the reciprocal impact on the world economy, a product of globalization processes. The direct relationship between TNCs and the process of globalization comes from the study of the stages of the evolution of transnational corporations. The role of TNCs in the modern world is intensifying, in this connection, the role of national economies is falling, which leads to a conflict of interest between multinational corporations and states. Such conflicts can have a bad effect on the state of the economy and the stability of the state. Therefore, it is necessary to regulate the activities of TNCs. Modern activity of transnationalization has acquired many new features, it can affect not only the world economy, but also the country

  13. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  14. Atmospheric pollution: history, science, and regulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, Mark Z

    2002-01-01

    ..., stratospheric ozone reduction, and global climate change - is provided. Each chapter discusses the history and science behind these problems, their consequences, and the effort made through government intervention and regulation to mitigate them. The book contains numerous student examples and problems, more than 200 color illustrations,...

  15. Global civil society: between nation states and transnational corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kvitka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Global civil society is the subject of the formation of a new world order and the modern humanitarian outlook, which is based on the primacy of justice and human rights. One of the actors head of global civil society is an international non-governmental organizations. But wrong to equate global civil society with the activities of these organizations only. Mostly they influence governments and their humanitarian and international politics. Meanwhile, the role of global civil and its society various institutions is much greater and significant. The article discusses the various aspects of the civil society from the position that it took place between transnational companies (TNCs and nation-states. The role of the latter is gradually reduced - economic regulation take on multinationals and public administration is a field of activity of various institutions and structures that scientists considered it as a manifestation of global civil society. In Ukraine, which is also involved in the process of globalization, global civil society is one of the main factors of its national civil society.

  16. Groundwater development stress: Global-scale indices compared to regional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William; Clark, Brian R.; Ely, Matt; Faunt, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem.

  17. On the social nature of global self-esteem: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Maiano, Christophe

    2007-10-01

    Few researchers have considered the relationship between global self-esteem and the reflected appraisal of others in one's life, or how reflected appraisals and global self-esteem may change as a result of interpersonal feedback. In this study, the authors collected data from 110 undergraduate students on (a) their global self-esteem and the reflected appraisals of multiple others in their lives and (b) how these dimensions changed in hypothetical interpersonal-feedback situations. Results showed that participants' global self-esteem was related to the reflected appraisals of their fathers, teachers, and friends. The results also indicated that others' reflected appraisals and the individual's global self-esteem fluctuated according to the nature (i.e., positive vs. negative) of the hypothetical interpersonal feedback. Overall, the findings emphasize the social nature and regulation of global self-esteem.

  18. The Destructuring and Restructuring of Global Labor Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    in global labor markets and industrial relations. The third part situates more squarely the impact of globalization on the catching-up strategies of Russia and China, while the next section digs into the transformation of the industrial relations regimes in Russia and China in comparative perspective....... Finally, the paper rounds up by pointing to the main similarities and differences between industrial relations, work and labor market regulation in Russia and China, but also with implications for a broader context. In order to come to terms with the crisis of former socialist type societ...

  19. The Crc global regulator inhibits the Pseudomonas putida pWW0 toluene/xylene assimilation pathway by repressing the translation of regulatory and structural genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Renata; Fonseca, Pilar; Rojo, Fernando

    2010-08-06

    In Pseudomonas putida, the expression of the pWW0 plasmid genes for the toluene/xylene assimilation pathway (the TOL pathway) is subject to complex regulation in response to environmental and physiological signals. This includes strong inhibition via catabolite repression, elicited by the carbon sources that the cells prefer to hydrocarbons. The Crc protein, a global regulator that controls carbon flow in pseudomonads, has an important role in this inhibition. Crc is a translational repressor that regulates the TOL genes, but how it does this has remained unknown. This study reports that Crc binds to sites located at the translation initiation regions of the mRNAs coding for XylR and XylS, two specific transcription activators of the TOL genes. Unexpectedly, eight additional Crc binding sites were found overlapping the translation initiation sites of genes coding for several enzymes of the pathway, all encoded within two polycistronic mRNAs. Evidence is provided supporting the idea that these sites are functional. This implies that Crc can differentially modulate the expression of particular genes within polycistronic mRNAs. It is proposed that Crc controls TOL genes in two ways. First, Crc inhibits the translation of the XylR and XylS regulators, thereby reducing the transcription of all TOL pathway genes. Second, Crc inhibits the translation of specific structural genes of the pathway, acting mainly on proteins involved in the first steps of toluene assimilation. This ensures a rapid inhibitory response that reduces the expression of the toluene/xylene degradation proteins when preferred carbon sources become available.

  20. Embryo Localization Enhances the Survival of Acidovorax citrulli in Watermelon Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Schneider, Raymond W; Robertson, Clark L; Walcott, Ronald R

    2016-04-01

    Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits has been observed to survive for >34 years in stored melon and watermelon seeds. To better understand this remarkable longevity, we investigated the bacterium's tolerance to desiccation and the effect of bacterial localization in different watermelon seed tissues on its survival. We compared the ability of A. citrulli to tolerate desiccation on filter paper discs and on host (watermelon) and nonhost (cabbage, corn and tomato) seeds to two seedborne (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii) and one soilborne (Ralstonia solanacearum) plant-pathogenic bacteria. A. citrulli survival on dry filter paper (>12 weeks) was similar to that of X. campestris pv. campestris but longer than P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Ralstonia solanacearum survived longer than all other bacteria tested. On all seeds tested, A. citrulli and X. campestris pv. campestris populations declined by 5 orders of magnitude after 12 weeks of incubation at 4°C and 50% relative humidity, while R. solanacearum populations declined by 3 orders. P. stewartii subsp. stewartii was not recovered after 12 weeks of incubation. To determine the effect of tissue localization on bacterial survival, watermelon seeds infested with A. citrulli by flower stigma inoculation (resulting in bacterial localization in the embryo/endosperm) or by ovary pericarp inoculations (resulting in bacterial localization under the testa) were treated with peroxyacetic acid or chlorine (Cl2) gas. Following these treatments, a significantly higher reduction in BFB seed-to-seedling transmission was observed for seeds generated by ovary pericarp inoculation (≥89.5%) than for those generated by stigma inoculation (≤76.5%) (Pseed coat, suggesting that tissue localization is important for bacterial survival in seed. This observation was confirmed when P. stewartii subsp. stewartii survived significantly longer in stigma

  1. A Surfactant-Induced Functional Modulation of a Global Virulence Regulator from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhendu Mandal

    Full Text Available Triton X-100 (TX-100, a useful non-ionic surfactant, reduced the methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus significantly. Many S. aureus proteins were expressed in the presence of TX-100. SarA, one of the TX-100-induced proteins, acts as a global virulence regulator in S. aureus. To understand the effects of TX-100 on the structure, and function of SarA, a recombinant S. aureus SarA (rSarA and its derivative (C9W have been investigated in the presence of varying concentrations of this surfactant using various probes. Our data have revealed that both rSarA and C9W bind to the cognate DNA with nearly similar affinity in the absence of TX-100. Interestingly, their DNA binding activities have been significantly increased in the presence of pre-micellar concentration of TX-100. The increase of TX-100 concentrations to micellar or post-micellar concentration did not greatly enhance their activities further. TX-100 molecules have altered the secondary and tertiary structures of both proteins to some extents. Size of the rSarA-TX-100 complex appears to be intermediate to those of rSarA and TX-100. Additional analyses show a relatively moderate interaction between C9W and TX-100. Binding of TX-100 to C9W has, however, occurred by a cooperative pathway particularly at micellar and higher concentrations of this surfactant. Taken together, TX-100-induced structural alteration of rSarA and C9W might be responsible for their increased DNA binding activity. As TX-100 has stabilized the somewhat weaker SarA-DNA complex effectively, it could be used to study its structure in the future.

  2. Differences in stability of seed-associated microbial assemblages in response to invasion by phytopathogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Rezki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are involved in the vertical transmission of microorganisms from one plant generation to another and consequently act as reservoirs for the plant microbiota. However, little is known about the structure of seed-associated microbial assemblages and the regulators of assemblage structure. In this work, we have assessed the response of seed-associated microbial assemblages of Raphanus sativus to invading phytopathogenic agents, the bacterial strain Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc 8004 and the fungal strain Alternaria brassicicola Abra43. According to the indicators of bacterial (16S rRNA gene and gyrB sequences and fungal (ITS1 diversity employed in this study, seed transmission of the bacterial strain Xcc 8004 did not change the overall composition of resident microbial assemblages. In contrast seed transmission of Abra43 strongly modified the richness and structure of fungal assemblages without affecting bacterial assemblages. The sensitivity of seed-associated fungal assemblage to Abra43 is mostly related to changes in relative abundance of closely related fungal species that belong to the Alternaria genus. Variation in stability of the seed microbiota in response to Xcc and Abra43 invasions could be explained by differences in seed transmission pathways employed by these micro-organisms, which ultimately results in divergence in spatio-temporal colonization of the seed habitat.

  3. Lessons and policy implications from the global financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Dell'Ariccia, G.; Igan, D.; Laeven, L.A.H.; Caprio, G.; Beck, T.; Claessens, S.; Schmukler, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    The crisis has brought to light a number of deficiencies in financial regulation and architecture, particularly in the treatment of systemically important financial institutions, the assessments of systemic risks and vulnerabilities, and the resolution of financial institutions. The global nature of

  4. Competition, the Global Crisis, and Alternatives to Neoliberal Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    regulation and other regulatory provisions, excessive competition (over-competition) in the process of capital accumulation has become a major global force with highly detrimental social and environmental downsides. From the vantage point of a historical materialist perspective, the article provides...

  5. Global financial reform since 2008: Achievements and shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis that started in the U.S. had an immediate spillover to the rest of the world financial markets. Next, a decrease in real economic output throughout the developed world occurred simultaneously with high bailout costs for the salvaging of banks and other financial institutions. This vicious combination was at the core of the bank-sovereign interdependence and the sovereign debt crisis of the eurozone. As early as 2008, the G20 announced a thorough global reform agenda with an aim to tackle the root causes of the crises and to transform the system of global financial regulation. Some important reform steps have been made; still, more than six years on, the job is not finished. Where are we in terms of global financial reform, and are we close to creating a more secure global financial system significantly less prone to crisis and bailouts with taxpayers’ money? [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179005: Risks of Financial Institutions and Markets in Serbia - A Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Approach

  6. Mechanisms of private meta-governance: an analysis of global private governance for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbergen, P.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of global governance for sustainable development is its fragmentation. Next to public regulations, there are often many private regulations in force on the same issue, which are induced by collaborations between businesses and NGOs. Traditionally, it is assumed that

  7. Electric power globalization and reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares Neto, Jose Lino

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to define the economic and political forces of the electric power sector regulation restructuring

  8. Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment and its Relevance to Environmental Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Singer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The environment is increasingly being recognised for the role it might play in the global spread of clinically-relevant antibiotic resistance. Environmental regulators monitor and control many of the pathways responsible for the release of resistance-driving chemicals into the environment (e.g., antimicrobials, metals, biocides. Hence, environmental regulators should be contributing significantly to the development of global and national antimicrobial resistance (AMR action plans. It is argued that the lack of environment-facing mitigation actions included in existing AMR action plans is likely a function of our poor fundamental understanding of many of the key issues. Here, we aim to present the problem with AMR in the environment through the lens of an environmental regulator, using the Environment Agency (England’s regulator as an example from which parallels can be drawn globally. The issues that are pertinent to environmental regulators are drawn out to answer: What are the drivers and pathways of AMR? How do these relate to the normal work, powers and duties of environmental regulators? What are the knowledge gaps that hinder the delivery of environmental protection from AMR? We offer several thought experiments for how different mitigation strategies might proceed. We conclude that: 1 AMR Action Plans do not tackle all the potentially relevant pathways and drivers of AMR in the environment; and 2 AMR Action Plans are deficient, in part, because the science to inform policy is lacking and this needs to be addressed.

  9. Economy of education: National and global aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ishchenko-Padukova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the national economy of education. We assume that under the current conditions of the globalized world, the economy of education reveals its two-fold nature: on the one hand, it represents an element of the national economic system, and on the other, it is also a structural component of the global education system. Therefore, national economy of education is shaped up by both internal and external factors represented by national and international influences. We analyze here the functional composition and the methods of legal regulation of the economy of education under the conditions and provisions of the global geopolitical transformations. In addition, we use the empirical model of returns to education for showing the factors that impact the employability of young graduates at the labor market. Our results confirm the importance of education for achieving higher levels of income, both nationally and internationally. Finally, we come to the conclusion that its target function consists of the global promotion of national education and consolidation of national competitive position within the world education space.

  10. Construction of a global pain systems network highlights phospholipid signaling as a regulator of heat nociception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gregory Neely

    Full Text Available The ability to perceive noxious stimuli is critical for an animal's survival in the face of environmental danger, and thus pain perception is likely to be under stringent evolutionary pressure. Using a neuronal-specific RNAi knock-down strategy in adult Drosophila, we recently completed a genome-wide functional annotation of heat nociception that allowed us to identify α2δ3 as a novel pain gene. Here we report construction of an evolutionary-conserved, system-level, global molecular pain network map. Our systems map is markedly enriched for multiple genes associated with human pain and predicts a plethora of novel candidate pain pathways. One central node of this pain network is phospholipid signaling, which has been implicated before in pain processing. To further investigate the role of phospholipid signaling in mammalian heat pain perception, we analysed the phenotype of PIP5Kα and PI3Kγ mutant mice. Intriguingly, both of these mice exhibit pronounced hypersensitivity to noxious heat and capsaicin-induced pain, which directly mapped through PI3Kγ kinase-dead knock-in mice to PI3Kγ lipid kinase activity. Using single primary sensory neuron recording, PI3Kγ function was mechanistically linked to a negative regulation of TRPV1 channel transduction. Our data provide a systems map for heat nociception and reinforces the extraordinary conservation of molecular mechanisms of nociception across different species.

