WorldWideScience

Sample records for camper trucks

  1. Modelling Truck Camper Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramlich, G. R., II; Kobylski, G.; Ahner, D.

    2008-01-01

    This note describes an interdisciplinary project designed to enhance students' knowledge of the basic techniques taught in a multivariable calculus course. The note discusses the four main requirements of the project and then the solutions for each requirement. Concepts covered include differentials, gradients, Lagrange multipliers, constrained…

  2. 49 CFR 575.103 - Truck-camper loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (three thirty-seconds of an inch) high, of a color contrasting with the background, in the order shown... scale and weigh on the front and on the rear wheels separately to determine axle loads. The load on an... weight ratings are exceeded, move or remove items to bring all weights below the ratings.” (E) A...

  3. Camper learning and friendship at pediatric oncology camps in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Amylon, Michael D; Briery, Brandon G; Shea-Perry, Marci; Kelsey, Kathleen P; Lam, Gary W; Körver, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Children with cancer and their families often attend specialized camps (therapeutic recreation) through their cancer treatment journey, yet little is known about the effects of these camps. A qualitative cohort study was used to assess learning and friendship development by campers attending one of four pediatric oncology summer camps during 2010 in North America. Standardized perceived change questionnaires developed by the American Camp Association were administered following camp attendance. Five-hundred and eighteen campers were enrolled: 120 (age 6-9 years) and 398 (age 10 and older). The largest positive response from the younger campers was observed for the question, "At camp did you learn to look forward to trying new activities?" For the older campers' survey, the items "Becoming better at enjoying being with my friends," "Becoming better at helping my friends have a good time when they are with me," and "Becoming better at getting to know more things about my friends" were perceived to increase the most for the majority of campers compared to other questions. Items for which older campers most often perceived little change were "Becoming better at choosing people who would be good friends to be with" and "Becoming better at understanding friends' emotions." Camp helps children learn new activities as well as enjoy good times with friends. Dealing with one's own mistakes and understanding others' emotions are areas for improvement. Ultimately it is hoped that these skills gained at camp will help build coping and resiliency for children/siblings affected by pediatric cancers. PMID:24364990

  4. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  5. Lift truck safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter's Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given

  6. Kogi Truck Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    Food trucks have become a large phenomenon in many parts of Southern California. In fact, the University of California, Los Angeles had begun permitting several food trucks to park on campus for hungry students, in response to the closure of the Bombshelter, a major campus food court. These trucks’ budding popularity has been spurred by the notable Kogi Trucks, which began its business serving those in Los Angeles. To explore the heart of this Kogi hype, I took two trips to the intersectio...

  7. Light truck forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepins, G.E.

    1979-09-01

    The recent dramatic increase in the number of light trucks (109% between 1963 and 1974) has prompted concern about the energy consequences of the growing popularity of the light truck. An estimate of the future number of light trucks is considered to be a reasonable first step in assessing the energy impact of these vehicles. The monograph contains forecasts based on two models and six scenarios. The coefficients for the models have been derived by ordinary least squares regression of national level time series data. The first model is a two stage model. The first stage estimates the number of light trucks and cars (together), and the second stage applies a share's submodel to determine the number of light trucks. The second model is a simultaneous equation model. The two models track one another remarkably well, within about 2%. The scenarios were chosen to be consistent with those used in the Lindsey-Kaufman study Projection of Light Truck Population to Year 2025. Except in the case of the most dismal economic scenario, the number of light trucks is expected to increase from the 1974 level of 0.09 light truck per person to about 0.12 light truck per person in 1995.

  8. Fatalities to occupants of cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Greenland, S

    2000-07-01

    We sought to describe the fatalities to occupants of pickup truck cargo areas and to compare the mortality of cargo area occupants to passengers in the cab. From the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files for 1987-1996, we identified occupants of pickup trucks with at least one fatality and at least one passenger in the cargo area. Outcomes of cargo area occupants and passengers in the cab were compared using estimating equations conditional on the crash and vehicle. Thirty-four percent of deaths to cargo occupants were in noncrash events without vehicle deformation. Fifty-five percent of those who died were age 15-29 years and 79% were male. The fatality risk ratio (FRR) comparing cargo area occupants to front seat occupants was 3.0 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 2.7-3.4). The risk was 7.9 (95% CI = 6.2-10.1) times that of restrained front seat occupants. The FRR ranged from 92 (95% CI = 47-179) in noncrash events to 1.7 (95% CI = 1.5-1.9) in crashes with severe vehicle deformation. The FRR was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.4-2.3) for occupants of enclosed cargo areas and 3.5 (95% CI = 3.1-4.0) for occupants of open cargo areas. We conclude that passengers in cargo areas of pickup trucks have a higher risk of death than front seat occupants, especially in noncrash events, and that camper shells offer only limited protection for cargo area occupants. PMID:10868756

  9. A 44-Year-Old Man With Sore Throat and Fatigue After Using an Old Camper Van.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Vanessa; Abrantes, Jessica; Cruz, Lucas; Wu, Ulysses; Lahiri, Bimalin

    2016-08-01

    A 44-year-old man from Connecticut with no significant past medical history presented to the ED with a 2-week history of sore throat and fatigue, subsequently developing cough, dyspnea, fevers, and chills. The patient reported buying an old camper van and noticed a large infestation of rodent droppings, which he had cleaned thoroughly from the cabin. He used the camper van on several camping trips in Vermont, and symptoms started on his return. PMID:27502993

  10. Camper outcomes increase regardless of session length: Beyond anecdotal evidence of increased competence, independence and friendship skills

    OpenAIRE

    Roark, Mark F.

    2012-01-01

    Session length may not be as vital to the accomplishment of developmental outcomes as directors are anecdotally sharing. Interestingly, no empirical support exists for the conventional wisdom that longer sessions have better outcomes than shorter sessions for campers. Dimock and Hendry (1929) found that campers’ level of development in general did not significantly vary whether they were at camp one or two months. They cautioned that this finding might not appropriately represent the actual e...

  11. Volvo Trucks' Customer Value Proposition

    OpenAIRE

    Storubleva, Ekaterina; Milosch, Gregor; Neumann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Title: Volvo Trucks' Customer Value Proposition Authors: Ekaterina Storubleva, Gregor Milosch, Christian Neumann Tutor: Erik Hunter Date: May 2009 Keywords: Volvo Truck Corporation, truck industry, customer value, value drivers, retail strategy, communication, relationship marketing Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the general composition of Volvo Trucks' customer value proposition in Europe and to examine possible ways of enhancing it using Volvo's retailing strategy as a t...

  12. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393.61 Section 393.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... and truck tractor window construction. Each truck and truck tractor (except trucks engaged in...

  13. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399... Vehicles § 399.207 Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. (a) General rule. Any person entering or exiting the cab or accessing the rear portion of a high profile COE truck or truck-tractor shall...

  14. Fill That Truck | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feds Feed Families is a federal workforce initiative to fight hunger in our local communities. This year’s campaign began on June 13 and will continue until the end of August. After collecting approximately 550 pounds of food each of the last two years, NCI at Frederick is making a push to collect even more this summer. On June 29, during Take Your Child to Work Day, a 10-foot truck will be parked in the hub area along Chandler Street and Wood Street.

  15. Self-supporting refrigerated truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Winter, S.E.E.; Brouwer, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Self-supporting refrigerated truck comprising a floor, two side walls, a front bulkhead and a roof. The components are all constructed as sandwich panels. The connection between the rear axle construction of the refrigerated truck and the front is not provided with longitudinal beams. The function o

  16. Notes on a drawing of Indian elephants in red crayon by Petrus Camper in the archives of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.; Pieters, F.F.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A drawing of two Indian elephants, signed "P. Camper f. 10 Sept. 1786", in red chalk or crayon, was found in the archives of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in a manuscript by T.G. van Lidth de Jeude (1788-1863). Van Lidth de Jeude, professor at Utrecht university, obviously intended to use

  17. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alternative Motor Fuel Act of 1988 requires the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate and evaluate alternative fuels usage in the United States. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project to compare alternative fuel and diesel fuel trucks. Information for the comparison comes from data collected on the operational, maintenance, performance, and emissions characteristics of alternative fuel trucks being used in vehicle fleets and comparable diesel fuel trucks servings as controls within the same fleets. This report highlights the start-up experience and presents the lessons learned from a project that operated a fleet of liquefied natural gas (LNG) refuse haulers in Washington, Pennsylvania

  18. Sexual behavior among truck drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Kumar Singh; Hari Shankar Joshi

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, ...

  19. Implementation of exclusive truck facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekpe, E. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States). Transportation Market Sector

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed the issue of highway congestion, safety, and efficiency in freight movement on highways, with particular reference to the challenge of supporting increasing capacity demand from truck traffic. Innovative and practical solutions are needed to address the growing need for more efficient freight movement while maintaining acceptable levels of safety on highways. The concept of exclusive truck facilities (ETFs) is becoming an attractive option as a feasible strategy to help stabilize traffic flow, reduce congestion, improve safety, enhance transportation system management, improve access to freight facilities, and improve efficiency in freight movement along corridors of national importance. ETFs can either be truck only lanes or truckways. Passenger cars may not use ETFs. However, the use of ETFs could involve high costs of construction, maintenance, and acquisition of additional right of way. A cost-benefit analysis was performed for alternative ETF configurations under different traffic and site characteristics. A set of criteria was then proposed for identifying suitable locations for exclusive truck lanes. It was proposed that ETFs are economically feasible at locations with traffic volume of 100,000 vehicles per day or more and with a truck volume of at least 25 per cent of the traffic. In addition, the rate of truck-involved fatal crashes and level of service should be used to prioritize preliminary candidate locations that satisfy the traffic criteria. Consideration should also be given to the existence of freight terminals, ports, processing centers or regional distribution centres that are close to highways. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  20. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  1. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient

  2. Toy Trucks in Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Nakamura, Nanami; Larsen, Rainer Rye

    2015-01-01

    discovered that using scale-models like toy trucks has a strongly encouraging effect on developers/designers to collaboratively make sense of field videos. In our analysis of such scale-model sessions, we found some quite fundamental patterns of how participants utilise objects; the participants build shared...... narratives by moving the objects around, they name them to handle the complexity, they experience what happens in the video through their hands, and they use the video together with objects to create alternative narratives, and thus alternative solutions to the problems they observe. In this paper we claim...... that when analysing for instance truck drivers’ practices, the use of toy trucks to replicate actions in scale helps participants engage experiential knowledge as they use their body to make sense of the on-going action....

  3. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  4. A tough truck for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    One of the mobile support structures that will be used to manoeuvre and assemble components of the ATLAS detector in its cavern was put through its paces at the end of July and passed its load tests with flying colours. The tests, which involved the surveyors taking measurements to detect any load-induced mechanical deformations, were carried out in Building 191. "The "truck" has been subjected to static tests with loads of up to 1250 tonnes and can carry and transport on air cushions a nominal load of up to 1000 tonnes at a top speed of 30 cm per minute," explains project leader Tommi Nyman. "It took two weeks to assemble the truck's components, the last of which arrived at CERN on 24 June. It then took a further 20 days to load the truck up for the test." The 8.5 metre-high truck will be used for final assembly of some of the ATLAS components, including the calorimeters, in cavern UX15. This powerful device is the result of a collaboration between CERN and the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear ...

  5. Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keolian, Robert

    2011-03-31

    This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

  6. Fuel Efficiency in Truck Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports range of activities and offer information regarding activities performed at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in order to reduce of fuel consumption in truck industry. There are six major areas investigated: Aerodynamics, Component Spec’ing, Advanced Technology, Route Management, Driver Behaviour, Proper Maintenance. New technologies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency are also reported.

  7. Fatal incidents involving pickup trucks in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, G B; King, W; Bolton, A; Fine, P R

    1991-03-01

    Death or injury resulting from crashes involving light trucks (ie, pickup trucks) is a significant problem. Data show that fatal crashes and occupant fatalities involving light trucks have steadily increased since 1983. This project describes vehicle crashes involving passengers riding in the beds of pickup trucks. Actual crashes were identified through the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The 40 incidents studied involved 204 pickup truck passengers. Of these, 45 were killed, 107 sustained visible injuries or were carried from the scene, 6 had bruises and abrasions, and 2 had no visible injury but were briefly unconscious or had a documented complaint of pain. The risk of death among pickup truck passengers who were fully ejected from the vehicle was nearly six times that of passengers not fully ejected. Correspondingly, the risk of ejection from the truck was 26.7 times greater among occupants riding in the bed than occupants riding in the cab. PMID:2000522

  8. Truck transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical models in RADTRAN II are used to calculate risks to population subgroups such as people along transport routes, people at stops, and crewman. The stops model, which calculates the dose to persons adjacent to the transport vehicle while it is stopped, frequently provides the largest contribution to incident-free radiological impacts. Components such as distances from the vehicle containing radioactive material to nearby people at stops, stop duration, and number of crew members are required for the stops model as well as other incident-free models. To provide supporting data for RADTRAN II based on operational experience, selected truck shipments of radioactive material were observed from origin to destination. Other important aspects of this program were to correlate package size to effective shipment transport index (TI) using radiological surveys and to characterize population distributions and proximities of people to the shipment at a generic truck stop

  9. Developing Chinese Heavy Truck Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Strong economic recovery=Great opportunity in heavy trucks Based on the four trillion investment expansionary fiscal policy and the loose monetary policy,China's economy is stimulated.Meanwhile,the CITIC Securities Research Dept.estimated that the economic growth will be better than expected in 2009 and 2010.Macro-economic expectations continue to improve and the fix-asset investment growth rate hit a new high level of the recent five years.

  10. Solar Control Glazing for Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Tavast, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This thesis concerns the use of solar control and electrochromic glazing in trucks. The purpose has been to study the decrease in solar energy transport into the cab and how to utilize the technology. The solar spectrum consists of both visible light and near-IR radiation, and solar control glazing transmits the majority of the visible light and reflects or absorbs most of the near-IR radiation. Electrochromic glazing has variable transmittance, which enables the driver to regulate the energy...

  11. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R. [Clean Air Now, Northridge, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  12. Sexual behavior among truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6% drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8% were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8% who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW, 146 (83.9% used a condom. 38 (12.8% visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  13. 49 CFR 238.419 - Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment. 238.419 Section 238.419 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... attachment. (a) The ultimate strength of the truck-to-car-body attachment for each unit in a train shall...

  14. TRUCK DISPATCHING CRITERIA AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张幼蒂; 李曙光

    1990-01-01

    Along with the development of automatical truck dispatching in open pits, it is important to establish genera1-purpose criteria for truck dispatching optimization. The existing dispatching criteria are briefly intrcdaced and optimal dispatching criteria for different haulage systems are recommended. Obvious economic results have been obtained from case studies applying tile recommended dispatching criteria.

  15. Truck platooning : Driving the future of transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, G.R.; Zwijnenberg, J; Blankers, I.J.; Kruijff, J.S. de

    2015-01-01

    Truck Platooning is the future of transportation in which trucks drive cooperatively at less than 1 second apart made possible by automated driving technology. Transportation companies benefit from lower fuel consumption and improvements in (driver) productivity, while society benefits from fewer accidents, safer traffic and less congested roads, and lower carbon emissions.

  16. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  17. Chanel, Camper ja Topshop internetissä : Kolmen muotibrändin oman median käyttö ja hallinta.

    OpenAIRE

    Mäki, Satu

    2011-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkin kolmen muotibrändin oman digitaalisen median käyttöä (esimerkiksi brändin omat verkkosivustot, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube). Tutkittavat brändit ovat Chanel, Camper ja Topshop. Aluksi selvitän, millä eri tavoilla ja missä digitaalisissa kanavissa valitut muotibrändit ovat rakentaneet omaa digitaalista presenssiään. Seuraavassa vaiheessa syvennän työtä selvittämällä, miten brändi ja kuluttaja kommunikoivat havaitussa brändiekosysteemissä. Tavoitteenani oli löy...

  18. Approaches of truck drivers and non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud; Shahar, Amit

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the reported approaches of truck drivers to those of non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven adult males, including 70 non-truck drivers, completed the questionnaires voluntarily. The truck drivers were employees of a concrete manufacturing company working at various company plants throughout Israel. Seventy were professional mixer truckers and 27 were tip-truckers. The participants completed the Reckless Driving Self-Report Scale based on Taubman Ben-Ari et al. [Taubman Ben-Ari, O., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., 1999. The impact of mortality salience on reckless driving: a test of terror management mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 35-45], adapted for truck drivers for this study. It was expected that non-professional, as compared to professional (truck) drivers, would be more permissive regarding reckless driving, since driving risks are less prominent in their daily driving experience. An ANOVA performed on mean reckless-driving scores yielded significant results. The post hoc Schéffe test indicated significantly higher reckless-driving scores for automobile drivers as compared to both mixer-truck driver scores and tip-truck driver scores. In addition, the reckless-driving scores for mixer-truck drivers were significantly higher than the tip-truck driver scores. We discuss various explanations for the findings and consider possible implications for training strategies in organizations as well as for media campaigns focused on mutual safe road use of truck drivers and private vehicle drivers. PMID:19540960

  19. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  20. Business plan for Gourmet Food Truck in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Mulmi, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    This thesis work is about food truck and food truck industry in Finland. In Finland, Culinary scenes are booming and growing but, the food truck concept is new to Finland. Food truck industry is very young and currently, there is a hype for food truck and people are admiring new cuisines. Author himself is working as a cook. And he is passionate about food and restaurant industry. The main purpose of the thesis was to explore more about food truck industry in Finland and create the busine...

  1. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  2. Investigation on Drag Reduction of Trucks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiao-ni; LIU Zhen-yan

    2008-01-01

    A study of the mechanism of fences was given to reduce drag by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental research. A 3D mathematical model has been developed based on computational fluid dynamics software Phoenics that was capable of handling steady state, 3D flow to simulate the flow field around the truck. The experiment made in a low speed wind tunnel is used as references for validation. By analyzing the results of calculation and experiment, the flowing mechanism of the flow field around the container truck and the drag-reducing mechanism of #-shaped fences on the truck are unveiled, which provides theoretical guidance to the aerodynamic formation designing and amelioration.

  3. Mining truck scheduling with stochastic maintenance cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erkan TOPAL; Salih RAMAZAN

    2012-01-01

    Open pit mining operations utilize large scale and expensive equipment.For the mines implementing shovel and truck operation system,trucks constitute a large portion of these equipment and are used for hauling the mined materials.In order to have sustainable and viable operation,these equipment need to be utilized efficiently with minimum operating cost.Maintenance cost is a significant proportion of the overall operating costs.The maintenance cost of a truck changes non-linearly depending on the type,age and truck types.A new approach based on stochastic integer programming (SIP) techniques is used for annually scheduling a fixed fleet of mining trucks in a given operation,over the life of mine (multi-year time horizon) to minimize maintenance cost.The maintenance cost data in mining usually has uncertainty caused from the variability of the operational conditions at mines.To estimate the cost,usually historic data from different operations for new mines,and/or the historic data at the operating mines are used.However,maintenance cost varies depending on road conditions,age of equipment and many other local conditions at an operation.Traditional models aim to estimate the maintenance cost as a deterministic single value and financial evaluations are based on the estimated value.However,it does not provide a confidence on the estimate.The proposed model in this study assumes the truck maintenance cost is a stochastic parameter due to the significant level of uncertainty in the data and schedules the available fleet to meet the annual production targets.The scheduling has been performed by applying both the proposed stochastic and deterministic approaches.The approach provides a distribution for the maintenance cost of the optimized equipment schedule minimizing the cost.

  4. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truck...

  5. A cognitive Analysis of truck Drivers' right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Sieker, Tobias; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truck...

  6. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments...

  7. LNG truck, rail, and barge transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, N.P.

    1972-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas has recently assumed an important role both as a supplemental source of natural gas to the United States and as a means of meeting winter peak demands. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of truck, rail, and barge transport of LNG and summarizes the relative costs and investment requirements of each method.

  8. So Much Depends Upon a Pickup Truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    An anecdote from the author's own career as a researcher stresses the importance of becoming thoroughly familiar with a subject under study, in order to avoid overlooking obvious factors. In one study he conducted in Israel, he found that pickup truck size sometimes determined work crew size.

  9. Greenhouse gas issues in the North American trucking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barla, P. [Center for Data and Analysis in Transportation CDAT, Departement d' economique, Universite Laval, 1025 Avenue des sciences sociales, Quebec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we examine some of the issues associated with reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the North American trucking industry. We review some basic descriptive statistics to apprehend the basic conditions in the three countries of North America and describe the North American trucking industry and the changes in its GHG performance. We also present some of the policies that have been either implemented or are being considered to reduce trucking GHG emissions. We then discuss some of the issues involved in choosing instruments to reduce trucking emissions. Specifically, we discuss the following instruments: incentives and standard to improve truck fuel efficiency, a tax on CO2, and tradable permits systems.

  10. FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER AND TRUCK TEST SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Philip J.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2014-09-25

    This study continues the modeling support of the SNL shaker table task from 2013 and includes analysis of the SNL 2014 truck test campaign. Detailed finite element models of the fuel assembly surrogate used by SNL during testing form the basis of the modeling effort. Additional analysis was performed to characterize and filter the accelerometer data collected during the SNL testing. The detailed fuel assembly finite element model was modified to improve the performance and accuracy of the original surrogate fuel assembly model in an attempt to achieve a closer agreement with the low strains measured during testing. The revised model was used to recalculate the shaker table load response from the 2013 test campaign. As it happened, the results remained comparable to the values calculated with the original fuel assembly model. From this it is concluded that the original model was suitable for the task and the improvements to the model were not able to bring the calculated strain values down to the extremely low level recorded during testing. The model needs more precision to calculate strains that are so close to zero. The truck test load case had an even lower magnitude than the shaker table case. Strain gage data from the test was compared directly to locations on the model. Truck test strains were lower than the shaker table case, but the model achieved a better relative agreement of 100-200 microstrains (or 0.0001-0.0002 mm/mm). The truck test data included a number of accelerometers at various locations on the truck bed, surrogate basket, and surrogate fuel assembly. This set of accelerometers allowed an evaluation of the dynamics of the conveyance system used in testing. It was discovered that the dynamic load transference through the conveyance has a strong frequency-range dependency. This suggests that different conveyance configurations could behave differently and transmit different magnitudes of loads to the fuel even when travelling down the same road at

  11. Supply Chain Basics: Tracking Trucks With GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, GPS systems provide a vehicle operator with the vehicle’s position in latitude and longitude. A mapping program is usually integrated, which correlates the vehicle’s position with the location of landmarks. Routing programs (similar to the commonly used Internet driving directions) are generally added to give vehicle operators directions to their destination. The central component of a tracking system is a GPS unit with the ability to locate a container, truck, or rail...

  12. ESTIMATING TRUCK RATES FOR REFRIGERATED FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, J. B.; Farris, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    Food companies and analysts often need transportation rate data to explore market opportunities. In some cases, it may not be practical or necessary to obtain actual rates for all routes under consideration. This study provides analysis of truck rate patterns and alternative rate-estimating equations. The original objective was to provide shipping cost estimates for a national beef-marketing model involving 30 regions of the United States. The data set is 254 rates for refrigerated shipments ...

  13. Assessing the Benefits of Intelligent Truck Parking

    OpenAIRE

    Sochor, Jana; Mbiydzenyuy, Gideon; Larsson, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and provide a discussion about aspects related to benefits of Intelligent Truck Parking (ITP) for Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) and their effects on different stakeholders. Most existing work has narrowly focused on benefits for private cars and does not include the user perspective. In this paper, a review of previous work helps identify benefit areas and stakeholder groups relevant for HGV transport. These benefit areas are then theoretically assessed and ...

  14. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN TRUCK COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Kaselyova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Design of experiment (DOE represent very powerful tool for process improvement vastly supported by six sigma methodology. This approach is mostly used by large and manufacturing orientated companies. Presented research is focused on use of DOE in truck company, which is medium size and service orientated. Such study has several purposes. Firstly, detailed description of improvement effort based on DOE can be used as a methodological framework for companies similar to researched one. Secondly, it provides example of successfully implemented low cost design of experiment practise. Moreover, performed experiment identifies key factors, which influence the lifetime of truck tyres.Design/methodology: The research in this paper is based on experiment conducted in Slovakian Truck Company. It provides detailed case study of whole improvement effort, together with problem formulation, design creation and analysis, as well as the results interpretation. The company wants to improve lifetime of the truck tyres. Next to fuel consumption, consumption of tyres and their replacement represent according to them, one of most costly processes in company. Improvement effort was made through the use of PDCA cycle. It start with analysis of current state of tyres consumption. The variability of tyres consumption based on years and types was investigated. Then the causes of tyres replacement were identified and screening DOE was conducted. After a screening design, the full factorial design of experiment was used to identify main drivers of tyres deterioration and breakdowns. Based on result of DOE, the corrective action were propose and implement.Findings: Based on performed experiment our research describes process of tyres use and replacement. It defines main reasons for tyre breakdown and identify main drivers which influence truck tyres lifetime. Moreover it formulates corrective action to prolong tyres lifetime.Originality: The study represents full

  15. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  16. AN INITIAL INTIMATION OF A YET BANAL DISCOURSE: TRUCK GRAFFITI

    OpenAIRE

    Yazid Basthomi

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an initial discussion of truck graffiti. It reviews pertinent literature on graffiti which shows that, despite the fact that graffiti have attracted a number of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds, truck graffiti have been under researched. It also specifically presents types of graffiti and approaches to graffiti research which demonstrates that, even though truck graffiti might be classified into "public", they seem to have been overlooked in the realm ...

  17. Unrestricted riding in pickup truck cargo beds poses significant hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, R C

    2000-02-01

    Individuals riding in the beds of pickup trucks face significant risks of debilitating injury or death, yet Mississippi currently has no legislation restricting ridership in truck beds. Data collection on accidents involving truck bed passengers indicates that children make up the majority of victims. Such accidents impose a heavy burden on society in terms of both medical expenses and impaired quality of life for the victims. PMID:10710895

  18. AN INITIAL INTIMATION OF A YET BANAL DISCOURSE: TRUCK GRAFFITI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Basthomi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an initial discussion of truck graffiti. It reviews pertinent literature on graffiti which shows that, despite the fact that graffiti have attracted a number of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds, truck graffiti have been under researched. It also specifically presents types of graffiti and approaches to graffiti research which demonstrates that, even though truck graffiti might be classified into "public", they seem to have been overlooked in the realm of graffiti research. This situation insinuates that truck graffiti, particularly those in the Indonesian settings, warrants further exploration.

  19. Differences between pickup truck and automobile driver-owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Winn, D G; Agran, P F

    1999-01-01

    This study compares pickup truck driver-owners and drivers who owned only automobiles with respect to demographic factors, conditions of use, risk-taking driving behavior, prior driving history and attitudes towards motor vehicle laws. A telephone survey conducted in Riverside County, CA determined that 36% of the households had a pickup truck. Pickup truck owners were primarily male, aged 30-39 years, married, reported lower restraint use and more risky driving behaviors, and had more traffic citations. Differences in behaviors and attitudes were largely a function of age and gender. There is a need to design appropriate occupant safety interventions for those most likely to own pickup trucks. PMID:10084620

  20. Pickup truck use in the National Personal Transportation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Agran, P F; Winn, D G

    2001-07-01

    To guide interventions to prevent injuries to pickup-truck occupants, we characterized pickup truck ownership, drivers and use in the 1995 National Personal Transportation Survey, which collects travel data from the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the US. SUDAAN software was used to account for the complex nature of the sample. Pickup truck ownership was more common in households with more vehicles, in rural households, in households living in single family homes and mobile homes, and in middle-income households. Among US regions, pickup truck ownership was highest among households in the mountain west. Pickup truck ownership was greater in households with two adults, whether or not children or youths were present, but this was largely due to the number of vehicles in these households. Driving a pickup on the sample day was more frequent among men, among drivers with less education and among full-time workers. A higher proportion of trips to work, work-related trips, longer trips and trips with fewer people were by pickup truck. Seat belt use was lower among pickup truck drivers than drivers of other vehicles. For only 0.5% of households (those with three or more members and a pickup truck as their only vehicle), restrictions on travel in cargo areas might be burdensome. Restrictions on cargo area travel, strengthening existing seat belt laws and social marketing strategies might increase the safety of pickup truck occupants. PMID:11426680

  1. Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffery Birkel

    2007-12-31

    With a variety of hybrid vehicles available in the passenger car market, electric technologies and components of that scale are becoming readily available. Commercial vehicle segments have lagged behind passenger car markets, leaving opportunities for component and system development. Escalating fuel prices impact all markets and provide motivation for OEMs, suppliers, customers, and end-users to seek new techniques and technologies to deliver reduced fuel consumption. The research presented here specifically targets the medium-duty (MD), Class 4-7, truck market with technologies aimed at reducing fuel consumption. These technologies could facilitate not only idle, but also parasitic load reductions. The development efforts here build upon the success of the More Electric Truck (MET) demonstration program at Caterpillar Inc. Employing a variety of electric accessories, the MET demonstrated the improvement seen with such technologies on a Class 8 truck. The Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks (TEPS) team scaled the concepts and successes of MET to a MD chassis. The team designed an integrated starter/generator (ISG) package and energy storage system (ESS), explored ways to replace belt and gear-driven accessory systems, and developed supervisory control algorithms to direct the usage of the generated electricity and system behavior on the vehicle. All of these systems needed to fit within the footprint of a MD vehicle and be compatible with the existing conventional systems to the largest extent possible. The overall goal of this effort was to demonstrate a reduction in fuel consumption across the drive cycle, including during idle periods, through truck electrification. Furthermore, the team sought to evaluate the benefits of charging the energy storage system during vehicle braking. The vehicle features an array of electric accessories facilitating on-demand, variable actuation. Removal of these accessories from the belt or

  2. 77 FR 43368 - Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of... October 20, 2011, applicable to workers of Navistar International Truck Development and Technology Center... Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International Corporation,...

  3. Falls and ejections from pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklew, P A; Osler, T M; Eidson, J J; Clevenger, F W; Olson, S E; Demarest, G B

    1992-04-01

    The medical records of 50 patients who sustained injuries during falls or ejections from pickup truck beds and were admitted to the University of New Mexico Level I Trauma Center between January 1985 and December 1989 were retrospectively examined. Falls and ejections commonly involve young adults, and usually occur in the summer months during the afternoon or evening. Twenty-three individuals were thrown from the pickup truck bed during a motor vehicle collision and 27 simply fell out, and this distinction was not related to age or ethanol use. Although those thrown from the pickup truck bed during a crash were less severely injured (average ISS 15.4) than those who simply fell from the bed (average ISS 17.4), this difference was not statistically significant. Mortality was equal in these two groups, with three deaths occurring in each group. Overall, injuries incurred during falls and ejections were more serious than those incurred in MVCs (average ISS 16.5 vs. 14.5, p = 0.06). The head was the most frequently injured body region following falls or ejections (68%), followed by the extremities (46%), the face (28%), the thorax (22%), and the abdomen (10%). Every death in this series was attributed to a head injury. The overall mortality for the series was 12%. Sixteen additional fatalities from falls and ejections during the study period were discovered in a review of the records of the State Medical Examiner. The average age of this cohort was 24 years. Fifteen of these deaths were the result of falls rather than ejections (94%), and 13 were attributed to head injuries (81%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1569621

  4. Truck Roll Stability Data Collection and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, SS

    2001-07-02

    The principal objective of this project was to collect and analyze vehicle and highway data that are relevant to the problem of truck rollover crashes, and in particular to the subset of rollover crashes that are caused by the driver error of entering a curve at a speed too great to allow safe completion of the turn. The data are of two sorts--vehicle dynamic performance data, and highway geometry data as revealed by vehicle behavior in normal driving. Vehicle dynamic performance data are relevant because the roll stability of a tractor trailer depends both on inherent physical characteristics of the vehicle and on the weight and distribution of the particular cargo that is being carried. Highway geometric data are relevant because the set of crashes of primary interest to this study are caused by lateral acceleration demand in a curve that exceeds the instantaneous roll stability of the vehicle. An analysis of data quality requires an evaluation of the equipment used to collect the data because the reliability and accuracy of both the equipment and the data could profoundly affect the safety of the driver and other highway users. Therefore, a concomitant objective was an evaluation of the performance of the set of data-collection equipment on the truck and trailer. The objective concerning evaluation of the equipment was accomplished, but the results were not entirely positive. Significant engineering apparently remains to be done before a reliable system can be fielded. Problems were identified with the trailer to tractor fiber optic connector used for this test. In an over-the-road environment, the communication between the trailer instrumentation and the tractor must be dependable. In addition, the computer in the truck must be able to withstand the rigors of the road. The major objective--data collection and analysis--was also accomplished. Using data collected by instruments on the truck, a ''bad-curve'' database can be generated. Using

  5. Vehicle test report: Battronic pickup truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Freeman, R. J.; Pompa, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    An electric pickup truck was tested to characterize certain parameters and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle's performance was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with other vehicles.

  6. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  7. Condition responsive truck rollover warning systems: Alternative system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Richards, S.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1997-10-01

    Truck rollover is a serious highway safety problem, with consequences that make the occurrences important despite their relative infrequency. Truck accidents on urban freeways occur more frequently at interchange off-ramps that at any other location, accounting for about 5% of fatal truck accidents, according to accident statistics summarized in a study performed by Bellomo-McGee, Inc., for FHWA. Severe traffic disruption often results from truck rollover, and the severity of incidents can be sorely multiplied by the type of cargo the truck is hauling. Some hazardous cargos have the potential to cause true disaster is they are spilled as a result of truck rollover. Because of the severity of consequences of truck rollover accidents, it is important to seek ways to avoid such accidents. In the near-term future, the most likely means to prevent such rollover accidents is a condition responsive system that can warn truck drivers of impending rollover in time for them to take corrective actions.

  8. Activity Recognition and Localization on a Truck Parking Lot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Patino, L.; Burghouts, G.J.; Flizikowski, A.; Evans, M.; Gustafsson, D.; Petersson, H.; Schutte, K.; Ferryman, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a set of activity recognition and localization algorithms that together assemble a large amount of information about activities on a parking lot. The aim is to detect and recognize events that may pose a threat to truck drivers and trucks. The algorithms perform zone-based a

  9. Working with the Abused Camper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca Cowan

    1990-01-01

    Describes forms of and reasons behind child abuse. Describes camp staff's role as reporters of suspected abuse. Describes techniques for identifying and dealing with abuse victims. Recommends offering victims respect, support, advocacy, and unconditional love. Describes steps staff might take to maximize camp's effectiveness in helping abuse…

  10. Green trucks: transitioning the freight truck industry to low and zero emission fuel systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kalthoff, Jarrett Reid

    2012-01-01

    The freight truck industry in Canada is the lifeblood of many communities throughout the country. These communities rely upon overland freight for everything from food to fuel. The continued operation of this industry is fundamentally dependent on the consumption of fossil fuels. This dependence leads to two challenges facing the freight industry: (1) fossil fuels are expensive, finite resources that are prone to dramatic surges in price; and, (2) the consumption and combustion of fossil fuel...

  11. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  12. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  13. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  14. Projection of light-truck population to year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The recent growth in the number of light trucks is a matter of considerable interest in that it may have far-reaching implications for gasoline consumption. This paper forecasts the number of light trucks in the years to 2025. The forecast is based on economic scenarios developed by SRI International. Except for the case of the most-dismal economic forecast, the number of light trucks is predicted to increase monotonically and to show the greatest rate of increase between 1973 and 1980.

  15. Active Noise Control of the Heavy Truck Interior Cab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to control the noise of the heavy truck interior cab effectively, the active noise control methods are employed. First, an interior noise field test for the heavy truck is performed, and frequencies of interior noise of this vehicle are analyzed. According to the spectrum analysis of acquired noise signal, it is found out that the main frequencies of interior noise are less than 800Hz. Then the least squares lattice (LSL) algorithm is used as signal processing algorithm of the controller and a closed-loop control DSP system, based on TMS 320VC5416, is developed. The residual signal at driver's ear is used as feedback signal. Lastly, the developed ANC system is loaded into the heavy truck cab, and controlling the noise at driver's ear for that truck at different driving speeds is attempted. The noise control test results indicate that the cab interior noise is reduced averagely by 0.9 dBA at different driving speeds.

  16. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  17. STUDY ON AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VAN-BODY TRUCKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the van-body truck were studied by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiments. The concept of critical length was presented for the van-body truck in wind tunnel experiments, the proper critical Reynolds number was found and the effects of ground parameters in ground effect simulation on the aerodynamic measurements were examined. It shows that two structure parameters, van height and the gap between the cab and the van, can obviously influence the aerodynamic characteristics, and the additional aerodynamic devices, the wind deflector and the vortex regulator in the rear, can considerably reduce the aerodynamic drag of the van-body truck. Numerical simulations provided rich information of the flow fields around the van-body trucks.

  18. Deregulation's effect on labor in the trucking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited After forty-five year of considerable government regulation in the trucking industry, Congress passed to Motor Carrier Act of 1980. The Motor Carrier Act was a major step toward deregulation of the trucking industry. Provisions in the act allowed for greater competition and exposure to market forces. From its beginning the Motor Carrier Act has been extremely controversial. Opponents of the act have claimed that deregulation has pl...

  19. Who carries passengers in the back of pickup trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Anderson, C L

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to compare pickup truck drivers who carried passengers in the back with those who did not, with respect to driving behaviors, sociodemographic features, and issues related to use of the pickup truck. A computerized assisted telephone survey was conducted in Riverside County, California. One thousand ten motor vehicle drivers were interviewed with respect to demographics, restraint use, driving behaviors, and variables related to vehicle use. Thirty-six percent (364) of the households had a pickup truck driver. Pickup drivers were grouped into those who stated that they had carried occupants in the back (n = 119) and those who had not (n = 245). A higher proportion of 16- to 24-year-old and 35- to 44-year-old pickup truck drivers carried passengers in the back of pickup trucks. Those who carried occupants in the back were significantly more likely to be Hispanic, to be students, and to live in a household that included teenagers. They also had a larger mean household size. They were less likely to own the pickup and less likely to be the principal wage earners. They were more likely to report four high-risk driving behaviors. They also used the pickup truck for multiple purposes, i.e. recreation, work, school transportation, and daily transportation. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of teenagers in the household, three high-risk driving behaviors, and three indicators of pickup truck use were independently related to carrying passengers in the back of a pickup. Those who allowed passengers in the back were significantly less likely to agree with statements suggesting restriction of travel in the back. Finally, only 9% of the respondents who carried passengers in the back of a pickup reported that the pickup truck was the only vehicle available in the household. PMID:7718073

  20. The Aggregate Planning For Trucking Operation in Cikarang Dry Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari Utami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cikarang Dry Port currently is the only dry port in Indonesia. This Dry Port has a role to connect or extend the Sea Port to the industrial areas located far from Sea Port. Thus, it creates a value added and also reduce costs. One of the operations done in Cikarang Dry Port is trucking operation. This research aims to examine the planning of 2014 trucking activity in Cikarang Dry Port to determine the right number of the truck that will be best occupied to manage all demands. The analysis begins with demand forecasting by using a moving average method of 12 months or one year period in 2013 which will be used as main information to develop the plans. There are three plans developed in this research. Based on the three plans, Plan A with minimum trucking plan with subcontracting is the most profitable which gives the highest profitability of Rp. 374,984,625. Recommendation for this research is using the current minimum number of 39 trucks rent with additional subcontracting when the demand is exceeding the capacity, thus, Cikarang Dry Port can occupy all demands and gain more profits.Keywords: Aggregate Planning; Scheduling; Trucking Operation; Moving Average; Cikarang Dry Port

  1. Application of Chaos Theory in Trucks' Overloading Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trucks' overloading is considered as one of the most substantial concerns in road transport due to a possible road surface damage, as well as, are less reliable performance of trucks' braking system. Sufficient human resource and adequate time scheduling are to be planned for surveying trucks' overloading; hence, it seems required to prepare an all-around model to be able to predict the number of overloaded vehicles. In the present research work, the concept of chaos theory has been utilized to predict the ratio of trucks which might be guessed overloaded. The largest Lyapunov exponent is utilized to determine the presence of chaos using experimental data and concluded that the ratio of overloaded trucks reflects chaotic behavior. The prediction based on chaos theory is compared with the results of simple smoothing and moving average methods according to the well-known criterion of mean square errors. The results have also revealed that the chaotic prediction model would act more capably comparing the analogous methods including simple smoothing and moving average to predict the ratio of passing trucks to be possibly overloaded.

  2. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and assesses the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1,300 F and 1,800 F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  3. Adaptation of topology optimization on truck-structure; Kinshitsukaho ni yoru iso saitekika shuho no truck kozo eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, H.; Kojima, A.; Chiba, S. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An optimization using the homogenization method has been applied to a truck-structure on the concept design stage. A truck-structure is grouped into 3 classes (thin plate structure , thick plate structure and solid structure), then example, effectiveness and method for the application for the purpose of weight reduction , high rigidity and high eigen-frequency are introduced. 3 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Reducing Truck Emissions at Container Terminals in a Low Carbon Economy: Proposal of a Queueing-based Bi-Objective Model for Optimizing Truck Arrival Pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2012-01-01

    a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...

  5. Demonstration of fleet trucks fueled with PV hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project has been installed at the Xerox Corporation, El Segundo, California site. Three Ford Ranger trucks have been converted to use hydrogen fuel. The ''stand- alone'' electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system is powered by a photovoltaic array with no connection to the power grid. A variable frequency DC/AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 hp motor for the hydrogen compressor. Up to 400 standard cubic meters (SCM) of solar hydrogen is stored, and storage of up to 2300 SCM of commercial hydrogen is collocated. As the hydrogen storage is within 5km of Los Angeles International Airport, pilot operation of a hydrogen fuel cell bus for airport shuttle service has been demonstrated with fueling at the CAN facility. The truck engine conversions are bored to 2.91 displacement, use a Roots type supercharger and CVI (constant volume injection) fuel induction to allow performance similar to that of the gasoline powered truck. Truck fuel storage is done with carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Two tanks are located just behind the driver's cab, and take up nearly half of the truck bed space. The truck highway range is approximately 140 miles. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil emissions of CO and HC. NOx emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two Xerox fleet trucks have been converted, and one for the City of West Hollywood. The Clean Air Now Program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality. It further demonstrates that continued technological development and cost reduction will make such implementation competitive. (Author)

  6. Acceptance test report for core sample trucks 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report is to provide documentation for the acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4, designated as HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647, respectively. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, ''Engineering Practice Guidelines,'' Appendix M, ''Acceptance Test Procedures and Reports.'' Rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4 were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Successful completion of acceptance testing on June 30, 1995 verified that all design requirements were met. This report is divided into four sections, beginning with general information. Acceptance testing was performed on trucks 3 and 4 during the months of March through June, 1995. All testing was performed at the ''Rock Slinger'' test site in the 200 West area. The sequence of testing was determined by equipment availability, and the initial revision of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was used for both trucks. Testing was directed by ICF-KH, with the support of WHC Characterization Equipment Engineering and Characterization Project Operations. Testing was completed per the ATP without discrepancies or deviations, except as noted

  7. Dynamic Bridge Response for a Bridge-friendly Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Šmilauer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A truck with controlled semi-active suspensions traversing a bridge is examined for benefits to the bridge structure. The original concept of a road-friendly truck was extended to a bridge-friendly vehicle, using the same optimization tools. A half-car model with two independently driven axles is coupled with simply supported bridges (beam, slab model with the span range from 5 m to 50 m. Surface profile of the bridge deck is either stochastic or in the shape of a bump or a pot in the mid-span. Numerical integration in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment solves coupled dynamic equations of motion with optimized truck suspensions. The rear axle generates the prevailing load and to a great extent determines the bridge response. A significant decrease in contact road-tire forces is observed and the mid-span bridge deflections are on average smaller, when compared to commercial passive suspensions. 

  8. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  9. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... into groups and assigning different time windows to the groups. The proposed VDTWs method includes three steps: (1) predicting truck arrivals based on the time window assignment, (2) estimating the queue length of trucks, and (3) optimizing the arrangement of time windows to minimize the total cost...

  10. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  11. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    MS Thiese; AC Effiong; Ott, U.; DG Passey; ZC Arnold; BB Ronna; PA Muthe; EM Wood; MA Murtaugh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed.Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight.Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years...

  12. Installation of Dual Reductant Tanks on a Truck Chassis

    OpenAIRE

    Saleeb, Markos

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust after treatment technology based on a reductant (urea) injection into the silencer, has been set up to be a very efficient tool to reduce the emission of the Engines especially NOx. The reductant is stored in a tank positioned on the truck chassis. The reductant tank volume of today is required to be increased to meet the requirements of the market and that is motivated by Euro VI regulations which aim to a higher reduction of the emission of the NOx of the trucks. In this thesis the ...

  13. The market for large rigid haul trucks in surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilewicz, P.

    2002-04-15

    Originally published in 2001 this updated report provides a definition of the market for large rigid haulers in surface mining. The analysis covers changes to the mining market segments buying these machines including the gains made by coal producers, retrenchment in copper mining, the consolidation taking place among gold mining companies, and the expansion of iron ore producers in Australia and Brazil. It includes a detailed accounting of 2001 truck shipments, and an analysis of trends in the Ultra-truck segment. It concludes with a revised forecast for shipments through 2006. 12 charts, 56 tabs., 2 apps.

  14. The risk of injury to children in compact pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Flaura K; Durbin, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Nearly one million compact pickup trucks were sold last year in the US. Manufacturers now produce extended-cab models of pickups such as the Ford Ranger, Chevrolet S-10, Dodge Dakota, and Toyota Tacoma that can accommodate at least two rear-seated passengers, making them attractive to families with children. However, the safety of these rear seats for children has not been determined. This Issue Brief summarizes a new study that examines and quantifies the risk of injury to children riding in compact pickup trucks. Based on these findings, parents should be advised against using these vehicles as family transportation. PMID:12528740

  15. Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-12

    Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce pollution, but also help drivers get a better night's rest.

  16. Scheduling Trucks in a Cross-Dock with Mixed Service Mode Dock Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodnar, Peter; Azadeh, Kaveh; Koster, René de

    2015-01-01

    The problem considered in this paper is how to schedule inbound and outbound trucks subject to time windows at a multidoor cross-dock. Dock doors can either be dedicated to inbound or outbound trucks or be capable of handling both truck types. In addition, loads are allowed to be temporarily buff...... problems of four warehouses of a large retailer and show that substantially smaller cross-docks can be used by using dock-doors flexibly and properly scheduling the trucks....

  17. 49 CFR 238.219 - Truck-to-car-body attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body attachment. 238.219 Section 238... I Passenger Equipment § 238.219 Truck-to-car-body attachment. Passenger equipment shall have a truck-to-car-body attachment with an ultimate strength sufficient to resist without failure the...

  18. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required in... for Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.92 Electronic information for truck cargo required in... electronic information filing requirement in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) Cargo entered under...

  19. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  1. Reducing truck emissions at container terminals in a low carbon economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2013-01-01

    a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...

  2. 19 CFR 123.42 - Truck shipments transiting the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting the United States. 123.42 Section 123.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.42 Truck...

  3. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum,...

  4. Effects of Variation in Truck Factor on Pavement Performance in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Chaudry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation coupled with heavy axle loading is the key factor in rapid road deterioration in Pakistan. The serviceability loss is further accelerated by the fact that truck drivers and owners consider overloading as a profitable practice unaware of the adverse effects of this practice. Weigh-in-motion data from two stations located between two major cities of Pakistan (Peshawar and Rawalpindi on Grand Trunk Road (N-5 were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance and comparison of actual and designed truck factor were performed to identify the most damaging axle truck type. It was found that axle truck type 3 (single/tandem axle is most damaging among all truck types. The actual truck factor for axle truck type 3 is 6.4 times greater than design truck factor. Regression expressions of different forms were also investigated to determine the relationship between truck factor and gross vehicular weight for the specified truck types. An optimum generalization strategy was used to prevent over-generalization and ensure accuracy. For data analysis, 75% of data was used to develop regression models and remaining 25% was to validate those models. The results show that the polynomial expressions performed best and provide a robust relationship that can be employed by the highway authorities to estimate truck factor from gross vehicular weight with a high degree of confidence. It was also observed that damaging effect of various types of trucks was very severe and quite high.

  5. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Truck Fleet Survey AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers. DATES: Comments must be received within 60 days of...- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey. Background: The Energy Independence and Security Act...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.43 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., if available. Capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags or decals shall be changed... shall not be operated inside highway vehicles or railcars having damage which could affect operational... shall perform maintenance and repair. (2) Batteries on all powered trucks shall be disconnected...

  7. Analysis of a distributed system for lifting trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pang, J.; Wouters, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The process-algebraic language muCRL is used to analyse an existing distributed system for lifting trucks. Four errors are found in the original design. We propose solutions for these problems and show by means of model-checking that the modified system meets the requirements.

  8. Truck Safety. Information on Driver Training. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    The General Accounting Office examined the types of training available for tractor-trailer drivers, focusing on the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) efforts to establish minimum federal standards for training tractor-trailer drivers, the driver training curriculum offered by various private and public schools, and the trucking industry's…

  9. NREL Highlight: Truck Platooning Testing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-21

    NREL's fleet test and evaluation team assesses the fuel savings potential of semi-automated truck platooning of line-haul sleeper cabs with modern aerodynamics. Platooning reduces aerodynamic drag by grouping vehicles together and safely decreasing the distance between them via electronic coupling, which allows multiple vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously. In 2014, the team conducted track testing of three SmartWay tractor - two platooned tractors and one control tractor—at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights. While platooning improved fuel economy at all speeds, travel at 55 mph resulted in the best overall miles per gallon. The lead truck demonstrated fuel savings up to 5.3% while the trailing truck saved up to 9.7%. A number of conditions impact the savings attainable, including ambient temperature, distance between lead and trailing truck, and payload weight. Future studies may look at ways to optimize system fuel efficiency and emissions reductions.

  10. Stress analysis of portable safety platform (Core Sampler Truck)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the stress analysis and evaluation of the portable platform of the rotary mode core sampler truck No. 2 (RMCST number-sign 2). The platform comprises railing, posts, deck, legs, and a portable ladder; it is restrained from lateral motion by means of two brackets added to the drill-head service platform

  11. Driving during alcohol hangover among dutch professional truck drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Van Der Maarel, Martin A; McKinney, Adele; Olivier, Berend; De Haan, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Alcohol hangover may impair potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. The purpose of the present study was to determine (1) whether driving during alcohol hangover is a problem of concern among professional Dutch truck drivers and (2) to w

  12. 78 FR 20373 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ..., FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a... commercial zones as detailed in the Agency's April 13, 2011, Federal Register proposal [76 FR 20807]. The... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  13. 77 FR 27837 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316). Public Participation: The http://www...). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  14. 78 FR 60010 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access... [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico cross-border long-haul... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  15. 77 FR 12356 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov... municipalities (border commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  16. 77 FR 40938 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http... announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  17. 76 FR 73765 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . Public... commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  18. 78 FR 24293 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http... announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  19. 76 FR 56868 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . Public... commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  20. 78 FR 26106 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ..., April 24, 2013, in the FR Doc. 2013-09691, on page 24295 in Table 2, correct Table 2, line one, column H... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions...

  1. 76 FR 56272 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . Public... commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  2. 77 FR 47693 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . Public... commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  3. 77 FR 56255 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . Public... commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  4. SVOC emissions from diesel trucks operating on biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  5. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  6. "Auman Speed"--A Miracle of China's Commercial Truck Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In 2004, Foton Auman, located in a beautiful place-Beijing Hongluosi, made a remarkable achievement, selling nearly 45,000mid-heavy-duty trcuks. From 2002 to2004, Foton Auman has completed the whole process which the traditional truck enterprises need take several decades to complete. As soon as Foton Auman entered the market, it has become a competitive challenger in China's mid-heavytruck market, with its unique products and advanced philosophy in management; it takes Foton Auman less than three years to become the biggest group in China's mid-heavy-truck industry and become a leading enterprise of the market. The development of Foton Auman is called"Auman Speed" by auto circle and experts.

  7. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  8. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  9. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  10. Hybrid-assisted DPF regeneration in distribution trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, D.L.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Aneke, N.P.I.; Rojer, C.

    2009-01-01

    TNO Automotive is developing an Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) concept for powertrain controls that focuses on integration of the engine, aftertreatment and parallel hybrid electric system. One of the first steps is the focus on hybrid assisted Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration. For inner-city distribution trucks the legislation on particulate matter is becoming more stringent. This means that diesel particulate filters will be increasingly applied to inner-city distribution t...

  11. Logistic Regression Approach to Predicting Truck Driver Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    S. Scott Nadler; John F. Kros

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify those constructs that lead to driver turnover. The theory of reasoned action (TRA), originating in the social psychology literature is the theoretical approach in this study. Interviews with drivers were conducted using the intercept method to develop a survey instrument. The survey was then administered to drivers at large truck stops. This study makes contributions on two fronts. From a managerial perspective the study results indicate that companies...

  12. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  13. FATIGUE WELDING JOINT RESISTANCE OF MINING DUMP TRUCK BEARING CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rakitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a possibility to apply European norms on designing of welded constructions for frames of heavy-load mining dump trucks. Comparison of results concerning tests of welding joint specimen made of local steel with recommended standards of fatigue curves is executed in the paper. The paper reveals that while forecasting resource of automotive constructions with the accepted practical accuracy it is possible to use generalized fatigue resistance characteristics of standard welding joints. 

  14. COMPETITIVE PRESSURE SYSTEMS MAPPING IN THE BRAZILIAN TRUCK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Costa da Cruz; Francisco C. T. Starke-Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    The automotive business in Brazil achieved 10% of the industry revenue and 6% of the formal employment by 2008. The commercial vehicle segment concentrated so far eight truck makers that experienced their best market figures in 2008, the economy crisis in 2009, and an extraordinary recovery in 2010. Government tax reduction programs as well as special financing incentives were undoubtedly decisive to re-stimulate the business during the crisis. Positive Brazilian perspectives with the boom in...

  15. Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU

    OpenAIRE

    Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years interest has been growing in using fuel cell powered auxiliary power units (APUs) to reduce idling in line-haul trucks. Demonstrations of this technology have been constructed at universities and within industry, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Invariably, in every design, tradeoffs need to be made and this has resulted in a multitude of different APU solutions that address different aspects of the problem. This paper reviews some of the recent work re...

  16. Upgrades for truck transportation of SNM in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, B.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kornilovich, E. [Construction Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment, Mytischy (Russian Federation)

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this project is the rapid reduction of risk to truck transportation of SNM in Russia. Enhanced protection is being accomplished by cooperation between the US Department of Energy, MINATOM of Russia, the Russian Ministry of Defense, and various Russian Institutes. This program provides an integrated program of specialized trucks that are equipped with hardened overpack (SNM vault) containers, alarm and communications systems, and armored cabs. Armored escort vehicles are also provided to increase the survivability of the guards escorting convoys. Only indigenous Russian equipment, modified and/or manufactured by Designing Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment (KBATO), is provided under this program. The US will not provide assistance in the truck transportation arena without a commitment from the Russian facility to provide heavily armed escorts for SNM movement. Each site conducts a detailed transportation needs assessment study that is used as the basis for prioritizing assistance. The Siberian Chemical Combine (Tomsk-7) was the initial site of cooperation. The designs used at Tomsk-7 are serving as the baseline for all future vehicles modified under this program. In FY98, many vehicles systems have been ordered for various institutes. Many additional systems will be ordered in FY99.

  17. Pediatric injuries in the back of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Castillo, D N

    1990-08-01

    Travel in the back of pickup trucks has not been adequately addressed as an occupant protection issue. This study compares injuries sustained by children riding in the back of pickup trucks with those of children riding in the cab. Data were obtained from a multihospital monitoring system and the coroner in a single urban county. The series of injured children consisted of 290 children 0 through 14 years of age, 201 of whom had been riding in the cab and 89 in the back. Age distribution of the children demonstrated that it is most frequently the 10- to 14-year-olds who travel in the back. Children riding in the back were more frequently injured in noncrash events (absence of a collision), had more ejections, had more injuries, and sustained more severe injuries as measured by the Maximum Injury Score. With increased restraint use in the cab, it is likely that even greater differentials in injury severity and patterns would be realized. Education regarding the hazards of travel in the back of pickups and stronger legislation limiting the transport of children in the back of trucks are recommended. PMID:2374274

  18. Injuries to occupants in cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P; Winn, D; Anderson, C

    1994-11-01

    Transporting passengers in the cargo area of pickup trucks is a public health safety issue in the United States. Our study compared crashes involving passengers in the cargo area with those involving passengers in the cab. We obtained data for all injury events of pickup occupants for 1990 from the California Highway Patrol. A total of 702 traffic reports coded as having passengers riding in pickup truck beds involved 1,685 passengers in the cargo area and 865 in the cab. Significantly more events involving passengers in the cargo area occurred in summer in rural areas and were noncollisions than did events with only cab passengers. Crashes with passengers in the cargo area resulted in death in 5% of passengers. Of the drivers, 81% were male and 22% were younger than 20 years. Among the 1,685 passengers in the cargo area, 65% were male, 36% were younger than 15 years, and 30% were ages 15 to 19 years. Passengers in the cargo area were more frequently ejected and more seriously injured than their counterparts in the cab. Legislation to restrict travel in truck beds and the design of restraints for this area are some measures that may reduce the risk of injury. PMID:7810125

  19. Scheduling trucks in cross docking systems with temporary storage and dock repeat truck holding pattern using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghobadian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross docking is one of the most important issues in management of supply chains. In cross docking, different items delivered to a warehouse by inbound trucks are directly arranged and reorganized based on customer demands, routed and loaded into outbound trucks for delivery purposes to customers without virtually keeping them at the warehouse. If any item is kept in storage, it is normally for a short amount of time, say less than 24 hours. In this paper, we consider a special case of cross docking where there is temporary storage and implements genetic algorithm to solve the resulted problem for some realistic test problems. In our method, we first use some heuristics as initial solutions and then improve the final solution using genetic algorithm. The performance of the proposed model is compared with alternative solution strategy, the GRASP method.

  20. Scheduling trucks in cross docking systems with temporary storage and dock repeat truck holding pattern using GRASP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Javanshir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cross docking play an important role in management of supply chains where items delivered to a warehouse by inbound trucks are directly sorted out, reorganized based on customer demands, routed and loaded into outbound trucks for delivery to customers without virtually keeping them at the warehouse. If any item is held in storage, it is usually for a short time, which is normally less than 24 hours. The proposed model of this paper considers a special case of cross docking where there is temporary storage and uses GRASP technique to solve the resulted problem for some realistic test problems. In our method, we first use some heuristics as initial solutions and then improve the final solution using GRASP method. The preliminary test results indicate that the GRASP method performs better than alternative solution strategies.

  1. [Analyses of work-relatedness of health problems among truck drivers by questionnaire survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, S; Yasuda, N; Sugihara, Y; Ohara, H; Udo, H; Otani, T; Hisashige, A; Ogawa, T; Aoyama, H

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate occupational risk factors for health problems among truck drivers, a questionnaire survey of working conditions, job content in truck transportation, subjective symptoms and present illnesses was carried out among 541 truck transportation workers in 1997. The valid response rate was 85.7%, and 134 local truck drivers, 199 long-distance truck drivers and 71 clerical workers were analyzed. First, to examine occupational risk factors and health problems among the three groups, the authors analyzed working conditions, job content in truck transportation, subjective symptoms and present illnesses. Second, to estimate the work-relatedness of health problems among local truck drivers and long-distance truck drivers, logistic regression analyses were conducted, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed. The prevalence rates of working factors affecting health problems of truck drivers were significantly higher than those of clerical workers in the items on irregular shift work, working environment, working posture, handling heavy materials, job stress due to overloading and long working time and limited time off. The prevalence rates for subjective symptoms (ringing in the ears, neck pain and low back pain) and present illnesses (hypertension, ulcers in the digestive tract, back injuries, whiplash injuries and hemorrhoids) among truck drivers were significantly higher than those of clerical workers. In logistic regression analyses, many work-related items except age, BMI and smoking habit showed significantly higher odds ratios for subjective symptoms and present illnesses of truck drivers. Odds ratios for hypertension, heart diseases and related subjective symptoms among local truck drivers were significantly increased by job career, twisting posture, vibration and driving stress. Odds ratios for gastro-duodenal diseases and related subjective symptoms were significantly increased by narrow working space, sleeping in the truck

  2. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO pada Perancangan Vessel Truck Menggunakan Augmented Lagrange Multiplier Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwono B. Pratiknyo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in design optimization is swift. The progress is in line with competitions in the globalization era that call for efficiency and optimization in all aspect of engineering field. In engineering design process, optimization is performed to reduce time, cost, and to improve quality and accuracy of the design. All of these are essential to produce more and more competitive products. The objectives of the optimization process in this research are to implement an optimization method in vessel truck design, to compile optimum scheme strategy for the vessel of truck, and to establish computer program for design optimization of vessel truck This research use MDO methods for designing the vessel truck. The design of the vessel truck covers some aspects. All these aspects need to be formulated in mathematical equation to obtain the optimum design. The strategy of the design optimization takes vessel truck dimensions as the design variable, vessel truck volume as the objective function and Newton Second Law (NSL as the equality constraint. The strategy developed in this study can be used to help the initial design stage in obtaining the optimum initial dimension of vessel truck. Software resulted for early optimization process of vessel truck can be further developed widely for other application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Pada saat ini, perkembangan keilmuan di bidang optimasi perancangan (design optimization meningkat begitu pesat. Perkembangan ini selaras dengan kompetisi di era globalisasi yang menuntut semua bidang untuk melakukan efisiensi dan optimasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari kemungkinan penerapan metode optimasi perancangan dalam perancangan awal vessel truck, menyusun strategi perancangan vessel truck, dan menyusun program komputer optimasi perancangan vessel truck yang optimum. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Methods (Metode MDO diterapkan pada perancangan vessel truck untuk mengatasi kompleksitas beberapa

  3. Six Reasons why hours of service regulations for truck drivers are violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse

    2008-01-01

      ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend to b...... independency ideal among truck drivers. The last reason is that the drivers and their employers share an interest in long work hours....

  4. Six reasons why hours of service regulations for truck drivers are violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse

      ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend to b...... independency ideal among truck drivers. The last reason is that the drivers and their employers share an interest in long work hours....

  5. The Rapid Development of Chinese Heavy Truck Industry : Adapted Porter’s Diamond Model Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaonan; Cao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Chinese heavy truck industry has witnessed an unprecedentedprosper since 2009, and it has been attracting an increasing number of westernheavy truck companies to conduct business activities. However, differentindustry environment has brought different situation including the government’spolicies and consumers’ buying habits for local companies and foreign competitors.Thus, this study aims to analyze the impact of industry factors in Chinese heavy truck industry by examining a collection of th...

  6. A heuristic procedure to aggregate containers onto pallets and plan the loading of pallets into trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A heuristic procedure is presented which aggregates containers of multiple products onto pallets and then plans the loading of these pallets into trucks. The efficient loading of products onto pallets and pallets into trucks is an economic fundamental. In 1993 the value of products shipped by truck in the United States exceeded 4.6 trillion dollars or about 75.6 percent of gross domestic product. Industry sources estimate that 98% of ...

  7. Multi-vehicle Collisions involving Large Trucks on Highways: An Exploratory Discrete Outcome Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    E.I.T, Mouyid Islam; Hernandez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Trucking industry is considered a driving force for logistic and supply chain systems which indirectly influences the national economy. So, any impedance in truck-flow or supply chain system eventually brings substantial consequences in terms of monetary values. As such, a growing concern related to large-truck (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) greater than 10,000 pounds) crashes has increased in recent years due to the potential economic impacts and level of injury severity sustained. With...

  8. An innovative food truck chain, strategic planning inspired from the lean start up methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Peñate, Paul Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Mestardo em Marketing Suportada pela abordagem Lean , o Projecto apresenta um modelo de negócios de uma nova marca de Food Truck, inicialmente a ser lançada na Bélgca. Foodies’TruckZ é a marca sugerida para um novo modelo de negócio de Food Truck que procura inovar alavancando economias de escala, sobretudo em Marketing, e através de uma frota co-propriedade das carinhas food truck. Neste modelo de negócio a partilha no investimento do camião, na comunicação e outros aspectos de marketing ...

  9. An analysis on China’s segmented truck market in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The truck market in 2007 maintained the rapid growth trend formed in 2006. The year saw a total of 2.1145 million trucks sold, a year on year growth of 22.46 percent. Detailed figures: finished truck: 1.5164 million units, a year on year growth of 15.11 percent; truck chassis: 450,400 units, a year on year growth of 31.98 percent; semi-trailer: 177,800 units, a year on year growth of 91.86 percent.

  10. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  11. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A. [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1996-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  12. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  13. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech-nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving.Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv-ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips.Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious.

  14. Thermal management for heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wambsganss, M.W.

    2000-04-03

    Thermal management is a crosscutting technology that has an important effect on fuel economy and emissions, as well as on reliability and safety, of heavy-duty trucks. Trends toward higher-horsepower engines, along with new technologies for reducing emissions, are substantially increasing heat-rejection requirements. For example, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which is probably the most popular near-term strategy for reducing NO{sub x} emissions, is expected to add 20 to 50% to coolant heat-rejection requirements. There is also a need to package more cooling in a smaller space without increasing costs. These new demands have created a need for new and innovative technologies and concepts that will require research and development, which, due to its long-term and high-risk nature, would benefit from government funding. This document outlines a research program that was recommended by representatives of truck manufacturers, engine manufacturers, equipment suppliers, universities, and national laboratories. Their input was obtained through personal interviews and a plenary workshop that was sponsored by the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies and held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 19--20, 1999. Major research areas that received a strong endorsement by industry and that are appropriate for government funding were identified and included in the following six tasks: (1) Program management/coordination and benefits/cost analyses; (2) Advanced-concept development; (3) Advanced heat exchangers and heat-transfer fluids; (4) Simulation-code development; (5) Sensors and control components development; and (6) Concept/demonstration truck sponsorship.

  15. Application of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    in order to account for water back diffusion. Further Membrane water content is assumed to be a linear function of thickness. PEM fuel cell is working at rather low operating conditions which makes it suitable for the automotive systems. In this paper motive power part of a lift truck has been investigated......In this study a general PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) model has been developed to take into account the effect of pressure losses, water crossovers, humidity aspects and voltage over potentials in the cells. The model is zero dimensional and it is assumed to be steady state. The effect...

  16. The Impact of Augmented Reality Support in Warehouse Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Mikael; Stengård, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This Master Thesis analyzes how augmented reality (AR) can be used as assistance for a warehouse truck driver in order to make the driver more safe and efficient. The working environment is observed in an everyday warehouse and solutions are developed for situations based on observations. The AR solutions for the situations will be developed and evaluated. The software will be made for a pair of android see-through AR-glasses. Based on user tests and internal evaluation, the solutions will be...

  17. On the dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie; True, Hans

    2003-01-01

    and the nonlinear dry friction damping with hysteresis and stick-slip action. The bolster moves both vertically and laterally relative to the truck frames, so the friction forces on the contact surfaces of the wedges must be treated as two-dimensional vectors, and the same holds for the dry friction on the surfaces...... system that models the dynamics of the moving wagon and show the result of numerical dynamical investigations such as the calculation of the critical speed, and the dynamics of the wagon on an irregular track and compare them with test results and simulation results using NUCARS....

  18. Explaining Truck Rate Variations for Produce Shipped to the Northeast

    OpenAIRE

    Beilock, Richard P.; Koburger, John H.; Morgan, Jeffrey P.

    1984-01-01

    Models are developed to examine the determinants of weekly truck rates for produce shipped to the Northeast from California and Florida. ln the empirical work, a large proportion of the variation in rates is explained and the estimated parameters are generally consistent with a priori expectations. The total quantity of produce shipped from each state, the proportion of this total which is compatible with the commodity in question, and the F.O .B. price if the commodity were found to be the m...

  19. Outputs and cost of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers form part of the HIV control efforts, but systematic data on the outputs and cost of providing such services in India are not readily available for further planning and use of resources. Methods Detailed cost and output data were collected from written records and interviews for 2005–2006 fiscal year using standardized methods at six sampled HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The total economic cost for these programmes was computed and the relation of unit cost of services per truck driver with programme scale was assessed using regression analysis. Results A total of 120,436 truck drivers were provided services by the six programmes of which 55.9% were long distance truck drivers. The annual economic cost of providing services to a truck driver varied between programmes from US$ 1.52 to 4.56 (mean US$ 2.49. There was an inverse relation between unit economic cost of serving a truck driver and scale of the programme (R2 = 0.63; p = 0.061. The variation between programmes in the average number of contacts made by the programme staff with truck drivers was 1.3 times versus 5.8 times for contacts by peer educators. Only 1.7% of the truck drivers were referred by the programmes for counseling and HIV testing. Conclusion These data provide information for further planning of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers and estimating the resources needed for such programmes. The findings suggest the need to strengthen the role of peer educators and increase referral of truck drivers for HIV testing.

  20. EVALUATION OF FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 30-50% of the time the engine is running. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e...

  1. Composite crash cones in front under-run protection systems for heavy trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coo, P.J.A. de; Paas, M.H.J.W.; Slaats, P.M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In future, new trucks shall most likely be equipped with a front under-run protection devices in order to prevent passenger cars from under-running. At the same time, the energy absorption by the car will be more adequate, because of the better geometrical compatibility with the truck front. As yet,

  2. 75 FR 20396 - Yale Industrial Trucks-PGH, Inc. Monroeville, PA; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Yale Industrial Trucks-PGH, Inc. Monroeville, PA; Notice of Negative... negative determination of the TAA petition filed on behalf of workers at Yale Industrial Trucks-PGH,...

  3. 49 CFR 1242.44 - Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service) (accounts XX-23-43 and XX-23-44). 1242.44 Section 1242.44... Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service) (accounts...

  4. 49 CFR 230.108 - Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks. 230.108 Section 230.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.108 Steam locomotive...

  5. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  6. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    -haul truck drivers and bus drivers had higher SHR for intervertebral disc disorders (SHR: 133, 95% CI: 114-155/SHR: 141, 95% CI: 129-154, respectively) than other truck drivers (SHR: 109, 95% CI: 102-116). The SHR for carpal tunnel syndrome was high among long-haul drivers (SHR: 163, 95% CI: 101...

  7. The Merger between Volvo-Renault VI-Mack Trucks: The Keys to A Successful Marriage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Raynaud

    2006-01-01

    @@ Three brands, one group The merger of Volvo Trucks with Renault Ⅵ and Mack created a new heavy goods vehicles group comprised of the Mack, Renault and Volvo brands. The three companies, which were initially merged into Volvo Global Trucks (VGT),kept their own brand identities and their distribution networks.

  8. 26 CFR 48.4052-1 - Heavy trucks and trailers; certification requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Heavy trucks and trailers; certification requirement. 48.4052-1 Section 48.4052-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4052-1 Heavy trucks and...

  9. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  10. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  11. Scrotal neoplasia: would truck drivers be at greater risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seabra

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how scrotal neoplasias have been managed during the past decade and to question possible factors or professions associated to its presence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated every case reported from 1995 to 2005 at our hospital. We described the clinical scenario, complementary exams, treatments and outcomes. We also tried to verify if there was any risk, predisposing factors or professions that would explain the cancer origin. RESULTS: Six cases were reviewed. Out of these, three patients were truck drivers. Five of them showed restricted lesions without inguinal lymph nodes enlargement. Histologically, six patients presented squamous carcinoma, with two of them having the verrucous type. The median age of patients was 52 years old (31 to 89. The five patients who are still alive had their lesions completely removed with safety margin and primary closure. CONCLUSIONS: We have noticed that the scrotal carcinoma behavior is similar to that of the penis, where removal of the lesion and study of the regional lymph nodes help to increase the patient survival rate. The outstanding fact was that three out of six patients were truck drivers, raising the hypothesis that such profession, maybe due to the contact or attrition with the diesel exhaust expelled by the engine or to sexual promiscuity, would imply in a larger risk of developing this rare neoplasia.

  12. Do more trucks lead to more motor vehicle fatalities in European roads? Evaluating the impact of specific safety strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; José I. Castillo-Manzano; Fageda, Xavier, 1975-

    2015-01-01

    Truck operations have recently become an important focus of academic research not only because road freight transport is a key part of logistics, but because trucks are usually associated with negative externalities including pollution, congestion and traffic accidents. While the negative environmental impacts of truck activities have been extensively analyzed, comparatively little attention has been paid to the role of trucks in road accidents. A review of the literature identifies various t...