  11. Construction of a Global Pain Systems Network Highlights Phospholipid Signaling as a Regulator of Heat Nociception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Norbert; Racz, Ildiko; Milinkeviciute, Giedre; Meixner, Arabella; Nayanala, Swetha; Griffin, Robert S.; Belfer, Inna; Dai, Feng; Smith, Shad; Diatchenko, Luda; Marengo, Stefano; Haubner, Bernhard J.; Novatchkova, Maria; Gibson, Dustin; Maixner, William; Pospisilik, J. Andrew; Hirsch, Emilio; Whishaw, Ian Q.; Zimmer, Andreas; Gupta, Vaijayanti; Sasaki, Junko; Kanaho, Yasunori; Sasaki, Takehiko; Kress, Michaela; Woolf, Clifford J.; Penninger, Josef M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to perceive noxious stimuli is critical for an animal's survival in the face of environmental danger, and thus pain perception is likely to be under stringent evolutionary pressure. Using a neuronal-specific RNAi knock-down strategy in adult Drosophila, we recently completed a genome-wide functional annotation of heat nociception that allowed us to identify α2δ3 as a novel pain gene. Here we report construction of an evolutionary-conserved, system-level, global molecular pain network map. Our systems map is markedly enriched for multiple genes associated with human pain and predicts a plethora of novel candidate pain pathways. One central node of this pain network is phospholipid signaling, which has been implicated before in pain processing. To further investigate the role of phospholipid signaling in mammalian heat pain perception, we analysed the phenotype of PIP5Kα and PI3Kγ mutant mice. Intriguingly, both of these mice exhibit pronounced hypersensitivity to noxious heat and capsaicin-induced pain, which directly mapped through PI3Kγ kinase-dead knock-in mice to PI3Kγ lipid kinase activity. Using single primary sensory neuron recording, PI3Kγ function was mechanistically linked to a negative regulation of TRPV1 channel transduction. Our data provide a systems map for heat nociception and reinforces the extraordinary conservation of molecular mechanisms of nociception across different species. PMID:23236288

  12. Regulation of Adult CNS Axonal Regeneration by the Post-transcriptional Regulator Cpeb1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Pak-Kin Lou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS neurons are unable to regenerate following axonal injury, leading to permanent functional impairments. Yet, the reasons underlying this regeneration failure are not fully understood. Here, we studied the transcriptome and translatome shortly after spinal cord injury. Profiling of the total and ribosome-bound RNA in injured and naïve spinal cords identified a substantial post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In particular, transcripts associated with nervous system development were down-regulated in the total RNA fraction while remaining stably loaded onto ribosomes. Interestingly, motif association analysis of post-transcriptionally regulated transcripts identified the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE as enriched in a subset of these transcripts that was more resistant to injury-induced reduction at the transcriptome level. Modulation of these transcripts by overexpression of the CPE binding protein, Cpeb1, in mouse and Drosophila CNS neurons promoted axonal regeneration following injury. Our study uncovered a global evolutionarily conserved post-transcriptional mechanism enhancing regeneration of injured CNS axons.

  13. Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O.; Miller, M.; Bazilian, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper seeks to briefly characterize the evolving role of power sector regulation. Given current global dynamics, regulation of the power sector is undergoing dramatic changes. This transformation is being driven by various factors including technological advances and cost reductions in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and demand management; increasing air pollution and climate change concerns; and persistent pressure for ensuring sustainable economic development and increased access to energy services by the poor. These issues add to the already complex task of power sector regulation, of which the fundamental remit remains to objectively and transparently ensure least-cost service delivery at high quality. While no single regulatory task is trivial to undertake, it is the prioritization and harmonization of a multitude of objectives that exemplifies the essential challenge of power sector regulation. Evolving regulatory roles can be understood through the concept of existing objectives and an additional layer of emerging objectives. Following this categorization, we describe seven existing objectives of power sector regulators and nine emerging objectives, highlighting key challenges and outlining interdependencies. This essay serves as a preliminary installment in the Clean Energy Regulatory Initiative (CERI) series, and aims to lay the groundwork for subsequent reports and case studies that will explore these topics in more depth.

  14. Globalisation of tobacco industry influence and new global responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D.; Bettcher, D.

    2000-01-01

    The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability.


Keywords: globalisation of tobacco marketing PMID:10841858

  15. Counteraction of Oxidative Stress by Vitamin E Affects Epigenetic Regulation by Increasing Global Methylation and Gene Expression of MLH1 and DNMT1 Dose Dependently in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Zappe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity- or diabetes-induced oxidative stress is discussed as a major risk factor for DNA damage. Vitamin E and many polyphenols exhibit antioxidative activities with consequences on epigenetic regulation of inflammation and DNA repair. The present study investigated the counteraction of oxidative stress by vitamin E in the colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2 under normal (1 g/l and high (4.5 g/l glucose cell culture condition. Malondialdehyde (MDA as a surrogate marker of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS was analyzed. Gene expression and promoter methylation of the DNA repair gene MutL homolog 1 (MLH1 and the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 as well as global methylation by LINE-1 were investigated. Results revealed a dose-dependent counteracting effect of vitamin E on H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Thereby, 10 μM vitamin E proved to be more efficient than did 50 μM in reducing MDA. Further, an induction of MLH1 and DNMT1 gene expression was noticed, accompanied by an increase in global methylation. Whether LINE-1 hypomethylation is a cause or effect of oxidative stress is still unclear. In conclusion, supplementation of exogenous antioxidants like vitamin E in vitro exhibits beneficial effects concerning oxidative stress as well as epigenetic regulation involved in DNA repair.

  16. Production and certain properties of biopolymers used in drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedusenko, G Y; Gvozdyak, R I; Kolodkova, N M; Matyshevskaya, M S; Mayko, I I

    1977-01-01

    Biopolymers, belonging to modified polysaccharides, obtained by the action of Xanthomonas campestris bacteria on glucose and containing its substances, are used as the main component in clayless polymer muds. As a result of research performed at the laboratory of phytopathogenic bacteria in the IMV AN USSR, the producent strain of polysaccharide has been revealed and the nutritive medium chosen. Results are given of an analysis of the best Soviet samples of biopolymers created in the IMV AN USSR, produced using various strains of Xanthomonas bacteria. Rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of the biopolymer Keltsan are studied. The flow curves are recorded on the Fann rotation viscosimeter. The research performed enables determination that for fermentation can be used the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, X. begonia, and X. molvacearum; and bacteria belonging to X. Campestris used to produce a sample batch of biopolymer, yielding the greatest amount of polysaccharide. The work results in development of a nutritive medium based on available Soviet materials, promoting formation of polysaccharide.

  17. The molybdate-binding protein (ModA) of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Andrea; Santacruz, Carolina P; Moutran, Alexandre; Ferreira, Rita C C; Medrano, Francisco J; Pérez, Carlos A; Ramos, Carlos H I; Ferreira, Luís C S

    2006-12-01

    The modABC operon of phytopathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (X. citri) encodes a putative ABC transporter involved in the uptake of the molybdate and tungstate anions. Sequence analyses showed high similarity values of ModA orthologs found in X. campestris pv. campestris (X. campestris) and Escherichia coli. The X. citri modA gene was cloned in pET28a and the recombinant protein, expressed in the E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain, purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The purified protein remained soluble and specifically bound molybdate and tungstate with K(d) 0.29+/-0.12 microM and 0.58+/-0.14 microM, respectively. Additionally binding of molybdate drastically enhanced the thermal stability of the recombinant ModA as compared to the apoprotein. This is the first characterization of a ModA ortholog expressed by a phytopathogen and represents an important tool for functional, biochemical and structural analyses of molybdate transport in Xanthomonas species.

  18. AFSC/ABL: Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) fish and oceanography data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Understanding the processes that regulate early marine survival of salmon is a major goal of the Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) Northeast Pacific (NEP)...

  19. Rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae produces multiple DSF-family signals in regulation of virulence factor production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Jae-Soon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease. Xoo produces a range of virulence factors, including EPS, extracellular enzyme, iron-chelating siderophores, and type III-secretion dependent effectors, which are collectively essential for virulence. Genetic and genomics evidence suggest that Xoo might use the diffusible signal factor (DSF type quorum sensing (QS system to regulate the virulence factor production. However, little is known about the chemical structure of the DSF-like signal(s produced by Xoo and the factors influencing the signal production. Results Xoo genome harbours an rpf cluster comprising rpfB, rpfF, rpfC and rpfG. The proteins encoded by these genes are highly homologous to their counterparts in X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc, suggesting that Xcc and Xoo might use similar mechanisms for DSF biosynthesis and autoregulation. Consistent with in silico analysis, the rpfF mutant was DSF-deficient and the rpfC mutant produced about 25 times higher DSF-like activity than the wild type Xoo strain KACC10331. From the supernatants of rpfC mutant, we purified three compounds showing strong DSF-like activity. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis revealed that two of them were the previously characterized DSF and BDSF; the third one was a novel unsaturated fatty acid with 2 double bonds and was designated as CDSF in this study. Further analysis showed that all the three DSF-family signals were synthesized via the enzyme RpfF encoded by Xoo2868. DSF and BDSF at a final concentration of 3 μM to the rpfF mutant could fully restore its extracellular xylanase activity and EPS production to the wild type level, but CDSF was less active than DSF and BDSF in induction of EPS and xylanase. DSF and CDSF shared a similar cell density-dependent production time course with the maximum production being detected at 42 h after inoculation, whereas the maximum production of BDSF was observed

  20. Diverse Regulators of Human Ribosome Biogenesis Discovered by Changes in Nucleolar Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine I. Farley-Barnes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome biogenesis is a highly regulated, essential cellular process. Although studies in yeast have established some of the biological principles of ribosome biogenesis, many of the intricacies of its regulation in higher eukaryotes remain unknown. To understand how ribosome biogenesis is globally integrated in human cells, we conducted a genome-wide siRNA screen for regulators of nucleolar number. We found 139 proteins whose depletion changed the number of nucleoli per nucleus from 2–3 to only 1 in human MCF10A cells. Follow-up analyses on 20 hits found many (90% to be essential for the nucleolar functions of rDNA transcription (7, pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA processing (16, and/or global protein synthesis (14. This genome-wide analysis exploits the relationship between nucleolar number and function to discover diverse cellular pathways that regulate the making of ribosomes and paves the way for further exploration of the links between ribosome biogenesis and human disease.

  1. A global picture of pharmacy technician and other pharmacy support workforce cadres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Tamara; Brown, Andrew

    Understanding how pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support workforce cadres assist pharmacists in the healthcare system will facilitate developing health systems with the ability to achieve universal health coverage as it is defined in different country contexts. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the present global variety in the technician and other pharmacy support workforce cadres considering; their scope, roles, supervision, education and legal framework. A structured online survey instrument was administered globally using the Survey Monkey platform, designed to address the following topic areas: roles, responsibilities, supervision, education and legislation. The survey was circulated to International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) member organisations and a variety of global list serves where pharmaceutical services are discussed. 193 entries from 67 countries and territories were included in the final analysis revealing a vast global variety with respect to the pharmacy support workforce. From no pharmacy technicians or other pharmacy support workforce cadres in Japan, through a variety of cadre interactions with pharmacists, to the autonomous practice of pharmacy support workforce cadres in Malawi. From strictly supervised practice with a focus on supply, through autonomous practice for a variety of responsibilities, to independent practice. From complete supervision for all tasks, through geographical varied supervision, to independent practice. From on the job training, through certificate level vocational courses, to 3-4 year diploma programs. From well-regulated and registered, through part regulation with weak implementation, to completely non-regulated contexts. This paper documents wide differences in supervision requirements, education systems and supportive legislation for pharmacy support workforce cadres globally. A more detailed understanding of specific country practice settings is required if the use of pharmacy

  2. Filling some black holes: modeling the connection between urbanization, infrastructure, and global service intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Van De Vijver, Elien; Derudder, Ben; Bassens, David; Witlox, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This empirical article combines insights from previous research on the level of knowledge-intensive service in metropolitan areas with the aim to develop an understanding of the spatial structure of the global service economy. We use a stepwise regression model with the Globalization and World Cities research network's measure of globalized service provisioning as the dependent variable and a range of variables focusing on population, infrastructure, urban primacy, and national regulation as ...

  3. Globalizing animal care and use: making the dream a reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielitzki, J. T.

    1999-01-01

    What will drive the globalization of animal care in the 21st century? Will targeted concerns from privately funded groups be the motivating factors? Will the threat of disease, and the concomitant hue and cry from a threatened public, be responsible for bringing nations together to collaborate on rules and regulations? The author, who is responsible for the animal use protocols on NASA's space station, explains why globalization on Planet Earth may be guided by what happens in outer space.

  4. Global Analysis of RNA Secondary Structure in Two Metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The secondary structure of RNA is necessary for its maturation, regulation, processing, and function. However, the global influence of RNA folding in eukaryotes is still unclear. Here, we use a high-throughput, sequencing-based, structure-mapping approach to identify the paired (double-stranded RNA [dsRNA] and unpaired (single-stranded RNA [ssRNA] components of the Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans transcriptomes, which allows us to identify conserved features of RNA secondary structure in metazoans. From this analysis, we find that ssRNAs and dsRNAs are significantly correlated with specific epigenetic modifications. Additionally, we find key structural patterns across protein-coding transcripts that indicate that RNA folding demarcates regions of protein translation and likely affects microRNA-mediated regulation of mRNAs in animals. Finally, we identify and characterize 546 mRNAs whose folding pattern is significantly correlated between these metazoans, suggesting that their structure has some function. Overall, our findings provide a global assessment of RNA folding in animals.