  13. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  14. A Review of the Fatigue Analysis of Heavy Duty Truck Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad O. Moaaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy duty vehicle plays a more important role in highway transportation. The major focus in the truck manufacturing industries is design of truck chassis with more pay load capacity and possible less weight. An important aspect of chassis’ design and analysis is the stress distribution and fatigue life of prediction process. Fatigue is one of the most important parameters to consider when designing truck components. The components are typically subjected to dynamic loads when in service. In this paper, an effort is made to review the investigations that have been made on the different fatigue analysis techniques of heavy duty truck frames. A number of analytical and numerical techniques are available for the fatigue analysis of the heavy duty truck frames has been reported in literature.

  15. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  16. Analysis of major trends in U.S. commercial trucking, 1977-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K. M.; Santini, D .J.; Vyas, A. D.

    2009-06-10

    This report focuses on various major long-range (1977-2002) and intermediate-range (1982-2002) U.S. commercial trucking trends. The primary sources of data for this period were the U.S. Bureau of the Census Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey and Truck Inventory and Use Survey. In addition, selected 1977-2002 data from the U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration and from the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration's Highway Statistics were used. The report analyzes (1) overall gasoline and diesel fuel consumption patterns by passenger vehicles and trucks and (2) the population changes and fuels used by all commercial truck classes by selected truck type (single unit or combination), during specified time periods, with cargo-hauling commercial trucks given special emphasis. It also assesses trends in selected vehicle miles traveled, gallons per vehicle miles traveled, and gallons per cargo ton-mile traveled, as well as the effect of cargo tons per truck on fuel consumption. In addition, the report examines long-range trends for related factors (e.g., long-haul mileages driven by heavy trucks) and their impacts on reducing fuel consumption per cargo-ton-mile and the relative shares of total commercial fuel use among truck classes. It identifies the effects of these trends on U.S. petroleum consumption. The report also discusses basic engineering design and performance, national legislation on interstate highway construction, national demographic trends (e.g., suburbanization), and changes in U.S. corporate operations requirements, and it highlights their impacts on both the long-distance hauling and shorter-distance urban and suburban delivery markets of the commercial trucking industry.

  17. 29 CFR 779.371 - Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Automobile, Truck, Farm Implement, Trailer, and Aircraft Sales and Services § 779.371 Some automobile, truck, and farm...

  18. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  19. Safe! Sports, Campers & Reducing Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Beth J.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance of adult roles by children increases "adult injuries," notably broken bones from sports. Suggests camp administrators be familiar with clientele, particular sports, and the kinds of injuries that generally result in each. Discusses children's age, types of sports, and other factors that come into play when anticipating and treating…

  20. Wishbone Structure for Front Independent Suspension of a Military Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Jagirdar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wishbone structure for double wishbone front-independent Suspension for a military truck application is presented. At present, the vehicle is equipped with rigid axle with leaf springs. There are two aspects that dictate the design of wishbone structure, viz. the path of relative motion between the constituents of the suspension system and the forces transmitted between them. Also, enhancement of mobility was made possible by maintaining the live axle in the system. A double wishbone, double coil spring with twin damper configuration was employed for this application. MBD Analysis was carried out using MSC ADAMS. A double wishboneindependent suspension has been designed for the front axle and has been successfully integrated with the vehicle.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.178-183, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.337

  1. Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Stedman, Donald H

    2013-08-20

    California and Federal emissions regulations for 2007 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines require an order of magnitude reduction in particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen spurring the introduction of new aftertreatment systems. Since 2008, four emission measurement campaigns have been conducted at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emissions at the Port have decreased 12% since 2010 while infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter) remained low, showing no diesel particulate filter deterioration. The weigh station truck's fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emission reductions since 2010 (18.5%) almost double the previous three year's reductions and are the result of new trucks using selective catalytic reduction systems. Trucks at the weigh station equipped with these systems have a skewed oxides of nitrogen emissions distribution (half of the emissions were from 6% of the measurements) and had significantly lower emissions than similarly equipped Port trucks. Infrared thermographs of truck exhaust pipes revealed that the mean temperature observed at the weigh station (225 ± 4.5 °C) was 70 °C higher than for Port trucks, suggesting that the catalytic aftertreatment systems on trucks at our Port site were often below minimum operating temperatures.

  2. Algorithms for Pallet Building and Truck Loading in an Interdepot Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of a logistics company that has to serve its customers by first putting the products on pallets and then loading the pallets into trucks. Besides the standard geometric constraints of products not overlapping each other and not exceeding the dimensions of pallets and trucks, in this real problem, there are many other constraints, related to the total weight of the load, the maximum weight supported by each axle, and the distribution of the load inside the truck. Although the problem can be decomposed into two phases, pallet loading and truck loading, we have taken a combined approach, building and placing pallets at the same time. For each position in the truck, a pallet is built and tailored for that position according to the constraints of height and weight. We have developed a GRASP algorithm, in which the constructive algorithm is randomized and an improvement phase is added to obtain high-quality solutions. The algorithm has been tested on two sets of real instances with different characteristics, involving up to 44 trucks. The results show that solutions with an optimal or near optimal number of trucks are obtained in very short computing times.

  3. Comparing gravimetric and real-time sampling of PM(2.5) concentrations inside truck cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Levy, Jonathan I; Herrick, Robert; Jiang, Hongyu

    2011-11-01

    As part of a study on truck drivers' exposure and health risk, pickup and delivery (P&D) truck drivers' on-road exposure patterns to PM(2.5) were assessed in five, weeklong sampling trips in metropolitan areas of five U.S. cities from April to August of 2006. Drivers were sampled with real-time (DustTrak) and gravimetric samplers to measure average in-cabin PM(2.5) concentrations and to compare their correspondence in moving trucks. In addition, GPS measurements of truck locations, meteorological data, and driver behavioral data were collected throughout the day to determine which factors influence the relationship between real-time and gravimetric samplers. Results indicate that the association between average real-time and gravimetric PM(2.5) measurements on moving trucks was fairly consistent (Spearman rank correlation of 0.63), with DustTrak measurements exceeding gravimetric measurements by approximately a factor of 2. This ratio differed significantly only between the industrial Midwest cities and the other three sampled cities scattered in the South and West. There was also limited evidence of an effect of truck age. Filter samples collected concurrently with DustTrak measurements can be used to calibrate average mass concentration responses for the DustTrak, allowing for real-time measurements to be integrated into longer-term studies of inter-city and intra-urban exposure patterns for truck drivers. PMID:21991940

  4. Comparing Gravimetric and Real-Time Sampling of PM2.5 Concentrations Inside Truck Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Smith, Thomas J.; Davis, Mary E.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Herrick, Robert; Jiang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    As part of a study on truck drivers’ exposure and health risk, pickup and delivery (P&D) truck drivers’ on-road exposure patterns to PM2.5 were assessed in five weeklong sampling trips in metropolitan areas of five U.S. cities from April to August of 2006. Drivers were sampled with real-time (DustTrak) and gravimetric samplers to measure average in-cabin PM2.5 concentrations and to compare their correspondence in moving trucks. In addition, GPS measurements of truck locations, meteorological data, and driver behavioral data were collected throughout the day to determine which factors influence the relationship between real-time and gravimetric samplers. Results indicate that the association between average real-time and gravimetric PM2.5 measurements on moving trucks was fairly consistent (Spearman rank correlation of 0.63), with DustTrak measurements exceeding gravimetric measurements by approximately a factor of 2. This ratio differed significantly only between the industrial Midwest cities and the other three sampled cities scattered in the South and West. There was also limited evidence of an effect of truck age. Filter samples collected concurrently with DustTrak measurements can be used to calibrate average mass concentration responses for the DustTrak, allowing for real-time measurements to be integrated into longer-term studies of inter-city and intra-urban exposure patterns for truck drivers. PMID:21991940

  5. Vulnerability of bus and truck drivers affected from vehicle engine noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the vulnerability of bus and truck drivers due to constant exposure of vehicle-engine noise inside the vehicle cabin. Comparative results revealed that noise levels inside the cabin of buses and trucks were in the range of 88.6–102.4 dB and 87.95–103.4 dB, respectively. The health status of bus and truck drivers was assessed by measuring their systolic and diastolic pressure, pulse rate, BMI, digestion problem, hearing loss, vision problem, back pain and irritation. Paired t-test of the results revealed non-significant (p < 0.05 relation between systolic and diastolic pressure of both bus and truck drivers. The pulse rate of truck driver was significantly (p < 0.01 related with noise level inside the cabin of truck. The humidity level inside the cabin showed a positive relation with vehicle age (p < 0.01 and driving period (p < 0.01. This study clearly suggests that vehicle engine noise adversely affects the cardiovascular health of both bus and truck drivers.

  6. COMPETITIVE PRESSURE SYSTEMS MAPPING IN THE BRAZILIAN TRUCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa da Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The automotive business in Brazil achieved 10% of the industry revenue and 6% of the formal employment by 2008. The commercial vehicle segment concentrated so far eight truck makers that experienced their best market figures in 2008, the economy crisis in 2009, and an extraordinary recovery in 2010. Government tax reduction programs as well as special financing incentives were undoubtedly decisive to re-stimulate the business during the crisis. Positive Brazilian perspectives with the boom in the agricultural, oil and gas, mining and infrastructure activities plus the coming sports events call the attention of new players that are quickly implementing different business strategies to become part of the game. New emission regulations starting from 2012 also bring uncertainties, challenges and opportunities. With the growing globalization and market concentration it's critical for any industry understand and minimize the forces of competitive pressures. The main goal of this paper, therefore, is to contribute to the academy with an alternative approach of strategic and behavioral analysis of rivalry and competition different than the five forces model of Porter. Ford, Iveco, MAN, Mercedes-Benz, Scania and Volvo were assessed from 2008 to 2010 within three main performance indicators – unit sales, gross revenues and operating profits – supporting the elaboration of the competitive pressure systems mapping model of D'aveni, including a hypothetical future scenario with a new entrant and the potential impacts in the system. Main findings and results portray the asymmetrical strategic behavior of competitors and the temporary dynamic stability in the Brazilian truck industry.

  7. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Thiese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed.Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight.Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years and body mass index (≥30 kg/m2. The drivers participated in a before-after clinical trial. The intervention included a 12-week program that provided information on healthy diet and increasing exercise, and telephone-based coaching using SMART goals. Outcomes included change from baseline in reported energy intake, measured weight, waist, hip, and neck circumference, blood pressure, and point of care capillary blood lipids and hemoglobin A1c. Exit interviews were conducted to gain insight into driver opinions on the program features and usefulness. This study was registered with the NIH Clinical Trials Registry, number NCT02348983.Results: 12 of 13 drivers completed the study. Weight loss was statistically significant (p=0.03. Reported energy (p=0.005, total fat consumption (p=0.04, and saturated fat consumption (p=0.02 intake were also lower after the 12-week intervention. Drivers attributed their weight loss to health coaching and suggested a longer intervention so that they could reach their goal and become accustomed to the changes.Conclusion: This weight loss intervention is feasible for this difficult population. Additional research is needed to compare this intervention with a control group.

  8. The design and implementation of a garbage truck fleet management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of cloud computing and mobile computing techniques has led to the availability of a variety of mobile applications (‘apps’ in the app store. For instance, a garbage truck app that can provide the immediate location of a garbage truck, the location of collection points, and forecasted arrival times of garbage trucks would be useful for mobile users. Since the power consumption of apps on mobile devices if of concern to mobile users, an optimised power-saving mechanism for updating messages, which is based on location information, for a proposed garbage truck fleet management system (GTFMS is proposed and implemented in this paper. The GTFMS is a three- component system that includes the on-board units on garbage trucks, a fleet management system, and a garbage truck app. In this study, an arrival time forecasting method is designed and implemented in the fleet management system, so that the garbage truck app can retrieve the forecasted arrival time via web services. A message updating event is then triggered that reports the location of garbage truck and the forecasted arrival time. In experiments conducted on case studies, the results showed that the mean accuracy of predicted arrival time by the proposed method is about 81.45 per cent. As for power consumption, the cost of traditional mobile apps is 2,880 times that of the mechanism proposed in this study. Consequently, the GTFMS can provide the precise forecasted arrival time of garbage trucks to mobile users, while consuming less power.

  9. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  10. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry – volume, size and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of trucking firm fuel use. We develop a simple model to show that trucking firm fuel use depends, in addition to the fuel price and the traffic volume, also on the output of the trucking firm’s production process (the movement of cargo) measured in tonkilometres...... decompose the standard definition of the rebound effect for motor vehicles, i.e. the elasticity of traffic volume with respect to fuel cost, into the elasticity by which changes in fuel costs affects freight activity and the elasticity by which changes in freight activity affect traffic volume. We estimate...

  11. Technical documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the design of the NTACS are described in this document.

  12. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ram Manohar; Dube, Madhulika; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pandey, Arvind; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Ramesh, Sowmya

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066) undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1) low (duration ≤ 6 years) and (2) high experience (duration ≥ 7 years). Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry 4.0%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) and syphilis (5.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). These results suggest the need for focused behavioral change programs in HIV prevention interventions for adolescent truckers in India and elsewhere.

  13. Truck Rates For Selected North, South, And Northeastern Brazilian Soybean Export Transportation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Compares monthly truck rates from north Mato Grosso and East Tocantins to the ports Itaituba, Porto Velho, Santarém, São Luís, Santos, and Paranaguá. This is figure...

  14. Ralphs Grocery EC-Diesel Truck Fleet Start-up Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NREL is conducting the DOE Truck Evaluation Project which includes testing new lower sulfur diesel fuels and exhaust filter technologies. Start-up experiences from one of the evaluations are hi-lighted in this report

  15. Operator health risk evaluation of off-highway dump truck under shovel loading condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申焱华; 许敏; 金纯; 高玉; 魏福林

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the operator health risk exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) while the electric-shovel loads the ore on the truck body, the semi-truck mathematical model and 3-D virtual prototype were built to simulate the high shockwave of truck cab under the shovel loading. Discrete element method was utilized to accurately estimate the impacting force on the truck body. Based on the ISO 2631-5 criteria, theSed is about 0.56 MPa in both models, which means that the dump operators have a high probability of adverse health effects over long-term exposure to these vibrations. The 4-DOF operator model was built to investigate the biodynamic response of seated-human body exposed to WBV in terms of the transmission of vibrations through the body. The results show that the response peak is in the frequency range of 4−6 Hz corresponding to the primary body resonant frequency.

  16. 75 FR 56651 - ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting AGENCY... the 9th day of September 2010. John Augustine, Managing Director, ITS Joint Program Office....

  17. Improving the system of warranty service of trucks in foreign markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MAKAROVA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the practical methods development of improving one of the ways to ensure the health of trucks in the system warranty. Methodology is aimed at optimizing the processes of formation of warranty spare parts kits during the implementation of KAMAZ trucks in foreign markets. The example is given to demonstrate the importance of different factors in the formation of the warranty set for different regions. The algorithm was developed to assess the qualitative composition formed warranty package that will optimize the planning and organization of activity centers to improve operational reliability of commercial trucks. A basis for acceptance of the scientifically-proved decisions is the statistical data analysis of requests monitoring that allows organizing duly replacement of parts with expired service life, and also promotes customer servicing quality improvement and reliability of trucks by prevention of its failures.

  18. Numerical simulation of the aerodynamic characteristics of heavy-duty trucks through viaduct in crosswind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兴军; 秦鹏; 廖磊; 郭鹏; 王靖宇; 杨博

    2014-01-01

    In our numerical simulation the hybrid mesh and the SST k-w turbulence model are adopted to investigate the varia-tions of the aerodynamic loads and the flow field of heavy-duty trucks while crossing a viaduct with 1.1 m high fences in a crosswind at a velocity of 20 m/s. The results show that, with the protection of a fence, the side force is weakened, and the rolling and yaw moments are strengthened while the truck is crossing the viaduct, which relatively reduces the roll-over safety and the driving stability of the truck. Meanwhile, the direction of the side force changes when the truck enters the viaduct, which makes the roll-over safety and the driving stability the lowest during the process.

  19. Commercial Truck Driver Health and Safety: Exploring Distracted Driving Performance and Self-Reported Driving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R

    2016-08-01

    Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers. PMID:26809775

  20. Developing a model law restricting the transporting of passengers in the cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffel, T; Agran, P; Winn, D; Anderson, C; Del Valle, C

    2000-01-01

    Pickup trucks have become increasingly popular in the United States, accounting for about one in five vehicles involved in fatal motor-vehicle crashes. A critical factor in these deaths is the practice of carrying passengers in truck cargo areas, which are not designed for this purpose. Each year approximately 200 deaths occur to occupants riding in the back of pickup trucks. Over half the states have laws dealing with preventable injury problem, but these laws vary widely and most are too limited to be effective. We have reviewed existing laws, as well as crash injury data, and we have developed and recommend a model bill. The bill focuses on intended use, restricting passengers to only those portions of a vehicle designed for human transport. We have also conducted and report on a survey of legislative sponsors of pickup truck legislation. PMID:10754798

  1. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  2. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  3. Development of a control system for automated cab roof deflectors for articulated trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Berkenbusch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of emissions from the global transport industry on the environment have become increasingly apparent, with significant emphasis placed on their reduction through various initiatives. In the UK, Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV’s) are used to transport 68 % of all goods. The majority of trucks are articulated (Truck and Trailer) – rather than rigid vehicles. Surveys show that within the UK in 2014, HGV’s travelled approximately 18,769 million kilometres (1). The CO2 emissions from...

  4. Modelling and control of a light-duty hybrid electric truck

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jong-Kyu

    2006-01-01

    This study is concentrated on modelling and developing the controller for the light-duty hybrid electric truck. The hybrid electric vehicle has advantages in fuel economy. However, there have been relatively few studies on commercial HEVs, whilst a considerable number of studies on the hybrid electric system have been conducted in the field of passenger cars. So the current status and the methodologies to develop the LD hybrid electric truck model have been studied through the ...

  5. Toxoplasma gondii infection in interstate truck drivers: a case–control seroprevalence study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can be acquired via the ingestion of undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts, or via ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts. Professional long distance truck driving may have epidemiological importance for food-borne infections since drivers eat out of home and in places where hygiene and cooking practices are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether interstate truck drivers in Durango, Mexico have an increased risk of infection with T...

  6. Algorithms for Pallet Building and Truck Loading in an Interdepot Transportation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Alonso; Ramon Alvarez-Valdes; Francisco Parreño; Jose Manuel Tamarit

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of a logistics company that has to serve its customers by first putting the products on pallets and then loading the pallets into trucks. Besides the standard geometric constraints of products not overlapping each other and not exceeding the dimensions of pallets and trucks, in this real problem, there are many other constraints, related to the total weight of the load, the maximum weight supported by each axle, and the distribution of the load inside the tru...

  7. Exploratory and Empirical Analysis of E-Marketplaces for Truck Transportation Services Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Collignon, Stephane Eric

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1990s, early 2000s, academic literature considered electronic marketplaces as a game changer in truck transportation services procurement. Early enthusiasm was followed by skepticism regarding e-marketplaces' usefulness and the popularity of e-marketplaces appeared to wane both in industry and in academic literature. However, recent sources argue that almost half of the freight currently transported by truck in the USA is subject to transactions conducted in e-marketplaces. This d...

  8. Study on heavy duty truck stability control by braking force control; Seidoryoku seigyo ni yoru truck no sharyo kyodo anteika ni taisuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K.; Shinjo, H.; Harada, M.; Ohata, K.; Sakata, K. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Now a days we are discussing about the vehicle stability control system which freely controls the braking force of each wheel to apply the yaw t and decelerate the vehicle. The system drastically improve the vehicle cornering performance and stabilize the vehicle behavior in its critical area. This paper discusses a point to notice in case of applying this technique for heavy duty trucks, and describes the possibility of the stabilization for vehicle cornering behavior about heavy duty truck. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Removal of ecotoxicity and COD from tank truck cleaning wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, Jan; De Schepper, Wim; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Tank truck cleaning (TTC) activities generate highly complex wastewater. In a previous study, we found that a significant ecotoxic effect was still present in biologically treated TTC wastewater. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the removal of acute toxicity from TTC wastewater by a sequence of technologies routinely applied for industrial wastewater. Acute toxicity was assayed with the widely applied and standardized Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test. During a 5-month period, raw wastewater was grab-sampled from a full-scale TTC company and treated by the different unit operations on a laboratory scale. Chemical pretreatment of the wastewater by coagulation with FeCl3 removed approx. 38% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and reduced the bioluminescence inhibition by 8%. Biological treatment with activated sludge subsequently removed another 77% of the remaining COD. This treatment step also reduced the bioluminescence inhibition but the removal efficiency varied strongly from 5 to 92% for the different samples. Powdered activated carbon almost completely removed the remaining COD and inhibition in all samples. The results suggest that conventional technologies did not suffice for complete removal of toxicity from TTC wastewater, and that advanced wastewater treatment technologies such as activated carbon are required for a satisfactory detoxification. PMID:24292468

  10. The analysis of loading losses from tank trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ana P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of loading losses, which are the primary source of evaporative emissions from tank cars and trucks was analyzed in this paper. Loading losses occur as organic vapors in "empty" cargo tanks are displaced to the atmosphere by the liquid being loaded into the tanks. Emissions from loading petroleum liquid were estimated using three methods: the API (American Petroleum Institute method, the VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure -Association of German Engineers method and the Yugoslav Standard JUS B.HO.531 method. The mass of evaporative losses from loading operations is a function of the following parameters: the method of loading the cargo, the physical and chemical characteristics of the cargo and the ambient temperature during loading. Evaporation losses from the loading of motor gasoline (MB-95, BMB-95, MB-98 and MB-86 and diesel fuels (D-2, Euro D-2 were calculated. Losses on a monthly and annual basis were presented for an assumed amount of loaded cargo. It was estimated that the highest loading losses occur in the summer period because of high ambient daily temperatures and in the period of higher transporting levels. It should be pointed out that the loading losses of diesel fuel calculated using an empirical coefficient according to JUS B.HO.531 are significantly higher in comparison with the loading losses calculated using emission factors from the EPA and the VDI method. The gasoline loading losses calculated using emission factors derived from the three methods are similar.

  11. Three-Dimensional Center of Gravity Detection for Trucks Hauling Marine Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runan Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty in preventing rollover accidents of marine containers derives from various load conditions of cargoes inside the containers. Heavier cargoes are widely regarded as presenting greater danger of rollover accidents. However, this presupposition is severely misleading because lighter cargoes having a higher center of gravity such as machinery with an upper mass can also cause rollover accidents. Rollover accidents are explainable fundamentally as follows. The center of gravity of a truck loading a marine container conflicts with the centrifugal force in cornering. A truck is unstable, causing a rollover accident when the moment originating from the centrifugal force exceeds that originating from the force of gravity. Such a truck might cause a rollover accident at a lower driving speed when the center of gravity is positioned higher. The question is therefore how to find the center of gravity of trucks with marine containers. Conditions of cargoes inside the containers differ greatly. Moreover, it is practically impossible to calculate those conditions by measuring all cargoes piece-by-piece in a container unless the time and cost to do so are unlimited. Without knowing what is inside a container, there is no way to detect the center of gravity after a truck starts moving. An important invention by the second author of this paper was produced to solve that difficulty. Detection of the Three Dimensional Center of Gravity (D3DCG can ascertain the position of the center of gravity while trucks are moving. Soon after starting to move, vertical and rolling motions are measured onboard the trucks in half a minute. Then D3DCG is activated, instantly assessing the position of the center of gravity. D3DCG assumes that the center of gravity causes unique motions depending on its position on the truck. Therefore there is no need to know what is inside the container. This paper first demonstrated the precision of D3DCG running an experiment by which

  12. Correlates of STI symptoms among female sex workers with truck driver clients in two Mexican border towns

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Nadine E; Strathdee Steffanie A; Uribe-Salas Felipe J; Patterson Thomas L; Rangel Maria; Rosen Perth; Brouwer Kimberly C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSW) are at increased risk for HIV and other STI due to occupation-related risks and exposures. Long-distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV, but less is known about HIV/STI risks of FSW servicing truck drivers, especially in North America. As part of an international collaborative pilot study, we interviewed FSWs servicing truck driver clients along two major transportation cor...

  13. Demonstration Project 111, ITS/CVO Technology Truck, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambrell, KP

    2002-01-11

    In 1995, the planning and building processes began to design and develop a mobile demonstration unit that could travel across the nation and be used as an effective outreach tool. In 1997, the unit was completed; and from June 1997 until December 2000, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)/Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) mobilized the Technology Truck, also known as Demonstration Project No. 111, ''Advanced Motor Carrier Operations and Safety Technologies.'' The project featured the latest available state-of-the-practice intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies designed to improve both the efficiency and safety of commercial vehicle operations (CVO). The Technology Truck was designed to inform and educate the motor carrier community and other stakeholders regarding ITS technologies, thus gaining support and buy-in for participation in the ITS program. The primary objective of the project was to demonstrate new and emerging ITS/CVO technologies and programs, showing their impact on motor carrier safety and productivity. In order to meet the objectives of the Technology Truck project, the FHWA/FMCSA formed public/private partnerships with industry and with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to demonstrate and display available ITS/CVO technologies in a cooperative effort. The mobile demonstration unit was showcased at national and regional conferences, symposiums, universities, truck shows and other venues, in an effort to reach as many potential users and decision makers as possible. By the end of the touring phase, the ITS/CVO Technology Truck had been demonstrated in 38 states, 4 Canadian provinces, 88 cities, and 114 events; been toured by 18,099 people; and traveled 115,233 miles. The market penetration for the Technology Truck exceeded 4,000,000, and the website received more than 25,000 hits. In addition to the Truck's visits, the portable ITS/CVO kiosk was demonstrated at 31 events in 23 cites in 15

  14. Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-02-02

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO{sub 2}B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for {approx} 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg {sup -1} and maximum values of {approx} 10 g kg{sup -1}. Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10{sup 15} and 4 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1}. There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1{sigma}) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from {+-} 43% for n = 10 to {+-} 8% for n = 300, illustrating the importance of sufficiently large vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. Studies with low sample sizes are also more easily biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in future years, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet are expected to become more of a challenge.

  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, N B; Norkool, D M

    OBJECTIVE - To describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. DESIGN - Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected. Clinical follow-up by telephone interview ranged from 2 to 55 months. SETTING - A private, urban, tertiary care center in Seattle, Wash. PATIENTS - Twenty children ranging from 4 to 16 years of age. INTERVENTION - All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Characteristics of the poisoning incident and clinical patient outcome. RESULTS - Of 68 pediatric patients treated for accidental carbon monoxide poisoning, 20 cases occurred as children rode in the back of pickup trucks. In 17 of these, the children were riding under a rigid closed canopy on the rear of the truck, while three episodes occurred as children rode beneath a tarpaulin. Average carboxyhemoglobin level on emergency department presentation was 18.2% +/- 2.4% (mean +/- SEM; range, 1.6% to 37.0%). Loss of consciousness occurred in 15 of the 20 children. One child died of cerebral edema, one had permanent neurologic deficits, and 18 had no recognizable sequelae related to the episode. In all cases, the truck exhaust system had a previously known leak or a tail pipe that exited at the rear rather than at the side of the pickup truck. CONCLUSIONS - Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant hazard for children who ride in the back of pickup trucks. If possible, this practice should be avoided. PMID:1370334

  16. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  17. Transport experience of recovered uranium by truck and tractor trailer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has been carrying get UF6, conversion tests of the recovered uranium at Ningyo Toge Works. PNC in Okayama prefecture. The chemical formula of recovered uranium using these tests is uranium trioxide (UO3). Uranium is recovered from spent fuel used in domestic light water reactors by PNC Tokai Reprocessing Plant in Ibaraki Prefecture. About 230 kg of the recovered uranium is places in each storage vessel at the reprocessing plant. Recovered uranium is transported by the trucks or trailers. It takes about 18 hours for transport and its distance from Tokai Reprocessing Plant to Ningyo Toge Works is approximately 900 km. The transport control center is set up at Tokai Works. The transport starts from Tokai Works. During the transport, contacts from the control center to the convoy, Ningyo Toge Works and Tokyo heat office are maintained. And the radioactive material handling expert accompanying the convoy from Tokai Works to Ningyo Toge Works. Further safety measures are undertaken with the cooperation of related authorities along the transportation route. Approximately 220 metric tons of recovered uranium were transported in 30 separate trips from June 1994, when conversion test timescales was extended to October 1997. Safe transport was undertaken without any accident or disturbance. The transport package used for recovered uranium was type IP62 F which was Japan's first licensed package. These packages underwent the falling test (9m), and fire resist test (800 deg. C) x 30 min) etc. before use for transport of radioactive materials. The package is cylindrical in shape with a diameter of 1.2 m, height 1.6 m and weights 1300 kg. It is designed to carry up to 260 kg of uranium with a maximum U235 concentration of 1.6%. (authors)

  18. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  19. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and communication technologies for solid waste bin and truck monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Arebey, Maher; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with a system of integration of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and communication technologies for solid waste bin and truck monitoring system. RFID, GPS, GPRS and GIS along with camera technologies have been integrated and developed the bin and truck intelligent monitoring system. A new kind of integrated theoretical framework, hardware architecture and interface algorithm has been introduced between the technologies for the successful implementation of the proposed system. In this system, bin and truck database have been developed such a way that the information of bin and truck ID, date and time of waste collection, bin status, amount of waste and bin and truck GPS coordinates etc. are complied and stored for monitoring and management activities. The results showed that the real-time image processing, histogram analysis, waste estimation and other bin information have been displayed in the GUI of the monitoring system. The real-time test and experimental results showed that the performance of the developed system was stable and satisfied the monitoring system with high practicability and validity.

  20. Emissions from nine heavy trucks fueled by diesel and biodiesel blend without engine modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel, a fuel that can be made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats, has been recognized recently as an environment friendly alternative fuel for diesel engines. In this paper, the authors describe a study that compared exhaust emissions from in-use heavy trucks fueled with a biodiesel blend with those from trucks fueled with petroleum diesel. The biodiesel blend tested is a mixture of 35% biodiesel and 65% petroleum diesel, a blend designated as B35. The study is based on the field test results from West Virginia University's Transportable Heavy Duty Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Testing Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The heavy trucks the authors tested performed well when the originally equipped compression-ignition engine (diesel engine) was fueled with B35 without any engine modifications. Fuel economy (in terms of gallon per mile) of the two fuels was about the same. The emissions test results have shown that the heavy trucks fueled by B35 emitted significantly lower particulate matter (PM) and moderately lower carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) than the same trucks fueled by no. 2 diesel (D2). Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from B35 and D2, however, were generally in the same level. Emissions variations from two different engine models and two driving cycles were also observed. Although the authors recommend more tests for biodiesel vehicles, the data obtained in this study indicate that biodiesel has promise as an emissions-reducing alternative fuel for diesel engines

  1. Prediction of fuel consumption of mining dump trucks: A neural networks approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A neural network model of fuel consumption in mining haul trucks was constructed and tested. • Using the cyclic activities, the model was able to predict unseen (testing) data. • Trucks idle times were identified as the most important unnecessary energy consuming portion of the network. • Practical remedies, based on the nature of mining operations, were proposed to reduce the energy consumption. - Abstract: Fuel consumption of mining dump trucks accounts for about 30% of total energy use in surface mines. Moreover, a fleet of large dump trucks is the main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) generation. Modeling and prediction of fuel consumption per cycle is a valuable tool in assessing both energy costs and the resulting GHG generation. However, only a few studies have been published on fuel prediction in mining operations. In this paper, fuel consumption per cycle of operation was predicted using artificial neural networks (ANN) technique. Explanatory variables were: pay load, loading time, idled while loaded, loaded travel time, empty travel time, and idled while empty. The output variable was the amount of fuel consumed in one cycle. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 10% demonstrated applicability of ANN in prediction of the fuel consumption. The results demonstrated the considerable effect of mining trucks idle times in fuel consumption. A large portion of the unnecessary energy consumption and GHG generation, in this study, was solely due to avoidable idle times. This necessitates implementation of proper actions/remedies in form of both preventive and corrective actions

  2. Analysis of fatalities in extended cab pickup trucks using an estimating equation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Agran, P; Winn, D

    2000-01-01

    We compared the fatality risk for occupants of rear passenger seats in extended cab and crew cab pickup trucks to the fatality risk for front seat occupants of the same vehicles using the (US) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 1982-1997. A 10-digit truncated vehicle identification number was used to classify the pickup trucks. The data were analyzed with an estimating equation for data having few observations per stratum. We identified 549 extended cab pickup trucks with one or more occupants of rear passenger seats and one or more occupant deaths. Occupants of rear passenger seats had a fatality risk 43% lower than front seat occupants (95% confidence interval 32% to 52%), controlling for age, sex, and restraint use. Occupants of rear seats of extended cabs in compact pickup trucks did not experience any higher fatality risk (relative to front-seat occupants of the same vehicles) than rear seat occupants of extended cabs in full-size pickup trucks and large 4-door crew cabs. PMID:11558103

  3. Children riding in the back of pickup trucks: a neglected safety issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, G A; Bolte, R G

    1990-11-01

    Motor vehicle-related trauma is the leading cause of death in children in the United States. All states have pediatric restraint requirements for passenger vehicles to help prevent these deaths and injuries. Only a few states, however, possess safety laws or restrictions for passengers who ride in the back of pickup trucks. A retrospective review of medical records for a 40-month period revealed 40 patients whose injuries were a direct result of being a passenger in the cargo area (bed) of a pickup truck. Their injuries and other pertinent data are discussed. Representatives from the Highway Safety Commission of each state were surveyed about their specific highway safety laws. The responses revealed that all states and the District of Columbia have child restraint requirements for passenger automobiles, 34 states have adult restraint laws, but only 17 states have any type of restriction for passengers riding in the back of pickup trucks. Seventy-one percent of the states with pickup truck regulations include only the preschool-age child. Data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration concerning pickup trucks and passenger fatality are presented and discussed. PMID:2235220

  4. CAFE compliance by light trucks: economic impacts of clean diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the popularity of light trucks increasing in the United States, their share of the US light vehicle market had doubled between 1980 and 1996, climbing from 20 to 40%. By 1996, annual energy consumption for light trucks had risen to 5.97 x 1015 Btu [5.97 quadrillion Btu, or ''quad'', or 6.30 x 1018 joule (J)], compared to 7.94 quad (8.38 x 1018 J) for cars. In recent years (since 1995), the fuel economy of US-manufactured light trucks (almost 99% of which use gasoline engines) has been below the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. This paper analyzes a strategy to reduce the CAFE shortfalls by adopting the new, highly energy-efficient clean diesel engine. Research on such engines has been funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, under its Light Truck Clean Diesel Engine Program. A clean diesel engine market penetration trajectory is developed, representing an industry response to meet the CAFE standards. Whether the engine will be produced inside the country or imported remains uncertain, so two cases are defined. Values of exports/imports of clean diesel engines/trucks under these cases are estimated. The macroeconomic benefits are estimated by using a model of the US economy developed by Standard and Poor's Data Resources, Inc. On the basis of gains in the gross domestic product projected under the alternative cases, domestic production of the clean diesel engine is favored over importing it. (author)

  5. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their

  6. On the road again: concurrency and condom use among Uganda truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costenbader, Elizabeth C; Lancaster, Kathryn; Bufumbo, Leonard; Akol, Angela; Guest, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance truck drivers have been shown to be a critical population in the spread of HIV in Africa. In 2009, surveys with 385 Ugandan long-distance truck drivers measured concurrency point prevalence with two methods; it ranged from 37.4% (calendar-method) to 50.1% (direct question). The majority (84%) of relationships reported were long-term resulting in a long duration of overlap (average of 58 months) across concurrent partnerships. Only 7% of these men reported using any condoms with their spouses during the past month. Among all non-spousal relationships, duration of relationship was the factor most strongly associated with engaging in unprotected sex in the past month in a multivariable analyses controlling for partner and relationship characteristics. Innovative intervention programs for these men and their partners are needed that address the realities of truck drivers' lifestyles. PMID:26223328

  7. Optimization model of truck flow at open-pit mines and standards for feasibility test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Yong Zhao; Qiwei Lu; Wenli Xu

    2004-01-01

    In order to increase production efficiency at open-pit mines, on the basis of linear programming, a practical mathematical model for optimizing truck flow was developed, which improved the traditional fixed manual schedule method. The model has advantages from linear programming and objective programming, makes most handling points working at full capacity and keeps an optimized ratio between trucks and excavators. For ensuring feasibility of the model in practical production, four standards for feasibility test were proposed. The model satisfied all the standards. The application in a large scale open-pit iron mine indicated that the model reduced the number of required trucks by 10% compared with the fixed manual schedule method.

  8. Understanding commercial truck drivers' decision-makin process concerning distracted driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-05-01

    A concurrent mixed methods design was used to explore personal and workplace factors, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, that affect truck drivers' decision-making about distracted driving on the job. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with experts in truck safety and distracted driving, and quantitative data were collected via online survey of truck drivers in the United States. Findings from the interviews illustrated how drivers perceived distractions and the importance of supervisors enforcing organizational distracted driving policies. Survey results found that behavioral intentions were most important in regards to texting and crash and near-crash outcomes, while perceived norms from management best described the correlation between dispatch device use and negative crash-related outcomes. By using a mixed methods design, rather than two separate studies, these findings revealed nuanced differences into the influence of supervisors on distracted driving. PMID:25732132

  9. Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: a 2-year prospective cohort study of truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croon, Einar M; Sluiter, Judith K; Blonk, Roland W B; Broersen, Jake P J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2004-06-01

    Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological strain (need for recovery after work and fatigue), and turnover were obtained from 820 drivers in 1998 and 2000. In agreement with the model, the results showed that strain mediates the influence of stressful work on voluntary turnover. Also in conformity with the model, job movement to any job outside the trucking industry (i.e., interoccupational turnover) resulted in a larger strain reduction as compared to job movement within the trucking industry (intraoccupational turnover). Finally, strain was found to stimulate interoccupational turnover more strongly than it stimulated intraoccupational turnover. These findings provide a thorough validation of existing turnover theory and give new insights into the turnover (decision) process. PMID:15161404

  10. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  11. Incidence and toxin production ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from cattle trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta Alonso, E P; Gilliland, S E; Krehbiel, C R

    2007-10-01

    Twelve cattle trucks were analyzed for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Three of them had been washed prior to arrival, and the others had not. Seventy-five percent of the trailers were positive for the presence of this foodborne pathogen. A total of 54 cultures were isolated and identified as E. coli O157:H7, all from the trucks that had not been cleaned. Most of the cultures (96.4%) produced Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin). No E. coli O157:H7 was detected in cattle trucks that were cleaned before arrival at the cattle pens. The incidence of E. coli O157:H7 in transport trailers increases the potential risk of contamination of cattle and transmission from farms to feedlots and to packing plants. This contamination increases the potential of contamination of meat during harvest and the risk of foodborne illnesses.

  12. Understanding commercial truck drivers' decision-makin process concerning distracted driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-05-01

    A concurrent mixed methods design was used to explore personal and workplace factors, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, that affect truck drivers' decision-making about distracted driving on the job. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with experts in truck safety and distracted driving, and quantitative data were collected via online survey of truck drivers in the United States. Findings from the interviews illustrated how drivers perceived distractions and the importance of supervisors enforcing organizational distracted driving policies. Survey results found that behavioral intentions were most important in regards to texting and crash and near-crash outcomes, while perceived norms from management best described the correlation between dispatch device use and negative crash-related outcomes. By using a mixed methods design, rather than two separate studies, these findings revealed nuanced differences into the influence of supervisors on distracted driving.

  13. Children in pickup trucks. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Pickup trucks have become increasingly popular in the United States. A recent study found that in crashes involving fatalities, cargo area passengers were 3 times more likely to die than were occupants in the cab. Compared with restrained cab occupants, the risk of death for those in the cargo area was 8 times higher. Furthermore, the increased use of extended-cab pickup trucks and air bag-equipped front passenger compartments creates concerns about the safe transport of children. The most effective preventive strategies are the legislative prohibition of travel in the cargo area and requirements for age-appropriate restraint use and seat selection in the cab. Parents should select vehicles that are appropriate for the safe transportation needs of the family. Physicians have an important role in counseling families and advocating public policy measures to reduce the number of deaths and injuries to occupants of pickup trucks. PMID:11015537

  14. Experimental investigation and performance analysis of inertia properties measurement for heavy truck cab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation and performance analysis of inertia properties measurement for heavy truck cab is presented. This method is specifically intended for measuring the inertia properties of irregular rigid bodies, and it has the potential to be applied to the measurement of the inertia properties of vehicle bodies, such as the cab, engine, and gearbox. This article, based on CATARC moment of inertia measurement system test rig, develops an accurate measuring method to identify inertia parameters of heavy truck cab. First, corresponding tests are carried out, and the lever principle and moments of inertia parallel theorem are employed to calculate and analyse the test results, which leads to the accurate value of inertia parameters. Second, the performance analysis of the proposed method is verified through the measurement error analysis. As a result, the proposed method shows high accuracy, which provides an experimental basis for accurate inertia parameter measurement of heavy truck cab.

  15. The influence of daily sleep patterns of commercial truck drivers on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry. PMID:26954762

  16. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  17. 3 CFR - Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Tires From the People's Republic of China Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China Memorandum for the Secretary of Commerce the Secretary... vehicle and light truck tires from the People's Republic of China (China) are being imported into...

  18. 9 CFR 325.17 - Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception. 325.17 Section 325.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... TRANSPORTATION § 325.17 Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route...

  19. 9 CFR 316.14 - Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. 316.14 Section 316.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... CONTAINERS § 316.14 Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. Each...

  20. How long-distance truck drivers and villagers in rural southeastern Tanzania think about heterosexual anal sex: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Mtenga; D. Shamba; J. Wamoyi; D. Kakoko; J. Haafkens; A. Mongi; S. Kapiga; E. Geubbels

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore ideas of truck drivers and villagers from rural Tanzania about heterosexual anal sex (HAS) and the associated health risks. Methods: Qualitative study using 8 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) with truck drivers and 16 IDIs and 4 FGDs with villager

  1. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Lipman, Timothy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Sperling, Dan; Gouse, Bill; Harris, D. Bruce; King, Foy G

    2002-01-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engin...

  2. A dynamic binaural synthesis system for investigation into situational awareness for truck drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    into the reason for this point to cognitive phenomena such as change blindness, where more visual information won’t help. For other professional vehicle operators such as pilots, auditory solutions adding to a higher situational awareness has proven valuable. This paper describes the development of a dynamic...... binaural synthesis system for investigation into situational awareness for truck drivers. The system is built around several software components enabling the 3D positioning of an auditory representation of a bicycle. The sound is played back over headphones to the truck driver whose head movements......, and initial practical experience with the system used in real driving situations will be discussed....

  3. Forklift safety a practical guide to preventing powered industrial truck incidents and injuries

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, George

    1999-01-01

    Written for the more than 1.5 million powered industrial truck operators and supervisors in general industry, as well as those in the construction and marine industries, this Second Edition provides an updated guide to training operators in safety and complying with OSHA's 1999 forklift standard. This edition of Forklift Safety includes a new chapter devoted to the new OSHA 1910.178 standard and new information regarding dock safety, narrow aisle trucks, off-dock incidents, tip-over safety, pallet safety, and carbon monoxide.

  4. NEW TECHNOLOGY AND MACHINE TOOL FOR THE FORMING OF THE REAR AXLE SHAFT OF LIGHT TRUCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yingchun; Yu Duonian; Wang Xueming

    2004-01-01

    A new technology of forward extrusion and cross rolling has been developed to process the rear axle shaft sleeve of light truck with the use of tube billets. This technology is characterized by large reductions of material, energy and cost of production and has significant economical benefits. This technology is stable and reliable. The three rolls transverse rolling mill built based on this technology has novelty construction, higher production efficiency, non-vibration and noise. The research results have been extensively applied to light trucks and farm transport with load of 1 to 3 tones.

  5. Structural safety evaluation of the K Basin railcar and truck applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, B.V. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    There are two rail spurs in the storage/transfer areas of both the K East and K West fuel storage basins. These rail spurs both end at the west edge of the basins. To avoid accidental entry of a railcar into a basin, administrative procedures and rail control hardware have been provided. Based upon a combination of historical documentation and existing adminstrative controls, a maximum credible impact accident was established. Using this design basis accident, the existing rail control hardware was evaluated for structural adequacy. The K Basin rail spurs are embedded in concrete, which permits truck/trailer entry into the same area. Safety issues for truck applications are also addressed.

  6. Lack of HIV infection among truck drivers in Iran using rapid HIV test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Jabbari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HIV infection in Iranian long distance truck drivers using rapid HIV test. Methods: The study included 400 consecutive participants in Bazargan city, north-west of Iran in the late 2008 and the early 2009. Results: No HIV infection was observed among these long distance truck drivers. Conclusions: Although results of this study is plausible compared to other similar studies, repeated surveys are necessary to know the trend of HIV infection in truckers in Iran.

  7. Structural safety evaluation of the K Basin railcar and truck applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two rail spurs in the storage/transfer areas of both the K East and K West fuel storage basins. These rail spurs both end at the west edge of the basins. To avoid accidental entry of a railcar into a basin, administrative procedures and rail control hardware have been provided. Based upon a combination of historical documentation and existing adminstrative controls, a maximum credible impact accident was established. Using this design basis accident, the existing rail control hardware was evaluated for structural adequacy. The K Basin rail spurs are embedded in concrete, which permits truck/trailer entry into the same area. Safety issues for truck applications are also addressed

  8. On the Quasi-stationary curving dynamics of a railroad truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans; Hansen, T. G.; Lundell, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examine three aspects of the dynamics of the Cooperrider truck travelling in a curve with constant radius. First the critical speed is found. Second we investigate the existence of multiple steady solutions to the curving problem. Third - and it is related to the second problem - we examine...... the position of the truck frame and the wheelsets during curving. One interesting result is that for a given superelevation there exist curve radii for which the critical speed is exceeded, when the vehicle negotiates the curve with the allowed maximum cant deficiency. These critical speeds are lower than...

  9. Terrorism and hazardous material trucking: promoting perceived collective efficacy for terrorism prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous-material trucking has recently been identified as an area of high potential risk for terrorism. Some recent theory and case study papers have argued for the importance of collective efficacy to disaster-response, terrorism prevention, and other rare-but-risky events. Therefore, a study based on the collective efficacy literature was done to test an intervention for increasing perceived collective efficacy for terrorism prevention among Canadian hazardous-material truck drivers. Results supported the impact of the intervention in increasing perceived efficacy for terrorism prevention. Implications for theory, research, and application are discussed.

  10. 32 CFR 751.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Claims Against the United States § 751.5 Definitions. (a) Proper claimants—(1) Members of the DON. All..., motorcycles, mopeds, jet skis, utility trailers, camping trailers, trucks, mounted camper bodies, motor...

  11. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra RM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ram Manohar Mishra,1 Madhulika Dube,2 Niranjan Saggurti,1 Arvind Pandey,3 Bidhubhusan Mahapatra,1 Sowmya Ramesh11Population Council, New Delhi, 2Department of Statistics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, 3National Institute of Medical Statistics, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066 undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1 low (duration ≤ 6 years and (2 high experience (duration ≥ 7 years. Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry < 18 complete years or adult entrants (age at entry ≥ 18 complete years. In the low-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were more likely than the adult entrants to have sex with paid female partners (42.6% versus 27.2%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–2.9 and to practice inconsistent condom use with such partners (69.1% versus 26.8%, respectively; adjusted OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 2.4–11.6. However, no significant differences were found in STI and HIV prevalence between the adolescent and the adult entrants in this cohort. In the high-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were about two times more likely than the adult entrants to practice inconsistent condom use with paid female partners (38.5% versus

  12. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tazelaar, Edwin; Shen, Y.; Veenhuizen, Bram; Hofman, T.; Bosch, P. van den

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define

  13. High energy absorption materials in front underrun protection systems for trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, P.M.A.; Coo, P.J.A. de; Paas, M.H.J.W.; Wiltink, F.J.; Hoebergen, L.M.J.A.; Håkansson, A.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an energy absorbing front underrun protection system with composite crash cones is described and the performance is demonstrated in a 70kph full-scale car-to-truck frontal collision. The results are compared with the results of a test with identical vehic

  14. 76 FR 68220 - Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center; a Subsidiary of Navistar International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... (76 FR 59166). Workers are engaged in activities related to the supply of truck body engineering and... Development, ASG Renaissance, and Alpha Rae Personnel, Inc. Therefore, the Department determines that the... Alpha Rae Personnel, Inc., Fort Wayne, Indiana (Navistar, Meyer Road TA-W-75,151) and Navistar...

  15. Collaborative Relationships In The Portuguese Automotive Industry: A Case Study Of Mitsubishi Trucks Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Veludo, M; Macbeth, D K

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned to investigate the establishment of collaborative relationships between Mitsubishi Trucks Europe, S.A. and its direct suppliers located in Portugal. By drawing on research findings it provides clarification of these collaborative relationships and provides recommendations for future action.

  16. 76 FR 63344 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions; Commercial Driver's License Memorandum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... (76 FR 20807) proposing the requirements for the United States-Mexico cross border long-haul trucking..., Veracruz, Guadaljara, Tijuana (two schools), Monterrey, Tlaxcala and Mexico City. FMCSA selected these...'s License Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of Mexico AGENCY: Federal Motor...

  17. Analysis of Maintenance Service Contracts for Dump Trucks Used in Mining Industry with Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymasius, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Iskandar, B. P.

    2016-02-01

    A mining company needs high availability of dump trucks used to haul mining materials. As a result, an effective maintenance action is required to keep the dump trucks in a good condition and hence reducing failure and downtime of the dump trucks. To carry out maintenance in-house requires a high intensive maintenance facility and high skilled maintenance specialists. Often, outsourcing maintenance is an economic option for the company. An external agent takes a proactive action with offering some maintenance contract options to the owner. The decision problem for the owner is to decide the best option and for the agent is to determine the optimal price for each option offered. A non-cooperative game-theory is used to formulate the decision problems for the owner and the agent. We consider that failure pattern of each truck follows a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) and a queueing theory with multiple servers is used to estimate the downtime. As it involves high complexity to model downtime using a queueing theory, then in this paper we use a simulation method. Furthermore, we conduct experiment to seek for the best number of maintenance facilities (servers) which minimises maintenance and penalty costs incurred to the agent.

  18. Governmental Function on Cultivating CSR—A Thinking on Loss of Truck Fence

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoying Wang

    2010-01-01

    The loss of truck fence reflects the indifference of corporate social responsibility (CSR); meanwhile, it shows thelack of governmental position in CSR construction. Because of the externality of CSR and the real requirementof Chinese social responsibility construction, the government should play a leading role, whose roles should beRegulator, supervisor and facilitator.

  19. Shock and vibration environments for a large shipping container during truck transport (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this study was to obtain vibration and shock data during truck shipment of heavy cargo. These data were for use in determining any trends of vibration and shock environments with increased cargo weight. The new data were obtained on a ''piggyback'' basis during truck transport of 249 100N (56,000-pound) cargo which consisted of a spent fuel container and its supporting structure. The truck was driven from Mercury, Nevada, to Albuquerque, New Mexico. The routes traveled were US 95 from Mercury, Nevada, to Las Vegas, Nevada; US 93 from Las Vegas to Kingman, Arizona; and I-40/US 66 from Kingman to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Speeds varied from very slow to 88 km/hr (55 mph). A comparison of data from similar experiments with cargo weights varying from no-load to this load shows that the zero-to-peak acceleration amplitude levels of vibration are highest when trucks carry relatively light loads. This is true for the longitudinal and vertical axes of the vehicles in most frequency bands and for the transverse axis above 700 Hz. The shock response acceleration amplitudes for heavier cargo weights were less severe above 3 Hz in the vertical axis and higher between 8 and 20 Hz in the transverse axis. The highest acceleration amplitude of shock response in the longitudinal axis below about 20 Hz was produced in a trailer having a spring suspension system and carrying the 249 100N (56,000 pounds) load

  20. Loading of the truck for transport from Meyrin to IP8

    CERN Multimedia

    Jans, E

    2007-01-01

    Preparations for unloading of the A-side detector at the pit of LHCb. Unloading of the A-side detector from the truck.Lowering of the detector through the shaft.Reappearance of the detector from the shaft in the pit.Both detector halves have arrived in the pit and are parked safely awaiting further transport and installation.

  1. Effectiveness of Health Promotion Programmes for Truck Drivers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mandy K.; Yousuf, Bilal; Bigelow, Philip Lloyd; Van Eerd, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review the characteristics of effective health promotion interventions for reducing chronic diseases and their risk factors in truck drivers. Methods: MEDLINE (PubMed), SCOPUS, Web of Science Conference Proceedings, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and the National Transportation Library were…

  2. CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Rugh, J. P.; Rister, B. R.; Venson, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs annually for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel per year. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling isprimarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, hasflexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches. It is intended for rapid trade-off studies, technology impact estimation, and preliminary HVAC sizing design and to complement more detailed and expensive CAE tools by exploring and identifying regions of interest in the design space. This paper describesthe CoolCalc tool, provides outdoor long-haul truck thermal testing results, shows validation using these test results, and discusses future applications of the tool.

  3. De truck van de toekomst. Brandstofbesparing en CO2-reductie anno 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensch, P. van

    2016-01-01

    Door de toenemende druk op winstmarges en toenemende aandacht voor het klimaat en het milieu is de transportbranche steeds bewuster bezig met brandstofbesparing en het terugbrengen van de CO2-uitstoot. Initiatieven zoals het Connekt ‘Lean and Green’ stimuleringsprogramma en het programma ‘Truck van

  4. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient...

  5. 19 CFR 123.16 - Entry of returning trucks, busses, or taxicabs in international traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... international traffic. 123.16 Section 123.16 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO International Traffic § 123.16 Entry of returning trucks, busses, or taxicabs in international traffic. (a)...

  6. The Problem of Multiple Criteria Selection of the Surface Mining Haul Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodziony, Przemysław; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Sawicki, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Vehicle transport is a dominant type of technological processes in rock mines, and its profit ability is strictly dependent on overall cost of its exploitation, especially on diesel oil consumption. Thus, a rational design of transportation system based on haul trucks should result from thorough analysis of technical and economic issues, including both cost of purchase and its further exploitation, having a crucial impact on the cost of minerals extraction. Moreover, off-highway trucks should be selected with respect to all specific exploitation conditions and even the user's preferences and experience. In this paper a development of universal family of evaluation criteria as well as application of evaluation method for haul truck selection process for a specific exploitation conditions in surface mining have been carried out. The methodology presented in the paper is based on the principles of multiple criteria decision aiding (MCDA) using one of the ranking method, i.e. ELECTRE III. The applied methodology has been allowed for ranking of alternative solution (variants), on the considered set of haul trucks. The result of the research is a universal methodology, and it consequently may be applied in other surface mines with similar exploitation parametres.

  7. Projections of automobile, light truck, and bus stocks and sales, to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, R.; Millar, M.

    1979-11-01

    Future stocks and sales of automobiles, light trucks, and buses are projected in this document. Automobile projections are developed for fleet and non-fleet sectors. Total auto stock is projected as a function of the number of households and of personal income, with adjustment for present and anticipated shifts from automobiles to light trucks. Automobile stocks and sales are projected to increase steadily through the year 2000 with a slightly larger growth rate associated with fleet autos. Projections of light-truck stocks and sales are developed for personal, service/utility, agriculture, manufacturing, government, wholesale/retail, and other uses based on anticipated employment and output for each of the use sectors. Projections anticipate the largest growth area to be that of personal light trucks. Bus stocks and sales are projected as a function of user populations, existing fleet characteristics, and anticipated usage patterns. School, intercity, and transit buses are included in the study. School buses are projected to have the largest percentage of growth in this sector.

  8. 19 CFR 123.17 - Foreign repairs to domestic trucks, busses, taxicabs and their equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign repairs to domestic trucks, busses, taxicabs and their equipment. 123.17 Section 123.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO International Traffic § 123.17 Foreign repairs...

  9. Study on an Interactive Truck Crane Simulation Platform Based on Virtual Reality Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yong; Zhu, Yu; Zhao, Honghua; Tang, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    The modern web-based distance education overcomes space-time restriction of the traditional teaching forms. However, being short of specifically observable and operable experimental equipment makes the web-based education lack advantages in the knowledge learning progress, which needs strong stereoscopic effect and operability. Truck crane is the…

  10. Detroit Diesel Engine Technology for Light Duty Truck Applications - DELTA Engine Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, Charlie

    2000-08-20

    The early generation of the DELTA engine has been thoroughly tested and characterized in the virtual lab, during engine dynamometer testing, and on light duty trucks for personal transportation. This paper provides an up-to-date account of program findings. Further, the next generation engine design and future program plans will be briefly presented.

  11. IMPACTS OF THE 1983 TRUCK STRIKE ON THE FLORIDA PRODUCE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Beilock, Richard P.; Comer, Dorothy A.

    1984-01-01

    The Florida produce industry demonstrated a surprising ability to make adjustments and thus the strike by truck drivers did not seriously disrupt produce shipments. Although, there may be long-term changes in the modes of transportation utilized by the industry in the future.

  12. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry - volume, fleet characteristics and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry in Denmark, using aggregate time series data for the period 1980–2007. The model captures the main linkages between the demand for freight transport, the characteristics of the vehicle fleet, and the demand for fuel. Results...

  13. Design/Operations review of core sampling trucks and associated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of the design and operations of the core sampling trucks was commissioned by Characterization Equipment Engineering of the Westinghouse Hanford Company in October 1995. The review team reviewed the design documents, specifications, operating procedure, training manuals and safety analysis reports. The review process, findings and corrective actions are summarized in this supporting document

  14. 49 CFR 176.78 - Use of power-operated industrial trucks on board vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazard. The forks may not display permanent deformation when subjected to a test load of three times the... of the wheel. (8) All steering controls must be confined within the clearnace of the truck or guarded so that moving of the controls will not result in injury to the operator when passing...

  15. A scenarios study on future demands on container and truck sizes of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Jan; Kraaijenhagen, B.; Graser, H.; Szylar, I.; Weijers, Stef

    2012-01-01

    To what extent will future demands of worldwide operating parties, regarding the (tertiary) packaging of their freight flows, determine or influence the future dimensions of freight trucks? That is the question we address to in this paper. In this study we have studied what container sizes may fit i

  16. 76 FR 22154 - Powered Industrial Trucks Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ....g., copyrighted material) is not publicly available to read or download through the website. All... electrical systems, rollovers/ tipovers that result from exceeding a truck's stability characteristics, and... Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 4-2010 (72 FR 55355)....

  17. Diesel-electric hybrid propulsion for lift truck; Dieselelektrischer Hybridantrieb fuer Stapler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowski, Andreas; Gelsen, Harald [Still GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Growing energy prices, stricter emission regulations and growing ecologic sensitivity are calling for fuel efficient, low emission vehicles especially in the intralogistics market. Now the RX 70 Hybrid has been developed based on the RX 70 which has already been one the most fuel efficient IC truck since its market launch in 2006. (orig.)

  18. 76 FR 63988 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions; Pre-Authorization Safety Audits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http..., FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions;...

  19. 76 FR 61138 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . FOR FURTHER... Quality regulations (40 CFR parts 1500-1508), FMCSA's Order 5610.1, issued March 1, 2004 (69 FR 9680), and... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions...

  20. Optimal routes scheduling for municipal waste disposal garbage trucks using evolutionary algorithm and artificial immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna MRÓWCZYŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of an evolutionary algorithm and an artificial immune systems to solve a problem of scheduling an optimal route for waste disposal garbage trucks in its daily operation. Problem of an optimisation is formulated and solved using both methods. The results are presented for an area in one of the Polish cities.

  1. Cold Temperature and Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Speciated Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three medium heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-6.7°C and 21.7°C) operating on ...

  2. Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

    2014-02-01

    Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

  3. Real world efficiency of retrofit partial-flow diesel particulate filters for trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.; Ligterink, N.; Kadijk, G.

    2009-11-15

    In 2006 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) introduced an incentive scheme for retrofitting diesel particulate filters on Euro II and Euro III trucks. This scheme involves both partial flow and full flow diesel particulate filters (also called semi-open or open respectively wall-flow or closed filters). In the period 2007 till January 2009 about 15,000 partial flow filters and 8,000 full flow diesel particulate filters were installed. The minimum filtration efficiency requirement for the partial flow diesel particulate filters is 50% during the type approval test. In 2008 an engine dynamometer test programme was conducted to measure the filtration efficiency of retrofit open particulates filters of heavy trucks. This led to somewhat disappointing results with average filtration efficiencies in the range of 5-20% during city and national motorway driving conditions up to 20-40% during long distance motorway driving. This result leads to two main questions: (1) Is this result also representative for medium heavy trucks used for delivery, and (2) do similar efficiencies show up also in tests on entire vehicles, tested under conditions as close as possible to their real world usage profile. To this end, an additional measurement programme was defined, which is reported here. The objective of the study reported here is to determine the real world filtration efficiency of retrofit partial flow particulate filters for a number of trucks under different driving conditions such as city and motorway driving. The emphasis should be on medium heavy trucks typically used for national delivery.

  4. Overweight truck shipments to nuclear waste repositories: legal, political, administrative and operational considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, prepared for the Chicago Operations Office and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), identifies and analyzes legal, political, administrative, and operational issues that could affect an OCRWM decision to develop an overweight truck cask fleet for the commercial nuclear waste repository program. It also provides information required by DOE on vehicle size-and-weight administration and regulation, pertinent to nuclear waste shipments. Current legal-weight truck casks have a payload of one pressurized-water reactor spent fuel element or two boiling-water reactor spent fuel elements (1 PWR/2 BWR). For the requirements of the 1960s and 1970s, casks were designed with massive shielding to accommodate 6-month-old spent fuel; the gross vehicle weight was limited to 73,280 pounds. Spent fuel to be moved in the 1990s will have aged five years or more. Gross vehicle weight limitation for the Interstate highway system has been increased to 80,000 pounds. These changes allow the design of 25-ton legal-weight truck casks with payloads of 2 PWR/5 BWR. These changes may also allow the development of a 40-ton overweight truck cask with a payload of 4 PWR/10 BWR. Such overweight casks will result in significantly fewer highway shipments compared with legal-weight casks, with potential reductions in transport-related repository risks and costs. These advantages must be weighed against a number of institutional issues surrounding such overweight shipments before a substantial commitment is made to develop an overweight truck cask fleet. This report discusses these issues in detail and provides recommended actions to DOE

  5. Shock and vibration environments for large shipping container during truck transport (Part I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to obtain vibration and shock data during truck shipment of heavy cargo. Currently available data were taken on trucks bearing lighter loads than the loads of current interest. In addition, the new data are expected to be useful in the determination of any trends of vibration and shock environments with increased cargo weight. These new data were obtained on a ''piggyback'' basis during truck transport of 195 700 N (44,000 lb) cargo which consisted of a spent fuel container and its supporting structure from Mercury, Nevada, to Albuquerque, New Mexico. The routes traveled were US 95 from Mercury, Nevada, to Las Vegas, Nevada; US 93 from Las Vegas to Kingman, Arizona; and I-40/US66 from Kingman to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Speeds varied from very slow during hill climbs to 101 km/hr (63 mph). A comparison of these data with a collectively reduced set of data for cargo weights varying from no-load to 133 400 N (30,000 lb) showed that the zero to peak amplitude levels of vibration were significantly lower for frequencies less than 40 Hz in the vertical axis and that there was a reduction in the vibration amplitude levels in all axes for frequencies greater than 500 Hz.The shock response amplitude was less severe for the entire frequency spectrum in the vertical axis, but it was not significantly different in the other axes. Data measurements were made on a truck shipment of a 249 100 N (56,000 lb) container over the same routes as were used for the shipment discussed in this report. These data will be presented in a subsequent report along with any additional data trends that result from studies of trucks carrying increased cargo weight

  6. Real world efficiency of retrofit partial-flow diesel particulate filters for trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) introduced an incentive scheme for retrofitting diesel particulate filters on Euro II and Euro III trucks. This scheme involves both partial flow and full flow diesel particulate filters (also called semi-open or open respectively wall-flow or closed filters). In the period 2007 till January 2009 about 15,000 partial flow filters and 8,000 full flow diesel particulate filters were installed. The minimum filtration efficiency requirement for the partial flow diesel particulate filters is 50% during the type approval test. In 2008 an engine dynamometer test programme was conducted to measure the filtration efficiency of retrofit open particulates filters of heavy trucks. This led to somewhat disappointing results with average filtration efficiencies in the range of 5-20% during city and national motorway driving conditions up to 20-40% during long distance motorway driving. This result leads to two main questions: (1) Is this result also representative for medium heavy trucks used for delivery, and (2) do similar efficiencies show up also in tests on entire vehicles, tested under conditions as close as possible to their real world usage profile. To this end, an additional measurement programme was defined, which is reported here. The objective of the study reported here is to determine the real world filtration efficiency of retrofit partial flow particulate filters for a number of trucks under different driving conditions such as city and motorway driving. The emphasis should be on medium heavy trucks typically used for national delivery.

  7. Monitoring dispatch information system of trucks and shovels in an open pit based on GIS/GPS/GPRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Qing-hua; LU Cai-wu; LI Fa-ben; WAN Chang-yong

    2008-01-01

    Using GIS, GPS and GPRS, an intelligent monitoring and dispatch system of trucks and shovels in an open pit has been designed and developed. The system can monitor and dispatch open-pit trucks and shovels and play back their historical paths. An intelligent data algorithm is proposed in a practical application. The algorithm can count the times of deliveries of trucks and loadings of shovels. Experiments on real scenes show that the performance of this system is stable and can satisfy production standards in open pits.

  8. Scheduling of Inbound Trucks at a Cross-Docking Facility: Bi-Objective VS Bi-Level Modeling Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Golias, Mihalis M.; Saharidis, Georgios K.D.; Maria Boile; Sotirios Theofanis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of scheduling of inbound trucks to the inbound doors at a cross-docking facility. The authors optimize for two conflicting objectives: minimize the total service time for all the inbound trucks and minimize the delayed completion of service for a subset of the inbound trucks, which are considered as preferential customers. The problem is formulated as a bi-objective and as a bi-level mixed integer problem. Due to the nature of the former and the complexity of t...

  9. Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-10-31

    The Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks program (DE-FC26-04NT42189), commonly referred to as the AES program, focused on areas that will primarily benefit fuel economy and improve heat rejection while driving over the road. The AES program objectives were to: (1) Analyze, design, build, and test a cooling system that provided a minimum of 10 percent greater heat rejection in the same frontal area with no increase in parasitic fan load. (2) Realize fuel savings with advanced power management and acceleration assist by utilizing an integrated starter/generator (ISG) and energy storage devices. (3) Quantify the effect of aerodynamic drag due to the frontal shape mandated by the area required for the cooling system. The program effort consisted of modeling and designing components for optimum fuel efficiency, completing fabrication of necessary components, integrating these components into the chassis test bed, completing controls programming, and performance testing the system both on a chassis dynamometer and on the road. Emission control measures for heavy-duty engines have resulted in increased engine heat loads, thus introducing added parasitic engine cooling loads. Truck electrification, in the form of thermal management, offers technological solutions to mitigate or even neutralize the effects of this trend. Thermal control offers opportunities to avoid increases in cooling system frontal area and forestall reduced fuel economy brought about by additional aerodynamic vehicle drag. This project explored such thermal concepts by installing a 2007 engine that is compliant with current regulations and bears additional heat rejection associated with meeting these regulations. This newer engine replaced the 2002 engine from a previous project that generated less heat rejection. Advanced power management, utilizing a continuously optimized and controlled power flow between electric components, can offer additional

  10. NIOSH national survey of long-haul truck drivers: Injury and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang X; Sieber, W Karl; Lincoln, Jennifer E; Birdsey, Jan; Hitchcock, Edward M; Nakata, Akinori; Robinson, Cynthia F; Collins, James W; Sweeney, Marie H

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 1,701,500 people were employed as heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers in the United States in 2012. The majority of them were long-haul truck drivers (LHTDs). There are limited data on occupational injury and safety in LHTDs, which prompted a targeted national survey. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health conducted a nationally representative survey of 1265 LHTDs at 32 truck stops across the contiguous United States in 2010. Data were collected on truck crashes, near misses, moving violations, work-related injuries, work environment, safety climate, driver training, job satisfaction, and driving behaviors. Results suggested that an estimated 2.6% of LHTDs reported a truck crash in 2010, 35% reported at least one crash while working as an LHTD, 24% reported at least one near miss in the previous 7 days, 17% reported at least one moving violation ticket and 4.7% reported a non-crash injury involving days away from work in the previous 12 months. The majority (68%) of non-crash injuries among company drivers were not reported to employers. An estimate of 73% of LHTDs (16% often and 58% sometimes) perceived their delivery schedules unrealistically tight; 24% often continued driving despite fatigue, bad weather, or heavy traffic because they needed to deliver or pick up a load at a given time; 4.5% often drove 10miles per hours or more over the speed limit; 6.0% never wore a seatbelt; 36% were often frustrated by other drivers on the road; 35% often had to wait for access to a loading dock; 37% reported being noncompliant with hours-of-service rules (10% often and 27% sometimes); 38% of LHTDs perceived their entry-level training inadequate; and 15% did not feel that safety of workers was a high priority with their management. This survey brings to light a number of important safety issues for further research and interventions, e.g., high prevalence of truck crashes, injury underreporting, unrealistically tight delivery schedules

  11. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  12. Mapping U.S. long-haul truck drivers' multiplex networks and risk topography in inner-city neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Sönmez, Sevil; Lemke, Michael Kenneth; Rothenberg, Richard B

    2015-07-01

    This article illustrates how urban inner-city trucking milieux may influence STI/BBI/HIV acquisition and transmission risks for U.S. long-haul truckers, as well as their social and risk relationships. Using mixed methods, we collected ethnoepidemiological and biological data from long-haul truck drivers and their risk contacts in inner-city trucking milieux in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Key findings indicate that within the risk-endemic environment of distressed inner-city areas, diverse trucking risk milieux can amplify STI/BBI/HIV risk for multiplex networks of truckers. Inner-city neighborhood location, short geographic distance among risk contacts, and trucker concurrency can potentially exacerbate transmission via bridging higher-risk individuals with lower-risk populations at disparate geographic and epidemiological locations. PMID:25863181

  13. Buildup and simulation of a truck model with rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new kind of commercial truck is presented, which has rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod instead of original leaf spring. ADAMS/Car is used as a tool to build the whole truck model. The designed truck's constant-radius cornering analysis and its ride performance simulation analysis under B class random road condition are carried out according to national experimental method standards. Compared the simulation results with the field test results indicate that performance index of the designed air suspension truck's constant-radius cornering and its ride performance meets the design requirements and reaches its prospective target. And results from simulation are similar to those from tests in value and trend, which indicates the virtual prototype is correct. The model can be used further to optinize suspension parameters and do some design work on the control system of air suspension.

  14. Lung cancer in heavy equipment operators and truck drivers with diesel exhaust exposure in the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvholm, B; Silverman, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Several studies indicate that truck drivers have an increased risk of lung cancer, but few studies have examined lung cancer risk in heavy equipment operators. Workers in both occupations are exposed to diesel exhaust.

  15. Role of sensory and cognitive conspicuity in the prevention of collisions between motorcycles and trucks at T-intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Ghanbari, Mahshid; Hamid, Hussain; Abdul-Halin, Alfian; Ng, Choy Peng

    2016-11-01

    Motorcyclists are particularly vulnerable to injury in crashes with heavy vehicles due to substantial differences in vehicle mass, the degree of protection and speed. There is a considerable difference in height between motorcycles and trucks; motorcycles are viewed by truck drivers from downward angles, and shorter distances between them mean steeper downward angles. Hence, we anticipated that the effects of motorcycle conspicuity treatments would be different for truck drivers. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effects of motorcycle conspicuity treatments on the identification and detection of motorcycles by truck drivers. Two complementary experiments were performed; the first experiment assessed the impact of motorcycle sensory conspicuity on the ability of un-alerted truck drivers to detect motorcycles, and the second experiment assessed the motorcycle cognitive conspicuity to alerted truck drivers. The sensory conspicuity was measured in terms of motorcycle detection rates by un-alerted truck drivers when they were not anticipating a motorcycle within a realistic driving scene, while the cognitive conspicuity was determined by the time taken by alerted truck drivers to actively search for a motorcycle. In the first experiment, the participants were presented with 10 pictures and were instructed to report the kinds of vehicles that were presented in the pictures. Each picture was shown to the participants for 600ms. In the second experiment, the participants were presented with the same set of pictures and were instructed to respond by clicking the right button on a mouse as soon as they detected a motorcycle in the picture. The results indicate that the motorcycle detection rate increases, and the response time to search for a motorcycle decreases, as the distance between the targeted motorcycle and the viewer decreases. This is true regardless of the type of conspicuity treatment used. The use of daytime running headlights (DRH) was found to

  16. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-Ion Battery Packs in Hybrid Refuse Truck Operating at Different Ambient Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures.......This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures....