  5. Simulation analysis of globally integrated logistics and recycling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, S.J.; Hiroshi, K. [Hiroshima Inst. of Tech., Graduate School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Dept. of In formation and Intelligent Systems Engineering, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the optimal analysis of world-wide recycling activities associated with managing the logistics and production activities in global manufacturing whose activities stretch across national boundaries. Globally integrated logistics and recycling strategies consist of the home country and two free trading economic blocs, NAFTA and ASEAN, where significant differences are found in production and disassembly cost, tax rates, local content rules and regulations. Moreover an optimal analysis of globally integrated value-chain was developed by applying simulation optimization technique as a decision-making tool. The simulation model was developed and analyzed by using ProModel packages, and the results help to identify some of the appropriate conditions required to make well-performed logistics and recycling plans in world-wide collaborated manufacturing environment. (orig.)

  6. Ethical food standard schemes and global trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity...... base of each institution while giving expression to both materialist and postmaterialist understandings of the nature of food....... to be traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even...

  7. Impaired chromatin remodelling at STAT1-regulated promoters leads to global unresponsiveness of Toxoplasma gondii-infected macrophages to IFN-γ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular pathogens including the apicomplexan and opportunistic parasite Toxoplasma gondii profoundly modify their host cells in order to establish infection. We have shown previously that intracellular T. gondii inhibit up-regulation of regulatory and effector functions in murine macrophages (MΦ stimulated with interferon (IFN-γ, which is the cytokine crucial for controlling the parasites' replication. Using genome-wide transcriptome analysis we show herein that infection with T. gondii leads to global unresponsiveness of murine macrophages to IFN-γ. More than 61% and 89% of the transcripts, which were induced or repressed by IFN-γ in non-infected MΦ, respectively, were not altered after stimulation of T. gondii-infected cells with IFN-γ. These genes are involved in a variety of biological processes, which are mostly but not exclusively related to immune responses. Analyses of the underlying mechanisms revealed that IFN-γ-triggered nuclear translocation of STAT1 still occurred in Toxoplasma-infected MΦ. However, STAT1 bound aberrantly to oligonucleotides containing the IFN-γ-responsive gamma-activated site (GAS consensus sequence. Conversely, IFN-γ did not induce formation of active GAS-STAT1 complexes in nuclear extracts from infected MΦ. Mass spectrometry of protein complexes bound to GAS oligonucleotides showed that T. gondii-infected MΦ are unable to recruit non-muscle actin to IFN-γ-responsive DNA sequences, which appeared to be independent of stimulation with IFN-γ and of STAT1 binding. IFN-γ-induced recruitment of BRG-1 and acetylation of core histones at the IFN-γ-regulated CIITA promoter IV, but not β-actin was diminished by >90% in Toxoplasma-infected MΦ as compared to non-infected control cells. Remarkably, treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors restored the ability of infected macrophages to express the IFN-γ regulated genes H2-A/E and CIITA. Taken together, these results indicate that Toxoplasma

  8. The present effect of global warming on U.S. industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendel, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss how global warming issues are currently affecting U.S. industry. Global climate models are projecting global temperature increases in the 1.5-4.5 degrees C range within the next 50-60 years. This increase is based on the assumption that CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere will continue to increase 1-2% per year, resulting in a doubling of preindustrial CO 2 levels by mid twenty-first century. These projections may cause U.S. industry to readjust its thinking with respect to the benefits of pollution prevention as they relate to global warming, corporate image enhancement, global competitiveness and risk assessment or balance. Real or perceived impacts of global warming are already influencing U.S. competitiveness within the global economy because Japan and the European countries are taking the global warming threat more seriously than is the U.S. Mitigation of CO 2 emissions through carbon taxes or permitting will be discussed. Options available to U.S. industry to deal with the current uncertainties of global warming will be presented. Examples of how specific companies are coping with this issue will be given. Finally, recommendations are presented for proactive planning to determine which segments, divisions or facilities in a multinational company would be most sensitive to CO 2 stabilization regulations

  9. Regulation of mRNA translation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Weissman, Jonathan S; Vale, Ronald D

    2015-08-25

    Passage through mitosis is driven by precisely-timed changes in transcriptional regulation and protein degradation. However, the importance of translational regulation during mitosis remains poorly understood. Here, using ribosome profiling, we find both a global translational repression and identified ~200 mRNAs that undergo specific translational regulation at mitotic entry. In contrast, few changes in mRNA abundance are observed, indicating that regulation of translation is the primary mechanism of modulating protein expression during mitosis. Interestingly, 91% of the mRNAs that undergo gene-specific regulation in mitosis are translationally repressed, rather than activated. One of the most pronounced translationally-repressed genes is Emi1, an inhibitor of the anaphase promoting complex (APC) which is degraded during mitosis. We show that full APC activation requires translational repression of Emi1 in addition to its degradation. These results identify gene-specific translational repression as a means of controlling the mitotic proteome, which may complement post-translational mechanisms for inactivating protein function.

  10. Hazardous substances in electronics: the effects of European Union risk regulation on China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedenkopf, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that European Union (EU) risk regulation of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) was both a trigger and formative factor in the development of similar Chinese regulation. The attractiveness and global interdependence of the EU market in EEE impelled a

  11. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory arbitrage in financial markets refers to a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of moving trading abroad or relocating activities or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where this happens...... institutions' excessive risk-taking. If such risk-taking would be judged by market discipline instead of posing a risk to global financial stability, the main downside of regulatory competition could be restrained. Within the boundaries of such a system, competition could then operate and contribute...... their standards solely to attract business and thereby impose externalities on the worldwide financial market by undermining financial stability as a global public good. Policymakers worldwide are experimenting with remedies to respond to the phenomenon. I introduce the importance of an effective special...

  12. A direct link between the global regulator PhoP and the Csr regulon in Y. pseudotuberculosis through the small regulatory RNA CsrC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Aaron M; Schuster, Franziska; Kathrin Heroven, Ann; Heine, Wiebke; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of the global response regulator PhoP on the complex regulatory cascade controlling expression of early stage virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis via the virulence regulator RovA. Our analysis revealed the following novel features: (1) PhoP activates expression of the CsrC RNA in Y. pseudotuberculosis, leading to activation of RovA synthesis through the CsrABC-RovM cascade, (2) activation of csrC transcription is direct and PhoP is shown to bind to two separate PhoP box-like sites, (3) PhoP-mediated activation results in transcription from two different promoters closely downstream of the PhoP binding sites, leading to two distinct CsrC RNAs, and (4) the stability of the CsrC RNAs differs significantly between the Y. pseudotuberculosis strains YPIII and IP32953 due to a 20 nucleotides insertion in CsrC(IP32953), which renders the transcript more susceptible to degradation. In summary, our study showed that PhoP-mediated influence on the regulatory cascade controlling the Csr system and RovA in Y. pseudotuberculosis varies within the species, suggesting that the Csr system is a focal point to readjust and adapt the genus to different hosts and reservoirs.

  13. Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-05-05

    Compared with nutrient levels and habitat degradation, the importance of agricultural pesticides in surface water may have been underestimated due to a lack of comprehensive quantitative analysis. Increasing pesticide contamination results in decreasing regional aquatic biodiversity, i.e., macroinvertebrate family richness is reduced by ∼30% at pesticide concentrations equaling the legally accepted regulatory threshold levels (RTLs). This study provides a comprehensive metaanalysis of 838 peer-reviewed studies (>2,500 sites in 73 countries) that evaluates, for the first time to our knowledge on a global scale, the exposure of surface waters to particularly toxic agricultural insecticides. We tested whether measured insecticide concentrations (MICs; i.e., quantified insecticide concentrations) exceed their RTLs and how risks depend on insecticide development over time and stringency of environmental regulation. Our analysis reveals that MICs occur rarely (i.e., an estimated 97.4% of analyses conducted found no MICs) and there is a complete lack of scientific monitoring data for ∼90% of global cropland. Most importantly, of the 11,300 MICs, 52.4% (5,915 cases; 68.5% of the sites) exceeded the RTL for either surface water (RTLSW) or sediments. Thus, the biological integrity of global water resources is at a substantial risk. RTLSW exceedances depend on the catchment size, sampling regime, and sampling date; are significantly higher for newer-generation insecticides (i.e., pyrethroids); and are high even in countries with stringent environmental regulations. These results suggest the need for worldwide improvements to current pesticide regulations and agricultural pesticide application practices and for intensified research efforts on the presence and effects of pesticides under real-world conditions.

  14. Liquidity regulation and the implementation of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Morten L. Bech; Todd Keister

    2013-01-01

    In addition to revamping existing rules for bank capital, Basel III introduces a new global framework for liquidity regulation. One part of this framework is the liquidity coverage ratio (LCR), which requires banks to hold sufficient high-quality liquid assets to survive a 30-day period of market stress. As monetary policy typically involves targeting the interest rate on loans of one of these assets — central bank reserves — it is important to understand how this regulation may impact the ef...

  15. Development in the Regulation of Wages and Working Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgedahl, Laust Kristian; Jørgensen, Henning

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic countries are renowned for their high level of unionization and collective bargaining. However, globalization, Europeanization, and an increasing individualization are often pictured as factors suppressing collective regulation. In this article, we look at the developments in the regul...... and in employee awareness, but Danish wage and salary earners also have an interest in extra support in the form of generalization and/or a politically regulated minimum wage....... in the regulation of wages and working conditions from a macro perspective by combing two large crosssectional surveys into a longitudinal study with point of departure in the Danish case. We find that collective bargaining coverage continues to stand surprisingly strong, both in terms of being very widespread...

  16. SAPFLUXNET: towards a global database of sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Granda, Víctor; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Steppe, Kathy; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    Plant transpiration is the main evaporative flux from terrestrial ecosystems; it controls land surface energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and influences regional and global climate. Transpiration regulation by plants is a key (and still not completely understood) process that underlies vegetation drought responses and land evaporative fluxes under global change scenarios. Thermometric methods of sap flow measurement have now been widely used to quantify whole-plant and stand transpiration in forests, shrublands and orchards around the world. A large body of research has applied sap flow methods to analyse seasonal and diurnal patterns of transpiration and to quantify their responses to hydroclimatic variability, but syntheses of sap flow data at regional to global scales are extremely rare. Here we present the SAPFLUXNET initiative, aimed at building the first global database of plant-level sap flow measurements. A preliminary metadata survey launched in December 2015 showed an encouraging response by the sap flow community, with sap flow data sets from field studies representing >160 species and >120 globally distributed sites. The main goal of SAPFLUXNET is to analyse the ecological factors driving plant- and stand-level transpiration. SAPFLUXNET will open promising research avenues at an unprecedented global scope, namely: (i) exploring the spatio-temporal variability of plant transpiration and its relationship with plant and stand attributes, (ii) summarizing physiological regulation of transpiration by means of few water-use traits, usable for land surface models, (iii) improving our understanding of the coordination between gas exchange and plant-level traits (e.g., hydraulics) and (iv) analysing the ecological factors controlling stand transpiration and evapotranspiration partitioning. Finally, SAPFLUXNET can provide a benchmark to test models of physiological controls of transpiration, contributing to improve the accuracy of

  17. Coordinated approaches to quantify long-term ecosystem dynamics in response to global change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y.; Melillo, J.; Niu, S.

    2011-01-01

    a coordinated approach that combines long-term, large-scale global change experiments with process studies and modeling. Long-term global change manipulative experiments, especially in high-priority ecosystems such as tropical forests and high-latitude regions, are essential to maximize information gain......Many serious ecosystem consequences of climate change will take decades or even centuries to emerge. Long-term ecological responses to global change are strongly regulated by slow processes, such as changes in species composition, carbon dynamics in soil and by long-lived plants, and accumulation...... to be the most effective strategy to gain the best information on long-term ecosystem dynamics in response to global change....

  18. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G.; Antoniêto, Amanda C. C.; Persinoti, Gabriela F.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N.

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor—XYR1—in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were upregulated in the presence of cellulose, while 367 and 188 were upregulated in sophorose and glucose, respectively. With respect to genes under the direct regulation of XYR1, 30 and 33 are exclusive to cellulose and sophorose, respectively. The most modulated genes in the Δxyr1 belong to Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), transcription factors, and transporters families. Moreover, we highlight the downregulation of transporters belonging to the MFS and ABC transporter families. Of these, MFS members were mostly downregulated in the presence of cellulose. In sophorose and glucose, the expression of these transporters was mainly upregulated. Our results revealed that MFS and ABC transporters could be new players in cellulose degradation and their role was shown to be carbon source-dependent. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of XYR1 to control cellulase gene expression in T. reesei in the presence of cellulosic material, thereby potentially enhancing its application in several biotechnology fields. PMID:26909077

  19. Epigenetic regulation of open chromatin in pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kikyo, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in pluripotent stem cell research has opened new avenues of disease modeling, drug screening, and transplantation of patient-specific tissues that had been unimaginable until a decade ago. The central mechanism underlying pluripotency is epigenetic gene regulation; the majority of cell signaling pathways, both extracellular and cytoplasmic, eventually alter the epigenetic status of their target genes during the process of activating or suppressing the genes to acquire or maintain pluripotency. It has long been thought that the chromatin of pluripotent stem cells is globally open to enable the timely activation of essentially all genes in the genome during differentiation into multiple lineages. The current article reviews descriptive observations and the epigenetic machinery relevant to what is supposed to be globally open chromatin in pluripotent stem cells. This includes microscopic appearance, permissive gene transcription, chromatin remodeling complexes, histone modifications, DNA methylation, noncoding RNAs, dynamic movement of chromatin proteins, nucleosome accessibility and positioning, and long-range chromosomal interactions. Detailed analyses of each element, however, have revealed that the globally open chromatin hypothesis is not necessarily supported by some of the critical experimental evidence, such as genome-wide nucleosome accessibility and nucleosome positioning. Further understanding of the epigenetic gene regulation is expected to determine the true nature of the so-called globally open chromatin in pluripotent stem. PMID:24695097

  20. Identification of transcription factors linked to cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycle is an essential process in growth and development of living organisms consists of the replication and mitotic phases separated by 2 gap phases; G1 and G2. It is tightly controlled at the molecular level and especially at the level of transcription. Precise regulation of the cell cycle is of central significance for plant growth and development and transcription factors are global regulators of gene expression playing essential roles in cell cycle regulation. This study has uncovere...