  17. How Wide is the Scope of Hold-Up-Based Theories? Contractual Form and Market Thickness in Trucking

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas N. Hubbard

    1999-01-01

    How far do the contractual implications of hold-up-based theories (Klein, Crawford, and Alchian (1978), Williamson (1979, 1985)) extend? I investigate this in the context of trucking. Quasi-rents in trucking are generally smaller than in the contexts studied in the previous empirical literature. They vary with hauls' distance and the thickness of local markets. I find that doubling the thickness of the market increases the likelihood that simple spot arrangements govern transactions by about ...

  18. New lead acid batteries for heavy duty trucks - more robust and maintenance free; Neue, robustere und wartungsfreie Bleibatterien fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Michael; Sarrau, Jean-Francois [Exide Technologies SAS, Gennevilliers (France)

    2011-08-15

    Today's truck industry is moving inevitably towards cleaner emission standards and limits. That way new requirements followed. For example: High vibration resistent batteries. The reason is, that the Adblue tank is now integrated in the former space of the starter battery, which has to be positioned in rough environment at the back of a truck. Therefore Exide developed special lead acid batteries with a high vibration standard. (orig.)

  19. Optimization of a truck-drone in tandem delivery network using k-means and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mourelo Ferrandez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of implementing unmanned aerial delivery vehicles in delivery networks. We investigate the notion of the reduced overall delivery time, energy, and costs for a truck-drone network by comparing the in-tandem system with a stand-alone delivery effort. The objectives are (1 to investigate the time, energy, and costs associated to a truck-drone delivery network compared to standalone truck or drone, (2 to propose an optimization algorithm that determines the optimal number of launch sites and locations given delivery requirements, and drones per truck, (3 to develop mathematical formulations for closed form estimations for the optimal number of launch locations, optimal total time, as well as the associated cost for the system. Design/methodology/approach: The design of the algorithm herein computes the minimal time of delivery utilizing K-means clustering to find launch locations, as well as a genetic algorithm to solve the truck route as a traveling salesmen problem (TSP. The optimal solution is determined by finding the minimum cost associated to the parabolic convex cost function. The optimal min-cost is determined by finding the most efficient launch locations using K-means algorithms to determine launch locations and a genetic algorithm to determine truck route between those launch locations.  Findings: Results show improvements with in-tandem delivery efforts as opposed to standalone systems. Further, multiple drones per truck are more optimal and contribute to savings in both energy and time. For this, we sampled various initialization variables to derive closed form mathematical solutions for the problem. Originality/value: Ultimately, this provides the necessary analysis of an integrated truck-drone delivery system which could be implemented by a company in order to maximize deliveries while minimizing time and energy. Closed-form mathematical solutions can be used as

  20. A Comparison of High Occupancy Vehicle, High Occupancy Toll, and Truck-Only Lanes in the Sacramento Region

    OpenAIRE

    Rodier, Caroline J.; Johnston, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    As the evidence mounts that HOV lanes will not produce expected reductions in congestion and emission, alternatives are being sought. High occupancy toll (HOT) lanes and truck only lanes are attractive alternatives. In this study, a region-wide system of new HOV lanes, HOT lanes, and truck only lanes m the Sacramento region are compared. The travel effects are simulated with the Sacramento regional travel demand model (SACMET96). The economic benefits for both personal travel and commercial v...

  1. A Decision Support Method for Truck Scheduling and Storage Allocation Problem at Container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jinxin; SHI Oixin; Der-Horng Lee

    2008-01-01

    Truck scheduling and storage allocation, as two separate subproblems in port operations, have been deeply studied in past decades. However, from the operational point of view, they are highly interde-pendent. Storage allocation for import containers has to balance the travel time and queuing time of each container in yard. This paper proposed an integer programming model handling these two problems as a whole. The objective of this model is to reduce congestion and waiting time of container trucks in the termi-nal so as to decrease the makespan of discharging containers. Due to the inherent complexity of the prob-lem, a genetic algorithm and a greedy heuristic algorithm are designed to attain near optimal solutions. It shows that the heuristic algorithm can achieve the optimal solution for small-scale problems. The solutions of small- and large-scale problems obtained from the heuristic algorithm are better than those from the ge-netic algorithm.

  2. AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ABOUT MINING DUMP TRUCK AND THE IMPROVEMENT OF HEAD SHAPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The external flow field around a certain mining dump truck was simulated. The airflow structure and the aerodynamic drag were discussed, and the relationship between airflow characteristics and aerodynamic drag were obtained. In order to solve the problem of head shape of the truck, three scenarios including edge rounding, installing splitter planes and their combination were put forward to improve the head shape through numerical simulation and analysis. The model and method were selected to be three dimensional and time-independent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the finite volume method. The RNG k-ε model was chosen for the closure of the turbulent quantities. The results show that the third scenario is the best one, because of its aerodynamic characteristics being better than those of unimproved model.

  3. Simulation and analysis of a Truck Model's ride comfort based on fuzzy adaptive control theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Li-biao; WANG Deng-feng; NI Qiang; TAN Wei-ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper tried to analyse and verify the fuzzy adaptive control strategy of electronic control air suspension system for heavy truck. Created the seven-freedoms vehicle suspension model, and the road input model; with Matlab/Simulink toolboxes and modules, built dynamical system simulation model for heavy truck with air suspension, fuzzy adaptive control model, height control model for air spring, and intelligent control and analyse on root mean square value of acceleration of gravity center of the vehicle under excitation of road. Results show that the fuzzy control had less help to the body vibration on the better pavement, but had the better benefit on the bad road, and the vehicle's root mean square value of acceleration of gravity center is less than passive suspension's obviously.

  4. Vision-Inspection System for Residue Monitoring of Ready-Mixed Concrete Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Seok Seo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to propose a vision-inspection system that improves the quality management for ready-mixed concrete (RMC. The proposed system can serve as an alternative to the current visual inspection method for the detection of residues in agitator drum of RMC truck. To propose the system, concept development and the system-level design should be executed. The design considerations of the system are derived from the hardware properties of RMC truck and the conditions of RMC factory, and then 6 major components of the system are selected in the stage of system level design. The prototype of system was applied to a real RMC plant and tested for verification of its utility and efficiency. It is expected that the proposed system can be employed as a practical means to increase the efficiency of quality management for RMC.

  5. 叔叔乔的牛车%Uncle Joe's Cattle Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul

    2003-01-01

    @@ My dad had done well in his end of school exams and got a good job in the civil service in Dublin. This allowed him to leave the small farm he grew up on and move to the city for a better life. His brother Joe stayed on the land but he hated having to work in the same place all the time. So his uncles and my dad chipped in(筹集资金) and helped him to buy a cattle truck. It was a big truck, capable of holding up to a dozen big cattle. You could also slide boards into the middle of the container, making it a two tier carrier for sheep.

  6. Predictive analysis using Big data Analytics for Sensors used in Fleet Truck Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Varsha. V

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of large amounts of data has not only been observed in web based companies but has seen entering other domains such as automation and automobile.Smart sensors and smart devices contribute to growing amounts of data that need to be processed. The outcome expected from processing is prediction for better control, clustering for more effective maintenance or improving the overall production. The potential use is to monitor machines or infrastructure such as ventilation equipment, energy meters, truck engines, tires and environmental conditions. This predictive analysis on the data can generate information like intimation for repair or replace these items even before they break; suggestion on driving patterns on various road conditions to both the driver and fleet owner. This project examines the utilization of big data technologies for truck maintenance and performance domain. The approach is based on sensor measurements with the goal of detecting specific events and patterns.

  7. When is 100% inspection not enough? An analysis of three pickup truck front wheel assembly failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kirk DJ; Sas; Cross

    2000-01-01

    The loss of a cotter pin in the front wheel assembly of cars and trucks has been a problem for several years. This is shown by the fact that the automobile manufacturers have been committed to a 100% inspection of the process for installing them on cars and trucks. In this paper, three accident cases are presented, along with a method by which the forensic engineer can determine if a cotter pin has ever been installed on the front wheel assembly. Testing was done to show what the spindle would look like if the cotter pin had been installed properly and forcibly removed. Photographs show both the accident and test spindle for comparison. PMID:10641934

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND DEFLECTOR FOR REDUCING AERODYNAMIC DRAG OF VAN-BODY TRUCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Guang-sheng; Lei Li; Zhou Lian-di

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the differences in the characteristics of airflow around the van-body truck and of the aerodynamic drag, which were caused by the installation of a wind deflector, were studied by experimentally and numerically. The results show that after the installation of the deflector, the airflow around the top and bottom of the truck becoms smooth, the intensity of tail-vortex is weakened and its contribution area lessened. It also indicates that the aerodynamic characteristics of the airflow are changed distinctly and the aerodynamic drag is reduced considerably. The effect of the thin-wall deflector is better than the solid one in decreasing the drag. It is also concluded that proper design of the gap between the deflector bottom and the top of the driver cab can enhance the effect of the deflector in reducing drag.

  9. Analisis dan Perancangan Sistem E-Marketing pada PT Nordic Lift Truck

    OpenAIRE

    Haris Setia Budi; Wednes Pujiasmoro; Herjandi Wijaya; Yuliyanti

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of research is to analyze the current marketing system at PT.Nordick Lift Truck in order to identify the existing problems faced by the company and to identify its weaknesses. Additionally, this research designs a web-based Marketing system. The system has been designed to give facilitation for customer to get information about material of tutorial activity fast and efficient. The methodologies used are literature study, observation, interview, questionnaire, analysis ...

  10. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-06-01

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  11. New concept for the ground connection in Scania’s trucks and buses

    OpenAIRE

    LLORENTE, ANDRÉS

    2014-01-01

    Regarding the ground electrical connection in trucks and buses, the requirements of earthing in heavy-duty vehicles were gathered and evaluated. The most important problems in the state-of-the-art grounding devices are corrosion, electrical resistance and uncertainty in the mounting process, altogether with depreciation over time. The goal is to come up with new concepts that can give a more reliable and better ground connection into the frame with faster, easier and safer manufacturing opera...

  12. Simulation-Based Approach to Operating Costs Analysis of Freight Trucking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozernova Natalja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of costs uncertainty in road freight transportation services. The article introduces the statistical approach, based on Monte Carlo simulation on spreadsheets, to the analysis of operating costs. The developed model gives an opportunity to estimate operating freight trucking costs under different configuration of cost factors. Important conclusions can be made after running simulations regarding sensitivity to different factors, optimal decisions and variability of operating costs.

  13. SCR systems for heavy duty trucks: progress towards meeting EURO 4 emissions standards in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, W.; Huethwohl, G.; Maurer, B. [PUREM Abgassysteme GMBH und Co. KG, Unna (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. The efficient NO{sub x} reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfil the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. An insight is given to some of the extreme testing procedures which the systems and components are exposed to. The infrastructure for AdBlue is under evaluation in Europe by Urea Producers and Mineral Oil companies to be readily available in time. Urea is one of the most common chemical products in the world and the production and the distribution very much experienced. However, a pure grade is needed for automotive application and requires special attention. (orig.)

  14. Cause-Specific Mortality in the Unionized U.S. Trucking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime Elizabeth; Thomas J Smith; Davis, Mary E.; Garshick, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background: Occupational and population-based studies have related exposure to fine particulate air pollution, and specifically particulate matter from vehicle exhausts, to cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. Objectives: We have established a large retrospective cohort to assess mortality in the unionized U.S. trucking industry. To provide insight into mortality patterns associated with job-specific exposures, we examined rates of cause-specific mortality compared with the general U.S. p...

  15. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease, Metabolic Syndrome and Sleepiness in Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Truck driver sleepiness is a primary cause of vehicle accidents. Several causes are associated with sleepiness in truck drivers. Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS are associated with sleep disorders and with primary risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD. We analyzed the relationship between these conditions and prevalence of sleepiness in truck drivers.Methods:We analyzed the major risk factors for CVD, anthropometric data and sleep disorders in 2228 male truck drivers from 148 road stops made by the Federal Highway Police from 2006 to 2011. Alcohol consumption, illicit drugs and overtime working hours were also analyzed. Sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.Results:Mean age was 43.1 ± 10.8 years. From 2006 to 2011, an increase in neck (p = 0.011 and abdominal circumference (p < 0.001, total cholesterol (p < 0.001, triglyceride plasma levels (p = 0.014, and sleepiness was observed (p < 0.001. In addition, a reduction in hypertension (39.6% to 25.9%, p < 0.001, alcohol consumption (32% to 23%, p = 0.033 and overtime hours (52.2% to 42.8%, p < 0.001 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that sleepiness correlated closely with body mass index (β = 0.19, Raj2 = 0.659, p = 0.031, abdominal circumference (β = 0.24, Raj2 = 0.826, p = 0.021, hypertension (β = -0.62, Raj2 = 0.901, p = 0.002, and triglycerides (β = 0.34, Raj2 = 0.936, p = 0.022. Linear multiple regression indicated that hypertension (p = 0.008 and abdominal circumference (p = 0.025 are independent variables for sleepiness.Conclusions:Increased prevalence of sleepiness was associated with major components of the MetS.

  16. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  17. Simulations of Multi Combustion Modes Hydrogen Engines for Heavy Duty Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto A. Boretti

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the numerical study of a diesel direct injection heavy duty truck engine converted to hydrogen. The engine has a power turbine connected through a clutch and a continuously variable transmission to the crankshaft. The power turbine may be disconnected and by-passed when it is inefficient or inconvenient to use. The conversion is obtained by replacing the Diesel injector with a hydrogen injector and the glow plug with a jet ignition device. The hydrogen engine op...

  18. The Effect of Alternative Heavy Truck Suspensions on Flexible Pavement Response

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, J. K.; Yi, K.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic effects of heavy vehicle suspensions are investigated by analyzing parametric studies performed using previously developed simulation tools. In particular, the truck simulation package, VESYM, and the flexible pavement simulation package. VESYS, are used to look at the influence of alternative suspension types, e.g., walking beam, leaf spring/short rocker, air spring and semi-active shock absorbers on pavement response. The intent of the study is to determi...

  19. Assessment of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.K.

    1978-11-01

    The assessment includes the risks from release of spent fuel materials and radioactive cask cavity cooling water due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of package misclosure and degradation during normal transport was also considered. The results of the risk assessment have been related to a time in the mid-1980's, when it is projected that nuclear plants with an electrical generating capacity of 100 GW will be operating in the U.S. For shipments from reactors to interim storage facilities, it is estimated that a truck carrying spent fuel will be involved in an accident that would not be severe enough to result in a release of spent fuel material about once in 1.1 years. It was estimated that an accident that could result in a small release of radioactive material (primarily contaminated cooling water) would occur once in about 40 years. The frequency of an accident resulting in one or more latent cancer fatalities from release of radioactive materials during a truck shipment of spent fuel to interim storage was estimated to be once in 41,000 years. No accidents were found that would result in acute fatalities from releases of radioactive material. The risk for spent fuel shipments from reactors to reprocessing plants was found to be about 20% less than the risk for shipments to interim storage. Although the average shipment distance for the reprocessing case is larger, the risk is somewhat lower because the shipping routes, on average, are through less populated sections of the country. The total risk from transporting 180-day cooled spent fuel by truck in the reference year is 4.5 x 10/sup -5/ fatalities. An individual in the population at risk would have one chance in 6 x 10/sup 11/ of suffering a latent cancer fatality from a release of radioactive material from a truck carrying spent fuel in the reference year. (DLC)

  20. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-03-24

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  1. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  2. Progress on Fuel Efficiency and Market Adoption - SuperTruck Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) launched the SuperTruck initiative in 2009 with the goal of developing and demonstrating a 50 percent improvement in overall freight efficiency (expressed in a ton-mile per gallon metric) for a heavy-duty Class 8 tractor-trailer. To date, the industry teams participating in the initiative have successfully met or are on track to exceed this goal, leveraging suites of technologies that hold significant potential for market success.

  3. Assessment of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by truck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment includes the risks from release of spent fuel materials and radioactive cask cavity cooling water due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of package misclosure and degradation during normal transport was also considered. The results of the risk assessment have been related to a time in the mid-1980's, when it is projected that nuclear plants with an electrical generating capacity of 100 GW will be operating in the U.S. For shipments from reactors to interim storage facilities, it is estimated that a truck carrying spent fuel will be involved in an accident that would not be severe enough to result in a release of spent fuel material about once in 1.1 years. It was estimated that an accident that could result in a small release of radioactive material (primarily contaminated cooling water) would occur once in about 40 years. The frequency of an accident resulting in one or more latent cancer fatalities from release of radioactive materials during a truck shipment of spent fuel to interim storage was estimated to be once in 41,000 years. No accidents were found that would result in acute fatalities from releases of radioactive material. The risk for spent fuel shipments from reactors to reprocessing plants was found to be about 20% less than the risk for shipments to interim storage. Although the average shipment distance for the reprocessing case is larger, the risk is somewhat lower because the shipping routes, on average, are through less populated sections of the country. The total risk from transporting 180-day cooled spent fuel by truck in the reference year is 4.5 x 10-5 fatalities. An individual in the population at risk would have one chance in 6 x 1011 of suffering a latent cancer fatality from a release of radioactive material from a truck carrying spent fuel in the reference year

  4. The study design of UDRIVE: the Naturalistic Driving Study across Europe for cars, trucks and scooters

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, Yvonne; Utesch, Fabian; van Nes, Nicole; Eenink, Rob; Baumann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: UDRIVE is the first large-scale European Naturalistic Driving Study on cars, trucks and powered two wheelers. The acronym stands for "European naturalistic Driving and Riding for Infrastructure & Vehicle safety and Environment". The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of what happens on the road in everyday traffic situations. Methods: The paper describes Naturalistic Driving Studies, a method which provides insight into the actual real-world behaviour of road user...

  5. HIV Risk Behaviours Differ by Workplace Stability Among Mexican Female Sex Workers With Truck Driver Clientele

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Nadine E.; Steffanie A Strathdee; Gudelia Rangel; Patterson, Thomas L.; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J.; Perth Rosen; Jorge Villalobos; Kimberly C Brouwer

    2012-01-01

    Background. In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was that the primary place of sex work was unstable in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc.) intead of stab...

  6. Driving R&D for the Next Generation Work Truck; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.

    2015-03-04

    Improvements in medium- and heavy-duty work truck energy efficiency can dramatically reduce the use of petroleum-based fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with industry partners to develop fuel-saving, high-performance vehicle technologies, while examining fleet operational practices that can simulateneously improve fuel economy, decrease emissions, and support bottom-line goals.

  7. A qualitative study of migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV risk behaviour among truck drivers in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Lynn Murphy; Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin

    2016-09-01

    Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at: (1) determining potentially traumatic events (PTEs), labour migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviours among truck drivers in Zambia; and (2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behaviour among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted 15 semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use, were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviours. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV-prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population. PMID:27681145

  8. Differential Control Strategy based on an Equal Slip Rate for an All-wheel Electricdrive Underground Articulated Dumping Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A differential control strategy based on equal slip rates is introduced to improve the steering stability of an all-wheelelectric-drive underground articulated dumping truck. Steering kinematic and dynamic models of the truck are derived to describe the movement relationship and force of the driving wheels. In consideration of the difficulty of obtaining the absolute velocity for an all-wheel-drive truck, an acceleration sensor was set on a test truck, and a kalman filter was applied to obtain the actual value for the truck body. Simulation results for an equal-slip control strategy were compared with experimental results for an equal-torque control strategy. In the simulation, the four-wheel slip rate was 0.08 and the steering system of the truck was stable. The results verify that the equal-slip control strategy makes better use of the ground adhesion coefficient, is able to reasonably distribute drive power, notably reduces tire wear, and improves the use of driving power.

  9. Air quality benefits of universal particle filter and NOx controls on diesel trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Harley, R.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of black carbon/particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions on urban and regional scales. These emissions are relevant to both air quality and climate change. Since 2010 in the US, new engines are required to be equipped with emission control systems that greatly reduce both PM and NOx emissions, by ~98% relative to 1988 levels. To reduce emissions from the legacy fleet of older trucks that still remain on the road, regulations have been adopted in Califonia to accelerate the replacement of older trucks and thereby reduce associated emissions of PM and NOx. Use of diesel particle filters will be widespread by 2016, and universal use of catalytic converters for NOx control is required by 2023. We assess the air quality consequences of this clean-up effort in Southern California, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ), and comparing three scenarios: historical (2005), present day (2016), and future year (2023). Emissions from the motor vehicle sector are mapped at high spatial resolution based on traffic count and fuel sales data. NOx emissions from diesel engines in 2023 are expected to decrease by ~80% compared to 2005, while the fraction of NOx emitted as NO2 is expected to increase from 5 to 18%. Air quality model simulations will be analyzed to quantify changes in NO2, black carbon, particulate matter, and ozone, both basin-wide and near hot spots such as ports and major highways.

  10. Is it a bird? Is it a plane? No, it’s a tow truck!

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    CERN has equipped itself with a tow truck to fight back against dangerous parking habits. The Security service will use the truck to rid the site of abandoned cars, which take up so many parking spaces, as well as badly parked cars, which are often a danger to other road users.   Breaches of parking etiquette that endanger other vehicles and pedestrians include cars parked in such a way as to impede visibility, for example, at junctions and roundabouts, or cars parked in parking spaces for the disabled or in areas reserved for emergency vehicles. Various measures will be taken to tackle the problem: for less serious offences, a sticker will be put on the windshield of the vehicle and an e-mail sent asking the driver to park in an authorised space. For more serious offences, the vehicle will be immobilised with a wheel clamp, or even removed by the tow truck and taken to a dedicated car park on the Meyrin or the Prévessin site. “No fines will be issued," explains Did...

  11. Effect of Mn and Mo on the quality of welding trucks steel supporting structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Węgrzyn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aims of the research are studies safety and exploitation conditions of weld structure reparation of car body truck frames.Design/methodology/approach: Structure of car body truck frames are the main object of the research. Impact toughness, fatigue properties were measured, fractographic analyses were made. Subject scopes are experimental research about weld structure reparation of car body truck frames. Theoretical calculations should be used as the hint automotive welding reparations.Findings: Optimization of operational properties of steel welded structures might be done in terms of the chemical composition (amount Mo, Mn in WMD. Molybdenum should be treated as the element very positively influencing impact toughness and fatigue properties of low alloy WMD. The cause of damages and deformation of steel car body frame structures is often connected with no proper choice of welding materials, their joining technology, and chemical composition of WMD.Research limitations/implications: Studies on the effect of other important alloying elements on the properties of the frame of a vehicle should be continued.Practical implications: Practical implications might be improving of the passive safety of the vehicle by quality of the car structures reparations.Originality/value: A novelty is the analysis of the impact of major alloying elements in the weld on the quality of repair structural components of the vehicle.

  12. Slipping of the foot on the floor when pulling a pallet truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Chang, Chien-Chi; Chang, Wen-Ruey

    2008-11-01

    Workers pulling pallet trucks are likely to slip when pulling and stepping on a low-friction floor. This study investigated the slipping of male participants when pulling a pallet truck, walking backward, and stepping on either a dry, wet, or glycerol-contaminated vinyl surface. The weight of the load on the truck was either low (0 kg), medium (295 kg), or high (568 kg). A motion-tracking system was used to collect the three-dimensional coordinates of the markers on the shoes. It was found that subjects might slip either upon landing of the leading foot on the toe (slip I) or before taking off of the lagging foot on the heel (slip II). The results indicated that the slip distances for both types of slip were significantly affected by the load and surface conditions and their interactions. Micro-slips (slips between 0.1 and 3 cm) and midi-slips (slips between 3 and 10 cm) were more common in slip I than in slip II. On glycerol-contaminated surfaces, the probabilities of a slide, or a slip more than 10 cm, for both slips I and II were over 40%. The implications of the results were discussed. PMID:18222414

  13. Intervention strategies to eliminate truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Kecojevic, Vladislav

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this review was to build upon a previous study on the root causes of truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining operations in West Virginia, and to develop intervention strategies to eliminate these fatalities. This review considers a two-pronged approach to accident prevention: one that is fundamental and traditional (safety regulations, training and education, and engineering of the work environment); and one that is innovative and creative (e.g., applying technological advances to better control and eliminate the root causes of accidents). Suggestions for improving current training and education system are proposed, and recommendations are provided on improving the safety of mine working conditions, specifically safety conditions on haul roads, dump sites, and loading areas. We also discuss various currently available technologies that can help prevent haul truck-related fatal accidents. The results of this review should be used by mine personnel to help create safer working conditions and decrease truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining. PMID:25952985

  14. A summary of truck fuel-saving measures developed with industry participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.M.; Saricks, C.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gregory, E.W. II [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Moore, A.J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the third project undertaken by the Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in a US Department of Energy program designed to develop and distribute compendiums of measures for saving transportation fuel. A matrix, or chart, of more than 60 fuel-saving measures was developed by ANL and refined with the assistance of trucking industry operators and researchers at an industry coordination meeting held in August 1982. The first two projects used similar meetings to refine matrices developed for the international maritime and US railroad industries. The consensus reached by those at the meeting was that the single most important element in a truck fuel-efficiency improvement program is the human element -- namely the development of strong motivation among truck drivers to save fuel. The role of the driver is crucial to the successful use of fuel-saving equipment and operating procedures. Identical conclusions were reached in the earlier maritime and rail meetings, thus providing a strong indication of the pervasive importance of the human element in energy-efficient transportation systems. The number and variety of changes made to the matrix are also delineated, including addition and deletion of various options and revisions of fuel-saving estimates, payback period estimates, and remarks concerning items such as the advantages, disadvantages, and cautions associated with various measures. The quality and quantity of the suggested changes demonstrate the considerable value of using a forum of industry operators and researchers to refine research data that are intended for practical application.

  15. Evaluation of an exhaust gas evacuation system during propane-fueled lift truck maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas in the workplace can cause health problem. CO gas is colourless and odourless, and exposure to it can cause intoxication, particularly for mechanics working on internal combustion engines fed by propane-fueled lift trucks. Regular procedures for evacuating the gases emitted during routine mechanical repairs involve the use of rigid evacuating pipes attached to the building and hooked to a flexible pipe at the end of the exhaust pipe. With lift trucks, this procedure is limited because of the configuration of these vehicles, and also because this type of work is often done in places without access to permanent mechanical ventilation. The object of this study was to propose a new evacuation method for CO gas fumes that would lower the exposures of fumes for mechanics and for workstations. It identified the criteria that should be considered, such as the configuration of the existing exhaust system of lift trucks, and feasibility of using this system at a variety of on-site locations. The design of the device was described and evaluated. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs., 3 appendices

  16. Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kosowski, Mark [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funding. The purpose of the program is to develop a path to migrate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to medium-duty vehicles by demonstrating and evaluating vehicles in diverse applications. The program also provided three production-ready PHEV systems—Odyne Systems, Inc. (Odyne) Class 6 to 8 trucks, VIA Motors, Inc. (VIA) half-ton pickup trucks, and VIA three-quarter-ton vans. The vehicles were designed, developed, validated, produced, and deployed. Data were gathered and tests were run to understand the performance improvements, allow cost reductions, and provide future design changes. A smart charging system was developed and produced during the program. The partnerships for funding included the DOE; the California Energy Commission (CEC); the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD); the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Odyne; VIA; Southern California Edison; and utility and municipal industry participants. The reference project numbers are DOE FOA-28 award number EE0002549 and SCAQMD contract number 10659.

  17. Development of a novel refrigeration system for refrigerated trucks incorporating phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A refrigeration system having low energy cost and producing no local greenhouse gas emission. ► A PCM is experimentally developed which is able to maintain the refrigerated truck at −18 °C. ► A TRNSYS model is developed to simulate the proposed refrigeration system. -- Abstract: An innovative refrigeration system incorporating phase change material (PCM) is proposed to maintain refrigerated trucks at the desired thermal conditions. The advantage of using PCM to maintain low temperatures is that a conventional refrigeration system does not have to be located on-board the vehicle. In addition, the system consumes less energy and produces much lower local greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The phase change thermal storage unit (PCTSU) is charged by a refrigeration unit located off the vehicle when stationary. The PCM is discharged and provides cooling when in service. A new PCM with a lower cost than currently available PCMs was developed, suitable for maintaining the refrigerated truck at a temperature of −18 °C. The PCM has a melting temperature of −26.7 °C and a latent heat of 154.4 kJ kg−1. A prototype system was constructed and test results proved that the proposed refrigeration system is feasible for mobile transport. An analysis shows that delivery of refrigerated products can be made with a PCM system having a weight comparable to that of an on board conventional refrigeration system with less than half of the energy cost.

  18. Initial commitment to pre-exposure prophylaxis and circumcision for HIV prevention amongst Indian truck drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Schneider

    Full Text Available Studies of HIV prevention interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PREP and circumcision in India are limited. The present study sought to investigate Indian truck-drivers initial commitment to PREP and circumcision utilizing the AIDS Risk Reduction Model. Ninety truck-drivers completed an in-depth qualitative interview and provided a blood sample for HIV and HSV-2 testing. Truck-drivers exhibited low levels of initial commitment towards PREP and even lower for circumcision. However, potential leverage points for increasing commitment were realized in fear of infecting family rather than self, self-perceptions of risk, and for PREP focusing on cultural beliefs towards medication and physicians. Cost was a major barrier to both HIV prevention interventions. Despite these barriers, our findings suggest that the ARRM may be useful in identifying several leverage points that may be used by peers, health care providers and public health field workers to enhance initial commitment to novel HIV prevention interventions in India.

  19. A Methodology for Multihazards Load Combinations of Earthquake and Heavy Trucks for Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues of load combinations of earthquakes and heavy trucks are important contents in multihazards bridge design. Current load resistance factor design (LRFD specifications usually treat extreme hazards alone and have no probabilistic basis in extreme load combinations. Earthquake load and heavy truck load are considered as random processes with respective characteristics, and the maximum combined load is not the simple superimposition of their maximum loads. Traditional Ferry Borges-Castaneda model that considers load lasting duration and occurrence probability well describes random process converting to random variables and load combinations, but this model has strict constraint in time interval selection to obtain precise results. Turkstra’s rule considers one load reaching its maximum value in bridge’s service life combined with another load with its instantaneous value (or mean value, which looks more rational, but the results are generally unconservative. Therefore, a modified model is presented here considering both advantages of Ferry Borges-Castaneda's model and Turkstra’s rule. The modified model is based on conditional probability, which can convert random process to random variables relatively easily and consider the nonmaximum factor in load combinations. Earthquake load and heavy truck load combinations are employed to illustrate the model. Finally, the results of a numerical simulation are used to verify the feasibility and rationality of the model.

  20. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection in Brazilian long-distance truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Nara R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a global public health problem. Long-distance truck drivers live apart from their family for long periods of time, a lifestyle that favors at-risk behaviors such as unprotected sex with multiple partners and illicit drug use. As data concerning HCV infection in this population are still rare, this paper aims to investigate the prevalence, genotypes/subtypes, and the factors associated with HCV infection in long-distance truck drivers in Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 641 Brazilian long-truck drivers who were recruited at a major truck stop located at kilometer 1,296 of the BR-153 highway, which is considered to be one of the longest roads in Brazil. All individuals were interviewed, and their serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV by ELISA and immunoblot. Anti-HCV positive samples were tested for HCV RNA by PCR amplification of the 5' NC and NS5B regions and were genotyped using the LiPA assay and nucleotide sequencing, respectively. Factors associated with HCV infection were identified with logistic regression. The prevalence of HCV infection was 1.4% (95% CI: 0.7-2.8. History of blood transfusion, sharing of personal hygiene tools, illicit drug use and HBV status were factors independently associated with HCV infection in the study population. HCV RNA was detected in 8/9 anti-HCV positive samples, in which genotypes 1 (n = 3, 2 (n = 2, and 3 (n = 3 were determined by LiPA. Using phylogenetic tree analysis of the NS5B region, subtypes 1a (n = 1, 1b (n = 2, 2b (n = 2 and 3a (n = 3 were identified. These data show that the prevalence of HCV infection among Brazilian truck drivers was similar to that observed for the general population. History of blood transfusion, sharing of personal hygiene tools, illicit drug use and HBV status were predictors of HCV infection. The HCV genotypes/subtypes identified in the study population are consistent with

  2. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  3. Driving and traffic simulation for the evaluation of electronically coupled truck platoons; Kombinierte Fahr- und Verkehrsfluss-Simulation zur Untersuchung von elektronisch gekoppelten Lkw-Konvois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, A.; Petry, L.; Savelsberg, E. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Lern- und Wissensmanagement]|[RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl Informatik im Maschinenbau

    2005-07-01

    The concept of creating trains on road (truck platoons) supported by advanced driver assistance systems is one possibility to manage the permanent increase of freight transportation and the utilisation of its capacities. An electronic coupling of trucks with short gaps will release the truck driver and therefore will also increase safety. Furthermore, the capacity of road will be used more efficient due to the short gaps between the trucks and the slip stream will save fuel. Regarding former research programs of the same topic, the practical use of such platoons shall be prepared with help of the InDriveS truck driving simulator. InDriveS is a combined driving and traffic flow simulation and gives the possibility to develop the driver assistance system and to investigate the stress of the truck driver during the platoon driving. It also allows an evaluation of the complete system in meaning of traffic flow, safety, environmental impacts and profitability. (orig.)

  4. Truck and rail charges for shipping spent fuel and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed techniques for calculating estimates of nuclear-waste shipping costs and compiled a listing of representative data that facilitate incorporation of reference shipping costs into varius logistics analyses. The formulas that were developed can be used to estimate costs that will be incurred for shipping spent fuel or nuclear waste by either legal-weight truck or general-freight rail. The basic data for this study were obtained from tariffs of a truck carrier licensed to serve the 48 contiguous states and from various rail freight tariff guides. Also, current transportation regulations as issued by the US Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were investigated. The costs that will be incurred for shipping spent fuel and/or nuclear waste, as addressed by the tariff guides, are based on a complex set of conditions involving the shipment origin, route, destination, weight, size, and volume and the frequency of shipments, existing competition, and the length of contracts. While the complexity of these conditions is an important factor in arriving at a ''correct'' cost, deregulation of the transportation industry means that costs are much more subject to negotiation and, thus, the actual fee that will be charged will not be determined until a shipping contract is actually signed. This study is designed to provide the baseline data necessary for making comparisons of the estimated costs of shipping spent fuel and/or nuclear wastes by truck and rail transportation modes. The scope of the work presented in this document is limited to the costs incurred for shipping, and does not include packaging, cask purchase/lease costs, or local fees placed on shipments of radioactive materials

  5. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck Using Geometrically Optimized Rear Cabin Bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms by which geometrically optimized bumps, placed on the rear end of the cabin roof of a generic truck, reduce aerodynamic drag. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location, and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, and probabilistic restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.

  6. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Lipman, Timothy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas; Dwyer, Harry; Sperling, Daniel; Gouse, S. William; King, Foy

    2002-01-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engines....