  1. An International Model for Antibiotics Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Emilie

    We face a global antibiotics resistance crisis. Antibiotic drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness, potentially propelling us toward a post-antibiotic world. The largest use of antibiotics in the world is in food-producing animals. Food producers administer these drugs in routine, low doses—the types of doses that are incidentally the most conducive to breeding antibiotic resistance. In general, individual countries have been too slow to act in regulating misuse and overuse of antibiotics in foodproducing animals. This problem will only worsen with the significant projected growth in meat consumption and production expected in emerging economies in the near future. Although individual countries regulating antibiotics can have important effects, one country alone cannot insulate itself entirely from the effects of antibiotic resistance, nor can one country solve the crisis for itself or for the world. The global nature of the food system and the urgency of the problem require immediate global solutions. Adapting a democratic experimentalist approach at the international level can help achieve this goal. Using an international democratic experimentalist framework in conjunction with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) would provide for increased systematized data collection and lead to heightened, scientifically informed OIE standards, enforceable by the World Trade Organization (WTO), which could have a significant impact on the reduction of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics internationally. International democratic experimentalism addresses the global intricacy, time sensitivity, context- and culture-specificity, and knowledgeintensiveness of this problem. By encouraging more countries to experiment to solve this problem, the democratic experimentalist model would help develop a larger database of solutions to enable more meaningful cross-country comparisons across a wider range of contexts. This approach maintains democratic governance and

  2. Genome-wide Analysis of Gene Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun

    to protein: through epigenetic modifications, transcription regulators or post-transcriptional controls. The following papers concern several layers of gene regulation with questions answered by different HTS approaches. Genome-wide screening of epigenetic changes by ChIP-seq allowed us to study both spatial...... and temporal alterations of histone modifications (Papers I and II). Coupling the data with machine learning approaches, we established a prediction framework to assess the most informative histone marks as well as their most influential nucleosome positions in predicting the promoter usages. (Papers I...... they regulated or if the sites had global elevated usage rates by multiple TFs. Using RNA-seq, 5’end-seq in combination with depletion of 5’exonuclease as well as nonsensemediated decay (NMD) factors, we systematically analyzed NMD substrates as well as their degradation intermediates in human cells (Paper V...

  3. The global prospects of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the process of establishing international economic and financial relations between national economies is on the rise, many states encounter substantial difficulties in the process of collecting their tax claims. The most powerful countries in the world try to overcome this controversy by changing the international tax rules. The turning point was the financial-economic crisis of2008-2009, when the international community more vigorously embarked on resolving international tax issues. The OECD, the G20, the UN, the EU and a number of other powerful international organizations continued their activities on establishing a stronger framework of the international tax system. Global tax initiatives embodied in the soft law regulations have changed (to a varied extent the structure of national tax systems as well as the direction of national policies, and ultimately undermined the financial foundations of the social welfare state. The world's 'taxation landscape' is indisputably dominated by two major processes embodied in the concepts of tax harmonization and tax competition. The global crisis in financing contemporary states has weakened their resistance towards more extensive international tax cooperation. As a result, they increasingly accept global tax standards and are more vigorously involved in the international exchange of tax information for the purpose of counteracting international tax fraud. Changes in national tax systems are necessarily accompanied by changing relations between tax administrations and multinational companies as large taxpayers. The traditional public law relations are gradually changed by introducing some elements of 'negotiations and mutual agreement', which are aimed at strengthening mutual trust and avoiding unnecessary disputes and costs. Although they are currently no more than theoretical assumptions and political considerations, there are proposals for introducing global taxes and establishing the world tax

  4. Bioseguridad in Mexico: Pursuing Security between Local and Global Biologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderer, Emily Mannix

    2017-09-01

    In the aftermath of the 2009 outbreak of H1N1 influenza, scientists in Mexico sought to develop bioseguridad, that is, to protect biological life in Mexico by safely conducting research on infectious disease. Drawing on ethnographic research in laboratories and with scientists in Mexico, I look at how scientists make claims about local differences in regulations, infrastructure, bodies, and culture. The scientists working with infectious microbes sought to establish how different microbial ecologies, human immune systems, and political and regulatory systems made the risks of research different in Mexico from other countries. In developing bioseguridad, the idea of globalized biology that animates many public health projects was undermined as scientists attended to the elements of place that affected human health and safety. Scientists argued for the importance of local biologies, generating tension with global public health projects and regulations premised on the universality of biology. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  5. Challenges in global ballast water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endresen, Oyvind; Lee Behrens, Hanna; Brynestad, Sigrid; Bjoern Andersen, Aage; Skjong, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Ballast water management is a complex issue raising the challenge of merging international regulations, ship's specific configurations along with ecological conservation. This complexity is illustrated in this paper by considering ballast water volume, discharge frequency, ship safety and operational issues aligned with regional characteristics to address ecological risk for selected routes. A re-estimation of ballast water volumes gives a global annual level of 3500 Mton. Global ballast water volume discharged into open sea originating from ballast water exchange operations is estimated to approximately 2800 Mton. Risk based decision support systems coupled to databases for different ports and invasive species characteristics and distributions can allow for differentiated treatment levels while maintaining low risk levels. On certain routes, the risk is estimated to be unacceptable and some kind of ballast water treatment or management should be applied

  6. Globalization, Inequality & International Economic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International law in general, and international economic law in particular, to the extent that either has focused on the issue of inequality, has done so in terms of inequality between states. Largely overlooked has been the topic of inequality within states and how international law has influenced that reality. From the perspective of international economic law, the inequality issue is closely entwined with the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, the proper meaning of development, and globalization. While international economic law has undoubtedly contributed to the rise of inequality, it is now vital that the subject of international economic law be examined for how it may contribute to the lessening of inequality. To do so will require a shift in the way that we think, in order to address inequality as a problem of an emerging global market society, and how best to regulate that society and its institutions.

  7. From European Union to World Union: Building Effective and Democratic Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McClintock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty-sharing has placed European countries in a position to resolve their common problems through law, not war. As a result, the EU member states now live in peace together and take peace, justice and order for granted. The system of global governance is dysfunctional – some states are failing and the Security Council lacks legitimacy. Humanity does not have a mechanism to resolve its global problems through law, making it difficult – if not impossible – to resolve global problems such as famine, hunger, climate change, war and terrorism, nuclear proliferation, regulation of corporations – including banks, destruction of fish stocks, and population. Sharing of sovereignty at the global level can address these problems, starting in the area of food security, then proceeding to climate management and other fields. Shared sovereignty can eliminate famine and hunger globally.

  8. Design principles for global commons: Natural resources and emerging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stern

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ostrom’s design principles for managing common pool resources were developed largely by examining local commons involving natural resources. This paper enumerates several key characteristics that distinguish such commons from more complex commons involving global resources and the risks of emerging technologies. It considers the degree to which the design principles transfer to those commons and concludes that although they have considerable external validity, the list needs some modification and elaboration to apply to global resources and risk commons. A list of design principles is offered for global resource commons and the risks of emerging technologies. Applying Ostrom’s approach to global resources and emerging technologies can improve understanding and expand the solution set for these problems from international treaties, top-down national regulation, and interventions in market pricing systems to include non-governmental institutions that embody principles of self-governance.

  9. The evolution, etiology and eventualities of the global health security regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    Attention to global health security governance is more important now than ever before. Scientists predict that a possible influenza pandemic could affect 1.5 billion people, cause up to 150 million deaths and leave US$3 trillion in economic damages. A public health emergency in one country is now only hours away from affecting many others. Using regime analysis from political science, the principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures by which states govern health security are examined in the historical context of their punctuated evolution. This methodology illuminates the catalytic agents of change, distributional consequences and possible future orders that can help to better inform progress in this area. Four periods of global health security governance are identified. The first is characterized by unilateral quarantine regulations (1377-1851), the second by multiple sanitary conferences (1851-92), the third by several international sanitary conventions and international health organizations (1892-1946) and the fourth by the hegemonic leadership of the World Health Organization (1946-????). This final regime, like others before it, is challenged by globalization (e.g. limitations of the new International Health Regulations), changing diplomacy (e.g. proliferation of global health security organizations), new tools (e.g. global health law, human rights and health diplomacy) and shock-activated vulnerabilities (e.g. bioterrorism and avian/swine influenza). This understanding, in turn, allows us to appreciate the impact of this evolving regime on class, race and gender, as well as to consider four possible future configurations of power, including greater authority for the World Health Organization, a concert of powers, developing countries and civil society organizations. This regime analysis allows us to understand the evolution, etiology and eventualities of the global health security regime, which is essential for national and international health

  10. Institutional preconditions of socio-ecological-economic regulation of environmental management activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Plaksunova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to regulate environmental management activities of institutional entities arises when it affects the interests of third-party entities or threatened by the ongoing entity manufacturing practices its own resilience, to achieve the main goal. The complexity and diversity of the forms of socio-ecological and ecological-economic issues at different levels of the economic system leads to the development of many directions and views on the expansion of the management process of these levels (global, national, regional, local and techniques from rigid-deklorative state before combination with the market. In this respect, the neoclassical economic theory actively generated new analytical ideas and concept that enables to respond adequately to emerging economic realities. So we can distinguish the following approaches to regulate environmental management activities: T. Malthus and D. Ricardo, revealing issues of social, ecological and economic implications of limited natural resources in the context of the law of diminishing effectiveness and the need to regulate environmental management activities. John. St. Mill and George proved to be ineffective in addressing environmental problems in the industrial economy of the type of the imperfection of the institutions of society, justifying the occurrence of crises protohistoric speculation nature's benefits. A. Pigou developed the theory of externalities, which revealed the need for state regulation of the environmental management activities of economic entities, harmonization of individual and social interests. Research I. Kula, F. Khan and P. Samuelson identified a pattern about the formation of the system of regulation nature-safety activities, not only within individual States but also on a global level. R. Crows have shown that the methods of direct state regulation of nature economic activity is not as good as it seems at first glance and so you should not underestimate the role and potential

  11. The Global Enery and Water Cycle Experiment Science Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of water in the atmosphere and at the surface of the Earth is the most influential factor regulating our environment, not only because water is essential for life but also because through phase transitions it is the main energy source that control clouds and radiation and drives the global circulation of the atmosphere.

  12. Basel III – Between Global Thinking and Local Acting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has demonstrated that self-regulation is not sufficient to markets and financial institutions with systemic importance.Permissive regulatory policies, allowing the development speed of global banking financial system, have played an important role in emphasizing the upward slope of the financial crisis.The new regulations known as Basel III framework aimed the strengthening of prudential capital and liquidity of financial institutions and create a stronger banking and financial system more resilient to shocks.Basel III is trying to eliminate the shortcomings of Basel II, by more extensive rules on integrated risk management in banking and financial environment.

  13. Globalization and working time: Work-place hours and flexibility in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Raess, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how economic globalization affects work-place arrangements regulating working time in industrialized countries. Exposure to foreign direct investment and trade can have off-setting effects for work-place bargaining over standard hours and work-time flexibilization, and can be

  14. Liquidity Regulation, the Central Bank, and the Money Market

    OpenAIRE

    Scheubel, Beatrice; Körding, Julia

    2013-01-01

    As reliance on excessively short-term wholesale funding has been one of the major causes for the 2007-2009 financial crisis, recent advances in global liquidity regulation try to curb the excessive reliance on short-term wholesale funding without being clear on how such an approach will affect the overall equilibrium on money markets. In particular, liquidity regulation may interfere with the central bank's influence on short-term money market rates. This paper tries to fill the gap in unders...

  15. Dynamic Transcriptional Regulation of Fis in Salmonella During the Exponential Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Li, Ping; Hu, Yilang; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Fis is one of the most important global regulators and has attracted extensive research attention. Many studies have focused on comparing the Fis global regulatory networks for exploring Fis function during different growth stages, such as the exponential and stationary stages. Although the Fis protein in bacteria is mainly expressed in the exponential phase, the dynamic transcriptional regulation of Fis during the exponential phase remains poorly understood. To address this question, we used RNA-seq technology to identify the Fis-regulated genes in the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium during the early exponential phase, and qRT-PCR was performed to validate the transcriptional data. A total of 1495 Fis-regulated genes were successfully identified, including 987 Fis-repressed genes and 508 Fis-activated genes. Comparing the results of this study with those of our previous study, we found that the transcriptional regulation of Fis was diverse during the early- and mid-exponential phases. The results also showed that the strong positive regulation of Fis on Salmonella pathogenicity island genes in the mid-exponential phase transitioned into insignificant effect in the early exponential phase. To validate these results, we performed a cell infection assay and found that Δfis only exhibited a 1.49-fold decreased capacity compared with the LT2 wild-type strain, indicating a large difference from the 6.31-fold decrease observed in the mid-exponential phase. Our results provide strong evidence for a need to thoroughly understand the dynamic transcriptional regulation of Fis in Salmonella during the exponential phase.

  16. The route of joint of the transnational corporations and globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa PISTOL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Today’s discussions on globalization are more alive and controversial. As is acknowledged as a fact, globalization is studied not only as an economic category but as a process, system, phenomenon. Currently, on international level, a variety of companies operate. From all of these, the transnational corporation represent particular interest, being designated as an "entity-key of global economic activity, a creative net worth to devote a large proportion of global resources needed to sustain economic growth processes. The new trend in the TNC’s sites emphasize, efforts to promote corporate social responsibility that contributes to change the attitude of many corporations and individuals working for them. Company efforts are visible in contributions to community development and environmental impact. Corporations want to impose their own standards of development, which reflects some positive attitude towards regulations that support behavioral codes, which they argue. Globalization has opened the way for limited progress, offered alternatives to local development, has generated deep changes, n dimensional complex with sometimes unpre-dictable consequences on economic and socio-institutional development.