  7. SCR SYSTEMS FOR HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS: PROGRESS TOWARDS MEETING EURO 4 EMISSION STANDARDS IN 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, W; Huethwohl, G; Maurer, B

    2003-08-24

    Emissions of diesel engines contain some components, which support the generation of smog and which are classified hazardous. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is a powerful tool to reduce the NOx and Particulate emissions. The NOx-emission can be reduced by the SCR technology. SCR stands for Selective Catalytic Reduction. A reduction agent has to be injected into the exhaust upstream of a catalyst. On the catalyst the NOx is reduced to N2 (Nitrogen) and H2O (Water). This catalytic process was developed in Japan about 30 years ago to reduce the NOx emission of coal-fired power plants. The first reduction agent used was anhydrous ammonia (NH3). SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. To day, SCR technology is the most promising technology to fulfill the new European Regulations EURO 4 and EURO 5 being effective Oct. 2005 and Oct. 2008. The efficient NOx reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfill the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NOx emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. The infrastructure for Ad

  8. [A Method Research on Environmental Damage Assessment of a Truck Rollover Pollution Incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Zhao, Shi-ho; Chen, Gang-cai; Xian, Si-shu; Yang, Qing-ling; Zhou, Xian-jie; Yu, Hai

    2015-05-01

    With high occurrence of sudden water pollution incident, China faces an increasingly severe situation of water environment. In order to deter the acts of environmental pollution, ensure the damaged resources of environment can be restored and compensated, it is very critical to quantify the economic losses caused by the sudden water pollution incident. This paper took truck rollover pollution incidents in Chongqing for an example, established a set of evaluation method for quantifying the environmental damage, and then assessed the environmental damage by the method from four aspects, including the property damage, ecological environment and resources damages, the costs of administrative affairs in emergency disposal, and the costs of investigation and evaluation.

  9. An Optimisation Approach Applied to Design the Hydraulic Power Supply for a Forklift Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first part of a method that may be used in the design of the most energy efficient hydraulic opencircuit systems, when also considering the operational aspects of the system given in the design specifications. The method builds on a numerically based multi......-level optimisation approach, and is in the current paper exemplified through the design of the hydraulic power supply for a forklift truck. The paper first describes the prerequisites for the method and then explains the different steps in the approach to design the hydraulic system. Finally the results...

  10. Performance simulation and analysis of a fuel cell/battery hybrid forklift truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Advani, Suresh G.;

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a forklift truck powered by a hybrid system consisting of a PEM fuel cell and a lead acid battery is modeled and investigated by conducting a parametric study. Various combinations of fuel cell size and battery capacity are employed in conjunction with two distinct control...... strategies to study their effect on hydrogen consumption and battery state-of-charge for two drive cycles characterized by different operating speeds and forklift loads. The results show that for all case studies, the combination of a 110 cell stack with two strings of 55 Ah batteries is the most economical...

  11. Consistent Condom Use during Casual Sex among Long-Truck Drivers in Togo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Issifou; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Saka, Bayaki; Vignikin, Kokou; Aboubakari, Abdoul-Samadou; N’dri, Kouamé Mathias; Gbetoglo, Kodjo Dodji; Edorh, Atavi-Mensah; Ahlegnan, Komla; Yenkey, Holali Comlan; Toudeka, Ayawavi Sitsopé; Pitché, Palokinam

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2008, the proportion of truck drivers who were not systematically protected during sex was 63% with casual partners and 60% with sex workers. Despite the high level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and the growing awareness of the existence of the risk of HIV infection, condom use always encounters resistance among truck drivers in Togo. We sought to document the factors associated with condom use during casual sex among trucks’ drivers in Togo. Methods This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 and targeted truckers at truck station on the two main roads of Togo, Lomé-Cinkassé and Kodjoviakopé-Sanvee Condji. Results In this study, 1,782 trucks’ drivers and their helpers were interviewed. All were men, and their mean age was 28.8 ± 8.8 years. Trucks’ drivers were doing an average of 3 stops on their journeys and 1,229 (69%) of them had at least two years of experience in the work. Of the 1,782 trucks’ drivers, only 620 (34.8%) had consistently used condoms during casual sex in the last three months. In multivariate analysis, predictors were: education level (primary schooling: OR = 1.54; p = 0.002; Secondary schooling and higher OR = 1.38; p = 0.036), good knowledge of ways of HIV transmission (OR = 1.53; p = 0.000), tested for HIV (OR = 1.67, p = 0.000), duration in the profession (2–5 years: OR = 1.43, p = 0.008; more than 5 years: OR = 1.38, p = 0.027), and HIV risk’s perception (OR = 1.44, p = 0.000). Conclusion These results highlight factors associated with consistent condom use during casual sex by truck drivers in Togo. This is a key population group at high risk of HIV transmission toward which the national HIV/AIDS control program should strengthen the HIV prevention strategies. PMID:27071059

  12. Podnikatelský plán Boy´s Burger Food Truck

    OpenAIRE

    Kábelová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this Master thesis is to verify the viability of the food truck with fast food. This type of business is well-known in the United States of America. The purpose is to find out whether the firm will be profitable and sufficiently attractive to customers in chosen market. This Master thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part describes the business models and current tips for business plan and starting the business. Next there is made a list of ...

  13. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. RESULTS: Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively. The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p < 0.05. Moderately-active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05 as well as higher total cholesterol concentrations (232.1 and 145 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.01. Irrespective of their physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical

  14. Los Food trucks en el espacio público de Barcelona : escenario actual y sus oportunidades

    OpenAIRE

    Burbano de Lara Pérez, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    El presente Trabajo de Fin de Master tiene por objetivo estudiar, desde un punto de vista un poco particular, los espacios públicos y las actividades sociales, culturales y comerciales, que se están desarrollando en los mismos, específicamente de la ciudad de Barcelona. Dicho estudio, se ha de realizar a través de un análisis del fenómeno de los Food Trucks y el Street Food que, durante los últimos dos años, ha tomado mucha fuerza y reconocimiento, siendo una alternativa comercial presente en...

  15. Statistical description of heavy truck accidents on representative segments of interstate highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, W.F.; Davidson, C.A.; Foley, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Any quantitative analysis of the risk of transportation accidents requires the use of many different statistical distributions. Included among these are the types of accidents which occur and the severity of these when they do occur. Several previous studies have derived this type of information for truck traffic over U. S. highways in general; these data are not necessarily applicable for the anticipated LMFBR spent fuel cask routes. This report presents data for highway segments representative of the specific LMFBR cask routes which are anticipated. These data are based upon a detailed record-by-record review of filed reports for accidents which occurred along the specified route segments.

  16. Improving Performance of Evolutionary Algorithms with Application to Fuzzy Control of Truck Backer-Upper System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Alipouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to improve the performance of evolutionary algorithms (EA. The proposed approach defines operators which can modify the performance of EA, including Levy distribution function as a strategy parameters adaptation, calculating mean point for finding proper region of breeding offspring, and shifting strategy parameters to change the sequence of these parameters. Thereafter, a set of benchmark cost functions is utilized to compare the results of the proposed method with some other well-known algorithms. It is shown that the speed and accuracy of EA are increased accordingly. Finally, this method is exploited to optimize fuzzy control of truck backer-upper system.

  17. Advanced Hybrid Propulsion and Energy Management System for High Efficiency, Off Highway, 240 Ton Class, Diesel Electric Haul Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Tim; Slezak, Lee; Johnson, Chris; Young, Henry; Funcannon, Dan

    2008-12-31

    The objective of this project is to reduce the fuel consumption of off-highway vehicles, specifically large tonnage mine haul trucks. A hybrid energy storage and management system will be added to a conventional diesel-electric truck that will allow capture of braking energy normally dissipated in grid resistors as heat. The captured energy will be used during acceleration and motoring, reducing the diesel engine load, thus conserving fuel. The project will work towards a system validation of the hybrid system by first selecting an energy storage subsystem and energy management subsystem. Laboratory testing at a subscale level will evaluate these selections and then a full-scale laboratory test will be performed. After the subsystems have been proven at the full-scale lab, equipment will be mounted on a mine haul truck and integrated with the vehicle systems. The integrated hybrid components will be exercised to show functionality, capability, and fuel economy impacts in a mine setting.

  18. Velocity and normal tyre force estimation for heavy trucks based on vehicle dynamic simulation considering the road slope angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zeyu; Zhang, Yunqing; Yang, James

    2016-02-01

    A precise estimation of vehicle velocities can be valuable for improving the performance of the vehicle dynamics control (VDC) system and this estimation relies heavily upon the accuracy of longitudinal and lateral tyre force calculation governed by the prediction of normal tyre forces. This paper presents a computational method based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) method to estimate both longitudinal and lateral velocities and develops a novel quasi-stationary method to predict normal tyre forces of heavy trucks on a sloping road. The vehicle dynamic model is constructed with a planar dynamic model combined with the Pacejka tyre model. The novel quasi-stationary method for predicting normal tyre forces is able to characterise the typical chassis configuration of the heavy trucks. The validation is conducted through comparing the predicted results with those simulated by the TruckSim and it has a good agreement between these results without compromising the convergence speed and stability.

  19. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  20. Study Based on Bridge Health Monitoring System on Multihazard Load Combinations of Earthquake and Truck Loads for Bridge Design in the Southeast Coastal Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to American LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, the current Chinese bridge design code is fully calibrated against gravity load and live load. Earthquake load is generally considered alone and has its own methodology, however, which is not covered in the code in a consistent probability-based fashion. Earthquake load and truck load are the main loads considered in the basis of bridge design in more than 70% of seismic areas in China. They are random processes, and their combination is the main subject of this paper. Seismic characteristics of southeast coastal areas of China are discussed and an earthquake probability curve is calculated through seismic risk analysis. Using measured truck load data from a Bridge Health Monitoring System, the multimodal characteristics of truck load are analyzed and a probability model for a time interval t is obtained by fitting results and reliability theory. Then, a methodology is presented to combine earthquake load and truck load on a probabilistic basis. To illustrate this method, truck load and earthquake load combinations are used. Results conceptually illustrate that truck load and earthquake load are not dominant in southeast coastal areas of China, but the effect of their combination is. This methodology quantitatively demonstrates that the design is controlled by truck load in most ranges; that is, truck load is more important to bridge design in the region.

  1. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  2. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  3. Zero emissions trucks. An overview of state-of-the-art technologies and their potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.; Aarnink, S. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Kleiner, F.; Pagenkopf, J. [German Aerospace Center DLR, Cologne (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The study by CE Delft and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), surveys the technology potential for zero-emission road freight transport in the EU. For short distance transport, battery electric technology is feasible, as distribution trucks have lower range requirements and recharging can occur at scheduled downtimes (e.g. overnight). For long haul applications, battery electric vehicles coupled with overhead wires (catenary) or in-road charging (dynamic) infrastructure are possible, as well as fuel cell drivelines. The cost differential between conventional and zero emission HDVs will diminish over the next 10-15 years, as fuel savings offset other costs. If zero-emission technologies are introduced on a large scale in the onroad freight transport sector beginning in 2020, the total end-user costs will not significantly increase. The total cost of ownership within this study do not consider required infrastructure investments. All zero emission technologies require major infrastructure investments, whether hydrogen refuelling stations, in-road inductive charging, or other systems. Broad policy support is needed to encourage the development and evaluation of various technology options. Over time, the policy focus must shift from stimulating innovation and technology adoption to regulation, if it is to spur a successful transformation of the truck market.

  4. Voluntary counseling and willingness to screen among Nigerian long distance truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Aniebue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT is an important preventive strategy in the control of HIV/AIDS and Long distance truck drivers (LDTD have been identified as an important group in the transmission of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to assess knowledge and perception of Nigerian long distance truck drivers on HIV/AIDS, voluntary counseling and testing and their willingness to undergo HIV screening. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety seven LDTD in Enugu, Nigeria were surveyed using pre tested structured questionnaires. Results: Awareness of HIV/AIDS was high (94.9% amongst the drivers and the media was their commonest source of information. Similarly the awareness of VCT was high (94.4%. One hundred and eight (54.8% respondents were willing to undergo HIV screening test if offered freely and 86 (43.7% others have previously been screened. Educational status was a significant determinant of willingness to undergo HIV screening p<0.05. The reasons for screening were mainly doctors′ recommendation (19.3% and voluntary self screening (18.8%. The commonest reasons for not wanting to undergo screening were the feeling of not being at risk (27.9%, fear of a positive result (10.2% and cost of screening test (9.6%. Conclusion: There is a critical need to improve HIV screening participation amongst Long distance drivers in Nigeria.

  5. Vibration and impact stresses at IBCs and tank trucks; Vibrations- und Stossbelastungen an IBCs und Tankfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhard, Anton; Poetzsch, Michael [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Goedecke, Thomas [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Pruefung und Untersuchung; Ladungssicherung' ; Nitsche, Marion [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Bereich Gefahrguttanks/Befoerderungstechnik

    2010-07-01

    The different types of stresses like impact or vibration by driving in the streets or cross the country are well known to the daily life. Depending on the construction and the condition of the spring /damping system of the vehicle, a painful stress in the human body sometimes may occur. Such dynamic stresses are certainly also transferred to the lading, in this particular case the containment systems as well as to the hazardous materials. Due to an effective cargo, securing equipment reduce the interaction of the lading significantly. However, not only the spring/damping system is important, also other suitable technical protection methods related to the vehicle are relevant. For impacts by rear end collision other prevention techniques are required. To avoid rear end damage by tank trucks tailgate protection can help. Results measured during road movement of a truck compared with results measured by the vibration tests at an Intermediate Bulk Container (IBC) are part of this paper. A further part is dealing with the calculations for rear end protection compared with measured data. (orig.)

  6. The productivity effects of truck size and weight policies: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middendorf, D.P.; Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-11-01

    While previous studies have indicated that increases in truck size and weight limits could improve motor carrier productivity, the question of whether or not freight shippers will also benefit has not been adequately addressed. It is generally assumed that competitive conditions in the motor carrier industry will result in cost savings being passed to shippers in the form of lower freight rates. Transportation costs, however, are only one component of shipper total logistics cost. Warehousing cost, inventory holding cost, order processing cost, and other categories of business logistics cost may also change as a result of the less frequent but larger shipments typically associated with the use of longer combination vehicles (LCVs). If switching from single trailer truckload shipments to LCVs causes shipper non-transport logistics costs to increase more than the savings available from lower freight rates, then productivity gains may be lost to the firm and the economy as a whole. This research was undertaken to determine the net effect of truck size and weight policy changes on shipper total logistics cost and how these effects might influence the demand for alternative tractor-trailer configurations.

  7. Truck-based mobile wireless sensor networks for the experimental observation of vehicle–bridge interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy vehicles driving over a bridge create a complex dynamic phenomenon known as vehicle–bridge interaction. In recent years, interest in vehicle–bridge interaction has grown because a deeper understanding of the phenomena can lead to improvements in bridge design methods while enhancing the accuracy of structural health monitoring techniques. The mobility of wireless sensors can be leveraged to directly monitor the dynamic coupling between the moving vehicle and the bridge. In this study, a mobile wireless sensor network is proposed for installation on a heavy truck to capture the vertical acceleration, horizontal acceleration and gyroscopic pitching of the truck as it crosses a bridge. The vehicle-based wireless monitoring system is designed to interact with a static, permanent wireless monitoring system installed on the bridge. Specifically, the mobile wireless sensors time-synchronize with the bridge's wireless sensors before transferring the vehicle response data. Vertical acceleration and gyroscopic pitching measurements of the vehicle are combined with bridge accelerations to create a time-synchronized vehicle–bridge response dataset. In addition to observing the vehicle vibrations, Kalman filtering is adopted to accurately track the vehicle position using the measured horizontal acceleration of the vehicle and positioning information derived from piezoelectric strip sensors installed on the bridge deck as part of the bridge monitoring system. Using the Geumdang Bridge (Korea), extensive field testing of the proposed vehicle–bridge wireless monitoring system is conducted. Experimental results verify the reliability of the wireless system and the accuracy of the vehicle positioning algorithm

  8. Truck-based mobile wireless sensor networks for the experimental observation of vehicle-bridge interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhee; Lynch, Jerome P.; Lee, Jong-Jae; Lee, Chang-Geun

    2011-06-01

    Heavy vehicles driving over a bridge create a complex dynamic phenomenon known as vehicle-bridge interaction. In recent years, interest in vehicle-bridge interaction has grown because a deeper understanding of the phenomena can lead to improvements in bridge design methods while enhancing the accuracy of structural health monitoring techniques. The mobility of wireless sensors can be leveraged to directly monitor the dynamic coupling between the moving vehicle and the bridge. In this study, a mobile wireless sensor network is proposed for installation on a heavy truck to capture the vertical acceleration, horizontal acceleration and gyroscopic pitching of the truck as it crosses a bridge. The vehicle-based wireless monitoring system is designed to interact with a static, permanent wireless monitoring system installed on the bridge. Specifically, the mobile wireless sensors time-synchronize with the bridge's wireless sensors before transferring the vehicle response data. Vertical acceleration and gyroscopic pitching measurements of the vehicle are combined with bridge accelerations to create a time-synchronized vehicle-bridge response dataset. In addition to observing the vehicle vibrations, Kalman filtering is adopted to accurately track the vehicle position using the measured horizontal acceleration of the vehicle and positioning information derived from piezoelectric strip sensors installed on the bridge deck as part of the bridge monitoring system. Using the Geumdang Bridge (Korea), extensive field testing of the proposed vehicle-bridge wireless monitoring system is conducted. Experimental results verify the reliability of the wireless system and the accuracy of the vehicle positioning algorithm.

  9. Experiment and Simulation of Medium-Duty Tactical Truck for Fuel Economy Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen M. Quail

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuel economy improvement on medium-duty tactical truck has and continues to be a significant initiative for the U.S. Army. The focus of this study is the investigation of Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT and mild hybridization powertrain that have potential to improve the fuel economy of the 2.5-ton cargo trucks. The current platform uses a seven-speed automatic transmission. This study utilized a combination of on-road experimental vehicle data and analytical vehicle modeling and simulation. This paper presents the results of (1 establishment of a validated, high fidelity baseline analytical vehicle model, (2 modeling and simulation of two AMTs and their control strategy, (3 optimization of transmissions shift schedules, and (4 modeling and simulation of engine idle stop/start and Belt-Integrated-Starter-Generator (B-ISG systems to improve the fuel economy. The fuel economy discrepancy between experimental average and the baseline simulation result was 2.87%. The simulation results indicated a 14.5% and 12.2% fuel economy improvement for the 10-speed and 12-speed AMT respectively. A stop/start system followed by a B-ISG mild hybrid system incorporating regenerative braking was estimated to improve fuel economy 3.39% and 10.2% respectively.

  10. Reduced energy consumption by massive thermoelectric waste heat recovery in light duty trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetto, D.; Vidiella, G.

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of the EC funded HEATRECAR project is to reduce the energy consumption and curb CO2 emissions of vehicles by massively harvesting electrical energy from the exhaust system and re-use this energy to supply electrical components within the vehicle or to feed the power train of hybrid electrical vehicles. HEATRECAR is targeting light duty trucks and focuses on the development and the optimization of a Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) including heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules and DC/DC converter. The main objective of the project is to design, optimize and produce a prototype system to be tested on a 2.3l diesel truck. The base case is a Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) producing 1 KWel at 130 km/h. We present the system design and estimated output power from benchmark Bi2Te3 modules. We discuss key drivers for the optimization of the thermal-to-electric efficiency, such as materials, thermo-mechanical aspects and integration.

  11. Theoretical and experimental investigation into anti-idling A/C system for trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A mathematical model is developed and verified using a built test-bed. • Thermal and performance characteristics of an anti-idling truck A/C system are investigated. • It is shown that variable speed fans have significant effects on the COP in different conditions. • A point of optimum COP can be found by changing the fans speed for any operating condition. • Anti-idling A/C systems equipped to variable speed control can significantly save environment. - Abstract: In this study, a recently developed truck anti-idling air conditioning (A/C) system is investigated. A mathematical model is developed to simulate the thermodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the A/C system and calculate the coefficient of performance (COP). Utilizing environmental chambers and a number of measuring equipment, an experimental setup is built to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model and to perform a comprehensive study on the performance of the system for a wide range of operating conditions. A good agreement between the simulation and the experimental data, with a maximum discrepancy of 10.6%, is achieved. The results show a range of 0.5–1.7 for the system COP under a variety of operating condition. The parametric study shows that for any cooling demand, ambient and indoor air temperatures, there is a point of optimum COP that can be achieved by adjusting the condenser and evaporator fans speed

  12. Satellite-aided mobile communications limited operational test in the trucking industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. E.; Frey, R. L.; Lewis, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    An experiment with NASA's ATS-6 satellite, that demonstrates the practicality of satellite-aided land mobile communications is described. Satellite communications equipment for the experiment was designed so that it would be no more expensive, when mass produced, than conventional two-way mobile radio equipment. It embodied the operational features and convenience of present day mobile radios. Vehicle antennas 75 cm tall and 2 cm in diameter provided good commercial quality signals to and from trucks and jeeps. Operational applicability and usage data were gathered by installing the radio equipment in five long-haul tractor-trailer trucks and two Air Force search and rescue jeeps. Channel occupancy rates are reported. Air Force personnel found the satellite radio system extremely valuable in their search and rescue mission during maneuvers and actual rescue operations. Propagation data is subjectively analyzed and over 4 hours of random data is categorized and graded as to signal quality on a second by second basis. Trends in different topographic regions are reported. An overall communications reliability of 93% was observed despite low satellite elevation angles ranging from 9 to 24 degrees.

  13. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel

  14. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: The Camper's Uninvited Guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases are a major problem whenever outdoor activities bring arthropods and people into contact. The arthropods discussed here include arachnids (ticks) and insects. Most arthropod bites and stings are minor, with the notable exception being bee-sting anaphylaxis. Ticks cause the most disease transmission. Key hard tick vectors include black-legged (Ixodes), dog (Dermacentor), and lone star (Amblyomma) ticks, which transmit Lyme and various rickettsial diseases. Insect repellents, permethrin sprays, and proper tick inspection reduce this risk significantly. Lyme disease and the milder southern-tick-associated rash illness (STARI) are characterized by the erythema migrans rash followed, in the case of Lyme disease, by early, disseminated, and late systemic symptoms. Treatment is with doxycycline or ceftriaxone. Indefinite treatment of "chronic Lyme disease" based on subjective symptoms is not beneficial. Rickettsial diseases include ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which are characterized by fever, headache, and possible rash and should be empirically treated with doxycycline while awaiting laboratory confirmation. Tularemia is a bacterial disease (Francisella) spread by ticks and rabbits and characterized by fever and adenopathy. Treatment is with gentamicin or streptomycin. Babesiosis is a protozoal disease, mimicking malaria, that causes a self-limited flu-like disease in healthy hosts but can be life threatening with immune compromise. Treatment is with atovaquone and azithromycin. Other tick-related conditions include viral diseases (Powassan, Colorado tick fever, heartland virus), tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia), and tick paralysis (toxin). Mosquitoes, lice, fleas, and mites are notable for their annoying bites but are increasingly significant disease vectors even in the United States.

  15. EFFECTS OF ENGINE SPEED AND ACCESSORY LOAD ON IDLING EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCK ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them ac...

  16. The Obesogenic Environment of Commercial Trucking: A Worksite Environmental Audit and Implications for Systems-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael; Sönmez, Sevil; Hege, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commercial trucker health is a vital public health concern. Enhanced understanding of the multiplicity, diversity, interdependence, and complexity of policies, resources, and stakeholders relevant to healthful living in trucking worksites can guide future interventions. Purpose: This article examines how the environmental attributes of…

  17. Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean Air Act Amendments

  18. 40 CFR 86.097-9 - Emission standards for 1997 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1997 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.097-9 Section 86.097-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 86.099-9 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.099-9 Section 86.099-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  20. 40 CFR 86.001-9 - Emission standards for 2001 and later model year light-duty trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 2001 and later model year light-duty trucks 86.001-9 Section 86.001-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  1. 40 CFR 86.004-9 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.004-9 Section 86.004-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  2. 40 CFR 86.000-9 - Emission standards for 2000 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 2000 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.000-9 Section 86.000-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  3. 40 CFR 85.2204 - Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks. 85.2204 Section 85.2204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 541 - Light Duty Truck Lines Subject to the Requirements of This Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Light Duty Truck Lines Subject to the Requirements of This Standard A Appendix A to Part 541 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt....

  5. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Other Information Subject to Restricted Access § 103.31a Advance electronic... following types of advance electronic information are per se exempt from disclosure under §...

  6. Team development and team performance. Responsibilities, responsiveness and results : A longitudinal study of teamwork at Volvo Trucks Umeå

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.

    2005-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study of more than 150 self-managing work teams was carried out at Volvo Trucks Umea, Sweden. Data obtained by this study were used to test a model about the performance effects of team development, answering the following research questions: (1) how can the team developmen

  7. 75 FR 7426 - Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ...On February 10, 2000 (65 FR 6698), EPA published emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks requiring vehicle manufacturers to reduce tailpipe emissions. Specifically, EPA sought to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides and non-methane hydrocarbons, pollutants which contribute to ozone pollution. The rulemaking also required oil refiners to limit the sulfur content of the......

  8. 26 CFR 48.4216(f)-1 - Value of used components excluded from price of certain trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to use, rather than resell the truck, incorporating used parts furnished by the customer, the value... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Value of used components excluded from price of... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(f)-1 Value of used components excluded from price...

  9. 75 FR 11120 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...'') Reviews, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009). The Department received a notice of intent to participate from... assembled hand truck is a hand-propelled barrow consisting of a vertically disposed frame having a handle or... this case are addressed in the Issues and Decision Memorandum from John M. Andersen, Acting...

  10. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers. PMID:23863703

  11. Temperature mapping of trucks transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks: Efficiency and/or acclimatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal profiles of trucks used for transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks. This study was carried out in a broiler hatchery in the State of Sao Paulo. The experiment was conducted during three months, in which six egg loads and 11 chick loads were observed. Thermal profile assessments were performed in an environmental controlled trucks with thermal control and following dimensions: 7.5 x 2.6 x 2.5 m for eggs, and 8.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 m for chicks. The maximum transport capacities were approximately of 592 boxes of eggs and 630 boxes of chicks, distributed all over the lorry. The thermal profiles were assessed at five-minutes-interval for eggs and in ten-minutes-interval for chicks, using thermal variables such as temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. Geostatistics was used to model spatial dependency (by kriging. The results showed that the acclimatization in trucks was deficient. The loads were found to be submitted to an incompatible temperature, showing a huge thermal variety in the body trucks.

  12. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  13. 19 CFR 123.14 - Entry of foreign-based trucks, busses, and taxicabs in international traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry of foreign-based trucks, busses, and taxicabs in international traffic. 123.14 Section 123.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO International Traffic § 123.14 Entry...

  14. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers.

  15. 76 FR 42163 - Pilot Program on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Long-Haul Trucking Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... to an April 8, 2011 notice announcing a pilot program on the North American Free Trade Agreement... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Long-Haul Trucking Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...

  16. Temperature effects on particulate emissions from DPF-equipped diesel trucks operating on conventional and biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two diesel trucks equipped with a particulate filter (DPF) were tested at two ambient temperatures (70oF and 20oF), fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel (B20)) and operating loads (a heavy and light weight). The test procedure included three driving cycles, a cold ...

  17. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  18. Identification and quantification of principal–agent problems affecting energy efficiency investments and use decisions in the trucking industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy related Principal–Agent (PA) problems cause inefficient combinations of investment, operating costs, and usage behavior. The complex market structure of the trucking industry contributes to split incentives because entities responsible for investments in energy efficiency do not always pay fuel costs and drivers are often not rewarded for fuel-efficient operation. Some contractual relationships exist in the trucking industry that hinder responses to fuel price signals. Up to 91% of total trucking fuel consumption in the U.S. is affected by “usage” PA problems, where the driver does not pay fuel costs and lacks incentive for fuel saving operation. Approximately 23% of trailers are exposed to an “efficiency problem” when owners of rented trailers do not pay fuel costs and therefore have little incentive to invest in efficiency upgrades such as improved trailer aerodynamics and reduced tire rolling resistance. This study shows that PA problems have the potential to significantly increase fuel consumption through avoided investments, insufficient maintenance, and fuel-wasting practices. Further research into the causes and effects of PA problems can shape policies to promote better alignment of costs and benefits, leading to reduced fuel use and carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We identify and quantify principal agent market failures in the trucking industry. ► Up to 91% of truck fuel consumption is exposed to a usage principal–agent market failure. ► Twenty-three percent of trailers are exposed to an efficiency principal–agent market failure. ► These market failures at least partially insulate key decision makers from fuel price signals.

  19. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Verma, Rajeev [Eaton Corporation; Norris, Sarah [Eaton Corporation; Cochran, Robert [Eaton Corporation

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  20. UF{sub 6} tiedowns for truck transport - right way/wrong way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, F.W. Jr. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Tiedown systems for truck transport of UF{sub 6} must be defined and controlled to assure the least risk for hauling the material over the highways. This paper and an associated poster display will present the current status of regulatory criteria for tiedowns, analyze the structural stresses involved in tiedowns for two major UF{sub 6} packaging systems, the 21PF series of overpacks and the 48 in. diameter shipping cylinders, and will present photographs showing some {open_quote}right ways{close_quotes} and some {open_quotes}wrong (or risky) ways{close_quotes} currently used for tiedown systems. Risky tiedown methods must be replaced with safer less risky methods to insure the safe transport of UF{sub 6}.

  1. Evaluating Truck Empty Running in Construction: A Case Study from Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Shakantu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of any transport operation isdependent on the degree to which vehiclecapacity is utilised on the forward and returntrips. Efficiency requirements create thelogistical challenges of finding backloads forreturning vehicles. In the absence ofbackloads, vehicles travel empty on the returnjourney. Construction is fundamentallydifferent from other freight services in thatapart from requiring large quantities of materialinputs, it also generates appreciable levels ofwaste. There is therefore, potential forreducing empty running by construction trucksthrough back-loading waste to points ofdisposal, reuse, recycling or reclamation.Back-loading, which is one of the reverselogistics processes is important for returningproducts that are damaged, obsolete or wornout and those unacceptable to buyers. Backloadingis also associated with utilising sparecapacity in the supply chain to increase returnon truck investment. This paper examines theoperations and processes associated withconstruction materials and waste logistics andassesses the potential for reduction in truckempty running through utilisation of thereverse logistics concept.

  2. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty trucks - Ford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  3. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Isuzu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  4. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Mitsubishi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  5. ACEEE's green book: The environmental guide to cars and trucks, Model year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCicco, J.; Kliesch, J.; Thomas, M.

    2000-07-01

    This pathbreaking guide ranks cars and trucks according to environmental friendliness. Buyers can compare cars, vans, pickups, and sport utility vehicles by their environmental impacts, including air pollution, global warming, and fuel efficiency. Inside the guide: how to buy the cleanest and most efficient vehicle that meets your needs; Green Scores for all 2000 makes and models, listed by class--compact, mid-size, and large cars, vans, pickups, and sport utilities; Best of 2000 section featuring the greenest models in each class; Green by Design chapter highlighting advanced technologies and what makes some vehicles greener than others; listings for electric and other alternative fuel vehicles in addition to gasoline and diesel vehicles; tips on keeping your vehicle running cleanly and efficiently; and the environmental impacts of vehicles, including global warming and the health effects of vehicle pollution.

  6. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Nissan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  7. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Mazda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  8. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Chrysler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  9. Medium-Duty Plug-in Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-06-29

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  10. Medium-Duty Plug-In Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  11. Computation of rolling resistance caused by rubber hysteresis of truck radial tire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Gai-ling; XU Hong; CUI Wen-yong

    2007-01-01

    Applying the results of stress and strain calculated by 3D finite element model of truck radial tire 11.00R20, a MATLAB program used to compute rolling resistance of the tire caused by hysteresis rolling resistance (HRR) is worked out. The HRR distribution on different part of tire section, and the effects of speed, load, internal pressure and the width of the rim on HRR are analyzed. The analysis results showed that energy loss produced by tread rubber contributes the most part to HRR of the whole tire, and that to decrease the HRR, the hysteresis factor of the tread rubber should be reduced, and the distribution of the stress and strain on the section be optimized.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Fire Truck Chassis for Steel and Carbon Fiber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi Gauri Sanjay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chassis is the foremost component of an automobile that acts as the frame to support the vehicle body. Hence the frame ought to be very rigid and robust enough to resist shocks vibrations and stresses acting on a moving vehicle. Steel in its numerous forms is commonly used material for producing chassis and overtime alumimium has acquired its use. However, in this study traditional materials are replaced with ultra light weight carbon fiber materials. High strength and low weight of carbon fibers makes it ideal for manufacturing automotive chassis. This paper depicts the modal and static structural analysis of TATA 407 fire truck chassis frame for steel as well as carbon fibers. From the analyzed results, stress, strain and total deformation values were compared for both the materials. Since it is easy to analyze structural systems by finite element method, the chassis is modified using PRO-E and the Finite Element Analysis is performed on ANSYS workbench.

  13. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  14. A discrete-event model to simulate the effect of truck bunching due to payload variance on cycle time, hauled mine materials and fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Soofastaei; S.M. Aminossadati; M.S. Kizil; P. Knights

    2016-01-01

    Data collected from truck payload management systems at various surface mines shows that the payload variance is significant and must be considered in analysing the mine productivity, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and associated cost. Payload variance causes significant differences in gross vehicle weights. Heavily loaded trucks travel slower up ramps than lightly loaded trucks. Faster trucks are slowed by the presence of slower trucks, resulting in‘bunching’, production losses and increasing fuel consumptions. This paper simulates the truck bunching phenomena in large surface mines to improve truck and shovel systems’ efficiency and minimise fuel consumption. The study concentrated on complet-ing a practical simulation model based on a discrete event method which is most commonly used in this field of research in other industries. The simulation model has been validated by a dataset collected from a large surface mine in Arizona state, USA. The results have shown that there is a good agreement between the actual and estimated values of investigated parameters.

  15. Assessment of the risk of transporting uranium hexafluoride by truck and train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffen, C.A.; Johnson, J.F.; Davis, D.K.; Friley, J.R.; Ross, B.A.

    1978-08-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of studies of the risk of transporting potentially hazardous energy materials. The report presents an assessment of the risk of shipping uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) by truck and rail. The general risk assessment methodology, summarized in Section 3, used in this study is that developed for the first study in this series. The assessment includes the risks from release of uranium hexafluoride during truck or rail transport due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of deteriorated or faulty packaging during normal transport was also considered. The report is sectioned to correspond to the specific analysis steps of the risk assessment model. The transportation system and accident environment are described in Sections 4 and 5. Calculation of the response of the shipping system to forces produced in transportation accidents are presented in Section 6 and the results of a survey to determine the condition of the package during transport are presented in Section 7. Sequences of events that could lead to a release of radioactive material from the shipping cask during transportation are postulated in Section 8 using fault tree analysis. These release sequences are evaluated in Sections 9 through 11, to determine both the likelihood and the possible consequences of each release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The results of the risk assessment have been related to the year 1985, when it is projected that 100 GW of electric power will be generated annually by nuclear power plants. It was estimated that approximately 46,000 metric tons (MT) of natural UF/sub 6/ and 14,600 MT of enriched UF/sub 6/ would be shipped in the reference year.