  17. A Csr-type regulatory system, including small non-coding RNAs, regulates the global virulence regulator RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis through RovM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Böhme, Katja; Rohde, Manfred; Dersch, Petra

    2008-06-01

    The MarR-type regulator RovA controls expression of virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in response to environmental signals. Using a genetic strategy to discover components that influence rovA expression, we identified new regulatory factors with homology to components of the carbon storage regulator system (Csr). We showed that overexpression of a CsrB- or a CsrC-type RNA activates rovA, whereas a CsrA-like protein represses RovA synthesis. We further demonstrate that influence of the Csr system on rovA is indirect and occurs through control of the LysR regulator RovM, which inhibits rovA transcription. The CsrA protein had also a major influence on the motility of Yersinia, which was independent of RovM. The CsrB and CsrC RNAs are differentially expressed in Yersinia. CsrC is highly induced in complex but not in minimal media, indicating that medium-dependent rovM expression is mediated through CsrC. CsrB synthesis is generally very low. However, overexpression of the response regulator UvrY was found to activate CsrB production, which in turn represses CsrC synthesis independent of the growth medium. In summary, the post-transcriptional Csr-type components were shown to be key regulators in the co-ordinated environmental control of physiological processes and virulence factors, which are crucial for the initiation of Yersinia infections.

  18. Toward international law on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Johns, C.; Pauken, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    Legal precedent in the history of international environmental law is considered. Then, the legal principles, rights and obligations related to transboundary environmental interference are drawn from the precedent. From this legal and historical background, and a brief overview of the principal technical aspects of the emerging global warming problem, the authors suggest a number of possible international protocols. These include outlines of multilateral treaties on energy efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption of renewable and solar energy, and stimulation of several types of forestation, with creation of practical regimes and remedies. Each protocol has its own environmental social and economic merits and urgency, apart from the prevention of global warming. In each suggested protocol, the political obstacles are analyzed. Suggestions are presented for reduction of levels of disagreement standing in the way of obtaining viable treaties likely to be upheld in practice by the signatories. An agenda for study and action is presented, on the assumption that prudence dictates that international environmental law must be expanded as soon as feasible to regulate global warming

  19. Food and pharmaceuticals. Lessons learned from global contaminations with melamine/cyanuric acid and diethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C A; Brown, S A

    2010-01-01

    Recently, contamination of pharmaceuticals with diethylene glycol (DEG) and food with melamine and cyanuric acid has demonstrated the impact of globalization on drug and food safety. By examining the details of these outbreaks, some important lessons can be learned. Toxicoses from contaminated food and drugs are often identified only when large numbers of people or animals are affected and numerous deaths result. Populations most at risk are those repeatedly exposed to a single product. Toxicoses may be complex, involving synergism among relatively nontoxic co-contaminants. Although some contamination may occur inadvertently, practices of deliberate contamination of food and drug ingredients may be widespread but escape detection in poorly regulated markets. If this deliberate contamination is motivated by personal financial gain, it is likely to recur and be concealed. The contaminated raw material produced in a poorly regulated market may cross national boundaries and be used in manufacturing processes for numerous products, sometimes in more well-regulated markets. Once in the production chain, contaminated raw materials may be widely disseminated. It is not clear that regulatory organizations have the capacity to identify significant contaminations despite their best efforts. The veterinary and medical communities, in cooperation with regulatory agencies, should develop cooperative programs designed to detect and limit these global outbreaks. Although addressing regional or national outbreaks remains an important role for regulatory agencies, the veterinary and medical communities must develop proactive global approaches to this global problem.

  20. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  1. OECD/NEA International Conference on Global Nuclear Safety Enhancement Organised in co-operation with the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) of Japan On the Occasion of the 50. Anniversary of Japan Joining the OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shunichi; Oshima, Kenzo; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Echavarri, Luis E.; ); Ostendorff, William C.; Viktorovich Ferapontov, Alexey; Lachaume, Jean-Luc; Yoo, Guk Hee; Lyons, James E.; ); Weightman, Mike; ); Gurria, Angel; ); Ishihara, Hirotaka

    2014-04-01

    On 8 April 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, an international conference on enhancing global nuclear safety was held by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD), in co-operation with the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) of Japan. This document brings together the 12 presentations (slides) given at this conference organized in 3 sessions: 1 - Opening Session: Opening Remarks (S. Tanaka); Statement by L.E. Echavarri; Session 1 - Global Safety Enhancements: USNRC Actions in Response to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (W.C. Ostendorff); Synergy of National and International Regulatory Efforts to Enhance Global Nuclear Safety (A. Viktorovich Ferapontov); Global Safety Enhancements, The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN)'s position (J.L. Lachaume); Nuclear Safety and Security Commission builds up safety and security (G.H. Yoo); Session 2 - Learning from Experience to Improve Safety: Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident and Responses in New Regulatory Requirements (T. Fuketa); NEA Activities to Enhance the Nuclear Regulatory Framework (L.E. Echavarri); Learning from Experience to Improve Safety - its importance, its mechanisms and its challenges (J.E. Lyons); Learning from Experience to Improve Nuclear Safety - A Perspective from the UK (M. Weightman); Conclusions and Closing Remarks (A. Gurria, H. Ishihara)

  2. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  3. Shaping nursing profession regulation through history - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stievano, A; Caruso, R; Pittella, F; Shaffer, F A; Rocco, G; Fairman, J

    2018-03-23

    The aim of this systematic review was to provide a critical synthesis of the factors that historically shaped the advancements of nursing regulators worldwide. An in-depth examination of the different factors that moulded regulatory changes over time is pivotal to comprehend current issues in nursing. In the light of global health scenarios, the researchers explored the factors that historically influenced the socio-contextual circumstances upon which governments made regulatory changes. A systematic search was performed on the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, OpenGrey and ScienceDirect. The review included papers from January 2000 to October 2016 published in English. The authors used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and an inductive thematic approach for synthesis. Two main themes were identified: factors underpinning current challenges and historical and contextual triggers of regulation. The first theme was composed of three aspects: education, migration and internationalization, and policy and regulation; the second theme consisted of four attributes: demographics, economics, history of registration and wars, and historical changes in nursing practice. Factors that shaped nursing regulation were linked to changing demographics and economics, education, history of nursing registration, shifting patterns of migration and internationalization, nursing practice, policy and regulation and significant societal turns often prompted by wars. A deeper understanding of the developments of the nursing regulatory institutions provides the foundation for portable standards that can be applied across an array of jurisdictions to guarantee a better public safety. Understanding factors that socially, legislatively and politically have influenced the development of regulatory bodies over time helps to mould local, national and international policies that have a stronger impact on health worldwide. To achieve this

  4. Outline of the transition from national to international audit regulation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    2004-01-01

    ) regulation to a predominately international orientation in audit regulation. The most central changes in audit regulations in the last years have concerned the auditor's independence. Denmark has for instance repealed the demand for general independence, according to which auditors were not allowed to have......Seen in a historic perspective, the development of audit regulation in Denmark reflects a few but very influential business scandals causing changes in law-regulation, and a profession which have reacted to confidence crises through an increasing level of selfregulation. Audit regulation also...... reflects international developments in corporate regulation initiatives often in the wake of corporate failures with global impetus on the lost of trust in listed companies and their financial reporting. The purpose of this paper is to examine the transition from national (though international inspired...

  5. The Theoretical and Methodological Bases to Form the Parity of State Regulation of the National Economy and Market Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahno Tetiana P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to summarize the existing approaches regarding the optimal balance of mechanisms of economic regulation and identify factors that influence the formation of the parity of state regulation and market self-regulation of economy. The analysis of the existing studies has made it possible to establish that the mixed economy model, which is organized on the basis of the market price system but uses various forms of government intervention to correct macroeconomic instability, is the most optimal one for effective development. The smoothing, preventing of negative consequences of effects of market regulators is the goal of state regulation of economy. It is substantiated that the optimal correlation of mechanisms of state regulation and market self-regulation is not a constant value. The maximum effective ratio in application of these mechanisms will not always be achieved under condition of equal government intervention and self-regulation. It depends on the country’s potential, its involvement in the system of the world market economy, level of development of the society, as well as historical features of the country’s development and phase of the economic cycle. Prospects for further research are the substantiation of a new paradigm for the formation of the parity of state regulation and market self-regulation in the context of financial uncertainty and effect of supranational regulators, growing contradictions of globalization-regionalization based on the use of the system and synergetic approach.

  6. Anti-cyclic regulation of the Ukrainian economy under current conditions of the international markets volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Satsyk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are considered the theoretical and methodological basis of anti-cyclic regulation of the countries’ economy under conditions of the world economy globalization. It suggests the analysis of practices of implementing of anti-cyclic policy in highly developed states, its defining features and directions under current global financial and economic crisis. There has been researched a practical toolkit of economic cycles diagnostics and cyclic fluctuations of total business activity in Ukraine based on this study. There are suggested recommendations concerning the formation of the effective mechanism of anti-cyclic regulation of the Ukrainian economy.

  7. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Lu, Guangxiu; Döring, Ole; Cong, Yali; Laska-Formejster, Alicja; He, Jing; Chen, Haidan; Gottweis, Herbert; Rose, Nikolas

    2013-12-01

    One of the features of advanced life sciences research in recent years has been its internationalisation, with countries such as China and South Korea considered 'emerging biotech' locations. As a result, cross-continental collaborations are becoming common generating moves towards ethical and legal standardisation under the rubric of 'global bioethics'. Such a 'global', 'Western' or 'universal' bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips with the ethical challenges that inter-continental biomedical research collaborations generate. In particular we ask how national systems of ethical governance of life science research might cope with increasingly global research collaborations with a focus on Sino-European collaboration. We propose four 'spheres' - deliberation, regulation, oversight and interaction - as a helpful way to conceptualise national systems of ethical governance. Using a workshop-based mapping methodology (workshops held in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Xian, Shenzen and London) we identified three specific ethical challenges arising from cross-continental research collaborations: (1) ambiguity as to which regulations are applicable; (2) lack of ethical review capacity not only among ethical review board members but also collaborating scientists; (3) already complex, researcher-research subject interaction is further complicated when many nationalities are involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Two-Component Signaling System VgrRS Directly Senses Extracytoplasmic and Intracellular Iron to Control Bacterial Adaptation under Iron Depleted Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both iron starvation and excess are detrimental to cellular life, especially for animal and plant pathogens since they always live in iron-limited environments produced by host immune responses. However, how organisms sense and respond to iron is incompletely understood. Herein, we reveal that in the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, VgrS (also named ColS is a membrane-bound receptor histidine kinase that senses extracytoplasmic iron limitation in the periplasm, while its cognate response regulator, VgrR (ColR, detects intracellular iron excess. Under iron-depleted conditions, dissociation of Fe3+ from the periplasmic sensor region of VgrS activates the VgrS autophosphorylation and subsequent phosphotransfer to VgrR, an OmpR-family transcription factor that regulates bacterial responses to take up iron. VgrR-VgrS regulon and the consensus DNA binding motif of the transcription factor VgrR were dissected by comparative proteomic and ChIP-seq analyses, which revealed that in reacting to iron-depleted environments, VgrR directly or indirectly controls the expressions of hundreds of genes that are involved in various physiological cascades, especially those associated with iron-uptake. Among them, we demonstrated that the phosphorylated VgrR tightly represses the transcription of a special TonB-dependent receptor gene, tdvA. This regulation is a critical prerequisite for efficient iron uptake and bacterial virulence since activation of tdvA transcription is detrimental to these processes. When the intracellular iron accumulates, the VgrR-Fe2+ interaction dissociates not only the binding between VgrR and the tdvA promoter, but also the interaction between VgrR and VgrS. This relieves the repression in tdvA transcription to impede continuous iron uptake and avoids possible toxic effects of excessive iron accumulation. Our results revealed a signaling system that directly senses both extracytoplasmic and intracellular

  9. Globalizing Social Welfare and Labor Markets in East and Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2007-01-01

    experienced social pressures for restricting the workings of globalization: The first is the fear of job losses through the mechanisms of outsourcing and imports of cheapers industrial products. The second is the anxiety of ethnic and cultural dilution due to the emergence of new patters of labor migration...... and workers negotiate for the promotion of national development and the creation of a civil society which might minimize the adverse effects of globalization! This paper explores the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor markets and social welfare in East and Southeast Asia. It draws upon recent...... debates in the framework of comparative political economy over the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor market regulation and social welfare adjustment. The focus is on the radical change of work arrangements with an accompanying loss of the social relevance of the work place and of labour...

  10. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Davies, Stuart J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Bennett, Amy C. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Muller-Landau, Helene C. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Joseph Wright, S. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Abu Salim, Kamariah [Univ. of Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei). Faculty of Science. Environmental and Life Sciences; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Alonso, Alfonso [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Washington, DC (United States). National Zoological Park. Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Baltzer, Jennifer L. [Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Basset, Yves [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Bourg, Norman A. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Broadbent, Eben N. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Brockelman, Warren Y. [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Biology; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh [Dept. of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Bangkok (Thailand). Research Office; Burslem, David F. R. P. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences; Butt, Nathalie [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Cao, Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Cardenas, Dairon [Sinchi Amazonic Inst. of Scientific Research, Bogota (Colombia); Chuyong, George B. [Univ. of Buea (Cameroon). Dept. of Botany and Plant Physiology; Clay, Keith [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Cordell, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI (United States). Inst. of Pacific Islands Forestry; Dattaraja, Handanakere S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deng, Xiaobao [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Detto, Matteo [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Du, Xiaojun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Duque, Alvaro [Univ. Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Forestales; Erikson, David L. [National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Ewango, Corneille E. N. [Okapi Wildlife Reserve, Epulu (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Centre de Formation et de Recherche en Conservation Forestiere (CEFRECOF); Fischer, Gunter A. [Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Tai Po, Hong Kong (China); Fletcher, Christine [Forest Research Inst. Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor (Malaysia); Foster, Robin B. [The Field Museum, Chicago, IL (United States). Botany Dept.; Giardina, Christian P. [USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI (United States). Inst. of Pacific Islands Forestry; Gilbert, Gregory S. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Environmental Studies Dept.; Gunatilleke, Nimal [Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Botany; Gunatilleke, Savitri [Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Botany; Hao, Zhanqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shenyang (China). State Key Lab. of Forest and Soil Ecology. Inst. of Applied Ecology; Hargrove, William W. [USDA-Forest Service Station Headquarters, Asheville, NC (United States). Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center; Hart, Terese B. [Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project; Hau, Billy C. H. [Univ. of Hong Kong (China). School of Biological Sciences. Kadoorie Inst.; He, Fangliang [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Howe, Robert W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Natural and Applied Sciences; Hubbell, Stephen P. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Inman-Narahari, Faith M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources; Jansen, Patrick A. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Resource Ecology Group; Jiang, Mingxi [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Wuhan (China). Wuhan Botanical Garden; Johnson, Daniel J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Kanzaki, Mamoru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture; Kassim, Abdul Rahman [Forest Research Inst. Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor (Malaysia); Kenfack, David [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Kibet, Staline [National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya); Univ. of Nairobi (Kenya). Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology Dept.; Kinnaird, Margaret F. [Mpala Research Centre, Nanyuki (Kenya); Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY (United States). Global Conservation Programs; Korte, Lisa [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Washington, DC (United States). National Zoological Park. Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Kral, Kamil [Silva Tarouca Research Inst., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Kumar, Jitendra [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Larson, Andrew J. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States). College of Forestry and Conservation. Dept. of Forest Management; Li, Yide [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou (China). Research Inst. of Tropical Forestry; Li, Xiankun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Guilin (China). Guangxi Inst. of Botany; Liu, Shirong [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing (China). Research Inst. of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection; Lum, Shawn K. Y. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). National Inst. of Education. Natural Sciences and Science Education Academic Group; Lutz, James A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Wildland Resources Dept.; Ma, Keping [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Maddalena, Damian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Makana, Jean-Remy [Wildlife Conservation Society, Brazzaville (Democratic Republic of the Congo); Malhi, Yadvinder [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Marthews, Toby [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Mat Serudin, Rafizah [Univ. of Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei). Faculty of Science. Environmental and Life Sciences; McMahon, Sean M. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States). Forest Ecology Group; McShea, William J. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Memiaghe, Hervé R. [Inst. de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale, Libreville (Gabon). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique; Mi, Xiangcheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Mizuno, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture; Morecroft, Michael [Natural England, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Myers, Jonathan A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology; Novotny, Vojtech [New Guinea Binatang Research Centre, Madang (Papua New Guinea); Univ. of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Faculty of Science. Biology Centre; de Oliveira, Alexandre A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Biosciences. Ecology Dept.; Ong, Perry S. [Univ. of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Biology; Orwig, David A. [Harvard Univ., Petersham, MA (United States). Harvard Forest; Ostertag, Rebecca [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States). Dept. of Biology; den Ouden, Jan [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group; Parker, Geoffrey G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States). Forest Ecology Group; Phillips, Richard P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Sack, Lawren [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Sainge, Moses N. [Tropical Plant Exploration Group (TroPEG), Mundemba (Cameroon); Sang, Weiguo [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Sri-ngernyuang, Kriangsak [Maejo Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design; Sukumar, Raman [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Sun, I-Fang [National Dong Hwa Univ., Hualian (Taiwan). Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies; Sungpalee, Witchaphart [Maejo Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design; Suresh, Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Tan, Sylvester [Sarawak Forest Dept., Kuching (Malaysia); Thomas, Sean C. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry; Thomas, Duncan W. [Washington State Univ., Vancouver, WA (United States). School of Biological Sciences; Thompson, Jill [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik, Scotland (United Kingdom); Univ. of Puerto Rico Rio Pedras, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Environmental Science. Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies; Turner, Benjamin L. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Uriarte, Maria [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology; Valencia, Renato [Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Ecuador, Quito (Ecuador). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Vallejo, Marta I. [Inst. Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota (Colombia); Vicentini, Alberto [National Inst. of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus (Brazil); Vrška, Tomáš [Silva Tarouca Research Inst., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Wang, Xihua [East China Normal Univ. (ECNU), Shanghai (China). School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences; Wang, Xugao [Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project; Weiblen, George [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology; Wolf, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Biology. Dept. of Natural and Applied Sciences; Xu, Han [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou (China). Research Inst. of Tropical Forestry; Yap, Sandra [Univ. of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Biology; Zimmerman, Jess [Univ. of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Environmental Science. Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies

    2014-09-25

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services, including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamic research sites useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. The broad suite of measurements made at the CTFS-ForestGEO sites make it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. ongoing research across the network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in a era of global change

  11. Global transcriptional repression in C. elegans germline precursors by regulated sequestration of TAF-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Nishi, Yuichi; Robertson, Scott M; Lin, Rueyling

    2008-10-03

    In C. elegans, four asymmetric divisions, beginning with the zygote (P0), generate transcriptionally repressed germline blastomeres (P1-P4) and somatic sisters that become transcriptionally active. The protein PIE-1 represses transcription in the later germline blastomeres but not in the earlier germline blastomeres P0 and P1. We show here that OMA-1 and OMA-2, previously shown to regulate oocyte maturation, repress transcription in P0 and P1 by binding to and sequestering in the cytoplasm TAF-4, a component critical for assembly of TFIID and the pol II preinitiation complex. OMA-1/2 binding to TAF-4 is developmentally regulated, requiring phosphorylation by the DYRK kinase MBK-2, which is activated at meiosis II after fertilization. OMA-1/2 are normally degraded after the first mitosis, but ectopic expression of wild-type OMA-1 is sufficient to repress transcription in both somatic and later germline blastomeres. We propose that phosphorylation by MBK-2 serves as a developmental switch, converting OMA-1/2 from oocyte to embryo regulators.

  12. The scaling structure of the global road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Emanuele; Giometto, Andrea; Shai, Saray; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mucha, Peter J; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Because of increasing global urbanization and its immediate consequences, including changes in patterns of food demand, circulation and land use, the next century will witness a major increase in the extent of paved roads built worldwide. To model the effects of this increase, it is crucial to understand whether possible self-organized patterns are inherent in the global road network structure. Here, we use the largest updated database comprising all major roads on the Earth, together with global urban and cropland inventories, to suggest that road length distributions within croplands are indistinguishable from urban ones, once rescaled to account for the difference in mean road length. Such similarity extends to road length distributions within urban or agricultural domains of a given area. We find two distinct regimes for the scaling of the mean road length with the associated area, holding in general at small and at large values of the latter. In suitably large urban and cropland domains, we find that mean and total road lengths increase linearly with their domain area, differently from earlier suggestions. Scaling regimes suggest that simple and universal mechanisms regulate urban and cropland road expansion at the global scale. As such, our findings bear implications for global road infrastructure growth based on land-use change and for planning policies sustaining urban expansions.

  13. Financial Globalization and the New Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Financial globalization, a complex phenomenon that has multiple facets, is directly influenced by some aspects characterizing the current stage of capitalism. In order to decrypt the set of such interferences, the consequences have been emphasized of the excessive trust in the market mechanisms, the role of deregulation and liberalization in promoting a new economic direction, as well as other theses representing the essence of neo-liberal revolution. The realities specific to the last three decays of the 20th century generated enhanced criticism regarding the myth of pure and perfect transparency, the market inability of self-regulation and the illusion of perfect information.The excesses of neo-liberalism imposed the need for a new paradigm, concretized in the mutations in the nature and mechanisms of capitalism, the domination of finances and knowledge, a paradigm in which market globalization and financial profitability logic are becoming priorities.In the second part of the article the conditions are analyzed that favored the occurrence and expansion of financial globalization, as well as the multiple implications of such over the micro and macro-economical mechanisms. A particular focus is on describing the characteristics of financial globalization in the current phase: the occurrence of new financial players (institutional investors and tools, markets de-localization and un-intermediated financial operations. As a conclusion, the tendencies are noticed of the financial world economy to become fragile, of fading connections between the financial and the real economy, of enhanced risk for financial accidents to propagate. Based on these observations, the extent is emphasized to which financial globalization provides the possibility of the financial crises to occur and expand.

  14. Business regulation and economic growth in the Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engjell PERE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Actually economic policies in many countries aimed to stimulate their economic growth, particularly after negative impact of the global economic crisis. In this regards, fiscal regulation are an important aspect of those policies, that can promote or obstacle the economic growth in general. In this point of view this paper aims to analyze the system of administration rules in different Western Balkans Countries, (which includes Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia (FYROM, Montenegro and Serbia. Moreover, a special attention is given investigation of the regulation and administrative facilitation aspects of doing business in the above-mentioned countries, whether this system stimulates, or not, the development of private business and economic growth.The paper is divided into three main sections. The first part provides a retrospective of economic growth in the Western Balkan countries and the dependence of this growth on global economic development. The second part proceeds with the investigations of the impact of administrative regulation on economic growth. The third part, based on an econometric model, will analyze the correlation between economic growth and elaborated indicators which present the level of business administrative regulation system. Furthermore, this last section discusses the results and concludes. In this analysis, the paper is based substantially on the data base of "Doing Business 2013" (World Bank.

  15. Industrial lightning. Towards a global cost approach of an industrial lightning installation; Eclairage industriel. Pour une approche en cout global d'une installation d'eclairage industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document proposes an approach of the global cost of an industrial lightning installation and provides information on the benefits and its associated performance of a good industrial lightning, examples of applications, the available products and the regulation texts of the domain. (A.L.B.)

  16. The global health law trilogy: towards a safer, healthier, and fairer world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O; DeBartolo, Mary Clare; Katz, Rebecca

    2017-10-21

    Global health advocates often turn to medicine and science for solutions to enduring health risks, but law is also a powerful tool. No state acting alone can ward off health threats that span borders, requiring international solutions. A trilogy of global health law-the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations (2005), and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework-strives for a safer, healthier, and fairer world. Yet, these international agreements are not well understood, and contain gaps in scope and enforceability. Moreover, major health concerns remain largely unregulated at the international level, such as non-communicable diseases, mental health, and injuries. Here, we offer reforms for this global health law trilogy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel cyclic di-GMP effectors of the YajQ protein family control bacterial virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-qi An

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bis-(3',5' cyclic di-guanylate (cyclic di-GMP is a key bacterial second messenger that is implicated in the regulation of many critical processes that include motility, biofilm formation and virulence. Cyclic di-GMP influences diverse functions through interaction with a range of effectors. Our knowledge of these effectors and their different regulatory actions is far from complete, however. Here we have used an affinity pull-down assay using cyclic di-GMP-coupled magnetic beads to identify cyclic di-GMP binding proteins in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. This analysis identified XC_3703, a protein of the YajQ family, as a potential cyclic di-GMP receptor. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the purified XC_3703 protein bound cyclic di-GMP with a high affinity (K(d∼2 µM. Mutation of XC_3703 led to reduced virulence of Xcc to plants and alteration in biofilm formation. Yeast two-hybrid and far-western analyses showed that XC_3703 was able to interact with XC_2801, a transcription factor of the LysR family. Mutation of XC_2801 and XC_3703 had partially overlapping effects on the transcriptome of Xcc, and both affected virulence. Electromobility shift assays showed that XC_3703 positively affected the binding of XC_2801 to the promoters of target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by cyclic di-GMP. Genetic and functional analysis of YajQ family members from the human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed that they also specifically bound cyclic di-GMP and contributed to virulence in model systems. The findings thus identify a new class of cyclic di-GMP effector that regulates bacterial virulence.

  18. The effects of regulation, legislation and policy on consumption of edible insects in the global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilderspin, Dana Elisabeth; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz

    2018-01-01

    With an expanding edible insect industry, regulators, legislators, and policy-makers face increasingly difficult decisions regarding trade, production, harvesting, and consumption. It is becoming clearer that no panacea or one-size-fits-all solutions exist for regulating the industry, and that so...

  19. Water balance creates a threshold in soil pH at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slessarev, E. W.; Lin, Y.; Bingham, N. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Dai, Y.; Schimel, J. P.; Chadwick, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil pH regulates the capacity of soils to store and supply nutrients, and thus contributes substantially to controlling productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. However, soil pH is not an independent regulator of soil fertility—rather, it is ultimately controlled by environmental forcing. In particular, small changes in water balance cause a steep transition from alkaline to acid soils across natural climate gradients. Although the processes governing this threshold in soil pH are well understood, the threshold has not been quantified at the global scale, where the influence of climate may be confounded by the effects of topography and mineralogy. Here we evaluate the global relationship between water balance and soil pH by extracting a spatially random sample (n = 20,000) from an extensive compilation of 60,291 soil pH measurements. We show that there is an abrupt transition from alkaline to acid soil pH that occurs at the point where mean annual precipitation begins to exceed mean annual potential evapotranspiration. We evaluate deviations from this global pattern, showing that they may result from seasonality, climate history, erosion and mineralogy. These results demonstrate that climate creates a nonlinear pattern in soil solution chemistry at the global scale; they also reveal conditions under which soils maintain pH out of equilibrium with modern climate.

  20. Global health and global health ethics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benatar, S. R; Brock, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    ...? What are our responsibilities and how can we improve global health? Global Health and Global Health Ethics addresses these questions from the perspective of a range of disciplines, including medicine, philosophy and the social sciences...