  16. Assessment of the risk of transporting uranium hexafluoride by truck and train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fifth in a series of studies of the risk of transporting potentially hazardous energy materials. The report presents an assessment of the risk of shipping uranium hexafluoride (UF6) by truck and rail. The general risk assessment methodology, summarized in Section 3, used in this study is that developed for the first study in this series. The assessment includes the risks from release of uranium hexafluoride during truck or rail transport due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of deteriorated or faulty packaging during normal transport was also considered. The report is sectioned to correspond to the specific analysis steps of the risk assessment model. The transportation system and accident environment are described in Sections 4 and 5. Calculation of the response of the shipping system to forces produced in transportation accidents are presented in Section 6 and the results of a survey to determine the condition of the package during transport are presented in Section 7. Sequences of events that could lead to a release of radioactive material from the shipping cask during transportation are postulated in Section 8 using fault tree analysis. These release sequences are evaluated in Sections 9 through 11, to determine both the likelihood and the possible consequences of each release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The results of the risk assessment have been related to the year 1985, when it is projected that 100 GW of electric power will be generated annually by nuclear power plants. It was estimated that approximately 46,000 metric tons (MT) of natural UF6 and 14,600 MT of enriched UF6 would be shipped in the reference year

  17. HIV infection, genital symptoms and sexual risk behavior among Indian truck drivers from a large transportation company in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Dude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel surveillance conducted in the high Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV prevalent state of Andhra Pradesh includes sub-populations thought to be at high-risk for HIV, but has not included truck drivers. Novel HIV prevention programs targeting this population increasingly adopt public - private partnership models. There have been no targeted studies of HIV prevalence and risk behavior among truck drivers belonging to the private sector in India. Methods: A sample of 189 truck drivers, aged between 15 and 56, were recruited from Gati Limited′s large trucking depot in Hyderabad, India. A quantitative survey instrument was conducted along with blood collection for HIV 1/2 testing. Multivariate regression models were utilized to determine predictors of HIV infection and risk behavior. Results: 2.1% of subjects were infected with HIV. Older age was protective against self-reported genital symptoms (OR = 0.77; P = 0.03, but these were more likely among those truck drivers with greater income (OR = 1.05; P = 0.02, and those who spent more time away from home (OR = 25.7; P = 0.001. Men with higher incomes also reported significantly more sex partners (OLS coefficient = 0.016 more partners / 100 rupees in monthly income, P = 0.04, as did men who spent a great deal of time away from home (OLS coefficient = 1.30, P = 0.002. Drivers were more likely to report condom use with regular partners if they had ever visited a female sex worker (OR = 6.26; P = 0.002, but married drivers exhibited decreased use of condoms with regular partners (OR = 0.14, P = 0.008. Men who had higher levels of knowledge regarding HIV and HIV preventative practices were also more likely to use condoms with regular partners (OR = 1.22, P = 0.03. Conclusion: Time away from home, urban residence, income, and marital status were the strongest correlates of genital symptoms for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and risk behaviors, although none were consistent

  18. Four legs or two: up front with you--preventing tragedies by keeping children and pets out of the cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, E J

    1999-08-01

    Dogs and children riding in the cargo area of pickup trucks are common sights on our nation's highways, country roads, and small town streets. This scene brings to mind idyllic childhoods filled with summer days spent bouncing down roads in the back of grandpa's pickup truck, wind catching the laughter from children's throats. For hundreds of families each year, this activity is the cause of heartache, traumatic injuries, and senseless deaths. More than 200 people die each year, half of whom are younger than 18 years of age, as a direct result of falls from cargo areas of pickup trucks. Injuries and deaths resulting from riding in cargo areas of pickup trucks are not limited to humans. In a recent survey, 71% of veterinarians reported treating dogs for injuries sustained by falling or jumping from cargo areas of pickup trucks. This percentage does not take into account countless dogs that were killed and not treated. Injuries and deaths resulting from riding in cargo areas of pickup trucks are preventable. Whereas it may take millions of dollars and many years to cure diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and AIDS, pickup truck-associated deaths can be prevented simply by educating the public to not allow children and pets to ride in cargo areas. The primary objective of "Four legs or two: Up front with you" is to educate the public on the risks involved with travel in the cargo areas of pickup trucks. Making people aware that children and pets are not cargo is the first step toward decreasing senseless injuries and deaths. PMID:10434968

  19. An Investigation of Natural Gas as a Substitute for Diesel in Heavy Duty Trucks and Associated Considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Muneer

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, applicability of natural gas fuel for transportation as compared to diesel is investigated. This study investigates a promising technology for the heavy duty truck sector of transportation as a target for conversion from diesel to natural gas. The supply of natural gas is limited so we also verify the available domestic supply quantities both before and after a fleet conversion. This paper concludes with an economic discussion regarding Javon's paradox and the fungibility of natural gas as compared to that of oil. In order to determine if natural gas can replace diesel for the country's heavy duty truck transportation needs, the energy equivalent and efficiency of natural gas alternatives should be compared to diesel. There are two alternatives for using natural gas as a replacement for diesel; compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas.

  20. Structure and agency in long-distance truck drivers' lived experiences of condom use for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Shaunak

    2016-01-01

    Condom promotion has emerged as a mainstay of targeted HIV prevention interventions in India, with its emphasis on individual behaviour change and personal responsibility. However, such approaches often do not account for marginalised populations' structural vulnerability to HIV, arising from social, economic and political factors in the lived environment. In this paper, I use a critical health communication framework to analyse how structure and agency interact in influencing condom use among long-distance truck drivers in India. Drawing on an abductive discourse analysis of condom-use discourses among truckers and peer educators in two Indian cities, findings reveal that while truckers understand the biomedical logic of condoms as barriers, they also express anxiety about condom breakage and experience structural barriers to condom use. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention to structural vulnerabilities in future HIV prevention efforts with truck drivers.

  1. Structure and agency in long-distance truck drivers' lived experiences of condom use for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Shaunak

    2016-01-01

    Condom promotion has emerged as a mainstay of targeted HIV prevention interventions in India, with its emphasis on individual behaviour change and personal responsibility. However, such approaches often do not account for marginalised populations' structural vulnerability to HIV, arising from social, economic and political factors in the lived environment. In this paper, I use a critical health communication framework to analyse how structure and agency interact in influencing condom use among long-distance truck drivers in India. Drawing on an abductive discourse analysis of condom-use discourses among truckers and peer educators in two Indian cities, findings reveal that while truckers understand the biomedical logic of condoms as barriers, they also express anxiety about condom breakage and experience structural barriers to condom use. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention to structural vulnerabilities in future HIV prevention efforts with truck drivers. PMID:26490032

  2. Quantitative feedback theory and zero phase error tracking control combined robust control for radar truck leveling simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING; Xuan; LI; Xiao-hui; ZHU; Yu-quan; FENG; Tian-lin

    2009-01-01

    Radar leveling system is the key equipment for improving the radar mobility and survival capability. A combined quantitative feedback theory(QFT)controller is designed for the radar truck leveling simulator in this paper, which suffers from strong nonlinearities and system parameter uncertainties. QFT can reduce the plant uncertainties and stabilize the system, but it fails to obtain high-precision tracking. This drawback can be solved by a robust QFT control scheme based on zero phase error tracking control(ZPETC)compensation. The combined controller not only possesses high robustness, but greatly improves the system performance. To verify the effectiveness and the potential of the proposed controller, a series of experiments have been carried out. Experimental results have demonstrated its robustness against a large range of parameters variation and high tracking precision performance, as well as its capability of restraining the load coupling among channels. The combined QFT controller can drive the radar truck leveling platform accurately, quickly and stably.

  3. REPORT on the TRUCK BRAKE LINING WORKSHOP and FLEET OPERATORS' SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.

    2003-02-03

    The report summarizes what transpired during brake linings-related workshop held at the Fall 2003 meeting of the Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) in Charlotte, NC. The title of the workshop was ''Developing a Useful Friction Material Rating System''. It was organized by a team consisting of Peter Blau (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Jim Britell (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), and Jim Lawrence (Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association). The workshop was held under the auspices of TMC Task Force S6 (Chassis), chaired by Joseph Stianche (Sanderson Farms, Inc.). Six invited speakers during the morning session provided varied perspectives on testing and rating aftermarket automotive and truck brake linings. They were: James R. Clark, Chief Engineer, Foundation Brakes and Wheel Equipment, Dana Corporation, Spicer Heavy Axle and Brake Division; Charles W. Greening, Jr, President, Greening Test Labs; Tim Duncan, General Manager, Link Testing Services;Dennis J. McNichol, President, Dennis NationaLease; Jim Fajerski, Business Manager, OE Sales and Applications Engineering, Federal Mogul Corporation; and Peter J. Blau, Senior Materials Development Engineer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The afternoon break-out sessions addressed nine questions concerning such issues as: ''Should the federal government regulate aftermarket lining quality?''; ''How many operators use RP 628, and if so, what's good or bad about it?''; and ''Would there be any value to you of a vocation-specific rating system?'' The opinions of each discussion group, consisting of 7-9 participants, were reported and consolidated in summary findings on each question. Some questions produced a greater degree of agreement than others. In general, the industry seems eager for more information that would allow those who are responsible for maintaining truck brakes to make better, more informed choices

  4. Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Cycling and Usage Analysis in a Heavy-Duty Truck Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pontus Svens; Mårten Behm; Göran Lindbergh

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results from a field test performed on commercial power-optimized lithium-ion battery cells cycled on three heavy-duty trucks. The goal with this study was to age battery cells in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) environment and find suitable methods for identifying cell ageing. The battery cells were cycled on in-house developed equipment intended for testing on conventional vehicles by emulating an HEV environment. A hybrid strategy that allows battery usage to vary with...

  5. Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Cycling and Usage Analysis in a Heavy-Duty Truck Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pontus Svens; Mårten Behm; Göran Lindbergh

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results from a field test performed on commercial power-optimized lithium-ion battery cells cycled on three heavy-duty trucks. The goal with this study was to age battery cells in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) environment and find suitable methods for identifying cell ageing. The battery cells were cycled on in-house developed equipment intended for testing on conventional vehicles by emulating an HEV environment. A hybrid strategy that allows battery usage to vary withi...

  6. Fairness and Freight-Handlers : Local Labor-Market Conditions and Wage-Fairness Perceptions in a Trucking Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoogen, Eric A; Burks, Stephen V.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws on evidence from an internal attitude survey in the freight-handling terminals of a unionized trucking firm to investigate the effect of local labor market conditions on employee wage-fairness perceptions. The key element of our research design is that local managers have no discretion to vary wage rates in response to local labor market conditions; local economic shocks thus generate exogenous variation in the attractiveness of the wage paid by the firm relative to employees...

  7. Study of Truck Driver Behavior at Onset of Yellow Traffic Signal Indication for the Design of Yellow Times

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Craig William

    2014-01-01

    Traffic signal violations by drivers are a leading contributor to crashes at signalized intersections. The yellow indication is used to inform drivers of an upcoming change in the status of the traffic signal. Yellow-interval durations are currently calculated to provide dilemma zone protection for passenger cars. Due to differences in vehicle characteristics and driver characteristics, heavy trucks such as tractor-trailers behave differently at the onset of a yellow-indication. The resea...

  8. Fate of the survivors of the 1995 and 1996 Arizona trucking migrations of costume-reared greater sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummert, D.P.; Ellis, D.H.; Chambers, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, we trained 2 groups of costume-reared greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) (10 in 1995, 14 in 1996) to follow a truck. Thereafter we led 10 in 1995 and 12 in 1996 from Garland Prairie, northern Arizona, to the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, southern Arizona (ca. 620 km). These techniques were being developed to create additional, disjunct populations of the whooping crane (G. americana). The cranes taught the migration route in 1995 did not follow the desired migration route in 1996 but did travel north 140 km along the route in spring 1997. By the summer of 1997, we did not know the locations of any of these birds. Results were better for the 1996 tracking cranes. Between 1997 and 1999 there was a 92% (11 of 12) success rate for the 1996 trucking cranes with known locations flying unassisted from the summering to wintering grounds. Through 1999, 7 of the 12 cranes became lost on flights from the wintering to summering grounds. (Some of the trucking cranes apparently followed wild cranes to or toward breeding grounds.)

  9. Minimization of Delay and Travel Time of Yard Trucks in Container Terminals Using an Improved GA with Guidance Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. X. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yard truck scheduling and storage allocation problems (YTS-SAP are two important issues that influence the efficiency of a container terminal. These two problems aim to determine the routing of trucks and proper storage locations for discharging containers from incoming vessels. This paper integrates YTS and SAP as a whole and tries to minimize the weighted summation of total delay and total yard trucks travel time. A genetic algorithm (GA is proposed to deal with the problem. In the proposed GA, guidance mutation approach and exhaustive heuristic for local searching are used in order to force the GA to converge faster and be steadier. To test the performance of the proposed GA, both small scale and large scale cases are studied. The results of these cases are compared with CPLEX for the small scale cases. Since this problem is an NP-hard problem, which CPLEX cannot solve, a simple GA is studied for comparison in large scale cases. The comparison demonstrates that the proposed GA can obtain near optimal solutions in much shorter computational time for small scale cases. In addition, the proposed GA can obtain better results than other methods in reasonable time for large scale cases.

  10. 一种电动辊道输送车%One Type of Electric Roller Conveyor Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝洲杰; 吴锂力

    2015-01-01

    Based on the accurate judgment of warehousing market and combined with the actual needs of customers,designed a new type of electric roller conveyor truck. This paper introduces the technical characteristics and performance characteristics of this truck , elaborates the structure. This truck provides a good solution to solve the actual problems in some working conditions.%通过对仓储物流细分市场的准确判断,结合客户的实际需求,研制了全电动辊道输送车。本文介绍了该车型的主要技术特点和性能特点,详细阐述了其结构实现方式和工作原理。该车型为解决某些工况环境下的实际问题提供了良好的解决方案。

  11. Estimation of Truck Trips on Large-Scale Irrigation Project: A Combinatory Input-Output Commodity-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the agricultural-based countries, the requirement on transportation infrastructure should not only be limited to accommodate general traffic but also the transportation of crop and agricultural products during the harvest seasons. Most of the past researches focus on the development of truck trip estimation techniques for urban, statewide, or nationwide freight movement but neglect the importance of rural freight movement which contributes to pavement deterioration on rural roads especially during harvest seasons. Recently, the Thai Government initiated a plan to construct a network of reservoirs within the northeastern region, aiming at improving existing irrigation system particularly in the areas where a more effective irrigation system is needed. It is expected to bring in new opportunities on expanding the cultivation areas, increasing the economy of scale and enlarging the extent market of area. As a consequence, its effects on truck trip generation needed to be investigated to assure the service quality of related transportation infrastructure. This paper proposes a combinatory input-output commodity-based approach to estimate truck trips on rural highway infrastructure network. The large-scale irrigation project for the northeastern of Thailand is demonstrated as a case study.

  12. Availability-based simulation and optimization modeling framework for open-pit mine truck allocation under dynamic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mena Rodrigo; Zio Enrico; Kristjanpoller Fredy; Arata Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel system productivity simulation and optimization modeling framework in which equipment availability is a variable in the expected productivity function of the system.The framework is used for allocating trucks by route according to their operating performances in a truck-shovel system of an open-pit mine,so as to maximize the overall productivity of the fleet.We implement the framework in an originally designed and specifically developed simulator-optimizer software tool.We make an application on a real open-pit mine case study taking into account the stochasticity of the equipment behavior and environment.The total system production values obtained with and without considering the equipment reliability,availability and maintainability (RAM) characteristics are compared.We show that by taking into account the truck and shovel RAM aspects,we can maximize the total production of the system and obtain specific information on the production availability and productivity of its components.

  13. Optimal Sizing and Control Strategy Design for Heavy Hybrid Electric Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the hybrid powertrain, the control is highly involved to improve the collaborations of the different components. For the specific powertrain, the components' sizing just gives the possibility to propel the vehicle and the control will realize the function of the propulsion. Definitely the components' sizing also gives the constraints to the control design, which cause a close coupling between the sizing and control strategy design. This paper presents a parametric study focused on sizing of the powertrain components and optimization of the power split between the engine and electric motor for minimizing the fuel consumption. A framework is put forward to accomplish the optimal sizing and control design for a heavy parallel pre-AMT hybrid truck under the natural driving schedule. The iterative plant-controller combined optimization methodology is adopted to optimize the key parameters of the plant and control strategy simultaneously. A scalable powertrain model based on a bilevel optimization framework is built. Dynamic programming is applied to find the optimal control in the inner loop with a prescribed cycle. The parameters are optimized in the outer loop. The results are analysed and the optimal sizing and control strategy are achieved simultaneously.

  14. Simulations of Multi Combustion Modes Hydrogen Engines for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the numerical study of a diesel direct injection heavy duty truck engine converted to hydrogen. The engine has a power turbine connected through a clutch and a continuously variable transmission to the crankshaft. The power turbine may be disconnected and by-passed when it is inefficient or inconvenient to use. The conversion is obtained by replacing the Diesel injector with a hydrogen injector and the glow plug with a jet ignition device. The hydrogen engine operates different modes of combustion depending on the relative phasing of the main injection and the jet ignition. The engine generally operates mostly in Diesel-like mode, with the most part of the main injection following the suitable creation in cylinder conditions by jet ignition. For medium-low loads, better efficienciy is obtained with the gasoline-like mode jet igniting the premixed homogeneous mixture at top dead centre. It’s permitted at higher loads or at very low loads for the excessive peak pressure or the mixture too lean to burn rapidly. The hydrogen engine has better efficiency than Diesel outputs and fuel conversion. Thanks to the larger rate of heat release, it has the opportunity to run closer to stoichiometry and the multi mode capabilities. The critical area for this engine development is found in the design of a hydrogen injector delivering the amount of fuel needed to the large volume cylinder within a Diesel-like injection time.

  15. Weldability of 780 MPa Super-High Strength Heavy-Duty Truck Crossbeam Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-nan; DI Hong-shuang; ZHANG Chit; DU Lin-xiu; DONG Xue-xir

    2012-01-01

    CO2-shielded welding experiments of newly developed, 780 MPa super-high strength heavy-duty truck crossbeam steel were conducted, and the microstructure, microhardness, mechanical properties, and impact tough- hess of the welded joint were studied. The evolution of the microstructure of the welded joint occurred as follows.. welding seam (acicular ferrite+proeutectoid ferrite)→fusion zone (granular bainite-long strip M/A island)→coarse grain zone (granular bainite-long strip or short bar M/A island)→fine grain zone (ferrite+ pearlite+ blocky M/A is- land)→mixed grained zone (ferrite+granular bainite+blocky M/A island)→base metal (proeutectoid ferrite+gran- ular bainite-hlocky or granular M/A island). Increasing the density of the grain boundaries can effectively improve the impact toughness, and the blocky M/A island hindered crack propagation more effectively than the long strip M/A island. The new hot-rolled 780 MPa super-high strength steel had excellent weldability. The welding technology was applied under the following conditions: welding voltage was 20 to 21 V, welding current was 200 to 210 A, and the gas flow rate was 25 L/rain.

  16. The Detroit Diesel DELTA Engine for Light Trucks and SUVs - Year 2000 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabil S. Hakim; Charles E. Freese; Stanley P. Miller

    2000-06-19

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) is developing the DELTA 4.0L V6 engine, specifically for the North American light truck market. This market poses unique requirements for a diesel engine, necessitating a clean sheet engine design. DELTA was developed from a clean sheet of paper, with the first engine firing just 228 days later. The process began with a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis, which prioritized the development criteria. The development process integrated a co-located, fully cross-functional team. Suppliers were fully integrated and maintained on-site representation. The first demonstration vehicle moved under its own power 12 weeks after the first engine fired. It was demonstrated to the automotive press 18 days later. DELTA has repeatedly demonstrated its ability to disprove historical North American diesel perceptions and compete directly with gasoline engines. This paper outlines the Generation 0.0 development process and briefly defines the engine. A brief indication of the Generation 0.5 development status is given.

  17. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1997-06-30

    This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  18. Multi-agent-based Fuzzy Dispatching for Trucks at Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available At container terminals, containers are transported from the marshalling yard to the quay and vice versa by Container Trucks (CTs. This study discusses how to dispatch CTs by utilizing information about pickup and delivery locations and time in future delivery tasks based on dynamic dispatching strategy in which multiple tasks are matched with multiple CTs. n this paper, Multi-agent system (MAS is used as the basis for an intelligent dispatch system. To aim at that the characteristic of management of container terminal is how to optimize resource of terminal, the trends of decision-making way for management of container terminal, research and application of Multi-Agent system is summarized. Relationship between transport tasks and service of CTS has been taken as a contract net using the fuzzy set theory and method. Considering the load of communication and consultation efficiency in system, the bidirectional negotiation mechanism is adopted. The dispatching model based on Contract Network Protocol (CNP using bidirectional negotiation is provided for assigning optimal delivery tasks to CTs and fuzzy reasoning process of dispatching decisions is suggested. The method has both virtues of precision of static planning and flexibility of CNP and has been confirmed by cases.

  19. Ocular parameters as an objective tool for the assessment of truck drivers fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, Yair; Barkana, Yaniv; Zadok, David; Hartstein, Morris; Pras, Eran; Bar-Dayan, Yosefa

    2009-07-01

    Ocular parameters are influenced by sleep derivation and the use of chemical substances which are two major causes for traffic accidents. We assessed the use of these parameters as an objective screening tool for a driver's fitness for duty. Pupillary diameter, pupil reaction to light and saccadic velocity were measured in 29 army truck drivers every morning for two months and compared to baseline measurements taken while the subjects were alert. An index which expressed the difference between study and baseline measurements was calculated, and drivers with significant deviation from baseline were disqualified and interviewed. Non-disqualified drivers served as controls. Twenty-nine percent of disqualified drivers reported sleeping less than the minimum of 7h required by army regulations compared with 8% of control drivers (p=0.01). Disqualified drivers had worse sleep quality the night before the test (Groningen Sleep Quality Scale, p=0.03) and incurred more accidents per driving day during their service (0.023 vs. 0.015 accidents/day, p=0.03). Two disqualified drivers admitted to using alcohol or sleeping pills. Thus, these ocular parameters may serve as a screening tool for drivers that are at high risk for driving. Drivers who were disqualified even once, tend to be involved in more motor vehicle accidents than their peers. PMID:19540976

  20. Analysis of the Lateral Stability of a Truck on the NRC Curved Track Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dukkipati Rao V.

    1994-01-01

    The development of experimental facilities for rail vehicle testing at the NRC Centre for Surface Transportation Technology is being complemented by analytic studies. The purpose of this effort has been to gain insight into the dynamics of rail vehicles in order to guide the development of the Curved Track Simulator (CTS) and to establish an analytic framework for the design and interpretation of tests to be conducted on the CTS. The work described here represents an initial effort towards meeting these objectives.Parametric study results using linear model of freight truck on the CTS showed that (a) increasing roller radius increases critical speed (b) increasing the wheel initial cone angle will decrease the hunting speed (c) increasing the roller cant increases hunting speed (d) decrowning of the wheelset on the rollers will not effect the hunting speed but induces longitudinal destabilzing horizontal forces at the contact and (e) lozenging of wheelset on the rollers induces a yaw moment and the hunting speed decreases with increasing wheelset yaw angle.

  1. The Detroit Diesel DELTA Engine for Light Trucks and SUVs - Year 2000 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) is developing the DELTA 4.0L V6 engine, specifically for the North American light truck market. This market poses unique requirements for a diesel engine, necessitating a clean sheet engine design. DELTA was developed from a clean sheet of paper, with the first engine firing just 228 days later. The process began with a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis, which prioritized the development criteria. The development process integrated a co-located, fully cross-functional team. Suppliers were fully integrated and maintained on-site representation. The first demonstration vehicle moved under its own power 12 weeks after the first engine fired. It was demonstrated to the automotive press 18 days later. DELTA has repeatedly demonstrated its ability to disprove historical North American diesel perceptions and compete directly with gasoline engines. This paper outlines the Generation 0.0 development process and briefly defines the engine. A brief indication of the Generation 0.5 development status is given

  2. VULNERABILITY TO ACQUISITION OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN PROFESSIONAL TRUCK DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Jonas Rauber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The truckers live in constant geographical displacement and have a lifestyle itself, which seems to facilitate the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and this factor precludes the articulation of health policies. Thus the aim of this is the vulnerability of truckers Evidence sexually transmitted diseases and the influence of the profession as a risk factor for acquiring these diseases. This is a qualitative study, conducted with three truckers on the banks of the BR 163, in the urban area of the municipality of Sinop in Mato Grosso, the data collection was conducted through semi-structured interview, and the speeches were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed by the method of content analysis. This study has a favorable ethical opinion by the Committee for Ethics and Research of the University Hospital Julio Muller. The results suggested that the profession of truck driver is susceptible to the individual to acquire STDs, since it remains for long hours away from their homes and live in a way that fosters sexual practices with casual partners and unprotected.

  3. Experimental and computational studies of active flow control on a model truck-trailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanmiri Mohsen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Active flow control is probably the most challenging research area in vehicle aerodynamics. Being able to manipulate a flow field in order to achieve desired results beneficial to engineering is the only way to meet today’s demands for competitive and efficient solutions in the automotive industry. The current work studies the flow control on a semi detailed model truck by using detached-eddy simulations and wind tunnel experiments aiming at reducing the aerodynamic drag. This study combines both passive and active flow control applied on the rear end of the trailer. An indigenous fluidic actuator (loudspeaker in cavity with slots is used as a synthetic jet in the experiment. Both experiments and computations demonstrate that the active flow control works successfully and results in flow reattachment to the flaps. The numerical simulations show that the drag coefficient, CD decreased by 3.9% when AFC was activated compared to the baseline case without flaps. The corresponding decrease when AFC was deactivated (with flaps was only 0.7%. The experimental results show a decrease of CD by 3.1% for the case with activated AFC compared to the baseline case. When AFC was deactivated the corresponding decrease in CD was 1.8%. A detailed flow analysis made in computations and experiments is used to explain these results.

  4. Weight Control Intervention for Truck Drivers: The SHIFT Randomized Controlled Trial, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Brad; Thompson, Sharon V.; Elliot, Diane L.; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Hammer, Leslie B.; Perrin, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Safety and Health Involvement For Truckers (SHIFT) intervention with a randomized controlled design. Methods. The multicomponent intervention was a weight-loss competition supported with body weight and behavioral self-monitoring, computer-based training, and motivational interviewing. We evaluated intervention effectiveness with a cluster-randomized design involving 22 terminals from 5 companies in the United States in 2012 to 2014. Companies were required to provide interstate transportation services and operate at least 2 larger terminals. We randomly assigned terminals to intervention or usual practice control conditions. We assessed participating drivers (n = 452) at baseline and 6 months. Results. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the postintervention difference between groups in mean body mass index change was 1.00 kilograms per meters squared (P fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Conclusions. Results establish the effectiveness of a multicomponent and remotely administered intervention for producing significant weight loss among commercial truck drivers. PMID:27463067

  5. Dynamic Vibration Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Truck Transmission Gearbox Housing Using FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this original research article is to study the loose fixture mounting affect of heavy vehicle transmission gearbox housing. The studies were completed in three phases. In first phase the aim was to find the actual suitable boundary condition. After finding the boundary condition in second phase the fixture bolts were loosened to monitor the affect of looseness and in third phase the positional looseness based study were completed. The looseness of transmission housing causes heavy vibration and noise. In order to prevent this noise and vibration the transmission housing is tightly mounted on the chassis frame using bolts. In our design transmission housing is constraint on chassis frame using 37 bolts. Truck transmission system determines the level of noise together with the chassis, engine and bodywork. Vehicle transmissions under torsional vibration condition caused rattling and clattering noises. Reciprocity Principle was used to determine the failure frequencies for transmission housing. In reciprocity principle gear and shafts are suppressed and all the forces transmitted through the bearings are applied on the empty housing. FEA based ANSYS 14.5 has been used as analysis tool. The free vibration frequency for zero displacement condition varies from 1669 Hz to 2865 Hz and for loose transmission casing frequency varies from 1311 Hz to 3110 Hz. The analysis have theoretical and practical aspects and useful for transmission housing structure optimization.

  6. State Estimation of the Electric Drive Articulated Dump Truck Based on UKF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Jin; Tong Liu; Yanhua Shen

    2015-01-01

    The requirements of vehicle dynamic stability control are higher than ever as the significant increase of electric drive articulated vehicle speed. According to the construction features of articulated dumping truck and nonlinear characteristics of moving vehicles, nonlinear observer of vehicle status is designed to strength robustness of dynamic control system in this paper. A 4⁃degree⁃of⁃freedom nonlinear dynamic model of articulated electric drive vehicle is built as reference model to estimate the state of the articulated vehicle. And by adopting Unscented Kalman Filter ( UKF ) algorithm, a series of state parameters such as longitudinal velocities of front and rear frames, yaw rate and side⁃slip angle are estimated. During the test of 60 t articulated electric drive vehicle, 2 inertial navigation modules are installed in the front frame and rear frame respectively and the speed of each electric drive wheel is obtained simultaneously. As the test results suggest, in various working conditions, the algorithm based on UKF is able to accurately estimate the state parameters of articulated vehicle with the estimated error less than 5%. The proposed method is justified to be the theoretical basis and application guidance for articulated vehicle stability control.

  7. Healthcare Programmes for Truck Drivers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Tresha Lalla-Edward

    Full Text Available Truck drivers have unique health needs, and by virtue of their continuous travel, experience difficulty in accessing healthcare. Currently, planning for effective care is hindered by lack of knowledge about their health needs and about the impact of on-going programmes on this population's health outcomes. We reviewed healthcare programmes implemented for sub-Saharan African truck drivers, assessed the evaluation methods, and examined impact on health outcomes.We searched scientific and institutional databases, and online search engines to include all publications describing a healthcare programme in sub-Saharan Africa where the main clients were truck drivers. We consulted experts and organisations working with mobile populations to identify unpublished reports. Forest plots of impact and outcome indicators with unadjusted risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were created to map the impact of these programmes. We performed a subgroup analysis by type of indicator using a random-effects model to assess between-study heterogeneity. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to examine both the summary effect estimate chosen (risk difference vs. risk ratio and model to summarise results (fixed vs. random effects.Thirty-seven publications describing 22 healthcare programmes across 30 countries were included from 5,599 unique records. All programmes had an HIV-prevention focus with only three expanding their services to cover conditions other primary healthcare services. Twelve programmes were evaluated and most evaluations assessed changes in input, output, and outcome indicators. Absence of comparison groups, preventing attribution of the effect observed to the programme and lack of biologically confirmed outcomes were the main limitations. Four programmes estimated a quantitative change in HIV prevalence or reported STI incidence, with mixed results, and one provided anecdotal evidence of changes in AIDS-related mortality and social norms. Most

  8. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    The project objective was to further assist in the commercialization of fuel cell and H2 technology by building further upon the successful fuel cell lift truck deployments that were executed by LiftOne in 2007, with longer deployments of this technology in real-world applications. We involved facilities management, operators, maintenance personnel, safety groups, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction. LiftOne strived to educate a broad group from many areas of industry and the community as to the benefits of this technology. Included were First Responders from the local areas. We conducted month long deployments with end-users to validate the value proposition and the market requirements for fuel cell powered lift trucks. Management, lift truck operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction and the general public experienced 'hands on' fuel cell experience in the material handling applications. We partnered with Hydrogenics in the execution of the deployment segment of the program. Air Products supplied the compressed H2 gas and the mobile fueler. Data from the Fuel Cell Power Packs and the mobile fueler was sent to the DOE and NREL as required. Also, LiftOne conducted the H2 Education Seminars on a rotating basis at their locations for lift trucks users and for other selected segments of the community over the project's 36 month duration. Executive Summary The technology employed during the deployments program was not new, as the equipment had been used in several previous demos and early adoptions within the material handling industry. This was the case with the new HyPx Series PEM - Fuel Cell Power Packs used, which had been demo'd before during the 2007 Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge. The Air Products HF-150 Fueler was used outdoors during the deployments and had similarly been used for many previous demo programs. The methods used centered on providing this technology as the power for electric sit-down lift trucks at high profile companies

  9. Characterization of the chemical composition of PM2.5 emitted from on-road China III and China IV diesel trucks in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bobo; Shen, Xianbao; Cao, Xinyue; Yao, Zhiliang; Wu, Yunong

    2016-05-01

    The composition of diesel exhaust fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is of growing interest because of its impacts on health and climatic factors and its application in source apportionment and aerosol modeling. We characterized the detailed chemical composition of the PM2.5, including the organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions (WSIs), and elemental contents, emitted from China III and China IV diesel trucks (nine each) based on real-world measurements in Beijing using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Carbonaceous compounds were the dominant components (totaling approximately 87%) of the PM2.5, similar to the results (greater than 80% of the PM2.5) of our previous study of on-road China III diesel trucks. In general, the amounts of individual component groups (carbonaceous compounds, WSIs, and elements) and PM2.5 emissions for China IV diesel trucks were lower than those of China III diesel trucks of the same size, except for the WSIs and elements for the light- and medium-duty diesel trucks. The EC/OC mass ratios were strongly dependent on the emission standards, and the ratios of China IV diesel trucks were higher than those of China III diesel trucks of the same size. The chemical species in the PM2.5 were significantly affected by the driving conditions. Overall, the emission factors (EFs) of the PM2.5 and OC under non-highway (NHW) driving conditions were higher than those under highway (HW) driving conditions, and the EC/OC mass ratios presented an increasing trend, with decreasing OC/PM2.5 and increasing EC/PM2.5 from NHW to HW driving conditions; similar trends were reported in our previous study. In addition, Pearson's correlation coefficients among the PM2.5 species were analyzed to determine the relationships among the various chemical components. PMID:26897401

  10. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List (SEL)(LMHC 1998)

  11. MODAL ANALYSIS OF HEAVY VEHICLE TRUCK TRANSMISSION GEARBOX HOUSING MADE FROM DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHWANI KUMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy vehicle truck transmission gearbox housing is subjected to load fluctuations, harmonic excitation, gear meshing excitation, gear defects, varying speed and torque conditions. Transmission errors and internal excitations are the root cause of vibration and noise. The main objective of this research work is weight calculation and modal analysis of gearbox housing. For weight calculation four different materials have been selected, apart from weight calculation the material mechanical properties influence on natural frequency and mode shape of transmission gearbox housing was also simulated using modal analysis. Grey cast iron FG260, Grey cast iron HT200, structural steel and Al alloys are the four materials used for the weight calculation process. Zero displacement constraint based boundary condition was applied for simulation. FEA based numerical simulation method was used to find the natural frequency, mode shapes and weight calculation of housing. The FEA simulation results show that the natural frequency of all materials varies (1669-4655 Hz. In weight calculation the weight of Al alloys housing is minimum (21.102 kg.The housing weight of Grey cast iron HT200 and FG260 is same, 54.85 kg. The density of structural steel is high, which increases the weight of housing as 59.80 kg. The modal analysis results show the lateral vibration, axial bending vibration, torsional vibration, and axial bending with torsional vibration. The vibration signature patterns for first twenty modes were studied for four different materials. Solid Edge and Pro-E software have good feature suited for complex geometric modeling. FEA based software Ansys 14.5 is used for modal analysis. The result of this research work has been verified with experimental result available in literature.

  12. Using three-phase theory-based formative research to explore healthy eating in Australian truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayro, Caitlin; Hamilton, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    In Australia, fruit and vegetable consumption is lower than recommended while discretionary foods (i.e., foods high in fat, sugar, and salt) are eaten in excess. Long-haul truck drivers are a group at risk of unhealthy eating but have received limited attention in the health literature. We aimed to examine long-haul truck drivers eating decisions in order to develop theory-based and empirically-driven health messages to improve their healthy food choices. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior, three-phased formative research was conducted using self-report surveys. Phase 1 (N = 30, Mage = 39.53, SDage = 10.72) identified modal salient beliefs about fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and limiting discretionary choices (DC). There were nine behavioral and seven normative beliefs elicited for both FV and DC; while nine and five control beliefs were elicited for FV and DC, respectively. Phase 2 (N = 148, Mage = 44.23, SDage = 12.08) adopted a prospective design with one week follow-up to examine the predictors of FV and DC intention and behavior. A variety of behavioral and control beliefs were predictive of FV and DC intention and behavior. Normative beliefs were predictive of FV intention and behavior and DC intention only. Phase 3 (N = 20, Mage = 46.9, SDage = 12.85) elicited the reasons why each belief is held/solutions to negative beliefs, that could be used as health messages. In total, 40 reasons/solutions were identified: 26 for FV and 14 for DC. In summary, we found that specific behavioral, normative and control beliefs influenced FV and DC eating decisions. These results have implications for truck driver's health and provide formative research to inform future interventions to improve the food choices of a unique group who are at risk of unhealthy eating behaviors. PMID:26710674

  13. Effects of particulate matter exposure on blood 5-hydroxymethylation: results from the Beijing truck driver air pollution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Zheng, Yinan; Osorio-Yanez, Citlalli; Zhong, Jia; Chervona, Yana; Wang, Sheng; Chang, Dou; McCracken, John P; Díaz, Anaite; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Koutrakis, Petros; Kang, Choong-Min; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Byun, Hyang-Min; Schwartz, Joel; Hou, Lifang; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported epigenetic changes induced by environmental exposures. However, previous investigations did not distinguish 5-methylcytosine (5mC) from a similar oxidative form with opposite functions, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we measured blood DNA global 5mC and 5hmC by ELISA and used adjusted mixed-effects regression models to evaluate the effects of ambient PM10 and personal PM2.5 and its elemental components-black carbon (BC), aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), iron (Fe), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), and zinc (Zn)-on blood global 5mC and 5hmC levels. The study was conducted in 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers in Beijing, China from The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study at 2 exams separated by one to 2 weeks. Blood 5hmC level (0.08%) was ∼83-fold lower than 5mC (6.61%). An inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in same-day PM10 was associated with increases in 5hmC of 26.1% in office workers (P = 0.004), 20.2% in truck drivers (P = 0.014), and 21.9% in all participants combined (P 0.05). 5mC showed no correlations with PM10, PM2.5, and elemental components measures (FWER > 0.05). Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM10 affects 5hmC over time, but not 5mC. This finding demonstrates the need to differentiate 5hmC and 5mC in environmental studies of DNA methylation.