  1. Review of the Current State of UAV Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stöcker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available UAVs—unmanned aerial vehicles—facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the importance, impact, and diversity of UAV regulations, this paper provides an exploratory investigation of UAV regulations on the global scale. For this, the methodological approach consists of a research synthesis of UAV regulations, including a thorough literature review and a comparative analysis of national regulatory frameworks. Similarities and contrasting elements in the various national UAV regulations are explored including their statuses from the perspectives of past, present, and future trends. Since the early 2000s, countries have gradually established national legal frameworks. Although all UAV regulations have one common goal—minimizing the risks to other airspace users and to both people and property on the ground—the results reveal distinct variations in all the compared variables. Furthermore, besides the clear presence of legal frameworks, market forces such as industry design standards and reliable information about UAVs as public goods are expected to shape future developments.

  2. The Global Arena of Food Law: Emerging Contours of a Meta-Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Meulen (Bernd)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFood is one of the most regulated social and economic sectors. At the global level several organisations such as the UN, FAO, WHO, the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the WTO play a role in food governance through formulating and enforcing rules regarding production, manufacturing,

  3. Can warming particles enter global climate discussions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Tami C

    2007-01-01

    'Soot' or 'black carbon', which comes from incomplete combustion, absorbs light and warms the atmosphere. Although there have been repeated suggestions that reduction of black carbon could be a viable part of decreasing global warming, it has not yet been considered when choosing actions to reduce climatic impact. In this paper, I examine four conceptual barriers to the consideration of aerosols in global agreements. I conclude that some of the major objections to considering aerosols under hemispheric or global agreements are illusory because: (1) a few major sources will be addressed by local regulations, but the remainder may not be addressed by traditional air quality management; (2) climate forcing by carbon particles is not limited to 'hot spots'-about 90% of it occurs at relatively low concentrations; (3) while aerosol science is complex, the most salient characteristics of aerosol behavior can be condensed into tractable metrics including, but not limited to, the global warming potential; (4) despite scientific uncertainties, reducing all aerosols from major sources of black carbon will reduce direct climate warming with a very high probability. This change in climate forcing accounts for at least 25% of the accompanying CO 2 forcing with significant probability (25% for modern diesel engines, 90% for superemitting diesels, and 55% for cooking with biofuels). Thus, this fraction of radiative forcing should not be ignored

  4. Threatened biodiversity, the nema eia regulations and cultivation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Until such listing, unresolved legal questions that inhibited the effective consideration of biodiversity in agricultural decision-making prior to the promulgation of the NEMA EIA regulations are likely to persist—to the detriment of a globally imperilled biodiversity. This contribution sets out to identify some of the key issues that ...

  5. Implications of the global financial crisis for the response to diseases of poverty within overall health sector development: the case of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    The global financial crisis poses a threat to global health, and may exacerbate diseases of poverty, e.g. HIV, malaria and tuberculosis. Exploring the implications of the global financial crisis for the health sector response to tuberculosis is useful to illustrate the practical problems and propose possible solutions. The response to tuberculosis is considered in the context of health sector development. Problems and solutions are considered in five key areas: financing, prioritization, government regulation, integration and decentralization. Securing health gains in global tuberculosis control depends on protecting expenditure by governments of countries badly affected by tuberculosis and by donors, taking measures to increase efficiencies, prioritizing health expenditures and strengthening government regulation. Lessons learned will be valuable for stakeholders involved in the health sector response to tuberculosis and other diseases of poverty.

  6. Global budgets in Maryland: early evidence on revenues, expenses, and margins in regulated and unregulated services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmmose, Margit; Mortensen, Karoline; Holm, Claus

    2018-01-01

    suggest that regulated profit ratios for treatment hospitals increased (from 5% in2007 to 8% in 2013) and regulated expense-to-gross patient revenue ratios decreased (75%in 2007 and 68% in 2013) relative to the controls. Simultaneously, the profit margins fortreatment hospitals’ unregulated services...

  7. Studies of global warming and global energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO 2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO 2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

  8. Altered global gene expression profiles in human gastrointestinal epithelial Caco2 cells exposed to nanosilver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saura C. Sahu

    Full Text Available Extensive consumer exposure to food- and cosmetics-related consumer products containing nanosilver is of public safety concern. Therefore, there is a need for suitable in vitro models and sensitive predictive rapid screening methods to assess their toxicity. Toxicogenomic profile showing subtle changes in gene expressions following nanosilver exposure is a sensitive toxicological endpoint for this purpose. We evaluated the Caco2 cells and global gene expression profiles as tools for predictive rapid toxicity screening of nanosilver. We evaluated and compared the gene expression profiles of Caco-2 cells exposed to 20 nm and 50 nm nanosilver at a concentration 2.5 μg/ml. The global gene expression analysis of Caco2 cells exposed to 20 nm nanosilver showed that a total of 93 genes were altered at 4 h exposure, out of which 90 genes were up-regulated and 3 genes were down-regulated. The 24 h exposure of 20 nm silver altered 15 genes in Caco2 cells, out of which 14 were up-regulated and one was down-regulated. The most pronounced changes in gene expression were detected at 4 h. The greater size (50 nm nanosilver at 4 h exposure altered more genes by more different pathways than the smaller (20 nm one. Metallothioneins and heat shock proteins were highly up-regulated as a result of exposure to both the nanosilvers. The cellular pathways affected by the nanosilver exposure is likely to lead to increased toxicity. The results of our study presented here suggest that the toxicogenomic characterization of Caco2 cells is a valuable in vitro tool for assessing toxicity of nanomaterials such as nanosilver. Keywords: Nanosilver, Silver nanoparticles, Nanoparticles, Toxicogenomics, DNA microarray, Global gene expression profiles, Caco2 cells

  9. Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurs to Win Their Sustainable Competitive Advantages within Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Gunawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss globalization’s impacts on the world’s financial characteristics today. The findings inform that globalization promotes entrepreneurship because through globalization, financial markets have grown to be more efficient and flexible which can be seen through lower transaction costs, less binding financial regulations than before, less governments’ intervention within private sector and national economy structures, increasing number of market participants which leads to more access to information. Thus, globalization does create a better environment for entrepreneurs in achieving their competitive advantages and further to sustain them. This research was done by collecting data from papers, journals, modules, and internet databases. The data was analyzed and then concluded. Having applied the analytical process, it can be concluded that globalization does promotes entrepreneurship because it enables entrepreneurs to gain greater benefits at a certain degree of freedom than before in order to achieve and maintain their competitive advantages.

  10. Global warming: Towards a strategy for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A discussion paper is provided as background to a proposed public review of a strategy for Ontario's response to global warming. Global warming arises from the generation of greenhouse gases, which come from the use of fossil fuels, the use of chlorofluorocarbons, and deforestation. Energy policy is the backbone of achieving climate stability since the burning of fossil fuels releases most of the greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide. Canada is, by international standards, a very energy-intensive country and is among the world's largest emitters of carbon dioxide on a per capita basis. Ontario is the largest energy-using province in Canada, and fossil fuels represent over 80% of provincial energy use. A proposed goal for Ontario is to provide leadership in stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases, while minimizing the social, economic, and environmental costs in Ontario of adapting to global warming. A proposed first step to address global warming is to achieve reductions in expected emissions of the greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, so that levels by the year 2000 are lower than in 1989. Current policies and regulations helping to reduce the greenhouse effect include some of the current controls on automotive emissions and the adoption by the provincial electric utility of targets to reduce electricity demand. New initiatives include establishment of minimum energy efficiency standards and reduction of peak-day electricity use. Action steps for future consideration are detailed in the categories of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, carbon dioxide absorption, and research and analysis into global warming

  11. Globalisation and health: the need for a global vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted; Labonté, Ronald; De Vogli, Roberto

    2008-11-08

    The reduction of health inequities is an ethical imperative, according to the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH). Drawing on detailed multidisciplinary evidence assembled by the Globalization Knowledge Network that supported the CSDH, we define globalisation in mainly economic terms. We consider and reject the presumption that globalisation will yield health benefits as a result of its contribution to rapid economic growth and associated reductions in poverty. Expanding on this point, we describe four disequalising dynamics by which contemporary globalisation causes divergence: the global reorganisation of production and emergence of a global labour-market; the increasing importance of binding trade agreements and processes to resolve disputes; the rapidly increasing mobility of financial capital; and the persistence of debt crises in developing countries. Generic policies designed to reduce health inequities are described with reference to the three Rs of redistribution, regulation, and rights. We conclude with an examination of the interconnected intellectual and institutional challenges to reduction of health inequities that are created by contemporary globalisation.

  12. Impact of regulatory science on global public health

    OpenAIRE

    Meghal Patel; Margaret Ann Miller

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted followi...

  13. Global Environmental Governance as a Regulatory and Guarantee Criterion for Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Schmitt Siqueira Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the theme of Global Environmental Governance to the achievement of Environmental Justice, presenting as general objective to analyze the importance of the first in its public, business and civil society spheres for the regulation and guarantee of the second. Noting up at the end that the Environmental Justice, as a common humanitarian problem, presents itself as the main objective of Global Environmental Governance. In the methodology was adopted the inductive method, having been applied the techniques of the referent, category, operational concepts, bibliographical research and file.

  14. El tratamiento jurídico de las migraciones internacionales a través de las regulaciones globalistas de gestión de mano de obra (The Legal Treatment of International Migrations Through Globalized Labour Management Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Barbero González

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the emerging global tendency to regulate international migrations, not by regarding a universal humanitarian and labour Law, but according to neoliberal normative production standards: flexibility, informality, governance… Supranational institutions such as the WTO, the IOM or the EU are establishing normative agreements (GATS, the NAFTA, the EEC… that regulate migrations as labour and in profit of the global markets. The new contractual models become fragmented titles that recognize rights as immigrant workers and not as a persons or human beings, placing in a legal limbo those who migrate outside the established mechanisms and that not meet the qualification requirements of the global workforce. This text is addressed to the analysis of the categorization of migrants as disposable labour in the global management of the flows.Este texto está dedicado al análisis de la categorización del migrante como mera “mano de obra” en la gestión global de los flujos. Existe una tendencia global a regular las migraciones, no desde un Derecho formal universal, sino desde lo que podría ser denominado en sentido amplio “Soft Law”. Así, las distintas normas que, a nivel mundial, se encargan de ordenar las migraciones son creadas de acuerdo a los criterios de producción jurídica característicos de la etapa contemporánea de globalización neoliberal: flexibilidad, informalidad, descentralización, gobernanza, etc. Instituciones supranacionales como la OIM, la OMC o la Unión Europea (con la intervención de los Estados nación o sin ella establecen estándares normativos (el AGCS o GATS, el TLCNA, la Blue Card, etc, mediante los cuales se regulan los flujos de migrantes atendiendo a las necesidades del mercado mundial. Los nuevos modelos contractuales se convierten en títulos fragmentados reconocedores de derechos en tanto que trabajador inmigrante y no como persona o ser humano, situando de esta manera, en un penoso

  15. Proteomic Analysis of a Global Regulator GacS Sensor Kinase in the Rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Hong Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The GacS/GacA system in the root colonizer Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 is a key regulator of many traits relevant to the biocontrol function of this bacterium. Proteomic analysis revealed 12 proteins were down-regulated in a gacS mutant of P. chlororaphis O6. These GacS-regulated proteins functioned in combating oxidative stress, cell signaling, biosynthesis of secondary metabolism, and secretion. The extent of regulation was shown by real-time RT-PCR to vary between the genes. Mutants of P. chlororaphis O6 were generated in two GacS-regulated genes, trpE, encoding a protein involved in tryptophan synthesis, and prnA, required for conversion of tryptophan to the antimicrobial compound, pyrrolitrin. Failure of the trpE mutant to induce systemic resistance in tobacco against a foliar pathogen causing soft rot, Pectobacterium carotovorum SCCI, correlated with reduced colonization of root surfaces implying an inadequate supply of tryptophan to support growth. Although colonization was not affected by mutation in the prnA gene, induction of systemic resistance was reduced, suggesting that pyrrolnitrin was an activator of plant resistance as well as an antifungal agent. Study of mutants in the other GacS-regulated proteins will indicate further the features required for biocontrol-activity in this rhizobacterium.

  16. the civil society and the regulation of the extractive industry in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    in Global Environmental Governance” in Daniel Esty & Maria Ivanova (eds.) ... 7 Bridget Hutter & Joan O'Mahony, “Business Regulation: Reviewing the Regulatory. Potential of ... Institutions in oil Communities” (2008) 55 (1) Africa Today, p. 89.

  17. The PhoBR two-component system regulates antibiotic biosynthesis in Serratia in response to phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Secondary metabolism in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (Serratia 39006) is controlled via a complex network of regulators, including a LuxIR-type (SmaIR) quorum sensing (QS) system. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism by which phosphate limitation controls biosynthesis of two antibiotic secondary metabolites, prodigiosin and carbapenem, in Serratia 39006. Results We demonstrate that a mutation in the high affinity phosphate transporter pstSCAB-phoU, believed to mimic low phosphate conditions, causes upregulation of secondary metabolism and QS in Serratia 39006, via the PhoBR two-component system. Phosphate limitation also activated secondary metabolism and QS in Serratia 39006. In addition, a pstS mutation resulted in upregulation of rap. Rap, a putative SlyA/MarR-family transcriptional regulator, shares similarity with the global regulator RovA (regulator of virulence) from Yersina spp. and is an activator of secondary metabolism in Serratia 39006. We demonstrate that expression of rap, pigA-O (encoding the prodigiosin biosynthetic operon) and smaI are controlled via PhoBR in Serratia 39006. Conclusion Phosphate limitation regulates secondary metabolism in Serratia 39006 via multiple inter-linked pathways, incorporating transcriptional control mediated by three important global regulators, PhoB, SmaR and Rap. PMID:19476633

  18. The PhoBR two-component system regulates antibiotic biosynthesis in Serratia in response to phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everson Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary metabolism in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (Serratia 39006 is controlled via a complex network of regulators, including a LuxIR-type (SmaIR quorum sensing (QS system. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism by which phosphate limitation controls biosynthesis of two antibiotic secondary metabolites, prodigiosin and carbapenem, in Serratia 39006. Results We demonstrate that a mutation in the high affinity phosphate transporter pstSCAB-phoU, believed to mimic low phosphate conditions, causes upregulation of secondary metabolism and QS in Serratia 39006, via the PhoBR two-component system. Phosphate limitation also activated secondary metabolism and QS in Serratia 39006. In addition, a pstS mutation resulted in upregulation of rap. Rap, a putative SlyA/MarR-family transcriptional regulator, shares similarity with the global regulator RovA (regulator of virulence from Yersina spp. and is an activator of secondary metabolism in Serratia 39006. We demonstrate that expression of rap, pigA-O (encoding the prodigiosin biosynthetic operon and smaI are controlled via PhoBR in Serratia 39006. Conclusion Phosphate limitation regulates secondary metabolism in Serratia 39006 via multiple inter-linked pathways, incorporating transcriptional control mediated by three important global regulators, PhoB, SmaR and Rap.

  19. Chemical cues mediate species recognition in field crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances eTyler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs are important in mate choice in many insects, and may be used for species recognition if CHC profiles differ between potentially hybridizing species. In the sibling field cricket species Gryllus campestris and G. bimaculatus, females of G. bimaculatus are tolerant towards G. campestris males and can mate with them. However, G. campestris females are highly aggressive towards heterospecific G. bimaculatus males, and matings between them never happen. We examined whether cricket females might use CHCs to determine the species identity of their potential mates. We firstly analyzed the cuticular chemical profile by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to assess the potential of CHCs to be used for species recognition in these crickets. We then manipulated females’ ability to detect chemical cues by carrying out chemical ablation of the antennae, and measured changes in aggressive responses to heterospecific males. We show that there are significant interspecies differences in CHC expression for both sexes, and that females with chemically ablated antennae reduce aggressive behavior towards heterospecific males. Our findings support the prediction that cuticular semiochemicals can play a key role in reproductive isolation between closely related insect species.

  20. Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Reveals Shp-2 Phosphatase-Dependent Regulators of Pdgf Receptor Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Papetti, Moreno; Pfeiffer, Anamarija

    2018-01-01

    Despite its low cellular abundance, phosphotyrosine (pTyr) regulates numerous cell signaling pathways in health and disease. We applied comprehensive phosphoproteomics to unravel differential regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-initiated signaling networks upon activation by Pdgf-ββ, Fgf-2...... of Pdgfr pTyr signaling. Application of a recently introduced allosteric Shp-2 inhibitor revealed global regulation of the Pdgf-dependent tyrosine phosphoproteome, which significantly impaired cell migration. In addition, we present a list of hundreds of Shp-2-dependent targets and putative substrates...

  1. Global environmental change and the biology of arbuscular mycorrhizas: gaps and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitter, A.H.; Heinemeyer, A.; Husband, R.

    2004-01-01

    Our ability to make predictions about the impact of global environmental change on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and on their role in regulating biotic response to such change is seriously hampered by our lack of knowledge of the basic biology of these ubiquitous organisms. Current information...

  2. The globalization of energy activities: what are the issues?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globalization in many sectors such as information, research and development, finance, technology, etc. led to the implementation of transnational networks to facilitate decision-making. The result is that governments are left to regulation functions. This globalization also led to a larger gap between North and South. Developing countries represent 80 per cent of world population, yet only produce less than 33 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). In the energy sector, developing countries have limited access to energy and use it less efficiently, since they do not master the latest technologies. States must retain their power to regulate this sector to ensure competition takes place in a fair environment within specified guidelines. Licenses must be issued through bidding or auctioned off, but in every case the State must ensure that commitments are met. It must also ensure that pricing is fair. Access for third parties to the power distribution system must be adequate, especially when the company operates in a monopoly environment. The State ends up managing a new category of risks (called major risks) that the private sector is not willing to consider, for example global warming or the management of nuclear waste. Confidence in market mechanisms is limited. Energy exchanges and others represent an economic growth factor and a potential guarantee for world peace. Who is responsible for the social costs associated with economic growth, and what are the solutions? A major issue left to decision-makers is the sharing of wealth within humankind and nations, and the State has a vital role to play. 5 refs., 5 tabs

  3. CodY-Dependent Regulation of Sporulation in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Kathryn L; Edwards, Adrianne N; Daou, Nadine; Bouillaut, Laurent; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile must form a spore to survive outside the gastrointestinal tract. The factors that trigger sporulation in C. difficile remain poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that a link exists between nutritional status and sporulation initiation in C. difficile In this study, we investigated the impact of the global nutritional regulator CodY on sporulation in C. difficile strains from the historical 012 ribotype and the current epidemic 027 ribotype. Sporulation frequencies were increased in both backgrounds, demonstrating that CodY represses sporulation in C. difficile The 027 codY mutant exhibited a greater increase in spore formation than the 012 codY mutant. To determine the role of CodY in the observed sporulation phenotypes, we examined several factors that are known to influence sporulation in C. difficile Using transcriptional reporter fusions and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, we found that two loci associated with the initiation of sporulation, opp and sinR, are regulated by CodY. The data demonstrate that CodY is a repressor of sporulation in C. difficile and that the impact of CodY on sporulation and expression of specific genes is significantly influenced by the strain background. These results suggest that the variability of CodY-dependent regulation is an important contributor to virulence and sporulation in current epidemic isolates. This report provides further evidence that nutritional state, virulence, and sporulation are linked in C. difficile This study sought to examine the relationship between nutrition and sporulation in C. difficile by examining the global nutritional regulator CodY. CodY is a known virulence and nutritional regulator of C. difficile, but its role in sporulation was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CodY is a negative regulator of sporulation in two different ribotypes of C. difficile We also demonstrate that CodY regulates known effectors of sporulation, Opp and Sin

  4. Global sensitivity analysis of a dynamic model for gene expression in Drosophila embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Gregory D.; Drewell, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that gene regulation is a tightly controlled process in early organismal development. However, the roles of key processes involved in this regulation, such as transcription and translation, are less well understood, and mathematical modeling approaches in this field are still in their infancy. In recent studies, biologists have taken precise measurements of protein and mRNA abundance to determine the relative contributions of key factors involved in regulating protein levels in mammalian cells. We now approach this question from a mathematical modeling perspective. In this study, we use a simple dynamic mathematical model that incorporates terms representing transcription, translation, mRNA and protein decay, and diffusion in an early Drosophila embryo. We perform global sensitivity analyses on this model using various different initial conditions and spatial and temporal outputs. Our results indicate that transcription and translation are often the key parameters to determine protein abundance. This observation is in close agreement with the experimental results from mammalian cells for various initial conditions at particular time points, suggesting that a simple dynamic model can capture the qualitative behavior of a gene. Additionally, we find that parameter sensitivites are temporally dynamic, illustrating the importance of conducting a thorough global sensitivity analysis across multiple time points when analyzing mathematical models of gene regulation. PMID:26157608

  5. Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  6. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  7. CdtR Regulates TcdA and TcdB Production in Clostridium difficile.

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    Shelley A Lyon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a global health burden and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea worldwide, causing severe gastrointestinal disease and death. Three well characterised toxins are encoded by this bacterium in two genetic loci, specifically, TcdB (toxin B and TcdA (toxin A in the Pathogenicity Locus (PaLoc and binary toxin (CDT in the genomically distinct CDT locus (CdtLoc. Toxin production is controlled by regulators specific to each locus. The orphan response regulator, CdtR, encoded within the CdtLoc, up-regulates CDT production. Until now there has been no suggestion that CdtR influences TcdA and TcdB production since it is not carried by all PaLoc-containing strains and CdtLoc is not linked genetically to PaLoc. Here we show that, in addition to CDT, CdtR regulates TcdA and TcdB production but that this effect is strain dependent. Of clinical relevance, CdtR increased the production of TcdA, TcdB and CDT in two epidemic ribotype 027 human strains, modulating their virulence in a mouse infection model. Strains traditionally from animal lineages, notably ribotype 078 strains, are increasingly being isolated from humans and their genetic and phenotypic analysis is critical for future studies on this important pathogen. Here we show that CdtR-mediated toxin regulation did not occur in other strain backgrounds, including a ribotype 078 animal strain. The finding that toxin gene regulation is strain dependent highlights the regulatory diversity between C. difficile isolates and the importance of studying virulence regulation in diverse lineages and clinically relevant strains. Our work provides the first evidence that TcdA, TcdB and CDT production is linked by a common regulatory mechanism and that CdtR may act as a global regulator of virulence in epidemic 027 strains.

  8. Globalization challenges in a globalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriçi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is an ongoing phenomenon trying to redefine the economic, social, cultural and political dynamics of contemporary societies. The communication among countries and not only them, has been increased expanding political ties, making possible greater economic integration and wider cultural relations combined with augmented global wealth across the world. But, the process of globalization is in wider terms considered a beneficial one, but also viewed by some countries as a menace to national sovereignty and national culture. This paper tries to explain the obstacles to the process of globalization and its attendant benefits. Although globalization has arisen as a result of a more stable world, the factors that had contributed to its rise also help the factions interested to bring destabilization. In an academic approach in this article, between the research and comparative methods, I have been trying to get the maxims between economy, politics and diplomacy in their efforts of affecting the global era.

  9. The Transcriptome of Streptococcus pneumoniae Induced by Local and Global Changes in Supercoiling

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    Adela G. de la Campa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial chromosome is compacted in a manner optimal for DNA transactions to occur. The degree of compaction results from the level of DNA-supercoiling and the presence of nucleoid-binding proteins. DNA-supercoiling is homeostatically maintained by the opposing activities of relaxing DNA topoisomerases and negative supercoil-inducing DNA gyrase. DNA-supercoiling acts as a general cis regulator of transcription, which can be superimposed upon other types of more specific trans regulatory mechanism. Transcriptomic studies on the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, which has a relatively small genome (∼2 Mb and few nucleoid-binding proteins, have been performed under conditions of local and global changes in supercoiling. The response to local changes induced by fluoroquinolone antibiotics, which target DNA gyrase subunit A and/or topoisomerase IV, involves an increase in oxygen radicals which reduces cell viability, while the induction of global supercoiling changes by novobiocin (a DNA gyrase subunit B inhibitor, or by seconeolitsine (a topoisomerase I inhibitor, has revealed the existence of topological domains that specifically respond to such changes. The control of DNA-supercoiling in S. pneumoniae occurs mainly via the regulation of topoisomerase gene transcription: relaxation triggers the up-regulation of gyrase and the down-regulation of topoisomerases I and IV, while hypernegative supercoiling down-regulates the expression of topoisomerase I. Relaxation affects 13% of the genome, with the majority of the genes affected located in 15 domains. Hypernegative supercoiling affects 10% of the genome, with one quarter of the genes affected located in 12 domains. However, all the above domains overlap, suggesting that the chromosome is organized into topological domains with fixed locations. Based on its response to relaxation, the pneumococcal chromosome can be said to be organized into five types of domain: up-regulated, down-regulated

  10. Global Analysis of Photosynthesis Transcriptional Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Saheed; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888), which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen metabolism and regulation of sRNA synthesis. Using global gene expression analysis combined with ChIP-seq, we mapped the regulons of PrrA, CrpK and MppG. PrrA regulates ∼34 operons encoding mainly photosynthesis and electron transport functions, while CrpK, a previously uncharacterized Crp-family protein, regulates genes involved in photosynthesis and maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, CrpK and FnrL share similar DNA binding determinants, possibly explaining our observation of the ability of CrpK to partially compensate for the growth defects of a ΔFnrL mutant. We show that the Rrf2 family protein, MppG, plays an important role in photopigment biosynthesis, as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop with PrrA. Our results reveal a previously unrealized, high degree of combinatorial regulation of photosynthetic genes and significant cross-talk between their transcriptional regulators, while illustrating previously unidentified links between photosynthesis and the maintenance of iron homeostasis. PMID:25503406

  11. Global analysis of photosynthesis transcriptional regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheed Imam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888, which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen metabolism and regulation of sRNA synthesis. Using global gene expression analysis combined with ChIP-seq, we mapped the regulons of PrrA, CrpK and MppG. PrrA regulates ∼34 operons encoding mainly photosynthesis and electron transport functions, while CrpK, a previously uncharacterized Crp-family protein, regulates genes involved in photosynthesis and maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, CrpK and FnrL share similar DNA binding determinants, possibly explaining our observation of the ability of CrpK to partially compensate for the growth defects of a ΔFnrL mutant. We show that the Rrf2 family protein, MppG, plays an important role in photopigment biosynthesis, as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop with PrrA. Our results reveal a previously unrealized, high degree of combinatorial regulation of photosynthetic genes and significant cross-talk between their transcriptional regulators, while illustrating previously unidentified links between photosynthesis and the maintenance of iron homeostasis.

  12. Intelligent Chatter Bot for Regulation Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luise, María Daniela López; Pascal, Andrés; Saad, Ben; Álvarez, Claudia; Pescio, Pablo; Carrilero, Patricio; Malgor, Rafael; Díaz, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    This communication presents a functional prototype, named PTAH, implementing a linguistic model focused on regulations in Spanish. Its global architecture, the reasoning model and short statistics are provided for the prototype. It is mainly a conversational robot linked to an Expert System by a module with many intelligent linguistic filters, implementing the reasoning model of an expert. It is focused on bylaws, regulations, jurisprudence and customized background representing entity mission, vision and profile. This Structure and model are generic enough to self-adapt to any regulatory environment, but as a first step, it was limited to an academic field. This way it is possible to limit the slang and data numbers. The foundations of the linguistic model are also outlined and the way the arch