  14. Evaluation of Style Design of Miniature Trucks%微型卡车造型设计评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海荣; 卜令国

    2012-01-01

      Miniature truck carries smaller tonnage and belongs to commercial vehicles. To improve the feasibility and effectiveness of mini truck’s design, quantifiable evaluation method should be used during the evaluation of design plan. This article analyzes the measured length of the observation time for each design by eye tracking experiment, applies questionnaire into the miniature truck design evaluation process, and evaluates design plans by means of scores. Finally, a combination of measured length of the observation time by eye tracking experiment and scores of each plan from questionnaire is used to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of design plans. The best plan can be selected to provide constructive guidance for miniature truck design.%  微型卡车是载重吨位较小的卡车,属于商用车范围。为了提高微型卡车设计方案的可行性和有效性,应采用可量化的评价方法对其设计进行检验。通过眼动实验法,分析比较被测者对各设计方案观测时间的长度,同时把问卷调查法应用于微型卡车的设计评价中,采用打分的方法对设计方案进行评价。再将眼动实验法得到的观测时间长度和问卷调查法获取的评分相结合,以验证设计方案的可行性与有效性,从而筛选出最佳设计方案,为微型卡车设计提供建设性的参考指导。

  15. Using three-phase theory-based formative research to explore healthy eating in Australian truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayro, Caitlin; Hamilton, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    In Australia, fruit and vegetable consumption is lower than recommended while discretionary foods (i.e., foods high in fat, sugar, and salt) are eaten in excess. Long-haul truck drivers are a group at risk of unhealthy eating but have received limited attention in the health literature. We aimed to examine long-haul truck drivers eating decisions in order to develop theory-based and empirically-driven health messages to improve their healthy food choices. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior, three-phased formative research was conducted using self-report surveys. Phase 1 (N = 30, Mage = 39.53, SDage = 10.72) identified modal salient beliefs about fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and limiting discretionary choices (DC). There were nine behavioral and seven normative beliefs elicited for both FV and DC; while nine and five control beliefs were elicited for FV and DC, respectively. Phase 2 (N = 148, Mage = 44.23, SDage = 12.08) adopted a prospective design with one week follow-up to examine the predictors of FV and DC intention and behavior. A variety of behavioral and control beliefs were predictive of FV and DC intention and behavior. Normative beliefs were predictive of FV intention and behavior and DC intention only. Phase 3 (N = 20, Mage = 46.9, SDage = 12.85) elicited the reasons why each belief is held/solutions to negative beliefs, that could be used as health messages. In total, 40 reasons/solutions were identified: 26 for FV and 14 for DC. In summary, we found that specific behavioral, normative and control beliefs influenced FV and DC eating decisions. These results have implications for truck driver's health and provide formative research to inform future interventions to improve the food choices of a unique group who are at risk of unhealthy eating behaviors.

  16. Real-world energy use and emission rates for idling long-haul trucks and selected idle reduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao

    2009-07-01

    Long-haul freight trucks typically idle for 2000 or more hours per year, motivating interest in reducing idle fuel use and emissions using auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Fuel-use rates are estimated based on electronic control unit (ECU) data for truck engines and measurements for APU engines. Engine emission factors were measured using a portable emission measurement system. Indirect emissions from SP were based on average utility grid emission factors. Base engine fuel use and APU and SP electrical load were analyzed for 20 trucks monitored for more than 1 yr during 2.76 million mi of activity within 42 U.S. states. The average base engine fuel use varied from 0.46 to 0.65 gal/hr. The average APU fuel use varied from 0.24 to 0.41 gal/hr. Fuel-use rates are typically lowest in mild weather, highest in hot or cold weather, and depend on engine speed (revolutions per minute [RPM]). Compared with the base engine, APU fuel use and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are lower by 36-47%. Oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions are lower by 80-90%. Reductions in particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbon emissions vary from approximately 10 to over 50%. SP leads to more substantial reductions, except for SO2. The actual achievable reductions will be lower because only a fraction of base engine usage will be replaced by APUs, SP, or both. Recommendations are made for reducing base engine fuel use and emissions, accounting for variability in fuel use and emissions reductions, and further work to quantify real-world avoided fuel use and emissions.

  17. Real-world energy use and emission rates for idling long-haul trucks and selected idle reduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao

    2009-07-01

    Long-haul freight trucks typically idle for 2000 or more hours per year, motivating interest in reducing idle fuel use and emissions using auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Fuel-use rates are estimated based on electronic control unit (ECU) data for truck engines and measurements for APU engines. Engine emission factors were measured using a portable emission measurement system. Indirect emissions from SP were based on average utility grid emission factors. Base engine fuel use and APU and SP electrical load were analyzed for 20 trucks monitored for more than 1 yr during 2.76 million mi of activity within 42 U.S. states. The average base engine fuel use varied from 0.46 to 0.65 gal/hr. The average APU fuel use varied from 0.24 to 0.41 gal/hr. Fuel-use rates are typically lowest in mild weather, highest in hot or cold weather, and depend on engine speed (revolutions per minute [RPM]). Compared with the base engine, APU fuel use and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are lower by 36-47%. Oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions are lower by 80-90%. Reductions in particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbon emissions vary from approximately 10 to over 50%. SP leads to more substantial reductions, except for SO2. The actual achievable reductions will be lower because only a fraction of base engine usage will be replaced by APUs, SP, or both. Recommendations are made for reducing base engine fuel use and emissions, accounting for variability in fuel use and emissions reductions, and further work to quantify real-world avoided fuel use and emissions. PMID:19645270

  18. 一种新型吸粪车放粪装置%A New Suction Truck Defecation Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张沐林

    2012-01-01

    针对传统吸粪车放粪装置存在的问题,介绍一种新型放粪装置,该放粪装置通过气缸驱动摇柄连杆机构,实现打开和关闭功能,从而使粪便从罐体的尾部排放。%For the problems of traditional suction truck defecation device, a new type of defecation device was introduced. Through crank connecting rod mechanism, the funtion of open/stop of defecation device can be fulfilled, which facilitate the rear diachaging.

  19. Team development and team performance. Responsibilities, responsiveness and results: A longitudinal study of teamwork at Volvo Trucks Umeå

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, B.

    2005-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study of more than 150 self-managing work teams was carried out at Volvo Trucks Umea, Sweden. Data obtained by this study were used to test a model about the performance effects of team development, answering the following research questions: (1) how can the team developmental processes be described; (2) what are their effects on business performance as well as on quality of working life; and (3) what are the management structure’s inputs that generate team responsiv...

  20. DOE's Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag-Joint Experiments and Computations Lead to Smart Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Roy, C; Pointer, W; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatalain, P; Englar, R; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Storms, B

    2004-06-17

    At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the 'smart' design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.

  1. Correlates of STI symptoms among female sex workers with truck driver clients in two Mexican border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Nadine E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSW are at increased risk for HIV and other STI due to occupation-related risks and exposures. Long-distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV, but less is known about HIV/STI risks of FSW servicing truck drivers, especially in North America. As part of an international collaborative pilot study, we interviewed FSWs servicing truck driver clients along two major transportation corridors to explore factors associated with recent STI symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study of 200 FSW was conducted in Mexico: 100 from Nuevo Laredo (U.S. border; 100 from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border. Eligibility criteria included age ≥18 years, speaking English or Spanish, and having ≥1 truck driver client in the past month. The main outcome was reporting any recent STI symptoms, defined as experiencing genital/anal warts, genital ulcers/sores, genital itching, or abnormal vaginal discharge in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of recent STI symptoms. Results Median age of FSW was 29 years, 74% were single, 87% had th grade education, and median income was 4000 pesos/month ($300 USD. Sex work occurred at a bar/cantina for 70%. One-quarter had never been tested for HIV, 53% reported lifetime drug use, 22% reported drinking alcohol before/during transactional sex and 17% reported recent STI symptoms. After controlling for age and study site, factors associated with STI symptoms were lifetime drug use (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-6.9, drug use before/during sex (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.1, alcohol use before/during sex (AOR 5.2, 95% CI 2.2, 12.6, forced sex ever (AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.1, lifetime history of arrest (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.0, and being surveyed in Nuevo Laredo rather than Ciudad Hidalgo (AOR 4.8, 95% CI 2.0-10.0. Conclusions The associations we observed between recent STI symptoms and drug and alcohol use suggest that interventions are needed that promote

  2. RENOTER project. Waste heat recovery on passenger car and heavy-duty truck diesel engine thanks to thermoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aixala, Luc [Renault Trucks SAS, Saint-Priest (France); Monnet, Veronique [Valeo Systemes Thermiques, Le Mesnil-Saint-Denis (France)

    2011-07-01

    In order to cope with increasing oil prices and upcoming CO{sub 2} regulations, truck and car manufacturers are looking for vehicle efficiency improvements. As most of them are powered today by internal combustion engines, they have fuel-to-shaft efficiency of 20 to 40%, which means that a huge part of the fuel energy is dissipated as heat. With recent improvements in thermoelectric materials, we are getting closer to the break-event point, where this technology could be profitable at automotive scale. (orig.)

  3.  Reducing Marine Container Terminal Gate Congestion with Vessel-Dependent Time Windows For Truck Entries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen; Jiang, Liping

    In recent years, marine container terminal gate congestion has become a serious issue, because it not only limits the efficiency of the logistics system but also generates serious air pollution. The direct reason has been recognized to be the unmanaged container truck arrivals. One of the possible...... and the heuristic of genetic algorithm is improved to be more efficient. Then two optimization strategies are proposed namely fixed end-point time window (FEP) and variable end-point time window (VEP). To compare the effectiveness of two strategies, the optimization model and the heuristic are applied to some tests...

  4. Injuries suffered by dogs from riding in the back of open pickup trucks: a retrospective review of seventy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, D M; Fries, C L; Alcorn, M J; Thomas, S S

    1995-08-01

    Case records of 70 dogs injured while riding in the back of open pickup trucks during the period January 1, 1982, to May 1, 1993, were reviewed. Most dogs were young (mean age 2.4 y) and of medium to large size (average weight 22.6 kg). Sixty-five dogs (93%) were injured during the months of April through October. Forty-nine dogs (70%) had single injuries and 21 dogs (30%) sustained multiple injuries. Fractures were the most frequent injury incurred, with fractures of the femur the most common. Surgical repair was recommended in all but 2 cases. PMID:7585438

  5. STRENGTH INCREASE METHODS OF THE SIDE FRAME OF THE BOGIE IN THREE–PIECE TRUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Reidemeister

    2015-08-01

    amplifications combinations in design of the side frame that let significantly increase its strength without a significant increase in weight is presented by scientists. Practical value. Obtained results give the possibility to increase significantly the strength of the side frame in the three-piece truck without any noticeable change in its geometrical and mass characteristics.

  6. Long-Run Diversion Effects of Changes in Truck Size and Weight (TS&W) Restrictions: An Update of the 1980 Friedlaender Spady Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the effect that revised truck size and weight (TS&W) restrictions would have on competitive rail-truck markets in the United States. The analysis is based on a classic study of the intercity freight markets that Ann Friedlaender and Richard Spady (FS) published in the Review of Economics and Statistics in 1980.1 The FS study provided a macro-level perspective on the freight markets by focusing on transportation decisions in key industrial sectors—fo...

  7. Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) Project: Tractive Energy Analysis Methodology and Results from Long-Haul Truck Drive Cycle Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaClair, Tim J [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    This report addresses the approach that will be used in the Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) project to evaluate the fuel savings potential of various truck efficiency technologies. The methods and equations used for performing the tractive energy evaluations are presented and the calculation approach is described. Several representative results for individual duty cycle segments are presented to demonstrate the approach and the significance of this analysis for the project. The report is divided into four sections, including an initial brief overview of the LSDC project and its current status. In the second section of the report, the concepts that form the basis of the analysis are presented through a discussion of basic principles pertaining to tractive energy and the role of tractive energy in relation to other losses on the vehicle. In the third section, the approach used for the analysis is formalized and the equations used in the analysis are presented. In the fourth section, results from the analysis for a set of individual duty cycle measurements are presented and different types of drive cycles are discussed relative to the fuel savings potential that specific technologies could bring if these drive cycles were representative of the use of a given vehicle or trucking application. Additionally, the calculation of vehicle mass from measured torque and speed data is presented and the accuracy of the approach is demonstrated.

  8. Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Cycling and Usage Analysis in a Heavy-Duty Truck Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Svens

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a field test performed on commercial power-optimized lithium-ion battery cells cycled on three heavy-duty trucks. The goal with this study was to age battery cells in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV environment and find suitable methods for identifying cell ageing. The battery cells were cycled on in-house developed equipment intended for testing on conventional vehicles by emulating an HEV environment. A hybrid strategy that allows battery usage to vary within certain limits depending on driving patterns was used. This concept allows unobtrusive and low-cost testing of battery cells under realistic conditions. Each truck was equipped with one cell cycling equipment and two battery cells. One cell per vehicle was cycled during the test period while a reference cell on each vehicle experienced the same environmental conditions without being cycled. Differential voltage analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to identify ageing of the tested battery cells. Analysis of driving patterns and battery usage was performed from collected vehicle data and battery cell data.

  9. Long Distance Truck Drivers and the Structural Context of Health: A Culture-Centered Investigation of Indian Truckers' Health Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Shaunak

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance truck drivers (truckers) in India have been identified as a "high-risk" group for the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and are consequently the targets of prevention and education-based interventions. While such interventions have addressed risk at the level of individual behavior, little attention has been paid to the structural barriers to health for truckers. Research among truckers in India has ignored the economic, social, and cultural context of health. In this article, I employ the culture-centered approach (CCA) to health communication in documenting truckers' narratives of health, which are innately connected to social and institutional structures around their lives. The data included 36 narrative interviews that I conducted as part of my fieldwork with Indian truckers, in addition to field notes and a reflexive journal. Through a reflexive analysis of these narratives, I present three themes: (a) the everyday violence of trucking, (b) health as sacrifice, and (c) migration and HIV/AIDS. I discuss how communication interventions can attend to the relationship between trucker health and the structural barriers they encounter.

  10. DELTA-DIESEL ENGINE LIGHT TRUCK APPLICATION Contract DE-FC05-97OR22606 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim, Nabil Balnaves, Mike

    2003-05-27

    DELTA Diesel Engine Light Truck Application End of Contract Report DE-FC05-97-OR22606 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the final technical report of the Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program under contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606. During the course of this contract, Detroit Diesel Corporation analyzed, designed, tooled, developed and applied the ''Proof of Concept'' (Generation 0) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine and designed the successor ''Production Technology Demonstration'' (Generation 1) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine. The objectives of DELTA Program contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606 were to: Demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies, specifically intended for the North American LDT and SUV markets; Demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages. With a clean sheet design, DDC produced the DELTA engine concept promising the following attributes: 30-50% improved fuel economy; Low cost; Good durability and reliability; Acceptable noise, vibration and harshness (NVH); State-of-the-art features; Even firing, 4 valves per cylinder; High pressure common rail fuel system; Electronically controlled; Turbocharged, intercooled, cooled EGR; Extremely low emissions via CLEAN Combustion{copyright} technology. To demonstrate the engine technology in the SUV market, DDC repowered a 1999 Dodge Durango with the DELTA Generation 0 engine. Fuel economy improvements were approximately 50% better than the gasoline engine replaced in the vehicle.

  11. A mediation model linking dispatcher leadership and work ownership with safety climate as predictors of truck driver safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Huang, Yueng-hsiang; Lee, Jin; Robertson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to test the effect of safety climate on safety behavior among lone employees whose work environment promotes individual rather than consensual or shared climate perceptions. The paper presents a mediation path model linking psychological (individual-level) safety climate antecedents and consequences as predictors of driving safety of long-haul truck drivers. Climate antecedents included dispatcher (distant) leadership and driver work ownership, two contextual attributes of lone work, whereas its proximal consequence included driving safety. Using a prospective design, safety outcomes, consisting of hard-braking frequency (i.e. traffic near-miss events) were collected six months after survey completion, using GPS-based truck deceleration data. Results supported the hypothesized model, indicating that distant leadership style and work ownership promote psychological safety climate perceptions, with subsequent prediction of hard-braking events mediated by driving safety. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate among lone workers in general and professional drivers in particular are discussed.

  12. Heat Treating of Heavy Truck Plate Spring%重型汽车钢板弹簧的热处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武明亮; 范铁岁; 宋桂军

    2013-01-01

    研究了代替52 CrMnBA钢用于重型汽车少片钢板弹簧的50 CrV钢的热处理工艺。研究结果表明,50 CrV钢板弹簧用PAG水溶性淬火介质淬火可明显提高淬透性和硬度均匀性;弹簧总成的疲劳寿命大于12万次,符合技术要求。道路试验表明,采用50 CrV钢制造的重型汽车少片钢板弹簧性能完全满足使用要求,且成本明显降低。%The heat treating process of leaf-minimum plate spring of 50CrV steel instead of 52CrMnBA steel for heavy truck was investigared .The results reveal that the hardenability and hardness uniformity of 50 CrV steel plate spring may be significantly increased by quenching in a PAG aqueous solution , and that the fatigue life of plate spring assembly is as long as over 120 000 cycles , conforming with the technical requirement .Furthermore , the road test shows that the 50 CrV steel leaf-minimum plate spring for heavy truck has satisfactory performance , and is more low in production cost .

  13. Salmonella prevalence and characterization in a free-range pig processing plant: tracking in trucks, lairage, slaughter line and quartering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Manuela; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Luque, Inmaculada; Herrera-León, Silvia; Maldonado, Alfonso; Reguillo, Lucía; Astorga, Rafael J

    2013-03-01

    New consumer tendencies are focused on products derived from systems which allow both a high animal welfare condition and a high food safety level. However, sometimes animal welfare regulations make the adoption of adequate bio-security measures difficult, representing a barrier for animal health and food safety. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella at different points of the pig slaughtering process (Trucks, Lairage, Slaughter line and Quartering, TLSQ) from pigs reared in free-range systems. From eight samplings a total of 126 Salmonella isolates out of 1160 different samples were recovered (10.86%). The highest percentage of isolates was detected at the points of pre-scalding (29/80, 36.25%), trucks (13/56, 23.21%), cecal contents (17/80, 21.25%), tonsils (14/80, 17.50%), ileocecal lymph nodes (13/80, 16.25%) and lairage (9/64, 14.06%). Furthermore, eighteen isolates were obtained from different environmental samples from slaughter line and quartering plant (knives and surface of tables) (5.63%) and three isolates at the quartering plant samples (ham, shoulder and loin) (3.75%). Fourteen different serotypes were isolated: Bredeney, Rissen, Derby, Typhimurium, Montevideo, Israel, Anatum, Emek, Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mST), Choleraesuis, Durban, Kentucky, London and Sandiego. S. Typhimurium phage types U311, 193, 104b and UT were identified. Moreover, mST strain was phage typed as U311. From TLSQ1, TLSQ2 and TLSQ4, different strains of S. Derby, S. Rissen and S. Bredeney serotypes were isolated from pig and environmental samples, pointing to a potential cross contamination. Molecular typing (Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE) of these strains confirmed the cross contamination. In the remaining samplings, different serotypes were obtained in each sampled point of the chain, assuming that the isolated serotypes belonged to different epidemiological origins. Our results show the isolation of different serotypes of

  14. Salmonella prevalence and characterization in a free-range pig processing plant: tracking in trucks, lairage, slaughter line and quartering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Manuela; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Luque, Inmaculada; Herrera-León, Silvia; Maldonado, Alfonso; Reguillo, Lucía; Astorga, Rafael J

    2013-03-01

    New consumer tendencies are focused on products derived from systems which allow both a high animal welfare condition and a high food safety level. However, sometimes animal welfare regulations make the adoption of adequate bio-security measures difficult, representing a barrier for animal health and food safety. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella at different points of the pig slaughtering process (Trucks, Lairage, Slaughter line and Quartering, TLSQ) from pigs reared in free-range systems. From eight samplings a total of 126 Salmonella isolates out of 1160 different samples were recovered (10.86%). The highest percentage of isolates was detected at the points of pre-scalding (29/80, 36.25%), trucks (13/56, 23.21%), cecal contents (17/80, 21.25%), tonsils (14/80, 17.50%), ileocecal lymph nodes (13/80, 16.25%) and lairage (9/64, 14.06%). Furthermore, eighteen isolates were obtained from different environmental samples from slaughter line and quartering plant (knives and surface of tables) (5.63%) and three isolates at the quartering plant samples (ham, shoulder and loin) (3.75%). Fourteen different serotypes were isolated: Bredeney, Rissen, Derby, Typhimurium, Montevideo, Israel, Anatum, Emek, Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mST), Choleraesuis, Durban, Kentucky, London and Sandiego. S. Typhimurium phage types U311, 193, 104b and UT were identified. Moreover, mST strain was phage typed as U311. From TLSQ1, TLSQ2 and TLSQ4, different strains of S. Derby, S. Rissen and S. Bredeney serotypes were isolated from pig and environmental samples, pointing to a potential cross contamination. Molecular typing (Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE) of these strains confirmed the cross contamination. In the remaining samplings, different serotypes were obtained in each sampled point of the chain, assuming that the isolated serotypes belonged to different epidemiological origins. Our results show the isolation of different serotypes of

  15. Program Guide for Diesel Engine Mechanics 8742000 (IN47.060500) and Heavy Duty Truck and Bus Mechanics DIM0991 (IN47.060501).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in diesel engine mechanics and heavy duty truck and bus mechanics. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education…

  16. 40 CFR 86.099-17 - Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... closed loop operation, fuel system commands, coolant temperature, calculated load value, fuel pressure... status (closed loop, open loop, other), fuel trim, ignition timing advance, intake air temperature... diesel cycle light-duty vehicles or diesel cycle light-duty trucks, except where the catalyst is...

  17. 40 CFR 86.709-99 - In-use emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-use emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.709-99 Section 86.709-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  18. 40 CFR 86.709-94 - In-use emission standards for 1994 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-use emission standards for 1994 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.709-94 Section 86.709-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... means a motor vehicle that is a passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.4. (2) Light truck means a motor vehicle that is a non-passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.5... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1818-12 Greenhouse gas emission standards for...

  1. 某国四发动机冒黑烟市场问题攻关%China four light truck black smoke problem research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许高杰

    2016-01-01

    Four emissions of light trucks in particular conditions will appear black smoke. After investigation, research, and successfully solve the market problems.%某国四排放的轻卡在特定工况时会出现冒黑烟的情况。经过调查,攻关,顺利解决市场问题。

  2. 40 CFR 86.1717-99 - Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission control diagnostic system for... Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1717-99 Emission control... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1717-01 - Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission control diagnostic system for... Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1717-01 Emission control... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...

  4. The Structure Performance Hypothesis and The Efficient Structure Performance Hypothesis-Revisited: The Case of Agribusiness Commodity and Food Products Truck Carriers in the South

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Albert J; Shaik, Saleem; Myles, Albert E.; Muhammad, Safdar

    2005-01-01

    Two competing hypotheses on market structure and performance of firms are the traditional structure-conduct-performance (SCP) paradigm and the efficiency structure hypothesis. This paper reveals the profits made by firms in the trucking industry were because of greater efficiencies than their competitors and not because of collusive activities.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix Xviii to Part 86 - Statistical Outlier Identification Procedure for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Subpart R XVIII Appendix XVIII to Part 86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks Certifying to the Provisions of Part 86, Subpart R... calculate the residual at the deleted point, denoted as (yi − yi′). Obtain a statistic by dividing (yi −...

  6. Investigation of the influence of friction pairs geometrical parameters of wagon truck spring - frictional set on the effectiveness of their operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg CHEREPOV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an account of the results of the analytical and numerical modeling of force action of friction pairs “truck bolster – frictional wedge” and “frictional wedge – frictional plank”. There have been obtained formulas for determining con-straint reactions according to friction pairs geometrical parameters which makes it possible to find their rational values.

  7. Health assessment for Nutting Truck and Caster Company, Faribault, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND006154017. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-27

    The Nutting Truck and Caster Company is listed on the National Priorities List. The site is located in the town of Faribault (Rice County) in southeastern Minnesota. Disposal by Nutting of solvent wastes in an unlined pit on the property resulted in trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination of the soil and ground water. No municipal or private wells were ever affected by this contamination. No human-exposure pathways were completed. Nutting has already implemented remediation of the TCE contamination. The unlined pit was excavated and backfilled in 1980. Pump-out wells were placed in the surficial aquifer in November 1987, and the water is being treated by passive aeration. The treated water is discharged to the storm-sewer system from which it is finally discharged to a creek. A comprehensive ground-water monitoring plan is in place, and remediation and monitoring will continue on the site.

  8. Validation of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II for Hispanic male truck drivers in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Iris L; O'Day, Trish; Kan, Tsz Yin

    2013-08-01

    The aims of the study were to validate the English and Spanish Versions of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II) with Hispanic male truck drivers and to determine if there were any differences in drivers' responses based on driving responsibility. The methods included a descriptive correlation design, the HPLP II (English and Spanish versions), and a demographic questionnaire. Fifty-two Hispanic drivers participated in the study. There were no significant differences in long haul and short haul drivers' responses to the HPLP II. Cronbach's alpha for the Spanish version was .97 and the subscales alphas ranged from .74 to .94. The English version alpha was .92 and the subscales ranged from .68 to .84. Findings suggest the subscales of Health Responsibility, Physical Activities, Nutrition, and Spirituality Growth on the HPLP II Spanish and English versions may not adequately assess health-promoting behaviors and cultural influences for the Hispanic male population in the southwestern border region.

  9. Reliability design of mono-leaf spring for front-axle suspension of large-sized trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaidis, G. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Greece); Schwaiger, F. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Munich (Germany); Momiyama, F.; Yamazumi, T.; Muramatsu, K. [Horikiri Inc., Chiba-Pref. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a fatigue-accurate suspension system for large-sized trucks based on mono-leaf steel springs, It shows the fulfillment of the demands for lightweight construction, sufficient fatigue life and fail-safe behaviour. The paper contains the fatigue load assumptions used for the non-linear finite-element stress-strain analysis, the experimental verification by means of measured load, stress and strain data determined by driving quasi-static manoeuvres and over various rough road segments with a prototype vehicle, as well as the experimental uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue tests required for the durability approval. The fatigue lives achieved, confirm the adequate service life of the developed spring. In addition, appropriate vehicle tests on a test track with a custom-made mono-leaf spring system confirmed the fail-safe design of the suspension system. (orig.)

  10. Introduction of a Sealed Garbage Truck%介绍一种密封式垃圾车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尚宏; 卫保国; 余文杰

    2011-01-01

    The paper induces composition,main structure and technical parameters for a sealed garbage truck for use with rubblish compression transfer station,also introduces main structure,working principle,function features and application effects for rear cover o%介绍了一种与垃圾压缩中转站配套使用的运输压缩垃圾块的密封式垃圾车的组成、主要结构、技术参数,以及后盖开启机构、液压系统、操纵系统、防溢装置等的主要结构、工作原理、功能特点和使用效果。

  11. [Determining the car driver's position at the moment of the frontal crash with a moving KAMAZ truck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article is designed to report the results of the comprehensive forensic medical and autotechnical expertise for determining the positions of the driver and the first seat passenger of the GAS-3110 car at the moment of the frontal crash with a KAMAZ-5312 truck. The comparative analysis of the injuries in two subjects one of whom died as a result of the given accident made it possible to conclude that he had occupied the driver's seat in the car. The differential diagnosis was based on the peculiarities of the injuries to the upper extremities with the predominance of the most severe wounds at the right side of the body. Also taken into consideration were the specific conditions of the given frontal collision, design of the GAS-3110 passenger compartment, winter season, night time, and possible neglect of the passive safety means, etc.

  12. [Determining the car driver's position at the moment of the frontal crash with a moving KAMAZ truck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article is designed to report the results of the comprehensive forensic medical and autotechnical expertise for determining the positions of the driver and the first seat passenger of the GAS-3110 car at the moment of the frontal crash with a KAMAZ-5312 truck. The comparative analysis of the injuries in two subjects one of whom died as a result of the given accident made it possible to conclude that he had occupied the driver's seat in the car. The differential diagnosis was based on the peculiarities of the injuries to the upper extremities with the predominance of the most severe wounds at the right side of the body. Also taken into consideration were the specific conditions of the given frontal collision, design of the GAS-3110 passenger compartment, winter season, night time, and possible neglect of the passive safety means, etc. PMID:27239771

  13. Thermal and water management of low temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell in fork-lift truck power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Rabbani, Raja Abid;

    2013-01-01

    A general zero-dimensional Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) model has been developed for forklift truck application. The balance of plant (BOP) comprises of a compressor, an air humidifier, a set of heat exchangers and a recirculation pump. Water and thermal management of the fuel cell...... stack and BOP has been investigated in this study. The results show that humidification of the inlet air is of great importance. By decreasing the relative humidity of inlet air from 95% to 25%, the voltage can drop by 29%. In addition, elevated stack temperature can lead to a higher average cell....... The system can then be started up at about -25. °C with negligible change in the efficiency. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....

  14. 36 CFR 327.2 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 327.2 Section 327.2... Vehicles. (a) This section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, mini-bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all-terrain vehicles, and trailers, campers, bicycles,...

  15. Fault Diagnosis of Plunger Pump in Truck Crane Based on Relevance Vector Machine with Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliao Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Promptly and accurately dealing with the equipment breakdown is very important in terms of enhancing reliability and decreasing downtime. A novel fault diagnosis method PSO-RVM based on relevance vector machines (RVM with particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm for plunger pump in truck crane is proposed. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is utilized to determine the kernel width parameter of the kernel function in RVM, and the five two-class RVMs with binary tree architecture are trained to recognize the condition of mechanism. The proposed method is employed in the diagnosis of plunger pump in truck crane. The six states, including normal state, bearing inner race fault, bearing roller fault, plunger wear fault, thrust plate wear fault, and swash plate wear fault, are used to test the classification performance of the proposed PSO-RVM model, which compared with the classical models, such as back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN, ant colony optimization artificial neural network (ANT-ANN, RVM, and support vectors, machines with particle swarm optimization (PSO-SVM, respectively. The experimental results show that the PSO-RVM is superior to the first three classical models, and has a comparative performance to the PSO-SVM, the corresponding diagnostic accuracy achieving as high as 99.17% and 99.58%, respectively. But the number of relevance vectors is far fewer than that of support vector, and the former is about 1/12–1/3 of the latter, which indicates that the proposed PSO-RVM model is more suitable for applications that require low complexity and real-time monitoring.

  16. Service contract with periodic preventive maintenance for a dump truck sold with a two-dimensional warranty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrum, A.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Husniah, H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with maintenance service contract for a dump truck sold with a two-dimensional warranties. We consider a situation where an agent offers two maintenance contract options and the owner of the equipment has to select the optimal option either the OEM carried out all repairs and preventive maintenance activities (option one) or the OEM only carries out failure while the costumer undertakes preventive maintenance action in-house (option two). As the number of preventive maintenance and corrective maintenance that occurs in the area of servicing contracts is very influential in determining the value of the contract, we have to determine the optimal time between preventive maintenance that can minimize the cost of repair in the contract area. Moreover, we also study the maintenance service contract considering reduction of the intensity function after preventive maintenance from both the owner and OEM point of views. In this paper, we use a Weibull intensity function to consider a product with increasing failure intensity. We use a non-cooperative game formulation to determine the optimal price structure (i.e., the contract price and repair cost) for the OEM and the owner. A numerical example derived from the model has shown that if the owner choose option one then the owner obtain a higher profit compared with the profit resulted from option two. The result agree with earlier work which uses the accelerated failure time (AFT) for the failure modeling, while here we model the failure of the dump truck without the use of the AFT.

  17. Safety impacts due to the incompatibility of SUVs, minivans, and pickup trucks in two-vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Marc; Mambu, Lema Sikoti; Chouinard, Aline; Bellavance, François

    2008-11-01

    This research sets out to estimate the effects of vehicle incompatibility on the risk of death or major injury to drivers involved in two-vehicle collisions. Based on data for 2,999,395 drivers, logistic regression was used to model the risk of driver death or major injury (defined has being hospitalized). Our analyses show that pickup trucks, minivans and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) are more aggressive than cars for the driver of the other vehicle and more protective for their own drivers. The effect of the pickups is more pronounced in terms of aggressivity. The point estimates are comparable to those in the Toy and Hammitt study [Toy, E.L., Hammitt, J.K., 2003. Safety impacts of SUVs, minivans, and pickup trucks in two-vehicle crashes. Risk Analysis 23, 641-650], but, in contrast to that study, we are now able to establish that a greater number of these effects are statistically significant with a larger sample size. Like vehicle mass and type, other characteristics of drivers and the circumstances of the collision influence the driver's condition after impact. Male drivers, older drivers, drivers who are not wearing safety belts, collisions occurring in a higher speed zone and head-on collisions significantly increase the risk of death. Except for the driver's sex, all of these categories are also associated with an increased risk of death or of being hospitalized after being involved in a two-vehicle collision. For this risk, a significant increase is associated with female drivers. PMID:19068305

  18. Black carbon emissions from trucks and trains in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States from 1977 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Steiner, Benjamin; Hess, Peter; Chen, Jialie; Donaghy, Kieran

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a framework to estimate BC emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks and trains engaged in transporting freight in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States (MNUS) from 1977 to 2007. We first expand on a previous development of a regional econometric input-output model (REIM) that has been used to estimate commodity flows between 13 states in the MNUS (plus the rest of the US) and 13 industrial sectors. These commodity flow data are then distributed over the MNUS using a stylized link-and-node network, which creates great circle transportation links between nodes in each state at the county with the largest population. Freight flows are converted to BC transportation emissions and the resulting BC emissions are compared to the MACCity BC emissions inventory. We find that from 1977 to 2007 potential emission growth from the continued increase in freight tonnage in the MWUS is counteracted by decreases in the BC emission factor of heavy-duty diesel trucks, which results in an overall decrease of BC emissions by 2007. One sector (fabricated metal product manufacturing) has dominated the BC transportation emissions throughout 1977 to 2007 with transportation emissions remaining relatively unchanged from 1977 to 1997 and then decreasing out to 2007. The BC transportation emissions are concentrated in and around the urban centers, which serve as transportation and production nodes for industrial manufacturing. Our BC emissions are distributed along stylized transportation corridors that are not well represented in emissions inventories that largely distribute emissions via a population proxy. The framework established in this study can be used to estimate future BC transportation emissions under a set of stylized economic, technological, and regulatory scenarios.

  19. Exhaust particle and NOx emission performance of an SCR heavy duty truck operating in real-world conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Sampo; Karjalainen, Panu; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Pirjola, Liisa; Matilainen, Pekka; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-02-01

    Particle and NOx emissions of an SCR equipped HDD truck were studied in real-world driving conditions using the "Sniffer" mobile laboratory. Real-time CO2 measurement enables emission factor calculation for NOx and particles. In this study, we compared three different emission factor calculation methods and characterised their suitability for real-world chasing experiments. The particle number emission was bimodal and dominated by the nucleation mode particles (diameter below 23 nm) having emission factor up to 1 × 1015 #/kgfuel whereas emission factor for soot (diameter above 23 nm that is consistent with the PMP standard) was typically 1 × 1014 #/kgfuel. The effect of thermodenuder on the exhaust particles indicated that the nucleation particles consisted mainly of volatile compounds, but sometimes there also existed a non-volatile core. The nucleation mode particles are not controlled by current regulations in Europe. However, these particles consistently form under atmospheric dilution in the plume of the truck and constitute a health risk for the human population that is exposed to those. Average NOx emission was 3.55 g/kWh during the test, whereas the Euro IV emission limit over transient testing is 3.5 g NOx/kWh. The on-road emission performance of the vehicle was very close to the expected levels, confirming the successful operation of the SCR system of the tested vehicle. Heavy driving conditions such as uphill driving increased both the NOx and particle number emission factors whereas the emission factor for soot particle number remains rather constant.

  20. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions